WorldWideScience

Sample records for illness farm practices

  1. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  2. Effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut lethal yellowing in Mozambique. ... African Crop Science Journal ... to investigate the impact of farming practices and related history, on the CLYD incidence in Mozambique.

  3. Characterization Of Farm Management Practices And Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Like every well-intended innovation, the benefits of the improved systems could only be ... the use of improved farming technologies to realize their full benefits.

  4. Analysis of organic farming practices amongst crop farmers in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. atoma & Family

    The farming practice is eco-friendly and works in agreement with nature. ... Lampkin (1990), said that organic farming systems rely on crop rotation, crop residues, .... The study revealed high-level awareness of organic farming practices but ...

  5. Core Values in Action: Therapeutic Farms for Persons with Severe Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana LOUE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of asylums in both Europe and the United States grew out of a social reform movement that sought to improve the living conditions of less fortunate persons and a belief that man could improve his condition by engaging with greater meaning with his social and physical environment. Accordingly, it was believed that mental health impediments could be overcome or removed by creating a healing environment that facilitates the sufferer’s re-engagement into purposeful community life. Moral treatment, practiced in the United States and Europe during the period from 1815 to 1875, reflected this benevolent intent. This approach was intended to foster and sustain intimate, supportive relationships between the ‘less fortunate persons’ (”residents” and the staff through resident engagement in productive labor such as agriculture, resident respite in a peaceful setting away from the usual stresses of daily life, and the development of emotionally close and trusting relationships between staff, between residents, and between residents and staff. This therapeutic milieu, the ‘asylums’, ultimately could not be sustained over long periods of time due to growing numbers of mentally ill persons, diminishing financial resources, and increasingly diverse resident populations, ineffective organizational leadership and shifting political priorities. Therapeutic farms for mentally ill persons that are premised on the principles of moral treatment methodologies applicable to 21st century needs and resources have been established more recently in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Like the therapeutic farms in past centuries, present-day therapeutic farms face financial, leadership, legal and political challenges that threaten their continued existence. This article reviews the moral values underlying moral treatment and the therapeutic farm community model and the efforts of present-day therapeutic farms both to advocate on behalf of

  6. Soil management practices under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Adel; Chami Ziad, Al; Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology and modern technology with traditional farming practices based on naturally occurring biological processes. Soil building practices such as crop rotations, intercropping, symbiotic associations, cover crops, organic fertilizers and minimum tillage are central to organic practices. Those practices encourage soil formation and structure and creating more stable systems. In farm nutrient and energy cycling is increased and the retentive abilities of the soil for nutrients and water are enhanced. Such management techniques also play an important role in soil erosion control. The length of time that the soil is exposed to erosive forces is decreased, soil biodiversity is increased, and nutrient losses are reduced, helping to maintain and enhance soil productivity. Organic farming as systematized and certifiable approach for agriculture, there is no surprise that it faces some challenges among both farmers and public sector. This can be clearly demonstrated particularly in the absence of the essential conditions needed to implement successfully the soil management practices like green manure and composting to improve soil fertility including crop rotation, cover cropping and reduced tillage. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed highlighting their beneficial impact on the environmental soil characteristics. Keywords: soil fertility, organic matter, plant nutrition

  7. Wind Farms Community Engagement Good Practice Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aitken, Mhairi; Haggett, Claire; Rudolph, David Philipp

    2014-01-01

    This report sets out the findings of a review of community engagement for wind farm developments. We focus in particular on the engagement carried out by developers with communities. The aims of the study were to evaluate current good practice for engaging people in decision making about on...

  8. The Egyptian Farming Practices Technological Development and Its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Abdou, Amin I.

    2005-01-01

    Tendency toward application of advanced technology in farming practices has been accelerated in Egypt since the mid Seventies of the last century. Both domestic technology generation and foreign technology transfer were encouraged. High-quality cultivars, mechanized farming operations, and modern agricultural systems, such as protected agriculture and organic farming were strongly introduced. As such, this study tended to assess the Egyptian experience in farming modernization, areas of succe...

  9. Environmental Implication of Intensive Farming Practices on North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Lin; Zhou Hailin; Xie Gaodi

    2005-01-01

    The current pressure on production resources of North China Plain, such as land and water to feed the growing population, necessitates the assessment of the sustainability of farming practices. This study focuses on the sustainability of farming practices related to groundwater and soil fertility management. The assessment is based on selected site-specific key indicators and their established threshold limits. The current farming practices in the study area are clearly unsustainable.Only about 6% of the surveyed farm households practice sustainable farming. The study stresses that farming practice, which is economically sustainable,should not be promoted at the cost of environment.Holistic strategies need to be developed and implemented that aim at balanced use of inputs,which satisfy both productivity and environmental concerns.

  10. Worm control practices on sheep farms in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernanská, Dana; Várady, Marián; Cudeková, Patrícia; Corba, Július

    2008-07-04

    A questionnaire to obtain information on worm control practices and sheep management was performed on 49 sheep farms in 2003 and 2004. The majority of Slovak farms kept native breeds Tsigai (22 farms) and Improved Valachian (14 farms). Farms were divided according to their altitude to lowland, upland and lower highland farms. Sizes of pastures and stocking rates for lowland, upland and lower highland farms were 81.5, 269.2, and 316.7 ha and 6.3, 2.6, and 2.9 sheep/ha, respectively. One third of farmers (33.3%) used permanent pastures and two thirds of breeders (66.7%) rotated sheep between pastures. Mean drenching rate for lambs and yearlings/adults was 1.76 and 1.70, respectively. The most frequently used drugs during period from 1999 to 2004 were albendazole and ivermectin. On 13 farms benzimidazole drugs were applied in spring before turn out and macrocyclic lactones in autumn before turn in. Benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were used almost exclusively on 7 and 9 farms, respectively. Visual appraisal was the most common practice to determine weight of animals (87.8% of farmers). Weights of the heaviest animals were used for determination of anthelmintic doses only on 16.7% of farms. Coprological examinations were performed on 47.9% of farms, usually in frequency once per year (75%).

  11. The dairy industry: a brief description of production practices, trends, and farm characteristics around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douphrate, David I; Hagevoort, G Robert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Reynolds, Stephen J; Jakob, Martina; Kinsel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The global dairy industry is composed of a multitude of countries with unique production practices and consumer markets. The global average number of cows per farm is about 1-2 cows; however, as a farm business model transitions from sustenance to market production, the average herd size, and subsequent labor force increases. Dairy production is unique as an agricultural commodity because milk is produced daily, for 365 days per year. With the introduction of new technology such as the milking parlor, the global industry trend is one of increasing farm sizes. The farm sizes are the largest in the United States; however, the European Union produces the most milk compared with other global producers. Dairy production is essential for economic development and sustainable communities in rural areas. However, the required capital investment and availability of local markets and labor are continued challenges. Due to farm expansion, international producers are faced with new challenges related to assuring food safety and a safe working environment for their workforce. These challenges exist in addition to the cultural and language barriers related to an increasing dependence on immigrant labor in many regions of the world. Continued success of the global dairy industry is vital. Therefore, research should continue to address the identification of occupational risk factors associated with injuries and illnesses, as well as develop cost-effective interventions and practices that lead to the minimization or elimination of these injuries and illnesses on a global scale, among our valuable population of dairy producers and workers.

  12. Illness Behavior and Anomie In Family Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesar, Simon

    1985-01-01

    Patients who present with physical complaints that have a psychosocial source are often dissatisfied with reassurance that nothing is physically wrong. This is frustrating to the physician, who may elect to refer the patient, do nothing further—or address the issue of illness behavior. This article analyzes the effects of the physician's response on the doctor/patient relationship, and outlines several methods of psychotherapy which can be used to change illness behavior. PMID:21274170

  13. Tillage practices and identity formation in High Plains farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Katherine; Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    landscape. Specifically, they compare conservation tillage wedded to ‘modern’ ideologies of scientific farming with conventional tillage newly linked to beliefs about both organic and traditional farming, and examine how farmers use these different forms of tillage to create their identities. Roadside...... farming, recognition and denunciation of other farmers’ practices, and recognition and justification of their own contribute to identity formation. This research contributes to the ongoing discussion of how identity is formed through day-to-day activities in the material world. The plow creates divisions...

  14. Situating Social Differences in Health and Illness Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2017-01-01

    of health, illness, and care-seeking. We suggest that the focus on lifestyle and behavioral change that dominates contemporary public health interventions should be complemented with a Weberian circumstantial approach. Acknowledging the situatedness of health and illness practices may enable us to help our...... patients gain access to, and benefit from, the health-care system....

  15. A practical manual to assess and improve farm performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, H.F.M.; Grignard, A.; Boonen, J.; Haan, de M.; Hennart, S.; Oenema, J.; Lorinquer, E.; Sylvain, F.; Herrmann, K.; Elsaesser, M.; Castellan, E.; Kohnen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The business of a dairy farmer is to supply society with dairy products in a way that provides him sufficient income and satisfaction. But he has to avoid farming practices hampering the rural area to deliver other valuable products, like clean drinking water, biodiversity, and attractive recreation

  16. Evaluation of external biosecurity practices on southern Ontario sow farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Kate; Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Cate; Deardon, Rob; Holtkamp, Derald; Friendship, Robert

    2013-04-01

    External biosecurity protocols, aimed at preventing the introduction of new pathogens to the farm environment, are becoming increasingly important in the swine industry. Although assessments at the individual farm level occur regularly, efforts to cluster swine herds into meaningful biosecurity groups and to summarize this information at the regional level are relatively infrequent. The objectives of this study were: (i) to summarize external biosecurity practices on sow farms in southern Ontario; (ii) to cluster these farms into discrete biosecurity groups and to describe their characteristics, the variables of importance in differentiating between these groups, and their geographic distribution; and (iii) to identify significant predictors of biosecurity group membership. Data were collected using the Production Animal Disease Risk Assessment Program's Survey for the Breeding Herd. A subset of variables pertaining to external biosecurity practices was selected for two-step cluster analysis, which resulted in 3 discrete biosecurity groups. These groups were named by the authors as: (i) high biosecurity herds that were open with respect to replacement animals, (ii) high biosecurity herds that were closed with respect to replacement animals, and (iii) low biosecurity herds. Variables pertaining to trucking practices and the source of replacement animals were the most important in differentiating between these groups. Multinomial logistic regression provided insight into which demographic and neighborhood variables serve as significant predictors of biosecurity group membership (pbiosecurity group that was open with respect to replacement animals, relative to the low biosecurity group, increased 1.001 times for each additional sow (p=0.001). The odds of belonging to the high biosecurity group that was open with respect to replacement animals, relative to the low biosecurity group, were 6.5 times greater for farms that produced genetic animals than for farms that

  17. CONTRACT FARMING PRACTICE IN INDIAN PUNJAB: FARMERS’ PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the status quo of contract farming in Indian Punjab from the farmers‟ perspective. The analysis is based on the field survey of three districts of the state covering 300 contract farmers. It is observed that agribusiness normalization has taken hold of the CF practice and farmers are facing its brunt. Withdrawal of extension services, reneging on prices and procurement are the major issues afflicting CF. Lack of adjudication is making contract farming exploitative in approach and the study recommends vigilant and strong intervention of the government.

  18. Associations of farm management practices with annual milk sales on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna Richards

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cows on smallholder dairy farms (SDF in developing countries such as Kenya typically produce volumes of milk that are well below their genetic potential. An epidemiological study was conducted to determine reasons for this low milk production, including limited use of best management practices, such as suboptimal nutritional management. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study of 111 SDF was performed in Nyeri County, Kenya in June of 2013 determining the effect of cow factors, farmer demographics and farm management practices on the volume of milk sold per cow per year (kg milk sold/cow. In particular, the effect of feeding high protein fodder trees and other nutritional management practices were examined. Results: Approximately 38% of farmers fed fodder trees, but such feeding was not associated with volume of milk sold per cow, likely due to the low number of fodder trees per farm. Volume of milk sold per cow was positively associated with feeding dairy meal during the month prior to calving, feeding purchased hay during the past year, deworming cows every 4 or more months (as opposed to more regularly, and having dairy farming as the main source of family income. Volume of milk sold per cow was negatively associated with a household size of >5 people and feeding Napier grass at >2 meters in height during the dry season. An interaction between gender of the principal farmer and feed shortages was noted; volume of milk sold per cow was lower when female farmers experienced feed shortages whereas milk sold per cow was unaffected when male farmers experienced feed shortages. Conclusions: These demographic and management risk factors should be considered by smallholder dairy farmers and their advisors when developing strategies to improve income from milk sales and animal-source food availability for the farming families.

  19. [Influenza, influenza-like illness: from theory to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrat, Fabrice; Avouac, Bernard; Cedraschi, Christine; Duru, Gérard; Greppo, Gwenaël; Libourel, Vincent; Vancells, Jacques; Vétel, Jean-Marie

    2014-03-01

    In France, there are large discrepancies regarding flu between the severe disease described by Health Authorities and the disease that people face, considered as usual and benign. Flu prevention is useful, mainly through vaccination. For a well-established influenza-like illness, both individual measures dedicated to the limitation of the disease propagation and symptomatic treatment are to be initiated. Few clinical data are available regarding the most often used treatments for influenza-like illness (paracetamol, homeopathic and symptomatic treatments). The analysis did not show any decrease in the chances of success for patients with more often used drugs, either being under medical prescription, pharmacist advice or self-medication. In front of an influenza-like illness, the recommendations for daily practice can be based on 2 well-defined clinical situations: a specific management for patients at risk, and the influenza-like illness symptoms relief for the others, using a treatment specific for each patient.

  20. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  1. 29 CFR 780.143 - Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. 780.143... farm not performed for the farmer. The fact that a practice performed on a farm is not performed by or for the farmer is a strong indication that it is not performed in connection with the...

  2. Illness narratives in cancer: CAM and spiritual practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In this paper,we investigate Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs and practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry is used to uncover how spiritual beliefs and practices may......, religious and spiritual issues were not extensively unfolded in participants’ illness narratives. However, these issues were significantly elaborated on in narratives by four female participants. Conclusion: We propose that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not only or primarily as a treatment...... for cancer related symptoms and side effects, but as a spiritual practice as well. For some individuals this may be true to an even higher extent than in established religious institutions....

  3. Cattle management practices and milk production on mixed smallholder organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, S; Kabi, F; Vaarst, M;

    2016-01-01

    A longitudinal study to assess animal management practices and milk production was conducted for a period of 12 months on 30 smallholder farms keeping dairy cattle and certified organic pineapple production in Luwero and Kayunga districts, based on questionnaire and on-farm collected data. Farm...

  4. A review of health and safety leadership and managerial practices on modern dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagevoort, G Robert; Douphrate, David I; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    As modern dairy operations around the world expand, farmers are increasingly reliant on greater automation and larger numbers of hired labor to milk cows and perform other essential farm tasks. Dairy farming is among the most dangerous occupations, with high rates of injury, illness, and employee turnover. Lower education levels, illiteracy, and limited language proficiency increase the possibility of injury or death associated with higher risk occupations such as dairy. Sustaining a healthy, productive workforce is a critical component of risk management; however, many owners and managers have not received formal training in employee management or occupational health and safety. Optimal dairy farming management should address milk production that is sustainable and responsible from the animal welfare, social, economic, and environmental perspectives. Each of these aspects is interdependent with each other and with a sustainable, healthy, productive workforce. Very few studies address the effectiveness of risk management in the dairy industry. Studies suggest that labor management practices are a potential competitive advantage for dairy farms, but the connection with efficiency, productivity, and profitability has not been clearly demonstrated. Transformational leadership has been associated with improved safety climate and reduced incidence of injury, whereas passive leadership styles have opposite effects. There is a need to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of safety-specific transformational leadership among dairy owners and managers. A systematic approach to risk management should address worker health and safety as an integral component of production, food safety, and animal welfare. A successful program must address the cultural and linguistic barriers associated with immigrant workers.

  5. Influence of alternative and conventional farming practices on subsurface drainage and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquist, K A; Strock, J S; Mulla, D J

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural runoff contributes nutrients to nonpoint-source pollution of surface waters. This study was conducted to investigate the potential use of alternative farming practices to improve water quality. The study examined the effects of both alternative and conventional farming practices on subsurface drainage and nitrogen and phosphorus loss through subsurface drainage from glacial till soils (i.e., Calciaquolls, Endoaquolls, Eutrudepts, Hapludolls) in southwest Minnesota. Alternative farming practices included organic management practices, species biodiversity, and/or practices that include reduced inputs of synthetic fertilizer and pesticides. Conventional farming practices include corn-soybean (Zea mays L.-Glycine max L., respectively) rotations and their associated recommended fertilizer rates as well as pesticide usage. Precipitation was highly variable during the 3-yr study period including a below-average year (2003), an average year (2002), and an above-average year (2004). Results indicate that alternative farming practices reduced subsurface drainage discharge by 41% compared with conventional practices. Flow-weighted mean nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate N) concentrations during tile flow were 8.2 and 17.2 mg L(-1) under alternative and conventional farming practices, respectively. Alternative farming practices reduced nitrate N losses by between 59 and 62% in 2002 and 2004 compared with conventional practices. Ammonium-nitrogen (ammonium N), orthophosphorus, and total phosphorus losses in subsurface drainage were very low and did not pose a substantial risk of pollution. Results suggest that alternative farming practices have the potential to reduce agricultural impacts on water quality.

  6. Green Care Farms, A Safe Community Between Illness or Addiction and the Wider Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, M.; Hassink, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of focus group interviews with 42 people with a psychiatric or addiction history who work in eight different green care farms in the Netherlands. Undertaking farming activities helps participants feel useful and healthier and they develop more self-esteem, self-respec

  7. Bion's 'protomental system' and psychosomatic illness in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, K

    1984-06-01

    The work of Wilfred Bion, developing the psychoanalytic theories of Freud and Klein on the origins of anxiety in childhood, includes the hypothesis of a protomental system. This he defined as a matrix in the human organism in which physical and mental are at first undifferentiated. His postulate is that this system which equips human beings for life in a group is in conflict with their needs as individuals. The view of the world mediated by basic assumptions, relatively mindless, functioning by unconscious common consent, has a close association with psychosomatic illness. But individuals feel the need for a working relationship with others, where thought can be applied to problems before taking action. Within the family--a special case of a work group--the continuing experience by the infant of parental containment of its anxieties, through a process of projection and introjection, develops its capacity for thinking about frustration rather than evading it. The hypothesis is, that without this experience, frustration may lead to basic assumption mentality and psychosomatic illness rather than emotionality and thought. These ideas have been found useful in general practice as in the five cases described.

  8. Organic farm conventionalisation and farmer practices in China, Brazil and Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Oelofse, Myles; Høgh Jensen, Henning; Abreu, Lucimar S.; Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca de; El-Araby, Ahmed; Hui, Qiao Yu; Sultan, Tursinbek; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Certified organic agriculture stipulates a range of principles and standards, which govern farmer practices. The recent global expansion of organic agriculture has raised new challenges for organic agriculture, particularly whether management practices in organic farms are subject to the forces of conventionalisation. We studied changes in agroecological practices in certified organic farms in China, Brazil and Egypt. The study takes departure in the conventionalisation hypothesis and the ana...

  9. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduka, C V; Igbokwe, I O; Atsanda, N N

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = -0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak.

  10. Expert knowledge-based assessment of farming practices for different biotic indicators using fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Claudia; Stachow, Ulrich; Berger, Gert

    2012-03-01

    The study presented here describes a modeling approach for the ex-ante assessment of farming practices with respect to their risk for several single-species biodiversity indicators. The approach is based on fuzzy-logic techniques and, thus, is tolerant to the inclusion of sources of uncertain knowledge, such as expert judgment into the assessment. The result of the assessment is a so-called Index of Suitability (IS) for the five selected biotic indicators calculated per farming practice. Results of IS values are presented for the comparison of crops and for the comparison of several production alternatives per crop (e.g., organic vs. integrated farming, mineral vs. organic fertilization, and reduced vs. plow tillage). Altogether, the modeled results show that the different farming practices can greatly differ in terms of their suitability for the different biotic indicators and that the farmer has a certain scope of flexibility in opting for a farming practice that is more in favor of biodiversity conservation. Thus, the approach is apt to identify farming practices that contribute to biodiversity conservation and, moreover, enables the identification of farming practices that are suitable with respect to more than one biotic indicator.

  11. Cattle production on small holder farms in East Java, Indonesia : II Feeds and feeding practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marjuki,; Zemmelink, G.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.

    2000-01-01

    A survey on feeding practices was conducted with thirty-one cattle farmers belonging to three categories: households without land and no income from agricultural labour (Class 100;10 farms), households without land but deriving considerable income from agricultural labour (Class 101;10 farms), and h

  12. Ethnic and gender differences in farm tasks and safety practices among rural California farm youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Stephen A; Kwan, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural work is hazardous and is common among rural youth, especially those living on farms or ranches. Previous work has shown differences in farm work and injury patterns between boys and girls, but little data exist addressing ethnic differences. This study examined ethnic and gender differences in farm tasks, safety attitudes, and use of protective measures among rural California youth working on farms or ranches. The University of California, Davis Youth Agricultural Injury Study is a longitudinal study focusing on agricultural work experience among youth enrolled in an agricultural sciences curriculum in 10 public high schools in California's Central Valley during the 2001-2005 school years. Using cross-sectional data from the initial entrance survey, we studied 946 participants who reported farm work in the previous year. Median annual hours of farm work varied significantly between boys and girls (p hr; Hispanic girls: 189 hr; White/Other boys: 832 hr; White/Other girls: 468 hr). Girls and Hispanic students were less likely than boys and White/Other students, respectively, to perform hazardous tasks involving tractors, machinery, and chemicals. Median age for initiating work on selected hazardous tasks was up to 3 years later for Hispanic students. Use of task-appropriate safety measures was low in all groups for most hazardous tasks. Boys were more likely than girls to use task-appropriate safety measures, with the exception of seatbelt use when in a car or truck. Hispanic students were more likely than White/Other students to employ safety measures. Girls and Hispanic youth worked fewer farm hours and had reduced exposure to selected hazardous tasks. Use of task-appropriate safety measures was low for all groups but increased for Hispanic students. Further study should explore reasons for low use of safety measures and develop educational efforts to bring about social norm changes promoting their use.

  13. Management practices associated with the carriage of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at farm level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, María J; Virtanen, Sonja; Heinonen, Mari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2013-07-01

    Pigs are the most important reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in humans. Knowledge of farm management practices that contribute to the transmission of this bacterial species in pigs is essential to understand how to control this foodborne pathogen in food production. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica, and other results obtained from an age trend analysis were used to estimate the on-farm risk of transmission of specific management practices for this pathogen in 30 pig farms in Finland. Log-linear analysis revealed that rearing pigs in pens without or with sparse amounts of bedding and buying piglets from more than one farm were the variables that contribute most to the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica. The study also found that using an all-in/all-out management system and supplying water of municipal origin were factors that might reduce the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica, and therefore the risk of transmission of Y. enterocolitica in pig farms.

  14. Microsocial determinants of the formation verbal-behavioral social practices interact with the mentally ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Pironkova

    2014-01-01

    For respondents with higher education and high social status were characterized by a more humanistic and tolerant practices of interaction with the mentally ill against the possibility of hidden­negativities attitude towards the mentally ill, which is reflected in social practices bypassing the declared position.

  15. Operational safety practices as determinants of machinery-related injury on Saskatchewan farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Gopinath R; Peng, Yingwei; Crowe, Trever G; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is a major source of injury on farms. The importance of machinery safety practices as potential determinants of injury remains incompletely understood. We examined two such safety practices as risk factors for injury: (1) the presence of safety devices on machinery and (2) low levels of routine machinery maintenance. Our data source was the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort baseline survey (n=2390 farms). Factor analysis was used to create measures of the two operational safety practices. The farm was the unit for all analyses and associations were evaluated using multiple Poisson regression models. Limited presence of safety devices on machinery during farm operations was associated with higher risks for injury (RR 1.94; 95% CI 1.13-3.33; p(trend)=0.02). Lower routine maintenance scores were associated with significantly reduced risks for injury (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.29-0.98; p(trend)=0.05). The first finding implies that injury prevention programs require continued focus on the use of safety devices on machinery. The second finding could indicate that maintenance itself is a risk factor or that more modern equipment that requires less maintenance places the operator at lower risk. These findings provide etiological data that confirms the practical importance of operational safety practices as components of injury control strategies on farms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlates of Queen Pineapple (AnanascomosusLinn Farming Practices in Camarines Norte, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia S. Carbonell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide valuable information about the realities of the Queen pineapple (QP farmers in Camarines Norte, highlighting their farming practices and worldview about sustainable development. Most of the respondents are owner-operator having a mean farm size of 1.33 hectares devoted to queen pineapple farming and crop diversification with two to seven crops combined to augment income. Cropping pattern employed by most of the respondents is multiple cropping, specifically intercropping, rotational cropping, and fallowing. Soil nutrient and weed management of most respondents is conventional: inorganic fertilizers and chemical based, respectively. However, pest control management by most of the respondents is of the alternative method. Overall, QP farmer respondents were found to be practicing alternative farming methods. The problems cited by the respondents were mainly production, marketing and communication-related. The respondents showed that they have moved towards alternative farming. However, more attention should be given to soil nutrient and weed management practices. Strengthening communication-related activities, improved technology, and ensured availability of resources is necessary to have good avenue for change. These findings should make agencies concerned to promote alternative farming and sustainable agriculture. The significant attributes of the QP farmer respondents can be used as entry point for any development program to fully advocate alternative farming among the local people as a social movement.

  17. Adoption Level of IFAD Project Recommended Farming Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Promote awareness and build the capacity of public and private-sector service ... ii. determine the level of adoption of IFAD-CBARDP recommended farming .... This implies that the farmers under the project were properly organized .... implementation of the programme in the sense that it caused delays in carrying out.

  18. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad;

    on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to areas where......The EU funded SOLID project supports research which will contribute to the competitiveness of organic and low input dairy systems, and increase their sustainability. There are many aspects of the sustainability of dairy farms, relating to economic, environmental and social dimensions, and methods...... of animal husbandry can affect all of these. A UK spreadsheet based tool for rapid assessment of the whole farm was adapted for application on a range of organic and low input dairy farms across the EU. This tool was used to assess approximately ten organic dairy farms in each of four EU countries. Data...

  19. Factors influencing adoption of farm management practices in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: an analysis using the Count Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakaran T. Raghu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agricultural practices require, among other factors, adoption of improved nutrient management techniques, pest mitigation technology and soil conservation measures. Such improved management practices can be tools for enhancing crop productivity. Data on micro-level farm management practices from developing countries is either scarce or unavailable, despite the importance of their policy implications with regard to resource allocation. The present study investigates adoption of some farm management practices and factors influencing the adoption behavior of farm households in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: Kundra block in the Koraput district of Odisha, Meenangadi panchayat in the Wayanad district of Kerala and Kolli Hills in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Information on farm management practices was collected from November 2011 to February 2012 from 3845 households, of which the data from 2726 farm households was used for analysis. The three most popular farm management practices adopted by farmers include: application of chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure and green manure for managing nutrients; application of chemical pesticides, inter-cropping and mixed cropping for mitigating pests; and contour bunds, grass bunds and trenches for soil conservation. A Negative Binomial count data regression model was used to estimate factors influencing decision-making by farmers on farm management practices. The regression results indicate that farmers who received information from agricultural extension are statistically significant and positively related to the adoption of farm management practices. Another key finding shows the negative relationship between cultivation of local varieties and adoption of farm management practices.

  20. Farm characteristics and calf management practices on dairy farms with and without diarrhea: a case-control study to investigate risk factors for calf diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Jöbstl, D; Iwersen, M; Drillich, M

    2014-01-01

    Calf diarrhea is one of the most important problems in calf rearing on dairy farms worldwide. Besides pathogens, several noninfectious management factors, especially management around birth, colostrum management, calf housing, feeding, and hygiene are important in the pathogenesis of diarrhea. To date, few data are available concerning calf rearing management on small and medium-sized dairy farms that are typical for Austria and the alpine region. Consequently, the objectives of this case-control study were to evaluate routine calf management practices on Austrian dairy farms and to examine differences in management between farms with and without the presence of calf diarrhea to identify risk factors. Overall, 100 dairy farms were visited. Of these farms, 50 were chosen based on the history and presence of calf diarrhea (case farms). Another 50 farms with no presence of calf diarrhea were chosen to serve as a standard of comparison (control farms). On farms, management was evaluated by face-to-face interview, and health status and hygiene were surveyed. Several calf rearing management procedures were similar on all of the visited farms, especially in areas regulated by national and European law. These factors include colostrum management and feeding. Consequently, no influence of these factors on the appearance of calf diarrhea could be detected. In contrast, other areas such as hygiene measures differed between farms and showed a partial association with the presence of calf diarrhea on farm. Variables related to diarrhea on farm were farm size; that is, the number of cows on farm. Farms with diarrhea cases were larger (median 40 cows, interquartile range 24.5 to 64.0) compared with farms with no presence of diarrhea (median 28 cows, interquartile range 18.8 to 44.0). Other risk factors that influenced the presence of diarrhea were the presence of other farm animal species on the farm [odds ratio (OR) 26.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.64 to 273.5], frequency

  1. Safe Re-use Practices in Wastewater-Irrigated Urban Vegetable Farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Abaidoo, R.C; Beernaerts, I.

    2012-01-01

    of stakeholders at different levels along the food chain. This paper presents an overview of safe re-use practices including farm-based water treatment methods, water application techniques, post-harvest handling practices, and washing methods. The overview is based on a comprehensive analysis of the literature...

  2. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices about adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill among endocrinologists and intensivists practicing in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathya A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adrenal insufficiency is a common occurrence in the critically ill and it is essential that intensivists and endocrinologists involved in the care of these patients have a good understanding of the concepts related to this condition. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices about adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill among the endocrinologists and intensivists practicing in the city of Chennai. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing ten questions pertaining to adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill were sent to a total of six endocrinologists and 52 intensivists practicing in Chennai. Results: About 77% of all the respondents agreed to the fact that adrenal insufficiency is a frequent occurrence in critical illness. But 57% of them felt that there is no need for routine evaluation of critically ill patients for adrenal insufficiency. Random serum cortisol was selected by 62% of the responders as the method for evaluating adrenal function in the critically ill. There is clearly no agreement among the endocrinologists or the intensivists on the various cut off levels for diagnosis. Neither is there a clear consensus on the method followed for treatment of patients with adrenal insufficiency in the critical care unit. Conclusion: There is no concordance in the knowledge, attitudes or practices on adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill among the endocrinologists and intensivists in Chennai. There is a need for developing standard diagnostic and treatment guidelines and making it available for all the practicing endocrinologists and intensivists.

  3. Practice Wisdom on Custodial Parenting with Mental Illness: A Strengths View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Buila, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Social work principles of strengths, empowerment, and consumer-centered care for persons with mental illness are currently being adapted to broader contexts. This article presents study findings on practice wisdom about custodial parents with mental illness, a potentially increasing group of consumers in light of mental health reform. The research…

  4. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  5. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  6. Women's work in farming, child feeding practices and nutritional status among under-five children in rural Rukwa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordang, Sunniva; Shoo, Tiransia; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Kinabo, Joyce; Wandel, Margareta

    2015-11-28

    Some progress has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Tanzania. In the Rukwa region (2010), the level of stunted and underweight children was 50·4 and 13·5 %, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, feeding practices and risk factors of undernutrition in a rural village in the Rukwa region, as well as to discuss the results in light of a similar study conducted in 1987/1988. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 households with children under 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the child's main caretaker and the household head, using a structured questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall. Children's length/height and weight were measured. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was found to be 63·8 and 33·6 % (Z-scorechildren on the first day after birth. A thin gruel was introduced after a median of 2 months (25th-75th percentiles; 1-3). The time mothers spent farming was a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0·04). Illness, food shortage and dry-season cultivation were significant risk factors for underweight (Pfeeding practices were not in line with WHO recommendations. Women working in farms, food shortage, dry-season cultivation and diseases partly explain the children's poor nutritional status.

  7. Modern and Traditional Medical Practices of Vietnam. Vietnamese Concepts of Illness and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, Le Tai

    This paper discusses superstitious, folk, traditional, and modern medical practices of Vietnam. Concepts of illness, somatization, behavior labeling, diagnostic attempts, and attitudes toward treatment among Vietnamese are also reviewed. (APM)

  8. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms.

  9. Movement as Spatial Practices and Economic Strategies in Cheese Production at Family Farms in Bohinj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Repič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores dairy and cheese production at family farms in Bohinj, their economical and organisational strategies (variations between family and cooperative organisation of farming and the connection of cheese production with different modes of spatial movement. In the past decade, several family farms have started producing cheese and milk products, which is an economic activity closely linked to traditional forms of cooperatives, and pasture rights of agricultural societies. These farms have revitalised traditional forms of cheese production and established new economic strategies, especially through the plurality of their activities – work outside of the farm, tourism, marketing of their products, etc. The article first presents a development of cheese production in Bohinj, changes in family and cooperative farming and explores movement and the meshwork of paths, tracks, roads and places that are fundamental to cheese economy. Further, the article connects different movements, e.g. daily pastures close to the villages, transhumance in mountain pasturelands, selling products in markets, etc. Modes of movement (walk, cattle herding, driving to markets are basic practices behind economic strategies of dairy and cheese farms, as well as organisations and use of space, in particular mountain paths and pasturelands.

  10. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L; Campbell, Con A; Zentner, Robert P

    2014-11-18

    Wheat is one of the world's most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production.

  11. A survey of decision making practices, educational experiences, and economic performance of two dairy farm populations in Central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhone, J A; Koonawootrittriron, S; Elzo, M A

    2008-10-01

    A survey was performed to characterize the dairy production, educational experiences, decision making practices, and income and expenses of dairy farms and to determine any differences of these practices among two dairy farm populations. Farm groups were identified as farms from the Muaklek dairy cooperative (Muaklek farms) and farms from other dairy cooperatives (Non-Muaklek farms). In April, 2006 questionnaires were distributed to 500 dairy farms located in Lopburi, Nakhon Ratchisima, and Saraburi provinces. A total of 85 farms completed and returned questionnaires. Means and frequencies were calculated for questions across categories and Chi-square tests were performed to determine differences among Muaklek and Non-Muaklek farms. Results showed that most farms from both groups had a primary or high school educational level, used a combination confinement and pasture production system, gave a mineral supplement, raised their own replacement females, milked approximately 16 cows/day, used crossbred Holstein cows (75% Holstein or more), and mated purebred Holstein sires to their cows. More Non-Muaklek farms (P profit per lactating cow, were 1,641 and 1,029 baht for Muaklek and Non-Muaklek farms, respectively. Overall, information from the study should be useful for dairy cooperatives and other dairy organizations when training farmers in the future and furthering dairy production research in Thailand.

  12. Design Strategies to Persuasive Learning for Promoting Sustainable Practices in Paddy Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakirah Othman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Public awareness of sustainable agriculture is low, especially in organic paddy practices. As alternative, introducing Information and Communication Technology (ICT application like electronic learning is an effective way to educate and promote the young generation to appreciate sustainable agriculture. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to discuss a design of a prototype of persuasive learning in virtual paddy as a tool to promote sustainable practices in paddy farming using Malaysia paddy farming practices as a case study. Approach: The real practice in sustainable paddy farming practices has been adapted in design of prototype. A method used for prototype design and development in this study is adapted from the model for design and development created by Alessi and Trollip. After that, a pilot test will be conducted with the help of an expert user. In addition, a lab experiment was conducted in the Computer Laboratory of the Engineering Department, University Putra Malaysia. Respondents from the Biology, Engineering and Agriculture Department student, Faculty of Engineering were selected randomly to answer the usability and awareness questionnaire. Results: Finding of this study shown the way of information and communication technology can facilitate understanding in organic paddy farming practice. The prototype also improves the level of awareness in sustainable agriculture in general. Conclusion/Recommendations: For future study, more research about potential used of learning environment in the sustainable issues can be carried out.

  13. Agricultural Students’ Perceptions of Farm Practical Year Programme at University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Oloruntoba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm Practical programme addresses the short comings in curricular of agricultural graduates enabling them to acquire knowledge and practical skills needed to become proficient in agriculture. The study contributes in providing insights into perceptions of level 400 agricultural students regarding the Farm Practical Year (FPY programme at the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. A total of 261 sample students were selected through stratified sampling procedure from 11 core agricultural departments and administered with pre-tested questionnaire. Results show that the programme provided students with ‘hands-on’ experience and opportunity to apply theory learnt in classroom to a real-life fi eld situation in which students had to adapt and solve problems on daily basis. Students also felt strongly that the farm practical would contribute to their professional career and employability on graduation. However, certain perceived problems were raised by students such as lack of on-campus accommodation, delay in payment of allowances and paucity of resources. It is recommended that greater efforts are needed to mentor students to take active interest in farm practical while human and material resources strengthened to deliver this mandate.

  14. Negotiating the diagnostic uncertainty of contested illnesses: physician practices and paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Debra A

    2008-10-01

    In the absence of scientific consensus about contested illnesses such as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Multiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS), and Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), physicians must make sense of competing accounts and develop practices for patient evaluation. A survey of 800 United States physicians examined physician propensity to diagnose CFS, MCS, and GWS, and the factors shaping clinical decision making. Results indicate that a substantial portion of physicians, including nonexperts, are diagnosing CFS, MCS, and GWS. Diagnosing physicians manage the uncertainty associated with these illnesses by using strategies that enhance bounded rationality and aid in thinking beyond current disease models. Strategies include consulting ancillary information sources, conducting analytically informed testing, and considering physiological explanations of causation. By relying on these practices and paradigms, physicians fit CFS, MCS, and GWS into an explanatory system that makes them credible and understandable to them, their patients, and the medical community. Findings suggest that physicians employ rational decision making for diagnosing contested illnesses, creating a blueprint of how illnesses lacking conclusive pathogenic and etiological explanations can be diagnosed. Findings also suggest that patients with contested illnesses might benefit from working with physicians who use these diagnostic strategies, since they help manage the complexity and ambiguity of the contested illness diagnostic process and aid in diagnosis. In addition, findings provide a window into how emerging illnesses get diagnosed in the absence of medical and scientific consensus, and suggest that diagnosing physicians advance the legitimacy of controversial illnesses by constructing the means for their diagnosis.

  15. Relations between views of nature and practices in Danish organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Pernille

    1996-01-01

    research in organic farming: The organic farming in practice represents a variety of views of nature. So does scientific work, but especially the natural scientifical and agrotechnical sciences has no tradition for reflecting that kind of matters. If the scientific approaches do not try to make......The paper presents and discusses empirical results from my ph.d. study concerning environmental ethics as a concept of practice. The theoretical approach to the study of environmental ethics is not purely philosophical. It questions what guides professionals in action with nature (farmers....... These findings are related to the actual manuring strategies, diversity in crops and products and ways of treating the herd at the same farms. The empirical study is methodologically based on qualitative methods inspired by phenomenology, ethnography and narrativity.The outcome is four distinct groups of organic...

  16. Survey of biosecurity protocols and practices adopted by growers on commercial poultry farms in Georgia, U. S. A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorea, F C; Berghaus, R; Hofacre, C; Cole, D J

    2010-09-01

    The integrated commercial poultry system is a highly connected network in which routine activities keep farms within a geographic area in constant contact. Consequently, biosecurity practices designed to minimize the transmission of infectious diseases between and within farms are an important component of modern flock health programs. A survey of Georgia poultry growers was conducted in order to assess the level of adoption of standard biosecurity measures by farm personnel and visitors. The results showed that compliance with recommended biosecurity practices did not significantly vary by company, farm size, or number of farms owned by the same grower. However, biosecurity was higher in the northern part of the state, where the density of farms is higher, and where there was an ongoing outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis at the time of the study. The survey found that growers place more emphasis on biosecurity measures targeting farm visitors than those targeting farm personnel. Most growers reported that all visitors to the farm were required to wear shoe covers, although visitors were not typically required to park outside the farm entrance or to wash tires on their vehicles. No visitor type was reportedly excluded from poultry houses during grow out on all farms. The results highlight the need to evaluate the comparative efficacy of specific biosecurity measures in order to set priorities and attain feasible rates of implementation of targeted biosecurity practices.

  17. Wind farms on peatland: Effect of Management Practices on Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. U.; Nayak, D. R.; Miller, D.; Nolan, A.; Smith, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Scottish Government has set ambitious targets for electricity generation by renewables (Scottish Government, 2007). To meet the interim target of 31% electricity generation from renewable sources by 2011 and 50% by 2020, a substantial increase in the number of onshore wind farms is likely to be required. In Scotland a large number of proposed wind farm developments are on peatlands. One concern raised over the development of wind farms on peatlands questions whether the expected saving in carbon emissions due to electricity generation using wind power will be offset by increased carbon losses associated with the development. If carbon payback time exceeds the life time of the wind farm, then the development represents a net carbon cost. However, our calculations show that even on peatlands, good management practices can be used to minimise carbon losses and achieve carbon payback times that are significantly less than the lifetime of the wind farm. Using floating roads instead of excavated roads can minimise the carbon loss. Restoration of the site could potentially halt carbon loss processes, so allowing carbon dioxide emissions to be limited to the time before the habitat and hydrological conditions are restored. If the site is restored after decommissioning, the carbon payback time can be reduced by 50%. Habitat improvement at disturbed sites can significantly reduce carbon emissions, potentially preventing further losses and increasing carbon stored in the improved habitat. We present the calculations of carbon losses at a range of wind farm developments across Scotland, differing in soil type, climate, management practices and site design. We assess the impact of management and design on carbon emissions, and demonstrate the importance of good site management and design to reducing carbon emissions, especially for wind farms sited on peatlands.

  18. Diversity in smallholder farms growing coffee and their use of recommended coffee management practices in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, G.; Fleskens, L.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Mukasa, D.; Giller, K.E.; Asten, van P.

    2015-01-01

    Many smallholder farm systems in Uganda produce coffee as an important cash crop. Yet coffee yields are poor. To increase farmers’ production, a range of agronomic practices have been recommended by national and international agencies. Yet the adoption potential of recommendations differs between fa

  19. Diversity in smallholder farms growing coffee and their use of recommended coffee management practices in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, G.; Fleskens, L.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Mukasa, D.; Giller, K.E.; Asten, van P.

    2015-01-01

    Many smallholder farm systems in Uganda produce coffee as an important cash crop. Yet coffee yields are poor. To increase farmers’ production, a range of agronomic practices have been recommended by national and international agencies. Yet the adoption potential of recommendations differs between

  20. Food governance transformation : aligning food security with sustainable farming practices in developing communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional approaches used to improve farming practices and access to food in developing communities are underpinned by policy, technology, and the science of modernization. The focus has been on securing a sufficient quantity of food derived from extensive monocultures. This quantity focus is

  1. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad;

    on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to areas where...

  2. Food governance transformation : aligning food security with sustainable farming practices in developing communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional approaches used to improve farming practices and access to food in developing communities are underpinned by policy, technology, and the science of modernization. The focus has been on securing a sufficient quantity of food derived from extensive monocultures. This quantity focus is que

  3. Management practices associated with the bulk-milk prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Riekerink, Richard G M; Barkema, Herman W; Scholl, Daniel T; Poole, Doris E; Kelton, Dave F

    2010-10-01

    When designing mastitis-prevention and control programs, it is important to know the level of adoption of mastitis-prevention management practices and control programs and the herd-level prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens. Our objectives were to estimate: (1) adoption of recommended mastitis-preventive management on Canadian dairy farms; (2) herd-level prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens on Canadian dairy farms; and (3) associations of certain management practices with the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from the bulk tank milk from Canadian dairy farms. In total, 226 farms participating in dairy herd improvement milk recording were randomly selected. All participating farms in British Columbia had free-stall barns and 85% of farms in Québec had tie-stall barns. Post-milking teat disinfection was practised on 96% of the farms and 72% had implemented blanket dry-cow treatment. Weighted and province-stratified prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staph. aureus in bulk tank milk was 4% (95% confidence interval: 0-12%) and 74% (95% confidence interval: 61-86%), respectively. Highest Staph. aureus prevalence was found in Nova Scotia (91%) and lowest prevalence in British Columbia (38%). No Mycoplasma spp. were isolated, but detection of Mycoplasma spp. could have been hampered by the frozen shipment and storage of the milk samples. Management practices associated with a lower probability of isolating Staph. aureus were blanket dry-cow treatment and believing that a nutritionist is important in mastitis data review. Having the milking equipment checked by an independent technician at least once a year and rubber mats or mattresses in the free-stall barns were associated with an increased probability of isolating Staph. aureus from the bulk tank. Most of Canadian dairy farms adopted important mastitis-prevention practices, such as post-milking teat disinfection and drying off all cows with antibiotics; however, improvements can still be made. A

  4. Practice of strict glycemic control in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Marcus J; de Graaff, Mart J; Royakkers, Annic A N M; van Braam Houckgeest, Floris; van der Sluijs, Johannes P; Kieft, Hans; Spronk, Peter E

    2008-11-01

    Blood glucose control aiming at normoglycemia, frequently referred to as "strict glycemic control", decreases mortality and morbidity of critically ill patients. We searched the medical literature for export opinions, surveys, and clinical reports on blood glucose control in intensive care medicine. While strict glycemic control has been recommended standard of care for critically ill patients, the risk of severe hypoglycemia with strict glycemic control is frequently mentioned by experts. Some rationalize this risk, though others strongly point out the high incidence of hypoglycemia to be (one) reason not to perform strict glycemic control. Implementation of strict glycemic control is far from complete in intensive care units across the world. Frequently local guidelines accept higher blood glucose levels than those with strict glycemic control. Only a minority of retrieved manuscripts are on blood glucose regimens with the lower targets as with strict glycemic control. Hypoglycemia certainly is encountered with blood glucose control, in particular with strict glycemic control. Reports show intensive care-nurses can adequately and safely perform strict glycemic control. Implementation of strict glycemic control is far from complete, at least in part because of the feared risks of hypoglycemia. The preference for hyperglycemia over intermittent hypoglycemia is irrational, however, because there is causal evidence of harm for the former but only associative evidence of harm for the latter. For several reasons it is wise to have strict glycemic control being a nurse-based strategy.

  5. Making space for wind farms: Practices of territorial stigmatisation in rural Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, David Philipp; Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch

    of territorial stigmatisation are mobilised and aligned by developers and municipalities in order to make space for and legitimise large wind farm projects in rural areas. In doing so, the paper will illustrate how stigmatisation practices are embedded in discourses of rurality as ‘Outskirts......Whilst issues of siting wind farms have mostly revolved around their public acceptance resulting from an unequal distribution of local costs and benefits, the perceived fairness of the planning process and the disruption of places, the challenge of finding adequate locations and getting access...

  6. Relations between views of nature and practices in Danish organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Pernille

    1996-01-01

    , agronomists, engineers and the alike) when deciding which solution is preferable regarding sustainability.The empirical work examines the explicit as well as the implicit expressed views of nature, ethical stands, learning processes, knowledge sources and identity with a number of Danish organic farmers...... research in organic farming: The organic farming in practice represents a variety of views of nature. So does scientific work, but especially the natural scientifical and agrotechnical sciences has no tradition for reflecting that kind of matters. If the scientific approaches do not try to make...

  7. Practices and rationales of community engagement with wind farms: awareness raising, consultation, empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aitken, Mhairi; Haggett, Claire; Rudolph, David Philipp

    2016-01-01

    , but that these are predominantly focused at consultation and awareness raising. Developers typically retain considerable – or total – control within such engagement processes. However, the case studies presented in this paper also evidence some innovation in engagement methods. Through this research we develop and test a non......In light of the growing emphasis on community engagement in the literature on renewable energy planning, and given the acknowledgement of the complexity of community engagement as a concept, we conducted an empirical review of practice relating to community engagement with onshore wind farms...... in the UK, exploring what is actually happening in terms of community engagement relating to onshore wind farms, and examining the rationales underpinning approaches to community engagement. We found that a wide range of engagement methods are being used in relation to onshore wind farms across the UK...

  8. Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety: A Farm and Research Team Participatory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Kit; Krenz, Jen; Harrington, Marcy; Palmández, Pablo; Fenske, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Development of the Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety guide used participatory research strategies to identify and evaluate solutions that reduce pesticide exposures for workers and their families and to disseminate these solutions. Project principles were (1) workplace chemicals belong in the workplace, and (2) pesticide handlers and farm managers are experts, with direct knowledge of production practices. The project's participatory methods were grounded in self-determination theory. Practical solutions were identified and evaluated based on five criteria: practicality, adaptability, health and safety, novelty, and regulatory compliance. Research activities that had more personal contact provided better outcomes. The Expert Working Group, composed of farm managers and pesticide handlers, was key to the identification of solutions, as were farm site visits. Audience participation, hands-on testing, and orchard field trials were particularly effective in the evaluation of potential solutions. Small work groups in a Regional Advisory Committee provided the best direction and guidance for a "user-friendly" translational document that provided evidence-based practical solutions. The "farmer to farmer" format of the guide was endorsed by both the Expert Working Group and the Regional Advisory Committee. Managers and pesticide handlers wanted to share their solutions in order to "help others stay safe," and they appreciated attribution in the guide. The guide is now being used in educational programs across the region. The fundamental concept that farmers and farmworkers are innovators and experts in agricultural production was affirmed by this study. The success of this process demonstrates the value of participatory industrial hygiene in agriculture.

  9. From sick role to practices of health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2013-01-01

    Health care research generally, and medical education research specifically, make increasingly sophisticated use of social science methods, but these methods are often detached from the theories that are the substantive core of the social sciences. Enhanced understanding of theory is especially valuable for gaining a broader perspective on how issues in medical education reflect the social processes that contextualise them. This article reviews five social science theories, emphasising their relevance to medical education, beginning with the emergence of the sociology of health and illness in the 1950s, with Talcott Parsons' concept of the 'sick role'. Four turning points since Parsons are then discussed with reference to the theory developed by, respectively, Harold Garfinkel, Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu, and what is called the 'narrative or dialogical turn'. In considering these, the author argues for a theory-grounded research that relates specific problems to what Max Weber called the 'fate of our times'. The conclusion considers how medical education research can critique the reproduction of a discourse of scarcity in health care, rather than participating in this discourse and legitimating the disciplinary techniques that it renders self-evident. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  10. Nutrition, Health, and Food Security Practices, Concerns, and Perceived Barriers of Latino Farm/Industry Workers in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Essa, Jumanah S.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition, Health, and Food Security Practices, Concerns, and Perceived Barriers of Latino Farm/Industry Workers in Virginia Jumanah S. Essa ABSTRACT Farm and industry workers are a growing population in the United States (U.S.) and are critical to the success of the agriculture industry. In 1993, the Migrant Legal Services estimated that there were 42,000 migrant and seasonal farm workers in the state of Virginia (Wilson, 1998). These workers are essential in the state's producti...

  11. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (Pcontrol strategy.

  12. Anthelmintic efficacy and management practices in sheep farms from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Daniela Guedes; da Rocha, Letícia Oliveira; Arruda, Sabrina Santos; Palieraqui, Jorge Guilherme Bergottini; Cordeiro, Rudymilla Cunha; Santos, Edizio; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Santos, Clóvis de Paula

    2010-06-24

    Anthelmintic resistance in parasites maybe a consequence of over-exposing populations of parasites to drugs or from the commerce/transit of animals harboring resistant parasites. Knowledge of the sensitivity of nematodes to anthelmintics is essential to establish an efficient integrated program of parasite control. In Brazil, producers rely on technology transfer from field professionals and non-technical labor for new management strategies of parasite control. The aim of this work was to determine the practices farmers used for anthelmintic management and to monitor drug efficacy on sheep farms from northern and northwestern regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A questionnaire was sent to 34 farms, and anthelmintics were tested on ten of these farms. Sheep (n=10/group) were weighed and treated with albendazole, closantel, doramectin, fenbendazole, ivermectin, levamisole, moxidectin, or nitroxynil with their recommended doses. Faeces were collected on the day of treatment and after 7-10 days. The faecal egg count reduction test was evaluated based on RESO 2.0. Among the farmers interviewed, 97% applied commercial anthelmintics to control parasites, 77% rotated anthelmintics annually, 72% used ivermectin as the principal anthelmintic, and 38% applied anthelmintics with a frequency of 30-60 days. On two farms, none of the anthelmintics was efficacious. Levamisole had the best overall efficacy (70%). Albendazole, ivermectin, and fenbendazole were efficacious (above 95%) on only two farms. The present work illustrates the alarming lack of efficacy of drugs even in an area new to sheep farming. It is important to establish alternative strategies of management in a broad program of parasite control for reducing the selection pressure on parasites by the commercially available anthelmintics.

  13. Knowledge, illness perceptions and stated clinical practice behaviour in management of gout: a mixed methods study in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaetgens, B.; Pustjens, T.; Scheepers, L.E.; Janssens, H.J.E.M.; Linden, S. van der; Boonen, A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to explore knowledge, illness perceptions and stated practice behaviour in relation to gout in primary care. This is a mixed methods study among 32 general practitioners (GPs). The quantitative assessment included the Gout Knowledge Questionnaire (GKQ; range

  14. Decadal monitoring of rice farming practices from MODIS data in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Son, Nguyen; Farn Chen, Chi; Chen, Cheng Ru

    2015-04-01

    Rice agriculture was the most important sector in Myanmar's economy because it provided employments and livelihoods for at least 75% of the country's population, accounting for more than 48% of the national gross domestic product. Prior to the World War II, this country was the largest rice-producing nation in the world. However, it is currently a relatively minor rice exporter, ranking seventh after Thailand and Vietnam. The country's rice export potential remains high due to abundant land and water resources along with recent indications of progressive policy reforms to improve rice productivity. This study aimed at investigating decadal changes in rice farming practices in Myanmar during 2001 to 2014 using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. We processed the data though three main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct the smooth time-series MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data, (2) mapping rice farming practices using phenological information of crop phenology, and (3) accuracy assessment. The mapping results were compared with the ground reference data indicated satisfactory results, with the overall accuracies and Kappa coefficients generally higher than 90% and 0.8, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by comparisons between MODIS-derived rice area and the government's rice area statistics, with a close correlation between the two datasets (R2 > 0.8) and the relative error in area smaller than 15%. From 2001 to 2014, rice farming practices in Myanmar had remarkably changed from single-cropped rice to double-cropped rice, especially in Ayeyarwady river basin. This study demonstrates the validity of the phenology-based approach for national-wide monitoring of decadal changes in rice farming practices in Myanmar. Such a quantitative information might be useful for agronomic managers to devise better plans for long-term rice crop management of in the country.

  15. ADOPTION OF GOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICE (GMP IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE VANNAMEI SHRIMP FARMS ON THE NORTHERN SHORE EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Florina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to describe the value chain of Vannamei shrimp industry on the northern shore of East Java, to identify the current management practice that is being implemented by small to medium scale shrimp farmers, to analyze the level of adoption of Good Management Practice by small to medium scale shrimp farmers and to identify the challenges that prevent small to medium scale farmers from adopting Good Management Practice. This research utilized descriptive qualitative method using multiple-case study. Data collection was conducted through interviews with experts and various actors in shrimp industry and interviews and observations in shrimp farms. From this research it can be concluded that the farming activity gives the largest contribution in final product value, that the current management practice in observed intensive Vannamei shrimp farms is in line with recommendations of various institutions with the exception of waste management, that the observed intensive Vannamei shrimp farms have high adoption level of Good Management Practice (GMP for various stages of shrimp farming activity with the exception of waste management, and that there is a tendency that farmers follow the good practices that have direct impact to the success of the production, and that the main challenges of GMP adoption are the lack of a comprehensive GMP manual, the lack of structured technology dissemination, and the lack of incentive for the farmers to adopt waste management practices.Keywords: Litopenaeus Vannamei, Shrimp Farm, Good Management Practice, Value Chain, Multiple-Case Study

  16. Promoting Healthy Work for Employees with Chronic Illness : Analysis of Models of Good Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Anja; Have, Kristin ten; Gründemann, Rob; Wevers, Cees

    2012-01-01

    The ENWHP project and campaign Promoting Healthy Work for Employees with Chronic Illness (PH Work) should contribute towards the implementation of effective workplace health practices within corporate policies of enterprises in Europe. More specific the project should stimulate activities and polici

  17. Frequency of ill-founded off-label prescribing in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsen, R.; Jochemsen, H.; Dijk, L. van; Caspers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify the extent of ill-founded off-label drug prescriptions in Dutch general practice. The study is based upon information on both the prescription itself and the patient’s medical history. Methods: In total, 48 combinations of drugs and off-label indications

  18. Baseline survey of health prophylaxis and management practices on Swiss dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, P; Kohler, S; Reist, M; van den Borne, B; Menéndez González, S; Doherr, M

    2012-09-01

    Health prophylaxis management practices have acquired a major role in the success of dairy herd health programs, however, little is known about the scope and level of implementation on Swiss dairy farms. The main objective of this study was therefore to provide a general overview of the most important preventive measures which are currently being used on these farms. In March 2011, an online survey with 75 questions was sent to 2'285 randomly selected Swiss dairy farmers. Response rate by question ranged from 35 to 53 %. Within this study, answers were compared between dairy farms with a tie-stall (n = 739) and farms with a free-stall (n = 458). Homeopathic treatments were used by 51 % of the dairy farmers and antibiotic dry cow treatments by 94 %. Farmers with a tie-stall tended to carry out more prophylactic treatments against external parasites, vaccinated their cows more frequently against Clostridium chauvoei and Moraxella bovis, and carried out claw trimming more frequently than dairy farmers with a free-stall. A higher proportion of dairy farmers with a free-stall had a written feeding plan, carried out regular feed analysis, wore an apron and rubber gloves during milking, and carried out post milking teat disinfection more frequently than dairy farmers with a tie-stall. The data collected in this survey could assist in improving future dairy health communication campaigns in Switzerland.

  19. A macro-scale perspective on within-farm management: how climate and topography alter the effect of farming practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuya; Kusumoto, Yoshinobu; Okamura, Hiroshi; Baba, Yuki G; Hamasaki, Kenji; Tanaka, Koichi; Yamamoto, Shori

    2011-12-01

    Organic farming has the potential to reverse biodiversity loss in farmland and benefit agriculture by enhancing ecosystem services. Although the mixed success of organic farming in enhancing biodiversity has been attributed to differences in taxa and landscape context, no studies have focused on the effect of macro-scale factors such as climate and topography. This study provides the first assessment of the impact of macro-scale factors on the effectiveness of within-farm management on biodiversity, using spiders in Japan as an example. A multilevel modelling approach revealed that reducing pesticide applications increases spider abundance, particularly in areas with high precipitation, which were also associated with high potential spider abundance. Using the model we identified areas throughout Japan that can potentially benefit from organic farming. The alteration of local habitat-abundance relations by macro-scale factors could explain the reported low spatial generality in the effects of organic farming and patterns of habitat association.

  20. Evaluation of 'best practice' (SCOPS) guidelines for nematode control on commercial sheep farms in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Gettinby, George; Boughtflower, Valerie; Stephens, Nathalie; Hartley, Kayleigh; Allanson, Peter; Gutierrez, Alba Barrecheguren; Perez, David; Taylor, Mike

    2015-01-30

    Parasitic diseases are a major constraint to optimum livestock production and are the major cause of economic loss in UK sheep flocks, with farmers remaining dependant on anthelmintics for control. In the UK, research and evidence based, "best practice" guidelines for sustainable control of parasites in sheep (SCOPS) were first produced in 2004 and have been regularly updated since. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of these best practice guidelines for worm control on lamb production and infection levels, compared with more traditional management. Sixteen farms were selected based on a 2 cube factorial design with 3 factors known to affect worm epidemiology: control regimen; farm type; and climatic region. A formalised plan for worm control using 7 potential resistance-delaying practices was prepared for each of the 8 best practice (SCOPS) farms, in conjunction with the farms veterinarians. The 8 farms in the traditional management group (CONTROL farms) were selected based on ongoing evidence of them using worm control strategies deemed to be "higher-risk". A cohort of 40-50 study lambs at each farm was monitored from birth to finishing, allowing evaluation of lamb productivity, worm infection levels and for comparison of numbers of anthelmintic treatments. Birth and mid-season weights were used to calculate daily live-weight gain. Birth and finish dates were used to calculate time to finish and finish weights were also compared. Faecal egg counts, larval culture and species differentiation were undertaken throughout the year to assess the impact of the control strategies on worm burdens. There was no significant difference in results for any of the 3 production responses when comparing predicted means accounting for the differences in birth weight. In fact SCOPS farms had, on average, a higher daily weight gain and finish weight than CONTROL farms when comparing observed means. Statistical analysis of infection levels clearly showed no significant

  1. Use of Chemical Pesticides in Ethiopia : A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Farmers and Farm Workers in Three Farming Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negatu, Beyene; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Mekonnen, Yalemtshay; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    Chemical pesticides, regardless of their inherent hazard, are used intensively in the fast changing agricultural sector of Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional pesticide Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey among 601 farmers and farm workers (applicators and re-entry workers) in three

  2. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Grant S; Eifling, Kurt P; Ellis, Mark A; Gaudio, Flavio G; Otten, Edward M; Grissom, Colin K

    2013-12-01

    The Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the recognition, prevention, and treatment of heat-related illness. We present a review of the classifications, pathophysiology, and evidence-based guidelines for planning and preventive measures as well as best-practice recommendations for both field- and hospital-based therapeutic management of heat-related illness. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality. © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Promising Practices for Making Recreation Programming Matter for People who Experience Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Susan L; Fenton, Lara

    2017-08-31

    There is merit in understanding how recreation-oriented programs for adults living with mental illness address barriers to participation and how programming is structured to create safe and inclusive environments, resulting in programming that amplifies the benefits of recreation for mental well-being. Following an environmental scan of programs targeting adults living with mental illness in Canada, ten coordinators in community mental health settings were interviewed. Four themes were constructed to reflect characteristics deemed to be 'promising practices' related to recreation-oriented programming: (a) barriers and solutions to individual participation, (b) characteristics of welcoming and supportive environments, (c) leadership characteristics, and (d) program characteristics.

  4. Three-year evaluation of best practice guidelines for nematode control on commercial sheep farms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Stephens, Nathalie; Boughtflower, Valerie; Barrecheguren, Alba; Rickell, Kayleigh; Massei, Giovanna; Taylor, Mike

    2016-08-15

    Anthelmintics are commonly used on the majority of UK commercial sheep farms to reduce major economic losses associated with parasitic diseases. With increasing anthelmintic resistance worldwide, several countries have produced evidence-based, best practice guidelines with an example being the UK's Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep (SCOPS) initiative. In 2012, a pilot study demonstrated that SCOPS-managed farms used fewer anthelmintic treatments than traditionally managed farms, with no impact on lamb productivity and worm burden. Building on these results, we collected data for three consecutive years (2012-2014) with the following aims: (1) To compare the effects of traditional and SCOPS-based parasite management on lamb productivity and worm burden; (2) To evaluate the effect of region and farm type on lamb productivity and worm burden; (3) To compare the frequency and patterns of use of anthelmintic treatment on traditional and SCOPS-managed farms. The study was carried out on 16 farms located in the North east and the South west of England and Wales. Lamb productivity was assessed by quantifying birth, mid-season and finish weights and calculating daily live-weight gains and time to finish in a cohort of 40-50 lambs on each farm. Five annual faecal egg counts were carried out on each farm to assess worm burden. No differences in lamb productivity and worm burdens were found between farms that adopted SCOPS guidelines and traditional farms across the three years. However, mean infection levels increased for both the SCOPS and the traditional groups. Lamb production was not significantly different for farm type and region but the effect of region on infection was significant. For both ewes and lambs, SCOPS farms carried out significantly fewer anthelmintic treatments per year, and used fewer anthelmintic doses/animal than traditional farms. The data suggest a trend to increasing use of anthelmintics in ewes on traditional but not on the SCOPS farms and a

  5. ISO 14 001 at the farm level: analysis of five methods for evaluating the environmental impact of agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, M B; Peschard, D; Boizard, H

    2007-02-01

    Faced with society's increasing expectations, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) review considers environmental management to be an ever more critical criterion in the allocation of farm subsidies. With the goal of evaluating the environmental friendliness of farm practices, France's agricultural research and extension services have built a range of agricultural/environmental diagnostic tools over recent years. The objective of the present paper is to compare the five tools most frequently used in France: IDEA, DIAGE, DIALECTE, DIALOGUE and INDIGO. All the tools have the same purpose: evaluation of the impact of farm practices on the environment via indicators and monitoring of farm management practices. When tested on a sample of large-scale farms in Picardie, the five tools sometimes produced completely different results: for a given farm, the most supposedly significant environmental impacts depend on the tool used. These results lead to differing environmental management plans and raise the question of the methods' pertinence. An analysis grid of diagnostic tools aimed at specifying their field of validity, limits and relevance was drawn up. The resulting comparative analysis enables to define each tool's domain of validity and allows to suggest lines of thought for developing more relevant tools for (i) evaluating a farm's environmental performance and (ii) helping farmers to develop a plan for improving practices within the framework of an environmental management system.

  6. A telephone survey of internal parasite control practices on sheep farms in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Vázquez, Francisco A; Hosking, Barry C

    2013-02-18

    A telephone survey of farmers was conducted to determine current internal parasite control practices on sheep farms in Spain; the farmers were interviewed by their veterinarians. Anthelmintic choice was largely on veterinary advice and dominated by benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones. Anthelmintic rotation was separated into: no rotation (42% of farms); annual rotation (36%); rotate within year (20%); and rotate every second year (2%). The mean annual number of treatments varied subtly by region; ewes and rams 1.6-2.1, replacement lambs 1.7-2.1. Anthelmintics are administered primarily during spring and early summer (47% of treatments), and autumn (41%). Thirty-two percent of farmers introduced sheep to their properties and more than half did not quarantine drench the arrivals.

  7. Teaching ill-structured problem solving using occupational therapy practice epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anita Witt

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epistemic and ontological cognition (EOC) have to do with an individual's beliefs about knowledge and knowing. Research has shown that EOC have an influence on learning and achievement. EOC may be discipline-specific with a profession being defined by its practice epistemology. If an individual's EOC is inconsistent with the profession's practice epistemology, the student or practitioner may struggle with effectively solving ill-structured occupational performance problems. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the constructs of EOC, to describe its importance to occupational therapy education and practice, and to provide recommendations for educators and researchers. Specific examples are detailed and recommendations for future research are proposed.

  8. Feeding practices for infants and young children during and after common illness. Evidence from South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Global evidence shows that children's growth deteriorates rapidly during/after illness if foods and feeding practices do not meet the additional nutrient requirements associated with illness/convalescence. To inform policies and programmes, we conducted a review of the literature published from 1990 to 2014 to document how children 0–23 months old are fed during/after common childhood illnesses. The review indicates that infant and young child feeding (IYCF) during common childhood illnesses is far from optimal. When sick, most children continue to be breastfed, but few are breastfed more frequently, as recommended. Restriction/withdrawal of complementary foods during illness is frequent because of children's anorexia (perceived/real), poor awareness of caregivers' about the feeding needs of sick children, traditional beliefs/behaviours and/or suboptimal counselling and support by health workers. As a result, many children are fed lower quantities of complementary foods and/or are fed less frequently when they are sick. Mothers/caregivers often turn to family/community elders and traditional/non‐qualified practitioners to seek advice on how to feed their sick children. Thus, traditional beliefs and behaviours guide the use of ‘special’ feeding practices, foods and diets for sick children. A significant proportion of mothers/caregivers turn to the primary health care system for support but receive little or no advice. Building the knowledge, skills and capacity of community health workers and primary health care practitioners to provide mothers/caregivers with accurate and timely information, counselling and support on IYCF during and after common childhood illnesses, combined with large‐scale communication programmes to address traditional beliefs and norms that may be harmful, is an urgent priority to reduce the high burden of child stunting in South Asia. PMID:26840205

  9. An advisory tool to improve management practices affecting calf and heifer welfare on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, E; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Lefebvre, D; Pellerin, D

    2010-09-01

    We developed an advisory tool addressing 10 critical areas of calf and heifer management, including calving management, care to newborn calves and painful procedures, colostrum management, cow-calf separation, calf feeding, weaning, calf housing, heifer feeding, heifer housing, and general monitoring. Targets and indicators for each critical area were validated by a panel of experts and maximum scores were assigned based on experts' opinions and reviews of scientific literature. The tool was tested on 28 Quebec dairy farms for feasibility and repeatability between 2 observers. Farmers were asked to test colostrum quality, measure blood IgG concentrations, and record health events. The on-farm evaluation included an interview on management practices and an evaluation of conditions in the barn. Scorings and recommendations were discussed with producers. The usefulness of our on-farm welfare tool was evaluated by the producers themselves during a final debriefing. We reached the main goals of a successful advisory tool of calf and heifer management to improve welfare on dairy farms. We respected the targeted time limit of a 3-h visit covering all aspects of our tool including data collection on management and environment, scoring, practical demonstration with producers, and debriefing. We had no problems collecting management- and environment-based data and had high repeatability of qualitative environment-based measures (kappa value>0.6). Our tool helped to detect problems and to discuss these problems with the producers; producers scored below 50% for some targets in calving management, care to newborn calves and painful procedures, colostrum management, and calf feeding. The targets were realistic so producers were not discouraged. All producers were convinced of the usefulness of our tool for identifying areas of calf and heifer management in need of improvement. They were also convinced of the usefulness of our tool as an advisory tool for technical advisors and

  10. Effect of cattle management practices on raw milk quality on farms operating in a two-stage dairy chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraïri, M T; Benhouda, H; Kuper, M; Le Gal, P Y

    2009-02-01

    In many developing countries, milk production varies greatly according to farm size, cattle breed, and milking practices. However, production systems often are dominated by smallholder farms. Therefore, relatively small volumes of milk are delivered daily from numerous farms to intermediate cooperatives which supply industrial units. This paper argues that in such two-stage dairy chains, milk quality could be improved by focusing on farming practices rather than on the testing of individual deliveries. Indeed, it is difficult to analyze their quality due to technical, economic, and logistic limitations. The objective of this study is to link on-farm practices with milk chemical quality parameters (fat and protein) and hygienic quality criteria (Aerobic Plate Count, APC and Coliforms). Cattle management practices were monitored monthly over one year on 23 farms located on an irrigation scheme in Morocco. 276 milk samples were analyzed. The monthly variability of milk quality parameters was then characterized. Results show that average cow milk chemical parameters vary within a normal range. They remain primarily linked to the genetic type of cows, the lactation stage, and the conversion of feed concentrates' net energy into milk. Overall milk hygienic quality was poor (APC and Coliforms counts were 100 fold international norms), due essentially to a lack of hygiene and inadequate milking conditions (hands, udder, and teat washing, type of bucket used, dirtiness of cows...). It is suggested that a close monitoring of herd management practices may allow the indirect control of milk quality parameters, thereby avoiding costly analyses of numerous smallholder milk deliveries.

  11. A survey of management practices that influence production and welfare of dairy cattle on family farms in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Hötzel, M J; Longo, C; Balcão, L F

    2013-01-01

    A survey on dairy production in family dairy farms in the northwest of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was carried out to assess husbandry practices and elements of the living environment that may influence animal welfare and productivity. Three farm systems common in the region were compared: extensive, pasture-based, and semi-intensive. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with farmers, followed by an inspection of the production environment and of dairy cows on 124 dairy farms. Some welfare and production problems were common to the 3 systems, mainly subclinical mastitis and tick infestations, which affected one-third of cows, deficiencies in the provision of drinking water and shade, and poor hygiene practices during milking. Some problems were specific to farming systems, such as lameness and hock injuries on the semi-intensive farms, and inadequate milking infrastructure and greater frequencies of cows with low body condition scores on extensive and pasture-based farms. A greater proportion of farms in the semi-intensive group had modern, herringbone-type milking parlors, applied the California Mastitis Test, and followed teat disinfection practices, and more pasture-based farms provided shade in the paddocks. The widespread use of pasture and adapted genotypes and individual identification of animals were positive aspects present in all systems. The absence of health and production records in more than half of the farms may prevent farmers from recognizing certain problems. Results of this survey may guide public policies aiming to improve milk productivity and quality with sustainable and low-cost production practices.

  12. An analysis of water samples surrounding swine farms in Timis County – A practical guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin L. Ordodi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important role in biological soil pollution is allocated to the untreated waste water used to ground’s fertirigation from livestock farms, and in particular of swine units. Applying of arbitrary measures, and national and European legislation’s non-compliance are main factors that often makes from this issue a public health problem by the great impact it can generate and create in large agglomerations and animals. The diluted manures are able to affect the quality of the environment mainly by: nitrous oxide, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulphide, volatile organic compounds, etc. and they, being administered in soils, may cause epizootic and epidemiological aspects and also those relating to environmental protection. In this respect it rise the need for all livestock farms to apply appropriate measures for certain manure treatment, different to species of animals and depending on the collection and discharge systems used. This paper is an original research work and it intends to be also a practical guide to follow for those interested in field research of environmental pollution. There are presented current investigation methodologies of water’s quality from swine farms vicinity in Timis County. In four chapters are presented: primary water analysis methodology, the determination of chlorides, nitrates and phosphates for each substance being presented methodology, kits and reagents necessary specific results and their interpretation and conclusions for each study. The last chapter was allocated to the description of the potentially polluting compounds determination by GC-MS technique.

  13. On-farm euthanasia practices and attitudes of commercial meat rabbit producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jessica; Percival, Aaron; Tapscott, Brian; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-09-16

    Appropriate and timely on-farm euthanasia is the responsibility of the producer, working together with their herd veterinarian. Unfortunately, validated methods for euthanasia of commercial meat rabbits are lacking and there are few educational materials available for producer training. Because euthanasia must be performed in a timely fashion to minimise suffering, it is critical to ensure that methods used are aesthetic, humane and effective. We surveyed Canadian meat rabbit producers for current on-farm euthanasia practices as well as attitudes towards the methods they employed and thoughts on novel euthanasia techniques. Surveys were distributed with a response rate of 26 per cent (n=26). Blunt force trauma was the most common euthanasia method used (54 per cent), followed by assisted manual cervical dislocation (31 per cent). Half of producers admitted to not having a euthanasia method in place for all age groups of rabbits, instead electing to let sick and injured rabbits die on their own. While some producers reported feeling highly skilled and satisfied with their current euthanasia method, 58 per cent reported concerns with their current method and 42 per cent desired alternative methods to be developed. Responses to additional questions on training and awareness of euthanasia resources indicated that veterinarians are not part of on-farm euthanasia planning for meat rabbits. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Do workplace and home protective practices protect farm workers? Findings from the For Healthy Kids Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Holte, Sarah E.; Vigoren, Eric M.; Griffith, William C; Barr, Dana B.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Thompson, Beti

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess associations of protective workplace and home practices to pesticide exposure levels. Methods Using data from orchard workers in the Yakima Valley, Washington, we examined associations of workplace and home protective practices to (1) urinary metabolite concentrations of dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) in adults and children aged 2–6; and (2) azinphos-methyl levels in house and vehicle dust. Results Data were from 95 orchard workers and 94 children. Contrary to expectation, adult farm workers who wore boots or washed hands using hand sanitizer had higher concentrations of DMTP than those who did not. Children who attended daycare had higher DMTP concentrations than children who did not. Conclusions Few workplace or home practices were associated with pesticide exposure levels; workers who used hand sanitizer had higher concentrations of DMTP, as did children who attended daycare. PMID:22772953

  15. Development of practical methodology and indicators for on-farm animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    163 p. Work described in the doctoral thesis entitled ¿Development of practical methodology and indicators for on-farm animal welfare assessment¿ was conducted within the frame of Work Package 1 of the AWIN project by Joanna Marchewka. The research project aimed to optimize strategies for welfare assessment including pain in turkeys and sheep. Due to scarce knowledge on turkeys¿ welfare and lack of methodology for its evaluation, the first part of work concentrated on the development of a ...

  16. Behavior of farmers in regard to erosion by water as reflected by their farming practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, Karl; Fischer, Franziska K; Kistler, Michael; Treisch, Melanie; Maier, Harald; Brandhuber, Robert

    2017-09-08

    The interplay between natural site conditions and farming raises erosion by water above geological background levels. We examined the hypothesis that farmers take erosion into account in their farming decisions and switch to farming practices with lower erosion risk the higher the site-specific hazard becomes. Erosion since the last tillage was observed from aerial orthorectified photographs for 8100 fields belonging to 1879 farmers distributed across Bavaria (South Germany) and it was modeled by the Universal Soil Loss Equation using highly detailed input data (e.g., digital terrain model with 5×5m(2) resolution, rain data with 1×1km(2) and 5min resolution, crop and cropping method from annual field-specific data from incentive schemes). Observed and predicted soil loss correlated closely, demonstrating the accuracy of this method. The close correlation also indicted that the farmers could easily observe the degree of recent erosion on their fields, even without modelling. Farmers clearly did not consider erosion in their decisions. When natural risk increased, e.g. due to steeper slopes, they neither grew crops with lower erosion potential, nor reduced field size, nor used contouring. In addition, they did not compensate for the cultivation of crops with higher erosion potential by using conservation techniques like mulch tillage or contouring, or by reducing field size. Only subsidized measures, like mulch tillage or organic farming, were applied but only at the absolute minimum that was necessary to obtain subsidies. However, this did not achieve the reduction in erosion that would be possible if these measures had been fully applied. We conclude that subsidies may be an appropriate method of reducing erosion but the present weak supervision, which assumes that farmers themselves will take erosion into account and that subsidies are only needed to compensate for any disadvantages caused by erosion-reducing measures, is clearly not justified. Copyright © 2017

  17. A farm-scale framework for assessing vineyard soil fertility and restoration practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Leclercq, Léa

    2015-04-01

    The design of sustainable vineyard management is needed at varied scales and particularly at farm-scale. More and more winegrowers wish to adopt environmental-friendly practices while better controlling harvest composition. This leads to question complex issues with regard to sustainability of winegrowing agroecosystem and the adoption of new soil and vineyard management practices that are likely to favour a long-term preservation of quality production together with soil ecosystem functions. This study aims at elaborating a multivariate approach framework for vineyard soil fertility assessment over a 6 ha-farm planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley. In a previous study carried out at the regional scale, soil landscape and potential terroir units had been characterized. A new field survey comprising ~20 soil pits, physico-chemical analyses for all soil profile horizons, and a series of additional soil surface samples analyzed for several parameters including soil organic carbon, calcium carbonate, copper and the major mineral nutrients, is here carried out. Along with soil parameters and soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing are collected. Very high resolution multispectral satellite data and resistivity EMI data are acquired and processed in order to characterize spatial variations in both physiological responses, soil surface conditions, soil depth and/or the presence of coarse elements. Multi-temporal historical aerial photographs are used in order to complement farmer's surveys regarding past management practices. The farm is characterized by a diversity of soils including Red Mediterranean soils (chromic luvisols), colluvic calcisols, arenosols, fluvisols, and regosols, which develop from top to slope then bottom of a Neogene molassic and conglomeratic plateau. Soil management past practices are marked by the absence of chemical/organic manuring

  18. Exertional Heat Illnesses and Environmental Conditions During High School Football Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Brady L; Eberman, Lindsey E; Smith, Michael Seth

    2015-10-01

    Guidelines for preventing exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) during extreme heat stress should be specific to regional environments, age, and sport and should be based on evidence of reducing the risk. Each year in the United States, over 1 million high school football players practice in the August heat; however, no published data describe the incidence of EHIs in these athletes. To describe the environmental conditions and incidence of EHIs during high school football practices over a 3-month period. Descriptive epidemiology study. For a 3-month period (August-October), athletic trainers at 12 high schools in North Central Florida recorded the practice time and length, environmental conditions (wet-bulb globe temperature), and incidences of EHIs in varsity football athletes. Athletes suffered 57 total EHIs during 29,759 athlete-exposures (AEs) for the 3-month data collection period (rate = 1.92/1000 AEs). August accounted for the majority of all EHIs, with 82.5% (47/57) and the highest rate (4.35/1000 AEs). Of total heat illnesses, heat cramps accounted for 70.2% (40/57), heat exhaustion 22.8% (13/57), and heat syncope 7.0% (4/57). The odds ratio indicated that athletes in August practices that lasted longer than the recommended 3 hours were 9.84 times more likely to suffer a heat illness than those in practices lasting ≤3 hours. The highest rate of EHIs was during August. Practices in August that exceeded the recommended 3 hours were associated with a greater risk of heat illnesses. The overall rate of EHIs was lower for the high school football athletes observed in the study compared with that reported for collegiate football athletes in the region. The low rates of EHIs recorded suggest that the prevention guidelines employed by sports medicine teams are appropriate for the region and population. Team physicians and athletic trainers should employ evidence-based, region- and population-specific EHI prevention guidelines. Sports medicine teams, coaches, and

  19. The association between handwashing practices and illness symptoms among college students living in a university dormitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumma, Jyothi; Aiello, Allison E; Foxman, Betsy

    2009-02-01

    We describe handwashing practices, the association of handwashing with upper respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, and the effects of gender on handwashing practices among male (n = 215) and female (n = 243) college students. Self-reported frequency of handwashing was not associated with infectious illness symptom reporting. Only a small proportion of males (10%) and females (7%) reported "always" washing their hands before eating. Females were more likely than males to always wash their hands after urinating (69% vs 43%; P < .0001) and after a bowel movement (84% vs 78%; P = .14). Identifying new strategies to increase handwashing may help prevent infectious disease transmission in residence hall environments.

  20. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: a Simulation Study in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Marie Godde

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage and residue management in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model’s outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66%, 18% and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (Queensland on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils

  1. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godde, Cécile M; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Meier, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model's outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and climates in

  2. Care farms in the Netherlands: Attractive empowerment-oriented and strengths-based practices in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.; Elings, M.; Zweekhorst, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, van den N.; Smit, A.

    2010-01-01

    Empowerment-oriented and strengths-based practices focusing on community integration have gained recognition for various client groups in recent decades. This paper discusses whether care farms in the Netherlands are relevant examples of such practices. We identify characteristics associated with

  3. Care farms in the Netherlands: Attractive empowerment-oriented and strengths-based practices in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.; Elings, M.; Zweekhorst, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, van den N.; Smit, A.

    2010-01-01

    Empowerment-oriented and strengths-based practices focusing on community integration have gained recognition for various client groups in recent decades. This paper discusses whether care farms in the Netherlands are relevant examples of such practices. We identify characteristics associated with ca

  4. Illness as unhomelike being-in-the-world? Phenomenology and medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlzén, Rolf

    2011-08-01

    Scientific medicine has been successful by ways of an ever more detailed understanding and mastering of bodily functions and dysfunctions. Biomedical research promises new triumphs, but discontent with medical practice is all around. Since several decades this has been acknowledged and discussed. The philosophical traditions of phenomenology and hermeneutics have been proposed as promising ways to approach medical practice, by ways of a richer understanding of the meaning structures of health and illness. In 2000, Swedish philosopher Fredrik Svenaeus published a book where he proposes that the phenomenological hermeneutics of Martin Heidegger and also the reflections on health and illness of Hans-Georg Gadamer offer important ways to approach the nature of medicine. In particular, Svenaeus argues that the goal of medicine is to promote and restore health, and that health ought to be seen as "homelike being-in-the-world". Unhealth, illness, consequently should be understood as a situation where a person's "being-in-the-world" in characterized by that lack of the rhythm, balance and "tune" of everyday living that characterizes not "being at home". In this article, Svenaeus' position is briefly outlined. Questions are raised whether "unhomelikeness" is to be seen as a metaphor, and, if so, if it is a fruitful such. Furthermore, I discuss whether or not a discourse on health and illness in these terms may be misleading in a situation where the ontological presuppositions of Heidegger are lost out of sight and the popular understanding of health psychology predominates. I also approach the question whether Svenaeus' assumptions may inadvertently lead us to an unjustifiably broad understanding of the tasks of medicine. It is finally concluded that Svenaeus phenomenological and hermeneutical approach is both interesting and promising. There are, however, several questions that ought to be pursued further, and the step from philosophical analysis to everyday clinical

  5. The Prospect of Horticultural Organic Farming as Sustainable Agricultural Practice for Reducing Poverty: The Case in Bengkulu City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Adiprasetyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is still an insistent problem which when confronted by humanity requires a systemic, comprehensive and synchronized approach to alleviate it.  The concentration of urban and rural poverty in developing countries underpins the importance of agriculture as a poverty reduction strategy since most of the poor people depend on agriculture.  Thus, improving agricultural productivity, competitiveness and sustainability may reduce poverty.   This study was intended to (1 find out if sustainable agriculture, i.e., horticultural organic farming practices, could contribute to poverty reduction, (2 identify restrictive factors affecting horticulture organic farming development, and (3 formulate alternative policy intervention for poverty alleviation based on development of organic farming.   The respondents were selected using purposive sampling method, comprising of 22 self-claimed horticultural organic farmers and 22 horticultural conventional farmers.  The data were gathered through a structured-questionnaire and in-depth interview.   Descriptive statistics, prospective analyses and analytical hierarchy process were used to analyze the data.  The results showed that organic farming practices have potential to increase income of the horticultural farmers.  Factors that constrained the development of horticultural organic farming were limited knowledge of organic practices, access to market, financial and risk management services or support.  Alternative policy interventions, such as developing a linkage between producers and consumers, strengthening research and development on organic farming, enhancing dissemination knowledge of organic farming practices, and providing access to financial and agriculture management, are proposed.

  6. The Practices of Contract Farming Among Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Suppliers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norsida Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Contract Farming (CF concept is an agreement between buyers and producers, where by producers agree to produce and supply agriculture products according to the agreed quantity, quality, variety, grade, type of packaging and time of delivery. The two parties will mutually agree on the pricing of product, either on a contract price or a market price. Therefore, CF is seen as a tool for fostering smallholder participation in new high-value product markets and improving quality standards, thus increasing and stabilizing smallholder incomes. In Malaysia, CF has been identified as a system capable of stimulating agricultural production and was given a central role in the latest strategy by government to improve the vegetable and fruit production. Approach: The overall objective of this study was to examine CF as the new marketing practice among selected vegetable and fruit suppliers. The specific objectives of the study were: (1 to examine the respondents perception towards CF; (2 to identify respondents practices toward the CF and (3 to suggest a policy to ensure the sustainability of CF. Results: Out of 208 of the total respondents selected in the study, 41 suppliers were involved in CF. The data were analyzed using SPSS to describe the respondents profile and current supply chain practices. At present, the suppliers have a contract agreement with Federal Agriculture Marketing Authority (FAMA and FAMA has a contract agreement with Hypermarkets. It is presumed that there is a new supply chain network but the contract was not according to the FAO definition. The production and marketing contracts exist in non-formal or mainly verbal agreement. The production contract respondents also did not follow the criteria of CF. Conclusion: Because of this, all the non-formal production contracts in this survey are categorized into marketing contracts. This study concludes with the absence of proper farming contract between farmers and

  7. Knowledge, attitude and social distance practices of young undergraduates towards mental illness in India: A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shruti, Aggarwal; Singh, Shalini; Kataria, Dinesh

    2016-10-01

    The success of the current model of psychiatric care depends on de-stigmatization of mental illnesses, highlighting the need for research on perception of mental illnesses. This study compared the knowledge, attitude and social distancing practices of the young undergraduate sub-population towards mental illness. A cross-sectional survey was done using a pretested questionnaire, which in addition to demographic details assessed exposure, knowledge, attitude and social distancing practices for mental illnesses. The study included (N=289; 55% Females; Average age 20.5 years) responses from nearly equal number of students from medical, psychology and other courses. Medical students chiefly attributed mental illness to biological factors while students from other courses perceived mental illness as God's punishment. More medical students believed that mental illnesses can be successfully treated and appeared to have less social distancing from the mentally ill. Males mostly reported stress and brain damage as the causative factors while females attributed mental illnesses to other biological factors. Males were found to be less afraid of a communication with mentally ill and more open to the possibility of marriage with someone suffering from a mental illness. Exposure to information about mental illness led to no significant variation in the studied variables. Thus, demographic variables and the academic course contribute to variations in knowledge and attitude of young adults. Education received by medical students has a positive impact on their attitudes, highlighting the need of introduction of informative awareness measures among other courses as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CURRENT AFFORESTATION PRACTICE AND EXPECTED TRENDS ON FAMILY FARMS IN WEST HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan ANDRASEVITS

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the National Forest Strategy and National Development Plan in Hungary is to increase the ratio of forest cover from the current level of 19,7% to 26-28%. This means planting 700,000 ha of new forest plantation in Hungary between now and 2035. Around 90% of the afforestation1 will occur on private land. So the simultaneous improvement of farming and forestry is critical. Our survey sought to capture the current situation in western Hungary. Our aim was to research the possibilities for complimentary development of agriculture and forestry on family owned farms. Relatedly, we wanted to know about the motivations of farmers regarding afforestation. We established that forestry does not have a favorable effect on the labour effi ciency of agriculture and does not reduce the seasonality of agriculture. Most of the farmers consider afforestation could be a good investment or a potential source of better profi t. However, the level of support available is what mainly motivates willingness to plant tree crops. They believe that the government should compensate short-term profi t loss (due to land set aside for tree crops with longer-term subsidies (according to established EU support practices

  9. The 3D elevation program - Precision agriculture and other farm practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2016-12-27

    The agriculture industry, including farmers who rely on advanced technologies, increasingly use light detection and ranging (lidar) data for crop management to enhance agricultural productivity. Annually, the combination of greater yields and reduced crop losses is estimated to increase revenue by \\$2 billion for America's farmers when terrain data derived from lidar are available for croplands. Additionally, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) estimates that the value of improved services for farmers, through its farm assistance program, would be \\$79 million annually if lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) are made available to the public.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey provides the programmatic infrastructure to generate and supply superior, lidar-derived terrain data to the agriculture industry, which would allow farms to refine agricultural practices and produce crops more efficiently. By providing data to users, 3DEP reduces users’ costs and risks, allowing them to concentrate on mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards and specifications, and (4) most importantly, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data.

  10. A survey of biosecurity-related practices, opinions and communications across dairy farm veterinarians and advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, R G; Good, M; Sayers, G P

    2014-05-01

    Biosecurity at farm-level can often be poorly implemented, and lack of information has been cited by many studies as a potential explanation. Veterinary practitioners (VPs) and dairy advisors (DAs) play a central role in the provision of animal health and management services to dairy farmers. The objective of this study was to document and compare biosecurity-related practices and opinions across VPs and DAs in Ireland. A selection of veterinary experts (VEs) from outside of Ireland was also surveyed. Questionnaires were completed and response rates of 47% (VPs), 97% (DAs), and 65% (VEs) were achieved. Significant differences were identified in the promotion and implementation of biosecurity between VPs and DAs, with a higher proportion of VPs regularly receiving requests from (P = 0.004), and dispensing advice to (P biosecurity implementation, the majority of VPs (62%) prioritised external factors such as 'economic benefit' and 'mandatory obligation', while the majority of DAs prioritised health/animal-related factors (69%), which were similar to those of farmers (83.1%), although they remained significantly less likely (OR = 1.8) than farmers to choose such motivators (P = 0.005). Inconsistencies in the implementation of, and in opinions relating to, farm biosecurity were highlighted across all the groups surveyed emphasising the need for standardised information and improved communication.

  11. Prevention of losses for hog farmers in China: insurance, on-farm biosecurity practices, and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-hua; Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chen, Kevin Z

    2013-10-01

    Using agricultural household survey data and claim records from insurers in China, this paper analyzes hog producers' choice of the ways to prevent possible losses and identifies the relationships among biosecurity practices, vaccination, and hog insurance. By combining one probit and two structural equations, we adopt three-stage estimations by a mixed-process model to obtain results. The findings indicate that biosecurity practices provide the basic infrastructure for operating pig farms and complement both the usage of quality vaccines and the uptake of hog insurance. In addition, there is a strong substitution relationship between the quality of vaccine and the demand for hog insurance. Hog farmers that implement better biosecurity practices are more likely to seek high-quality vaccines or buy into hog insurance schemes, but not both. For those households with hog insurance, better biosecurity status, better management practices, and higher-quality vaccines significantly help to reduce loss ratios. However, we also find a moral hazard effect in that higher premium expenditures by the insured households might induce larger loss ratios.

  12. Checklist for early recognition and treatment of acute illness: International collaboration to improve critical care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukoja, Marija; Kashyap, Rahul; Gavrilovic, Srdjan; Dong, Yue; Kilickaya, Oguz; Gajic, Ognjen

    2015-02-04

    Processes to ensure world-wide best-practice for critical care delivery are likely to minimize preventable death, disability and costly complications for any healthcare system's sickest patients, but no large-scale efforts have so far been undertaken towards these goals. The advances in medical informatics and human factors engineering have provided possibility for novel and user-friendly clinical decision support tools that can be applied in a complex and busy hospital setting. To facilitate timely and accurate best-practice delivery in critically ill patients international group of intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and researchers developed a simple decision support tool: Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN). The tool has been refined and tested in high fidelity simulated clinical environment and has been shown to improve performance of clinical providers faced with simulated emergencies. The aim of this international educational intervention is to implement CERTAIN into clinical practice in hospital settings with variable resources (included those in low income countries) and evaluate the impact of the tool on the care processes and patient outcomes. To accomplish our aims, CERTAIN will be uniformly available on either mobile or fixed computing devices (as well as a backup paper version) and applied in a standardized manner in the ICUs of diverse hospitals. To ensure the effectiveness of the proposed intervention, access to CERTAIN is coupled with structured training of bedside ICU providers.

  13. Clinical assessment of depression in terminally ill cancer patients: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessin, Hayley; Olden, Megan; Jacobson, Colleen; Kosinski, Anne

    2005-12-01

    Depression is commonly experienced by cancer patients at the end of life. The identification of patients suffering from depression is essential to provide clinicians with an opportunity to relieve considerable suffering. However, the assessment of depressive symptoms is complex and often challenging in a terminally ill cancer population. This article offers practical guidelines to assist clinicians with the diagnosis of depression, reviews the defining symptoms of depression and their unique presentation in patients at the end of life, suggests modifications of the standard diagnostic interview, and provides examples of specific assessment questions to target depressive symptoms at the end of life.

  14. Monte Carlo simulations: maximizing antibiotic pharmacokinetic data to optimize clinical practice for critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason A; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2011-02-01

    Infections in critically ill patients continue to result in unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. Although few data exist for correlating antibiotic exposure with outcome, antibiotic dosing is likely to be highly important for maximizing resolution of infection in many patients. The practical and financial difficulties of performing pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in critically ill patients mean that analyses to maximize data such as Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) are highly valuable. MCS uses computer software to perform virtual clinical trials. The building blocks for MCS are: firstly, a robust population PK model from the patient population of interest; secondly, descriptors of the effect of covariates that influence the PK parameters; thirdly, description of the susceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic and finally a PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) target associated with antibiotic efficacy. Probability of target attainment (PTA) outputs can then be generated that describe the proportion of patients that will achieve a pre-specified PD target for an MIC distribution. Such analyses can then inform dosing requirements, which can be used to have a high likelihood of achieving PK/PD targets for organisms with different MICs. In this issue of JAC, Zelenitsky et al. provide a very useful example of MCS for interpreting the optimal methods for dosing meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefepime and ceftobiprole in critically ill patients.

  15. The Link Between Mental Illness and Firearm Violence: Implications for Social Policy and Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozel, John S; Mulvey, Edward P

    2017-03-30

    The United States has substantially higher levels of firearm violence than most other developed countries. Firearm violence is a significant and preventable public health crisis. Mental illness is a weak risk factor for violence despite popular misconceptions reflected in the media and policy. That said, mental health professionals play a critical role in assessing their patients for violence risk, counseling about firearm safety, and guiding the creation of rational and evidence-based public policy that can be effective in mitigating violence risk without unnecessarily stigmatizing people with mental illness. This article summarizes existing evidence about the interplay among mental illness, violence, and firearms, with particular attention paid to the role of active symptoms, addiction, victimization, and psychosocial risk factors. The social and legal context of firearm ownership is discussed as a preface to exploring practical, evidence-driven, and behaviorally informed policy recommendations for mitigating firearm violence risk. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 13 is May 7, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  16. The Impact of Values Concerning Nature on Practice and Knowledge in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Pernille

    1997-01-01

    that the view of nature influence practise: The focus of the organic farmers on environmental concerns, product quality concerns, earth-fertility concerns, utilitarian ethics or bioethics means different practical choices. Four paradigms of knowledge related to organic farming has further more been identified......The paper presents and discuss results from my ph.d. thesis concerning environmental ethics as a concept of practise. The theoretical purpose has been to link the highly theoretical questions of environmental ethics as it exists as a philosophical enterprise with practise and to make environmental...... ethics as a concept of practise a relevant conceptualising of what guides professionals in action with nature (farmers, agrono-mists, engine-ers and the alike) when deciding which solution is pre-ferable regarding sustainabili-ty.The empirical work examines the explicit as well as the implicit expressed...

  17. EVALUATION OF FARMERS APPRECIATION IN REDUCING PESTICIDE BY ORGANIC FARMING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih Indraningsih

    2016-10-01

    practice may reduce pesticide residues in animal and agricultural products. Farmers appreciated that pesticides may cause residual effects on their products (95.2% and affected public health and environment (92.9%. Therefore, they were willing to convert their agricultural practices to organic farming (69.1%.

  18. Knowledge, illness perceptions and stated clinical practice behaviour in management of gout: a mixed methods study in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaetgens, Bart; Pustjens, Tobias; Scheepers, Lieke E J M; Janssens, Hein J E M; van der Linden, Sjef; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to explore knowledge, illness perceptions and stated practice behaviour in relation to gout in primary care. This is a mixed methods study among 32 general practitioners (GPs). The quantitative assessment included the Gout Knowledge Questionnaire (GKQ; range 0-10; better) and Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (BIPQ; nine items, range 0-10; stronger). Structured individual interviews obtained further qualitative insight into knowledge and perceptions, in the context of daily practice. Among 32 GPs, 18 (56.3 %) were male, mean age 44.4 years (SD 9.6) and mean working experience 17.1 years (SD 9.7). Median score [interquartile ranges (IQR)] on the GKQ was 7.8 [6.7-8.9] and 9.0 [8.0-10.0], when presented as open or multiple-choice questions, respectively. The BIPQ (median; [IQR]) revealed that gout was seen as a chronic disease (8.0; [7.0-9.0]), affecting life and emotions moderately (6.5; [5.0-7.0]), having many severe symptoms (8.0; [7.0-9.0]) and in which treatment could be very helpful (8.0; [7.0-9.0]). Further interviews revealed large variation in specific aspects of knowledge and about gaps concerning indications for uric acid-lowering therapy (UALT), duration of UALT, target serum uric acid (sUA) level or duration of prophylactic treatment. Finally, patients' adherence was not checked systematically. Specific knowledge gaps and discrepancies between perceptions and stated practice behaviour were identified, which might hamper effective management of this well-treatable disease. Improving evidence on the rationale and effectiveness of treatment targets and adherence interventions, tailoring guidelines to general practice and intensification of implementation of guidelines in primary health care seem to be needed.

  19. School farming and school feeding in Nakuru town, Kenya : practice and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Owuor, S.O.; Mwangi, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Most research on urban agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa has concentrated on farming by individual urban households, while farming by urban institutions has been largely overlooked. Probably the most prevalent and important type of institutional urban agriculture is school farming, the focus of this

  20. The association between farming activities, precipitation, and the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness in rural municipalities of Quebec, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing livestock density and animal manure spreading, along with climate factors such as heavy rainfall, may increase the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI. In this study we evaluated the association between farming activities, precipitation and AGI. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected residents (n = 7006 of 54 rural municipalities in Quebec, Canada, was conducted between April 2007 and April 2008. AGI symptoms and several risk factors were investigated using a phone questionnaire. We calculated the monthly prevalence of AGI, and used multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for several demographic and risk factors, to evaluate the associations between AGI and both intensive farming activities and cumulative weekly precipitation. Cumulative precipitation over each week, from the first to sixth week prior to the onset of AGI, was analyzed to account for both the delayed effect of precipitation on AGI, and the incubation period of causal pathogens. Cumulative precipitation was treated as a four-category variable: high (≥90th percentile, moderate (50th to th percentile, low (10th to th percentile, and very low (th percentile precipitation. Results The overall monthly prevalence of AGI was 5.6% (95% CI 5.0%-6.1%, peaking in winter and spring, and in children 0-4 years old. Living in a territory with intensive farming was negatively associated with AGI: adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.51-0.96. Compared to low precipitation periods, high precipitation periods in the fall (September, October, November increased the risk of AGI three weeks later (OR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.44 while very low precipitation periods in the summer (June, July, August increased the risk of AGI four weeks later (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.02-4.71. Further analysis supports the role of water source on the risk of AGI. Conclusions AGI poses a significant burden in Quebec rural municipalities with a peak in winter

  1. BELIEFS AND PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS REGARDING DIET DURING CHILDHOOD ILLNESS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, VISAKHAPATNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi

    2015-10-01

    illness is very much needed in the community. There is also a need for educating the physicians and other health care workers about food concepts and feeding practices during health and diseases, so that they can educate the mothers when they bring child for treatment.

  2. A survey on biosecurity and management practices in selected Belgian cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Steven; Cay, Ann Brigitte; Laureyns, Jozef; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2014-11-01

    The shift from cure towards prevention in veterinary medicine involves the implementation of biosecurity, which includes all measures preventing pathogens from entering a herd and reducing the spread of pathogens within a herd. In Belgium no studies have considered the implementation of biosecurity measures in the daily management of cattle farms. Therefore the aim of the study was to map the current application of biosecurity measures in Belgian cattle farms in the prevention of disease transmission within and between farms. Between March 2011 and April 2013 the data were collected as part of a larger cross-sectional study, conducted to identify risk factors for reinfection with BVDV in cattle herds assumed free from BVDV. Questionnaire data from 33 dairy farms, 16 beef farms and 25 mixed (dairy and beef cattle) farms were analyzed using a combination of a linear scoring system, a categorical principal component analysis and a two-step cluster analysis to differentiate these farms based on their biosecurity levels and visit frequencies. Further enhancement of preventive measures considering external and internal biosecurity was still possible for each farm, as none of the farms obtained an overall high biosecurity level. Three groups of cattle farms were differentiated with a biosecurity level varying from low to high-medium, of which the group with the lowest biosecurity level mainly consisted of mixed farms. Animal-to-animal contacts with cattle from other herds were frequently possible as only 12% of the farmers purchasing cattle quarantined purchased animals at least three weeks and contacts over fences on pasture were possible in 70% of the herds. Basic biosecurity measures such as farm-specific protective clothing and boots were present in the majority of the farms, but they were insufficiently or incorrectly used. Cattle farms were very often visited by professional visitors of which the herd veterinarian, the AI technician and the cattle salesman most

  3. Connecting the cycles: impact of farming practices, Carbon and nutrient erosion on GHG emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    balance of soil erosion on agricultural land are identified. A first analysis of the data available on a full account of erosion-related emissions is presented. Apart from identifying a potentially significant source of GHG emissions associated with soil erosion that has not been considered for impact assessment so far, the study also shows that separating emission accounting between the industry producing the fertilizer and the agricultural sector, i.e. the grey emissions associated with farming, does not reflect the actual mechanism between erosion, farming practices and emissions.

  4. Optimizing chocolate production through traceability: A review of the influence of farming practices on cocoa bean quality

    OpenAIRE

    Saltini, Rolando; Akkerman, Renzo; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent developments in traceability systems, it is now possible to exchange significant amounts of data through food supply chains. Farming practices applied by cocoa farmers at the beginning of the chocolate supply chain strongly influence several quality parameters of the finished chocolate. However, information regarding these practices does not normally reach the chocolate manufacturer. As a consequence, many specifications of the raw material cannot be taken into consideration in ...

  5. Information exchange networks for chronic illness care in primary care practices: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koetsenruiter Jan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information exchange networks for chronic illness care may influence the uptake of innovations in patient care. Valid and feasible methods are needed to document and analyse information exchange networks in healthcare settings. This observational study aimed to examine the usefulness of methods to study information exchange networks in primary care practices, related to chronic heart failure, diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods The study was linked to a quality improvement project in the Netherlands. All health professionals in the practices were asked to complete a short questionnaire that documented their information exchange relations. Feasibility was determined in terms of response rates and reliability in terms of reciprocity of reports of receiving and providing information. For each practice, a number of network characteristics were derived for each of the chronic conditions. Results Ten of the 21 practices in the quality improvement project agreed to participate in this network study. The response rates were high in all but one of the participating practices. For the analysis, we used data from 67 health professionals from eight practices. The agreement between receiving and providing information was, on average, 65.6%. The values for density, centralization, hierarchy, and overlap of the information exchange networks showed substantial variation between the practices as well as between the chronic conditions. The most central individual in the information exchange network could be a nurse or a physician. Conclusions Further research is needed to refine the measure of information networks and to test the impact of network characteristics on the uptake of innovations.

  6. Survey of management practices on reproductive performance of dairy cattle on large US commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraviello, D Z; Weigel, K A; Fricke, P M; Wiltbank, M C; Florent, M J; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V; Zwald, N R; Rawson, C L

    2006-12-01

    A survey regarding general management, sire selection, reproductive management, inseminator training and technique, heat abatement, body condition scoring, facility design and grouping, nutrition, employee training and management, and animal health and bio-security was carried out from March to September of 2004 in 153 herds in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program. A total of 103 herds (67.3%) completed the survey. Herd size was 613 +/- 46 cows, with herds located in Wisconsin (26), California (12), New York (11), Minnesota (10), Michigan (7), Washington (6), Pennsylvania (6), Iowa (5), Idaho (5), Texas (4), Ohio (4), and other states (7). These farms sold 34.5 +/- 0.3 kg of milk/d per cow, with an annual culling rate of 34 +/- 1% and a calving interval of 13.8 +/- 0.1 mo. Cows were observed for estrus 2.8 +/- 0.3 times/d, for a duration of 27 +/- 4 min, but 78% of the respondents admitted that detection of estrus was not the employee's sole responsibility at that time. Managers tried to achieve pregnancy until 8.8 +/- 0.9 failed inseminations, 300 +/- 26 d postpartum, or milk yield cows were culled at 326 +/- 36 d postpartum or milk yield cows, respectively. Hormonal synchronization or timed artificial insemination programs were used in 87% of the herds, with 86% synchronizing first services, 77% resynchronizing repeat services, and 59% treating cystic, anestrous, or anovular cows. Finding good employees was identified as the greatest labor challenge, followed by training and supervising employees. Mastitis and hairy heel warts were noted as the greatest animal health concerns, followed by lameness, abortions, and death losses, whereas the greatest reproductive challenges were artificial insemination service rate, conception rate, twinning, and retained placenta or metritis. Results of this study can provide a useful benchmark or reference with regard to commonly used management practices on large commercial US dairy farms at the

  7. Current strategies in the farm practices and post-harvest pesticidal defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Molinari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, people often talk about biologic agriculture and Integrated Production (IP, even if the real meaning of these terms is altered. In both cases, they deal with production methods characterized by a particular attention to the reduction of the environmental impact of all the farm practices used, especially for defence from adversities, being the element of major concern for environment and consumers’ health.Farm practice evolution, especially those about pest defence, is based on important conceptual change, accurate scientific analysis and organization of technical assistance, rationalization of agri-pharmaceutical product use is one of the main objective of Integrated Production Specifications (IPS. The quantitative reduction is the first objective, obtained by various means such as the use of efficient equipment and the qualitative selection based on the priority use of minor impact means, effectiveness being equal. At post-harvest, the anti-parasitary defence is undergoing deep changes in our country. Once, pesticides very toxic and persistent were used; however, in the last years the availability of active principles (a.p. usable on foodstuffs or in productive environments; for instance, methyl bromide use has been progressively reduced till its banishment because it is recognized to damage the ozone layer. Thus, on the whole we can talk about “integrated pest management” even for the post-harvest sector. However, substantial differences exist between agriculture and post-harvest, thus the integrated pest management in food production environment has to be designed in a different way. The fundamental element of this technique is to identify a tolerance threshold to pest attack but for the defence of food industries and stored foodstuffs is very difficult, if not impossible, to fix a limit to insect presence after which intervening is compulsory. Monitoring of pest attacks and the implementation of prevention practices is

  8. Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) occurrence and infestation behaviour as influenced by farm type, cropping systems and soil management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabi, Samuel; Karungi, Jeninah; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    into the trend. A biological monitoring study that covered 150 pineapple farms was conducted in 2012 and 2013. Farms were categorised under organic and conventional systems. Mealybug population densities (mealybugs/plant) were recorded in relation to seed bed types, cropping system and soil management practices...... environment for mealybug multiplication than flat beds. Use of coffee husks as a soil fertility amendment promoted mealybug population build up (83.8) whereas fallowing had a reducing effect (22.7). More in-depth studies on the role of soil moisture and soil cover in mealybug population build-up in pineapples...

  9. Optimizing chocolate production through traceability: A review of the influence of farming practices on cocoa bean quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltini, Rolando; Akkerman, Renzo; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent developments in traceability systems, it is now possible to exchange significant amounts of data through food supply chains. Farming practices applied by cocoa farmers at the beginning of the chocolate supply chain strongly influence several quality parameters of the finished...... chocolate. However, information regarding these practices does not normally reach the chocolate manufacturer. As a consequence, many specifications of the raw material cannot be taken into consideration in the operational decision making processes related to chocolate production. In recent years many...... studies have been investigating the influence of certain farming practices on cocoa beans and the subsequent chocolate quality parameters. However, no comprehensive analysis of the process variables in the chain and their effects on the quality can be found. In this paper we review and classify...

  10. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Nordquist

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum, or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  11. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute altitude illness: 2014 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luks, Andrew M; McIntosh, Scott E; Grissom, Colin K; Auerbach, Paul S; Rodway, George W; Schoene, Robert B; Zafren, Ken; Hackett, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema, and high altitude pulmonary edema. These guidelines present the main prophylactic and therapeutic modalities for each disorder and provide recommendations about their role in disease management. Recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested approaches to prevention and management of each disorder that incorporate these recommendations. This is an updated version of the original WMS Consensus Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Acute Altitude Illness published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2010;21(2):146-155. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Farm, household, and farmer characteristics associated with changes in management practices and technology adoption among dairy smallholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Ugoretz, Sarah Janes; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Wattiaux, Michel André

    2015-02-01

    This study explored whether technology adoption and changes in management practices were associated with farm structure, household, and farmer characteristics and to identify processes that may foster productivity and sustainability of small-scale dairy farming in the central highlands of Mexico. Factor analysis of survey data from 44 smallholders identified three factors-related to farm size, farmer's engagement, and household structure-that explained 70 % of cumulative variance. The subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis yielded three clusters. Cluster 1 included the most senior farmers with fewest years of education but greatest years of experience. Cluster 2 included farmers who reported access to extension, cooperative services, and more management changes. Cluster 2 obtained 25 and 35 % more milk than farmers in clusters 1 and 3, respectively. Cluster 3 included the youngest farmers, with most years of education and greatest availability of family labor. Access to a network and membership in a community of peers appeared as important contributors to success. Smallholders gravitated towards easy to implement technologies that have immediate benefits. Nonusers of high investment technologies found them unaffordable because of cost, insufficient farm size, and lack of knowledge or reliable electricity. Multivariate analysis may be a useful tool in planning extension activities and organizing channels of communication to effectively target farmers with varying needs, constraints, and motivations for change and in identifying farmers who may exemplify models of change for others who manage farms that are structurally similar but performing at a lower level.

  13. Effect of the food production chain from farm practices to vegetable processing on outbreak incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yangjin; Jang, Hyein; Matthews, Karl R

    2014-11-01

    The popularity in the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut vegetables continues to increase globally. Fresh vegetables are an integral part of a healthy diet, providing vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other health-promoting compounds. The diversity of fresh vegetables and packaging formats (spring mix in clamshell container, bagged heads of lettuce) support increased consumption. Unfortunately, vegetable production and processing practices are not sufficient to ensure complete microbial safety. This review highlights a few specific areas that require greater attention and research. Selected outbreaks are presented to emphasize the need for science-based 'best practices'. Laboratory and field studies have focused on inactivation of pathogens associated with manure in liquid, slurry or solid forms. As production practices change, other forms and types of soil amendments are being used more prevalently. Information regarding the microbial safety of fish emulsion and pellet form of manure is limited. The topic of global climate change is controversial, but the potential effect on agriculture cannot be ignored. Changes in temperature, precipitation, humidity and wind can impact crops and the microorganisms that are associated with production environments. Climate change could potentially enhance the ability of pathogens to survive and persist in soil, water and crops, increasing human health risks. Limited research has focused on the prevalence and behaviour of viruses in pre and post-harvest environments and on vegetable commodities. Globally, viruses are a major cause of foodborne illnesses, but are seldom tested for in soil, soil amendments, manure and crops. Greater attention must also be given to the improvement in the microbial quality of seeds used in sprout production. Human pathogens associated with seeds can result in contamination of sprouts intended for human consumption, even when all appropriate 'best practices' are used by sprout growers. © 2014 The

  14. Evaluation of health promotion programmes in severe mental illness: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hasselt, Fenneke M; Krabbe, Paul F M; Postma, Maarten J; Loonen, Anton J M

    2015-03-01

    Health promotion programmes for patients with severe mental illness (HPP) are not uniformly evaluated. We discuss the evaluation of HPP in theory and practice, as a prerequisite for future uniform evaluation. We explored the expected outcome and mechanism of HPP in the current literature. Based on this theoretical exploration we selected measures assessing the expected outcome and mechanism in current practice. The individual properties of these measures were described. Based on our theoretical exploration the outcome of HPP can be expressed in several aspects of health. Health can be improved through several mechanisms. In the current evaluation of HPP only some of the expected outcomes were evaluated. The measures used for evaluation were not all representative for the constructs they should assess. Important aspects of HPP are currently not evaluated, based on a comparison between our theoretical exploration of expected outcome and mechanism and current practice. Additionally, not all measures in use are suitable for evaluation of HPP. Therefore, development and identification of suitable measures is necessary. Our framework offers valuable directions for the development of such measures and the future evaluation of HPP.

  15. Ways of farming and ways of thinking: do farmers' mental models of the landscape relate to their land management practices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Vuillot

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy in mitigating the negative effects of agricultural intensification on the landscape and biodiversity is increasingly being questioned. Enhancing a reciprocal understanding of various stakeholders' mental models of agro-social-ecosystems has been proposed to trigger changes in both policy design and farmers' behaviors. However, the relationship between farmers' mental models and practices is rarely considered. Here, we explore the relationship between farmers' individual mental models (IMMs of the agricultural landscape and their land management practices. To do so, we developed a theoretical and methodological framework grounded in cognitive psychology and farming system research for eliciting and comparing IMMs and land management practices. We applied this framework in the Coteaux de Gascogne territory, a hilly crop-livestock region in southern France. We identified groups of farmers according to their cropland and semi-natural habitat management practices. The results of our quantitative and qualitative comparisons of mental models between farmer groups showed that the way of farming partly relates to farmers' ways of thinking about the landscape and highlighted the heterogeneity of IMMs between and within farmer groups. We found evidence that path-dependent factors that constrain farmers' practices can modify their mental models, e.g., the role of agricultural machinery. Our study illustrates how an interdisciplinary framework coupling mental models and farming systems approaches provides an opportunity to enhance our understanding of the relationships between farmers' world views and their practices. Moreover, our results challenge current ways of thinking and designing biodiversity conservation policies in farmed landscapes.

  16. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices about tight glycemic control in the critically ill among endocrinologists and intensivists practicing in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopichandran Vijayaprasad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tight glycemic control in the critically ill is known to reduce both the morbidity and the mortality. It is essential that intensivists and endocrinologists involved in the care of these patients have a good understanding of the concepts related to this condition. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices about achieving tight glycemic control in the critically ill among the endocrinologists and intensivists practicing in the city of Chennai. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing ten questions pertaining to clinical outcomes, drawbacks, target levels of glycemic control and insulin regimen in achieving tight glycemia in the critically ill were sent to a total of six endocrinologists and 52 intensivists practicing in Chennai. Results: All those who were administered the questionnaires responded. Majority of the responders (88% believed in tight glycemic control in the critically ill because of better outcomes from hospitalization. A minority did not for fear of hypoglycemia. Fifty percent agreed on the cut off value of 110 mg/dL as followed in the Van den Berghe study. Seventy percent used glucometer for monitoring sugar levels. Most preferred using regular insulin as infusion. Conclusions: There seems to be a good understanding and standard practices among the endocrinologists and intensivists in achieving strict glycemic control in the critically ill. Setting up of standard intensive care unit glycemic control protocols will settle all the methodological differences and make the practices more uniform.

  17. Practices and Factors Influencing the Use of Antibiotics in Selected Poultry Farms in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boamah, VE; Odoi, H; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    and to assess factors influencing farmers’ choice of antibiotics for use on their farms. A cross-sectional survey using questionnaires and semistructured interviews was conducted among 400 poultry farms in the Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo and Greater Accra regions of Ghana. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS...

  18. Shrimp Farming Practices in the Puttallam District of Sri Lanka: Implications for Disease Control, Industry Sustainability, and Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nalaka Munasinghe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming has great potential to diversify and secure income in rural Sri Lanka, but production has significantly declined in recent years due to civil conflicts, some unsustainable practices and devastating outbreaks of disease. We examined management practices affecting disease prevention and control in the Puttalam district to identify extension services outputs that could support sustainable development of Sri Lankan shrimp farming. A survey on 621 shrimp farms (603 operational and 18 nonoperational was conducted within the Puttalam district over 42 weeks comprising a series of three-day field visits from August 2008 to October 2009, covering two consecutive shrimp crops. Fundamental deficits in disease control, management, and biosecurity practices were found. Farmers had knowledge of biosecurity but the lack of financial resources was a major impediment to improved disease control. Smallholder farmers were disproportionately constrained in their ability to enact basic biosecurity practices due to their economic status. Basic breaches in biosecurity will keep disease as the rate limiting step in this industry. Plans to support this industry must recognize the socioeconomic reality of rural Sri Lankan aquaculture.

  19. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND TRADITIONAL PRACTICES: A CASE STUDY OF WELANIMAL PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEHRA BOZKURT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the Amsterdam Treaty, animals are sentient creatures and animal welfare requirements should be precisely met while preparing and implementing the Commission laws. Accomplishing this, cultural, religious and regional characteristics should be considered. However, more and more regulations and laws are continuously introduced in Europe and worldwide. Ongoing WELANIMAL Project was financed by EU Commission adapting of vocational training products and results of training tools of WELFOOD related to the animal welfareenvironment- food quality interactions is being enriched with consideration of cultural, socio-economic and religious approaches in order to determine a common work definition for all sectorial workers having different moral and social values on the subject of animal welfare and food safety Central and South-eastern Europe region. Although there is slight differences, national legislation in partner countries of EU in Project were harmonious with legal framework in EU regarding for all farm species. It is expected that three draft regulations in compliance with legal requirements animal protection in farms and during transportation and slaughtering and killing in Turkey, as a candidate country to membership into EU, in 2009. Also, due to in participating countries to the Project have ethnicity, history, tradition and religious structure show a great diversity it has been guessed that welfare concept which is a moral issue can be effected by people’s cultural, religious and social composition. In the WELANIMAL Project, the effects of socio-cultural, religious and regional historical differences of workers and consumers within animal production chain on understanding of animal welfare concepts are being analysed. Furthermore in the light of obtained data a common vocational animal welfare definition and animal welfare, food quality and environment interaction will be evaluated. Through the Project web page (www

  20. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness: 2014 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Grant S; Eifling, Kurt P; Ellis, Mark A; Gaudio, Flavio G; Otten, Edward M; Grissom, Colin K

    2014-12-01

    The Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the recognition, prevention, and treatment of heat illness. We present a review of the classifications, pathophysiology, and evidence-based guidelines for planning and preventive measures as well as best practice recommendations for both field and hospital-based therapeutic management of heat illness. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence, and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality. This is an updated version of the original WMS Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Heat-Related Illness published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2013;24(4):351-361. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Illness perception, diabetes knowledge and self-care practices among type-2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kugbey, Nuworza; Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Adulai, Korkor

    2017-01-01

    Background Self-care practices among persons living with type-2 diabetes are very crucial in diabetes manages as poor self-care results in complications. However, little research exists within the Ghanaian context. This study examined whether type-2 diabetes patients’ illness perception and diabetes knowledge significantly predict diabetes self-care practices. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was employed and a total of 160 participants (45 males and 115 females) were sampled from a ge...

  2. Wellness Self-Management: An Adaptation of the Illness Management and Recovery Practice in New York State

    OpenAIRE

    Salerno, Anthony; Margolies, Paul; Cleek, Andrew; Pollock, Michele; Gopalan, Geetha; Jackson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Wellness Self-Management (WSM) is a recovery-oriented, curriculum-based, and educationally focused practice designed to assist adults with serious mental health problems to make informed decisions and take action to manage symptoms effectively and improve their quality of life. WSM is an adaptation of the Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) model, a nationally recognized best practice for adults with serious mental health problems. WSM uses comprehensive personal workbooks for group facilit...

  3. Practices and Factors Influencing the Use of Antibiotics in Selected Poultry Farms in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boamah, VE; Odoi, H; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Many of the antibiotics employed in animal production also serve as essential medicines for use in humans. However, only a handful of studies address antibiotic use in animal husbandry in Ghana. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of essential antibiotics in poultry production in Ghana...... and to assess factors influencing farmers’ choice of antibiotics for use on their farms. A cross-sectional survey using questionnaires and semistructured interviews was conducted among 400 poultry farms in the Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo and Greater Accra regions of Ghana. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS...... and Microsoft Excel. Multivariate analyses were used to evaluate correlations between farm variables and the dependency of antibiotic use on internal and external farm characteristics. Farmers reported the use of 35 different antimicrobial agents for management of conditions such as Newcastle, fowl pox...

  4. Uses of glyphosate in German arable farming – aspects of weed management and arable practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiese, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Data on glyphosate use, personal attitudes and farm characteristics were collected in a Germany-wide inventory from 2026 farms. About 1700 farms could be analyzed in detail. Categories of glyphosate users were split into: non-users, low proportion users and high proportion users. The latter apply glyphosate on > 20% of their arable land are characterized by a high amount of non-inversion tillage, low labor effort and aboveaverage farm size. Perennial weeds play a less important role for glyphosate use than managing weed populations that are regarded as less susceptible to regular herbicides. Non-users and users of glyphosate differ in their attitude towards the benefits of glyphosate and the amount of glyphosate use in agriculture.

  5. Family Farming Practices in Taraba State Emodi, A.I. Albert, C.O. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. ... community. They include the father, mother, children, uncle and relatives carrying out farming as their ... Cultural functions include transmission of identity, religious values.

  6. Organic Farming in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C.R.; Heß, J

    1999-01-01

    During the present decade, Austria has experienced a dramatic increase in organic farming among those countries that comprise the European Union (EU). For example, in 1992, approximately 2,000 farms were practicing organic, ecological, or biodynamic farming methodes. By 1997 the number of certified organic farms plus those in transition from conventional farming had increased 10-fold to some 20,000 farms. This represents almost 9% of the total farms in Austria and an area of 345,375 ha, or 10...

  7. Knowledge systems in upland farming practices in the Philippines and implications for climate change adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Espaldon, Maria Victoria O.

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the importance of multiple knowledge systems on enhancing the adaptive capacity of farming communities in the Philippines. It discusses the epistemologies of knowledge that are pertinent to strengthen the resilience of small farmers and farming households, who are one of the most vulnerable groups in the event of climatic variabilities, climatic extremes and climate change. It also brings to the discussion the need for effective communication systems to disseminate the kn...

  8. Improving Farming Practices for Sustainable Soil Use in the Humid Tropics and Rainforest Ecosystem Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoel Gomes de Moura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable farming practices such as shifting cultivation and slash-and-burn agriculture in the humid tropics threaten the preservation of the rainforest and the health of the local and global environment. In weathered soils prone to cohesion in humid tropic due to low Fe and carbon content and the enormous amounts of P that can be adsorbed, sustainable soil use is heavily dependent on the availability and efficient use of nutrients. This paper reviews the literature in the field and provides some insights about sustainable soil use in the humid tropics, mainly for the Brazilian Amazonia region. Careful management of organic matter and physical and chemical indicators is necessary to enhance root growth and nutrient uptake. To improve the rootability of the arable layer, a combination of gypsum with continuous mulching to increase the labile organic matter fraction responsible for the formation of a short-lived structure important for root growth is recommended, rather than tillage. Unlike mulching, mechanical disturbance via ploughing of Amazonian soils causes very rapid and permanent soil organic matter losses and often results in permanent recompaction and land degradation or anthropic savannization; thus, it should be avoided. Unlike in other regions, like southeast Brazil, saturating the soil solely with inorganic potassium and nitrogen soluble fertilizers is not recommended. Nutrient retention in the root zone can be enhanced if nutrients are added in a slow-release form and if biologically mediated processes are used for nutrient release, as occurs in green manure. Therefore, an alternative that favors using local resources to increase the supply of nutrients and offset processes that impair the efficiency of nutrient use must be pursued.

  9. Agroedutourism and Ecopreneurship Activities on the Organic Farming Practice in Lawang, Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa’

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five farmer groups in Lawang, Malang Regency, East Java Provinces, established organic agricultural practices almost two decades. They were visited frequently for farmer benchmarking activities; therefore they had planned to develop agroedutourism. The aims of this research were to identify potential organic farming activities as agroedutourism attractions as well as farmer ecopreneurship, to find out the existing agroedutourism facilities profile and to propose some strategies for further sustainable development. The data were gathered by interviewing key person of each farmer group in Lawang. Their agroedutourism profiles compared with a developed local agro-tourism using gap analysis. Farmer groups offered some distinct attractions and become their strengths such as out door activities in the organic perfumed and pigmented rice field, fruits and vegetable garden, zero waste management, biological pest control and healthy agricultural products. Establishment of this agroedutourism would be advantageous to lesson sharing among farmers and students, to be ecopreneur activity shown by an effective market system, to show real benefits of healthy agro-ecosystem and its products, as well as to show promising green business or ecopreneurship. Collaboration among them would improve available attractions and length of visit. Moreover, the results showed that 80% of farmer groups were visited regularly 5-10 times per month by potential visitors such as other farmer groups, house wives, staffs of agricultural departments and students. All farmer groups planned to develop agroedutourism; however the policy was only issued by 60% of farmer groups. Most of farmer groups showed a high variability in providing edutourism tours and guides. For sustainable development, farmer groups should provide more interesting attractions and facilities, develop their human resource, net working, and public promotion. Keywords: agroedutourism, attraction, ecopreneurship

  10. On the choice of farm management practices after the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz

    2007-02-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was fundamentally reformed in 2003. From 2005, farmers will receive decoupled income support payments instead of production premiums if basic standards for environment, food safety, animal health and welfare are met. Farmers are likely to adjust production and management practices to the new policy framework. We describe how this reform fits into the EU strategy of making agricultural production more environmentally friendly by concentrating on the financial aspects of the reforms. Using an agricultural sector model for Austria, we show that the reform will further decrease agricultural outputs, reduce farm inputs, lessen nitrogen surpluses and make environmentally friendly management practices more attractive for farmers.

  11. Meaning and Practice of Palliative Care for Hospitalized Older Adults with Life Limiting Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethel Ann Powers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To illustrate distinctions and intersections of palliative care (PC and end-of-life (EOL services through examples from case-centered data of older adults cared for during a four-year ethnographic study of an acute care hospital palliative care consultation service. Methods. Qualitative narrative and thematic analysis. Results. Description of four practice paradigms (EOL transitions, prognostic uncertainty, discharge planning, and patient/family values and preferences and identification of the underlying structure and communication patterns of PC consultation services common to them. Conclusions. Consistent with reports by other researchers, study data support the need to move beyond equating PC with hospice or EOL care and the notion that EOL is a well-demarcated period of time before death. If professional health care providers assume that PC services are limited to assisting with and helping patients and families prepare for dying, they miss opportunities to provide care considered important to older individuals confronting life-limiting illnesses.

  12. The role of market forces and food safety institutions in the adoption of sustainable farming practices: The case of the fresh tomato export sector in Morocco and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Codron, Jean Marie; Adanacioglu, Hakan; Aubert, Magali; Bouhsina, Zouhair; El Mekki, Abdelkader Ait; Rousset, Sylvain; Tozanli, Selma; Yercan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Fresh produce growers are the main source of food contamination by chemical pesticides. In their choice of farming practices, producers are influenced by market forces as well as public and private safety regulations – or “macro-drivers” – as opposed to farm-level micro-drivers. Growers respond to their business and regulatory environment by implementing integrated pest management (IPM) and other good agricultural practices (GAP), where profitable through certification schemes. Our paper atte...

  13. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J. C. M.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S.

    2017-01-01

    Simple summary Intensive farming systems are confronted with a number of animal welfare issues such as injuries from horns in cattle and feather pecking in poultry. To solve these problems, mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are applied routinely. These and other procedures such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions impair animal welfare. Scientific underpinning of the efficacy of these interventions and management practices is poor. We advocate that all stakeholders, in particular animal scientists and veterinarians, take the lead in evaluating common, putative mutilating and welfare reducing procedures and management practices to develop better, scientifically supported alternatives, focused on adaptation of the environment to the animals, to ensure uncompromised animal welfare. Abstract A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific

  14. "Do it All by Myself": A Salutogenic Approach of Masculine Health Practice Among Farming Men Coping With Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Philippe; Tremblay, Gilles; Robertson, Steven; Houle, Janie

    2017-09-01

    Farming is often considered one of the most stressful occupations. At the same time, farming men symbolically represent a strong, traditional, or hegemonic form of masculinity based on stoicism, resourcefulness, and resilience to adversity. A contrast is observed between this social representation and their health status, marked by higher levels of stress, social isolation, psychological distress, and suicide than many other subgroups of men. A salutogenic approach was taken in this study to enable the investigation of the social contexts in which farming men positively engage in health-promoting behaviors that may prevent or ameliorate mental health problems. A focus was placed on how farming men cope with stress on their own, and the relationship of this to their popular image of being resourceful and resilient. Thirty-two individual in-depth interviews with farming men and a focus group with five key informants working in rural areas within the Province of Quebec, Canada, were carried out. Self-distraction and cognitive strategies emerged as the most relevant for participants. Notably, taking work breaks conflicted with the discourse of the "relentless worker" that farmers are expected to be. Pathways to positive coping and recovery implied an ambivalence between contemplation of strategies aligned with negative aspects of traditional masculinity norms in North America and strategies aligned with more positive, progressive aspects of these norms based on the importance of family and work life balance. Health promotion and future research should investigate how various positive masculine practices can be aligned with farmers' health and well-being and that of their family.

  15. Sustainability assessment of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Niedermann, Silvana; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    To provide growing population with sufficient food, greenhouse vegetable production has expanded rapidly in recent years in China and sustainability of its farming practices is a major concern. Therefore, this study assessed the sustainability of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China based on selected indicators. The empirical data were collected through a survey of 91 farm households from six typical greenhouse vegetable production bases and analysis of environmental material samples. The results showed that heavy fertilization in greenhouse vegetable bases of China resulted in an accumulation of N, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil, nutrient eutrophication in irrigation water, and high Cd in some leaf vegetables cultivated in acidic soil. Economic factors including decreased crop yield in conventional farming bases, limited and site-dependent farmers' income, and lack of complete implementation of subsidy policies contributed a lot to adoption of heavy fertilization by farmers. Also, socio-institutional factors such as lack of unified management of agricultural supplies in the bases operated in cooperative and small family business models and low agricultural extension service efficiency intensified the unreasonable fertilization. The selection of cultivated vegetables was mainly based on farmers' own experience rather than site-dependent soil conditions. Thus, for sustainable development of greenhouse vegetable production systems in China, there are two key aspects. First, it is imperative to reduce environmental pollution and subsequent health risks through integrated nutrient management and the planting strategy of selected low metal accumulation vegetable species especially in acidic soil. Second, a conversion of cooperative and small family business models of greenhouse vegetable bases to enterprises should be extensively advocated in future for the unified agricultural supplies

  16. The influence of theory and practice on perceptions about caring for ill older people - A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millns Sizer, Stephanie; Burton, Robert L; Harris, Ann

    2016-07-01

    The increasing longevity of the world's population implies the requirement for a nursing workforce who are appropriately equipped to care for older people when they are ill. Although attitudes toward this field of nursing appear to be positive amongst nursing students, fewer students choose the care of ill older people as a career upon qualification; the need to assure the future nursing workforce in this field has been acknowledged globally. In view of the ageing of the world population, there is a need to encourage the care of ill older people as a positive career choice (Koh, 2012). Factors both within the practical learning environment and the environment where students receive theoretical instruction, may potentially impact upon nursing students' attitudes towards caring for ill older people and their career intentions. It is against this background that this review was conducted, in order to identify reasons for this prevailing negativity. It is intended that the review will shed light on strategies to improve these perceptions, showing a career in caring for ill older people in a more positive light.

  17. Impact of Practice Change on Runoff Water Quality and Vegetable Yield—An On-Farm Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekhar Nachimuthu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive agricultural practices in farming systems in eastern Australia have been identified as a contributor to the poor runoff water quality entering the Great Barrier Reef (GBR. A field investigation was carried out to measure the off-farm water quality and productivity in a coastal farming system in northeastern Australia. Two vegetable crops (capsicum and zucchini were grown in summer 2010–2011 and winter 2011 respectively using four different management practices (Conventional—plastic mulch, bare inter-row conventional tillage and commercial fertilizer inputs; Improved—improved practice with plastic mulch, inter-row vegetative mulch, zonal tillage and reduced fertilizer rates; Trash mulch—improved practice with cane-trash or forage-sorghum mulch with reduced fertilizer rates, minimum or zero tillage; and Vegetable only—improved practice with Rhodes grass or forage-sorghum mulch, minimum or zero tillage, reduced fertilizer rates. Results suggest improved and trash mulch systems reduced sediment and nutrient loads by at least 50% compared to conventional systems. The residual nitrate nitrogen in soil accumulated at the end-of-break crop cycle was lost by deep drainage before the subsequent sugarcane crop could utilize it. These results suggest that future research into establishing the linkages between deep drainage, groundwater quality and lateral movement into adjacent streams is needed. The improvement in runoff water quality was accompanied by yield reductions of up to 55% in capsicum and 57% in zucchini under trash mulch systems, suggesting a commercially unacceptable trade-off between water quality and productivity for a practice change. The current study has shown that variations around improved practice (modified nutrient application strategies under plastic mulch, but with an inter-space mulch to minimize runoff and sediment loss may be the most practical solution to improve water quality and maintain productivity

  18. Smart Dairy Farming in practice : design requirements for user-friendly data based services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdt, C.A. van der; Kort, J.; Boer, J. de; Paradies, G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Key for precision dairy farming is the management of different kinds of (sensor) data from multiple sources and its disclosure to users. The data can be used to implement services that support farmers to care for individual animals and work more effectively. Naturally, these services need to provide

  19. Assessment of swine-specific bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis in swine farms with different antibiotic practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknoi, Yuranan; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee

    2017-04-01

    We assessed the occurrence and specificity of bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis in swine farms for their potential application in microbial source tracking. A local B. fragilis host strain, SP25 (DSM29413), was isolated from a pooled swine feces sample taken from a non-antibiotic farm. This strain was highly specific to swine fecal materials because it did not detect bacteriophages in any samples from human sewage, sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, and cats. The reference B. fragilis strain, RYC2056, could detect phages in swine samples but also detected phages in most human sewage and polluted urban canal samples. Phages of SP25 exist in the proximity of certain swine farms, regardless of their antibiotic use (p > 0.05). B. fragilis strain SP25 exhibited relatively high resistance to most of the veterinary antimicrobial agents tested. Interestingly, most farms that were positive for SP25 phages were also positive for RYC2056 phages. In conclusion, the swine-specific SP25 strain has the potential to indicate swine fecal contamination in certain bodies of water. Bacterial isolates with larger distributions are being studied and validated. This study highlights the importance of assessing the abundance of phages in local swine populations before determining their potential applicability for source tracking in local surface waters.

  20. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  1. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...... by some of the associations in relation to knowledge and technology transfer, seeds distribution and contact to potential national and foreign buyers....

  2. Practice Parameter for the Psychiatric Assessment and Management of Physically Ill Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2009

    2009-01-01

    An introduction for any medical health clinician on the knowledge and skills that are needed for the psychiatric assessment and management of physically ill children and adolescents is presented. These parameters are presented to assist clinicians in psychiatric decision making.

  3. The relationship of values to adjustment in illness: a model for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R M

    1992-04-01

    This paper proposes a model of the relationship between values, in particular health value, and adjustment to illness. The importance of values as well as the need for value change are described in the literature related to adjustment to physical disability and chronic illness. An empirical model, however, that explains the relationship of values to adjustment or adaptation has not been found by this researcher. Balance theory and its application to the abstract and perceived cognitions of health value and health perception are described here to explain the relationship of values like health value to outcomes associated with adjustment or adaptation to illness. The proposed model is based on the balance theories of Heider, Festinger and Feather. Hypotheses based on the model were tested and supported in a study of 100 adults with visible and invisible chronic illness. Nursing interventions based on the model are described and suggestions for further research discussed.

  4. A tool to measure whether business management capacity in general practice impacts on the quality of chronic illness care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Christine H; Proudfoot, Judith G; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Grimm, Jane; Bubner, Tanya K; Winstanley, Julie; Harris, Mark F; Beilby, Justin J

    2010-11-01

    Our aim was to develop a tool to identify specific features of the business and financial management of practices that facilitate better quality care for chronic illness in primary care. Domains of management were identified, resulting in the development of a structured interview tool that was administered in 97 primary care practices in Australia. Interview items were screened and subjected to factor analysis, subscales identified and the overall model fit determined. The instrument's validity was assessed against another measure of quality of care. Analysis provided a four-factor solution containing 21 items, which explained 42.5% of the variance in the total scores. The factors related to administrative processes, human resources, marketing analysis and business development. All scores increased significantly with practice size. The business development subscale and total score were higher for rural practices. There was a significant correlation between the business development subscale and quality of care. The indicators of business and financial management in the final tool appear to be useful predictors of the quality of care. The instrument may help inform policy regarding the structure of general practice and implementation of a systems approach to chronic illness care. It can provide information to practices about areas for further development.

  5. Manure management practices on biogas and non-biogas pig farms in developing countries - using livestock farms in Vietnam as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cu, T. T. T.; Cuong, P. H.; Hang, L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production...... to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients...... the manure to the field, as transportation is the main barrier to recycling the liquid manure fraction. Farmers in developing countries need financial and technical support to install biogas digesters and to overcome the problems involved in utilizing the manure. Information about how to pre-treat manure...

  6. Husbandry practices, badger sett density and habitat composition as risk factors for transient and persistent bovine tuberculosis on UK cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, L A; Courtenay, O

    2007-07-16

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a persistent problem in cattle herds in Great Britain and Ireland. Farm management and cattle husbandry practices can influence the risk of transmission of bTB and hence the likelihood of bTB breakdown (>or=1 reactor to the tuberculin skin test). Biological differences are expected in the transmission dynamics, and hence risk factors for bTB breakdown, on farms where infection persists in the herd compared to farms where infection is more sporadic or short-lived. Comparative case-control studies were performed to test farm management practices as potential risk factors for transient (under breakdown restrictions for 6 months) bTB breakdown over 5 years (1995-1999) on 179 and 171 UK cattle farms, respectively. Farms were characterised for badger sett density and farm habitat composition by ground survey, farmers were questioned retrospectively on management practices, and cases and controls were identified from national tuberculin test records. Controlling for routine tuberculin testing interval, log-transformed herd size, regional location, badger sett density and farm habitat complexity, multivariable logistic regression identified increased odds of both transient and persistent breakdown on farms that bought-in cows (odds ratio (OR)>or=4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI)>or=1.1;22.8). In addition, the purchase of >50 head of cattle (OR=4.0, 95% CI=1.0;16.0) and the storage of manure for >or/=6 months (OR=4.4; 95% CI=1.3;15.4) were risk factors for transient breakdown, whereas the use of silage clamps (OR=9.1; 95% CI=2.0;40.8) increased the risk of persistent breakdown. Decreased odds of both transient and persistent breakdown were associated with higher stocking densities (>3cattle/ha) (ORsilage storage in addition to the relative density of badgers. Implications for bTB management are discussed.

  7. On the Practical Value of Floating Farming in Modern China%漂浮农业在当今中国的实用价值初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍磊; 吴合显

    2012-01-01

    Based on floating farming applied during the former Spanish era in the Mexico Basin of Central America,the present study is to make an analysis of such floating farming and to make a comparison between such technique and ancient Chinese rack fields so as to explore the similarities of the core technology of the two farming practices as well as its feasibility and practical value of such traditional floating farming in modern.%以中美洲前西班牙时代墨西哥盆地漂浮农业为线索展开论述,并与中国古代"架田"展开对比研究,探讨两者之间核心技术的相似性和传统漂浮农业在当今中国新生的可行性和实用价值。

  8. Public acceptance of wind farm development: Developer practices and review of scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin, Tom; Ram, Bonnie; Gannon, Jim

    This report is the first deliverable of Work Package 3 of the Wind2050 project. The Wind2050 project is about the public perception of wind power in Denmark, its role in the planning and development of wind farms and, ultimately, the meaning it has for reaching the Danish government’s targets...... for wind power in 2050. Work Package 3 looks specifically at how private developers handle the public’s perception of wind power and what it means for their projects. This report firstly outlines the common stages found in wind farm development and then discusses what manner of interaction the developer...... commonly has with the public at each stage. The report then shifts focus to what scientific literature says about two important topics in this realm: public risk perception and the NIMBY concept. Finally, the report concludes with suggested topics for research questions and highlights the next steps...

  9. Emerging practices of wind farm planning in a dense bird migration area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present part of The Wind Atlas for Egypt project aiming at developing a firm basis for planning and utilization of the vast wind energy resources available in Egypt. The project should recommend a common planning framework for wind farm development in Egypt...... is briefly introduced. As a case study to illustrate the planning process a 60 MW wind farm located at the Gulf of El-Zayt at the Gulf of Suez in Egypt will be analysed. This area is chosen for its very high wind energy potential and the high concentration of migrating birds during spring and autumn. During......, specifically in the Gulf of Suez, giving an overview of planning and feasibility related activities necessary, as well as of rules, regulations, data and information applicable. The proposed planning method is based on the existing legislation and relevant National Master Plans for Egypt and the suggested...

  10. Illness-related practices for the management of childhood malaria among the Bwatiye people of north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kauna K

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of childhood illnesses are accompanied by fever,, including malaria. Child mortality due to malaria has been attributed to poor health service delivery system and ignorance. An assessment of a mother's ability to recognize malaria in children under-five was carried out among the Bwatiye, a poorly-served minority ethnic group in north-eastern Nigeria. Methods A three-stage research design involving interviews, participatory observation and laboratory tests was used to seek information from 186 Bwatiye mothers about their illness-related experiences with childhood fevers. Results Mothers classified malaria into male (fever that persists for longer than three days and female (fever that goes away within three days and had a system of determining when febrile illness would not be regarded as malaria. Most often, malaria would be ignored in the first 2 days before seeking active treatment. Self-medication was the preferred option. Treatment practices and sources of help were influenced by local beliefs, the parity of the mother and previous experience with child mortality. Conclusion The need to educate mothers to suspect malaria in every case of febrile illness and take appropriate action in order to expose the underlying "evil" will be more acceptable than an insistence on replacing local knowledge with biological epidemiology of malaria. The challenge facing health workers is to identify and exploit local beliefs about aetiology in effecting management procedures among culturally different peoples, who may not accept the concept of biological epidemiology.

  11. The Nitrate App: Enhancing nutrient best management practice adoption and targeting via instantaneous, on-farm nitrate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; De Geus, D.; Ekkelenkamp, R.

    2016-12-01

    Sociological surveys suggest that farmers understand that agriculture contributes to nutrient pollution but the same surveys also indicate that in the absence of on-farm nitrate data, farmers assume someone else is causing the problem. This tendency to overestimate our own abilities is common to all of us and often described as "Lake Wobegon Syndrome" after the mythical town where "where all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average." We developed the Nitrate App for smartphones to enable farmers and citizens to collect and share nitrate concentration measurements. The app accurately reads and interprets nitrate test strips, directly displays the measured concentration, and gives the option to share the result. The shared results are immediately visualised in the online Delta Data Viewer. Within this viewer, user group specific combinations of background maps, monitoring data, and study area characteristics can be configured. Through the Nitrate App's mapping function project managers can more accurately target conservation practices to areas with the highest nitrate concentrations and loads. Furthermore, we expect that the actual on-farm data helps to overcome the "Lake Wobegon Effect" and will encourage farmers to talk to specialists about the right nutrient best management practices (BMP's) for their farm. After implementing these BMP's, the farmers can keep monitoring to evaluate the reduction in nitrate losses. In this presentation, we explain the Nitrate App technology and present the results of the first field applications in The Netherlands. We expect this free to download app to have wide transferability across watershed projects worldwide focusing on nitrate contamination of groundwater or surface water. Its simple design requires no special equipment outside of the nitrate test strips, a reference card, and a smartphone. The technology is also transferable to other relevant solutes for which test strips

  12. Recovery and creative practices in people with severe mental illness: evaluating well-being and social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Javier; Pérez, Elvira; Crawford, Paul; Arias, Samuel

    2017-02-06

    This mixed (quantitative-qualitative) study evaluates the impact of an artistic workshop on a group of people with severe mental illness (SMI). This study focuses on the impact of creative practices on well-being and social inclusion outcomes. After participating in a creative workshop, 31 people diagnosed with a SMI completed pre/post-intervention measures, namely, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale and the Social Inclusion questionnaire. It was applied in two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. The statistic Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis were applied for non-parametric data to measure pre/post-test effects and workshop experience effects, respectively. In addition to quantitative measures, one observer participated in each workshop that ran in parallel in order to deepen and triangulate quantitative outcomes. The qualitative and quantitative results show that social inclusion improved in a significant way with an important size effect. Psychological wellbeing increased significantly with a low size effect. In accordance with these results, creative practices with people diagnosed with SMI are recommended. In order to increase the impact of these interventions, it is recommended to utilize public space away from clinical environments and to include people without SMI in creative activities together with SMI patients. Implications for Rehabilitation: Creative practices can significantly improve social inclusions and well-being in people with severe mental illness. Participating in creative workshops helps to elaborate personal meanings and promote recovery. Creative practices in mental health services can challenge professional roles and institutional practices. Participation of people with and without severe mental illness engaged together in artistic activities can decrease public stigma.

  13. Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Combating Mental Illness Stigma in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Thomas; Knaak, Stephanie; Szeto, Andrew C H

    2016-04-01

    Reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness is becoming an increasingly important focus for research, policy, programming and intervention work. While it has been well established that the healthcare system is one of the key environments in which persons with mental illnesses experience stigma and discrimination there is little published literature on how to build and deliver successful anti-stigma programs in healthcare settings, towards healthcare providers in general, or towards specific types of practitioners. Our paper intends to address this gap by providing a set of theoretical considerations for guiding the design and implementation of anti-stigma interventions in healthcare.

  14. Development and validation of a bilingual questionnaire for measuring udder health related management practices on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Simon; Barkema, Herman W; DesCôteaux, Luc; DeVries, Trevor J; Dohoo, Ian R; Reyher, Kristen; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Scholl, Daniel T

    2010-06-01

    Questionnaires are frequently used instruments to collect data in epidemiological studies. In countries where more than one language is spoken, the development of a questionnaire in more than one language is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and test the repeatability and validity of English and French versions of a personal interview-format questionnaire designed to capture udder health related management practices used on dairy farms. A standardized protocol was used to develop and translate the research instrument. Equivalence of the English and French questionnaires was assessed using a cross-over study design with 24 bilingual dairy producers completing both versions on three different occasions in a randomly assigned sequence. Repeatability of the questionnaire was evaluated using the test-retest method with the same questions being asked on two different occasions to 88 dairy producers participating in the National Cohort of Dairy Farms of the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network. Validity of the questions related to milking procedures and general housing was assessed using on-farm observations as a gold standard. Measures of agreement were calculated using kappa, quadratic-weighted Kappa and concordance correlation coefficients for categorical, ordinal and continuous variables, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity estimates were computed for the validity analysis. The overall equivalence of the English and French versions of the questionnaire was adequate; agreement measures when administered twice in the same language were not significantly higher than when administered in each language. Similarly, questionnaire overall repeatability was good. When accounting for prevalence bias, Kappa and CCC estimates ranged from 0.40 to 0.92 for 27 of the 29 items evaluated in the questionnaire, with 18 items yielding agreement estimates greater than 0.60. Finally, milking procedures and general housing questions validity was excellent with

  15. Case Designs for Ill-Structured Problems: Analysis and Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nada; Blijd, Cecily Williams

    2009-01-01

    This study is a third in a series of studies that examined students' information seeking and problem solving behaviors while interacting with one of two types of web-based representations of an ill-structured instructional design case: hierarchical (tree-like) and heterarchical (network-like). A Java program was used to track students' hypermedia…

  16. Supporting Tertiary Students with a Disability or Mental Illness. Good Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    Having a disability or ongoing ill health (including mental health conditions) can significantly disrupt an individual's educational attainment and employment prospects, potentially creating lifelong social and economic disadvantage. These students may need additional support to help them successfully complete their studies. In addition, education…

  17. Work and Psychiatric Illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Implications for Career Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Annie; Miller, Judi

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the influence of Maori culture upon psychiatric service provision in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the implications of this for career counselling of people with experience of mental illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The research explored the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with…

  18. Nutritional Assessment of Critically Ill Children: the search for practical tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Hulst (Jessie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractCritically ill children are at risk of deteriorating nutritional status when admitted to an intensive care unit. This may lead to malnutrition, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. While adequate feeding is essential for complete recovery and normal functional outc

  19. The meaning of illness in nursing practice: a philosophical model of communication and concept possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor

    2016-04-01

    It is fundamental assumption in nursing theory that it is important for nurses to understand how patients experience states of ill health. This assumption is often related to aims of empathic understanding, but normative principles of social interpretation can have an important action-guiding role whenever nurses seek to understand patients' subjective horizons on the basis of active or passive expressions of meaning. The aim of this article is to present a philosophical theory of concept possession and to argue that it can shed light on how nurses should seek to understand patients' subjective perspectives on the meaning of illness. The two basic ideas in the theory are that patients' beliefs and thoughts about their experiences involve concepts and that concepts can be communicated on the basis of shared implicit conceptions of what they mean. These conditions of understanding have a striking application: nurse-patient communication is limited by many contextual factors, but it is often possible for nurses to detect shared implicit conceptions of the meaning of concepts of disease and illness. Furthermore, by acting as sympathetic linguistic experts and creating an atmosphere for dialogue, nurses can make patients feel comfortable about deferring to medical explanations of meaning that can constitute a communicative platform. The last part of the article uses a number of cases studies to show how these implications can be implemented as conceptual tools for securing meaningful communication about illness experiences in patient dialogue.

  20. Case Designs for Ill-Structured Problems: Analysis and Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nada; Blijd, Cecily Williams

    2009-01-01

    This study is a third in a series of studies that examined students' information seeking and problem solving behaviors while interacting with one of two types of web-based representations of an ill-structured instructional design case: hierarchical (tree-like) and heterarchical (network-like). A Java program was used to track students' hypermedia…

  1. Integrating Federal and State data records to report progress in establishing agricultural conservation practices on Chesapeake Bay farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, W. Dean; Devereux, Olivia H.; Claggett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In response to the Executive Order for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration (E.O. #13508, May 12, 2009), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) took on the task of acquiring and assessing agricultural conservation practice data records for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs, and transferred those datasets in aggregated format to State jurisdictional agencies for use in reporting conservation progress to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership (CBP Partnership). Under the guidelines and regulations that have been developed to protect and restore water-quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the six State jurisdictions that fall within the Chesapeake Bay watershed are required to report their progress in promoting agricultural conservation practices to the CBP Partnership on an annual basis. The installation and adoption of agricultural best management practices is supported by technical and financial assistance from both Federal and State conservation programs. The farm enrollment data for USDA conservation programs are confidential, but agencies can obtain access to the privacy-protected data if they are established as USDA Conservation Cooperators. The datasets can also be released to the public if they are first aggregated to protect farmer privacy. In 2012, the USGS used its Conservation Cooperator status to obtain implementation data for conservation programs sponsored by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) for farms within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Three jurisdictions (Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) used the USGS-provided aggregated dataset to report conservation progress in 2012, whereas the remaining three jurisdictions (Maryland, New York, and Virginia) used jurisdictional Conservation Cooperator Agreements to obtain privacy-protected data directly from the USDA. This report reviews the status of conservation data sharing between the USDA and the various jurisdictions, discusses the

  2. Outsourcing mental health care services? The practice and potential of community-based farms in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Sorana C; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Veltman, Dick J; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Bunders, Joske F G

    2015-02-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation supports individuals with mental disorders to acquire the skills needed for independent lives in communities. This article assesses the potential of outsourcing psychiatric rehabilitation by analysing care farm services in the Netherlands. Service characteristics were analysed across 214 care farms retrieved from a national database. Qualitative insights were provided by five case descriptions, selected from 34 interviews. Institutional care farms were significantly larger and older than private care farms (comprising 88.8% of all care farms). Private, independent care farms provide real-life work conditions to users who are relatively less impaired. Private, contracted care farms tailor the work activities to their capacities and employ professional supervisors. Institutional care farms accommodate for the most vulnerable users. We conclude that collaborations with independent, contracted and institutional care farms would provide mental health care organizations with a diversity in services, enhanced community integration and a better match with users' rehabilitation needs.

  3. Genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations of the haploid-diploid red alga Gracilaria chilensis: how farming practices favor asexual reproduction and heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Faugeron, Sylvain; Destombe, Christophe; Viard, Frederique; Correa, Juan A; Valero, Myriam

    2008-06-01

    The extent of changes in genetic diversity and life-history traits associated with farming was investigated in the haploid-diploid red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, cultivated in Chile. This alga belongs to one of the most frequently cultivated seaweed genera around the world. Fifteen farmed populations, 11 wild populations, and two subspontaneous populations were sampled along the Chilean coast. The frequency of reproductive versus vegetative individuals and of haploid versus diploid individuals was checked in each population. In addition, the distribution of genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations was analyzed using six microsatellite markers. Our results first demonstrated that farmed populations are maintained almost exclusively by vegetative propagation. Moreover, the predominance of diploid individuals in farms showed that farming practices had significantly modified life-history traits as compared to wild populations. Second, the expected reduction in genetic diversity due to a cultivation bottleneck and subsequent clonal propagation was detected in farms. Finally, our study suggested that cultural practices in the southern part of the country contributed to the spread of selected genotypes at a local scale. Altogether, these results document for the first time that involuntary selection could operate during the first step of domestication in a marine plant.

  4. BELIEFS AND PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS REGARDING DIET DURING CHILDHOOD ILLNESS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, VISAKHAPATNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi; Kiran; Devi Madhavi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Malnutrition is the most widespread condition affecting the health of the children. Scarcity of suitable foods, lack of purchasing power of the family as well as traditional beliefs and taboos about what the baby should eat, often lead to an insufficient balanced diet, resulting in malnutrition. Culturally related food restriction and reduction in feeding frequency during common childhood illnesses further contributes to the b...

  5. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Though amaranth has been studied intensively for its exceptional nutritional properties, little has been reported about its capacity for fighting poverty, securing food supplies, turning migrations, or its impact on the environment and the prospect for mprovement of living conditions of those...... natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  6. Parasite control practices on pasture-based dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhoff, Yris; Danaher, Martin; Andrew Forbes; Morgan, Eric; Mulcahy, Grace; Power, Clare; Sayers, Ríona

    2014-08-29

    Dictyocaulus viviparus, Ostertagia ostertagi (nematode parasites), and Fasciola hepatica (trematode parasite) result in productivity losses on dairy farms and impact on animal health through clinical and sub-clinical disease. Parasite control in livestock systems is largely based on the use of chemoprophylactic agents (anthelmintics), grazing management, or a combination of both. The objective of this study was to document current parasite control measures employed by Irish dairy farmers in a predominantly pasture-based livestock system. A questionnaire survey of 312 geographically representative farmers was completed in 2009 with a follow up survey completed in 2011. Statistical analysis highlighted significant differences in chemoprophylactic usage between 2009 and 2011. In particular, an increase in the use of albendazole for both trematode (19% in 2009 to 36% in 2011) and nematode (30% in 2009 to 58% in 2011) control was observed. This was most likely due to flukicide restrictions introduced in the Republic of Ireland in 2010 for dairy animals. Logistic regression highlighted regional differences in chemoprophylactic use. Farmers in southern parts of Ireland, an area with good quality soil, less rainfall, and a higher density of dairy farms than other regions, were approximately half as likely to dose for F. hepatica and were more likely (OR>2.0) to use albendazole for both nematode and fluke control. Approximately 30% of respondents who used a chemoprophylactic treatment for nematodes, used a product which was 'unsuitable for purpose' (e.g. ivermectin for the treatment of F. hepatica), highlighting the need for increased awareness, continuing research, and regionally targeted education tools regarding optimal parasite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. No-till systems on the Chequen Farm in Chile: A success story in bringing practice and science together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Reicosky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available No-till cropping systems provide an opportunity to protect the soil from erosion, while contemporaneously maintaining high yields and contributing to global food security. The historical aspects and the remarkable development of no-till systems on the Chequen Farm in Chile are reviewed. The adoption of no-till over the last 40 years has been a major turning point in reducing the devastating effects of soil erosion and a model for the evolution of sustainable crop production in highly erodible terrain in other parts of the world. The process of adoption of no-till systems in severely eroded foothills of Chile is described, as well as the environmental benefits and the sustainability of the system. The practical aspects of these developments are supported by scientific literature where appropriate, illustrating the value and coincident knowledge gained when combining analogue observations and information with scientific principles.

  8. Sustainable, alternative farming practices as a means to simultaneously secure food production and reduce air pollution in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Fung, K. M.; Yong, T.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Proper agricultural land management is essential for securing food supply and minimizing damage to the environment. Among available farming practices, relay strip intercropping and fertilizer application are commonly used, but to study their wider environmental implications and possible feedbacks we require an Earth system modeling framework. In this study, the effectiveness of a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system and fertilizer reduction is investigated using a multi-model method. The DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model is used to simulate agricultural activities and their impacts on the environment through nitrogen emissions and changes in soil chemical composition. Crop yield, soil nutrient content and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere in major agricultural regions of China are predicted under various cultivation scenarios. The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model is then used to estimate the effects on downwind particle and ozone air pollution. We show that relay strip intercropping and optimal fertilization not only improve crop productivity, but also retain soil nutrients, reduce ammonia emission and mitigate downwind air pollution. By cutting 25% fertilization inputs but cultivating maize and soybean together in a relay strip intercropping system used with field studies, total crop production was improved slightly by 4.4% compared to monoculture with conventional amount of fertilizers. NH3 volatilization decreases by 29%, equivalent to saving the pollution-induced health damage costs by about US$2.5 billion per year. The possible feedback effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition onto the croplands are also investigated. We show that careful management and better quantitative understanding of alternative farming practices hold huge potential in simultaneously addressing different global change issues including the food crisis, air pollution and climate change, and calls for greater collaboration between scientists, farmers and

  9. Understanding the associations between on-farm biosecurity practice and equine influenza infection during the 2007 outbreak in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Simon M; Lewis, Fraser I; Schemann, Kathrin; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Dhand, Navneet K

    2013-05-15

    In a previous premises-level case-control study of the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, the protective effect of several variables representing on-farm biosecurity practices was identified. However, using logistic regression it was not possible to definitively identify individual effects and associations between each of the personal biosecurity measures implemented by horse premises owners and managers in the face of the outbreak. In this study we apply Bayesian network modelling to identify the complex web of associations between these variables, horse premises infection status and other premises-level covariates. We focussed this analysis primarily on the inter-relationship between the nine variables representing on-farm personal biosecurity measures (of people residing on the premises and those visiting), and all other variables from the final logistic regression model of our previous analysis. Exact structure discovery was used to identify the globally optimal model from across the landscape of all directed acyclic graphs possible for our dataset. Bootstrapping was used to adjust the model for over-fitting. Our final Bayesian graphic network model included 18 variables linked by 23 arcs, each arc analogous to a single multivariable generalised linear model, combined in a probabilistically coherent way. Amongst the personal biosecurity measures, having a footbath in place, certain practices of visitors (hand-washing, changing clothes and shoes) in contact with the horses, and the regularity of horse handling were statistically associated with premises infection status. The results of this in-depth analysis provide new insight into the complex web of direct and indirect associations between risk factors and horse premises infection status during the first 7 weeks of the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia. In future outbreaks, unnecessary contact and handling of horses should be avoided, especially by those coming from off the premises. Prior

  10. Ethnoveterinary plants and practices used for ecto-parasite control in semi-arid smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyahangare, Emmanuel Tendai; Mvumi, Brighton Marimanzi; Mutibvu, Tonderai

    2015-04-30

    The inclusion of traditional plant-based ecto-parasite control methods in primary health care of livestock is increasingly becoming an important intervention for improving livestock productivity in resource-challenged smallholder farming areas. In this study, commonly used plants used for the control of cattle ticks and other pests were identified through a survey in four semi-arid districts of Zimbabwe. A standard structured questionnaire with details of demographics, socioeconomic status of households, livestock parasites, control practices and list of ethnoveterinary plants used was used to interview 233 knowledgeable smallholder farmers in four districts. Focus group discussions with community members further provided insights on how the plants were being used and other issues surrounding ecto-parasite control and indigenous knowledge systems in the study areas. The older generation (>40 years) of the respondents were knowledgeable about ethnoveterinary plants and practices. Overall, 51 plant species were reportedly effective against cattle ticks and other livestock parasites. The most frequently mentioned plants were in descending order, Cissus quadrangularis (30.1%), Lippia javanica (19.6%), Psydrax livida (14.9%) and Aloe sp (14.9%). Most of the plant materials were prepared by crushing and soaking in water and spraying the extract on animals. Despite the knowledge of these useful pesticidal plants, the preferred animal health care for cattle and other highly ranked livestock species is still the use of commercial acaricides. Cattle dipping services were reported sporadic by 48% of the respondents. Traditional knowledge and plants are considered only as an alternative in the absence of conventional synthetic products. Livestock farming communities know of plant species used for livestock ecto-parasite control. The plant species are mostly used to complement commercial products. More work, is required to confirm the acaricidal properties claimed by the

  11. Comparison of Soil Fauna (Oribatids and Enchytraeids){1mm BetweenConventional and Organic (Tillage and No-1mm TillagePractices) Farming Crop Fields in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The major soil animal groups, enchytraeid worms and oribatid mites,were compared in the abundance and diversity between conventionalfields (CT) and organic farming fields with tillage (OT) or no-tillage(ON) practices. The values of abundance, species richness, diversityand evenness were significantly larger in OT and ON than in CT,indicating that the abundance and diversity in organic farming fieldswere greater than those in conventional farming. The communitystructure of enchytraeid genera was different between OT and ON.{ Enchytraeus was the most abundant in OT, whileFridericia in ON. The abundance of oribatids in OT was similarto that in ON, while the species richness and diversity in the formerwere smaller. These results suggested that no-tillage practice underorganic management might contribute to the improvement in quality ofsoil mesofauna.

  12. ICPC-2 defined pattern of illnesses in a practice-based research network in an urban city in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka O. Ayankogbe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In optimising the health of individuals, families and communities, attention should be focused on the clinical processes at medical facilities based in the community. Networks of general and family practices offer this unique opportunity. In establishing the burden of diseases in a community, the traditional classification used is the International Classification of Diseases. This study uses the International Classification of Primary Care. The aim of the study was to document the pattern of illnesses presenting in general/family physician practices in a city in Nigeria.Method: A nine-item interviewer-administered questionnaire containing closed-ended questions was administered to 881 patients presenting at 67 private general/family practice clinics/hospitals in 15 local government areas of urban Lagos by trained general practitioners, using the ICPC-2 pager, which asks for socio-demographic information, reasons for the presentation, and the provisional diagnosis within a 24-hour period.Results: Children younger than five years accounted for 20.4% of those presenting, while 25- to 39-year-olds accounted for 44.4%. Geriatric patients (60 years and older comprised 3.0%. Social classes 1 to 4 accounted for 36.8% of the patients, while social classes 5 to 8 accounted for 43.2%. Of all the patients, 18.7 % earned less than 1 US$/day. The seven topmost reasons for visiting the medical practice/clinic/hospital were: General and unspecified 23.1%; pregnancy, child bearing and family planning 13.9%; respiratory problems 10.9%; problems related to the digestive system 9.6%; musculoskeletal 5.6%; Skin 4.4%; and neurological problems 4.2%.Conclusion: The skills of general/family practitioners in West Africa and on the rest of the continent should concentrate on general and unspecified illnesses, routine and emergency maternal and child care, and problems related to the respiratory, digestive, musculoskeletal, skin and neurological systems.

  13. Best practice document for coexistence of genetically modified soybean crops with conventional and organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The present technical report deals with coexistence issues of genetically modified (GM) soybean cultivation with non-GM soybean and honey production in the EU. The Technical Working Group (TWG) for Soybean of the European Coexistence Bureau (ECoB) analysed the possible sources for potential GM cross-pollination and admixture and agreed on the best practices for coexistence. The terms of reference for this review are presented in Section 1. The scope of the Best Practice Document is coexistenc...

  14. Parasites of pigs in two farms with poor husbandry practices in Bishoftu, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemnesh Jufare

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 on a total of 384 pigs from two privately owned intensive farms in Bishoftu, Ethiopia. The objectives of the study were to identify and determine the prevalence of common parasites of pigs. For the determination of gastrointestinal (GIT parasites, faecal samples were collected from the study animals and subjected to standard parasitological examination techniques. Physical examination was conducted for the presence of skin parasitic lesions and skin scrapings were collected to determine prevalence of ectoparasites. The overall prevalence of GIT parasites in the pigs was 25% (96/384. Examination of faecal samples revealed the ova or oocysts of four different gastrointestinal parasites, namely Coccidia (12%, Strongyles (5.2%, Ascaris suum (4.9% and Trichuris suis (2.9%. Mixed infection by at least two parasite species was observed in 3.65% (14/384 of the pigs. The only ectoparasite species identified was Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis, with a prevalence of 2.6%. This study indicates that pig parasites are a major problem in the study area, hence implementation of strategic control measures and appropriate hygienic management systems are recommended to reduce the prevalence of parasites.

  15. Parasites of pigs in two farms with poor husbandry practices in Bishoftu, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jufare, Alemnesh; Awol, Nesibu; Tadesse, Fanos; Tsegaye, Yisehak; Hadush, Birhanu

    2015-04-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 on a total of 384 pigs from two privately owned intensive farms in Bishoftu, Ethiopia. The objectives of the study were to identify and determine the prevalence of common parasites of pigs. For the determination of gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites, faecal samples were collected from the study animals and subjected to standard parasitological examination techniques. Physical examination was conducted for the presence of skin parasitic lesions and skin scrapings were collected to determine prevalence of ectoparasites. The overall prevalence of GIT parasites in the pigs was 25% (96/384). Examination of faecal samples revealed the ova or oocysts of four different gastrointestinal parasites, namely Coccidia (12%), Strongyles (5.2%), Ascaris suum (4.9%) and Trichuris suis (2.9%). Mixed infection by at least two parasite species was observed in 3.65% (14/384) of the pigs. The only ectoparasite species identified was Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis, with a prevalence of 2.6%. This study indicates that pig parasites are a major problem in the study area, hence implementation of strategic control measures and appropriate hygienic management systems are recommended to reduce the prevalence of parasites.

  16. Population estimates of persons presenting to general practitioners with influenza-like illness, 1987-96: a study of the demography of influenza-like illness in sentinel practice networks in England and Wales, and in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.M.; Zambon, M.; Bartelds, A.I.M.

    2000-01-01

    Incidence data by age of new episodes of influenza-like illness reported by sentinel general practice networks in England and Wales and in The Netherlands over a 10-year period were examined to provide estimates of the consulting population during influenza epidemic periods. Baseline levels of recor

  17. Population estimates of persons presenting to general practitioners with influenza-like illness, 1987-96: a study of the demography of influenza-like illness in sentinel practice networks in England and Wales, and in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.M.; Zambon, M.; Bartelds, A.I.M.

    2000-01-01

    Incidence data by age of new episodes of influenza-like illness reported by sentinel general practice networks in England and Wales and in The Netherlands over a 10-year period were examined to provide estimates of the consulting population during influenza epidemic periods. Baseline levels of

  18. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo Rodrigues Lomba, de Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, R.H.G.; McCracken, D.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes
    under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity
    levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been
    highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inheren

  19. Viewing Violence, Mental Illness and Addiction through a Wise Practices Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley-Esquimaux, Cynthia C.; Snowball, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The progressive approaches First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities use to address health and wellness concerns are rarely written about or acknowledged in a positive manner. This paper speaks to a concept introduced through the Canadian Aboriginal Aids Network (CAAN) entitled "wise practices". CAAN saw a "wise practices"…

  20. Report on audit of Department of Energy contractor occupational injury and illness reporting practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-07

    The Department and its contractors are responsible for ensuring that a safe and healthy work environment is provided to Department and contractor employees at its operating facilities. Contractors are responsible for establishing a comprehensive occupational safety and health program, which includes reporting of significant work-related employee injuries. The Department is responsible for monitoring the implementation of the contractor`s programs. Two performance indicators used by the Department to measure a contractor`s safety performance are the number and severity of work-related employee injuries and of lost workdays rates. The objective of the audit was to determine whether Department of Energy contractors accurately reported occupational injuries and illnesses in accordance with Departmental requirements.

  1. Assessing circumstances and causes of dairy cow death in Italian dairy farms through a veterinary practice survey (2013-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Francesca; Angelucci, Alessandra; Lorenzi, Valentina; Bolzoni, Luca; Bertocchi, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    A questionnaire survey about on farm dairy cow mortality was carried out among veterinary practitioners in Italy between January 2013 and May 2014. The study aimed at investigating the main circumstances of death in dairy cows (euthanasia, emergency slaughter or unassisted death), the primary causes and the risk factors of death. Out of 251 dead cows involved (across 137 farms), 54.6% died assisted and 45.4% were found dead. The main causes of death were metabolic/digestive disorders (22.3%) and mastitis/udder problems (17.1%), while in 14.7% of all cases, reasons of death were unknown. From the univariable generalised linear mixed models, dry cows showed a significantly higher odds to die unassisted compared to lactating cows (OR=3.2); dry cows also had higher odds of dying from unknown reasons (OR=11.7). Season was not significantly related to the risk of dying unassisted and for unknown reasons, but during the summer (characterised by hot and muggy weather in Northern Italy) cows died mostly for problems at calving. 54.2% of cows died during the first 30days in milk (DIM). Half of the multiparous cows that died, died in the first 29.5 DIM, while half of the primiparous cows that died, died in the first 50 DIM. Results pointed out that, especially in dry cows, around calving and during the summer, some failure in management practices and daily inspections may occur. Improvements should be done in monitoring activities and in recognising early symptoms of diseases among stockperson. In addition, in case of diagnosed diseases with poor prognosis, euthanasia procedures should be implemented to prevent cows from dying unassisted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Applying Bayesian network modelling to understand the links between on-farm biosecurity practice during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak and horse managers' perceptions of a subsequent outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Simon M; Lewis, Fraser I; Schemann, Kathrin; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Taylor, Melanie R; Dhand, Navneet K

    2014-10-01

    Australia experienced its first ever outbreak of equine influenza in August 2007. Horses on 9359 premises were infected over a period of 5 months before the disease was successfully eradicated through the combination of horse movement controls, on-farm biosecurity and vaccination. In a previous premises-level case-control study of the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, the protective effect of several variables representing on-farm biosecurity practices were identified. Separately, factors associated with horse managers' perceptions of the effectiveness of biosecurity measures have been identified. In this analysis we applied additive Bayesian network modelling to describe the complex web of associations linking variables representing on-farm human behaviours during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak (compliance or lack thereof with advised personal biosecurity measures) and horse managers' perceptions of the effectiveness of such measures in the event of a subsequent outbreak. Heuristic structure discovery enabled identification of a robust statistical model for 31 variables representing biosecurity practices and perceptions of the owners and managers of 148 premises. The Bayesian graphical network model we present statistically describes the associations linking horse managers' on-farm biosecurity practices during an at-risk period in the 2007 outbreak and their perceptions of whether such measures will be effective in a future outbreak. Practice of barrier infection control measures were associated with a heightened perception of preparedness, whereas horse managers that considered their on-farm biosecurity to be more stringent during the outbreak period than normal practices had a heightened perception of the effectiveness of other measures such as controlling access to the premises. Past performance in an outbreak setting may indeed be a reliable predictor of future perceptions, and should be considered when targeting infection control guidance to

  3. Defining Project Purchasing Activities - Exemplified by the Purchasing Practices in Offshore Wind Farm Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla

    and limited learning outcomes from one project to another. Furthermore, the study reveals the importance of a more holistic approach to project purchasing practices by focusing on the entire life cycle of a project. Managerially it helps selling companies to understand the peculiar buying phases...

  4. Organic farming practices result in compositional shifts in nematode communities that exceed crop-related changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quist, Casper W.; Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Janjo J.; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; van der Putten, Wim H.; Helder, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of conventional agriculture has resulted in a decline of soil ecosystem functioning. Organic agriculture intends to manage soil biota in a manner that is more geared towards adequate cycling of nutrients with minimal losses. Ecological interpretation of agricultural practices-induced

  5. Moving Beyond the Dilemma: Practices that Contribute to the On-Farm Management of Agrobiodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boef, de W.S.; Thijssen, M.H.; Shrestha, P.; Subedi, A.; Feyissa, R.; Gezu, G.; Canci, A.; Ferreira, M.A.J.D.; Dias, T.; Swain, S.; Sthapit, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    The definition provided by the Convention on Biological Diversity for in situ conservation has caused a dilemma for those involved in agrobiodiversity conservation, as to how to implement this strategy in practical terms. A diversity of organizations has been engaged in efforts referred to as "on-fa

  6. Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Beato, Maria Serena; Angeloni, Giorgia; Monne, Isabella; Buniolo, Filippo; Zuliani, Federica; Morini, Matteo; Castellan, Alberto; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano

    2015-04-13

    Influenza A viruses in swine cause considerable economic losses and raise concerns about their zoonotic potential. The current paucity of thorough empirical assessments of influenza A virus infection levels in swine herds under different control interventions hinders our understanding of their effectiveness. Between 2012 and 2013, recurrent outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by a reassortant pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus were registered in a swine breeding farm in North-East Italy, providing the opportunity to assess an outbreak response plan based on vaccination and enhanced farm management. All sows/gilts were vaccinated with a H1N1pdm-specific vaccine, biosecurity was enhanced, weaning cycles were lengthened, and cross-fostering of piglets was banned. All tested piglets had maternally-derived antibodies at 30 days of age and were detectable in 5.3% of ~90 day-old piglets. There was a significant reduction in H1N1pdm RT-PCR detections after the intervention. Although our study could not fully determine the extent to which the observed trends in seropositivity or RT-PCR positivity among piglets were due to the intervention or to the natural course of the disease in the herd, we provided suggestive evidence that the applied measures were useful in controlling the outbreak, even without an all-in/all-out system, while keeping farm productivity at full.

  7. Chest radiography practice in critically ill patients: a postal survey in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korevaar Johanna C

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To ascertain current chest radiography practice in intensive care units (ICUs in the Netherlands. Methods Postal survey: a questionnaire was sent to all ICUs with > 5 beds suitable for mechanical ventilation; pediatric ICUs were excluded. When an ICU performed daily-routine chest radiographs in any group of patients it was considered to be a "daily-routine chest radiography" ICU. Results From the number of ICUs responding, 63% practice a daily-routine strategy, in which chest radiographs are obtained on a daily basis without any specific reason. A daily-routine chest radiography strategy is practiced less frequently in university-affiliated ICUs (50% as compared to other ICUs (68%, as well as in larger ICUs (> 20 beds, 50% as compared to smaller ICUs (P > 0.05. Remarkably, physicians that practice a daily-routine strategy consider daily-routine radiographs helpful in guiding daily practice in less than 30% of all performed radiographs. Chest radiographs are considered essential for verification of the position of invasive devices (81% and for diagnosing pneumothorax, pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (82%, 74% and 69%, respectively. On demand chest radiographs are obtained after introduction of thoracic drains, central venous lines and endotracheal tubes in 98%, 84% and 75% of responding ICUs, respectively. Chest films are also obtained in case of ventilatory deterioration (49% of responding ICUs, and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (59%, tracheotomy (58% and mini-tracheotomy (23%. Conclusion There is notable lack of consensus on chest radiography practice in the Netherlands. This survey suggests that a large number of intensivists may doubt the value of daily-routine chest radiography, but still practice a daily-routine strategy.

  8. A pilot study of qigong practice and upper respiratory illness in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peggy A; Innes, Kim E; Alton, John; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Owens, Justine E

    2011-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are a common complaint in competitive swimmers and can adversely affect performance. No intervention has yet been shown to reduce URI incidence in intensively trained athletes. The University of Virginia varsity swim team received three weeks of training in qigong for the purpose of reducing stress and improving health. Our primary objective was to assess the relationship between qigong practice and symptoms of URI during a time when swimmers would be at high URI risk. Secondary objectives were to assess degree of compliance with a qigong practice regimen, to evaluate differences between qigong practitioners and non-practitioners, and to determine the response-rate and reliability of a newly developed internet-based, self-report survey. The design was observational, cross-sectional, and prospective. Weekly data on cold and flu symptoms, concurrent health problems and medication use, and qigong practice were gathered for seven weeks. Retrospective information on health and qigong training response was also collected. Participants were 27 of the 55 members of the University of Virginia Swim Team in the Virginia Athletic Department. Main outcomes were measures of aggregated cold/flu symptoms and Qigong practice. Survey completion was 100%, with no missing data, and reliability of the instrument was acceptable. Cold and flu symptoms showed a significant non-linear association with frequency of qigong practice (R(2) = 0.33, p qigong at least once per week (R(2) = 0.70, p Qigong practitioners did not differ from non-practitioners in demographic or lifestyle characteristics, medical history, supplement or medication use, or belief in qigong. These preliminary findings suggest that qigong practice may be protective against URIs among elite swimmers who practice at least once per week.

  9. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of California Almond Orchards Using Advanced Farming Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Schellenberg, Daniel; Saa Silva, Sebastian; Muhammad, Saiful; Sanden, Blake; Brown, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Mobilization of reactive nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, NOx, N2O, NO2- and NO3-) is perceived as one of the foremost challenges for modern agricultural production systems. Yet information to address the question of how advanced nitrogen (N) management alters reactive N mobilization is lacking. During 2009 to 2012 we monitored spatially constrained N2O emissions and potential leachable NO3-, along with yield-N content to examine their contribution to nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, fruit-N exported/fertilizer-N applied) for a modern, high yielding almond production system. This modern production system schedules irrigation to match evapotranspiration (ETc) estimated from the Penman-Montieth calculation of a reference evapotranspiration (ETo) times a seasonal crop coefficient (Kc) which was verified using eddy covariance and surface renewal latent heat flux estimates. Split N-fertilizer applications were targeted to tree-N demand and root proliferation. These production systems demand upwards of 300 kg N ha-1. NUE was found to be nearly 80% at an N application level allowing for economic sustainability of the system (308 kg N ha-1). When mobilization of N2O and NO3- were included in the NUE assessment, these systems were still highly sustainable in terms of N applied. We also monitored production and consumption of the greenhouse gases of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). These systems had relatively low levels of N2O emissions with emissions of N2O as a fraction of N-fertilizer applied being consistently less than IPCC Tier 1 emissions factors, and lower than the average estimated for most continental US farming systems. The system also demonstrated a capacity for net CH4 oxidation over the course of a season that occurred mainly in the driveways between tree rows that are kept dry over the course of the season in this arid environment. Our study indicated that tight management of water resources and targeted applications of N-fertilizer resulted in net positive

  10. White spot disease risk factors associated with shrimp farming practices and geographical location in Chanthaburi province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piamsomboon, Patharapol; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Wongtavatchai, Janenuj

    2015-12-09

    Over the past 2 decades, shrimp aquaculture in Thailand has been impacted by white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Described here are results of a survey of 157 intensive shrimp farms in Chanthaburi province, Thailand, to identify potential farm management and location risk factors associated with the occurrence of WSD outbreaks. Logistic regression analysis of the survey responses identified WSD risks to be associated with farms sharing inlet water and culturing shrimp year round and with a single owner operating more than 1 farm. The analysis also showed WSD risks to be reduced at farms that used probiotics and applied lime to pond bottoms when fallow to neutralize acidity and kill microorganisms. Regression modeling identified no association of geographical location with WSD. The data should assist shrimp farms in mitigating the effects of WSD in Thailand.

  11. On-farm research in Western Siberia: Potential of adapted management practices for sustainable intensification of crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühling, Insa; Trautz, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Western Siberia is of global significance in terms of agricultural production, carbon sequestration and biodiversity preservation. Abandonment of arable land and changes in the use of permanent grasslands were triggered by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in and the following collapse of the state farm system. The peatlands, forests and steppe soils of Western Siberia are one of the most important carbon sinks worldwide. These carbon stocks are, if deteriorated, an important source of radiative forcing even in comparison to anthropogenic emissions. This situation is aggravated by recent and future developments in agricultural land use in the southern part of Western Siberia, in particular in Tyumen province. The increase of drought risk caused by climate change will led to more challenges in these water-limited agricultural production systems. The German-Russian interdisciplinary research project "SASCHA" aims to provide sustainable land management practices to cope with these far-reaching changes for Tyumen province. In particular, on farm scale agricultural strategies are being developed for increased efficiencies in crop production systems. Therefore a 3-factorial field trial with different tillage and seeding operations was installed with spring wheat on 10 ha under practical conditions in 2013. Within all combinations of tillage (no-till/conventional), seed rate (usual/reduced) and seed depth (usual/shallower) various soil parameters as well as plant development and yield components were intensively monitored during the growing seasons. Results after 2-years show significant impacts of the tillage operation on soil moisture and soil temperature. Also a higher trend in nitrogen mineralization could be observed without tillage. Plant development in terms of phenological growth stages took place simultaneously in all variants. Under no-till regime we measured slightly higher grain yields and significant advantages in protein yields. In conjunction with

  12. Teaching dual-process diagnostic reasoning to doctor of nursing practice students: problem-based learning and the illness script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Catherine O; Fowler, Terri; Kennedy, Sally

    2014-11-01

    Accelerating the development of diagnostic reasoning skills for nurse practitioner students is high on the wish list of many faculty. The purpose of this article is to describe how the teaching strategy of problem-based learning (PBL) that drills the hypothetico-deductive or analytic reasoning process when combined with an assignment that fosters pattern recognition (a nonanalytic process) teaches and reinforces the dual process of diagnostic reasoning. In an online Doctor of Nursing Practice program, four PBL cases that start with the same symptom unfold over 2 weeks. These four cases follow different paths as they unfold leading to different diagnoses. Culminating each PBL case, a unique assignment called an illness script was developed to foster the development of pattern recognition. When combined with hypothetico-deductive reasoning drilled during the PBL case, students experience the dual process approach to diagnostic reasoning used by clinicians.

  13. Decompression illness secondary to occupational diving: recommended management based current legistation and practice in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozali, A; Khairuddin, H; Sherina, M S; Zin, B Mohd; Sulaiman, A

    2008-06-01

    Occupational divers are exposed to hazards which contribute to the risk of developing decompression illnesses (DCI). DCI consists of Type I decompression sickness (DCS), Type II DCS and arterial gas embolism (AGE), developed from formation of bubbles in the tissues or circulation as a result of inadequate elimination of inert gas (nitrogen) after a dive. In Malaysia, DCI is one of the significant contributions to mortality and permanent residual morbidity in diving accidents. This is a case of a diver who suffered from Type II DCS with neurological complications due to an occupational diving activity. This article mentions the clinical management of the case and makes several recommendations based on current legislations and practise implemented in Malaysia in order to educate medical and health practitioners on the current management of DCI from the occupational perspective. By following these recommendations, hopefully diving accidents mainly DCI and its sequalae among occupational divers can be minimized and prevented, while divers who become injured receive the proper compensation for their disabilities.

  14. Characteristics of commercial and traditional village poultry farming in Mali with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of avian influenza and Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molia, Sophie; Traoré, Idrissa; Kamissoko, Badian; Diakité, Adama; Sidibé, Maimouna Sanogo; Sissoko, Kadiatou Diarra; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2015-10-01

    We aimed at characterizing commercial and traditional village poultry farming in Mali, with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Surveys were conducted in 2009-2011 in a study area covering approximately 98% of the Malian poultry population. Among the 282 commercial farms investigated, of which 64 had not been known by the government authorities, 83% were located within a 50km radius from the capitals of the country and regions and 54% had low biosecurity standard. Among the 152 randomly selected village household flocks investigated, characteristics were overall similar to those in other African countries but some differences were notable including a large flock size (median 44 poultry), a low presence of ducks and geese (11% and 1.1% of flocks, respectively), vaccination against Newcastle disease being common (49% of flocks), a low proportion of households selling sick and dead birds (0.7% and 0%, respectively) and limited cohabitation between poultry and humans at night. Our recommendations to limit the risk of disease transmission include (1) for commercial farms, to introduce compulsory farm registration and accreditation, to increase technical proficiency and access to credit for farms with low biosecurity, and to support poultry producer associations; (2) for village poultry, to promote better quarantine and management of sick and dead birds. Such detailed knowledge of country-specific characteristics of poultry production systems is essential to be able to develop more efficient disease risk management policies.

  15. Surreptitious practices in the management of persons with serious mental illnesses - Perspectives from the schizophrenia research foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Padmavati; Rangaswamy, Thara

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this communication is to briefly describe the surreptitious practices and management of non-adherence, observed at the services offered by the Schizophrenia Research Foundation. Screening of records at our services for documentations of this practice and the efforts made to deal with non-adherence and concealed treatment was done. Surreptitious practices in SCARF's out-patient services and in community outreach programs have been documented. Efforts to manage non-adherence include educating families on pharmacotherapy and strategies of dealing with non-adherence. At the level the patient, individualised and group strategies deal with the issues addressing lack of insight, acceptance of the disorder, or dealing with perceived side effects are held. Ethical principles of autonomy, justice, beneficence, and respect are adopted in implementing these strategies. There are potential advantages and disadvantages of adopting surreptitious treatment strategies in persons with serious mental illnesses. There is a need to formulate rigorous guidelines for the management of non-adherence.

  16. Evidence summary: what 'cost of illness' evidence is there about cross-infection related infections in dental practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Chris

    2010-07-24

    Since August 2009, members of the Primary Care Dentistry Research Forum (http://www.dentistryresearch.org) have taken part in an online vote to identify questions in day-to-day practice that they felt most needed to be answered with conclusive research. The question which receives the most votes each month forms the subject of a critical appraisal of the relevant literature. Each month a new round of voting takes place to decide which further questions will be reviewed. Dental practitioners and dental care professionals are encouraged to take part in the voting and submit their own questions to be included in the vote by joining the website.The paper below details a summary of the findings of the seventh critical appraisal. In conclusion, the critical appraisal identified no evidence on the epidemiological scale of cross-infection caused in dental practices and therefore also of the cost impact of cross-infection caused in primary dental practices. As a result, no 'cost of illness', or cost-benefit assessment, exists or is feasible at this time.

  17. Evidence analysis library review of best practices for performing indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Susan; Benson-Davies, Sue; Earthman, Carrie P; Frankenfield, David C; Gradwell, Erica; Lee, Peggy S P; Piemonte, Tami; Trabulsi, Jillian

    2015-09-01

    When measurement of resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry is necessary, following evidence-based protocols will ensure the individual has achieved a resting state. The purpose of this project was to update the best practices for measuring RMR by indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill adults and children found the Evidence Analysis Library of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Evidence Analysis process described by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics was followed. The Ovid database was searched for papers published between 2003 and 2012 using key words identified by the work group and research consultants, studies used in the previous project were also considered (1980 to 2003), and references were hand searched. The work group worked in pairs to assign papers to specific questions; however, the work group developed evidence summaries, conclusion statements, and recommendations as a group. Only 43 papers were included to answer 21 questions about the best practices to ensure an individual is at rest when measuring RMR in the non-critically ill population. In summary, subjects should be fasted for at least 7 hours and rest for 30 minutes in a thermoneutral, quiet, and dimly lit room in the supine position before the test, without doing any activities, including fidgeting, reading, or listening to music. RMR can be measured at any time of the day as long as resting conditions are met. The duration of the effects of nicotine and caffeine and other stimulants is unknown, but lasts longer than 140 minutes and 240 minutes, respectively. The duration of the effects of various types of exercise on RMR is unknown. Recommendations for achieving steady state, preferred gas-collection devices, and use of respiratory quotient to detect measurement errors are also given. Of the 21 conclusions statements developed in this systemic review, only 5 received a grade I or II. One limitation is the low number of studies available to address the

  18. Assessing the relationship between farming practices, laboratory analyses and post-mortem findings: a case study in pig fattening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkabel, N; Fries, R

    2013-12-01

    European Union legislation on animal production associated with food safety requires the collection and management of information and data about the farm, the herd and the individual animal. This paper describes the technical steps of the generation, collection and interpretation of data from 296 pig-fattening farms, belonging to two farming associations and using indoor production systems (56 management parameters). The paper also describes post-mortem findings and the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for antibodies to salmonellae, Trichinella spp. and Yersinia spp. A total of nearly 30 million data points were collected and analysed for this study. The results of the ELISA were negative for Trichinella spp.; for salmonellae and Yersinia spp., both negative and positive results were obtained. Analysis of the farm management parameters showed no significant differences; therefore, the cut-off levels for salmonellae and Yersinia spp. were increased, in order to identify farms with a greater hygiene burden. Post-mortem findings, possibly related to 'farm hygiene', were used in the analysis. As a result, three farms with particular management decisions were identified as potentially having contributed to the high burden of pathogens detected using ELISA. A relationship between laboratory results and farm management parameters assessed from yes/no answers could not be established in this study without further work on the available data set.

  19. Evaluating and improving terminal hygiene practices on broiler farms to prevent Campylobacter cross-contamination between flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Tara; Walsh, D; Whyte, P; Bolton, D

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate current cleaning practices in broiler houses by testing a range of sites after cleaning and disinfection and to test the efficacy of the most commonly used methods in a commercial broiler house after flock harvesting. Cleaning procedures on 20 broiler houses (10 separate farms) were examined by testing a range of sampling points (feeders, drinkers, walls, etc.) for total viable count (TVC), total Enterobacteriaceae count (TEC) and Campylobacter spp. after cleaning and disinfection, using culture based methods. In a second experiment, the six most commonly used commercially available disinfectants and/or detergent products were evaluated. The results of the first study demonstrated that critical areas in 12 of the 20 broiler houses were not effectively cleaned and disinfected between flocks as the tarmac apron, ante-room, house door, feeders, drinkers, walls, columns, barriers and/or bird weighs were Campylobacter positive. Thermal fogging with the combination of potassium peroxymonosulfate, sulfamic acid and sodium chloride (5%, v/v) or the glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium complex (0.3%, v/v) were the most effective treatments while other disinfectant treatments were considerably less effective. It was therefore concluded that farmers should review their broiler house cleaning and disinfection procedures if Campylobacter cross-contamination between successive flocks is to be prevented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reference levels for corticosterone and immune function in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) hatchlings using current Code of Practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, John W; Thomson, Peter C; Adams, Amanda L; Benedict, Suresh; Moran, Christopher; Isberg, Sally R

    2015-02-01

    To determine reference levels for on-farm stressors on immune responsiveness and growth rate, 253 hatchling crocodiles from 11 known breeding pairs were repeatedly measured and blood sampled during their first year. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) was used to quantify baseline stress levels in captive animals and were found to be lower (mean 1.83±SE 0.16 ng/mL) than previously reported in saltwater crocodile hatchlings. Two tests of immune function were also conducted. Innate constitutive immunity was assessed using bacterial killing assays (BKA) against two bacterial species: Escherichia coli and Providencia rettgeri, whereby the latter causes considerable economic loss to industry from septicaemic mortalities. Although the bactericidal capabilities were different at approximately 4 months old (32±3% for E. coli and 16±4% for P. rettgeri), the differences had disappeared by approximately 9 months old (58±2% and 68±6%, respectively). To assess immune responsiveness to a novel antigen, the inflammatory swelling response caused by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection was assessed but was only significantly different between Samplings 1 and 3 (5% LSD). There were no significant clutch effects for CORT or PHA but there were for both BKA traits. CORT was not significantly associated with growth (head length) or the immune parameters except for P. rettgeri BKA where higher CORT levels were associated with better bactericidal capability. As such, these results suggest that the crocodiles in this study are not stressed, therefore endorsing the management strategies adopted within the Australian industry Code of Practice.

  1. Exploring expert opinion on the practicality and effectiveness of biosecurity measures on dairy farms in the United Kingdom using choice modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Orla; Green, Martin; Brennan, Marnie; Wapenaar, Wendela; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2017-03-01

    Biosecurity, defined as a series of measures aiming to stop disease-causing agents entering or leaving an area where farm animals are present, is very important for the continuing economic viability of the United Kingdom dairy sector, and for animal welfare. This study gathered expert opinion from farmers, veterinarians, consultants, academics, and government and industry representatives on the practicality and effectiveness of different biosecurity measures on dairy farms. The study used best-worst scaling, a technique that allows for greater discrimination between choices and avoids the variability in interpretation associated with other methods, such as Likert scales and ranking methods. Keeping a closed herd was rated as the most effective measure overall, and maintaining regular contact with the veterinarian was the most practical measure. Measures relating to knowledge, planning, and veterinary involvement; buying-in practices; and quarantine and treatment scored highly for effectiveness overall. Measures relating to visitors, equipment, pest control, and hygiene scored much lower for effectiveness. Overall, measures relating to direct animal-to-animal contact scored much higher for effectiveness than measures relating to indirect disease transmission. Some of the most effective measures were also rated as the least practical, such as keeping a closed herd and avoiding nose-to-nose contact between contiguous animals, suggesting that real barriers exist for farmers when implementing biosecurity measures on dairy farms. We observed heterogeneity in expert opinion on biosecurity measures; for example, veterinarians rated the effectiveness of consulting the veterinarian on biosecurity significantly more highly than dairy farmers, suggesting a greater need for veterinarians to promote their services on-farm. Still, both groups rated it as a practical measure, suggesting that the farmer-veterinarian relationship holds some advantages for the promotion of

  2. Soil response to biodynamic farming practices in estevia -Stevia Rebaudiana- (Extremadura, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Juana; Colmenares, Ricardo; Sánchez, Eduardo; Creus, Juan; García, Nieves; Blázquez, Jaime; Moreno, Marta M.

    2014-05-01

    The first results of the evolution of an organic-biodynamic cultivation of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) in Extremadura (Spain) are shown here. The organic-biodynamic approach permits experimentally for a more holistic view of the crop development process what means the understanding and quantification of its evolution at different scales. The research methodology applied includes not only quantitative individual parameters of the crop development but also global parameters which make a contribution of very relevant information concerning unbalances between growth and differentiation processes, as well as other aspects linked to the product intrinsic quality. The crop cultivation has been done over a plot of 2.5 has, on acid soils (pH 5.18) and very poor organic matter content (0.5 %). On this first year of cultivation two cuts were given to the plant with an average total yield of 4,500 kg/ha without any supply of solid organic matter, only with the application of the biodynamic preparations. So far results regarding soil improvement and crop productivity, taking into consideration the practices used, let us introduce this pioneer crop in Extremadura, not only as an alternative crop to the current tobacco crop in this area, but also as a development resource for the rural environment of this region. Key words: Agroecology, Organic Biodynamic Agriculture, Stevia Rebaudiana

  3. Understanding crop and farm management

    OpenAIRE

    Chongtham, Iman Raj

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture faces challenges in meeting rising demand for food, feed, fibre and fuel while coping with pressure from globalisation, limited natural resources and climate change. Farmers will choose management practices based on their goals and available resources and these practices will influence farm performance. The aim of this thesis was to understand farmers’ crop and farm management practices and their links to farm(er) characteristics, productivity, biodiversity, marketing channels and...

  4. Clinical practice guidelines for evidence-based management of sedoanalgesia in critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Rodríguez, E; Birchenall, C; de la Cal, M Á; Castorena Arellano, G; Hernández, A; Ceraso, D; Díaz Cortés, J C; Dueñas Castell, C; Jimenez, E J; Meza, J C; Muñoz Martínez, T; Sosa García, J O; Pacheco Tovar, C; Pálizas, F; Pardo Oviedo, J M; Pinilla, D I; Raffán-Sanabria, F; Raimondi, N; Righy Shinotsuka, C; Suárez, M; Ugarte, S; Rubiano, S

    2013-11-01

    contains recommendations and suggestions based on the best evidence available for the management of sedation, analgesia and delirium of the critically ill patient, including a bundle of strategies that serves this purpose. We highlight the assessment of pain and agitation/sedation through validated scales, the use of opioids initially to apropiate analgesic control, associated with multimodal strategies in order to reduce opioide consumption; to promote the lowest level of sedation necessary avoiding over-sedation. Also, in case of the need of sedatives, choose the most appropiate for the patient needs, avoiding the use of benzodiazepines and identify risk factors for delirium, in order to prevent its occurrence, diagnose delirium and treat it with the most suitable pharmacological agent, whether it is haloperidol, atypical antipsychotics or dexmedetomidine, once again, avoiding the use of benzodiazepines and decreasing the use of opioids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in two districts of Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Abbo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : The WHO estimates that more than 80% of African populations attend traditional healers for health reasons and that 40%–60% of these have some kind of mental illness. However, little is known about the profiles and outcome of this traditional approach to treatment. Objective : The purpose of this study was to describe the profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in Jinja and Iganga districts in the Busoga region of Eastern Uganda. Methods : Four studies were conducted. Study I used focus group discussions (FGDs with case vignettes with local community members and traditional healers to explore the lay concepts of psychosis. Studies II and III concerned a cross-sectional survey of patients above 18 years at the traditional healer's shrines and study IV was made on a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with psychosis in study III. Manual content analysis was used in study I; quantitative data in studies II, III, and IV were analyzed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels to determine the association between psychological distress and socio-demographic factors; for study IV, factors associated with outcome were analyzed. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was the analysis used in Study IV. Results : The community gave indigenous names to psychoses (mania, schizophrenia, and psychotic depression and had multiple explanatory models for them. Thus multiple solutions for these problems were sought. Of the 387 respondents, the prevalence of psychological distress was 65.1%, where 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness, and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Over 80% of patients with psychosis used both biomedical and traditional healing systems. Those who combined these two systems seemed to have a better outcome. All the symptom scales showed a percentage reduction of more than 20% at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Conclusion : Traditional healers shoulder a

  6. Understanding men's health and illness: a gender-relations approach to policy, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, T; Connell, R W; Walker, L; Wood, J F; Butland, D L

    2000-05-01

    Men's health has emerged as an important public concern that may require new kinds of healthcare interventions and increased resources. Considerable uncertainty and confusion surround prevailing understandings of men's health, particularly those generated by media debate and public policy, and health research has often operated on oversimplified assumptions about men and masculinity. A more useful way of understanding men's health is to adopt a gender-relations approach. This means examining health concerns in the context of men's and women's interactions with each other, and their positions in the larger, multidimensional structure of gender relations. Such an approach raises the issue of differences among men, which is a key issue in recent research on masculinity and an important health issue. The gender-relations approach offers new ways of addressing practical issues of healthcare for men in college environments.

  7. Genetic characterization and relatedness of wild and farmed Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis: Possible implications for aquaculture practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ben Khadher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture of the Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, in recirculating systems has emerged over the past decades to become a significant way of diversification for inland areas in Europe. The development of such a production relies partly on the improvement of growth performance (i.e., reducing production costs, which requires suitable genetic management of broodstocks and the development of selective breeding programs. In this context, the present study was undertaken assessing for the first time the genetic diversity of farmed stocks of perch. Twelve microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic diversity of nine farmed stocks (547 individuals from two perch farms located in France and their supposedly wild founder population from Lake Geneva (394 individuals. First, the wild population displayed the lowest genetic diversity and differed genetically from all farmed populations except one, XB2. Second, genetic diversity did not decrease between farmed breeders and their potential offspring. However, in the three groups of broodstock-offspring the number of alleles decreased by 10%, 21%, and 15%, respectively. In addition, effective population size decreased in all offspring groups. A family structuring was also observed among broodstocks and their offspring, with an unequal family contribution being suspected. In the absence of parental information, these results attest to the utility of genetic tools to evaluate genetic diversity and the necessity of a monitoring program to maintain genetic variability among farmed perch. Genetic variability among farmed stocks appears to be sufficient for perch production to be sustainable and selective breeding programs to be developed.

  8. Impact of applying hygienic practices at farm on bacteriological quality of raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to explore the potential source of contamination and the efficacy of different washing practices towards quality milk production. Materials and Methods: Probable sources of contamination viz. stored water, potable water, milker’s hands, milking pail, udder of individual buffalo and milk cans were subjected to different types of bacterial counts before the actual experiment to start. Twenty milch buffaloes thereafter were divided randomly into four treatment groups where washing was performed in each step viz. milker hands, udder of individual buffalo, milking pail and milk cans before milking either with water (T0: stored water, T1: potable water or sanitizers (T2: 200 ppm chlorine solution, T3: 50 ppm iodophore solution for 60 days. Bacterial counts again were performed for last 5 alternate days for all the sources involved along with the microbial load of raw milk. Data obtained were subjected to standard statistical analysis. Results: It was found that for all bacterial count stored water contributed significantly higher as compared to the potable water. Among the other potential sources of contamination (log/6 cm2, standard plate count (SPC and coliform count were significantly highest for milking pail (6.73±0.02 and udder of milch buffaloes (3.77±0.12, respectively, while for Staphylococci count both milking pail (3.24±0.02 and milking can (3.22±0.04 were contributed maximally (p0.05 for most of the parameters, even for the raw milk quality. Conclusion: Study revealed that milker hands, milking pails, udder of animals, milk cans and stored water used for washing of equipment are the potential source of contamination in raw milk. These were counted as critical point which needs attention for the production of high-quality milk. Potable water was found to be better than stored water. The use of either chlorine 200 ppm and iodophor 50 ppm is highly effective in reducing the bacterial population for

  9. Illness as Teacher: Learning from Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    This article is a conceptual exploration into the value of illness, bodies and embodied practice in teacher education. It draws on my reflections and practitioner accounts of poor health to investigate the potential to learn from illness. I position myself in this discussion as a non-tenured academic who experiences the challenges of her uncertain…

  10. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomba, Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, Rob H G; McCracken, David I

    2015-03-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems' data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation.

  11. Grid connection of wind farms in Poland. Problems of practical implementation; Netzanschluss von Windparks in Polen. Probleme der praktischen Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczyk, Joanna [Anwaltskanzlei bnt Neupert, Zamorska and Partnerzy s.c., Warsaw (Poland); Neupert, Martin [Anwaltskanzlei bnt Neupert, Zamorska and Partnerzy s.c., Warsaw (Poland); bnt Rechtsanwaelte GbR, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    In the process of developing ideal locations for wind farms in Poland primarily capacities of the Polish grid have to be considered. Other factors, as environmental issues, wind speed and migration routes of different bird species are issues of minor importance in Poland. In the following you will learn how to obtain grid connection for wind farms in Poland, how to avoid typical problems and what are the differences in the proceedings compared to legal provisions in Germany. (orig.)

  12. Associations between herd-level feeding management practices, feed sorting, and milk production in freestall dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, A D; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2013-07-01

    The challenges associated with group-housed dairy cows include within-herd variability in nutrient consumption and milk production, which may be related to feeding management. The objective of this observational study was to examine the association of herd-level feeding management factors, feed sorting, and milk production. Twenty-two freestall herds with an average lactating herd size of 162±118 cows, feeding total mixed rations, were each studied for 7 consecutive days in summer and winter. In cases of multiple feeding groups within a herd, the highest producing group of cows with an even distribution of days in milk and parity was selected for this study. The average group size studied was 83±31 cows. The average study group consisted of cows 187±47 days in milk, with a parity of 2.3±0.6, consuming 24.3±2.6kg of dry matter, with an average group-level yield of 34.3±6kg of milk/d, 3.7±0.3% milk fat, and 3.2±0.18% milk protein. Milk production parameters, including yield, fat, and protein, were recorded through regular Dairy Herd Improvement milk testing. A survey of feeding management practices and barn characteristics was administered on each farm. The amounts of feed offered and refused were recorded and sampled daily to assess dry matter intake (DMI) and particle size distribution. Feeding twice per day compared with once per day was associated with an average increase of 1.42kg of DMI, 2.0kg of milk yield, and less sorting against long ration particles (>19mm). Every 2% group-level selective refusal (sorting) of long particles was associated with 1kg/d of reduction in milk yield. A 10cm/cow increase in feed bunk space was associated with a 0.06-percentage-point increase in group-average milk fat and a 13% decrease in group-average somatic cell count. These results support that herd-level management practices to promote feed access, such as increased feeding frequency and bunk space, may improve DMI and promote more balanced nutrient intake and greater

  13. Integrated healthcare for chronically ill. Reflections on the gap between science and practice and how to bridge the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma van der Vlegel-Brouwer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrated care offers an opportunity to address healthcare efficiency and effectiveness concerns and is especially relevant for elderly patients with different chronic illnesses.In current care standards for chronic care focus is often on one disease. The chronic care model (CCM is used as the basis of integrated care programs. It identifies essential components that encourage high-quality chronic disease care, involving the community and health system and including self-management support, delivery system design, decision support, and clinical information systems. Improvements in those interrelated components can produce system reform in which informed, activated patients interact with prepared, proactive practice teams. There is however a lack of research evidence for the impact of the chronic care model as a full model.Integrated care programmes have widely varying definitions and components and failure to recognize these variations leads to inappropriate conclusions about the effectiveness of these programmes and to inappropriate application of research results. It seems important to carefully consider the type and amount of data that are collected within the disease management programmes for several purposes, as well as the methods of data collection.Understanding and changing the behavior of complex dynamic chronic care system requires an appreciation of its key patterns, leverage points and constraints. A different theoretical framework, that embraces complexity, is required. Research should be design-based, context bound and address relationships among agents in order to provide solutions that address locally defined demands and circumstances.

  14. Integrated healthcare for chronically ill. Reflections on the gap between science and practice and how to bridge the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma van der Vlegel-Brouwer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrated care offers an opportunity to address healthcare efficiency and effectiveness concerns and is especially relevant for elderly patients with different chronic illnesses. In current care standards for chronic care focus is often on one disease. The chronic care model (CCM is used as the basis of integrated care programs. It identifies essential components that encourage high-quality chronic disease care, involving the community and health system and including self-management support, delivery system design, decision support, and clinical information systems. Improvements in those interrelated components can produce system reform in which informed, activated patients interact with prepared, proactive practice teams. There is however a lack of research evidence for the impact of the chronic care model as a full model. Integrated care programmes have widely varying definitions and components and failure to recognize these variations leads to inappropriate conclusions about the effectiveness of these programmes and to inappropriate application of research results. It seems important to carefully consider the type and amount of data that are collected within the disease management programmes for several purposes, as well as the methods of data collection. Understanding and changing the behavior of complex dynamic chronic care system requires an appreciation of its key patterns, leverage points and constraints. A different theoretical framework, that embraces complexity, is required. Research should be design-based, context bound and address relationships among agents in order to provide solutions that address locally defined demands and circumstances.

  15. Population management, systems-based practice, and planned chronic illness care: integrating disease management competencies into primary care to improve composite diabetes quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Joe; DaSilva, Karen; Marshall, Richard

    2008-02-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic illnesses in the United States requires a fundamental redesign of the primary care delivery system's structure and processes in order to meet the changing needs and expectations of patients. Population management, systems-based practice, and planned chronic illness care are 3 potential processes that can be integrated into primary care and are compatible with the Chronic Care Model. In 2003, Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates, a multispecialty ambulatory physician group practice based in Boston, Massachusetts, began implementing all 3 processes across its primary care practices. From 2004 to 2006, the overall diabetes composite quality measures improved from 51% to 58% for screening (HgA1c x 2, low-density lipoprotein, blood pressure in 12 months) and from 13% to 17% for intermediate outcomes (HgA1c system integrated these disease management functions into the front lines of primary care and the positive impact of those changes on overall diabetes quality of care.

  16. Antibiotic use and resistance in animal farming: a quantitative and qualitative study on knowledge and practices among farmers in Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayb, A; Barakat, S; Marrone, G; Shaddad, S; Stålsby Lundborg, C

    2012-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major emerging global public health threat. Farmers in the Khartoum state are believed to misuse antibiotics in animal farming leading to daily exposure to resistant bacteria and antibiotic residues. Hence, farmers are at potential risk exposure to bacteria, zoonotic infection and toxicity. We hypothesized that farmers' misuse of antibiotics could be due to their ignorance of the importance of optimal use of antibiotics, the potential health hazards and the economical waste associated with antibiotic misuse practices. In the present study, we investigated knowledge and practices among farmers regarding antibiotic use and resistance. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Khartoum state where data were collected from 81 farmers using structured interviews. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Fifty-two per cent of farmers were uneducated or had studied for antibiotic use for treatment and prevention while only 5% stated use for growth promotion. Antibiotic group treatment for both sick and healthy animals was commonly practiced among most farmers. The most commonly used group of antibiotics was the quinolones, which was reported by one-third. Only 30% of the farmers had heard of antibiotic resistance and provided their definition. Almost half were not aware of the commonly transferred zoonotic infections between humans and animals. The farmers consume 1-2 meals/day from their own farm products. A significant association between low education, poor knowledge of farmers on antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance and zoonotic infections was found. This association may play a vital role in the present practiced misuse of antibiotics. Our findings on farmers' practices could be used as baseline information in defining the gaps related to antibiotic use and resistance in animal farming in Sudan. It can thus serve as a foundation for future interventions. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices for Adults with PTSD and Severe Mental Illness in Public-Sector Mental Health Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental…

  18. Quantifying risk factors of coccidiosis in broilers using on-farm data based on a veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graat, E A; van der Kooij, E; Frankena, K; Henken, A M; Smeets, J F; Hekerman, M T

    1998-01-01

    A study was done to find and quantify risk factors for coccidiosis. The study population consisted of 4774 broiler flocks kept on 177 farms. Flocks were considered a case when at least one bird in the flock showed microscopic presence of oocysts in intestinal scrapings in a grow-out cycle. Other flocks were defined as controls. This was done for three types of Eimeria: Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima. Logistic regression was used to assess variables that influence the occurrence of Eimeria species. There were 49 variables, based on animal, flock or farm level. There was an enhanced risk of coccidiosis due to environmental and management factors that increase the risk of introducing contamination or that are related to hygienic measures. These include lack of use of overalls by visitors, a farmyard which is difficult to clean, bad hygienic status, personnel who might also be working on other farms, presence of other animals on the farm, and feeding and drinking systems which are more difficult to clean. Also, the presence of other diseases on the farm and Eimeria species found in the previous flock increased the risk of coccidiosis.

  19. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  20. Dairy intensification in developing countries: effects of market quality on farm-level feeding and breeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, A J; Teufel, N; Mekonnen, K; Singh, V K; Bitew, A; Gebremedhin, B

    2013-12-01

    Smallholder dairy production represents a promising income generating activity for poor farmers in the developing world. Because of the perishable nature of milk, marketing arrangements for collection, distribution and sale are important for enhanced livelihoods in the smallholder dairy sector. In this study we examined the relationship between market quality and basic feeding and breeding practices at farm level. We define market quality as the attractiveness and reliability of procurement channels and associated input supply arrangements. We took as our study countries, India with its well-developed smallholder dairy sector, and Ethiopia where the smallholder dairy industry has remained relatively undeveloped despite decades of development effort. We conducted village surveys among producer groups in 90 villages across three States in India and two Regions in Ethiopia. Producer groups were stratified according to three levels of market quality - high, medium and low. Data showed that diet composition was relatively similar in India and Ethiopia with crop residues forming the major share of the diet. Concentrate feeding tended to be more prominent in high market quality sites. Herd composition changed with market quality with more dairy (exotic) cross-bred animals in high market quality sites in both India and Ethiopia. Cross-bred animals were generally more prominent in India than Ethiopia. Herd performance within breed did not change a great deal along the market quality gradient. Parameters such as calving interval and milk yield were relatively insensitive to market quality. Insemination of cross-bred cows was predominantly by artificial insemination (AI) in India and accounted for around half of cross-bred cow inseminations in Ethiopia. Data on perceptions of change over the last decade indicated that per herd and per cow productivity are both increasing in high market quality sites with a more mixed picture in medium and low-quality sites. Similarly dairy

  1. "Hell no, they'll think you're mad as a hatter": Illness discourses and their implications for patients in mental health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Agnes; Holen, Mari

    2016-03-01

    This article examines how discourses on mental illness are negotiated in mental health practice and their implications for the subjective experiences of psychiatric patients. Based on a Foucauldian analysis of ethnographic data from two mental health institutions in Denmark--an outpatient clinic and an inpatient ward--this article identifies three discourses in the institutions: the instability discourse, the discourse of "really ill," and the lack of insight discourse. This article indicates that patients were required to develop a finely tuned and precise sense of the discourses and ways to appear in front of professionals if they wished to have a say in their treatment. We suggest that the extent to which an individual patient was positioned as ill seemed to rely more on his or her ability to navigate the discourses and the psychiatric setting than on any objective diagnostic criteria. Thus, we argue that illness discourses in mental health practice are not just materialized as static biomedical understandings, but are complex and diverse--and have implications for patients' possibilities to understand themselves and become understandable to professionals.

  2. Management practices and use of anthelmintics on dairy cattle farms in The Netherlands: results of a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, F H; Sol, J; van Uum, A; de Haan, N; Huyben, R; Sampimon, O

    1998-07-17

    In December 1996, a questionnaire about farm management and parasite control measures in calves was sent to 956 randomly chosen dairy cattle farmers in The Netherlands. Another 150 farmers in the vicinity of Deventer who had vaccinated their calves in 1995 against lungworm were approached with the same questions. Our object was to investigate the consequences on worm control of the withdrawal of the lungworm vaccine from the market for reasons of possible BSE contamination of the vaccine. OF the returned questionnaires, 411 (43%) of the 'at random' group and 89 (59.3%) of the 'Deventer' group were valid. The most important data with regard to the farms of the 'at random' group (41) were: mean area 31.6 ha, mean number of calves 23, heifers 23 and milking cows 53. Sheep (mean 37) were present on 18.3% of the farms. With regard to management: 74.5% of the farmers turned the calves in their first year onto pasture, 25.5% kept them indoors. The average time on pasture was ca. 5 months. Rational grazing was practise on 81.4% of the farms, on 18.6% calves were set stocked. The first pasture of the calves was mown before turn-out on 72.9% of the farms. On 48.2% of these farms, calves were always moved to mown pastures. With regard to treatments: 33.8% of the farmers vaccinated their calves against lungworm in the years 1993, 1994 and 1995. Despite the withdrawal of the vaccine from the market in 1996, 7.2% of the farmers vaccinated their calves as recommended, with two doses, and 13.1% with a single dose. At turn-out, 41.5% of the farmers gave the calves a preventive anthelmintic treatment. Of these treatments, 66.9% were sustained of pulse release long acting device. During the grazing season, 36.6% of the farmers treated their calves. After housing 50.3% of the farmers gave a treatment. Signs of lungworm infection were noticed on 18.6% of the farms. Of the 'Deventer' group (89 farmers), 96.6% turned the calves out, Of these farmers, 86.0% had used the lungworm vaccine

  3. Improving arable farm enterprise integration – Review of existing technologies and practices from a farmer’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruize, J.W.; Robbemond, R.M.; Scholten, H.; Wolfert, J.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Current consumers are demanding food that is produced more sustainably, safely and transparently. To meet these demands farm enterprises need to improve production. To support this, a variety of high-tech tools are available. Despite this availability, farmers face difficulties in adopting and integ

  4. Management practices and use of anthelmintics on dairy cattle farms in The Netherlands: results of a questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Sol, J.; Uum, van A.; Haan, de N.; Huyben, R.; Sampimon, O.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, a questionnaire about farm management and parasite control measures in calves was sent to 956 randomly chosen dairy cattle farmers in The Netherlands. Another 150 farmers in the vicinity of Deventer who had vaccinated their calves in 1995 against lungworm were approached with the s

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw goat milk and effect of farming practices on the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormo, Hélène; Ali Haimoud Lekhal, Djamila; Roques, C

    2015-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria, in particular Lactococcus lactis, play a decisive role in the cheese making process and more particularly in lactic cheeses which are primarily produced on goat dairy farms. The objective of this study was therefore to identify the main lactic acid bacteria found in raw goats' milk from three different regions in France and evaluate if certain farming practices have an effect on the distribution of species of lactic acid bacteria in the various milk samples. Identification at genus or species level was carried out using phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including repetitive element REP-PCR, species-specific PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The distribution of the main bacterial species in the milk samples varied depending on farms and their characteristics. Out of the 146 strains identified, L. lactis was the dominant species (60% of strains), followed by Enterococcus (38%) of which Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Within the species L. lactis, L. lactis subsp lactis was detected more frequently than L. lactis subsp cremoris (74% vs. 26%). The predominance of L. lactis subsp cremoris was linked to geographical area studied. It appears that the animals' environment plays a role in the balance between the dominance of L. lactis and enterococci in raw goats' milk. The separation between the milking parlor and the goat shed (vs no separation) and only straw in the bedding (vs straw and hay) seems to promote L. lactis in the milk (vs enterococci).

  6. Weed species composition and distribution pattern in the maize crop under the influence of edaphic factors and farming practices: A case study from Mardan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zeeshan; Khan, Shujaul Mulk; Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Hashem, Abeer

    2016-11-01

    Weeds are unwanted plant species growing in ordinary environment. In nature there are a total of 8000 weed species out of which 250 are important for agriculture world. The present study was carried out on weed species composition and distribution pattern with special reference to edaphic factor and farming practices in maize crop of District Mardan during the months of August and September, 2014. Quadrates methods were used to assess weed species distribution in relation to edaphic factor and farming practices. Phytosociological attributes such as frequency, relative frequency, density, relative density and Importance Values were measured by placing 9 quadrates (1 × 1 m(2)) randomly in each field. Initial results showed that the study area has 29 diverse weed species belonging to 27 genera and 15 families distributed in 585 quadrats. Presence and absence data sheet of 29 weed species and 65 fields were analyzed through PC-ORD version 5. Cluster and Two Way Cluster Analyses initiated four different weed communities with significant indicator species and with respect to underlying environmental variables using data attribute plots. Canonical Correspondence Analyses (CCA) of CANOCO software version 4.5 was used to assess the environmental gradients of weed species. It is concluded that among all the edaphic factors the strongest variables were higher concentration of potassium, organic matter and sandy nature of soil. CCA plots of both weed species and sampled fields based on questionnaire data concluded the farming practices such as application of fertilizers, irrigation and chemical spray were the main factors in determination of weed communities.

  7. The development of anthelmintic resistance with best practice control of nematodes on commercial sheep farms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Stephens, Nathalie; Boughtflower, Valerie; Barrecheguren, Alba; Rickell, Kayleigh

    2016-10-15

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections. The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance is a major global issue affecting the effective control of parasite diseases in grazing livestock production. Sustainable control strategies that reduce dependence on antimicrobials have the potential to slow the further development of resistance but there is little data on the effect of control strategies on resistance development in the field. This report documents a study undertaken to measure the temporal effect of the UK sustainable control of parasites in sheep (SCOPS) guidelines on the development of anthelmintic resistance. Farms carrying out SCOPS or traditional worm control (TRADITIONAL) were tested for resistance to the benzimidazole and imidazothiazole anthelmintics in vitro using a discriminating dose (dd) larval development test (LDT) in year 1 and then 7 years later. In years 5 and 7, resistance was also measured using a dose-response LDT assay. There was a significant increase in Teladorsagia survivors at the benzimidazole dd assay between year 1 and year 7 for both treatment groups, but the increase in survivors was greater for the farms carrying out their traditional worm control compared to the SCOPS farms. There was also a significant difference between benzimidazole dd results generated across years for Trichostrongylus, but the year and treatment interaction was not significant. Only one of the farm Teladorsagia populations had survivors in the imidazothiazole dd assay in years 1 and 7 and none of the Trichostrongylus populations survived in year 1 compared to isolates from three of the farms in year 7. Dose-response data showed a significant effect for time for both the benzimidazole and imidazothiazole anthelmintics and the increase was again significantly higher for the Teladorsagia populations in the TRADITIONAL group compared to the SCOPS group. This data suggests an

  8. Soil-air greenhouse gas fluxes influenced by farming practices in reservoir drawdown area: A case at the Three Gorges Reservoir in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Zhang, Zengyu; Lin, Chuxue; Chen, Yongbo; Wen, Anbang; Fang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China has large water level variations, creating about 393 km(2) of drawdown area seasonally. Farming practices in drawdown area during the low water level period is common in the TGR. Field experiments on soil-air greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in fallow grassland, peanut field and corn field in reservoir drawdown area at Lijiaba Bay of the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Yangtze River in the TGR were carried out from March through September 2011. Experimental fields in drawdown area had the same land use history. They were adjacent to each other horizontally at a narrow range of elevation i.e. 167-169 m, which assured that they had the same duration of reservoir inundation. Unflooded grassland with the same land-use history was selected as control for study. Results showed that mean value of soil CO2 emissions in drawdown area was 10.38 ± 0.97 mmol m(-2) h(-1). The corresponding CH4 fluxes and N2O fluxes were -8.61 ± 2.15 μmol m(-2) h(-1) and 3.42 ± 0.80 μmol m(-2) h(-1). Significant differences and monthly variations among land uses in treatments of drawdown area and unflooded grassland were evident. These were impacted by the change in soil physiochemical properties which were alerted by reservoir operation and farming. Particularly, N-fertilization in corn field stimulated N2O emissions from March to May. In terms of global warming potentials (GWP), corn field in drawdown area had the maximum GWP mainly due to N-fertilization. Gross GWP in peanut field in drawdown area was about 7% lower than that in fallow grassland. Compared to unflooded grassland, reservoir operation created positive net effect on GHG emissions and GWPs in drawdown area. However, selection of crop species, e.g. peanut, and best practices in farming, e.g. prohibiting N-fertilization, could potentially mitigate GWPs in drawdown area. In the net GHG emissions evaluation in the TGR, farming practices in the drawdown area shall be taken

  9. [Practices and interventions related to the work integration of people with a severe mental illness: work outcomes and avenues of research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachoud, B; Corbière, M

    2014-06-01

    literature and are recognized as an evidence-based practice across the world to help people get competitive employment. Social firms is an another alternative model for facilitating the work integration of people with severe mental illness but has to date scarcely been studied empirically. Other hybrid vocational programs implemented in Québec (Canada) and France and inspired by supported employment programs and social firms' principles, are also described. The second part of this special issue is related to the presentation of two adjunct clinical interventions for helping people with a severe mental illness in their work integration, and more particularly for increasing job tenure: cognitive remediation and group cognitive behavioral therapy. Cognitive remediation was developed to reduce the impact of cognitive deficits, such as memory or attention, in people with a severe mental illness whereas group cognitive behavioral therapy was developed to change the dysfunctional beliefs and behaviours that might hinder job tenure in people receiving supported employment services. Finally, the third part of this special issue presents two papers on the influence of the workplace, of stakeholders from the organization (e.g., employers, supervisors) and of the work environment on the work integration of people with severe mental illness. The first paper discusses disclosure of the mental illness in the workplace and its positive and negative consequences such as receiving work accommodations and experiencing stigma, respectively. In the last paper, psychological processes during the hiring process are presented to better understand the elements related to discrimination and stigma during the work integration of people with severe mental illness. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Farm Fairs and Petting Zoos: A Review of Animal Contact as a Source of Zoonotic Enteric Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Cheyenne C; Stanford, Kim; Narvaez-Bravo, Claudia; Callaway, Todd; McAllister, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Many public venues such as farms, fairs, and petting zoos encourage animal contact for both educational and entertainment purposes. However, healthy farm animals, including cattle, small ruminants, and poultry, can be reservoirs for enteric zoonotic pathogens, with human infections resulting in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and, in some cases, severe complications that can lead to death. As animals shed these organisms in their feces, contamination of themselves and their surroundings is unavoidable. The majority of North Americans reside in urban and suburban settings, and the general public often possess limited knowledge of agricultural practices and minimal contact with farm animals. Furthermore, there is a lack of understanding of zoonotic pathogens, particularly how these pathogens are spread and the human behaviors that may increase the risk of infection. Human risk behaviors include hand-to-mouth contact immediately after physical contact with animals and their environments, a practice that facilitates the ingestion of pathogens. It is often young children who become ill due to their under-developed immune systems and poorer hygienic practices compared with adults, such as more frequent hand-to-mouth behaviors, and infrequent or improper hand washing. These illnesses are often preventable, simply through adequate hygiene and hand washing. Our objective was to use a structured approach to review the main causal organisms responsible for human illnesses acquired in petting zoo and open farm environments, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, nontyphoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium. Notable outbreaks involving direct contact with farm animals and farm, fair, or petting zoo environments are discussed and recommendations for how public venues can increase safety and hand hygiene compliance among visitors are proposed. The most effective protective measures against enteric illnesses include education of the public, increasing overall awareness

  11. Optimal management of the critically ill: anaesthesia, monitoring, data capture, and point-of-care technological practices in ovine models of critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemonges, Saul; Shekar, Kiran; Tung, John-Paul; Dunster, Kimble R; Diab, Sara; Platts, David; Watts, Ryan P; Gregory, Shaun D; Foley, Samuel; Simonova, Gabriela; McDonald, Charles; Hayes, Rylan; Bellpart, Judith; Timms, Daniel; Chew, Michelle; Fung, Yoke L; Toon, Michael; Maybauer, Marc O; Fraser, John F

    2014-01-01

    Animal models of critical illness are vital in biomedical research. They provide possibilities for the investigation of pathophysiological processes that may not otherwise be possible in humans. In order to be clinically applicable, the model should simulate the critical care situation realistically, including anaesthesia, monitoring, sampling, utilising appropriate personnel skill mix, and therapeutic interventions. There are limited data documenting the constitution of ideal technologically advanced large animal critical care practices and all the processes of the animal model. In this paper, we describe the procedure of animal preparation, anaesthesia induction and maintenance, physiologic monitoring, data capture, point-of-care technology, and animal aftercare that has been successfully used to study several novel ovine models of critical illness. The relevant investigations are on respiratory failure due to smoke inhalation, transfusion related acute lung injury, endotoxin-induced proteogenomic alterations, haemorrhagic shock, septic shock, brain death, cerebral microcirculation, and artificial heart studies. We have demonstrated the functionality of monitoring practices during anaesthesia required to provide a platform for undertaking systematic investigations in complex ovine models of critical illness.

  12. Effect of farming practices for greenhouse gas mitigation and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of beef cattle production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T T H; Doreau, M; Eugène, M; Corson, M S; Garcia-Launay, F; Chesneau, G; van der Werf, H M G

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated effects of farming practice scenarios aiming to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of a beef cattle production system using the life cycle assessment approach. The baseline scenario includes a standard cow-calf herd with finishing heifers based on grazing, and a standard bull-fattening herd using a diet mainly based on maize silage, corresponding to current farm characteristics and management by beef farmers in France. Alternative scenarios were developed with changes in farming practices. Some scenarios modified grassland management (S1: decreasing mineral N fertiliser on permanent grassland; S2: decreasing grass losses during grazing) or herd management (S3: underfeeding of heifers in winter; S4: fattening female calves instead of being reared at a moderate growth rate; S5: increasing longevity of cows from 7 to 9 years; S6: advancing first calving age from 3 to 2 years). Other scenarios replaced protein sources (S7: partially replacing a protein supplement by lucerne hay for the cow-calf herd; S8: replacing soya bean meal with rapeseed meal for the fattening herd) or increased n-3 fatty acid content using extruded linseed (S9). The combination of compatible scenarios S1, S2, S5, S6 and S8 was also studied (S10). The impacts, such as climate change (CC, not including CO2 emissions/sequestration of land use and land-use change, LULUC), CC/LULUC (including CO2 emissions of LULUC), cumulative energy demand, eutrophication (EP), acidification and land occupation (LO) were expressed per kg of carcass mass and per ha of land occupied. Compared with the baseline, the most promising practice to reduce impacts per kg carcass mass was S10 (all reduced by 13% to 28%), followed by S6 (by 8% to 10%). For other scenarios, impact reduction did not exceed 5%, except for EP (up to 11%) and LO (up to 10%). Effects of changes in farming practices (the scenarios) on environmental impacts varied

  13. Suicide Risk in Adolescents with Chronic Illness: Implications for Primary Care and Specialty Pediatric Practice--A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald; Patel, Dilip; Pratt, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Suicide in adolescents is a global tragedy. Research-identified correlates of suicide in youth include depression, academic failure, loss of friends, social isolation, and substance abuse, among others. This review focuses on the potential link between chronic illness in adolescents and increased suicide risk. Research suggests that chronic…

  14. Care for chronic illness in Australian general practice – focus groups of chronic disease self-help groups over 10 years: implications for chronic care systems reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Carmel M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic disease is a major global challenge. However, chronic illness and its care, when intruding into everyday life, has received less attention in Asia Pacific countries, including Australia, who are in the process of transitioning to chronic disease orientated health systems. Aim The study aims to examine experiences of chronic illness before and after the introduction of Australian Medicare incentives for longer consultations and structured health assessments in general practice. Methods Self-help groups around the conditions of diabetes, epilepsy, asthma and cancer identified key informants to participate in 4 disease specific focus groups. Audio taped transcripts of the focus groups were coded using grounded theory methodology. Key themes and lesser themes identified using a process of saturation until the study questions on needs and experiences of care were addressed. Thematic comparisons were made across the 2002/3 and 1992/3 focus groups. Findings At times of chronic illness, there was need to find and then ensure access to 'the right GP'. The 'right GP or specialist' committed to an in-depth relationship of trust, personal rapport and understanding together with clinical and therapeutic competence. The 'right GP', the main specialist, the community nurse and the pharmacist were key providers, whose success depended on interprofessional communication. The need to trust and rely on care providers was balanced by the need for self-efficacy 'to be in control of disease and treatment' and 'to be your own case manager'. Changes in Medicare appeared to have little penetration into everyday perceptions of chronic illness burden or time and quality of GP care. Inequity of health system support for different disease groupings emerged. Diabetes, asthma and certain cancers, like breast cancer, had greater support, despite common experiences of disease burden, and a need for research and support programs. Conclusion Core

  15. Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) occurrence and infestation behaviour as influenced by farm type, cropping systems and soil management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabi, Samuel; Karungi, Jeninah; Sigsgaard, Lene;

    2016-01-01

    used on each farm. Mealybug population densities were lower in pineapple–banana intercrop system (27.8) than in a sole pineapple crop (81.8) across seasons. Earthed-up seed beds registered higher mealybug densities (84.1) than flat seed beds (31). Earthed-up seed beds created more favourable...... environment for mealybug multiplication than flat beds. Use of coffee husks as a soil fertility amendment promoted mealybug population build up (83.8) whereas fallowing had a reducing effect (22.7). More indepth studies on the role of soil moisture and soil cover in mealybug population build-up in pineapples...

  16. Farm Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debra

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Philadelphia high school in which urban students study agricultural sciences to prepare for college and careers. The campus has a complete working farm, and students are exposed to a wide range of agricultural career opportunities while also studying core academic subjects. The school's farm units are real businesses, so students are…

  17. Intelligent control on wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    with the wind farm makes the grid more vulnerable. The communication technologies have been considered as a solution to solve the problems according to the IEC 61400-25 series protocols. This paper presents the significance of communication technologies in wind farm system by the simulations on some practical...

  18. Fluctuation theory and the practice of grassland vegetation in the northern farming-pastoral ecotones of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui LI; Ruiping HOU; Kebin ZHANG; Yunfang LIU; Zhen BIAN

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation fluctuation is an important part of vegetation dynamics. The characteristics of vegetation fluctuation are quite different between grassland and for-est communities. By inferring from ecologic and statistical information, grassland vegetation fluctuation and its fluc-tuation ratio were defined, and an equation for the fluc-tuation ratio was established for the first time with the fluctuation coefficients specified via expert weighting method. The quantitative grassland vegetation fluc-tuation and its fluctuation ratio between the years 2002 and 2006 in Yanchi County, Ningxia, northwestern China, in the northern farming-pastoral ecotones, were studied. Results showed that the largest positive fluc-tuation ratio of 0.685, implying the best vegetation growth in recent years occurred in 2003, while the most negative fluctuation ratio of -1.098, i.e., the worst vegetation growth during this period, occurred in 2005.

  19. Reliability evaluation for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Blåbjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new reliability index - Loss Of Generation Ratio Probability (LOGRP) is proposed for evaluating the reliability of an electrical system for offshore wind farms, which emphasizes the design of wind farms rather than the adequacy for specific load demand. A practical method...... to calculate LOGRP of offshore wind farms is proposed and evaluated....

  20. Barriers to Uptake of Climate-Smart Agriculture Practices at the Farm Level: A Case Study of Dano and Ouahigouya Farmers, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Y. B.

    2016-12-01

    Smallholder farmers in Burkina Faso, which are already bearing the brunt of climate vagaries, are among the most exposed to the risks associated to climate change. Supporting these farmers in adoption of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices would help to increase farm productivity and incomes, improve their resilience to climate risks, and mitigate climate change by reducing GHG emissions. CSA is neither a new agricultural system nor a set of practice, but is a new approach, a way to guide the needed changes of agricultural systems, given the necessity to jointly address food security and climate change. Integrating statistics and visualization analysis, this paper identifies and analyzes the key barriers to farmers' effective adoption of CSA practices in Dano and Ouahigouya areas, Burkina Faso. The data used in this study were collected, in May 2016, from 147 households in the two different agro-ecological zones; these data were supplemented by information from focus group discussion (FGD), interview with institutions, and direct observation. It come out from this study that a better adoption of CSA practices requires a strong understanding of barriers and mechanisms (appropriate policies, strategies and actions) that may facilitate these practices by all actors involved in the diffusion, transfer and implementation process. The study revealed that farmers' adoption was influenced by several factors. The inaccessibility of inputs, credit constraints, water shortage, uncertainty in market condition, and climate risk appeared to be among factors that hindered farmers' ability and willingness to adopt CSA practices. Therefore mechanisms (such as index based crop insurance and property and procedural rights frameworks) that protect farmers from these hazards and shocks could encourage them (especially, risk-averse farmers) to take on more risky and more technologies that have high potential to maximize their profit.

  1. An analysis of survey data by size of the breeding herd for the reproductive management practices of North American sow farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V; Rodriguez Zas, S L; Sloter, N L; McNamara, K A; Gall, T J; Levis, D G; Safranski, T J; Singleton, W L

    2013-01-01

    A survey was performed to assess whether reproductive management differed among small-sized (Sm, farms (n=113). Farms with 501 to 4000 sows/barn were most frequent with sows kept in stalls on 90% of farms. More Lg farms (Pfarms weaned at >21 d, whereas M farms were more likely to wean at 18 to 21 d (Pfarms had farrowing rates above 89% than Sm and M farms (Pfarms than on S. On M and Lg farms, sows were bred in larger batches, using lower person to sow ratios, and with more people required than on Sm farms (Pfarms spent time moving sows and on records, but hours devoted to estrous detection, breeding, and other tasks did not differ among farms (P>0.10). More M and Lg farms used more boars for estrus detection, rotated boars, and controlled boar movement than Sm farms (PFarm size also influenced semen sourcing, number of doses received, and frequency of semen delivery (Pfarms performed AI in the presence of a boar, left the AI rod in after AI, checked for returns, and diagnosed pregnancy than Sm farms (Pfarms within 2 d, occurring most often in the AM, but with exposure times varying from 1 to 5 min/sow. Semen was thermally protected for 50% of farms receiving shipments, and semen storage was consistent among farms. For AI, service occurred within minutes to hours after detection of estrus on 61% of farms. During AI, procedures such as back-pressure were required, whereas techniques such as hands-free AI were prohibited on most farms. Sow movement was allowed only once at 4 wk after breeding on 50% of farms, and pregnancy diagnosis occurred at 3 to 5 wk on 78% of farms. Most sows were allowed ≥1 chance for breeding after conception failure before culling. Incidence of fail to farrow was 82% of farms. Summer infertility was observed on 69% of farms with estrus and pregnancy failures the leading causes. Over 70% of farms reported a technician effect on fertility. These results suggest that reproductive management of farms in key areas related to weaning, breeding

  2. Farmer's Incentives for Adoption of Recommended Farm Practices in Wheat Crop in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyarthy, Gopal Saran

    This study was undertaken to identify farmer incentives that led them to adopt wheat crop practices in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District Program: the association between the farmer's characteristics and adoption groups; the incentives that lead the farmers to adopt recommended wheat crop practices; relationship between identified incentives…

  3. Changing governments, kitchens, supermarkets, firms and farms: the governance of transitions between societal practices and supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grin

    2012-01-01

    In current studies of transitions, more often than not the units of analysis are defined by supply systems. It is fair to say that more attention is due to the agency involved in daily practices as well as to the mutual, complex interferences of different practices into wider patterns of societal ch

  4. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same bacterium that has become resistant to certain antibiotics, which can make infections harder to treat. MRSA can be passed back and forth between people and farm animals through direct contact. In humans, MRSA can cause ...

  5. [End-of-life decisions and practices in critically ill patients in the cardiac intensive care unit. A nationwide survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, C; Hamouda, K; Oezkur, M; Sommer, S-P; Leistner, M; Leyh, R

    2016-03-01

    Ethical and medical criteria in the decision-making process of withholding or withdrawal of life support therapy in critically ill patients present a great challenge in intensive care medicine. The purpose of this work was to assess medical and ethical criteria that influence the decision-making process for changing the aim of therapy in critically ill cardiac surgery patients. A questionnaire was distributed to all German cardiac surgery centers (n = 79). All clinical directors, intensive care unit (ICU) consultants and ICU head nurses were asked to complete questionnaires (n = 237). In all, 86 of 237 (36.3 %) questionnaires were returned. Medical reasons which influence the decision-making process for changing the aim of therapy were cranial computed tomography (cCT) with poor prognosis (91.9 %), multi-organ failure (70.9 %), and failure of assist device therapy (69.8 %). Concerning ethical reasons, poor expected quality of life (48.8 %) and the presumed patient's wishes (40.7 %) were reported. There was a significant difference regarding the perception of the three different professional groups concerning medical and ethical criteria as well as the involvement in the decision-making process. In critically ill cardiac surgery patients, medical reasons which influence the decision-making process for changing the aim of therapy included cCT with poor prognosis, multi-organ failure, and failure of assist device therapy. Further studies are mandatory in order to be able to provide adequate answers to this difficult topic.

  6. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other s...... of a risk-based approach to improving food safety.......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...

  7. Practicing shared decision making in the outpatient psychiatric care of adults with severe mental illnesses: redesigning care for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, William C; Drake, Robert E

    2010-10-01

    Psychiatrist outpatient office visits have the potential to support the recovery of adults with severe mental illnesses by engaging them in a collaborative process of evaluating, selecting, and trying individually-tailored therapeutic options. Evidence-informed shared decision making is difficult for psychiatrists to offer within the framework of care as it is delivered today: it requires time, easy access to relevant scientific information, and extensive communication between patients and psychiatrists. In this paper, we describe the current structural obstacles to collaborative psychiatric care and envision a redesigned office visit process that facilitates active informed patient involvement.

  8. Energy balance in IPM rice farms compared to conventional farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fazeli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management based on Farmer Field Schools (IPM/FFS is a program aimed to guide farmers toward managing agricultural pests in an environmentally responsible manner. This program has been in practice during the recent decade in the north of Iran. A study was conducted to evaluate the overall impacts of IPM/FFS program on energy balance and economic revenue of paddy (Oryza sativa L. farms compared with conventional farms (no IPM. The data of inputs, management practices, and output (yield of 238 paddy farms (135 IPM farms and 103 conventional farms located in a semi-Mediterranean climate were collected in 2010 and 2011. Total energy input, energy output, energy efficiency, and energy productivity were determined as indicators of energy balance. The total energy requirement for paddy production in IPM system was 48756 MJ ha−1, indicating that 8% more energy was used in IPM farms than that in conventional farms. It was noticed that IPM program in this region failed to reduce the consumption of chemical pesticides in paddy farms and the conventional system was more energy efficient than IPM system. Although paddy yield of the two systems was similar, the economic net return in IPM system was almost 20% higher than the conventional system due to the higher price of paddy produced in IPM system.

  9. Contour Farming on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 330

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP330), Contour...

  10. Terrace Farming on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 600

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP600), Terrace...

  11. Substance abuse as a risk factor for violence in mental illness: some implications for forensic psychiatric practice and clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Hanna; Fazel, Seena

    2013-07-01

    To review recent research on the relationship between substance abuse, crime, violence and mental illness, and suggest how this research could aid forensic psychiatrists, psychologists and other mental health professionals in assessing and managing risk, and balancing patient care and public protection. Substance abuse in mentally ill forensic psychiatric patients should be considered an important risk factor for violence and re-offending. Improved treatment for substance abuse in forensic psychiatric patients and other mentally disordered offenders together with the offer of monitored abstinence as a condition of leave or discharge could be usefully considered as a means of reducing and managing risk. This may improve patient care by addressing mental health needs and increasing opportunity and likelihood of successful re-integration into the community and better life prospects; protect the public by reducing risk of re-offending and offering real time monitoring and potential intervention when risk is heightened; and help forensic psychiatrists strike a balance between patient care and public protection, potentially alleviating some of the difficulty and anxiety that decisions to grant leave or discharge can create.

  12. Animal health and welfare planning in organic dairy cattle farms

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is ba...

  13. Importance of prudent antibiotic use on dairy farms in South Carolina: a pilot project on farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, D B; Kanwat, C P; Headrick, M L; Patterson, N J; Neely, J C; Smith, L U

    2007-01-01

    Inappropriate use of antibiotics in humans and animals contributes to decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in bacteria of medical importance. Resistant bacteria being transferred from animals to humans are causing public health concern. In-person interviews were conducted with 20 dairy farmers in rural counties of South Carolina to determine farmers' knowledge and attitudes about prudent antibiotic use among livestock. Four focus groups (n = 22) were also conducted to ascertain farmers' specific information needs about proper antibiotic use. Survey results showed that participants (100%) typically determined a need for antibiotic treatment using symptom assessment and reported following some form of operating procedures regarding administration of antibiotics. Few farmers (32%) had actual written antibiotic protocols. Preferred information sources about antibiotics were veterinarians (100%) and other dairy farmers (50%). Most farmers (86%) were not concerned that overuse of antibiotics in animals could result in antibiotic resistance among farm workers. Qualitative analysis of focus groups revealed significant barriers to following proper antibiotic procedures including limited finances and lack of time. The need for bilingual educational resources for Hispanic/Latino dairy workers was expressed. Desired formats for educational materials were posters, flowcharts, videos, and seminars. Education of South Carolina dairy farmers by veterinarians and public health professionals on the appropriate use of antibiotics in dairy cattle is needed to ensure antibiotic effectiveness in both animals and humans.

  14. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... of a risk-based approach to improving food safety....... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...

  15. Improving Environmental Management on Small-scale Farms: Perspectives of Extension Educators and Horse Farm Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms.

  16. Land Transformation and Occupation Impacts of Farming Practices for the Production of Soybean in Mato Grosso, Brazil, Using Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Miranda, E. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The state of Mato Grosso is the largest producer of soybean in Brazil with production continuously increasing since 2000 through a near tripling of cropland area under soybean cultivation. This increase in production has occurred by land cover transformation (extensification into natural ecosystems, e.g. forest to crop) and land use intensification (increase in area by conversion of already cleared land, e.g. pasture to crop), largely to satisfy international demand. In this study, we assess cradle-to-farm gate impacts of soybean production in Mato Grosso using life cycle impact assessment applied to data collected from 110 farms. We combine 21 impact indicators of land transformation and occupation (i.e. land use and land cover change) to show impacts of life cycle stages of production to land, air, water, resource use, biodiversity and ecosystem services. The greatest damage to human health and ecosystem quality came from land transformation which primarily takes place in the tropical forest (Amazon) and savanna (Cerrado/Cerradão) biomes. Soybean production in tropical forest landscapes has greater impacts on climate regulation, biotic production and groundwater recharge compared to production in native savanna areas, while impacts on biodiversity, erosion and soil water purification are roughly equivalent for tropical forest vs. savanna transformation and occupation. Soybean production practices showed hot spots of damage to environmental quality and resources from phosphorous fertilizer application and diesel consumption in machinery through impact pathways such as terrestrial and aquatic acidification and the use of non-renewable energy. Life cycle impact assessment modeling can provide further information into the production process to enlighten decision making with respect to impacts occurring along the soybean product supply chain.

  17. ‘We experienced a lack of tools for strengthening coping and health in encounters with patients with chronic illness': bridging theory and practice through formative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Heggdal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare personnel in specialist care in Norway took the initiative to develop their practice in order to improve follow-up of patients with chronic illness. A research project was constructed that involved a close collaboration between practice and research in the development of a new, complex intervention to strengthen patients' ability to live with long-term conditions. Aims and objectives: This paper seeks to describe a part of the research process that involved the first- stage development of the intervention. The first objective is to describe how clinicians, patients and a health researcher collaborated, and to discuss the benefits of this collaborative work for improving practice. The second objective is to outline the intervention's aspects and components. Method: Three clinical sites were chosen for developing the intervention: a rehabilitation unit, an outpatient clinic and a centre for patient education. An interdisciplinary team of nine healthcare personnel and four patients engaged with the researcher(s in the formative research. A list of criteria for reporting on the development of complex interventions was applied to elaborate on intervention components. Results: An intervention was developed that entailed a person-centred approach to facilitating overall health in chronic illness. This involved a change in practice as the professionals acquired a new approach to the use of patients' capacity for health, and as patients began to function as active partners in health promotion. Conclusions: A close collaboration between clinicians, former patients and researcher was necessary for developing a theory and a research-based intervention that improved the follow-up of individuals diagnosed with long-term conditions. The intervention was designed to be applicable across diagnostic categories and in a variety of clinical settings. These patients experience a multitude of challenges that require attention in health

  18. Relationships between stable fly infestation with some physical facility characteristics and sanitation practices in several dairy farms in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vázquez, C; Ramos-Parra, M; Vitela-Mendoza, I; García-Vázquez, Z; Quintero-Martínez, M T

    2007-11-10

    The possible relationships between stable fly infestation with dairy farm facilities and sanitation practices were studied using path analysis. Twelve dairies located in four counties of Aguascalientes dairy region were selected. The dairies were monitored from May to November 2003. In each occasion, fly infestation, individual physical facility characteristics, and sanitation practices were recorded. In all, 11 independent variables were involved in the study and related variables were grouped together and analyzed in two blocks by path analysis for each one of five population events (begin of fly season, first peak, fluctuation, second peak and decrease). There were significant regression coefficients only in the second peak for two variables, the distance to the silos and the distance to the dung heap (r(2)=0.96 for the full model). Among the 11 variables examined in the study, none had a statistical significant indirect contribution to fly infestation; direct contribution was observed for distance to the silos and for distance to the dung heap variables. However, only the distance to the silos variable was significantly related to stable fly Infestation.

  19. Farm Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Nissen, Kathrine Aae

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized...... by blurriness of boundaries between „home spheres‟ and work situations as well as by a unique blend of commercial and private hospitality. Furthermore, the study shows that „social‟ motivations and non-monetary benefits gained through host-guest interactions are of great importance to the hosts. In particular......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...

  20. Ant Farm

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Publié à l’occasion de l’exposition d’Ant Farm au Frac Centre du 12 au 23 décembre 2007, ce très beau catalogue, qui fait état des dix ans de création du collectif californien, propose un nombre important de documents iconographiques, de notices et de textes concernant leurs différents projets. Fondé en 1968 par Doug Michels et Chip Lord, rejoints par la suite par Curtis Schreier, Hudson Marquez, Douglas Hurr et d’autres encore, le collectif Ant Farm a marqué les esprits par quelques œuvres s...

  1. Translating person-centered care into practice: A comparative analysis of motivational interviewing, illness-integration support, and guided self-determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hörnsten, Åsa; Storbækken, Solveig; Graue, Marit; Rasmussen, Bodil; Wahl, Astrid; Kirkevold, Marit

    2016-03-01

    Person-centred care [PCC] can engage people in living well with a chronic condition. However, translating PCC into practice is challenging. We aimed to compare the translational potentials of three approaches: motivational interviewing [MI], illness integration support [IIS] and guided self-determination [GSD]. Comparative analysis included eight components: (1) philosophical origin; (2) development in original clinical setting; (3) theoretical underpinnings; (4) overarching goal and supportive processes; (5) general principles, strategies or tools for engaging peoples; (6) health care professionals' background and training; (7) fidelity assessment; (8) reported effects. Although all approaches promoted autonomous motivation, they differed in other ways. Their original settings explain why IIS and GSD strive for life-illness integration, whereas MI focuses on managing ambivalence. IIS and GSD were based on grounded theories, and MI was intuitively developed. All apply processes and strategies to advance professionals' communication skills and engagement; GSD includes context-specific reflection sheets. All offer training programs; MI and GSD include fidelity tools. Each approach has a primary application: MI, when ambivalence threatens positive change; IIS, when integrating newly diagnosed chronic conditions; and GSD, when problem solving is difficult, or deadlocked. Professionals must critically consider the context in their choice of approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Reviewing Current Best Practice to Provide High-Quality Extracorporeal Therapy to Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael J; Karakala, Nithin

    2017-07-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) use continues to expand globally. Despite improving technology, CRRT remains a complex intervention. Delivery of high-quality CRRT requires close collaboration of a multidisciplinary team including members of the critical care medicine, nephrology, nursing, pharmacy, and nutrition support teams. While significant gaps in medical evidence regarding CRRT persist, the growing evidence base supports evolving best practice and consensus to define high-quality CRRT. Unfortunately, there is wide variability in CRRT operating characteristics and limited uptake of these best practices. This article will briefly review the current best practice on important aspects of CRRT delivery including CRRT dose, anticoagulation, dialysis vascular access, fluid management, and drug dosing in CRRT. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Visiting a Farm: An Exploratory Study of the Social Construction of Animal Farming in Norway and the Netherlands based on Sensory Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Boogaard, B.K.; Bock, B.B.; Oosting, S.J.; Krogh, E.

    2010-01-01

    Most citizens in modern societies have little personal knowledge or experience of animal farming. This study explores the social construction of animal farming by studying how citizens perceive and evaluate modern farming after visiting a farm in real life. We wanted to understand how (non-farming) citizens develop an opinion of modern dairy farming when experiencing dairy farming in real life and practice, and how they translate what they see, smell and feel into an evaluative perception and...

  4. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Lauritsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors......, via weekly registration in a representative sample of 393 farms in one county during 1 year....

  5. Febrile illness management in children under five years of age: a qualitative pilot study on primary health care workers' practices in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzell, Kimberly; Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Ali, Abdullah S; Msellem, Mwinyi; Gulati, Shilpa; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2013-01-28

    In Zanzibar, malaria prevalence dropped substantially in the last decade and presently most febrile patients seen in primary health care facilities (PHCF) test negative for malaria. The availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) allows rural health workers to reliably rule out malaria in fever patients. However, additional diagnostic tools to identify alternative fever causes are scarce, often leaving RDT-negative patients without a clear diagnosis and management plan. This pilot study aimed to explore health workers' practices with febrile children and identify factors influencing their diagnostic and management decisions in non-malarial fever patients. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with 12 health workers in six PHCFs in North A district, Zanzibar, April to June 2011. Interviews were coded using Atlas.ti to identify emerging themes that play a role in the diagnosis and management of febrile children. The following themes were identified: 1) health workers use caregivers' history of illness and RDT results for initial diagnostic and management decisions, but suggest caregivers need more education to prevent late presentation and poor health outcomes; 2) there is uncertainty regarding viral versus bacterial illness and health workers feel additional point-of-care diagnostic tests would help with differential diagnoses; 3) stock-outs of medications and limited caregivers' resources are barriers to delivering good care; 4) training, short courses and participation in research as well as; 5) weather also influences diagnostic decision-making. This pilot study found that health workers in Zanzibar use caregiver history of fever and results of malaria RDTs to guide management of febrile children. However, since most febrile children test negative for malaria, health workers believe additional training and point-of-care tests would improve their ability to diagnose and manage non-malarial fevers. Educating caregivers on signs and symptoms of

  6. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical ... Consulting Agritourism Farm MAPPER Lyme Disease ROPS Rebate Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm ...

  7. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the poss

  8. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom or ...

  9. Benchmarking the environmental performances of farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoo, de G.R.

    2006-01-01

    Background, Aim and Scope The usual route for improvement of agricultural practice towards sustainability runs via labelling schemes for products or farm practices. In most approaches requirements are set in absolute terms, disregarding the variation in environmental performance of farms. Another ap

  10. Low Carbon Rice Farming Practices in the Mekong Delta Yield Significantly Higher Profits and Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Tinh, T. K.; Tin, H. Q.; Thu Ha, T.; Pha, D. N.; Cui, T. Q.; Tin, N. H.; Son, N. N.; Thanh, H. H.; Kien, H. T.; Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Vietnam Low-Carbon Rice Project (VLCRP) seeks to significantly reduce GHG emissions from rice cultivation, an activity responsible for more than 30% of Vietnam's overall GHG emissions, while improving livelihoods for the rice farmer community by decreasing costs and enhancing yield as well as providing supplemental farmer income through the sale of carbon credits. The Mekong Delta makes up 12% of Vietnam's land area, but produces more than 50% of the country's rice, including more than 90% of the rice for export. Rice cultivation is the main source of income for 80% of farmers in the Mekong Delta. VLCRP was launched in late 2012 in the Mekong Delta in two major rice production provinces, Kien Giang and An Giang. To date, VLCRP has completed 11 crop seasons (in Kien Giang and An Giang combined), training over 400 farmer households in applying VLCRP's package of practices (known as 1 Must - 6 Reductions) and building technical capacity to its key stakeholders and rice farmer community leaders. By adopting the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices (including reduced seeding density, reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, and alternative wetting and drying water management), rice farmers reduce their input costs while maintaining or improving yields, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. The VLCRP package of practices also deliver other environmental and social co-benefits, such as reduced water pollution, improved habitat for fishery resources and reduced health risks for farmers through the reduction of agri-chemicals. VLCRP farmers use significantly less inputs (50% reduction in seed, 30% reduction in fertilizer, 40-50% reduction in water) while improving yields 5-10%, leading to an increase in profit from 10% to as high as 60% per hectare. Preliminary results indicate that the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices have led to approximately 40-65% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to 4 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in An Giang and 35 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in Kien

  11. A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Roshni; Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cholesterol lowering drugs HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and PPARα activators (fibrates) have been shown to reduce host inflammation via non-disease specific immunomodulatory mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that commonly prescribed drugs in general practice, statins and fibrates, may be beneficial in influenza-like illness related mortality. This retrospective cohort study examines the association between two lipid lowering drugs, statins and fibrates, and all-cause 30-day mortality following a medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI). Methods. Primary care patient data were retrospectively extracted from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database. The sample comprised 201,179 adults aged 30 years or older experiencing a MAARI episode. Patient exposure to statins or fibrates was coded as separate dichotomous variables and deemed current if the most recent GP prescription was issued in the 30 days prior to MAARI diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression were used for analyses. Adjustment was carried out for chronic lung disease, heart failure, metformin and glitazones, comorbidity burden, socio-demographic and lifestyle variables such as smoking status and body mass index (BMI). Statistical interaction tests were carried out to check for effect modification by gender, body mass index, smoking status and comorbidity. Results. A total of 1,096 (5%) patients died within the 30-day follow up period. Of this group, 213 (19.4%) were statin users and 4 (0.4%) were fibrate users. After adjustment, a significant 35% reduction in odds [adj OR; 0.65 (95% CI [0.52-0.80])] and a 33% reduction in the hazard [adj HR: 0.67 (95% CI [0.55-0.83])] of all-cause 30-day mortality following MAARI was observed in statin users. A significant effect modification by comorbidity burden was observed for the association between statin use and MAARI-related mortality. Fibrate use was associated with a non

  12. Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India: Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka. The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1 large diversified and productivist farms; (2 small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3 small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed.

  13. How can the practice nurse be more involved in the care of the chronically ill? The perspectives of GPs, patients and practice nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiderhoff Marc

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background A well established "midlevel" of patient care, such as nurse practitioners and/or physician assistants, exits in many countries like the US, Canada, and Australia. In Germany, however there is only one kind of profession assisting the physician in practices, the practice nurse. Little is known about the present involvement of practice nurses in patients' care in Germany and about the attitudes of GPs, assistants and patients concerning an increased involvement. The aim of our study was to get qualitative information on the extent to which practice nurses are currently involved in the treatment of patients and about possibilities of increased involvement as well as on barriers of increased involvement. Methods We performed qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 20 GPs, 20 practice nurses and 20 patients in the Heidelberg area. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and content-analysed with ATLAS.ti. Results Practice nurses are only marginally involved in the treatment of patients. GPs as well as patients were very sceptical about increased involvement in care. Patients were sceptical about nurses' professional background and feared a worsening of the patient doctor relationship. GPs also complained about the nurses' deficient education concerning medical knowledge. They feared a lack of time as well as a missing reimbursement for the efforts of an increased involvement. Practice nurses were mostly willing to be more involved, regarding it as an appreciation of their role. Important barriers were lack of time, overload with administrative work, and a lack of professional knowledge. Conclusion Practice nurses were only little involved in patient care. GPs were more sceptical than patients regarding an increased involvement. One possible area, accepted by all interviewed groups, was patient education as for instance dietary counselling. New treatment approaches as the chronic care model will require a team approach

  14. Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... financial problems, a loved one's death or a divorce An ongoing (chronic) medical condition, such as diabetes ... years, but most begin earlier in life. The effects of mental illness can be temporary or long ...

  15. Primary care consultation rates among people with and without severe mental illness: a UK cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Olier, Ivan; Planner, Claire; Reeves, David; Ashcroft, Darren M; Gask, Linda; Doran, Tim; Reilly, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about service utilisation by patients with severe mental illness (SMI) in UK primary care. We examined their consultation rate patterns and whether they were impacted by the introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), in 2004. Design Retrospective cohort study using individual patient data collected from 2000 to 2012. Setting 627 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a large UK primary care database. Participants SMI cases (346 551) matched to 5 individuals without SMI (1 732 755) on age, gender and general practice. Outcome measures Consultation rates were calculated for both groups, across 3 types: face-to-face (primary outcome), telephone and other (not only consultations but including administrative tasks). Poisson regression analyses were used to identify predictors of consultation rates and calculate adjusted consultation rates. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to quantify the effect of the QOF. Results Over the study period, face-to-face consultations in primary care remained relatively stable in the matched control group (between 4.5 and 4.9 per annum) but increased for people with SMI (8.8–10.9). Women and older patients consulted more frequently in the SMI and the matched control groups, across all 3 consultation types. Following the introduction of the QOF, there was an increase in the annual trend of face-to-face consultation for people with SMI (average increase of 0.19 consultations per patient per year, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.36), which was not observed for the control group (estimates across groups statistically different, p=0.022). Conclusions The introduction of the QOF was associated with increases in the frequency of monitoring and in the average number of reported comorbidities for patients with SMI. This suggests that the QOF scheme successfully incentivised practices to improve their monitoring of the mental and physical health of this group of patients

  16. Narratives about illness and medication: a neglected theme/new methodology within pharmacy practice research. Part II: medication narratives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kath; Bissell, Paul; Morecroft, Charles

    2007-08-01

    Part 2 of this paper aims to provide a methodological framework for the study of medication narratives, including a semi-structured interview guide and suggested method of analysis, in an attempt to aid the development of narrative scholarship within pharmacy practice research. Examples of medication narratives are provided to illustrate their diversity and usefulness. The framework is derived from the work of other researchers and adapted for our specific purpose. It comes from social psychology, narrative psychology, narrative anthropology, sociology and critical theory and fits within the social constructionist paradigm. The suggested methods of analysis could broadly be described as narrative analysis and discourse analysis. Examples of medication narratives are chosen from a variety of sources and brief interpretations are presented by way of illustration. Narrative analysis, a neglected area of research in pharmacy practice, has the potential to provide new understanding about how people relate to their medicines, how pharmacists are engaged in producing narratives and the importance of narrative in the education of students. IMPACT OF THE ARTICLE: This article aims to have the following impact on pharmacy practice research: Innovative approach to researching and conceptualising the use of medicines. Introduction of a new theoretical perspective and methodology. Incorporation of social science research methods into pharmacy practice research. Development of narrative scholarship within pharmacy.

  17. Australian mental health care practitioners' practices and attitudes for encouraging smoking cessation and tobacco harm reduction in smokers with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ratika; Meurk, Carla; Bell, Stephanie; Ford, Pauline; Gartner, Coral

    2017-02-03

    Reducing the burden of physical illness among people living with severe mental illnesses (SMI) is a key priority. Smoking is strongly associated with SMIs resulting in excessive smoking related morbidity and mortality in smokers with SMI. Smoking cessation advice and assistance from mental health practitioners would assist with reducing smoking and smoking-related harms in this group. This study examined the attitudes and practices of Australian mental health practitioners towards smoking cessation and tobacco harm reduction for smokers with SMI, including adherence to the 5As (ask, assess, advise, assist and arrange follow up) of smoking cessation. We surveyed 267 Australian mental health practitioners using a cross-sectional, online survey. Most practitioners (77.5%) asked their clients about smoking and provided health education (66.7%) but fewer provided direct assistance (31.1-39.7%). Most believed that tobacco harm reduction strategies are effective for reducing smoking related risks (88.4%) and that abstinence from all nicotine should not be the only goal discussed with smokers with SMI (77.9%). Many respondents were unsure about the safety (56.9%) and efficacy (39.3%) of e-cigarettes. Practitioners trained in smoking cessation were more likely (OR: 2.9, CI: 1.5-5.9) to help their clients to stop smoking. Community mental health practitioners (OR: 0.3, CI: 0.1-0.9) and practitioners who were current smokers (OR: 0.3, CI: 0.1-0.9) were less likely to adhere to the 5As of smoking cessation intervention. The results of this study emphasize the importance and need for providing smoking cessation training to mental health practitioners especially community mental health practitioners.

  18. Recent illness, feeding practices and father's education as determinants of nutritional status among preschool children in a rural Nigerian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Titilola B; Yakubu, Alhassan M

    2015-04-01

    Good nutrition is necessary for the growth and development of preschool children. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, data on the determinants of their nutritional status are lacking. A cross-sectional survey of 366 preschool children was conducted in a rural community in northern Nigeria. Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken and information about feeding practices, immunization and parental education was obtained from their mothers. Fifty-two percent were stunted, 30% were underweight and 25% were wasted. Recent history of diarrhea was associated with wasting (OR = 2.66, p education were less likely to be stunted (OR = 0.45, p = 0.01) or underweight (OR = 0.37, p = 0.005). Promoting exclusive breastfeeding, preventing recurrent diarrhea and including fathers in community interventions will improve the health of children in this community.

  19. Prescription practices for non-malaria febrile illnesses among under-fies in the Lake Zone, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Method Kazaura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine prescription practices for non-malarial fever cases among febrile under-fives in the Lake Zone of Tanzania. Methods: A health facility-based study was conducted in health facilities of the Lake Zone regions targeting 1 080 medical records. From patients’ medical records, we collected information on how non-malarial fever was managed. Statistical analyses involved descriptive statistics and comparisons of proportions of prescribing medications between clinicians working in health facilities supported by Tibu Homa Project against others. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent variables associated with irregular prescription of antimalarials to non-malarial fever cases. Results: The main clinical diagnoses among febrile under-fives tested negative for malaria were respiratory tract infections (17%, pneumonia (15% and urinary tract infections (10%. Over-prescription of antimalarial was to 12% (95%, confidence interval: 10%–14% and only 14% (95%, confidence interval: 12%–16% under-fives were correctly prescribed antibiotics based on correct final diagnosis. Health care providers from non-Tibu Homa Project supported health facilities, those working in hospitals and inpatient febrile under-fives were independent predictors of prescribing anti-malarial drugs to febrile under-fives with no malaria. Conclusions: The proportion of clinicians prescribing antimalarial medications and overprescribing antibiotics to malaria negative-tested under-fives in the Lake Zone is high, 11%, and as low as 14% of clinicians prescribed antibiotics correctly based on correct final diagnoses. Training of health care workers, health managers and regular supportive supervision may significantly improve prescription practices among clinicians attending under-fives.

  20. 农忙实践对农科大学生的影响调查①--基于扬州大学2010届农科专业学生农忙实践的调查%Investigation of the Influence of busy Farming Practices on the Agricultural College Students--Based on the investigation to 2010 session of agricultural college students busy farming practice of Yangzhou university

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国生; 陈后庆; 华鹤良; 孔佑兵; 吴慧; 田银芳

    2013-01-01

    通过对扬州大学农科大学生问卷式调查,结果显示:(1)当今农科大学生基本构成超出人们的预期;(2)农忙实践对农科大学生的专业意识、专业思想影响明显;(3)80%以上的学生能够通过农忙实践确立发展方向、明确实践的重要性;(4)70%以上的学生经过农忙实践的锻炼,团结合作精神、情感交流能力显著提高。%By questionnaire survey the agricultural college students of the yangzhou university, the results showed: (1)the basic composition of the current agricultural college students was beyond people’s expectations; (2) the busy farming practices had obvious significance on the agricultural college students’ professional consciousness, professional thought ; (3) the students was more than 80% ,which could establish development direction, the importance of clear practice by the busy farming practices ;(4)the students was more than 70% ,which emotional communication, solidarity and cooperation spirit, would greatly enhance by farming practice exercise.

  1. Protein requirement in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2016-05-01

    How much protein do critically ill patients require? For the many decades that nutritional support has been used there was a broad consensus that critically ill patients need much more protein than required for normal health. Now, however, some clinical investigators recommend limiting all macronutrient provision during the early phase of critical illness. How did these conflicting recommendations emerge? Which of them is correct? This review explains the longstanding recommendation for generous protein provision in critical illness, analyzes the clinical trials now being claimed to refute it, and concludes with suggestions for clinical investigation and practice.

  2. ORGANIC FARMING FOR CROP IMPROVEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN THE ERA OF CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has caught the imagination and action of the world for more than a decade. Sustainable agriculture is necessary to attain the goal of sustainable development. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, sustainable agriculture is the successful management of resources to satisfy the changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of environment and conserving natural resources. All definitions of sustainable agriculture lay great emphasis on maintaining an agricultural growth rate, which can meet the demand for food of all living beings without draining the basic resources towards crop improvement. Organic farming is one of the several approaches found to meet the objectives of sustainable agriculture. Most of the techniques used in organic farming like inter-cropping, mulching and integration of crops and livestock are not alien to agriculture systems including the traditional agricultural practices. However, organic farming is based on various laws and certification programmes, which prohibit the use of almost all synthetic inputs and the central theme of this method is the health of soil. The adverse effects of modern agricultural practices on the farm and also on the health of living beings and thus on the environment has been well documented all over the world. Application of technology, particularly the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides all around us has persuaded people to think aloud. As a result of global climatic changes, their negative effects on the environment are manifested through soil erosion, water shortages, salination, soil contamination, genetic erosion, Organic farming is one of the widely used methods, which is thought as the best alternative to avoid the ill effects of chemical farming. It also has far more advantages over the conventional and other modern agricultural practices that are available today.

  3. Microbiological profile of greenhouses in a farm producing hydroponic tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Leopoldo; Rico-Romero, Leticia; Escartín, Eduardo F

    2008-01-01

    Produce, including tomatoes, has been implicated in several outbreaks of foodborne illness. A number of the sources of contamination for produce grown in open fields are known. However, as an alternative agricultural system, hydroponic greenhouses are reasonably expected to reduce some of these sources. The objective of the present study was to determine the microbiological profile of tomatoes grown in greenhouses at a Mexican hydroponic farm with a high technological level and sanitary agricultural practices (SAPs) in place. Tomatoes and other materials associated with the farm were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella enterica and populations of Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae. Tomatoes showed median levels of 0.8 log CFU per tomato for Enterobacteriaceae, greenhouses were positive for E. coli, whereas Salmonella was found only in the latter. Although hydroponic greenhouses provide physical barriers against some sources of enteric bacterial contamination, these results show that sporadic evidence of fecal contamination and the presence of Salmonella can occur at the studied greenhouse farm.

  4. A survey of drying-off practices on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany and a comparison to science-based recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulat, Sandra; Fischer-Tenhagen, Carola; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    While dry cow management is important for health, milk production and fertility information on drying-off procedures implemented on commercial dairy farms is lacking. Current drying-off management procedures on commercial dairy farms were evaluated using a questionnaire and results compared with recommendations given in the current literature. Ninety-one participants from a farmer education event completed the survey. On average, cows were dried off seven weeks before calving. Only 9.9 per cent of the farms had a dry period length of five weeks or less. A continuous milking regime without dry period was not established on any farm participating in the survey. Most farmers performed an abrupt drying-off (73.0 per cent). Only 11.8 and 15.0 per cent attempted to lower milk yield prior to drying-off by reducing milking frequencies and adjusting feed rations, respectively. While a blanket antibiotic dry cow treatment was carried out on 79.6 per cent of the farms, selective dry cow treatment was not mentioned by any farmer. Although 77.4 per cent preponed the drying-off date in low-yielding cows, an altered drying-off procedure in high-yielding dairy cows was rare (9.7 per cent). This survey provides an insight into drying-off procedures currently applied on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany.

  5. A survey of drying-off practices on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany and a comparison to science-based recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulat, Sandra; Fischer-Tenhagen, Carola; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    While dry cow management is important for health, milk production and fertility information on drying-off procedures implemented on commercial dairy farms is lacking. Current drying-off management procedures on commercial dairy farms were evaluated using a questionnaire and results compared with recommendations given in the current literature. Ninety-one participants from a farmer education event completed the survey. On average, cows were dried off seven weeks before calving. Only 9.9 per cent of the farms had a dry period length of five weeks or less. A continuous milking regime without dry period was not established on any farm participating in the survey. Most farmers performed an abrupt drying-off (73.0 per cent). Only 11.8 and 15.0 per cent attempted to lower milk yield prior to drying-off by reducing milking frequencies and adjusting feed rations, respectively. While a blanket antibiotic dry cow treatment was carried out on 79.6 per cent of the farms, selective dry cow treatment was not mentioned by any farmer. Although 77.4 per cent preponed the drying-off date in low-yielding cows, an altered drying-off procedure in high-yielding dairy cows was rare (9.7 per cent). This survey provides an insight into drying-off procedures currently applied on commercial dairy farms in northern Germany. PMID:26392891

  6. Diarrheal Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    Dr. Steve Monroe, director of CDC’s Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, discusses diarrheal illness, its causes, and prevention.  Created: 8/30/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/31/2011.

  7. Advances in pediatrics in 2014: current practices and challenges in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Sciorio, Elisa; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2015-10-31

    Major advances in the conduct of pediatric practice have been reported in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2014. This review highlights developments in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses. Investigations endorse a need to better educate guardians and improve nutritional management in food allergy. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates and of bronchiolitis have been improved by position statements of scientific societies. Novel treatments for infant colic and inflammatory bowel diseases have emerged. Studies suggest the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia. Progress in infectious diseases should include the universal varicella vaccination of children. Recommendations on asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome have been highlighted in neonatology. Studies have evidenced that malnutrition remains a common underestimated problem in developing countries, while exposure to cancer risk factors in children is not negligible in Western countries. Advances in our understanding of less common diseases such as cystic fibrosis, plastic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis facilitate diagnosis and management. Researches have led to new therapeutic approaches in patent ductus arteriosus and pediatric malignancies.

  8. Liberation From Mechanical Ventilation in Critically Ill Adults: Executive Summary of an Official American College of Chest Physicians/American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gregory A; Girard, Timothy D; Kress, John P; Morris, Peter E; Ouellette, Daniel R; Alhazzani, Waleed; Burns, Suzanne M; Epstein, Scott K; Esteban, Andres; Fan, Eddy; Ferrer, Miguel; Fraser, Gilles L; Gong, Michelle Ng; Hough, Catherine L; Mehta, Sangeeta; Nanchal, Rahul; Patel, Sheena; Pawlik, Amy J; Schweickert, William D; Sessler, Curtis N; Strøm, Thomas; Wilson, Kevin C; Truwit, Jonathon D

    2017-01-01

    This clinical practice guideline addresses six questions related to liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST). A multidisciplinary panel posed six clinical questions in a population, intervention, comparator, outcomes (PICO) format. A comprehensive literature search and evidence synthesis was performed for each question, which included appraising the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. The Evidence-to-Decision framework was applied to each question, requiring the panel to evaluate and weigh the importance of the problem, confidence in the evidence, certainty about how much the public values the main outcomes, magnitude and balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, resources and costs associated with the intervention, impact on health disparities, and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Evidence-based recommendations were formulated and graded initially by subcommittees and then modified following full panel discussions. The recommendations were confirmed by confidential electronic voting; approval required that at least 80% of the panel members agree with the recommendation. The panel provides recommendations regarding liberation from mechanical ventilation. The details regarding the evidence and rationale for each recommendation are presented in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine and CHEST. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Official Executive Summary of an American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline: Liberation from Mechanical Ventilation in Critically Ill Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gregory A; Girard, Timothy D; Kress, John P; Morris, Peter E; Ouellette, Daniel R; Alhazzani, Waleed; Burns, Suzanne M; Epstein, Scott K; Esteban, Andres; Fan, Eddy; Ferrer, Miguel; Fraser, Gilles L; Gong, Michelle Ng; L Hough, Catherine; Mehta, Sangeeta; Nanchal, Rahul; Patel, Sheena; Pawlik, Amy J; Schweickert, William D; Sessler, Curtis N; Strøm, Thomas; Wilson, Kevin C; Truwit, Jonathon D

    2017-01-01

    This clinical practice guideline addresses six questions related to liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society and the American College of Chest Physicians. A multidisciplinary panel posed six clinical questions in a Population, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcomes format. A comprehensive literature search and evidence synthesis was performed for each question, which included appraising the certainty in the evidence (i.e., the quality of evidence) using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. The Evidence-to-Decision framework was applied to each question, requiring the panel to evaluate and weigh the importance of the problem, the confidence in the evidence, the certainty about how much the public values the main outcomes, the magnitude and balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, the resources and costs associated with the intervention, the impact on health disparities, and the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Evidence-based recommendations were formulated and graded initially by subcommittees and then modified after full-panel discussions. The recommendations were confirmed by confidential electronic voting; approval required that at least 80% of the panel members agree with the recommendation. The panel provides recommendations regarding liberation from mechanical ventilation. The details regarding the evidence and rationale for each recommendation are presented in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine and Chest.

  10. Primary care practice-based care management for chronically ill patients (PraCMan: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN56104508

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldauf Annika

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care management programmes are an effective approach to care for high risk patients with complex care needs resulting from multiple co-occurring medical and non-medical conditions. These patients are likely to be hospitalized for a potentially "avoidable" cause. Nurse-led care management programmes for high risk elderly patients showed promising results. Care management programmes based on health care assistants (HCAs targeting adult patients with a high risk of hospitalisation may be an innovative approach to deliver cost-efficient intensified care to patients most in need. Methods/Design PraCMan is a cluster randomized controlled trial with primary care practices as unit of randomisation. The study evaluates a complex primary care practice-based care management of patients at high risk for future hospitalizations. Eligible patients either suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure or any combination. Patients with a high likelihood of hospitalization within the following 12 months (based on insurance data will be included in the trial. During 12 months of intervention patients of the care management group receive comprehensive assessment of medical and non-medical needs and resources as well as regular structured monitoring of symptoms. Assessment and monitoring will be performed by trained HCAs from the participating practices. Additionally, patients will receive written information, symptom diaries, action plans and a medication plan to improve self-management capabilities. This intervention is addition to usual care. Patients from the control group receive usual care. Primary outcome is the number of all-cause hospitalizations at 12 months follow-up, assessed by insurance claims data. Secondary outcomes are health-related quality of life (SF12, EQ5D, quality of chronic illness care (PACIC, health care utilisation and costs, medication adherence (MARS, depression

  11. Bringing the Classroom to the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Robert R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study conducted to determine if extension agents could expand their audience through a series of statewide on-farm meetings. The study also sought to determine if the on-farm approach would result in adoption of recommended mastitis control practices. Results are presented and discussed. (CT)

  12. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices

  13. INSPIRE (INvestigating Social and PractIcal suppoRts at the End of life): Pilot randomised trial of a community social and practical support intervention for adults with life-limiting illness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLoughlin, Kathleen

    2015-11-24

    For most people, home is the preferred place of care and death. Despite the development of specialist palliative care and primary care models of community based service delivery, people who are dying, and their families\\/carers, can experience isolation, feel excluded from social circles and distanced from their communities. Loneliness and social isolation can have a detrimental impact on both health and quality of life. Internationally, models of social and practical support at the end of life are gaining momentum as a result of the Compassionate Communities movement. These models have not yet been subjected to rigorous evaluation. The aims of the study described in this protocol are: (1) to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of The Good Neighbour Partnership (GNP), a new volunteer-led model of social and practical care\\/support for community dwelling adults in Ireland who are living with advanced life-limiting illness; and (2) to pilot the method for a Phase III Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT).

  14. Reducing non-allocative costs on Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Hansen, Lars C.E.

    1993-01-01

    inefficiencies are far more important for dairy farms than inefficiencies due to sub-optimal farm size. Non-proportional reductions are shown to be as important as reductions due to scale economies. The paper closes with a discussion of the implications for farm policy and management practice....

  15. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses...

  16. Exploring the multifunctional role of farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Noe, Egon; Halberg, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Public expectations of farming practices are changing from a demand for environmentally "sustainable farming practices" to farming making an "enhanced contribution to the development of the rural areas", the so-called multifunctionality. Based on our research model of including farmers...... in the development of eco-friendly farming systems, we propose that the achievement of these changed expectations could be facilitated through an appropriate research and development initiative in several European regions. Key elements in such a project sould include: (i) the establishment of platforms for dialogue...... makers and administrators, grassroots movements and research staff. It is expected that such a coordinated research initiative can revitalize the contribution of farming to rural development and yield important insight to be used by the individual farmer in coping with future challenges....

  17. Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Doran M; Iddins, Carol J; Sugarman, Stephen L

    2014-02-01

    Although the spectrum of information related to diagnosis and management of radiation injuries and illnesses is vast and as radiation contamination incidents are rare, most emergency practitioners have had little to no practical experience with such cases. Exposures to ionizing radiation and internal contamination with radioactive materials can cause significant tissue damage and conditions. Emergency practitioners unaware of ionizing radiation as the cause of a condition may miss the diagnosis of radiation-induced injury or illness. This article reviews the pertinent terms, physics, radiobiology, and medical management of radiation injuries and illnesses that may confront the emergency practitioner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Wind Farm Control Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This document is a delivery in the project NORCOWE. It is part of work package WP3.2.2. The main goal is to establish the present state-of-the-art for wind farm control for both research and practice. The main approach will be to study the literature. This will of cause be much more efficient...... for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...... used for controller design and simulation respectively. A short section then discusses published literature from industry. Finally a conclusion is given discussing established results, open challenges and necessary research. An appendix present a method for optimising the energy in a one row wind...

  19. Exploring the multifunctional role of farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Noe, Egon; Halberg, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Public expectations of farming practices are changing from a demand for environmentally "sustainable farming practices" to farming making an "enhanced contribution to the development of the rural areas", the so-called multifunctionality. Based on our research model of including farmers in the dev......Public expectations of farming practices are changing from a demand for environmentally "sustainable farming practices" to farming making an "enhanced contribution to the development of the rural areas", the so-called multifunctionality. Based on our research model of including farmers...... in the development of eco-friendly farming systems, we propose that the achievement of these changed expectations could be facilitated through an appropriate research and development initiative in several European regions. Key elements in such a project sould include: (i) the establishment of platforms for dialogue...... and development of relevant indicators of multifunctional effects (ii) documentation of results obtained from a number of fams and (iii) analysis of development opportunities in the light of the changes "requested". Participants in the regional platform for communication will include farmers, regional policy...

  20. Determination of pesticide residues in Turkey's table grapes: the effect of integrated pest management, organic farming, and conventional farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Cafer; Ornek, Hakan; Cutright, Teresa J

    2011-02-01

    Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of table grapes. Growing social concerns over excessive pesticide use have led to farming to move from conventional to organic practices. Table grapes were collected from 99 different farms in three Aegean regions. Pesticide residues were only detected in farms using conventional agriculture practices while no pesticides were detected in grapes from farms using organic or integrated pest management. A risk assessment model indicated that lambda-cyhalothrin posed the most significant risk at conventional farms.

  1. Farming seaweeds at SEAFDEC/AQD

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The article presents the practices that have been developed or documented by SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for farming seaweeds. These practices are: the cage culture of Kappaphycus, and the ‘rice planting’ method for cultivating Gracilaria. The seaweed gathering practices in coastal communities in western Visayas is also presented.

  2. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Topic: This account reflects on the topic of illness insight and recovery. Purpose: The purpose of the account is to clarify our understanding about the importance of illness insight in peoples’ recovery process, especially when relating the question of illness insight to the question of identity....... Sources Used:The writing is based on research literature related to illness insight and on personal recovery experiences.Conclusions and Implications for Practice: It is helpful to consider the integration of the issue of illness insight when addressing the questions and consequences of diagnosis...... in relation to the importance of illness insight in the recovery process....

  3. Benchmarking the economic, environmental and societal performance of Dutch dairy farms aiming at internal recycling of nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, M.A.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing their environmental impact by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) at farm level. Practices to improve nutrient cycling at these INC farms, however, might not only reduce the environmental impact on-farm, but alter also the off-farm

  4. Benchmarking the economic, environmental and societal performance of Dutch dairy farms aiming at internal recycling of nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, M.A.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing their environmental impact by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) at farm level. Practices to improve nutrient cycling at these INC farms, however, might not only reduce the environmental impact on-farm, but alter also the off-farm envir

  5. Speckle tracking echocardiography in the critically ill: enticing research with minimal clinical practicality or the answer to non-invasive cardiac assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orde, S; Huang, S J; McLean, A S

    2016-09-01

    Echocardiography is developing rapidly. Speckle tracking echocardiography is the latest semi-automatic tool that has potential to quantitatively describe cardiac dysfunction that may be unrecognised by conventional echocardiography. It is a non-Doppler, angle-independent, feasible and reproducible method to evaluate myocardial function in both non-critically ill and critically ill populations. Increasingly it has become a standard measure of both left and right ventricle function in specific patient groups, e.g. chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy or pulmonary hypertension. To date there are few studies in the critically ill, predominantly in sepsis, yet all describe dysfunction beyond standard measures. Other areas of interest include heart-lung interactions, right ventricle function and twist and torsion of the heart. A word of caution is required, however, in that speckle tracking echocardiography is far from perfect and is more challenging, particularly in the critically ill, than implied by many published studies. It takes time to learn and perform and most values are not validated, particularly in the critically ill. We should be cautious in accepting that the latest software used in cardiology cohorts will automatically be the answer in the critically ill. Even with these limitations the technology is enticing and results fascinating. We are uncovering previously undescribed dysfunction and although it currently is essentially a research-based activity, there is great promise as a clinical tool as echocardiography analysis becomes more automated, and potentially speckle tracking echocardiography could help describe cardiac function in critical illness more accurately than is possible with current techniques.

  6. Evaluating the Sustainable Intensification of arable farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadanakis, Yiorgos; Bennett, Richard; Park, Julian; Areal, Francisco Jose

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable Intensification (SI) of agriculture has recently received widespread political attention, in both the UK and internationally. The concept recognises the need to simultaneously raise yields, increase input use efficiency and reduce the negative environmental impacts of farming systems to secure future food production and to sustainably use the limited resources for agriculture. The objective of this paper is to outline a policy-making tool to assess SI at a farm level. Based on the method introduced by Kuosmanen and Kortelainen (2005), we use an adapted Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to consider the substitution possibilities between economic value and environmental pressures generated by farming systems in an aggregated index of Eco-Efficiency. Farm level data, specifically General Cropping Farms (GCFs) from the East Anglian River Basin Catchment (EARBC), UK were used as the basis for this analysis. The assignment of weights to environmental pressures through linear programming techniques, when optimising the relative Eco-Efficiency score, allows the identification of appropriate production technologies and practices (integrating pest management, conservation farming, precision agriculture, etc.) for each farm and therefore indicates specific improvements that can be undertaken towards SI. Results are used to suggest strategies for the integration of farming practices and environmental policies in the framework of SI of agriculture. Paths for improving the index of Eco-Efficiency and therefore reducing environmental pressures are also outlined.

  7. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Lauritsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors...

  8. Gatekeepers of health: A qualitative assessment of child care centre staff's perspectives, practices and challenges to enteric illness prevention and management in child care centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Cindy L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric outbreaks associated with child care centres (CCC have been well documented internationally and in Canada. The current literature focuses on identifying potential risk factors for introduction and transmission of enteric disease, but does not examine why these risk factors happen, how the risk is understood and managed by the staff of CCCs, or what challenges they experience responding to enteric illness. The purpose of this study was to explore the understanding, knowledge and actions of CCC staff regarding enteric illness and outbreaks, and to identify challenges that staff encounter while managing them. Methods Focus groups were conducted with staff of regulated CCCs in Southern Ontario. Five focus groups were held with 40 participants. An open ended style of interviewing was used. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Results CCC staff play an important role in preventing and managing enteric illness. Staff used in-depth knowledge of the children, the centre and their personal experiences to assist in making decisions related to enteric illness. The decisions and actions may differ from guidance provided by public health officials, particularly when faced with challenges related to time, money, staffing and parents. Conclusion CCC staff relied on experience and judgment in coordination with public health information to assist decision-making in the management of enteric illness and outbreaks. Advice and guidance from public health officials to CCC staff needs to be consistent yet flexible so that it may be adapted in a variety of situations and meet regulatory and public health requirements.

  9. Practice of a Sustainable Production Mode for Vegetable Farm%蔬菜园艺场可持续生产模式的探索与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔轶雄; 杨华丽; 黄丹枫

    2012-01-01

      在浦江现代农情园标准化蔬菜园艺场施行农业生态园生产模式,采取种养结合、废弃物综合循环利用等措施,建立以保护和改善生态环境为前提,提高经济效益为指标的新型农业发展模式,为标准化蔬菜园艺场可持续生产提供理论依据和技术指导。%  In the standardization vegetable farm of Pujiang City Farm, we adopt the production mode of agricultural ecological garden, including the combination of planting and feeding, recycling of waste and other measurements. In order to provide the basic theory and technical guidance for the sustainable production of the standardization vegetable farm, we should develop the new agricultural development mode, which protected and improved the ecological environment and enhanced the economic benefit.

  10. Illness narratives in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In this paper,we investigate Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs and practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry is used to uncover how spiritual beliefs and practices may...... be related to CAM. The analysis is based on empirical findings from a recent PhD project. During a two-year period first author followed 32 cancer patients, family, friends and alternative practitioners through interviews, telephone conversations, treatments and in focus groups. Results: As a general pattern......, religious and spiritual issues were not extensively unfolded in participants’ illness narratives. However, these issues were significantly elaborated on in narratives by four female participants. Conclusion: We propose that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not only or primarily as a treatment...

  11. CHINA HEALTH INSURANCE%The Role of Social Security Agency in Serious Illness Insurance--Based on the Practice of Integrated Design and Operation of Basic Medical Insurance and Serious Illness Insurance in Jining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪志强; 曹颖

    2016-01-01

    济宁市大病保险与基本医疗保险实行“六统一”:政策统一设计、信息系统统一开发、医保费统一征缴、医疗费用统一支付、医疗服务统一监管、医保服务统一经办,极大提升了大病保险的运行效率和质量。大病保险和基本医疗保险采取以社保经办机构为主的一体化管理方式,有助于减少基本医疗保险和大病保险的重复投入,节约运行成本,提升监管效率,有助于从就医诊疗行为的源头进行医疗行为监控,最大程度降低不合理医疗费用。%In Jining, the Serious Illness Insurance and Basic Medical Insurance are operated by “Six-unifi ed”model, i.e., unified policy design, unified information system development, unified premium collection, unified medical service payment, unifi ed medical service supervision, and unifi ed medical insurance handling. As a result, it has greatly improved the operational efficiency and quality of serious illness insurance. By taking the model of integrated management by social insurance agencies, it can help reducing repeated investment in insurance, saving operation cost, and improving supervision efficiency, and can conduct monitoring on medical service behavior at the very beginning and reduce unreasonable medical cost to a great extent.

  12. [Health education: knowledge, social representation, and illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Reis, Dener Carlos dos; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and practice of health and education, beginning with the notion of the hegemony (in health education practice) of strategies linked to the notion that to grasp established knowledge always leads to the acquisition of new behaviors and practices. Five different axioms have oriented education and health practices, either juxtaposed or at different moments: (1) the notion of overcoming the determination of knowledge over practices; (2) the determination of representations over practices; (3) the analysis of representations within the traditional framework of right and wrong; (4) reciprocity between representations and practices; and (5) the importance of considering practices amenable to re-elaboration through representations, thus situating experience in understanding subjects' illness processes, as well as the way subjects culturally construct illness. The article highlights the need for a link between social representations and illness-as-experience in health education practices.

  13. Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brohan, Elaine; Slade, Mike; Clement, Sarah; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-01-01

    .... This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness...

  14. The Balanced Scorecard as a Management Tool for Arable Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Paustian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Management requirements for crop farming are high and will rise in the future. Arable farms are challenged by volatile markets, growing administrative burdens, increasing operating costs and growing competition for land. Management skills have become much more important for farmers in recent years and this trend will continue in the future. There are numerous instruments like accounting software or crop field cards integrated in daily management practice, but there is a deficiency of a fully integrated management system to give an overview of all areas of the farming business. This gap can be closed by the management tool Balanced Scorecard (BSC that provides an overview of all production and management activities on a farm. Therefore, with the aim to transfer the BSC concept to crop farming, German farmers and agricultural advisors were surveyed to get insights into the success factors and key performance indicators in the four BSC perspectives they consider most relevant for the operational success of arable farms. By the use of a cluster analysis, three different farm types were identified according to their visions and strategies. For the three farm types the key performance indicators that the respondents considered most relevant for farm performance were figured out. Implementation of the BSC to crop farming can result in a big benefit for management practice. The BSC focuses vision and long-term strategy with the main goal to ensure consistency of the farm and increase farm performance.

  15. Perspectives of HRM professionals and managers on what policies and practices are needed within an organization to enable sustained employability for chronically ill employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haafkens, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To promote employability of the growing number of chronically ill people in the work force, EU policy measures were introduced. Chronic disease is, however, a neglected dimension at the work-place. HRM professionals and managers have a role in the prevention of job-related problems and e

  16. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation....

  17. Lower extremity injuries sustained while farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Janice A

    2002-01-01

    Today's complex farm environment can pose many threats to the lower extremities of all people especially those with chronic diseases that affect the lower extremities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of injuries to the lower extremities among farmers and to rank the importance of these incidents in order to plan prevention programs. one hundred farmers were surveyed at a large farm show in the southeastern United States. An average of 4.86 injuries per farmer were reported. Blisters from work shoes or boots, followed by injuries from animals stepping on the feet were the most common injuries. Since those with chronic illnesses are especially prone to injury and disability, regular foot assessments, evaluation, and education about the hazards of farming are mainstays of prevention.

  18. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  19. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  20. Transfusion in critically ill children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, E L; Stensballe, J; Afshari, A

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood products is a cornerstone in managing many critically ill children. Major improvements in blood product safety have not diminished the need for caution in transfusion practice. In this review, we aim to discuss the interplay between benefits and potential adverse effects of t...

  1. Problems associated with shellfish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinabut, S; Somsiri, T; Limsuwan, C; Lewis, S

    2006-08-01

    Shellfish culture is a major sector of aquaculture production worldwide, and zoonoses and drug residues associated with shellfish farm practice are of concern to public health. This paper focuses on three of the most important shellfish species: molluscs, crabs and shrimp. Although many diseases can affect shellfish, they do not appear to be transmittable to humans. Rather, the main hazards are associated with the methods used to farm the different species. The risk to human health from shellfish most commonly relates to contamination by biotoxins produced by marine algae. Another well-recognised problem associated with shellfish culture is the contamination of shellfish with domestic sewage that contains human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, which causes diseases such as typhoid fever and hepatitis. In shrimp farming, the main potential food safety hazards are zoonoses, chemical contamination and veterinary drug residues. Untreated effluent from shrimp farms is a major concern to the environmental sector as it is known to promote plankton blooms if directly discharged into natural water sources.

  2. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system.

  3. Developing farm-level sustainability indicators for Ireland using the Teagasc National Farm Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an expanding, export-dependent agri-food sector, indicators of sustainable development and intensification are necessary to measure, assess and verify the comparative advantage afforded by Ireland’s natural pastoral-based food production systems. Such indicators are also necessary to ensure that we produce more food with less adverse impacts on the Irish environment, climate and society. This article outlines the development of farm-level indicators that refect the multifaceted nature of sustainability, which is encompassed in economic, environmental and social indicators. The role of innovation in farm sustainability was also examined. A comparison of indicators across Irish farm systems showed that dairy farms, followed by tillage farms, tended to be the most economically and socially sustainable farm systems. In relation to greenhouse gas emissions in particular, the top-performing dairy farms, in an economic sense, also tended to be the best-performing farms from an environmental sustainability perspective. This trend was also evident in relation to the adoption of innovative practices on farm, which was found to be strongly correlated with economic performance.

  4. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  5. 精神疾病康复期大学生支持性团体辅导的实践与探索%Practice and Exploration of College Students' Supportive Group Counseling in the Rehabilitation Period of Mental Illness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍中开; 申杰飞

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the way of psychological counseling in college students with mental illness in the college en-vironment. Methods:a 14 week period of weeks of supportive group counseling practice was performed on 6 volunteers who participated in the rehabilitation period of mental illness. Results:1 years after the end of the group found that the members of the participation in the experiment did not relapse, good social function. Conclusion:the supportive group counseling has a positive effect on the students of mental illness rehabilitation period. The researcher further discusses the work method and legal dilemma of mental health education of college students in mental illness rehabilitation period.%目的:探索精神疾病康复期大学生在高校环境下的心理辅导方式。方法:对6名自愿参与的精神疾病康复期大学生进行为期14周的支持性团体心理辅导实践。结果:团体结束后1年发现,参与实验的成员均未复发,社会功能良好。结论:支持性团体辅导对精神疾病康复期大学生具有积极的影响作用。研究者进一步对精神疾病康复期大学生心理健康教育的工作方法与法律困境进行了讨论。

  6. Hazard detection by illness pattern similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, W T

    1980-01-01

    Health hazard detection was investigated by using cluster analysis of illness patterns of occupational groups. This approach was expected to avoid the bias problems of simple illness rates and to detect hazards by their effects on illness severity. The practical use of this approach lead to the following criterion: an environmental exposure of people associated with an illness pattern typical of a more advanced age is a health hazard. The use of this criterion and methodology is widely applicable in industry and the prospect for further improvement in detection methods is good.

  7. Early estimates of 2014/15 seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing influenza-like illness in general practice using the screening method in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souty, Cécile; Blanchon, Thierry; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Behillil, Sylvie; Enouf, Vincent; Valette, Martine; Bouscambert, Maude; Turbelin, Clément; Capai, Lisandru; Roussel, Victoire; Hanslik, Thomas; Falchi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing influenza epidemic is characterized by intense activity with most influenza infections due to the A (H3N2) viruses. Using the screening method, mid-season vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing influenza-like illness in primary care was estimated to 32% (95% CI; 23 to 40) among risk groups and was 11% (95% CI; -4 to 23) among the elderly (≥ 65 y). The VE in ≥ 65 y was the lowest estimate regarding the 4 previous seasonal influenza epidemics.

  8. Monitoring physical functioning as the sixth vital sign: evaluating patient and practice engagement in chronic illness care in a primary care setting--a quasi-experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Julie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, one in three adults or almost 9 million people report having a chronic condition. Over two thirds of total deaths result from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and respiratory illness and 77% of persons ≥65 years have at least one chronic condition. Persons with chronic disease are at risk for functional decline; as a result, there is an increased awareness of the significance of functional status as an important health outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients who receive a multi-component rehabilitation intervention, including online monitoring of function with feedback and self-management workshops, showed less functional decline than case matched controls who did not receive this intervention. In addition, we wanted to determine whether capacity building initiatives within the Family Health Team promote a collaborative approach to Chronic Disease Management. Methods A population-based multi-component rehabilitation intervention delivered to persons with chronic illnesses (≥ 44 yrs (n = 60 was compared to a group of age and sex matched controls (n = 60 with chronic illnesses receiving usual care within a primary healthcare setting. The population-based intervention consisted of four main components: (1 function-based individual assessment and action planning, (2 rehabilitation self-management workshops, (3 on-line self-assessment of function and (4 organizational capacity building. T-tests and chi-square tests were used for continuous and categorical variables respectively in baseline comparison between groups. Results Two MANOVA showed significant between group differences in patient reported physical functioning (Λ = 0.88, F = (2.86 = 5.97. p = 0.004 and for the physical performance measures collectively as the dependent variable (Λ = 0.80, F = (6.93 = 3.68. p = 0.0025. There were no within group differences for the capacity measures. Conclusion It is feasible to monitor

  9. The Association of Types of Training and Practice Settings with Doctors' Empathy and Patient Enablement among Patients with Chronic Illness in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances S K Yu

    Full Text Available The increase in non-communicable disease (NCD is becoming a global health problem and there is an increasing need for primary care doctors to look after these patients although whether family doctors are adequately trained and prepared is unknown.This study aimed to determine if doctors with family medicine (FM training are associated with enhanced empathy in consultation and enablement for patients with chronic illness as compared to doctors with internal medicine training or without any postgraduate training in different clinic settings.This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey using the validated Chinese version of the Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE Measure as well as Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI for evaluation of quality and outcome of care. 14 doctors from hospital specialist clinics (7 with family medicine training, and 7 with internal medicine training and 13 doctors from primary care clinics (7 with family medicine training, and 6 without specialist training were recruited. In total, they consulted 823 patients with chronic illness. The CARE Measure and PEI scores were compared amongst doctors in these clinics with different training background: family medicine training, internal medicine training and those without specialist training. Generalized estimation equation (GEE was used to account for cluster effects of patients nested with doctors.Within similar clinic settings, FM trained doctors had higher CARE score than doctors with no FM training. In hospital clinics, the difference of the mean CARE score for doctors who had family medicine training (39.2, SD = 7.04 and internal medicine training (35.5, SD = 8.92 was statistically significant after adjusting for consultation time and gender of the patient. In the community care clinics, the mean CARE score for doctors with family medicine training and those without specialist training were 32.1 (SD = 7.95 and 29.2 (SD = 7.43 respectively, but the difference was not

  10. Organic Agriculture in U.S. Urban Areas: Building Bridges Between Organic Farms and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Oberholtzer, Lydia; Dimitri, Carolyn; Pressman, Andy

    2014-01-01

    The proposed paper for the 18th IFOAM Organic World Congress will address the results of a 2013 national survey of urban farms in the United States. Production and marketing practices, focusing on organic urban farms, will be highlighted.

  11. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... as it is for the more traditional onshore wind power, which has been under development since the 1970s. However, offshore projects face extra technical challenges some of which requires in-depth scientific investigations. This article deals with some of the most outstanding challenges concerning the turbine structure...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  12. [Illness behavior in chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavielle, Pilar; Clark, Patricia; Martínez, Homero; Mercado, Francisco; Ryan, Gery

    2008-01-01

    To describe the illness behaviour in patients with chronic pain. We conducted semi-structured interviews to 53 patients during 2000, in a tertiary care center. We explored their initial interpretations, responses and subsequent practices to chronic pain, until they received a diagnosis that satisfied them. Illness behaviour was determined by pain intensity and disability; beliefs regarding pain causes, trust in social networks, and quality and satisfaction with the health care systems. In terms of the decision to seek care, the first option was to go to the popular sector, followed by consulting a general physician, and as last resort, to go to a tertiary care center ("with a specialist"). Illness behaviour should be conceptualized as a process, which combines the use of different health care sectors by the same subjects, as a result of care provided sequentially by each previous sector.

  13. Boosting Farm Produce Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of escalating inflation,securing farm produce supply and stablizing grain prices could help to alleviate economic pressure The Chinese Government has pledged to secure a stable supply of farm produce.According to a document released after the annual Central Rural Work Conference held on December 22-23 in Beijing,preventing short supplies of farm produce and avoiding"ex-

  14. ABOUT SPONGE FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Pećarević

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are the simplest multicellular animals. Farming of sponges is facilitated by their asexual reproduction and great ability of regeneration. Farming of filter-feeding sponges is environment friendly, and it can positively influence on environmental impact of other aquaculture activities. Natural populations of sponges in Mediterranean Sea are endangered by inappropriate overfishing. Farming of sponges is possible solution for regeneration and protection of natural populations.

  15. Why Don’t More Farmers Go Organic? Using A Stakeholder-Informed Exploratory Agent-Based Model to Represent the Dynamics of Farming Practices in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a growing interest in organic agriculture; there has been relatively little research on why farmers might choose to adopt organic methods, particularly in the developing world. To address this shortcoming, we developed an exploratory agent-based model depicting Philippine smallholder farmer decisions to implement organic techniques in rice paddy systems. Our modeling exercise was novel in its combination of three characteristics: first, agent rules were based on focus group data collected in the system of study. Second, a social network structure was built into the model. Third, we utilized variance-based sensitivity analysis to quantify model outcome variability, identify influential drivers, and suggest ways in which further modeling efforts could be focused and simplified. The model results indicated an upper limit on the number of farmers adopting organic methods. The speed of information spread through the social network; crop yields; and the size of a farmer’s plot were highly influential in determining agents’ adoption rates. The results of this stylized model indicate that rates of organic farming adoption are highly sensitive to the yield drop after switchover to organic techniques, and to the speed of information spread through existing social networks. Further research and model development should focus on these system characteristics.

  16. Serious Illness Conversations in ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ernest I; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2017-05-08

    Dialysis-dependent ESRD is a serious illness with high disease burden, morbidity, and mortality. Mortality in the first year on dialysis for individuals over age 75 years old approaches 40%, and even those with better prognoses face multiple hospitalizations and declining functional status. In the last month of life, patients on dialysis over age 65 years old experience higher rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, procedures, and death in hospital than patients with cancer or heart failure, while using hospice services less. This high intensity of care is often inconsistent with the wishes of patients on dialysis but persists due to failure to explore or discuss patient goals, values, and preferences in the context of their serious illness. Fewer than 10% of patients on dialysis report having had a conversation about goals, values, and preferences with their nephrologist, although nearly 90% report wanting this conversation. Many nephrologists shy away from these conversations, because they do not wish to upset their patients, feel that there is too much uncertainty in their ability to predict prognosis, are insecure in their skills at broaching the topic, or have difficulty incorporating the conversations into their clinical workflow. In multiple studies, timely discussions about serious illness care goals, however, have been associated with enhanced goal-consistent care, improved quality of life, and positive family outcomes without an increase in patient distress or anxiety. In this special feature article, we will (1) identify the barriers to serious illness conversations in the dialysis population, (2) review best practices in and specific approaches to conducting serious illness conversations, and (3) offer solutions to overcome barriers as well as practical advice, including specific language and tools, to implement serious illness conversations in the dialysis population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Farm Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  18. Social stress as a cause of diseases in farm animals: Current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Kathryn; Habing, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, biomedical research has established a strong linkage between psychosocial stress and disease risk in humans, which has transformed the understanding of stress and the role it plays in human lives. This research has led to personalized medicine where a reduction in daily life stress is a main goal for many people with debilitating illnesses. This review describes the supporting evidence that social stress also plays a critical role in farm animal disease prevention, and may be a mediator by which common management practices can increase disease risk. There is evidence that social factors, including deprivation of social contact ('social isolation'), reducing space allowance ('crowding') and disturbing social order ('social instability') trigger physiological and behavioral indicators of stress in livestock. Less research exists, however, linking management practices that trigger social stress with higher disease risk. Suggestions are offered for future research opportunities, and practical, evidence-based recommendations are made for reducing the negative effects of social isolation, instability and crowding. The current evidence that social factors contribute to disease risk in farm animals is not as convincing as the human literature, but remains a promising and important area for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers.

  20. Revisiting current “barefoot doctors” in border areas of China: system of services, financial issue and clinical practice prior to introducing integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiuyun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under-5-years child mortality remains high in rural China. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI was introduced to China in 1998, but only a few rural areas have been included. This study aimed at assessing the current situation of the health system of rural health care and evaluating the clinical competency of village doctors in management of childhood illnesses prior to implementing IMCI programme in remote border rural areas. Methods The study was carried out in the border areas of Puer prefecture of Yunnan province. There were 182 village doctors in the list of the health bureau in these border areas. Of these, 154 (84.6% were recruited into the study. The local health system components were investigated using a qualitative approach and analyzed with triangulation of information from different sources. The clinical component was assessed objectively and quantitatively presented using descriptive statistics. Results The study found that the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS coordinated the health insurance system and the provider service through 3 tiers: village doctor, township and county hospitals. The 30 RMB per person per year premium did not cover the referral cost, and thereby decreased the number of referrals. In contrast to available treatment facilities and drug supply, the level of basic medical education of village doctors and township doctors was low. Discontent among village doctors was common, especially concerning low rates of return from the service, exceptions being procedures such as injections, which in fact may create moral hazards to the patients. Direct observation on the assessment and management of paediatric patients by village doctors revealed inadequate history taking and physical examination, inability to detect potentially serious complications, overprescription of injection and antibiotics, and underprescription of oral rehydration salts and poor quality of counseling

  1. Envisioning Agricultural Sustainability from Field to Plate: Comparing Producer and Consumer Attitudes and Practices toward "Environmentally Friendly" Food and Farming in Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; Winter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of sociological research has examined the relationship between farmers' environmental attitudes and their conservation behaviors, but little research has compared the attitudes of producers and consumers toward the environment with their behaviors or practices in support of sustainable agri-food systems. This paper addresses…

  2. Envisioning Agricultural Sustainability from Field to Plate: Comparing Producer and Consumer Attitudes and Practices toward "Environmentally Friendly" Food and Farming in Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; Winter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of sociological research has examined the relationship between farmers' environmental attitudes and their conservation behaviors, but little research has compared the attitudes of producers and consumers toward the environment with their behaviors or practices in support of sustainable agri-food systems. This paper addresses…

  3. Delirium in the Critically Ill Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sharon; Taha, Asma A; Turner, Helen N

    The purposes of this article are to describe the scientific literature on assessment, prevention, and management of delirium in critically ill children and to articulate the implications for clinical nurse specialists, in translating the evidence into practice. A literature search was conducted in 4 databases-OvidMEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsychINFO, and Web of Science-using the terms "delirium," "child," and "critically ill" for the period of 2006 to 2016. The scientific literature included articles on diagnosis, prevalence, risk factors, adverse outcomes, screening tools, prevention, and management. The prevalence of delirium in critically ill children is up to 30%. Risk factors include age, developmental delay, severity of illness, and mechanical ventilation. Adverse outcomes include increased mortality, hospital length of stay, and cost for the critically ill child with delirium. Valid and reliable delirium screening tools are available for critically ill children. Prevention and management strategies include interventions to address environmental triggers, sleep disruption, integrated family care, and mobilization. Delirium is a common occurrence for the critically ill child. The clinical nurse specialist is accountable for leading the implementation of practice changes that are based on evidence to improve patient outcomes. Screening and early intervention for delirium are key to mitigating adverse outcomes for critically ill children.

  4. Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  5. Not Your Family Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  6. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share ... Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can ...

  7. Illness anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001236.htm Illness anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) is a preoccupation that physical symptoms ...

  8. Adoption and perspectives of precision farming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Blackmore, Simon;

    2004-01-01

    Precision farming (PF) and site-specific input application based on GPS has been a management tool and option for arable farmers for about 10 years. About 400 Danish farmers have already adopted some PF-practices on their farms. This adoption and the technical and economic perspectives of PF have...

  9. How ICT is changing the nature of the farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, K.J.; Wolfert, J.; Verdouw, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Modern information-based technologies, such as self-driving tractors, GPS, milk robots, automated egg production, satellite data and social media, will change farm practices and agricultural structure and contribute to the prosperity and resilience of farming systems. Based on macro-trends and niche

  10. Ecologically sustainable development in dairy farms II: Nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Mexico, there is not a specific regulation dealing with manure and wastewater in confined livestock farms. In the case of dairy farms that have agricultural areas for the production of forage crops, there are some "Good Management Practices", focused on the use of manure as a source of nitrogen a...

  11. an assessment of knowledge of farming-related hazards and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    and long distance trekking to farm (mean=1114.08) were the top known hazards among farmers in the ... knowledge and practices of farm related occupational hazards in the study area. ... is also very important in this process since it plays.

  12. How ICT is changing the nature of the farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, K.J.; Wolfert, J.; Verdouw, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Modern information-based technologies, such as self-driving tractors, GPS, milk robots, automated egg production, satellite data and social media, will change farm practices and agricultural structure and contribute to the prosperity and resilience of farming systems. Based on macro-trends and niche

  13. An innovative approach to enhance dermatology competencies for advanced practice nurses: service–learning with a migrant farm worker health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Elizabeth A; Connor, Ann; Howett, Maeve

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a novel service–learning opportunity for graduate nursing students that promotes competency in dermatology. A hybrid service–learning course with online didactic content is described, along with tools for evaluation of dermatology competencies. Student evaluation of the course is discussed, and selected research articles are reviewed. Advanced practice nursing and medical education frequently does not adequately prepare primary care providers to be competent in the assessment and management of dermatologic conditions. Embedding dermatology content in a service–learning program can optimize the provision of care, strengthen competencies in dermatology and inter-professional care, and allow students to gain a deeper understanding of the population with which they work. The innovative service–learning program presented is a model for advanced practice nursing education. Tools for evaluating clinical competency and courses often need validation. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Coping with Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a long-term, or chronic, illness can disrupt your life in many ways. You may often be tired and in pain. Your illness might affect your ... able to work, causing financial problems. For children, chronic illnesses can be frightening, because they may not ...

  15. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Rodrigo, Javier Sanz; Gancarski, Pawel;

    2014-01-01

    .windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed...

  16. Meditation's impact on chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Ramita

    2003-01-01

    Meditation is becoming widely popular as an adjunct to conventional medical therapies. This article reviews the literature regarding the experience of chronic illness, theories about meditation, and clinical effects of this self-care practice. Eastern theories of meditation include Buddhist psychology. The word Buddha means the awakened one, and Buddhist meditators have been called the first scientists, alluding to more than 2500 years of precise, detailed observation of inner experience. The knowledge that comprises Buddhist psychology was derived inductively from the historical figure's (Prince Siddhartha Gautama) diligent self-inquiry. Western theories of meditation include Jungian, Benson's relaxation response, and transpersonal psychology. Clinical effects of meditation impact a broad spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms and syndromes, including reduced anxiety, pain, and depression, enhanced mood and self-esteem, and decreased stress. Meditation has been studied in populations with fibromyalgia, cancer, hypertension, and psoriasis. While earlier studies were small and lacked experimental controls, the quality and quantity of valid research is growing. Meditation practice can positively influence the experience of chronic illness and can serve as a primary, secondary, and/or tertiary prevention strategy. Health professionals demonstrate commitment to holistic practice by asking patients about use of meditation, and can encourage this self-care activity. Simple techniques for mindfulness can be taught in the clinical setting. Living mindfully with chronic illness is a fruitful area for research, and it can be predicted that evidence will grow to support the role of consciousness in the human experience of disease.

  17. Case study and case-based research in emergency nursing and care: Theoretical foundations and practical application in paramedic pre-hospital clinical judgment and decision-making of patients with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Ramon Z; Considine, Julie; Fry, Margaret; Curtis, Kate

    2017-02-01

    Generating knowledge through quality research is fundamental to the advancement of professional practice in emergency nursing and care. There are multiple paradigms, designs and methods available to researchers to respond to challenges in clinical practice. Systematic reviews, randomised control trials and other forms of experimental research are deemed the gold standard of evidence, but there are comparatively few such trials in emergency care. In some instances it is not possible or appropriate to undertake experimental research. When exploring new or emerging problems where there is limited evidence available, non-experimental methods are required and appropriate. This paper provides the theoretical foundations and an exemplar of the use of case study and case-based research to explore a new and emerging problem in the context of emergency care. It examines pre-hospital clinical judgement and decision-making of mental illness by paramedics. Using an exemplar the paper explores the theoretical foundations and conceptual frameworks of case study, it explains how cases are defined and the role researcher in this form of inquiry, it details important principles and the procedures for data gathering and analysis, and it demonstrates techniques to enhance trustworthiness and credibility of the research. Moreover, it provides theoretically and practical insights into using case study in emergency care. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Infrared applications in farming: vision of things to come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzbach, Richard N.

    2003-04-01

    Infrared technology has seen little use at the level of the family farm, mostly due to the prohibitive high cost relative to the typically modest profit margins. Where farming exists as a hobby or secondary activity, an individual with access to the technology can uncover some of the many applications waiting to be discovered in this field. As technology improves, and the price of cameras decreases, the viability of infrared as a farming tool improves. This paper outlines a number of examples where an individual with access to infrared technology has utilized it in a family farm setting to highlight some of the potential uses which may someday become normal farming practice. These examples are augmented by research of work being done at land-grant universities and larger agricultural businesses that further show the viability of the technology in farming.

  19. 454-Pyrosequencing reveals variable fungal diversity across farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ahmed Kazerooni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oasis farming system is common in some parts of the world, especially in the Arabian Peninsula and several African countries. In Oman, the farming system in the majority of farms follows a semi-oasis farming system, which is characterized by growing multiple crops mainly for home consumption, but also for local market. This study was conducted to investigate fungal diversity using pyrosequencing approach in soils from a farm utilizing a semi-oasis farming system (SOF which is cultivated with date palms, acid limes and cucumbers. Fungal diversity from this farm was compared to that from an organic farm (OR growing cucumbers and tomatoes. Fungal diversity was found to be variable among different crops in the same farm. The observed OTUs, Chao1 richness estimates and Shannon diversity values indicated that soils from date palms and acid limes have higher fungal diversity compared to soil from cucumbers (SOF. In addition, they also indicated that the level of fungal diversity is higher in the rhizosphere of cucumbers grown in OR compared to SOF. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum in most of the samples from the OR and SOF farms. Other dominant phyla are Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota and Basidiomycota. The differential level of fungal diversity within the SOF could be related to the variation in the cultural practices employed for each crop.

  20. Current situation of fish farming in Togo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practiced in ponds and water reservoirs and the semi intensive system (12.09%) implemented in tanks and ponds. ... The extensive fish farming system deserves to be improved and ..... yeast of beer, droppings of poultry, kitchen rests, maggots, blood meal, shell of oyster .... socio-economic welfare reasons made early.

  1. Coffee farming and soil management in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Graaff, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is the cornerstone of Rwanda's economy. The authors review how the sector has changed and specifically what soil management practices are now being implemented to enhance coffee production. Coffee covers around 2.3% of total cultivated arable land, and is grown mainly by smallholder farm

  2. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report. A Framework for Addressing Multimorbidity in Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Disease, Critical Illness, and Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kevin C; Gould, Michael K; Krishnan, Jerry A; Boyd, Cynthia M; Brozek, Jan L; Cooke, Colin R; Douglas, Ivor S; Goodman, Richard A; Joo, Min J; Lareau, Suzanne; Mularski, Richard A; Patel, Minal R; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shanawani, Hasan; Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna; Sufian, Beth; Thomson, Carey C; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2016-03-01

    Coexistence of multiple chronic conditions (i.e., multimorbidity) is the most common chronic health problem in adults. However, clinical practice guidelines have primarily focused on patients with a single disease, resulting in uncertainty about the care of patients with multimorbidity. The American Thoracic Society convened a workshop with the goal of establishing a strategy to address multimorbidity within clinical practice guidelines. In this Workshop Report, we describe a framework that addresses multimorbidity in each of the key steps of guideline development: topic selection, panel composition, identifying clinical questions, searching for and synthesizing evidence, rating the quality of that evidence, summarizing benefits and harms, formulating recommendations, and rating the strength of the recommendations. For the consideration of multimorbidity in guidelines to be successful and sustainable, the process must be both feasible and pragmatic. It is likely that this will be achieved best by the step-wise addition and refinement of the various components of the framework.

  3. Illness behavior in patients with musculoskeletal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, A.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis studies the influence of psychological factors in illness behavior in different hand and upper extremity conditions encountered in the practice of a hand surgeon. The importance of the language used by the patient and the amount of shared decision making in an orthopaedic practice is

  4. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  5. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...... of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  6. Wind farm design optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile

    2010-09-15

    Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.

  7. Online Investment Education: Listening to Learners to Develop an Effective Financial Literacy Program for Farm Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Porter, Nancy M.; Pankow, Debra; Schuchardt, Jane; Johnson, Jason

    2010-01-01

    A needs assessment was conducted for the adaptation of an existing online Cooperative Extension investment course for use by farm households. The theoretical model was Social Marketing Theory. Data about financial attitudes, practices, and learning preferences of farm households were collected through a telephone survey of 300 farm households and…

  8. 75 FR 64728 - Cooperative Operating Philosophy-Serving the Members of Farm Credit System Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Cooperative Operating Philosophy--Serving the Members of Farm Credit System Institutions AGENCY: Farm Credit... (System) institution and identifies three business practices for operating the cooperative with a focus on... which Farm Credit System (System) institutions are required to operate.\\1\\ The FCA...

  9. RAISING COOPERATION AMONG FARM HOLDINGS AND AGROINDUSTRIAL INTEGRATION IN FARM PRODUCTION OF THE KUBAN REGION IN THE 1970-IES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolaevich Chernikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper stated that in Russia nowadays high priority is attached to farming’ advancement, due to the necessity to ensure food security nationwide. The country accumulated an extensive experience in the sector of industrial farming; that experience may be qualified as both positive and negative, being instructive in many respects. On the one part, this experience evidently demonstrated that the total control being highly destructive, as well as petty regulation, and practicing transfer of private farm holdings into State ownership. On the other part, using the State regulation machinery in the farming sector reflected one of the leading trends in the farming sector advancement round the world nowadays, namely: strengthening the part taken by the State in advancement of the industrial farming sector. In this regard, experience accumulated in the policy of farming sector over the period of Soviet State being both conceptually and pragmatically significant for determining the most efficient ways of industrial farming sector’ advancement. The paper reviewed raising cooperation among the farm holdings and agro-industrial integration in farm production of the Kuban Region in the 1970-ies with the purpose of increasing production and processing of farm products.

  10. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... seven countries. The process begins with gathering knowledge about the current status within a given herd as background for making decisions and planning future improvements as well as evaluating already implemented improvements. Respectful communication between the owner of the herd and other farmers...

  11. Influence of agricultural practice on mobile bla genes: IncI1-bearing CTX-M, SHV, CMY and TEM in Escherichia coli from intensive farming soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Many calls have been made to address antibiotic resistance in an environmental perspective. With this study, we showed the widespread presence of high-level antibiotic resistant isolates on a collection of non-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (n = 232) recovered from soils. Bacteria were selected using amoxicillin, cefotaxime and imipenem, from sites representing different agricultural practices (extensive, intensive and organic). Striking levels of non-susceptibility were noticed in intensive soils for norfloxacin (74%), streptomycin (50.7%) and tetracycline (46.6%); indeed, the exposure to intensive agricultural practices constituted a risk factor for non-susceptibility to many antibiotics, multidrug resistance and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Analyses of non-susceptibility highlighted that environmental and clinical bacteria from the same species might not share the same intrinsic resistance patterns, raising concerns for therapy choices in environment-borne infections. The multiple sequence-type IncI1-driven spread of penicillinases (blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135), ESBL (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-1) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (blaCMY-2), produced by isolates that share their molecular features with isolates from humans and animals, suggests contamination of agricultural soils. This is also the first appearance of IncI1/ST28-harbouring blaCTX-M-1, which should be monitored to prevent their establishment as successfully dispersed plasmids. This research may help disclose paths of contamination by mobile antibiotic resistance determinants and the risks for their dissemination.

  12. Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schmidt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed, irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5–8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were <1,000 MPN per 100 mL irrigation water and <1,000 MPN per g of compost. The vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of <200/g set by the South African Department of Health at the time of sampling. E. coli MPN values for irrigation water and vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains.

  13. Seeking worldwide professional consensus on the principles of end-of-life care for the critically ill. The Consensus for Worldwide End-of-Life Practice for Patients in Intensive Care Units (WELPICUS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Charles L; Truog, Robert D; Curtis, J Randall; Joynt, Gavin M; Baras, Mario; Michalsen, Andrej; Briegel, Josef; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Efferen, Linda; De Robertis, Edoardo; Bulpa, Pierre; Metnitz, Philipp; Patil, Namrata; Hawryluck, Laura; Manthous, Constantine; Moreno, Rui; Leonard, Sara; Hill, Nicholas S; Wennberg, Elisabet; McDermid, Robert C; Mikstacki, Adam; Mularski, Richard A; Hartog, Christiane S; Avidan, Alexander

    2014-10-15

    Great differences in end-of-life practices in treating the critically ill around the world warrant agreement regarding the major ethical principles. This analysis determines the extent of worldwide consensus for end-of-life practices, delineates where there is and is not consensus, and analyzes reasons for lack of consensus. Critical care societies worldwide were invited to participate. Country coordinators were identified and draft statements were developed for major end-of-life issues and translated into six languages. Multidisciplinary responses using a web-based survey assessed agreement or disagreement with definitions and statements linked to anonymous demographic information. Consensus was prospectively defined as >80% agreement. Definitions and statements not obtaining consensus were revised based on comments of respondents, and then translated and redistributed. Of the initial 1,283 responses from 32 countries, consensus was found for 66 (81%) of the 81 definitions and statements; 26 (32%) had >90% agreement. With 83 additional responses to the original questionnaire (1,366 total) and 604 responses to the revised statements, consensus could be obtained for another 11 of the 15 statements. Consensus was obtained for informed consent, withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, legal requirements, intensive care unit therapies, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, shared decision making, medical and nursing consensus, brain death, and palliative care. Consensus was obtained for 77 of 81 (95%) statements. Worldwide consensus could be developed for the majority of definitions and statements about end-of-life practices. Statements achieving consensus provide standards of practice for end-of-life care; statements without consensus identify important areas for future research.

  14. Rainfed farming systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tow, P. G

    2011-01-01

    "While agriculturists need a good grasp of the many separate aspects of agriculture, it is essential that they also understand the functioning of farming systems as a whole and how they can be best managed...

  15. FarmStats_CNTYFARM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This datalayer contains Vermont agricultural data describing changes in farming activity (1860-1997), by county, extracted from U.S. Census of Agriculture. Initial...

  16. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  17. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  18. Farming techniques for seaweeds

    OpenAIRE

    Castaños, M.; Buendia, R.

    1998-01-01

    Details are given of farming methods developed by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for 3 different seaweeds: 1) Bottom line culture method for Kappaphycus; 2) Pond culture of Gracilaria; and, 3) Gracilariopsis bailinae, the new seaweed on the block.

  19. Prenatal care disparities and the migrant farm worker community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    The pregnant migrant farm worker faces many barriers to accessing healthcare in the United States due to poverty, language/literacy issues, transportation difficulties, and geographic isolation. The advanced practice nurse has the opportunity to contribute solutions to the problems of lack of adequate prenatal care among the migrant farm worker community, if he/she is aware of the need and can institute novel models of care. This article describes the problem of migrant farm worker health and suggests ways that advanced practice nurses can provide cost effective, competent professional care to reduce or eliminate the obstacles to care for this population.

  20. Mental illness in the nursing workplace: a collective autoethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jacquie Dianne; Finlayson, Mary P

    2010-01-01

    Many nurses are burned out, exhausted and have a high intent to leave their jobs. These factors, when experienced over a period of time, are consistent with the development of mental illness. This study takes a collective autoethnographical approach to mental illness in the nursing workplace by focusing on the stories of nurses who have experienced mental illness in clinical practice. It highlights three ways in which nursing and mental illness are connected; the nurse who is vulnerable to mental illness prior to entering the profession, the nurse who develops mental illness that is independent of her work but is nevertheless impacted by it, and the nurse who develops mental illness as a result of her work and/or role. This paper explores the hyphenated lives and bullying these nurses experience, and recommends strategies that the profession, employing organisations, and individuals can adopt to reduce nurses' progression from stress to distress and mental illness.

  1. Summary of Data Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Horne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data Farming is a process that has been developed to support decision-makers by answering questions that are not currently addressed. Data farming uses an inter-disciplinary approach that includes modeling and simulation, high performance computing, and statistical analysis to examine questions of interest with a large number of alternatives. Data farming allows for the examination of uncertain events with numerous possible outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that both overall and unexpected results may be captured and examined for insights. Harnessing the power of data farming to apply it to our questions is essential to providing support not currently available to decision-makers. This support is critically needed in answering questions inherent in the scenarios we expect to confront in the future as the challenges our forces face become more complex and uncertain. This article was created on the basis of work conducted by Task Group MSG-088 “Data Farming in Support of NATO”, which is being applied in MSG-124 “Developing Actionable Data Farming Decision Support for NATO” of the Science and Technology Organization, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (STO NATO.

  2. Frequency of cattle farms with ivermectin resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Díaz, M A; Arnaud-Ochoa, R A; Becerra-Nava, R; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Quiroz-Romero, R H

    2015-09-15

    This study reports the percentage of cattle farms with ivermectin (IVM) resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in Veracruz, Mexico, and identifies the GIN genera involved in the resistances. It also describes management practices of anthelmintic (AH) use on the surveyed farms. Twenty-one farms were assessed by means of the faecal egg count reduction test using the McMaster technique. Only two farms had GIN populations susceptible to IVM (9.5%). The proportion of farms with IVM resistant GIN was 71.4% (15/21). Seven of these farms had less than 80% egg count reductions. Haemonchus and Cooperia were the genera most commonly found in the resistant populations, followed by Oesophagostomum. Inappropriate AH treatment practices were identified from the completed questionnaires. Further management practices such as selective treatment and quarantine treatments are proposed to further reduce the spread of IVM resistance between farms.

  3. Liver fluke control on sheep farms in Northern Ireland: A survey of changing management practices in relation to disease prevalence and perceived triclabendazole resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C; Edgar, H W J; Hanna, R E B; Ellison, S E; Flanagan, A M; McCoy, M; Kajugu, P-E; Gordon, A W; Irwin, D; Barley, J E; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2016-01-30

    Reports of resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) among fluke populations have increased in recent years. Allied to this, there has been a rise in the prevalence of the disease, which has been linked to climate change. Results from questionnaire surveys conducted in Northern Ireland (NI) in 2005 (covering the years 1999-2004) and 2011 (covering the years 2008-2011) have provided an opportunity to examine the extent to which fluke control practices have changed over a prolonged time-frame, in light of these changes. A number of differences were highlighted. There was a significant shift away from the use of TCBZ over time, with it being replaced largely by closantel. The timing of treatments had moved earlier in the year, perhaps in response to climate change (and an altered pattern of disease). In relation to the frequency of drug treatments, there were no major changes in the overall pattern of drug treatments between the two survey points, although on both occasions approximately one-third of flock owners gave more than 3 treatments per year to ewes. In lowland areas in 2011, flock owners were rotating drug classes more often (each year and at each treatment) than in 2005, whereas in upland areas, flock owners were rotating less often and more were not rotating at all. Between 2005 and 2011, the percentage of flock owners giving quarantine treatments to bought-in stock had halved, to a very low level (approximately 10%). Using data from a complementary TCBZ resistance survey (Hanna et al., 2015), it has been shown that the way in which data are selected and which efficacy formula is applied can influence the calculation of drug efficiency and impact on diagnosis of resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Foodborne Germs and Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020 and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Foodborne Germs and Illnesses Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Foodborne Germs Botulism Campylobacter Clostridium perfringens Cyclospora E. coli ...

  5. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program.

  6. Evaluation of soil sustainability along the Rio Grande in West Texas: changes in salt loading and organic nutrients due to farming practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C. L.; Ganjegunte, G.; Borrok, D. M.; Lougheed, V.; Ma, L.; Jin, L.

    2011-12-01

    thus have higher salt loading, and that Cotton has a higher clay content. The EC values continuously increase from irrigation water to soil waters, suggesting that as water travels through the soil profile it increases in salinity. Consistent with this observation, cation concentrations in soil waters increased with depth. Therefore, the salts within the soils are mobilized during irrigation. 5TE sensors at all three depths in the field showed spikes in EC, and soil moisture during each period of flood irrigation. Data also suggests a lower bulk EC between irrigation periods which might result from a lower soil moisture content which doesn't solublize the salts. The carbonate- and gypsum- rich soils and surface water in the Rio Grande Basin change with intensity and amount of irrigation, addition of fertilizers, and other agricultural practices. Results from this project contribute to our understanding of salt loading and nutrient cycling in the vulnerable area of the Rio Grande Valley in West Texas.

  7. Mixed crop-livestock systems: an economic and environmental-friendly way of farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryschawy, J; Choisis, N; Choisis, J P; Joannon, A; Gibon, A

    2012-10-01

    Intensification and specialisation of agriculture in developed countries enabled productivity to be improved but had detrimental impacts on the environment and threatened the economic viability of a huge number of farms. The combination of livestock and crops, which was very common in the past, is assumed to be a viable alternative to specialised livestock or cropping systems. Mixed crop-livestock systems can improve nutrient cycling while reducing chemical inputs and generate economies of scope at farm level. Most assumptions underlying these views are based on theoretical and experimental evidence. Very few assessments of their environmental and economic advantages have nevertheless been undertaken in real-world farming conditions. In this paper, we present a comparative assessment of the environmental and economic performances of mixed crop-livestock farms v. specialised farms among the farm population of the French 'Coteaux de Gascogne'. In this hilly region, half of the farms currently use a mixed crop-livestock system including beef cattle and cash crops, the remaining farms being specialised in either crops or cattle. Data were collected through an exhaustive survey of farms located in our study area. The economic performances of farming systems were assessed on 48 farms on the basis of (i) overall gross margin, (ii) production costs and (iii) analysis of the sensitivity of gross margins to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs. The environmental dimension was analysed through (i) characterisation of farmers' crop management practices, (ii) analysis of farm land use diversity and (iii) nitrogen farm-gate balance. Local mixed crop-livestock farms did not have significantly higher overall gross margins than specialised farms but were less sensitive than dairy and crop farms to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs considered. Mixed crop-livestock farms had lower costs than crop farms, while beef farms had the lowest costs as they are grass

  8. Beliefs regarding diet during childhood illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha D Benakappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fifty percent to 70% of the burden of childhood diarrhea and respiratory infections is attributable to undernutrition. It is compounded by food restriction during illness due to false beliefs, leading to a vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection. In the long run, it decreases the child′s productivity, which is an obstacle to sustainable socioeconomic development. Objectives: To assess the dietary practices during different illnesses, to study the role of education, culture and religion in feeding an ill child and to create awareness against detrimental practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 126 caregivers of ill children using an open-ended pretested questionnaire. Statistical package for social sciences software was used for data analysis. Simple proportions, percentages and Chi-square were used. Results: Caregivers believed that a child must be fed less during illness. Educational status did not play a role in maintaining beliefs, but elders and religion did. Doctors too were responsible for unwanted dietary restrictions. Media did not have an impact in spreading nutrition messages. Decreased breast feeds, initiating bottle feeds, feeding diluted milk and reducing complementary feeds during illness was widely practiced. Calorie intake during illness was very less and statistically significant. Firmly rooted beliefs about "hot" and "cold" foods lead to restriction of food available at home. Conclusions: Healthy feeding practices were few, and inappropriate ones predominant. Dietary education was overlooked. While planning community-based nutrition programs, firmly rooted beliefs should be kept in mind. Involving the elderly caregivers and mothers actively along with the health workers is the need of the hour.

  9. Alarm setting for the critically ill patient: a descriptive pilot survey of nurses' perceptions of current practice in an Australian Regional Critical Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin; Dodds, Andrew; Sauer, Josh; Watts, Nigel

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this survey was to assess registered nurse's perceptions of alarm setting and management in an Australian Regional Critical Care Unit. The setting and management of alarms within the critical care environment is one of the key responsibilities of the nurse in this area. However, with up to 99% of alarms potentially being false-positives it is easy for the nurse to become desensitised or fatigued by incessant alarms; in some cases up to 400 per patient per day. Inadvertently ignoring, silencing or disabling alarms can have deleterious implications for the patient and nurse. A total population sample of 48 nursing staff from a 13 bedded ICU/HDU/CCU within regional Australia were asked to participate. A 10 item open-ended and multiple choice questionnaire was distributed to determine their perceptions and attitudes of alarm setting and management within this clinical area. Two key themes were identified from the open-ended questions: attitudes towards inappropriate alarm settings and annoyance at delayed responses to alarms. A significant number of respondents (93%) agreed that alarm fatigue can result in alarm desensitisation and the disabling of alarms, whilst 81% suggested the key factors are those associated with false-positive alarms and inappropriately set alarms. This study contributes to what is known about alarm fatigue, setting and management within a critical care environment. In addition it gives an insight as to what nurses' within a regional context consider the key factors which contribute to alarm fatigue. Clearly nursing burnout and potential patient harm are important considerations for practice especially when confronted with alarm fatigue and desensitisation. Therefore, promoting and maintaining an environment of ongoing intra-professional communication and alarm surveillance are crucial in alleviating these potential problems. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Within-Farm Changes in Dairy Farm-Associated Salmonella Subtypes and Comparison to Human Clinical Isolates in Michigan, 2000-2001 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habing, Greg G; Manning, Shannon; Bolin, Carole; Cui, Yuehua; Rudrik, James; Dietrich, Stephen; Kaneene, John B

    2015-09-01

    Temporal changes in the distribution of Salmonella subtypes in livestock populations may have important impacts on human health. The first objective of this research was to determine the within-farm changes in the population of subtypes of Salmonella on Michigan dairy farms that were sampled longitudinally in 2000-2001 and again in 2009. The second objective was to determine the yearly frequency (2001 through 2012) of reported human illnesses in Michigan associated with the same subtypes. Comparable sampling techniques were used to collect fecal and environmental samples from the same 18 Michigan dairy farms in 2000-2001 and 2009. Serotypes, multilocus sequence types (STs), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) banding patterns were identified for isolates from 6 farms where >1 Salmonella isolate was recovered in both 2000-2001 and 2009. The distribution of STs was significantly different between time frames (P Salmonella were due to recovery of MDR subtypes of S. enterica serotypes Senftenberg and Typhimurium in 2000-2001 and genetically distinct, pansusceptible subtypes of the same serotypes in 2009. The annual frequency of human illnesses between 2001 and 2012 with a PFGE pattern matching a bovine strain decreased for patterns recovered from dairy farms in 2000-2001 and increased for patterns recovered in 2009. These data suggest important changes in the population of Salmonella on dairy farms and in the frequency of human illnesses associated with cattle-derived subtypes.

  11. Heat Related Illnesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Carter III; Samuel N. Cheuvront; Michael N. Sawka

    2007-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Heat illnesses range in severity from mild (heat rash, heat syncope, cramps) to serious (heat exhaustion, heat injury, heat stroke). · Although heat illness can occur in anyone, an increased risk is associated with a variety of environmental factors, personal characteristics,health conditions, and medications.

  12. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called "Crypto", is a one-celled, microscopic shelled parasite and a significant cause of waterborne and foodborne illness worldwide. It is found in the intestines of many herd animals including cows, sheep, goats, deer, and elk. The illness could be intestinal, ...

  13. A Pragmatic Randomised, Controlled Trial of Intensive Care follow up programmes in improving Longer-term outcomes from critical illness. The PRACTICAL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsey Craig

    2007-07-01

    cost-effectiveness. The results of this study therefore will inform clinical practice and policy with regard to the appropriate development of such services aimed at improving outcomes after intensive care. Trial Registration ISRCTN24294750.

  14. Energy use in pig farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    This guide presents benchmark data on 'typical' and 'good practice' levels of energy consumption for pig farms in the UK. Benchmarks are valuable because they allow producers to compare their performance with other similar businesses. In addition, they also provide two other useful functions: They allow routine assessments to be made that show progress against a benchmark. Such appraisals are not restricted to year-on-year evaluations as they can be carried out quarterly, monthly or even weekly to track progress on a more frequent basis Opportunity assessments can be carried out. For example, if a facility is to be modified or upgraded, the effect of the change can be determined. Throughout this guide, the benchmarks and information are based on methods and techniques that minimise energy consumption whilst maintaining pig performance at an economically acceptable level. Pig farming in the UK is a complex and diverse business with a variety of facilities being used for each stage of production. Therefore, in order to give realistic guidelines, production has been broken down into several key areas to illustrate typical performance benchmarks. These production areas are: farrowing accommodation; weaning accommodation; finisher accommodation; feeding system; and waste handling. The guide has a detailed breakdown with graphs and data analysis.

  15. Why critically ill patients are protein deprived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, L John; Bistrian, Bruce R

    2013-01-01

    Critical illness dramatically increases muscle proteolysis and more than doubles the dietary protein requirement. Yet surprisingly, most critically ill patients receive less than half the recommended amount of protein during their stay in a modern intensive care unit. What could explain the wide gap between the recommendations in clinical care guidelines and actual clinical practice? We suggest that an important aspect of the problem is the failure of guidelines to explain the pathophysiology of protein-energy malnutrition and the ways critical illness modifies protein metabolism. The difficulty created by the lack of a framework for reasoning about appropriate protein provision in critical illness is compounded by the many ambiguous and often contradictory ways the word malnutrition is used in the critical care literature. Failing to elucidate these matters, the recommendations for protein provision in the guidelines are incoherent, unconvincing, and easy to ignore.

  16. Contribution of organic farming to public goods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lizzie Melby; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Fog, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The potential contribution of organic farming to the public goods, ‘Nature and Biodiversity’, ‘Environment’, ‘Energy and Climate’, ‘Human Health and Welfare’ and ‘Animal Health and Welfare’ in Denmark is guided and partly secured by the principles and specific requirements of the EU Organic...... such uses in organic farming, as examples, the positive and negative contributions of organic farming in relation to selected public goods were analysed. The contributions of organic farming to Nature and Biodiversity and Human and Animal Health and Welfare are mainly positive compared to conventional...... to the public goods Energy and Climate, which at present are not addressed in the EU Organic Regulation. Moreover, some organic farming requirements and practices cause dilemmas; e.g. more space per animal and outdoor access improves Animal Health and Welfare but at the same time has negative effects...

  17. Contribution of organic farming to public goods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lizzie Melby; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Fog, Erik

    2017-01-01

    to the public goods Energy and Climate, which at present are not addressed in the EU Organic Regulation. Moreover, some organic farming requirements and practices cause dilemmas; e.g. more space per animal and outdoor access improves Animal Health and Welfare but at the same time has negative effects......The potential contribution of organic farming to the public goods, ‘Nature and Biodiversity’, ‘Environment’, ‘Energy and Climate’, ‘Human Health and Welfare’ and ‘Animal Health and Welfare’ in Denmark is guided and partly secured by the principles and specific requirements of the EU Organic...... such uses in organic farming, as examples, the positive and negative contributions of organic farming in relation to selected public goods were analysed. The contributions of organic farming to Nature and Biodiversity and Human and Animal Health and Welfare are mainly positive compared to conventional...

  18. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  19. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  20. Technologies in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    (pollution) and consequences for human health. Broader ideas about ecosystems and the recycling of nutrients between the agricultural sector and the urban population are notably absent. On the basis of these findings the paper concludes by discussing the relationship between the consumers’ values that guide......In organic farming a dilemma is posed by the heavy reliance on nutrients from conventional livestock farming. For Danish organic plant producers the influx of conventional nutrients accounts for up to 70% of their nutrients. Facing this problem, Danish organic farmers’ organizations have decided...

  1. Drew Goodman, Earthbound Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Drew Goodman is CEO and co-founder, with his wife, Myra, of Earthbound Farm, based in San Juan Bautista, California. Two years after its 1984 inception on 2.5 Carmel Valley acres, Earthbound became the first successful purveyor of pre-washed salads bagged for retail sale. The company now produces more than 100 varieties of certified organic salads, fruits, and vegetables on a total of about 33,000 acres, with individual farms ranging from five to 680 acres in California, Arizona, Washington, ...

  2. Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L

    2012-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms.

  3. The complete annotated genome sequences of three Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from naturally colonized, farm raised chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterially derived foodborne illness worldwide. Human illness is commonly associated with handling and consumption of contaminated poultry products. Three C. jejuni strains were isolated from cecal contents of three different naturally colonized, farm rais...

  4. Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook (this document) provides guidance for developing a business plan for the startup and operation of an urban farm. It focuses on food and non-food related cultivated agriculture.

  5. Critical illness myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latronico, Nicola; Tomelleri, Giuliano; Filosto, Massimiliano

    2012-11-01

    To describe the incidence, major risk factors, and the clinical, electrophysiological, and histological features of critical illness myopathy (CIM). Major pathogenetic mechanisms and long-term consequences of CIM are also reviewed. CIM is frequently associated with critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), and may have a relevant impact on patients' outcome. CIM has an earlier onset than CIP, and recovery is faster. Loss of myosin filaments on muscle biopsy is important to diagnose CIM, and has a good prognosis. Critical illness, use of steroids, and immobility concur in causing CIM. A rationale diagnostic approach to CIM using clinical, electrophysiological, and muscle biopsy investigations is important to plan adequate therapy and to predict recovery.

  6. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  7. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...

  8. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  9. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  10. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...

  11. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...

  12. Rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farms in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Quang, Nguyen

    1993-01-01

    Aquaculture in riceland has been practiced in Mekong Delta, Vietnam for a long time and integrated rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming has become more and more popular. The integrated farming systems developed and practiced by farmers in the area to produce more food and more cash crops are presented and discussed.

  13. Population pressure and farm fragmentation:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    small but farms are further fragmented into diminutive size fields due to ... terms of household characteristics; land use and performance indicators; technology adoption .... 'best' unit of measurement of farm size, and size of enterprises within farms will ..... less common, accounting for 18 percent (3 percent) and 10 percent (7.

  14. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-12-21

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

  15. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or any situation ... pale skin, rapid pulse, elevated or lowered blood pressure, nausea, loss of consciousness, vomiting or a high ...

  16. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...

  17. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  18. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  19. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; vomiting; and increased body temperature of ... for symptoms that include cool, moist, pale skin, rapid pulse, elevated or lowered blood pressure, nausea, loss ...

  20. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your Wishes Visiting the ER Who Takes ... 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat- ...

  1. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exhaustion symptoms include cool, moist, pale or flushed skin; headache; dizziness; weakness; feeling exhausted; heavy sweating; nausea; ... stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; ...

  2. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exhaustion symptoms include cool, moist, pale or flushed skin; headache; dizziness; weakness; feeling exhausted; heavy sweating; nausea; ... stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; ...

  3. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  4. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or ... the elderly are most at risk, but anyone can be affected. Here you will find information about ...

  5. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  6. Symptoms of Tickborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Removing a tick Symptoms of tickborne illness Geographic distribution of ticks that bite humans How ticks spread ... varies greatly from person to person in appearance, location, and time of onset. About 10% of people ...

  7. 甘肃旱作区玉米育种的实践与思考%Practice and Thinking on the Corn Breeding in the Dry Farming Region of Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆登义

    2013-01-01

    The existing problems of the corn breeding and a place in agriculture development was analyzed in the dry farming region of Gansu,this paper discusses the main ideas of corn breeding in the dry farming region from the close combination of the corn breeding objectives in the dry farming region with the actual,improvement and development of technology system of dry farming corn, according drought characteristics determine the corn drought strategy in the dry farming region.%  分析了玉米在甘肃旱作区农业发展中的地位和玉米育种存在的问题,从旱作区玉米育种目标与实际紧密结合、完善与发展旱作玉米技术体系、根据干旱特点确定旱作区玉米的抗旱策略等方面论述了旱作区玉米育种的主要思路。

  8. Optimization Model for Mitigating Global Warming at the Farm Scale: An Application to Japanese Rice Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Masuda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, greenhouse gas emissions from rice production, especially CH4 emissions in rice paddy fields, are the primary contributors to global warming from agriculture. When prolonged midseason drainage for mitigating CH4 emissions from rice paddy fields is practiced with environmentally friendly rice production based on reduced use of synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers, Japanese rice farmers can receive an agri-environmental direct payment. This paper examines the economic and environmental effects of the agri-environmental direct payment on the adoption of a measure to mitigate global warming in Japanese rice farms using a combined application of linear programming and life cycle assessment at the farm scale. Eco-efficiency, which is defined as net farm income divided by global warming potential, is used as an integrated indicator for assessing the economic and environmental feasibilities. The results show that under the current direct payment level, the prolonged midseason drainage technique does not improve the eco-efficiency of Japanese rice farms because the practice of this technique in environmentally friendly rice production causes large economic disadvantages in exchange for small environmental advantages. The direct payment rates for agri-environmental measures should be determined based on the condition that environmentally friendly agricultural practices improve eco-efficiency compared with conventional agriculture.

  9. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Companies that produce or sell food products from farm animals can have a major influence on the lives and welfare of these animals. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) conducts an annual evaluation of the farm animal welfare-related disclosures of some of the world’s largest food companies. The programme looks at companies’ published policies and commitments and examines whether these might lead to actions that can improve animal welfare on farms. It also assesses whether companies show leadership in this field. The BBFAW found that, in 2012 and 2013, around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue, and that, between 2012 and 2013, there was clear evidence of an increased level of disclosure on farm animal welfare awareness in the companies that were assessed. However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies had published comprehensive farm animal welfare policies, suggesting that many companies have yet to report on farm animal welfare as a business issue or disclose their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society. Abstract The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon

  10. Sculpting the Illness Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Otto Kamensek provided the cover art for the Fall 2014 issue of the Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. “Glimmer of Hope” is part of Otto’s collection “Shard’s, Bone Deep,” which includes hand-built ceramic sculptures that portray his experiences with a lifelong chronic illness. Engaging in ceramic sculpture helps him process the experiences associated with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis and provides a means to support others experiencing chronic illness.

  11. Nonthyroidal Illness (NTIs)

    OpenAIRE

    Nanny Natalia Mulyani Soetedjo

    2009-01-01

    Nonthyroidal illness (NTIs) can be described as abnormal findings on thyroid function tests that occur in the setting of a nonthyroidal illness (NTI) without preexisting hypothalamic-pituitary and thyroid gland dysfunction. After recovery from an NTI, these thyroid function test result abnormalities should be completely reversible. Multiple alterations in serum thyroid function test findings have been recognized in patients with a wide variety of NTI without evidence of preexisting thyroid or...

  12. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    to cold stress. Despite this ability, man has been plagued by heat illness throughout recorded history. The Old Testament describes a young man’s...encounter heat illness because of the requirement to train unacclimatized men by means of forced heavy physical cxercise. The United States Army...dyspnea, dysphagia , and urinary incontinence. 2 6 Although the muscular rigidity and hyperthermia are reminiscent of malignant hyperthermia, the putative

  13. Violence and Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, includi...

  14. Demand planning ve společnosti Farm Frites

    OpenAIRE

    Rosíková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Theoretic part of thesis included short introduction into logistics, define question of demand planning and his role in SCM. In practical part is outlined function of SCM in Farm Frites company. Description of logistics chain, which is necessary part for understanding of whole proces of demand planning in company. Main object of thesis is to determine problems connected with demand planning and proposal of resolution of that problems in Farm Frites.

  15. On-farm study of human contact networks to document potential pathways for avian influenza transmission between commercial poultry farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, T E; Guerin, M T; Kelton, D; Ribble, C; Stephen, C

    2011-12-01

    Human movements associated with poultry farming create contact networks that might facilitate transmission of avian influenza (AI) between farms during outbreaks. In Canada, no information is available about how these networks connect poultry farms. The purpose of this study was to document human contacts between commercial poultry farms in Ontario, Canada, to learn how AI might be transmitted during outbreaks. We used face-to-face interviews with people entering the farm biosecurity perimeter on four layer, one turkey and three broiler breeder poultry farms in Ontario to collect information on between-farm contacts and biosecurity practices. Over a four-day study period on each farm, a median of 10.5 people entered the farm biosecurity perimeter (range 2-31). Ninety-six per cent (111/118) of people consented to be interviewed. Of these, fifty-three per cent (59/111) had contact with one or more (median 2, degree range 1-14) other poultry farms within 72 h. A median of 25 (range 7-65) human contacts linked study farms to other poultry farms. The mean distance of between-farm contacts was 53 km. Eighty-six per cent of people who answered the biosecurity questions (94/109) reported using one or more biosecurity practices. However, on 7/8 farms, at least one person reported that they did not use any biosecurity practices. Fifty per cent of social visitors used biosecurity, whereas 96% of all other people used biosecurity. Ninety-two per cent of people that entered the poultry barns (46/50) used one or more biosecurity practices, whereas 81% of people (48/59) that did not enter the poultry barns used one or more biosecurity practices. Because our study documented farm visitors who did not use any biosecurity practices and moved between commercial poultry farms, we suggest that rapid trace-out of human movements is as important as containment zoning to limiting disease spread during an outbreak of highly pathogenic AI in Ontario. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. 成都市推广规模化畜禽养殖场沼气工程实践与思考%The Practice and Thinking on the Generalization of Biogas Construction in Large Scale Livestock Farm in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家宾; 殷小伟; 彭朝晖

    2011-01-01

    文章主要介绍了成都市规模化养殖场发展状况及粪污处理沼气工程建设情况,并系统分析了实施能源生态型沼气工程技术模式所取得的经济、环境和社会效益,还就规模养殖推广沼气工程提出了建议.%This paper mainly introduces the developing status of scale farm and present situation of biogas project treating the animal manure in scale farms in Chengdu.The economic, environmental and social benefits brought by the application of biogas, were analyzed.Suggestions are proposed for the generalization of biogas construction in large scale farm.

  17. Changes in the Welfare of an Injured Working Farm Dog Assessed Using the Five Domains Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Littlewood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present structured, systematic and comprehensive welfare evaluation of an injured working farm dog using the Five Domains Model is of interest in its own right. It is also an example for others wanting to apply the Model to welfare evaluations in different species and contexts. Six stages of a fictitious scenario involving the dog are considered: (1 its on-farm circumstances before one hind leg is injured; (2 its entanglement in barbed wire, cutting it free and transporting it to a veterinary clinic; (3 the initial veterinary examination and overnight stay; (4 amputation of the limb and immediate post-operative recovery; (5 its first four weeks after rehoming to a lifestyle block; and (6 its subsequent life as an amputee and pet. Not all features of the scenario represent average-to-good practice; indeed, some have been selected to indicate poor practice. It is shown how the Model can draw attention to areas of animal welfare concern and, importantly, to how welfare enhancement may be impeded or facilitated. Also illustrated is how the welfare implications of a sequence of events can be traced and evaluated, and, in relation to specific situations, how the degrees of welfare compromise and enhancement may be graded. In addition, the choice of a companion animal, contrasting its welfare status as a working dog and pet, and considering its treatment in a veterinary clinical setting, help to highlight various welfare impacts of some practices. By focussing attention on welfare problems, the Model can guide the implementation of remedies, including ways of promoting positive welfare states. Finally, wider applications of the Five Domains Model are noted: by enabling both negative and positive welfare-relevant experiences to be graded, the Model can be applied to quality of life assessments and end-of-life decisions and, with particular regard to negative experiences, the Model can also help to strengthen expert witness testimony during

  18. Carbon farming economics: What have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai; Kragt, Marit E; Hailu, Atakelty; Ma, Chunbo

    2016-05-01

    This study reviewed 62 economic analyses published between 1995 and 2014 on the economic impacts of policies that incentivise agricultural greenhouse (GHG) mitigation. Typically, biophysical models are used to evaluate the changes in GHG mitigation that result from landholders changing their farm and land management practices. The estimated results of biophysical models are then integrated with economic models to simulate the costs of different policy scenarios to production systems. The cost estimates vary between $3 and $130/t CO2 equivalent in 2012 US dollars, depending on the mitigation strategies, spatial locations, and policy scenarios considered. Most studies assessed the consequences of a single, rather than multiple, mitigation strategies, and few considered the co-benefits of carbon farming. These omissions could challenge the reality and robustness of the studies' results. One of the biggest challenges facing agricultural economists is to assess the full extent of the trade-offs involved in carbon farming. We need to improve our biophysical knowledge about carbon farming co-benefits, predict the economic impacts of employing multiple strategies and policy incentives, and develop the associated integrated models, to estimate the full costs and benefits of agricultural GHG mitigation to farmers and the rest of society.

  19. Welfare issues of modern deer farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mattiello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision, transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation. Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.

  20. Cellular reprogramming in farm animals: an overview of iPSC generation in the mammalian farm animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Ogorevc, J.; Orehek, S.; Dovč, P.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines has been successful in mouse and human, but not in farm animals. Development of direct reprogramming technology offers an alternative approach for generation of pluripotent stem cells, applicable also in farm animals. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent practically limitless, ethically acceptable, individuum-specific source of pluripotent cells that can be generated from different types of somatic cells. iPSCs can differentiate to ...

  1. Wind Farms: Modeling and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    provides the state space form of the dynamic wind farm model. The model provides an approximation of the behavior of the flow in wind farms, and obtains the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine. The control algorithms in this work are mostly on the basis of the developed wind farm model......The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for wind farms to optimize the power production and augment the lifetime of wind turbines in wind farms. In this regard, a dynamical model for wind farms was required to be the basis of the controller design. In the first stage......, a dynamical model has been developed for the wind flow in wind farms. The model is based on the spatial discretization of the linearized Navier-Stokes equation combined with the vortex cylinder theory. The spatial discretization of the model is performed using the Finite Difference Method (FDM), which...

  2. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge;

    2012-01-01

    on a 3GHz pc. The turbine controller is fully implemented. Initially, production estimates of a single turbine under free and wake conditions, respectively, are compared for (undis- turbed) mean wind speeds ranging from 3m/s to 25m/s. The undisturbed situation refers to a wind direction bin defined......In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind...... as 270◦ ±5◦, whereas the wake situation refers to the wind direction bin 319◦ ±5◦. In the latter case, the investigated turbine operated in the wake of 6 upstream turbines, with the mean wind direction being equal to the orientation of the wind turbine row. The production of the entire wind farm has been...

  3. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  4. Particularities of farm accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteș, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, agriculture has become one of the most important fields of activity, significant funds being allotted within the EU budget to finance the European agriculture. In this context, organising the accounting of economic entities which carry out their activity in the agricultural sector has acquired new meanings. The goal of the present study is to bring into the light the particularities of the farm accounting on two levels: on the one hand, from the perspective of the international accounting referential and, on the other hand, in compliance with the national accounting regulations. The most important conclusion of this work is that, in post-1990 Romania, no interest was further manifested for the refinement of aspects specific to farm accounting.

  5. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...... is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded...... conventional farmers – declining prices, concentration of production and shift in bargaining power to the retailers. Logically, this situation will lead eventually to increasing conflicts between organic values and their subordination to free market forces, i.e. conventionalization. In the same time retailers...

  6. Life cycle assessment of offshore and onshore sited wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-15

    This report makes up the final reporting for the project 'Life cycle assessment (LCA) of turbines Analysis of possibilities of product directed environmental optimisation'. The purpose of the project is to carry through a life cycle assessment of an offshore wind farm and an onshore wind farm, respectively, as a basis for assessment of environmental improvement possibilities for wind farms through their life cycles. Likewise, the results are used to elaborate an environmental declaration of contents for power delivered to the grid from both types of wind farms. The project states the environmental impact for electricity produced at Horns Reef offshore wind farm and Tjaereborg onshore wind farm, respectively, as representatives for contemporary Danish offshore wind farms and onshore wind farms, respectively. Tjaereborg onshore wind farm is placed at an utmost favourably location with regard to wind, which means that the production at this wind farm is high compared with other onshore wind farms in Denmark. The high production rate is a factor that is taken into account when assessing the impact on the environment emanating from this wind farm. The results of the environmental life cycle assessments that have been carried out for the two wind farms do not show significant variance. If it is taken into account that Tjaereborg onshore wind farm is placed utmost favourably, the comparison shows that power from an average located onshore wind farm would have a more adverse or corresponding environmental impact as an unfavourably located offshore wind farm. The results show that it is the turbines that causes the largest environmental impact and not to a very high extent the transmission grid. For the turbines, the all-important environmental contribution comes from manufacturing and removal of the turbines, as it is the materials that cause the large environmental strain. The operation of the wind farms gives practically no contribution to the total

  7. Amy Courtney: Freewheelin' Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Shareholders in Freewheelin’ Farm’s community supported agriculture program enjoy an unusual perk: delivery by bicycle-drawn trailer. Freewheelin’ founder Amy Courtney, a 1997 graduate of UCSC’s Apprenticeship in Ecological Horticulture, strives to produce fresh, healthy food while minimizing her environmental footprint. Courtney started the farm in 2002 with almost no motorized vehicles, incorporating used equipment and recycled materials wherever possible in the farm’s operations. She and h...

  8. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind the DWMm......In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind...... on a 3GHz pc. The turbine controller is fully implemented. Initially, production estimates of a single turbine under free and wake conditions, respectively, are compared for (undis- turbed) mean wind speeds ranging from 3m/s to 25m/s. The undisturbed situation refers to a wind direction bin defined...... as 270◦ ±5◦, whereas the wake situation refers to the wind direction bin 319◦ ±5◦. In the latter case, the investigated turbine operated in the wake of 6 upstream turbines, with the mean wind direction being equal to the orientation of the wind turbine row. The production of the entire wind farm has been...

  9. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  10. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  11. Effects of an exercise programme for chronically ill and mobility-restricted elderly with structured support by the general practitioner's practice (HOMEfit - study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichs Timo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise programmes can be administered successfully as therapeutic agents to patients with a number of chronic diseases and help to improve physical functioning in older adults. Usually, such programmes target either healthy and mobile community-dwelling seniors or elderly individuals living in nursing institutions or special residences. Chronically ill or mobility-restricted individuals, however, are difficult to reach when they live in their own homes. A pilot study has shown good feasibility of a home-based exercise programme that is delivered to this target group through cooperation between general practitioners and exercise therapists. A logical next step involves evaluation of the effects of the programme. Methods/design The study is designed as a randomised controlled trial. We plan to recruit 210 patients (≥ 70 years in about 15 general practices. The experimental intervention (duration 12 weeks-a multidimensional home-based exercise programme-is delivered to the participant by an exercise therapist in counselling sessions at the general practitioner's practice and on the telephone. It is based on methods and strategies for facilitating behaviour change according to the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA. The control intervention-baseline physical activities-differs from the experimental intervention with regard to content of the counselling sessions as well as to content and frequency of the promoted activities. Primary outcome is functional lower body strength measured by the "chair-rise" test. Secondary outcomes are: physical function (battery of motor tests, physical activity (step count, health-related quality of life (SF-8, fall-related self-efficacy (FES-I, and exercise self-efficacy (SSA-Scale. The hypothesis that there will be differences between the two groups (experimental/control with respect to post-interventional chair-rise time will be tested using an ANCOVA with chair-rise time at baseline

  12. Effects of an exercise programme for chronically ill and mobility-restricted elderly with structured support by the general practitioner's practice (HOMEfit) - study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Exercise programmes can be administered successfully as therapeutic agents to patients with a number of chronic diseases and help to improve physical functioning in older adults. Usually, such programmes target either healthy and mobile community-dwelling seniors or elderly individuals living in nursing institutions or special residences. Chronically ill or mobility-restricted individuals, however, are difficult to reach when they live in their own homes. A pilot study has shown good feasibility of a home-based exercise programme that is delivered to this target group through cooperation between general practitioners and exercise therapists. A logical next step involves evaluation of the effects of the programme. Methods/design The study is designed as a randomised controlled trial. We plan to recruit 210 patients (≥ 70 years) in about 15 general practices. The experimental intervention (duration 12 weeks)-a multidimensional home-based exercise programme-is delivered to the participant by an exercise therapist in counselling sessions at the general practitioner's practice and on the telephone. It is based on methods and strategies for facilitating behaviour change according to the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). The control intervention-baseline physical activities-differs from the experimental intervention with regard to content of the counselling sessions as well as to content and frequency of the promoted activities. Primary outcome is functional lower body strength measured by the "chair-rise" test. Secondary outcomes are: physical function (battery of motor tests), physical activity (step count), health-related quality of life (SF-8), fall-related self-efficacy (FES-I), and exercise self-efficacy (SSA-Scale). The hypothesis that there will be differences between the two groups (experimental/control) with respect to post-interventional chair-rise time will be tested using an ANCOVA with chair-rise time at baseline, treatment group, and study

  13. Impacts of changes in mangrove forest management practices on forest accessibility and livelihood: A case study in mangrove-shrimp farming system in Ca Mau Province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, T.T.P.; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Visser, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents how the implementation of forest tenure policy affects the decision-making of farmers in mangrove-shrimp farming systems with regard to their access to and management of mangrove forest in Ca Mau, Mekong Delta, which is the largest remaining mangrove forest in Vietnam. Policies

  14. Functional illness in primary care: dysfunction versus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nefyn; Wilkinson, Clare; Stott, Nigel; Menkes, David B

    2008-05-15

    The Biopsychosocial Model aims to integrate the biological, psychological and social components of illness, but integration is difficult in practice, particularly when patients consult with medically unexplained physical symptoms or functional illness. This Biopsychosocial Model was developed from General Systems Theory, which describes nature as a dynamic order of interacting parts and processes, from molecular to societal. Despite such conceptual progress, the biological, psychological, social and spiritual components of illness are seldom managed as an integrated whole in conventional medical practice. This is because the biomedical model can be easier to use, clinicians often have difficulty relinquishing a disease-centred approach to diagnosis, and either dismiss illness when pathology has been excluded, or explain all undifferentiated illness in terms of psychosocial factors. By contrast, traditional and complementary treatment systems describe reversible functional disturbances, and appear better at integrating the different components of illness. Conventional medicine retains the advantage of scientific method and an expanding evidence base, but needs to more effectively integrate psychosocial factors into assessment and management, notably of 'functional' illness. As an aid to integration, pathology characterised by structural change in tissues and organs is contrasted with dysfunction arising from disordered physiology or psychology that may occur independent of pathological change. We propose a classification of illness that includes orthogonal dimensions of pathology and dysfunction to support a broadly based clinical approach to patients; adoption of which may lead to fewer inappropriate investigations and secondary care referrals and greater use of cognitive behavioural techniques, particularly when managing functional illness.

  15. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  16. Precision farming - Technology assessment of site-specific input application in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    About 400 Danish farmers have within the large 10 years adopted some precision farming technologies on their farms. Precision farming is a management system, in which the use of variable inputs (fertilisers, lime and pesticides) is applied according to the spatial soil and crop variation at a sub......-field level. Most precision farming systems uses the GPS-system for geographical positioning. This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic barriers and potentials of precision farming in Denmark. The project is based on a combined participatory technology assessment approach with businesses...... economic and socio-economic analysis. The current status of precision farming in Denmark is as follows: • The technology is primarily applicable for large farm holdings • Economic viability depends on site-specific yield variation • So far, the business economic benefits from most PF-practices are modest...

  17. Impact of raw pig slurry and pig farming practices on physicochemical parameters and on atmospheric N2O and CH 4 emissions of tropical soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, E; Gunkel-Grillon, P; Joly, L; Thomas, X; Decarpenterie, T; Mappe-Fogaing, I; Laporte-Magoni, C; Dumelié, N; Durry, G

    2014-09-01

    Emissions of CH4 and N2O related to private pig farming under a tropical climate in Uvéa Island were studied in this paper. Physicochemical soil parameters such as nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, pH and moisture were measured. Gaseous soil emissions as well as physicochemical parameters were compared in two private pig farming strategies encountered on this island on two different soils (calcareous and ferralitic) in order to determine the best pig farming management: in small concrete pens or in large land pens. Ammonium levels were higher in control areas while nitrate and nitrite levels were higher in soils with pig slurry inputs, indicating that nitrification was the predominant process related to N2O emissions. Nitrate contents in soils near concrete pens were important (≥ 55 μg N/g) and can thus be a threat for the groundwater. For both pig farming strategies, N2O and CH4 fluxes can reach high levels up to 1 mg N/m(2)/h and 1 mg C/m(2)/h, respectively. CH4 emissions near concrete pens were very high (≥ 10.4 mg C/m(2)/h). Former land pens converted into agricultural land recover low N2O emission rates (≤ 0.03 mg N/m(2)/h), and methane uptake dominates. N2O emissions were related to nitrate content whereas CH4 emissions were found to be moisture dependent. As a result relating to the physicochemical parameters as well as to the gaseous emissions, we demonstrate that pig farming in large land pens is the best strategy for sustainable family pig breeding in Uvéa Islands and therefore in similar small tropical islands.

  18. [Creativity and mental illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Rihmer, Annamária

    2006-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that people with salient social and artistic creativity suffer more frequently from psychiatric illnesses than the average population. In their review paper, the authors assess the Hungarian and international scientific literature regarding the association of creativity and psychopathology. They conclude that contrary to the concept prevailing in the first part of the 20th century about the strong association between schizophrenia and creativity, the results of empirical research now unambiguously suggest that prominent social and artistic creativity is associated primarily with affective, and more specifically with bipolar affective illnesses. In addition, we already know that as regards the development of creativity, it is not the given affective (depressive, manic, hypomanic) episode which is important, but the hyperthymic or cyclothymic temperament structure which also predisposes for affective illness.

  19. Measurements on and modelling of offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S. [ed.

    1996-11-01

    The primary project component was measurement on the Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm. Also included are analyses of fatigue loading on the turbines, sea climate, performance of the wind farm and modelling of flow characteristics inside the wind farm. These individual analyses were made to meet the overall objective, which was to devise an adequate design tool to take into account the increased dynamic loading in wind farms. Measurements have been conducted for several years on the wind farm at Vindeby 2-3 km off the coast of the island of Lolland in the South Baltic Sea. The Vindeby Wind Farm consists of 11 Bonus machines with installed capacities of 450 kW, hub height 38 m and rotor diameter 35 m. The separations of the machines in the rows are 300 m (8.6D), and the distance between the rows is equally 300 m. Two machines, 4W and 5E are instrumented for structural measurements; tower base bending, yaw and tilt and edge and flapwise blade root bending moments are measured and statistics for 1/2 hourly consecutive time periods are stored. The statistics include minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation and the so-called equivalent load widths. The equivalent load width is popularly speaking the amplitude of a sinusoidal load with frequency equal - in this case - to rotational frequency of the wind turbine rotor that would consume the same fatigue life as the actual load sequence. Modelling of fatigue loading in offshore wind farms and the offshore wind climate was carried out with good results. Also, computational flow modelling was performed. (au) 40 tabs., 130 ills., 114 refs.

  20. Optimising an integrated crop-livestock farm using risk programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Visagie

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have analysed farm planning decisions focusing on producer risk preferences. Few studies have focussed on the farm planning decisions in an integrated croplivestock farm context. Income variability and means of managing risk continues to receive much attention in farm planning research. Different risk programming models have attempted to focus on minimising the income variability of farm activities. This study attempts to identify the optimal mix of crops and the number of animals the farm needs to keep in the presence of crop production risk for a range of risk levels. A mixed integer linear programming model was developed to model the decision environment faced by an integrated crop-livestock farmer. The deviation of income from the expected value was used as a measure of risk. A case study is presented with representative data from a farm in the Swartland area. An investigation of the results of the model under different constraints shows that, in general, strategies that depend on crop rotation principles are preferred to strategies that follow mono-crop production practices.

  1. On being Credibly Ill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2011-01-01

    problems. The paper shows that it is predominantly poorly educated women without a bio-medical diagnosis that welfare officers describe as suffering from psychological problems despite the fact that the women themselves focus on physical ailments in their illness stories. Men and better-educated women......unexplained symptoms. The study is conducted in Denmark using qualitative interviews with welfare officers and clients. The paper's focus is on how issues of gender and class intersect in the negotiation of illness among welfare officers and clients. The particular client group in question consists...... are described by the welfare officers as tired and exhausted or truly stressed after a long working life....

  2. Is Sustainability Compatible with Profitability? An Empirical Analysis on Family Farming Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Piedra-Muñoz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a social concern and a new strategic factor for productive and economic viability. Nevertheless, research on this subject in a holistic approach is limited, and even to a lesser extent when dealing with family farms. This paper analyzes the impact of different aspects of sustainability (socio-economic characteristics, environmentally respectful practices, and innovation on profitability. The data collection instruments include a survey questionnaire on farming in Almería, a province in Southeast Spain, and the methodology followed involves a two-step regression model. The main results show how several socio-economic and environmental-innovation features of family farms have positive effects on their economic performance. Among others, profitability increases when there are better educated and younger family farm decision-makers; the farm is specialized and supported by more efficient cooperatives: and, particularly, when the family farm displays greater concern for environmental practices and better disposition towards agroecological innovation.

  3. The Hierarchy of Control in the Epidemic of Farm Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosman, James; Hagel, Louise; King, Nathan; Koehncke, Niels; Kirychuk, Shelley; Trask, Catherine; Neudorf, Joshua; Day, Lesley; Voaklander, Donald; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    The application of the hierarchy of control (HOC) is a well-established approach to hazard reduction in industrial workplaces. However, it has not been generally applied in farm workplaces. The objective was to determine current practices of farmers in the context of a modified HOC, and the effect of these practices on farm injury outcomes. A self-reported mail survey of 1196 Saskatchewan farm operations was conducted in 2013. Selected survey questions were used as proxy measures of the farm owner-operator's practices relevant to each of the six steps of increasing importance in a modified HOC: (1) hazard identification; (2) risk assessment; (3) personal protection; (4) administrative controls; (5) engineering controls; and (6) elimination of the hazard. Analysis used basic descriptive statistics and logistic regression to examine associations of interest. When four of the six HOC steps were adhered to, there was a significant protective effect: odds ratio (OR) = 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14-0.74) for any injury and OR = 0.27 (95% CI: 0.07-0.99) for serious injury in the overall study population. For farm owner-operators utilizing four of the six steps in the modified HOC, there was a significant protective effect for any injury (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.11-0.83). Although there is a considerable absence of use of elements of the HOC among farm operators, for farmers who adhere to these steps, there is a significant reduction in their risk for injury. Prevention strategies that embrace the practice of these principles may be effective in the control of farm workplace injury.

  4. Are large farms more efficient? Tenure security, farm size and farm efficiency: evidence from northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no

  5. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albie Miles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs--such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control--to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  6. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    with best at a wind turbine control level. However, some faults are better dealt with at the wind farm control level, if the wind turbine is located in a wind farm. In this paper a benchmark model for fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control of wind turbines implemented at the wind farm...... control level is presented. The benchmark model includes a small wind farm of nine wind turbines, based on simple models of the wind turbines as well as the wind and interactions between wind turbines in the wind farm. The model includes wind and power references scenarios as well as three relevant fault...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  7. Performance assessment of Portuguese wind farms: Ownership and managerial efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana Barros, Carlos, E-mail: Cbarros@iseg.utl.pt [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); UECE - Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Sequeira Antunes, Olinda, E-mail: sequeira-antunes@sapo.pt [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); UECE - Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    This paper analyzes ownership and unobserved managerial ability as factors affecting the performance of a representative sample of Portuguese wind farms by means of frontier models. These farms are ranked according to their technical efficiency during the period 2004-2008 and homogenous and heterogeneous variables are disentangled in the cost function, which leads us to advise the implementation of common policies as well as policies by segments. Economic implications arising from the study are also considered. - Research Highlights: > Wind farms are heterogeneous displaying distinct ownership and managerial characteristics that affect efficiency. > Managerial practices has a positive impact on the efficiency. > Ownership has a positive impact on the efficiency. Large wind farms are more efficient.

  8. Social Farming Rural Development Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gheorghe ZUGRAVU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper follows two main objectives: to understand farmers’ perception and image of social services and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of social farming. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of social farming consequently with impact on rural development. This paper conducted a questionnaire survey of Romanian farmers’ perception toward social agricultural. The empirical study indicated that farmers shown different awareness to social farming.

  9. Design and farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W T

    1976-07-24

    Farm animal welfare and the design of farm buildings and equipment are interrelated. The animals' requirements and preferences should first be estimated and ways in which this can be done are discussed, as are methods of assessment of their environment. Some examples of the influence which housing and equipment design can have are given. Attention is drawn to the difficulties inherent in the assessment of farm animal welfare and the postulation made that the veterinarian is well fitted to carry out such assessments.

  10. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  11. Measuring the costs of biosecurity on poultry farms: a case study in broiler production in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Siekkinen Kirsi-Maarit; Heikkilä Jaakko; Tammiranta Niina; Rosengren Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. Methods We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler produce...

  12. Development of animal health and welfare planning in organic dairy farming in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Good animal health and welfare is an explicit goal of organic livestock farming, and will need continuous development and adjustment on the farms. Furthermore, the very different conditions in different regions of Europe calls for models that can be integrated into local practice and be relevant for each type of farming context. A European project with participants from seven countries have been established with the aim of developing principles for animal health and welfare planning in organi...

  13. Management risk factors for calf mortality in intensive Italian dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    High calf mortality is an important factor of economic loss in dairy production. At present, limited data are available on calf rearing practices and calf mortality in Italian dairy farming. The aim of the study was to identify the most important management risk factors for preweaning calf mortality in Italian dairy farms. A group of 28 intensive dairy farms from Lombardy (Italy) were visited to collect information about calf management and calf mortality. Female calf mortality showed high va...

  14. Critical-Illness Polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1993-01-01

    A review of the neurological complications of sepsis from the University of Western Ontario, London, and Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, draws attention to “critical-illness polyneuropathy” as a cause of difficulty in weaning from the ventilator.

  15. Foodborne Illness Retrospective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-07

    Dr. Paul Mead and Dr. Peter Drotman discuss the historic October 1999 article, Food-related Illness and Death in the United States.  Created: 5/7/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/7/2015.

  16. The nonthyroidal illness syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Suzanne Myers; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2007-09-01

    This article briefly summarizes thyroid function alterations generally seen in the euthyroid sick syndrome, provides an overview of specific thyroidal adaptations during several clinical conditions and secondary to specific pharmacologic agents, and discusses the current controversy in thyroid hormone treatment of nonthyroidal illness.

  17. FarmVille For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The only how-to, full-color book available on the game sensation FarmVille. With more than 80 million active players since the game?s release in 2009, there seems no end to the growing popularity of FarmVille. Whether accessed through the Facebook application or from the game?s Web site, this application is a worldwide phenomenon. Yet, there has been no beginner guide that offers an introduction to newcomers and updates to experienced players?until now. FarmVille For Dummies is aimed at getting novices acquainted with FarmVille rules and regulations, while more savvy players can sharpen their

  18. Immigrant Workers and Farm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Seidelin, Claus Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In many developed countries, the agricultural sector has experienced a significant inflow of immigrants. At the same time, agriculture is still in a process of structural transformation, resulting in fewer but larger and presumably more efficient farms. We exploit matched employer-employee data...... for Danish farms in 1980–2008 to analyze the micro-level relationship between these two developments. Farms employing immigrants tend to be both larger than and no less productive than other farms. Furthermore, an increased use of immigrants is associated with an improvement in job creation and revenue......, which at least partially seems to reflect a causal effect of immigrants....

  19. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies' Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A

    2017-03-06

    The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company's commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world's largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test). However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  20. Looking after chronically ill dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stine B.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    thus face similar challenges when caring for their animals. This qualitative study uncovers impacts on an owner's life, when attending to the care of an aged or chronically ill dog and reflects on the differing roles of caregivers with animal and human patients. Twelve dog owners were selected for in......-depth interviews based on the dogs' diagnoses, and the choice of treatments and care expected to affect the owner's life. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively. The dog owners reported several changes in their lives due to their dog's condition: practicalities like extra care, changes...... in use of the home, and restrictions relating to work, social life, and finances. These were time-consuming, tough, and annoying, but could often be dealt with through planning and prioritizing. Changes in the human–dog relationship and activities caused sadness and frustration, which in turn led...