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Sample records for illinois coal final

  1. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase 1 of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1,500--2,100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the chemical activant. These high surface area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25 C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation. In Phase 2 of this project, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and in a continuous rotary tube kiln. The ability of these chars to separate binary gas mixtures is tested in an adsorption column/gas chromatography system. Oxygen and nitrogen breakthrough curves obtained for selected chars were compared to those of a commercial zeolite. Selected chars were subjected to a nitric acid oxidation treatment. The air separation capability of nitric acid treated char was strongly dependent on the outgassing conditions used prior to an O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} adsorption experiment. An outgassing temperature of 130--160 C produced chars with the most favorable air separation properties. 61 refs.

  2. Removal of chlorine from Illinois coal by high-temperature leaching: Final report, March 1--December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Han Lin

    1988-03-01

    The objectives of this research are to: (1) conduct experimental investigations of the removal of chlorine from coal by high- temperature leaching; (2) identify important factors affecting the chlorine removal process; (3) understand the mechanisms involved; and (4) develop a mathematical model to describe the process. A generalized mathematical model based on diffusion and relaxation has been developed for water leaching of chlorine from coal. The model has been fitted to four different samples of Illinois No. 6 coal: C22175, C22651, C8601, and C8602. The weight percent of chlorine ranged from 0.42 to 0.82. The experimental data on these samples covered a temperature range of 297 to 370K and a particle size range of 60 to 325 mesh. Based on the type of coal and the conditions of leaching, it was found that 40 to 80% of the original chlorine could be leached from the coal matrix. The model based on diffusion-relaxation concept predicted the leaching data within +-5% average absolute deviation. The diffusion rate constants at different temperatures were correlated to Arrhenius type relations. Attempts made to correlate the constants in the Arrhenius equations with the chlorine content in coal and with particle size have been discussed. The water leaching data were used to extract Fickian diffusivities based on the time required for 50% desorption. The calculated diffusivity values ranged from 0.6 to 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/11/ cm/sup 2//sec. The effect of chemical additives on the rate of leaching has also been studied. Both HNO/sub 3/ and NH/sub 4/OH were used as additives. 28 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations

  4. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  5. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  6. First conference on ground control problems in the Illinois Coal Basin: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y. P.; Van Besien, A. [eds.

    1980-06-01

    The first conference on ground control problems in the Illinois Coal Basin was held at the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Illinois, August 22-24, 1979. Twenty-one papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB; one had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  7. Energy Impact Illinois - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Daniel [Senior Energy Efficiency Planner; Plagman, Emily [Senior Energy Planner; Silberhorn, Joey-Lin [Energy Efficiency Program Assistant

    2014-02-18

    Energy Impact Illinois (EI2) is an alliance of government organizations, nonprofits, and regional utility companies led by the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) that is dedicated to helping communities in the Chicago metropolitan area become more energy efficient. Originally organized as the Chicago Region Retrofit Ramp-Up (CR3), EI2 became part of the nationwide Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) in May 2010 after receiving a $25 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) authorized through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The program’s primary goal was to fund initiatives that mitigate barriers to energy efficiency retrofitting activities across residential, multifamily, and commercial building sectors in the seven-county CMAP region and to help to build a sustainable energy efficiency marketplace. The EI2 Final Technical Report provides a detailed review of the strategies, implementation methods, challenges, lessons learned, and final results of the EI2 program during the initial grant period from 2010-2013. During the program period, EI2 successfully increased direct retrofit activity in the region and was able to make a broader impact on the energy efficiency market in the Chicago region. As the period of performance for the initial grant comes to an end, EI2’s legacy raises the bar for the region in terms of helping homeowners and building owners to take action on the continually complex issue of energy efficiency.

  8. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for application in the separation of gas molecules that vary in size and shape. A study is in progress at the Illinois State Geological Survey to determine whether Illinois basin coals are suitable feedstocks for the production of CMS and to evaluate their potential application in gas separation processes of commercial importance. Chars were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of heat treatment and activation conditions. The effects of various coal/char pretreatments, including coal demineralization, preoxidation, char activation, and carbon deposition, on the molecular sieve properties of the chars were also investigated. Chars with commercially significant BET surface areas of 1500 m2/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide as the activant. These high-surface-area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial carbon and zeolite molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., N2, O2, CO2, CH4, CO and H2, on these chars at 25??C was measured. The O2/N2 molecular sieve properties of one char prepared without chemical activation were similar to those of a commercial CMS. On the other hand, the O2/N2 selectivity of the HSA char was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon, i.e., essentially unity. Carbon deposition, using methane as the cracking gas, increased the O2/N2 selectivity of the HSA char, but significantly decreased its adsorption capacity. Several chars showed good potential for efficient CO2/CH4 separation; both a relatively high CO2 adsorption capacity and CO2/CH4 selectivity were achieved. The micropore size distribution of selected chars was estimated by equilibrium adsorption of carbon dioxide, n-butane and iso-butane at O??C. The extent of adsorption of each gas corresponded to the effective surface area contained in pores with diameters greater than 3

  9. Longwall face recovery operations at Mine 26 of the Old Ben Coal Company, Benton, Illinois, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monks, W R; Hodgkinson, D; Ferris, W

    1985-02-01

    The paper describes a longwall face recovery (salvage) operation witnessed by National Coal Board Western Areas personnel at No. 26 Mine of the Old Ben Coal Company in Venton, Illinois. A brief review is made of the company and No. 26 Mine, and followed by a description of the longwall face salvage operations detailing the face equipment, preparation work, salvage equipment used, the method of operation and the results obtained. Particular reference is made to the successful use of Free Steered Vehicles (FSVs) for salvaging equipment and the use of roof bolts for the primary support of the face line. Finally, a number of conclusions are made which lead to firm recommendations for UK adoption.

  10. Corrosivities in a pilot-scale combustor of a British and two Illinois coals with varying chlorine contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lytle, J.M.; Kung, S.C.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    Many US boiler manufacturers have recommended limits on the chlorine (Cl) content (< 0.25% or < 0.3%) of coals to be used in their boilers. These limits were based primarily on extrapolation of British coal data to predict the probable corrosion behavior of US coals. Even though Cl-related boiler corrosion has not been reported by US utilities burning high-Cl Illinois coals, the manufacturer's limits affect the marketability of high-Cl Illinois coals. This study measured the relative rates of corrosion caused by two high-Cl coals (British and Illinois) and one low-Cl Illinois baseline coal under identical pilot-scale combustion conditions for about 1000 h which gave reliable comparisons. Temperatures used reflected conditions in boiler superheaters. The corrosion probes were fabricated from commercial alloy 304SS frequently used at the hottest superheater section of utility boilers. The results showed no evidence of direct correlation between the coal chlorine content and rate of corrosion. A correlation between the rate of corrosion and the metal temperature was obvious. The results suggested that the different field histories of corrosivity from burning high-Cl Illinois coal and high-Cl British coal occurred because of different metal temperatures operated in US and UK utility boilers. The results of this study can be combined into a database, which could be used for lifting the limits on chlorine contents of coals burned in utility boilers in the US.

  11. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  12. Production of activated char from Illinois coal for flue gas cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Kruse, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Activated chars were produced from Illinois coal and tested in several flue gas cleanup applications. High-activity chars that showed excellent potential for both SO2 and NOx removal were prepared from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal. The SO2 (120 ??C) and NOx (25 ??C) removal performance of one char compared favorably with that of a commercial activated carbon (Calgon Centaur). The NOx removal performance of the same char at 120 ??C exceeded that of the Centaur carbon by more than 1 order of magnitude. Novel char preparation methods were developed including oxidation/thermal desorption and hydrogen treatments, which increased and preserved, respectively, the active sites for SO2 and NOx adsorption. The results of combined SO2/NOx removal tests, however, suggest that SO2 and NOx compete for similar adsorption sites and SO2 seems to be more strongly adsorbed than NO. A low-activity, low-cost char was also developed for cleanup of incinerator flue gas. A three-step method involving coal preoxidation, pyrolysis, and CO2 activation was used to produce the char from Illinois coal. Five hundred pounds of the char was tested on a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial incinerator in Germany. The char was effective in removing >97% of the dioxins and furans present in the flue gas; mercury levels were below detectable limits.

  13. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  14. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Banerjee, D.D. (Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950[degree]C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  15. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banerjee, D.D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950{degree}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  16. The mass transportation problem in Illinois : a final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-06-01

    Prepared by the State Mass Transportation Commission for the Honorable William G. Stratton, Governor of Illinois and the Honorable Members of the 71st General Assembly. The study contains the findings and recommendations of the Illinois State Mass Tr...

  17. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  18. Anatomy of an intruded coal, I: Effect of contact metamorphism on whole-coal geochemistry, Springfield (No. 5) (Pennsylvanian) coal, Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmer, Susan M. [Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Yoksoulian, Lois E. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    If time and heating rate are important agents in coal maturation, one might expect to see differences in chemical changes in response to maturation depending on the means of increased rank. Using a suite of samples obtained from an intruded Pennsylvanian-age coal in southern Illinois, we present whole-coal chemical data. Comparing these data to extant geochemical data for coals that have undergone normal burial maturation, we evaluated the hypothesis that if coal alteration occurs rapidly (due to intrusion) rather than gradually (burial maturation), then different relationships are seen in chemical composition (proximate and ultimate analyses) and vitrinite reflectance. The Pennsylvanian-age (Asturian [Westphalian D]) Springfield (No. 5) coal is mined at the Big Ridge Mine, near Eldorado, southern Illinois. This high volatile B bituminous coal was intruded by an ultramafic igneous intrusion during the early Permian. Alteration occurs out to {proportional_to} 1.2 x dike thickness and includes an increase in random vitrinite reflectance (R{sub m}) from levels {proportional_to} 0.7% to over 5.3%, loss of liptinites, and formation of devolatilization vacuoles and fine mosaic texture. Decreases in volatile matter (VM) and increases in fixed carbon (FC) appear to be less than would be expected for the level of reflectance seen within the alteration halo. Carbonate minerals have a major influence on proximate analyses but even following the removal of carbonates, the decrease in VM is still less than would be seen in coals of similar vitrinite reflectance that were altered by normal burial maturation. Carbonate mineralization also contributes to variability in ultimate analysis values approaching the intrusion, particularly for %C and %O. After carbonate removal, data for these coals do not appear to follow the normal burial coalification tracks when plotted on a van Krevelen diagram and on a Seyler chart. These differences suggest that a slightly different maturation

  19. Potential to cofire high-sulfur coal and MSW/RDF in Illinois utility boilers: A survey and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The disposal of refuse is of ever-increasing concern for municipalities and other organizations and agencies throughout the United States. Disposal in landfills is becoming more costly, and new landfills are more difficult to site because of stricter environmental regulations. Mass burning incinerators for municipal solid wastes (MSW) have also met with increased public resistance due to excessive emissions. Nevertheless, increased awareness of the need for alternative disposal techniques has led to a new interest in cofiring MSW with coal. In addition to solid waste concerns, the requirements to reduce SO 2 and NO x emissions from coal-fired utility boilers in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, present an opportunity to cofire MSW/RDF with coal as an emission control measure. These issues were the impetus for a 1992 study (conducted by ANL for the Illinois Clean Coal Institute) to examine the potential to cofire coal with MSW/RDF in Illinois utility boilers. This paper will provide a synopsis of the ANL/ICCI report. It will summarize (1) the combustibility and emission characteristics of high-sulfur coal and MSW/RDF; (2) the facilities firing RDF and/or producing/selling RDF, together with their combustion and emissions experience; (3) the applicable emissions regulations in Illinois; and (4) the analysis of candidate utility boilers in Illinois capable of cofiring, together with the effect on coal consumption and SO 2 and NO x emissions that would result from 20% cofiring with RDF/MSW

  20. Explosive treatment of Illinois No.6 coal with a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol; Mizu-cyclohexanol kongo yozai ni yoru Illinois tan no bakusai shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Takada, H.; Asami, K.; Yano, M. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Coal was treated at high temperature under high pressure in the binary system mixed solvent of water and organic solvent, and the solvent treated coal was liquefied. When the treated coal was treated again by the explosive method in which high temperature and pressure were released immediately, the oil yield was higher than that by the normal method in which high temperature and pressure were reduced gradually to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this study, an explosive treatment unit with increased scale of sample amount was newly fabricated. Illinois No.6 coal was treated by the explosive method in a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol using this unit. Changes in shape on the surface, specific surface area, and functional groups were analyzed. The explosively treated coal contained more amount of low boiling point components than the normally treated coal. It was suggested that the oil yield of explosively treated coal increased due to the liquefaction of these components during the successive hydrogenation process. For the explosively treated coal, micro pores were fractured by the rapid change in the volume of solvent molecules, and the specific surface area was smaller than that of the normally treated coal. When the treatment temperature was increased from 300{degree}C to 350{degree}C, specific surface areas of both the treated coals increased. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Linked-cone DEA profit ratios and technical efficiency with application to Illinois coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.G.; Dharmapala, P.S.; Thrall, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors develop a theory stating that Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) profit ratios and technical efficiency measures require separate treatment. This point is illustrated by analysis of an example problem; showing that DEA technical efficiency does not necessarily imply a DEA maximum profit ratio; and that a DEA maximum profit ratio does not necessarily imply DEA technical efficiency. The mathematical framework underlying this argument is provided. Application of the concepts to Illinois coal mining data lends support to the need for separate treatment of DEA technical efficiency and DEA profit ratios. 31 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

  2. Linked-cone DEA profit ratios and technical efficiency with application to Illinois coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.G.; Dharmapala, P.S.; Thrall, R.M. [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Decision and Information Sciences

    1995-04-01

    The authors develop a theory stating that Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) profit ratios and technical efficiency measures require separate treatment. This point is illustrated by analysis of an example problem; showing that DEA technical efficiency does not necessarily imply a DEA maximum profit ratio; and that a DEA maximum profit ratio does not necessarily imply DEA technical efficiency. The mathematical framework underlying this argument is provided. Application of the concepts to Illinois coal mining data lends support to the need for separate treatment of DEA technical efficiency and DEA profit ratios. 31 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  4. EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development. Phase V. Laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of EDS Illinois bottoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, T C; Levasseur, A A

    1984-02-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company to develop a conceptual Hybrid Boiler design fueled by the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. This report was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc., and is the first of two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program. This report covers the results of a laboratory investigation to assess the fuel and ash properties of EDS vacuum bottoms. The results of the laboratory testing reported here were used in conjunction with Combustion Engineering's design experience to predict fuel performance and to develop appropriate boiler design parameters. These boiler design parameters were used to prepare the engineering design study reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-113, the second of the two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler Program. 46 figures, 29 tables.

  5. Petrography and microanalysis of Pennsylvanian coal-ball concretions (Herrin Coal, Illinois Basin, USA): Bearing on fossil plant preservation and coal-ball origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewers, Fredrick D.; Phillips, Tom L.

    2015-11-01

    Petrographic analyses of 25 coal balls from well-studied paleobotanical profiles in the Middle Pennsylvanian Herrin Coal (Westphalian D, Illinois Basin) and five select coal balls from university collections, indicate that Herrin Coal-ball peats were permineralized by fibrous and non-fibrous carbonates. Fibrous carbonates occur in fan-like to spherulitic arrays in many intracellular (within tissue) pores, and are best developed in relatively open extracellular (between plant) pore spaces. Acid etched fibrous carbonates appear white under reflected light and possess a microcrystalline texture attributable to abundant microdolomite. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe analysis demonstrate that individual fibers have a distinct trigonal prism morphology and are notable for their magnesium content (≈ 9-15 mol% MgCO3). Non-fibrous carbonates fill intercrystalline spaces among fibers and pores within the peat as primary precipitates and neomorphic replacements. In the immediate vicinity of plant cell walls, non-fibrous carbonates cut across fibrous carbonates as a secondary, neomorphic phase attributed to coalification of plant cell walls. Dolomite occurs as diagenetic microdolomite associated with the fibrous carbonate phase, as sparite replacements, and as void-filling cement. Maximum dolomite (50-59 wt.%) is in the top-of-seam coal-ball zone at the Sahara Mine, which is overlain by the marine Anna Shale. Coal-ball formation in the Herrin Coal began with the precipitation of fibrous high magnesium calcite. The trigonal prism morphology of the carbonate fibers suggests rapid precipitation from super-saturated, meteoric pore waters. Carbonate precipitation from marine waters is discounted on the basis of stratigraphic, paleobotanical, and stable isotopic evidence. Most non-fibrous carbonate is attributable to later diagenetic events, including void-fill replacements, recrystallization, and post-depositional fracture fills. Evidence

  6. Endoparasite Community Differences in Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) Above and Below Coal Mine Effluent in Southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Andrew; Laursen, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    Parasite assemblages acquired through trophic interactions in fish hosts are increasingly cited as a means to determine pollution effects on water quality and food web structure. We examined gastrointestinal parasite community changes above and below coal mine input from 597 individuals representing 3 species of sunfish: green sunfish ( Lepomis cyanellus ), bluegill ( L. macrochirus ), and longear sunfish ( L. megalotis ). Hosts were collected from 6 sites in or near the south fork of the Saline River Basin in southern Illinois in the spring and fall of 2006. Three sites received no known effluent from coal mines. An additional 3 sites received effluent termed acid mine drainage (AMD). We recovered 1,064 parasites from 12 genera. The parasite community in sunfish collected downstream nearest to the source of AMD was significantly different from 3 upstream sites. In addition, 2 sites farther downstream receiving AMD were different from 2 of 3 reference sites. However, there was also considerable variability in parasite assemblages between sites grouped as above or below coal mine effluent. Several parasite species responded to changes in water quality. Spinitectus sp. (Nematoda), which uses sensitive mayfly hosts to complete its life cycle, was less abundant at sites downstream of coal mine effluent in both green sunfish and bluegill. In contrast, 2 acanthocephalans ( Neoechinorhynchus sp. and Eocollis arcanus) and a nematode ( Spiroxys sp.) were found in green sunfish more frequently in areas downstream of AMD. This study further suggests metazoan parasites may be useful as indicators of water quality; however, variability among similar sites may limit their application. In addition, strong assemblage differences were found among the 3 sunfish species, suggesting variable habitat usage and potential resource partitioning among congeneric fish hosts in streams.

  7. Final Report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Coal Technology workgroup reported to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. This page includes the final report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee.

  8. The geo-environmental design of a coal refuse impoundment in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The coal refuse impoundment discussed was one of the first permitted under new regulatory standards within the State of Illinois. The new standards go beyond the geotechnial stability of the structure and must address the groundwater quality of the area and the impact of the impoundment on the groundwater system. The geotechnial design of the coal refuse impoundment dam and associated structures had its own particular challenges such as: 1) the construction of the structure over mined workings; 2) the close proximity of seismically active fault zones; and 3) the embankment configuration being controlled by the material balance of the mine refuse. The implementation of the groundwater protection plan included: 1) incorporating the groundwater quality standards and sampling protocols of several state agencies while the standards were being drafted; 2) sampling of the potential sources of groundwater impact; 3) establishing background levels; and 4) establishing the groundwater class. An initial groundwater transport model was developed and used as the basis for recommending a groundwater monitoring design in place of constructing a soil or synthetic liner. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Coal mine subsidence: effects of mitigation on crop yields. [USA - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmody, R.G.; Hetzler, R.T.; Simmons, F.W. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Agronomy)

    1992-01-01

    Subsidence from longwall underground coal mining adversely impacts agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas. While most subsided areas show little impact, some localized places, usually less than 1.5 ha in size, may experience total crop failure. Coal companies mitigate subsidence damaged cropland by installing drainage waterways or by adding fill material to raise the grade. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring corn and soybean yields to pre-mined levels. Fourteen sites in southern Illinois were selected for study. Corn ([ital Zea mays] L.) and soybean ([ital Glycine max] L.) yields from mitigated and nearby undisturbed areas were compared for four years. Results varied due to differing weather and site conditions. Mean corn yields overall, however were significantly ([alpha]0.05) lower on mitigated areas. There was no significant difference in overall mean soybean yields. Soil fertility levels were similar and did not account for yield differences. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  10. Sequestration and Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Tanquary Farms Test Site, Wabash County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott; Parris, Thomas; Damico, James; Okwen, Roland; McKaskle, Ray; Monson, Charles; Goodwin, Jonathan; Beck, E; Berger, Peter; Butsch, Robert; Garner, Damon; Grube, John; Hackley, Keith; Hinton, Jessica; Iranmanesh, Abbas; Korose, Christopher; Mehnert, Edward; Monson, Charles; Roy, William; Sargent, Steven; Wimmer, Bracken

    2012-05-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a pilot project to test storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} sequestration and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot was conducted at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. A four-well design an injection well and three monitoring wells was developed and implemented, based on numerical modeling and permeability estimates from literature and field data. Coal cores were taken during the drilling process and were characterized in detail in the lab. Adsorption isotherms indicated that at least three molecules of CO{sub 2} can be stored for each displaced methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. Microporosity contributes significantly to total porosity. Coal characteristics that affect sequestration potential vary laterally between wells at the site and vertically within a given seam, highlighting the importance of thorough characterization of injection site coals to best predict CO{sub 2} storage capacity. Injection of CO{sub 2} gas took place from June 25, 2008, to January 13, 2009. A continuous injection period ran from July 21, 2008, to December 23, 2008, but injection was suspended several times during this period due to equipment failures and other interruptions. Injection equipment and procedures were adjusted in response to these problems. Approximately 92.3 tonnes (101.7 tons) of CO{sub 2} were injected over the duration of the project, at an average rate of 0.93 tonne (1.02 tons) per day, and a mode injection rate of 0.6-0.7 tonne/day (0.66-0.77 ton/day). A Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program was set up to detect CO{sub 2 leakage. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels were monitored as were indirect indicators of CO{sub 2} leakage such as plant stress, changes in gas composition at

  11. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  12. Supplement to the final environmental statement related to the decommissioning of the rare earths facility, West Chicago, Illinois: Volume 1: Main test and appendices A-G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This Supplement to the Final Environmental Statement (SFES) assesses the impacts of permanent disposal of wastes located at the Kerr-McGee Rare Earths Facility in West Chicago, Illinois. In this SFES, additional alternative sites are analyzed, the analysis is more detailed, and the NRC expressly considers the suitability of these sites for permanent waste disposal. The analysis describes the Proposed Action, which is permanent disposal of the wastes in an above-grade disposal cell at the West Chicago site, and four alternatives for permanent disposal at other sites in Illinois. The four alternatives are: Alternative A, disposal at an active surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative B, disposal in a reclaimed surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative C, disposal in an underground coal mine in a worked-out panel; and Alternative D, disposal on a farmland site in a partially above-grade disposal cell. The environmental issues considered in the impact assessment are topography, air quality, socioeconomics, land resources, archaeology, mineral resources, water resources, ecology, and radiation exposure. A cost-benefit analysis of the Proposed Action and its alternatives is also presented. Based on the information and analysis given within this SFES, the NRC concluded that the Proposed Action is the preferred course of action. 220 refs., 7 figs., 125 Tabs

  13. Coal rebounds for the final quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.; Stodden, J.

    1987-11-01

    Coal production in the USA is up 0.3% by the end of September 1987 from the pace of one year ago. Most impressive has been the growth in demand at power plants where coal consumption is up by 13.5 million tons through the month of July. The coal markets turnabout is based upon the entire economic spectrum not upon a single large market. US steel mills represent intense power consuming activities as do the US chemicals, plastics, paper and pulp industries.

  14. Coal combustion aerothermochemistry research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, A.B.; Gat, N.; Denison, M.R.; Cohen, L.M.

    1980-12-15

    On the basis of extensive aerothermochemistry analyses, laboratory investigations, and combustor tests, significant headway has been made toward improving the understanding of combustion phenomena and scaling of high swirl pulverized coal combustors. A special attempt has been made to address the gap between scientific data available on combustion and hardware design and scaling needs. Both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted to improve the predictive capability of combustor scaling laws. The scaling laws derived apply to volume and wall burning of pulverized coal in a slagging high-swirl combustor. They incorporate the findings of this investigation as follows: laser pyrolysis of coal at 10/sup 6/ K/sec and 2500K; effect of coal particle shape on aerodynamic drag and combustion; effect of swirl on heat transfer; coal burnout and slag capture for 20 MW/sub T/ combustor tests for fine and coarse coals; burning particle trajectories and slag capture; particle size and aerodynamic size; volatilization extent and burnout fraction; and preheat level. As a result of this work, the following has been gained: an increased understanding of basic burning mechanisms in high-swirl combustors and an improved model for predicting combustor performance which is intended to impact hardware design and scaling in the near term.

  15. Catalytic hydrotreatment of Illinois No. 6 coal-derived naphtha: comparison of molybdenum nitride and molybdenum sulfide for heteroatom removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raje, A.; Liaw, S.J.; Chary, K.V.R.; Davis, B.H. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1995-03-16

    The hydrotreatment of naphtha derived from Illinois No. 6 coal was investigated using molybdenum sulfide and nitride catalysts. The two catalysts are compared on the basis of total catalyst weight. Molybdenum sulfide is more active than molybdenum nitride for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of a coal-derived naphtha. The rate of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the naphtha over both catalysts are comparable. For hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), the sulfide is more active than the nitride only at higher temperatures ({gt}325{degree}C). Based upon conversion data, the naphtha can be lumped into a reactive and a less reactive fraction with each following first-order kinetics for heteroatom removal. The HDS and HDN rates and activation energies of the less reactive lump are smaller for the nitride than for the sulfide catalyst.

  16. Environmental feasibility study for gasoline from coal in New Athens, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Appendix 2 consists mostly of base line ecology of the proposed site in St. Clair County, southwestern Illinois including air quality, geology, stratigraphy, soils, climates, etc. Socio-economic factors are also considered. The environmental impact is considered. (LTN)

  17. SUBTASK 3.12 – GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Curran, Tyler; Henderson, Ann

    2014-06-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three scenarios. The first scenario used traditional techniques for cleaning the syngas prior to Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, including gas sweetening with a physical solvent. In the second scenario, the CO2 was not removed from the gas stream prior to FT synthesis. In the third scenario, only warm-gas cleanup techniques were used, such that the feed gas to the FT unit contained both moisture and CO2. The results of the testing showed that the liquid fuels production from the FT catalyst was significantly hindered by the presence of moisture and CO2 in the syngas. Further testing would be needed to determine if this thermally efficient process is feasible with other FT catalysts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  18. Coal surface structure and thermodynamics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Wernett, P.C.; Glass, A.S.; Quay, D.; Roberts, J.

    1994-05-01

    Coals surfaces were studied using static surface adsorption measurements, low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS), inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and a new {sup 13}C NMR relaxation technique. A comparison of surface areas determined by hydrocarbon gas adsorption and LAXS led to the twin conclusions that the hydrocarbons had to diffuse through the solid to reach isolated pores and that the coal pores do not form interconnected networks, but are largely isolated. This conclusion was confirmed when IGC data for small hydrocarbons showed no discontinuities in their size dependence as usually observed with porous solids. IGC is capable of providing adsorption thermodynamics of gases on coal surfaces. The interactions of non-polar molecules and coal surfaces are directly proportioned to the gas molecular polarizability. For bases, the adsorption enthalpy is equal to the polarizability interaction plus the heat of hydrogen bond formation with phenol. Amphoteric molecules have more complex interactions. Mineral matter can have highly specific effects on surface interactions, but with most of the molecules studied is not an important factor.

  19. Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois Basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Gao, L.; Sauer, P.E.; Topalov, K.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike long-term heating in subsiding sedimentary basins, the near-instantaneous thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter near magmatic intrusions is comparable to artificial thermal maturation in the laboratory in terms of short duration and limited extent. This study investigates chemical and H, C, N, O isotopic changes in high volatile bituminous coal near two Illinois dike contacts and compares observed patterns and trends with data from other published studies and from artificial maturation experiments. Our study pioneers in quantifying isotopically exchangeable hydrogen and measuring the D/H (i.e., 2H/1H) ratio of isotopically non-exchangeable organic hydrogen in kerogen near magmatic contacts. Thermal stress in coal caused a reduction of isotopically exchangeable hydrogen in kerogen from 5% to 6% in unaltered coal to 2-3% at contacts, mostly due to elimination of functional groups (e.g., {single bond}OH, {single bond}COOH, {single bond}NH2). In contrast to all previously published data on D/H in thermally matured organic matter, the more mature kerogen near the two dike contacts is D-depleted, which is attributed to (i) thermal elimination of D-enriched functional groups, and (ii) thermal drying of hydrologically isolated coal prior to the onset of cracking reactions, thereby precluding D-transfer from relatively D-enriched water into kerogen. Maxima in organic nitrogen concentration and in the atomic N/C ratio of kerogen at a distance of ???2.5 to ???3.5 m from the thicker dike indicate that reactive N-compounds had been pyrolytically liberated at high temperature closer to the contact, migrated through the coal seam, and recombined with coal kerogen in a zone of lower temperature. The same principle extends to organic carbon, because a strong ??13Ckerogen vs. ??15Nkerogen correlation across 5.5 m of coal adjacent to the thicker dike indicates that coal was functioning as a flow-through reactor along a dynamic thermal gradient facilitating back

  20. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a$1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community

  1. Extractable trace elements and sodium in Illinois coal-cleaning wastes: correlation with concentrations in tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.G.

    1983-07-01

    Trace element concentrations in shoots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were correlated with extractable element concentrations in five southern Illinois coal-cleaning wastes limed to pH 6.5, in a greenhouse study to determine applicability of soil tests to coal-waste evaluation. There was little or no correlation between shoot concentrations of Fe, and Fe extracted from the wastes by dilute acid (r equals 0.60), DTPA at pH 6.4 (r equals 0.47) or DTPA at pH 8.4 (r equals -0.17). The corresponding r values for Mn were 0.94, 0.97, and 0.96; for Zn, 0.96, 0.96, and 0.88; and for Cu, 0.67, 0.90, and 0.88, respectively. Shoot B correlated well with hot water-soluble B(r equals 0.96) and acid-soluble B(r equals 0.91). Correlations for shoot Na were also good with water-soluble Na and acid-soluble Na (r equals 0.96 in both cases). Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Se in the shoots were well below reported upper critical levels, and similar to concentrations in the grass grown on a silt loam under the same greenhouse conditions. 21 references.

  2. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlish, John; Thompson, Jeffrey; Dunham, Grant

    2014-09-30

    Owners of fossil fuel-fired power plants face the challenge of measuring stack emissions of trace metals and acid gases at much lower levels than in the past as a result of increasingly stringent regulations. In the United States, the current reference methods for trace metals and halogens are wet-chemistry methods, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 29 and 26 or 26A, respectively. As a possible alternative to the EPA methods, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a novel multielement sorbent trap (MEST) method to be used to sample for trace elements and/or halogens. Sorbent traps offer a potentially advantageous alternative to the existing sampling methods, as they are simpler to use and do not require expensive, breakable glassware or handling and shipping of hazardous reagents. Field tests comparing two sorbent trap applications (MEST-H for hydrochloric acid and MEST-M for trace metals) with the reference methods were conducted at two power plant units fueled by Illinois Basin bituminous coal. For hydrochloric acid, MEST measured concentrations comparable to EPA Method 26A at two power plant units, one with and one without a wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber. MEST-H provided lower detection limits for hydrochloric acid than the reference method. Results from a dry stack unit had better comparability between methods than results from a wet stack unit. This result was attributed to the very low emissions in the latter unit, as well as the difficulty of sampling in a saturated flue gas. Based on these results, the MEST-H sorbent traps appear to be a good candidate to serve as an alternative to Method 26A (or 26). For metals, the MEST trap gave lower detection limits compared to EPA Method 29 and produced comparable data for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cobalt, manganese, selenium, and mercury for most test runs. However, the sorbent material produced elevated blanks for cadmium, nickel, lead, and chromium at levels

  3. EXPERIMENTS AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF PULVERIZED-COAL IGNITION; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel Owusu-Ofori; John C. Chen

    1999-01-01

    Under typical conditions of pulverized-coal combustion, which is characterized by fine particles heated at very high rates, there is currently a lack of certainty regarding the ignition mechanism of bituminous and lower rank coals as well as the ignition rate of reaction. furthermore, there have been no previous studies aimed at examining these factors under various experimental conditions, such as particle size, oxygen concentration, and heating rate. Finally, there is a need to improve current mathematical models of ignition to realistically and accurately depict the particle-to-particle variations that exist within a coal sample. Such a model is needed to extract useful reaction parameters from ignition studies, and to interpret ignition data in a more meaningful way. The authors propose to examine fundamental aspects of coal ignition through (1) experiments to determine the ignition temperature of various coals by direct measurement, and (2) modeling of the ignition process to derive rate constants and to provide a more insightful interpretation of data from ignition experiments. The authors propose to use a novel laser-based ignition experiment to achieve their first objective. Laser-ignition experiments offer the distinct advantage of easy optical access to the particles because of the absence of a furnace or radiating walls, and thus permit direct observation and particle temperature measurement. The ignition temperature of different coals under various experimental conditions can therefore be easily determined by direct measurement using two-color pyrometry. The ignition rate-constants, when the ignition occurs heterogeneously, and the particle heating rates will both be determined from analyses based on these measurements

  4. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of$438 million. Construction for the demonstration project was started in July 1993. Pre-operational tests were initiated in August 1995, and construction was completed in November 1995. Commercial operation began in November 1995, and the demonstration period was completed in December

  5. Coal supply and transportation markets during Phase One: Change, risk and opportunity. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, J.N.; Kaplan, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) required many utilities to sharply reduce sulfur emissions by January 1, 1995. This study describes and analyzes how the coal and transportation markets responded to this major development. The study focuses on five key coal supply regions and their associated transportation networks: the Uinta Basin (Colorado/Utah), Wyoming Powder River Basin, Illinois Basin, Monongahela region (Pittsburgh seam) and the central Appalachian region. From these regional studies, the report identifies key risk areas for future coal planning and general lessons for the fuels planning process. The study provides statistical information on coal production, demand, and transportation flows for each region. The analysis for each region focuses on developments which were generally unexpected; e.g., the relatively large volumes of medium-sulfur coal produced in the Illinois Basin and Monongahela region, the eastern penetration of Utah and Colorado coals, and the relatively modest growth in demand for central Appalachian coals. These developments generally worked to the advantage of utilities; i.e., medium- and low-sulfur coal was available at a lower price, in greater volumes and from a wider range of sources than many had expected. Utilities both took advantage of and helped to encourage these developments in the coal and transportation market. Looking ahead to Phase 11 strategies and future coal procurement, a major challenge will be to maintain the choice among supply and transportation alternatives which was so important to utility success in Phase 1. The report identifies rail transportation to be the major area of risk in most regions

  6. Microbial ecology studies at two coal mine refuse sites in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R. M.; Cameron, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the microflora associated with coal refuse at two abandoned mines in the midwestern United States. Information was gathered for both the edaphic and the biotic composition of the refuse material. Emphasis was placed on heterotrophic and autotrophic components as to numbers, kinds, and physiological groups. The presence of chemolithotrophs was also investigated. The relationship between abiotic and biotic components in regard to distribution of bacteria, fungi, and algae is discussed. Information presented in this report will be utilized in assessing trends and changes in microbial numbers and composition related to manipulations of the edaphic and biotic ecosystem components associated with reclamation of the refuse piles.

  7. Draft supplement to the final environmental statement related to the decommissioning of the Rare Earths Facility, West Chicago, Illinois (Docket No. 40-2061): Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This Draft Supplemental Environmental Statement (DSES) assesses the impacts of permanent disposal of wastes located at the Kerr-McGee Rare Earths Facility in West Chicago, Illinois. The assessments presented in the DSES augment and update those described in the Final Environmental Statement (FES) that was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1983. In this DSES, additional alternative sites are analyzed, the analysis is more detailed, and the NRC expressly considers the suitability of these sites for permanent waste disposal. The analysis describes the Proposed Action, which is permanent disposal of the wastes in an above-grade disposal cell at the West Chicago site, and four alternatives for permanent disposal at other sites in Illinois. The four alternatives are: Alternative A, disposal at an active surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative B, disposal in a reclaimed surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative C, disposal in an underground coal mine in a worked-out panel; and Alternative D, disposal on a farmland site in a partially above-grade disposal cell. The environmental issues considered in the impact assessment are topography, air quality, socioeconomics, land resources, archaeology, mineral resources, water resources, ecology, and radiation exposure. A cost-benefit analysis of the Proposed Action and its alternatives is also presented. Based on the information and analysis given within this DSES, the NRC concluded that the Proposed Action is the preferred course of action

  8. Changes in optical properties, chemistry, and micropore and mesopore characteristics of bituminous coal at the contact with dikes in the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in high-volatile bituminous coal (Pennsylvanian) near contacts with two volcanic intrusions in Illinois were investigated with respect to optical properties, coal chemistry, and coal pore structure. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) increases from 0.62% to 5.03% within a distance of 5.5??m from the larger dike, and from 0.63% to 3.71% within 3.3??m from the small dike. Elemental chemistry of the coal shows distinct reductions in hydrogen and nitrogen content close to the intrusions. No trend was observed for total sulfur content, but decreases in sulfate content towards the dikes indicate thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Contact-metamorphism has a dramatic effect on coal porosity, and microporosity in particular. Around the large dike, the micropore volume, after a slight initial increase, progressively decreases from 0.0417??cm3/g in coal situated 4.7??m from the intrusive contact to 0.0126??cm3/g at the contact. Strongly decreasing mesopore and micropore volumes in the altered zone, together with frequent cleat and fracture filling by calcite, indicate deteriorating conditions for both coalbed gas sorption and gas transmissibility. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  10. Final Environmental Statement related to the decommissioning of the Rare Earths Facility, West Chicago, Illinois. Docket No. 40-2061

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This Final Environmental Statement is issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in response to the plan proposed by Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation for the decommissioning of their Rare Earths Facility located in West Chicago, Illinois. The statement considers the Kerr-McGee preferred plan and various alternatives to that plan. The action proposed by the Commission is the renewal of the Kerr-McGee license to allow stabilization of wastes onsite and for possession of the wastes under license for an indeterminate time. The license could be terminated at a later date if certain specified requirements were met

  11. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  12. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  13. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1994-04-01

    The conversion of coal by an economically feasible catalytic method requires the catalyst to diffuse into the coal sample so that hydrogenation catalysis can occur from within as well as the normal surface catalysis. Thus an estimate of the size, shape, and reactivity, of the pores in the coal before and after the swelling with different solvents is needed so that an optimum sized catalyst will be used. This study characterizes the accessible area found in Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) using a EPR spin probe technique. The properties deduced in this manner correlate well with the findings deduced from SANS, NMR, SEM, SAXS and light scattering measurements. The use of nitroxide spin probes with swelling solvents is a simple way in which to gain an understanding of the pore structure of coals, how it changes in the presence of swelling solvents and the chemistry that occurs at the pore wall. Hydrogen bonding sites occur primarily in low-rank coals and vary in reactive strength as rank is varied. Unswelled coals contain small, spherical pores which disappear when coal is swelled in the presence of polar solvents. Swelling studies of polystyrene-divinyl benzene copolymers implied that coal is polymeric, contains significant quantities of covalent cross-links and the covalent cross-link density increases with rank.

  14. E-commerce finally finds the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, M.

    2000-12-01

    In the last few months, new web sites have come online which are not only showcase for coal mining products and equipment but also act as sales platforms. A large set of sites deal with the purchase of coal and other raw materials. Most of them offer 24-hour news updates, a coal library and a reference section to help with financing, insurance and transportation of purchased coal. Another group focuses on the sale of equipment. Short writeups are given of 18 web sites. 1 photo.

  15. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts via a Closed Loop Leaching Process: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Richard [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Michael [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Argumedo, Darwin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Winecki, Slawomir [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Riordan, Daniel [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-08-31

    REEs using the ADP technology. In AOI 1, Ohio coal sources with the potential to provide a consistent source of rare earth element concentrations above 300 parts per million will be identified. Coal sample inventories from West Virginia and Pennsylvania will also be assessed for purposes of comparison. Three methods of preparing the coal ash will be evaluated for their potential to enhance the technical feasibility and economics of REE recovery. Three sources of coal ash are targeted for evaluation of the economics of REE recovery in this project: (1) coal ash from power generation stations, to include fly ash and/or bottom ash, (2) ash generated in a lower temperature ashing process, and (3) ash residual from Battelle’s coal liquefaction process. Making use of residual ash from coal liquefaction processes directly leverages work currently being conducted by Battelle for DOE NETL in response to DE-FOA-0000981 entitled “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions Research and Development Leading to Cost-Competitive Coal-to-Liquids Based Jet Fuel Production.” Using the sample characterization results and regional information regarding REE concentration, availability and cost, a TEA will be developed. The previously generated laboratory testing results for leaching and REE recovery via the ADP will be used to perform the TEA, along with common engineering assumptions for scale up of equipment and labor costs. Finally, upon validation of the economic feasibility of the process by the TEA, limited laboratory testing will be performed to support the design of a bench scale system. In a future project phase, it is envisioned that the bench scale system will be constructed and operated to prove the process on a continuous basis.

  16. Final Safety Assessment of Coal Tar as Used in Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant-antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  17. Low severity conversion of activated coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  18. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 7. Coal rheology and its impact on nuclear assay. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, R.; Luckie, P.; Gozani, T.

    1979-01-01

    A number of possible techniques for introducing coal to a continuous on-line nuclear analysis of coal (CONAC) system have been evaluated, including flow methods and nonflow methods. A modified flat-belt feeder system was recommended. The success of such a coal-presentation technique would rely on proper entry to the feed hopper, shape of the withdrawal opening from the feed hopper, and a slow belt speed to minimize demixing

  19. Hydrogeologic and geochemical studies of selected natural radioisotopes and barium in groundwater in Illinois. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkeson, R.H.; Cartwright, K.; Cowart, J.B.; Holtzman, R.B.

    1983-05-01

    Dissolved concentrations of the natural radioisotopes 222 Rn, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U and 238 U and the element Ba 2+ were investigated in a study of high concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and Ba 2+ in groundwater from the Cambrian and Ordovician bedrock of northern Illinois. The high radium and barium concentrations are naturally present in the major aquifers - the sandstone bedrock; therefore, remedial well construction measures will not lower the concentrations. The combined concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra range from 2.3 to 50.2 pCi/L; the majority of analyses exceed the limit in the drinking water regulations of 5.0 pCi/L. The 226 Ra/ 228 Ra activity ratio ranges from 0.2 to 41.0; a 226 Ra analysis has no validity for predicting the 228 Ra concentration. Important controls on dissolved 226 Ra concentrations are secondary U on the sandstone matrix and the ionic strength of groundwater. The distribution of accessory minerals that contain 232 Th is believed to be an important control on dissolved 228 Ra concentrations. Locally the dissolved 226 Ra and 228 Ra concentrations are affected by dissolution-precipitation of secondary barite. Dissolved concentrations of 222 Rn and U are less than proposed drinking water regulations. The extreme enrichment in 234 U that occurs widespread in groundwater from the Cambrian and Ordovician bedrock is unique and problematic. The enrichment may reflect recharge of uranium to the bedrock by glacial processes. Dissolved Ba 2+ concentrations range from 2+ concentrations occur in groundwater that is depleted in dissolved SO 4 2- by anaerobic microbial reactions. A map presents the distribution of Ba 2+ in groundwater from the Cambrian and Ordovician bedrock in northeastern Illinois. 60 references, 13 figures, 3 tables

  20. Identification and quantification of radionuclides in coal ash. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleman, J.E.; Clikeman, F.M.; Skronski, T.

    1998-01-01

    One of the important environmental issues raised recently in regard to coal ash reuse for highway construction purposes (e.g., embankment development) is that of worker, and public, exposure to radiation which might possibly be emitted by these types of residues. This research project subsequently addressed the associated issue of radiation emission by coal ash residuals generated within the State of Indiana, covering both fly ash and bottom ash materials. Samples were obtained at sixteen different coal-fired power generating facilities within Indiana and subjected to quantitative analysis of their associated gamma-ray emission levels. After identifying the responsible radionuclides, a conservative approximation was then developed for the worst-case potential occupational exposure with construction employees working on this type of high-volume, coal ash embankment. In turn, these potential emissions levels were compared to those of other traditional construction materials and other common sources

  1. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  2. Nuclear techniques in the coal industry. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    With the aim of promoting advanced research and facilitating a more extensive application of nuclear techniques for environmental protection in the exploration and exploitation of coal, the IAEA established the present co-ordinated research programme (CRP) in 1989. This report includes an assessment of the current status and trends in nuclear techniques in the coal industry and the results obtained by the participants at the CRP. Proceedings of the final CRP on ``Nuclear Techniques in Exploration and Exploitation of Coal: On-line and Bulk Analysis and Evaluation of Potential Environmental Pollutants in Coal and Coke``, was held in Krakow, Poland, from 9 to 12 May 1994. Refs, figs, tabs.

  3. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.W.

    1992-11-30

    This report documents studies on the effects of gas sorption on coal, with the intent of eventually evaluating how sorption and strain affect permeability. These studies were, carried out at the University of Alabama during the period from 1989 through 1992. Two major experimental methods were developed and used. In the strain experiments, electronic strain gauges were attached to polished blocks of coal in order to measure linear and volumetric swelling due to gas sorption. The effects of bedding plane orientation, of gas type, and of coal type were investigated. In the gravimetric experiment the weight of small samples of coal was measured during exposure to high pressure gases. Sample measurements were corrected for buoyancy effects and for sample swelling, and the results were plotted in the form of Langmuir isotherms. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of grain size, coal type, moisture, and of sorbant gas. The advantage of this method is that it can be applied to very small samples, and it enabled comparison liptinite versus vitrinite concentrates, and kerogen rich versus kerogen depleted oil shales. Also included is a detailed discussion of the makeup of coal and its effect on gas sorption behavior.

  4. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL(reg s ign) Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL(reg s ign) Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL(reg s ign) mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL(reg s ign) was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL(reg s ign) was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of$90,664,000. ENCOAL(reg s ign) operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC(trademark)) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF(trademark)) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL(trademark)). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  5. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  6. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of$438 million

  7. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  8. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 6. Mass flow devices for coal handling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T.; Elias, E.; Bevan, R.

    1980-04-01

    The mass of coal entering the boiler per unit time is an essential parameter for determining the total rate of heat input. The mass flow rate of coal on a conveyor belt is generally determined as a product of the instantaneous mass of material on a short section of the belt and the belt velocity. Belt loading could be measured by conventional transducers incorporating mechanical or electromechanical weighers or by gamma-ray attenuation gauge. This report reviews the state of the art in mass flow devices for coal handling. The various methods are compared and commented upon. Special design issues are discussed relative to incorporating a mass flow measuring device in a Continuous On-Line Nuclear Analysis of Coal (CONAC) system

  9. Dewatering of ultrafine coal: Final report, August 1984-December 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Shiao-Hung; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.I.; Tierney, J.W.; Badgujar, M.; Binkley, T.; Cheng, Yisun; Huang, Suxuan; Qamar, I.; Venkatadri, R.

    1986-12-01

    The surfactant, Aerosol-OT, was used to wash distilled water cakes. In previous studies, cakes were washed with Triton X-114. The dewatering performance and influence on cake structure of the two reagents are compared. Also, filter cakes were analyzed using an image analysis system and micrographic analysis of coal particles was initiated. In the area of theoretical modelling, the concept of bond-flow correlation greatly improved the network model predicting the experimental desaturation curves. Predicted results for treated cakes suggested that the effect of the presence of surface-active agents was adequately accounted for. The effects of the various operating conditions on the filtration/dewatering characteristics of the 10 ..mu..m coal particles were assessed and comparisons with the -32 mesh coal were made as to its trends in response to changes in the operating conditions. 20 refs., 75 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  11. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 4. Moisture determination in coal: survey of electromagnetic techniques. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, R.; Luckie, P.; Gozani, T.; Brown, D.R.; Bozorgmanesh, H.; Elias, E.

    1979-01-01

    This survey consists of two basic parts. The first consists of a survey of various non-nuclear moisture determination techniques. Three techniques are identified as promising for eventual on-line application with coal; these are the capacitance, microwave attenuation, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The second part is devoted to an in-depth analysis of these three techniques and the current extent to which they have been applied to coal. With a given coal type, accuracies of +- 1% absolute in moisture content are achievable with all three techniques. The accuracy of the two electromagnetic techniques has been demonstrated in the laboratory and on-line in coal burning plants, whereas only small samples have been analyzed with NMR. The current shortcoming of the simple electromagnetic techniques is the sensitivity of calibrations to physical parameters and coal type. NMR is currently limited by small sample sizes and non-rugged design. These findings are summarized and a list of manufacturers of moisture analyzers is given in the Appendix

  12. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 8. Continuous nuclear assay of coal (CONAC). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarias, J.; Irminger, P.; Dodson, W.

    1979-01-01

    Using californium-252 as a source of exciting neutrons, prompt gamma photons emitted by elemental nuclei in the coal have been measured using several detectors, including sodium-iodide and germanium-lithium. Several coal types, including bituminous, subbituminous lignite and anthracite were crushed to various top sizes and analyzed carefully by traditional ASTM wet chemistry techniques at two or three different laboratories. The elements (sulfur, hydrogen, carbon, aluminum, silicon, iron, calcium, sodium, nitrogen, and chlorine) were determined by prompt neutron activations and the quantities compared with those of the wet chemical analyses. Since satisfactory correlation has been obtained at bench-scale level using 100 to 200 kG samples, an apparatus has been designed to analyze a coal stream of up to 50 ton/hour, at an electric power generating station

  13. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, Alaska final Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-14

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) provides the mechanism to evaluate the integrated coal combustion/emission control system being demonstrated by the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) as part-of the third solicitation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT-III). The EMP monitoring is intended to satisfy two objectives: (1) to develop the information base necessary for identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental problems arising from replication of the technology and (2) to identify and quantify project-specific and site-specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents (Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision). The EMP contains a description of the background and history of development of the project technologies and defines the processes that will take place in the combustion and spray dryer absorber systems, including the formation of flash-calcined material (FCM) and its use in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from the flue gases. It also contains a description of the existing environmental resources of the project area. The EMP includes two types of environmental monitoring that are to be used to demonstrate the technologies of the HCCP: compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring. Compliance monitoring activities include air emissions, wastewater effluents, and visibility. Monitoring of these resources provide the data necessary to demonstrate that the power plant can operate under the required state and federal statutes, regulations, and permit requirements.

  14. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  15. Kinetics assisted design of catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Foley, H.C.; Calkins, W.H.; Scouten, C.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal and catalytic reactions of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NBBM), a resid and coal model compound, were examined. Catalytic reaction of NBBM was carried out at 400 C under hydrogen with a series of transition metal-based catalytic materials including Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 5}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MoS{sub 2}. Experimental findings and derived mechanistic insights were organized into molecular-level reaction models for NBBM pyrolysis and catalysis. Hydropyrolysis and catalysis reaction families occurring during NBBM hydropyrolysis at 420 C were summarized in the form of reaction matrices which, upon exhaustive application to the components of the reacting system, yielded the mechanistic reaction model. Each reaction family also had an associated linear free energy relationship (LFER) which provided an estimate of the rate constant k{sub i} given a structural property of species i or its reaction. Including the catalytic reaction matrices with those for the pyrolysis model provided a comprehensive NBBM catalytic reaction model and allowed regression of fundamental LFER parameters for the catalytic reaction families. The model also allowed specification of the property of an optimal catalyst. Iron, molybdenum and palladium were predicted to be most effective for model compound consumption. Due to the low costs associated with iron and its disposal, it is a good choice for coal liquefaction catalysis and the challenge remains to synthesize small particles able to access the full surface area of the coal macromolecule.

  16. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-01-01

    Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable

  17. Test and evaluate the tri-gas low-Btu coal-gasification process. Final report, October 21, 1977-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the continuation of work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS multiple fluidized-bed gasification process. The objective is the gasification of all ranks of coals with the only product being a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. Design and construction of a 100 lb/h process and equipment development unit (PEDU) was completed on the previous contract. The process consists of three fluid-bed reactors in series, each having a specific function: Stage 1 - pretreatment; Stage 2- - gasification; Stage 3 - maximization of carbon utilization. Under the present contract, 59 PEDU tests have been conducted. A number of these were single-stage tests, mostly in Stage 1; however, integrated PEDU tests were conducted with a western coal (Rosebud) and two eastern coals (Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam). Both Rosebud and Pittsburgh seam coals were gasified with the PEDU operating in the design mode. Operation with Illinois No. 6 seam coal was also very promising; however, time limitations precluded further testing with this coal. One of the crucial tasks was to operate the Stage 1 reactor to pretreat and devolatilize caking coals. By adding a small amount of air to the fluidizing gas, the caking properties of the coal can be eliminated. However, it was also desirable to release a high percentage of the volatile matter from the coal in this vessel. To accomplish this, the reactor had to be operated above the agglomerating temperature of caking coals. By maintaining a low ratio of fresh to treated coal, this objective was achieved. Both Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam coals were treated at temperatures of 800 to 900 F without agglomerating in the vessel.

  18. Biological upgrading of coal-derived synthesis gas: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Johnson, E.R.; Ko, C.W.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The technical feasibility of the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in the University of Arkansas laboratories. Cultures of microorganisms have been developed which achieve total conversion in the water gas shift and methanation reactions in either mixed or pure cultures. These cultures carry out these conversions at ordinary temperatures and pressures, without sulfur toxicity. Several microorganisms have been identified as having commercial potential for producing methane. These include a mixed culture of unidentified bacteria; P. productus which produces acetate, a methane precursor; and Methanothrix sp., which produces methane from acetate. These cultures have been used in mixed reactors and immobilized cell reactors to achieve total CO and H/sub 2/ conversion in a retention time of less than two hours, quite good for a biological reactor. Preliminary economic projections indicate that a biological methanation plant with a size of 5 x 10/sup 10/ Btu/day can be economically attractive. 42 refs., 26 figs., 86 tabs.

  19. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  20. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  1. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  2. Technical and economic feasibility for the application of micronized coal as a replacement for No. 2 oil for start-up and low-load operation at Illinois Power Havana No. 6 Cycling Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberger, F.; Guilfoyle, C.J.; Parker, W.O. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainty regarding oil availability and long-term price stability make it difficult for a utility to predict annual ignition costs for a cycling unit. Illinois Power Company, Sargent and Lundy Engineering and Micro-fuel Corporation have produced a detailed feasibility study on the application of micronized coal as a replacement fuel for start-up and low-load operation for Havana No. 6. This unit is a B and W opposed-fired boiler which is rated at 410 MWe (summer net). This paper presents technical and economic analysis, including the uncertainties of the application of this technology

  3. Summary of the spent nuclear fuel transportation workshop for state officials, October 22, 1985, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    On October 22, 1985, thirty-two state officials representing eighteen states attended a workshop on the transportation of spent nuclear fuel hosted by the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety and co-sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The letter of invitation is attached to this report along with the agenda for the workshop. Also attached is the attendance list. The purposes of the workshop were to explain Illinois' inspection, escort and emergency preparedness program for spent nuclear fuel to officials from other states and to discuss the needs of the future national system when DOE begins shipping spent fuel to either a repository or a monitored retrievable storage facility. Summaries of the presentations and the reports from the discussion groups are presented

  4. Geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany Shale Group (Devonian-Mississippian) in Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Shimp, N.F.

    1980-06-30

    The Illinois State Geological Survey is conducting geological and geochemical investigations to evaluate the potential of New Albany Group shales as a source of hydrocarbons, particularly natural gas. Geological studies include stratigraphy and structure, mineralogic and petrographic characterization; analyses of physical properties; and development of a computer-based resources evaluation system. Geochemical studies include organic carbon content and trace elements; hydrocarbon content and composition; and adsorption/desorption studies of gas through shales. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each task reported.

  5. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  6. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  7. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. Considerable emphasis is placed on postmining assistance. This volume is specifically for the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.

  8. Coal refuse reclamation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.

    1979-04-06

    A 13.8 ha abandoned coal refuse site in southwestern Illinois was reclaimed by recontouring the refuse material and covering it with a minimum 30 cm of soil. The reclamation procedure included determination of the site's final land use, collection of preconstruction environmental data, and development and implementation of engineering plans. The project is demonstrating methods that can be used to reclaim abandoned coal refuse sites, and a multidisciplinary approach is being used to evaluate postconstruction environmental and economic effects of the reclamation effort. Surface water quality has shown significant improvement and plant cover is becoming established on the site. Soil microbial populations are developing and wildlife habitats are forming. The economic value of the site and adjacent properties has increased substantially and the area's aesthetic value has been enhanced. This project is providing valuable design data for future reclamation efforts of this type.

  9. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  10. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  11. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  12. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Final report, August 1981-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.I.; Tierney, J.W.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Huang, S.; Qamar, I.; Venkatadri, R.

    1984-12-01

    Fine coal in slurry form must be dewatered to minimize handling and transportation problems and be reduced to a desirable level for subsequent preparation of coal/water mixtures as a substitute utility fuel. The current practice is inadequate for the dewatering of fine coal, particularly for coal particles with sizes smaller than 400 mesh. Therefore, it is most desirable to develop improved mechanical methods for reducing the moisture content of fine coal. In the light of this, a fundamental study of the dewatering of fine coal/refuse was initiated in June 1979 and continued through 1984. The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of the basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and the microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal. During the past year, filter cakes from coals with widely varying size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. Modules of the network model for calculating single phase and two phase permeabilities were formulated and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for 1984-1985; detailed description of technical progress; and appendices. 21 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Chemical kinetics and transport processes in supercritical fluid extraction of coal. Final report, August 10, 1990--December 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, C.J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this project was to study the supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons from coal. Beyond the practical concern of deriving products from coal, the research has provided insights into the structure, properties, and reactivities of coal. Information on engineering fundamentals of coal thermolysis and extraction, including physical and chemical processes, is presented in this final report. To accomplish the goals of the project we developed continuous-flow experiments for fixed-bed samples of coal that allow two types of analysis of the extract: continuous spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the lumped concentration of extract, and chromatographic determinations of molecular-weight distributions as a function of time. Thermolysis of coal yields a complex mixture of many extract products whose molecular-weight distribution (MWD) varies with time for continuous-flow, semibatch experiments. The flow reactor with a differential, fixed bed of coal particles contacted by supercritical t-butanol was employed to provide dynamic MWD data by means of HPLC gel permeation chromatography of the extract. The experimental results, time-dependent MWDs of extract molecules, were interpreted by a novel mathematical model based on continuous-mixture kinetics for thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in the coal network. The parameters for the MWDs of extractable groups in the coal and the rate constants for one- and two-fragment reaction are determined from the experimental data. The significant effect of temperature on the kinetics of the extraction was explained in terms of one- and two-fragment reactions in the coal.

  14. Technical data. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This volume includes a description of the railway to transport the coal; possible unbalance in the electrical power supply is considered in detail, as well as communications, signalling, etc. The railway will also be used to transport ashes and sludges for waste disposal. Coal fines in the coal supply will be burned to generate power. A very brief description of the coal gasification plant and its components is accompanied by a printout of the dates final engineering is to be completed. Permit applications are listed and socio-economic factors are discussed. The financing plan is discussed in some detail: basically, a loan guarantee from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation; equity provided by investment tax credit, deferred taxes, AFUDC and the sponsors; price support; and gas purchase agreement (this whole section includes several legal details.). (LTN)

  15. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 1. Coal composition by prompt neutron activation analysis: basic experiments. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, G.; Bozorganesh, H.; Elias, E.; Gozani, T.; Maung, T.; Orphan, V.

    1979-01-01

    Using californium-252 as a source of exciting neutrons, prompt gamma photons emitted by elemental nuclei in the coal have been measured using several detectors, including sodium--iodide and germanium--lithium. Several coal types, including bituminous, subbituminous lignite and anthracite were crushed to various top sizes and analyzed carefully be traditional ASTM wet chemistry techniques at two or three different laboratories. The elements (sulfur, hydrogen, carbon, aluminum, silicon, iron, calcium, sodium, nitrogen, and chlorine) were determined by prompt neutron activations and the quantities compared with those of the wet chemical analyses

  16. Dips, ramps, and rolls- Evidence for paleotopographic and syn-depositional fault control on the Western Kentucky No. 4 coal bed, tradewater formation (Bolsovian) Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Williams, D.A.; Nelson, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Western Kentucky No. 4 coal is a high-volatile B to high-volatile C bituminous coal that has been heavily mined along the southern margin of the Western Kentucky Coal Field. The seam has a reputation for rolling floor elevation. Elongate trends of floor depressions are referred to as "dips" and "rolls" by miners. Some are relatively narrow and straight to slightly curvilinear in plan view, with generally symmetric to slightly asymmetric cross-sections. Others are broader and asymmetric in section, with sharp dips on one limb and gradual, ramp-like dips on the other. Some limbs change laterally from gradual dip, to sharp dip, to offset of the coal. Lateral changes in the rate of floor elevation dip are often associated with changes in coal thickness, and in underground mines, changes in floor elevation are sometimes associated with roof falls and haulage problems. In order to test if coal thickness changes within floor depressions were associated with changes in palynology, petrography and coal quality, the coal was sampled at a surface mine across a broad. ramp-like depression that showed down-dip coal thickening. Increment samples of coal from a thick (150 cm), down-ramp and thinner (127 cm), up-ramp position at one surface mine correlate well between sample sites (a distance of 60 m) except for a single increment. The anomalous increment (31 cm) in the lower-middle part of the thick coal bed contained 20% more Lycospora orbicula spores. The rolling floor elevations noted in the study mines are inferred to have been formed as a result of pre-peat paleotopographic depressions, syn-depositional faulting, fault-controlled pre-peat paleotopography, and from compaction beneath post-depositional channels and slumps. Although the association of thick coal with linear trends and inferred faults has been used in other basins to infer syn-depositional faulting, changes in palynology within increment samples of the seam along a structural ramp in this study provide

  17. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  18. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  19. Supplement to the Final Environmental Statement related to the decommissioning of the Rare Earths Facility, West Chicago, Illinois (Docket No. 40-2061): Volume 2, Appendix H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This Supplement to the Final Environmental Statement is issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in response to the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board's ruling that the staff must supplement the Final Environmental Statement in order to evaluate the impact of permanent disposal of the Kerr-McGee Rare Earths Facility wastes located at West Chicago, Illinois. The statement considers the Kerr-McGee preferred plan and various alternatives to the plan. The action proposed by the Commission is the renewal of the Kerr-McGee license to allow disposal of wastes onsite and for possession of the wastes under license for an indeterminate time. The license could be terminated at a later date if certain specified requirements were met. NUREG-0904 was published in draft for comment in June 1987. Comments have been received and are published with their responses in this report. Volume 1 contains the main text and Appendices A thru G. Volume 2 contains the comments received and their responses

  20. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  1. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  2. Chemomechanical phenomena in the grinding of coal. Final report, February 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macmillan, N.H.

    1977-08-01

    Vickers microhardness, drilling rate, grinding rate and zeta-potential measurements have been made on coals of various rank in both aqueous and organic environments in order to determine whether: (a) chemomechanical (Rebinder) effects exist in coal; and (b) any such effects as do exist can be used to improve the comminution of coal. The results reveal the mechanical behavior of coal to be remarkably environment-insensitive as compared to inorganic non-metals. As a result, it is concluded that chemomechanical phenomena offer little prospect of reducing the cost of comminuting coal.

  3. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Volume 1, Final report and appendix A (Topical report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  4. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, Dawei

    1996-01-01

    This project seeks to advance the fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical processes occurring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, coal desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. Central to this research is the use of synthetic microsize particles of pyrite as model microelectrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite. The research focuses on: (a) the synthesis of microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution at room temperature, (b) the formation of iron sulfide complex, the precursor of FeS or FeS{sub 2}, and (c) the relationship between the semiconductor properties of pyrite and its interfacial electrochemical behavior in the dissolution process. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4, a suitable protocol for preparing microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution is given, and the essential roles of the precursors elemental sulfur and ``FeS`` in pyrite formation are investigated. In Chapter 5, the formation of iron sulfide complex prior to the precipitation of FeS or FeS{sub 2} is investigated using a fast kinetics technique based on a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. The stoichiometry of the iron sulfide complex is determined, and the rate and formation constants are also evaluated. Chapter 6 provides a summary of the semiconductor properties of pyrite relevant to the present study. In Chapters 7 and 8, the effects of the semiconductor properties on pyrite dissolution are investigated experimentally and the mechanism of pyrite dissolution in acidic aqueous solution is examined. Finally, a summary of the conclusions from this study and suggestions for future research are presented in Chapter 9.

  5. A study of Multistage/Multifunction Column for Fine Coal Cleaning CRADA PC93-005, Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph Lai; Shiao-Hung Chiang; Daxin He; Yuru Feng

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of the this research project is to explore the potential applicability of a multistage column for fine coal cleaning and other applications in fluid particle separation. The research work identifies the design parameters and their effects on the performance of the separation device. The results of this study provide an engineering data basis for further development of this technology in coal cleaning and in general areas of fluid and particle separations

  6. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  7. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins; Jasna Tomic

    2000-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of the roles of a solid catalyst and the solvent in Direct Coal Liquefaction, a small reactor was equipped with a porous-walled basket which was permeable to the solvent but was not permeable to the coal or solid catalyst. With this equipment and a high volatile bituminous coal it was found that direct contact between the catalyst in the basket and the coal outside the basket is not required for catalyzed coal liquefaction. The character of the solvent in this system makes a significant difference in the conversion of the coal, the better solvents being strong donor solvents. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory, it was noted that the peak temperature for volatiles evolution from coal was a reliable measure of coal rank. Because of this observation, a variety of coals of a range of ranks was investigated. It was shown in this work that measuring the peak temperature for volatiles evolution was a quite precise indicator of rank and correlated closely with the rank value obtained by measuring vitrinite reflectance, a more difficult measurement to make. This prompted the desire to know the composition of the volatile material evolved as a function of coal rank. This was then measured by coupling a TGA to a mass spectrometer using laser activation and photoionization detection TG-PI-MS. The predominant species in volatiles of low rank coal turned out to be phenols with some alkenes. As the rank increases, the relative amounts of alkene and aromatic hydrocarbons increases and the oxygenated species decrease. It was shown that these volatiles were actually pyrolytic products and not volatilization products of the coal. Solvent extraction experiments coupled with Thermogravimetric-photoionization-mass spectrometry (TG-PI-MS) indicated that the low boiling and more extractable material are essentially similar in chemical types to the non-extractable portions but apparently higher molecular weight

  8. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  9. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  10. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  11. Development of a pulsed coal combustor fired with CWM (coal-water mixture): Phase 3, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, M.N.; Durai-Swamy, K.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the results of an R and D program aimed at developing a new burner technology for coal-water mixture (CWM) fuels to enable the substitution of these new fuels in utility and industrial boilers and process heaters currently firing oil and gas. The application of pulse combustion to CWM fuels is chosen to alleviate many of the physical plant and environmental constraints presently associated with the direct use of these fuels in equipment designed for oil and gas firing. Pulse combustion has been shown to be capable of high-intensity burning of coal for acceptably complete combustion within relatively small equipment volumes. It also has the inherent capability to agglomerate ash particles, thus rendering ash more easily separable from the combustion gas prior to its entrance into the convective section of the boiler or heater, thereby reducing ash buildup and pluggage. Pulse combustion is also well-suited to staged combustion for NO/sub x/ control and has excellent potential for enhanced in-furnace SO/sub 2/ removal due to the enhanced levels of mass transfer brought about by the vigorous flow oscillations. The primary objective of the Phase 2 work was to develop a detailed program for laboratory development and evaluation of the pulse CWM combustor and system design concepts. 112 refs., 40 figs., 94 tabs.

  12. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  13. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  15. Studies for the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures. Final report, August 1978-May 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsaris, G.D.; Glazman, Y.M.; Adams-Viola, M.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures (COM) was developed. Aggregation of the coal particles was determined to control both the sedimentation and rheological properties of the COM. Sedimentation stability of COM prepared with coal, 80% < 200 mesh, is achieved by particle aggregation, which leads to the formation of a network of particles throughout the oil. The wettability of coal powders was evaluated by the Pickering emulsion test and a spherical agglomeration test to assess its effect on the stability of various COM formulations. Sedimentation stability of hydrophilic coal-oil-water mixtures (COWM) involves the formation of water bridges between the coal particles, while less stabilization of oleophilic COWM is achieved by the formation of an emulsion. Anionic SAA were least sensitive to the coal type and enhanced the aggregation stability of the suspension. The effect of cationic SAA, nonionic SAA and polymer additives depended upon the specific chemical structure of the SAA, the water content of the COM and the type of coal. The sedimentation stability of ultrafine COM was not directly due to the fineness of the powder but due to the formation of a network of flocculated particles.

  16. Temperature effects on chemical structure and motion in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, G.E.

    1996-09-30

    The objective of this project was to apply recently developed, state-of-the-art nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to examine in situ changes in the chemical structure and molecular/macromolecular motion in coal as the temperature is increased above room temperature. Although alterations in the chemical structure of coal have been studied previously by {sup 13}C NMR, using quenched samples, the goal of this project was to examine these chemical structural changes, and changes in molecular/macromolecular mobility that may precede or accompany the chemical changes, at elevated temperatures, using modern {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR techniques, especially {sup 1}H dipolar-dephasing techniques and related experiments pioneered in the laboratory for examining pyridine-saturated coals. This project consisted of the following four primary segments and related efforts on matters relevant to the first four tasks. (1) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure and mobility as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (2) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure, mobility and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (3) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure/mobility as a function of temperature over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (4) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure, dynamics and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (5) Related matters relevant to the first four tasks: (a) {sup 1}H CRAMPS NMR characterization of oil shales and their kerogen concentrates; and (b) improved quantitation in {sup 13}C MAS characterization of coals.

  17. Characterization and suitability of superclean coals for hydroliquefaction feedstocks: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam

    1989-05-30

    Superclean coals have been studied for their suitability as liquefaction feedstocks. The effects of ash and sulfur contents and two catalysts on a hydrogen donor solvent liquefaction reaction have been studied. Experiments were run using a unique coal of small particle size (90% <22 microns). The coal was characterized in terms of its chemical and its physical properties. This information made it possible to determine the effects of the static tube flotation separation on the coal. Once characterized the coals were liquefied in the hydrogen donor tetralin under a hydrogen atmosphere of 500 psig. The first series of experiments was to determine the effects of the ash on the liquefaction reaction. The second group of experiments dealt with the effects of catalysts (ammonium molybdate and titanium carbide) on low ash coals at various conditions. A model for batch liquefaction in a hydrogen donor solvent is then developed. This model is based on the assumption that the reaction is due to two competing mechanisms; (1) a thermal decomposition of the coal and (2) a catalytic reaction. The thermal reaction produces unwanted products while the catalytic reaction produces the desired products. To accurately model the batch system, mass transfer is considered. 51 refs., 50 figs., 29 tabs.

  18. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  19. Final report on dust monitoring near Kellingley coal mine, North Yorkshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallack, H.W.

    1992-06-01

    Dust deposition was monitored at a residential location near Kellingley Coal Mine over two four-weekly periods (November/December 1991 and March/April 1992) using a wet Frisbee dust deposit gauge. The mean rates of dust deposition for both periods (696.4 and 415.5 mg m -2 day -1 respectively) were well in excess of a proposed acceptable upper limit (195 mg m -2 day -1 ) for residential conditions. Mean estimated coal dust content during both periods (80.9 and 49.7 per cent) was also high. It is concluded that coal dust from Kellingley Coal Mine gave rise to excessively high levels of dust deposition at the monitoring site, especially during the first four-weekly period. The situation would appear to have deteriorated since a similar monitoring exercise was carried out in 1989. 4 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Illinois travel statistics, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  1. Illinois travel statistics, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  2. Illinois travel statistics, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  3. Cleavage and crosslinking of polymeric coal structures during pyrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillen, D.F.; Malhotra, R.

    1992-02-01

    The ultimate objective of this project was to develop a better understanding of volatiles production to help optimize the yield and character of condensable coproducts during coal pyrolysis or mild gasification. The specific objectives were to (1) Develop pyrolysis procedures that minimize secondary reactions; and (2) Develop coal pretreatments that current knowledge suggests will prorate bond scission or prevent retrograde reactions. Our approach was to study the pyrolysis of coals and tar-loaded coals by using several techniques that span a range of heating rates and pressures. Slow-heating pyrolyses were performed at low pressures in the inlet of a field ionization mass spectrometer and at atmospheric pressures in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Moderately rapid-heating pyrolyses were performed in a vacuum TGA apparatus and in sealed silica ampules heated in a molten-salt bath. The fastest heating rates were achieved with laser pyrolysis at about 30,000 X/s. The high tar yield seen in this work where the entire volume of the coal particle becomes hot and fluid at very nearly the same time, taken together with the evident non-vapor transport of the tar under these conditions, emphasizes the importance of better understanding the development of fluidity during coal heating. This specifically includes the profound effects--long-recognized but poorly understood that mild oxidation has in suppressing coal fluidity. It also includes the more recently recognized fact that heating in the presence of an inert gas produced substantially greater fluidity than does heating in the presence of combustion gases, even if the conditions are very fuel rich and all the oxygen itself has already been consumed when the coal particles are encountered.

  4. Determining the radiative properties of pulverized-coal particles from experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.

    1992-02-01

    A comprehensive coupled experimental-theoretical study has been performed to determine the effective radiative properties of pulverized-coal/char particles. The results obtained show that the ``effective`` scattering phase function of coal particles are highly forward scattering and show less sensitivity to the size than predicted from the Lorenz-Mie theory. The main reason for this is the presence of smaller size particles associated with each larger particle. Also, the coal/char particle clouds display more side scattering than predicted for the same size range spheres, indicating the irregular shape of the particles and fragmentation. In addition to these, it was observed that in the visible wavelength range the coal absorption is not gray, and slightly vary with the wavelength. These two experimental approaches followed in this study are unique in a sense that the physics of the problem are not approximated. The properties determined include all uncertainties related to the particle shape, size distribution, inhomogeneity and spectral complex index of refraction data. In order to obtain radiative property data over a wider wavelength spectrum, additional ex-situ experiments have been carried out using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer. The spectral measurements were performed over the wavelength range of 2 to 22 {mu}m. These results were interpreted to obtain the ``effective`` efficiency factors of coal particles and the corresponding refractive index values. The results clearly show that the coal/char radiative properties display significant wavelength dependency in the infrared spectrum.

  5. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  6. Relocation of belt conveyors along the final slope of the Belacevac surface coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovic, N; Rosic, Z

    1987-07-01

    Describes how following a landslide on the northern wing of the Belacevac surface coal mine the belt conveyor lines had to be relocated in order to assure a reliable coal supply to the Kosovo A and Kosovo B thermal power stations. The relocation was achieved in three phases with new approach cuts being made, necessitating the removal of 280,000 m/sup 3/ of overburden in the first phase and 870,000 m/sup 3/ in the second phase of the reconstruction. Illustrates the relocation of the conveyor system by means of site plans and notes that the production of coal and the removal of overburden were not interrupted during the relocation exercise. 2 refs.

  7. FUNDAMENTAL KINETICS OF SUPERCRITICAL COAL LIQUEFACTION: EFFECT OF CATALYSTS AND HYDROGEN-DONOR SOLVENTS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin J. McCoy; J.M. Smith

    1998-01-01

    This report outlines a distribution kinetics approach to macromolecular reactions that has been applied to several processes. The objective was to develop an understanding of high-temperature, dense-phase thermolytic processes for complex macromolecular systems, such as coal. Experiments and theory are described for chemical models that simulate depolymerization of coal. The approach has been exceptionally successful for the model macromolecular systems. Development of a novel chemical reaction engineering analysis, based on distribution kinetics, was a major accomplishment of the current research

  8. Energy policy options for Illinois. Proceedings. [26 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six papers presented at the Fifth Annual Oil Illinois Energy Conference are categorized into five sections, namely: An overview of U.S. and Illinois Energy Policy; Energy Policy; Conservation--Solar--Biomass and Solid Wastes; Energy Policy; Petroleum and Natural Gas; Energy Policy; Coal and Electric Utilities; and Economic and Consumer Concerns. One paper, A Perspective on Long-Range Nuclear Energy Options, by William O. Harms has previously appeared in EAPA 4: 1364. (MCW)

  9. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  10. Potential health and environmental impacts attributable to the nuclear and coal fuel cycles: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchy, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Estimates of mortality and morbidity are presented based on present-day knowledge of health effects resulting from current component designs and operations of the nuclear and coal fuel cycles, and anticipated emission rates and occupational exposure for the various fuel cycle facilities expected to go into operation during the next decade. The author concluded that, although there are large uncertainties in the estimates of potential health effects, the coal fuel cycle alternative has a greater health impact on man than the uranium fuel fycle. However, the increased risk of health effects for either fuel cycle represents a very small incremental risk to the average individual in the public for the balance of this century. The potential for large impacts exists in both fuel cycles, but the potential impacts associated with a runaway Greenhouse Effect from combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, cannot yet be reasonably quantified. Some of the potential environmental impacts of the coal fuel cycle cannot currently be realistically estimated, but those that can appear greater than those from the nuclear fuel cycle. 103 refs., 1 fig., 18 tabs

  11. Materials, process, product analysis of coal process technology. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, J. C.; Roig, R. W.; Loridan, A.; Leggett, N. E.; Capell, R. G.; Humpstone, C. C.; Mudry, R. N.; Ayres, E.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of materials-process-product analysis is a systematic evaluation of alternative manufacturing processes--in this case processes for converting coal into energy and material products that can supplement or replace petroleum-based products. The methodological steps in the analysis include: Definition of functional operations that enter into coal conversion processes, and modeling of alternative, competing methods to accomplish these functions; compilation of all feasible conversion processes that can be assembled from combinations of competing methods for the functional operations; systematic, iterative evaluation of all feasible conversion processes under a variety of economic situations, environmental constraints, and projected technological advances; and aggregative assessments (economic and environmental) of various industrial development scenarios. An integral part of the present project is additional development of the existing computer model to include: A data base for coal-related materials and coal conversion processes; and an algorithmic structure that facilitates the iterative, systematic evaluations in response to exogenously specified variables, such as tax policy, environmental limitations, and changes in process technology and costs. As an analytical tool, the analysis is intended to satisfy the needs of an analyst working at the process selection level, for example, with respect to the allocation of RDandD funds to competing technologies.

  12. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 1, sections 1--5: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. [ed.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles? What determines their composition? Whether or not particles deposit? How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes? remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  13. Ultrasonic characterization of coal liquefaction products. Final report, April 11, 1979-February 11, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffert, C. B.; Weisman, L.; Moore, D.

    1980-02-29

    The Wayne State University ultrasonic device and technique was used successfully to calibrate coal-derived 0 to 45% wt % asphaltene-in-oil mixtures (2 wt % increments) for transmitted signal strength versus temperature (25 to 100/sup 0/C). Computer-aided cross plots of the transmitted signal strength versus concentration of asphaltene showed that a wide range of concentration and temperature exists where the viscosity-dominated (lower temperature) sound absorption is such that a single-valued number for the concentration of the asphaltene can be obtained from measurement of the sample temperature and transmitted signal strength and thus obtain a measure of the quality of the coal-derived product. Sufficient samples were not provided to obtain a complete calibration of added particulate matter of ash and undissolved coal at all asphaltene in oil concentrations; however, calibrations were made of added ash to three concentrations of asphaltene-in-oil and the data showed the greatest effect at the higher temperatures indicating (as planned) that sound attenuation from Rayleigh scattering is predominant with the suspended particles. We conclude from these two sets of measurements that there is a excellent expectation that the Wayne State ultrasonic device and technique could be used to simultaneously measure (on-line) the suspended particle concentration as well as the quality of the coal-derived product.

  14. H-coal fluid dynamics. Final report, August 1, 1977-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-16

    This report presents the results of work aimed at understanding the hydrodynamic behavior of the H-Coal reactor. A summary of the literature search related to the fluid dynamic behavior of gas/liquid/solid systems has been presented. Design details of a cold flow unit were discussed. The process design of this cold flow model followed practices established by HRI in their process development unit. The cold fow unit has been used to conduct experiments with nitrogen, kerosene, or kerosene/coal char slurries, and HDS catalyst, which at room temperature have properties similar to those existing in the H-Coal reactor. Mineral oil, a high-viscosity liquid, was also used. The volume fractions occupied by gas/liquid slurries and catalyst particles were determined by several experimental techniques. The use of a mini-computer for data collection and calculation has greatly accelerated the analysis and reporting of data. Data on nitrogen/kerosene/HDS catalyst and coal char fines are presented in this paper. Correlations identified in the literature search were utilized to analyze the data. From this analysis it became evident that the Richardson-Zaki correlation describes the effect of slurry flow rate on catalyst expansion. Three-phase fluidization data were analyzed with two models.

  15. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, D.

    1996-01-01

    This project is concerned with the physiochemical processes occuring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. The use of synthetic particles of pyrite as model electrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite is employed.

  16. Micronized Coal Reburning Demonstration for NOx Control: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Micronized Coal Reburning (MCR) Demonstration for NO(sub x) Control, as described in a report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1999). The need to meet strict emissions requirements at a minimum cost prompted the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), in conjunction with Fuller Company, Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), and Fluor Daniel, to submit the proposal for this project to be sited at TVA's Shawnee Fossil Plant. In July 1992, TVA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct the study. However, because of operational and environmental compliance strategy changes, the Shawnee site became unavailable

  17. Public health assessment for petitioned public health assessment, Ottawa Radiation Areas, Ottawa, Lasalle County, Illinois, Region 5. CERCLIS No. ILD980606750. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    During an aerial survey for radiation levels following the cleanup of a radium dial painting operation, abnormally high levels of gamma radiation were detected at thirteen locations throughout Ottawa, Illinois. Additional ground level measurements helped to localize these and four additional areas within the city with levels of radioactivity elevated above background. Field studies by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety have identified the major contaminant at these areas as radium-226 (Ra-226). Additional studies to determine the levels of radon-222 (Rn-222) within many structures have indicated radon concentrations well above the EPA limit of 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L)

  18. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  19. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Extensive research continued on catalysts based on novel anion-treated (mainly sulfated) oxides and oxyhydroxides of iron [Fe{sub x}O{sub y}/SO{sub 4}]. In addition, sulfated oxides of tin as well as molybdenum promoted iron oxides were used. Incorporation of small amounts of sulfate, molybdate, or tungstate anions by wet precipitation/impregnation methods was found to increase the surface acidic character of iron oxides; more importantly, it reduced the grain sizes significantly with corresponding increases in specific surface areas. These anion-treated iron and tin oxides were more active for direct coal liquefaction and coal-heavy oil coprocessing than their untreated counterparts. With these catalyst systems, higher conversion levels are obtained as compared to the soluble precursors of iron and molybdenum at the same catalyst metalloading (3500 ppm iron and 50 ppm molybdenum with respect to coal). Sulfated iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were equally active as coal liquefaction catalysts. The sulfate, molybdate, and tungstate anions were found to have similar promotional effects on the properties and activities of iron oxides. One step in the synthesis of anion-treated iron and tin oxides is precipitation as hydroxides using either urea or ammonium hydroxide. The catalysts prepared using urea as a precipitation agent were more reproducible than those using ammonium, hydroxide in terms of activities and properties. These catalysts/catalyst precursors were characterized by several techniques to determine their physical (size and structure related) and chemical (acidity) properties. Sulfated and molybdated iron oxides were found to have grain sizes as small as 10-20 nm. An attempt was made to correlate the physicochemical properties of these catalysts with their activity for coal liquefaction.

  20. Geologic studies to identify the source for high levels of radium and barium in illinois ground-water supplies: a preliminary report. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, K.; Specht, S.A.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Griffin, R.A.; Larson, T.E.

    1978-08-01

    Analyses of water from municipal wells in Illinois by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency showed that more than 300 wells exceeded the upper limit for gross alpha radiation in drinking water. More than 30 wells exceeded the upper limit for barium in drinking water. High levels of radiation in ground water were more extensive in areal distribution than the high levels of barium. All of the affected wells were finished in bedrock, primarily in rocks of the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems of northern Illinois. The geologic settings in which the high levels of radiation and barium were documented indicated that the problem was not restricted to Illinoise. The source of the radiation in ground water was thought to be the natural occurrence of the radioactive elements uranium-238 and thorium-232 in the aquifer rocks. Analyses of a limited number of rock samples indicated that uranium and thorium concentrations were highest in fine-grained sediments in the aquifer systems; the highest concentration was in shales that confine the aquifer. Chemical analyses of rock samples indicated that high concentrations of barium were widespread in rocks of the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems. The concentration of barium in ground water was controlled by solubility equilibria reactions with sulfate ion. A map showing sulfate ion concentration in the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer could be used to delimit regions where barium might occur at concentrations exceeding 1 milligram/liter

  1. CarbonSAFE Illinois - Macon County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Steve [University of Illinois; Illinois State Geological Survey

    2017-08-03

    CarbonSAFE Illinois is a a Feasibility study to develop an established geologic storage complex in Macon County, Illinois, for commercial-scale storage of industrially sourced CO2. Feasibility activities are focused on the Mt. Simon Storage Complex; a step-out well will be drilled near existing storage sites (i.e., the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium’s Illinois Basin – Decatur Project and the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Project) to further establish commercial viability of this complex and to evaluate EOR potential in a co-located oil-field trend. The Archer Daniels Midland facility (ethanol plant), City Water, Light, and Power in Springfield, Illinois (coal-fired power station), and other regional industries are potential sources of anthropogenic CO2 for storage at this complex. Site feasibility will be evaluated through drilling results, static and dynamic modeling, and quantitative risk assessment. Both studies will entail stakeholder engagement, consideration of infrastructure requirements, existing policy, and business models. Project data will help calibrate the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) Toolkit to better understand the risks of commercial-scale carbon storage.

  2. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  3. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  4. High resolution seismic survey (of the) Rawlins, Wyoming underground coal gasification area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize two underground coal burn zones. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Rawlins burn zones. Processing included time varying filters, trace composition, and two-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse cavity associated with the burn zone which was studied in detail at the Rawlins 1 and 2 test sites. 21 refs., 20 figs.

  5. Recovering uranium from coal in-situ. Final report, February 1980-July 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In Situ Technology, Inc., ''InTech,'' has designed a new process for recovery of uranium from coal in situ. Prime objectives of the program reported herein are to reduce two uncertainties related to eventual commercialization of the process. The first uncertainty concerns appropriate field sites and their potential. The work involved laboratory tests and analysis of field samples, burning the samples to ash and leaching uranium from residual ash at laboratory scale, and burning the samples to ash and leaching uranium from residual ash at pilot plant scale. Laboratory and pilot plant tests were designed to simulate significant elements of the underground process. Field samples from New Mexico averaged 0.061% U 3 O 8 and from North Dakota 0.058% of U 3 O 8 in the coal, both on a dry basis. Phase I laboratory tests on New Mexico field samples were successfully conducted with no difficulties in reducing uraniferous coal to ash. Leaching tests resulted in uranium recoveries to 77.9% with acid leach and to 56% with alkaline leach. Phase II laboratory and pilot plant scale tests were successfully conducted on North Dakota field samples, but required supplemental fuel and/or enrichment for reducing uraniferous coal to ash. Acid leaching of residual ash resulted in uranium recoveries to 83.8%. Acid consumption was 71.0 pounds per ton during pilot plant scale leaching tests. The overall analysis and test program is considered to be highly successful and resulted in significant reduction of the uncertainties for eventual commercialization of the process. 3 refs

  6. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char-for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests

  7. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

  8. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  9. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

  10. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 3, Appendices: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. [ed.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Kang, Shim-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the computer codes developed for the coal combustion project. In Subsection B.1 the FORTRAN code developed for the percolative fragmentation model (or the discrete model, since a char is expressed as a collection of discrete elements in a discrete space) is presented. In Subsection B.2 the code for the continuum model (thus named because mineral inclusions are distributed in a continuum space) is presented. A stereological model code developed to obtain the pore size distribution from a two-dimensional data is presented in Subsection B.3.

  11. Environmental impact of coal ash on tributary streams and nearshore water or Lake Erie. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, K.G.

    1978-08-01

    The environmental impact of coal ash disposal at a landfill site in north-central Chautauqua County, New York was studied from June 1975 through July 1977. Water samples taken from wells, ponds, and streams at 67 sites were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chloride, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfate and zinc. Evidence suggests that ponds at the landfill were high in Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and SO/sub 4/ compared to control pands. A stream adjacent to the site contained greater Mn (207 ug/1) and SO/sub 4/ (229 ppm) than control streams. Shallow alkaline test wells in the landfill had elevated As, Ca, and Se. Acid-neutral test wells had elevated As, Ca, Cr, Mg and Mn. Household wells in the vicinity of the landfill showed no evident contamination from the landfill. Average iron concentrations in the biota were tripled, and manganese concentrations doubled in biota affected by the coal ash dump. However, any effects of the disposal area on the distribution of the biota could not be separated from effects of varying environment factors such as water movements, substrate composition and food availability. No harmful effects could be demonstrated on the biota in the creek which flowed past the disposal area.

  12. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  13. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, L.D.; Boyle, J.

    1993-03-15

    A microjet reactor coupled to a VUV photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to obtain species measurements during high temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds ranging from allene and acetylene to cyclohexane, benzene and toluene. Initial work focused on calibration of the technique, optimization of ion collection and detection and characterization of limitations. Using the optimized technique with 118 nm photoionization, intermediate species profiles were obtained for analysis of the hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms. The ``soft`` ionization, yielding predominantly molecular ions, allowed the study of reaction pathways in these high temperature systems where both sampling and detection challenges are severe. Work has focused on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures representative of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis products. The detailed mass spectra obtained during pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures is especially important because of the complex nature of the product mixture even at short residence times and low primary reactant conversions. The combustion community has advanced detailed modeling of pyrolysis and oxidation to the C4 hydrocarbon level but in general above that size uncertainties in rate constant and thermodynamic data do not allow us to a priori predict products from mixed hydrocarbon pyrolyses using a detailed chemistry model. For pyrolysis of mixtures of coal-derived liquid fractions with a large range of compound structures and molecular weights in the hundreds of amu the modeling challenge is severe. Lumped models are possible from stable product data.

  14. Combustion of pulverized coal in vortex structures. Final report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollahalli, S.R.; Butuk, N.

    1996-03-01

    The objectives of the project were: (i) to understand the effects of heating one of the streams on the characteristics of shear layers, (ii) to investigate the changes in the characteristics of large scale vortex structures in the shear layer caused by the introduction of inert solid particles in one of the feed streams; (iii) to understand the effects of pyrolyzing solids on the shear layer behavior; and (iv) to study the effects of combustion of particles and their pyrolysis products on the shear layer structure, heat release rate, and pollutant emission characteristics. An experimental facility for generating two-dimensional shear layers containing vortex structures has been designed and fabricated. The experimental facility is essentially a low speed wind tunnel designed to (i) provide two gas streams, initially with uniform velocity profiles and isotropic turbulence, mixing at the end of a splitter plate, (ii) introduce vorticity by passively perturbing one of the streams, (iii) allow heating of one of the streams to temperatures high enough to cause pyrolysis of coal particles, and (iv) provide a natural gas flame in one of the streams to result in ignition and burning of coal particles.

  15. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO(sub x) in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO(sub x) emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames-particularly under low NO(sub x) conditions. A CO/H(sub 2)/O(sub 2)/N(sub 2) flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state(sup 13)C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  16. Illinois | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity. Public benefit projects may be eligible for low Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) defines competitive and noncompetitive customer classes in the IOU expedited process to 25 kW to allow more projects to benefit from the streamlined process and exempting them

  17. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  18. Solids throttling valves for coal conversion and utilization development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sine, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    A complete test system to test, evaluate, and develop control valves for slurry letdown service in coal liquefaction plants is needed. The site identified for the test system was the SRC II Pilot Plant located at Ft. Lewis, Washington. The US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, requested a test system design that would enable testing of various configuration letdown valves that would be compatible with the existing facility and have minimum impact on Pilot Plant operations. Drawings and specifications for such a test system were prepared, coordinated with Ft. Lewis personnel, revised to reflect Ft. Lewis operating personnel comments, and approved for use by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. These drawings and specifications will enable the test system to be built, installed, and integrated with the existing facility by a general contractor.

  19. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  20. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  1. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  2. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  3. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  4. COAL CONVERSION WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY CATALYTIC OXIDATION IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip E. Savage

    1999-01-01

    Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, we examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO(sub 2), bulk TiO(sub 2), and CuO supported on Al(sub 2) O(sub 3). We used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which we can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO(sub 2) yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that we could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, we performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO(sub 2) and TiO(sub 2) catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO(sub 2) formation rates during SCWO. MnO(sub 2) does not affect the selectivity to CO(sub 2), or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO(sub 2) are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO(sub 2) , which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of

  5. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  6. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  7. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Racine and Grand Rapids quadrangles, Michigan, Wisconsin and Illinois. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Racine and Grand Rapids quadrangles of southeastern Wisconsin, northeastern Illinois, and Michigan cover a land area of 8785 square miles, and an additional water surface area of 5215 square miles. In the northeast, thick Paleozoic deposits overlie a regional downwarp of the Precambrian basement called the Michigan Basin. These Paleozoic deposits shoal to only 500 feet in the southwest corner of the survey area. The entire region is covered by a mantle of Quaternary glacial material. A search of available literature revealed no economically feasible uranium deposits. A total of 83 uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly. All appear to have cultural, and/or locally unsaturated associations, and none appear to contain significant measured quantities of uranium. Magnetic data appear to be in general agreement with existing structural interpretations of the area. There are local exceptions which suggest some lithologic and/or structural complexities in the basement material

  8. Reservoir characterization and final pre-test analysis in support of the compressed-air-energy-storage Pittsfield aquifer field test in Pike County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The work reported is part of a field experimental program to demonstrate and evaluate compressed air energy storage in a porous media aquifer reservoir near Pittsfield, Illinois. The reservoir is described. Numerical modeling of the reservoir was performed concurrently with site development. The numerical models were applied to predict the thermohydraulic performance of the porous media reservoir. This reservoir characterization and pre-test analysis made use of evaluation of bubble development, water coning, thermal development, and near-wellbore desaturation. The work was undertaken to define the time required to develop an air storage bubble of adequate size, to assess the specification of instrumentation and above-ground equipment, and to develop and evaluate operational strategies for air cycling. A parametric analysis was performed for the field test reservoir. (LEW)

  9. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  10. Meeting of Commission of International Committee on Petrology of Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, P P; Bogolyubova, L I

    1982-03-01

    In Urbana, Illinois from 18-20 May 1979 the XXXII session of the International Committee on Petrology met. Reports were made on standards for the study of bituminous and anthracite coals. Use of reflective capacity of vitrain to determine coalification of coals was discussed along with a proposition to establish numerical boundaries between brown, bituminous and anthracite coals. The re-editing of the International Dictionary on Petrology of Coals was agreed upon in view of new facts on microcomponents of coal and methods of studying them. The next meeting of the Commission took place at Ostrav, Czechoslovakia from 14-26 April 1980. At the plenary session, new officials were elected and agreement to re-edit the Dictionary on Petrology of Coals was confirmed. At the meeting of the Commission on Coal Petrography the question of the determination of components of coal by quantitative diagnosis, and results of determining components of vitrain by measuring its reflective capacity were reported on. At the meeting of the Committee on Applying Facts of Petrology in Geology, the classification of solid oil bitumen and organic substance of sediments was discussed. At the meeting of the Committee on the Application of the Petrology of Coals in Industry, attention was given to discussing basic parameters for the international classification of coals to be presented at the meeting of the Economic Commission of Europe in Geneva. In the final plenary session of the commission, results of discussions were summarized. The next session was to be held in France in 1981. (In Russian)

  11. Effects of long-term coal supply contracts on technology adoption and improvements in the mining of coal. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.R.; Hawkins, S.A.; Webb, P.F.; Kauffman, P.W.

    1979-08-01

    The relationship between long-term coal supply contracts and the adoption of new technology in the coal mining industry is a complex one. From this study certain conclusions can be drawn. New technologies and improvements in the mining of coal can be logically categorized into three areas: evolutionary technology, transitional technology, or innovative technology. Evolutionary improvements in technology can be categorized as improvements, or increased production capacities, in existing equipment. Transitional technology involves the adoption of existing or proven technologies into new conditions, or, proceeding from one technology type to a newer type for the same function. Innovative technology includes equipment, concepts, and systems not readily available, or untried, in the existing mining environment (seam conditions, etc.). Technology adoption is an economic decision. This point was repeatedly emphasized by industry representatives contacted during the study. The long-term coal supply contract influences the decision to adopt new technology and mining improvements in several ways depending on the technology type (i.e., evolutionary, transitional, or innovative), and also the coal supplier type (i.e., captive or independent producer). Several examples of the adoption of new technologies in mines under long-term coal supply contracts are discussed. (LTN)

  12. Improving the stability of coal slurries: Final report. [Polygalacturonic acid and gum tragacanth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1988-12-01

    Polysaccharides were found to stabilize colloidal dispersions (such as coal particles and polystyrene latex particles) even at high ionic strengths. The stability studies with various kinds of polysaccharides showed that rod-like molecules (such as poly (galacturonic acid) and gum tragacanth) are much more effective stabilizers than highly-branched molecules such as arabinogalactan. This effective stabilization with the rod-like molecules was found to result from the adsorption of polysaccharides on the particles, i.e., the steric stabilization mechanism. The stability depends significantly on the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge of particles. Adsorption isotherms, the zeta potential and the conformation of adsorbed molecules (the steric layer thicknesses) were measured as a function of the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge. Photon correlation spectroscopy studies showed that the conformation of adsorbed molecules is strongly dependent on the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge, suggesting that the dependence of stability on these parameters is due to the change of the conformation of the molecules adsorbed on the surface. In addition, the solution pH has a significant effect on the flocculation behavior of particles and can be modulated to bring about peptization of particles. This type of stabilization is referred to as electrosteric stabilization whereby steric stabilization is induced by changing the electrical properties of the system (the solution pH in this case). 41 refs., 43 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Safety-technical characteristics of biomass, coal and straw. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1995-12-31

    Safety-technical factors related to spontaneous ignition and dust explosions of biomasses were investigated. Parametres of dust explosions and effect of inertisation on the maximum pressure (pmax) and the maximum rate of pressure rise (Kstmax) were studied at elevated initial pressure (1-9 bar). The level of inertisation required to prevent dust explosions totally was determined at different initial pressures. The sensitivity of fuels to spontaneous ignition and the effect of pressure on the sensitivity to and temperature of spontaneous ignition were studied on a pressurised dynamic self-ignition equipment. The effect of inertisation on the self-ignition temperature and alternatives of preventing spontaneous ignition by effective inertisation in the pressure ranges of 1 and 25 bar were investigated. As an example of application, results obtained with the laboratory test equipment were extrapolated to bin sizes used in practice. As a factor contributing to spontaneous ignition, the flowability of different fuels in bins and lock-hoppers (stagnant fuel layers are especially sensitive to spontaneous ignition) in continuous flow and in flow stopped for a storage time of 1 hour was also studied. Walker`s rotating ring shear equipment and Jenike`s linear shear equipment based on shearing the fuel were used in the flowability measurements. The effect of fuel temperature (22 deg C, 40 deg C) on flowability was determined for forest residue chips. Dynamic friction coefficients between fuels and handling equipment were determined for stainless steel and rusty metal surface. As an example of application, results obtained with laboratory test equipment were extrapolated to a bin size of 21 m{sup 3} by calculating the size of the minimum discharge opening required by mass flow of different coals and forest residue chips and the minimum angle of repose of the conical part for a bin of stainless steel

  14. Novel catalysts for upgrading coal-derived liquids. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.T.; Savage, P.E.; Briggs, D.E.

    1995-03-31

    Research described in this report was aimed at synthesizing and evaluating supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen from model and authentic coal-derived liquids. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported oxynitrides and oxycarbides were synthesized via the temperature programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides or hydrogen bronzes with NH{sub 3} or an equimolar mixture of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. Phase constituents and composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, CHN analysis, and neutron activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface structure of the catalysts. The reaction rate data was collected using specially designed micro-batch reactors. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides were competitively active for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). In fact, the HDN and HDO specific reaction rates for several of the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were higher than those of a commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydrotreatment catalyst. Furthermore, the product distributions indicated that the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalysts. For HDN and HDS the catalytic activity was a strong inverse function of the Mo loading. In contrast, the benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activities did not appear to be affected by the Mo loading but were affected by the heating rate employed during nitridation or carburization. This observation suggested that HDN and HDS occurred on the same active sites while HDO was catalyzed by a different type of site.

  15. Safety-technical characteristics of biomass, coal and straw. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A

    1996-12-31

    Safety-technical factors related to spontaneous ignition and dust explosions of biomasses were investigated. Parametres of dust explosions and effect of inertisation on the maximum pressure (pmax) and the maximum rate of pressure rise (Kstmax) were studied at elevated initial pressure (1-9 bar). The level of inertisation required to prevent dust explosions totally was determined at different initial pressures. The sensitivity of fuels to spontaneous ignition and the effect of pressure on the sensitivity to and temperature of spontaneous ignition were studied on a pressurised dynamic self-ignition equipment. The effect of inertisation on the self-ignition temperature and alternatives of preventing spontaneous ignition by effective inertisation in the pressure ranges of 1 and 25 bar were investigated. As an example of application, results obtained with the laboratory test equipment were extrapolated to bin sizes used in practice. As a factor contributing to spontaneous ignition, the flowability of different fuels in bins and lock-hoppers (stagnant fuel layers are especially sensitive to spontaneous ignition) in continuous flow and in flow stopped for a storage time of 1 hour was also studied. Walker`s rotating ring shear equipment and Jenike`s linear shear equipment based on shearing the fuel were used in the flowability measurements. The effect of fuel temperature (22 deg C, 40 deg C) on flowability was determined for forest residue chips. Dynamic friction coefficients between fuels and handling equipment were determined for stainless steel and rusty metal surface. As an example of application, results obtained with laboratory test equipment were extrapolated to a bin size of 21 m{sup 3} by calculating the size of the minimum discharge opening required by mass flow of different coals and forest residue chips and the minimum angle of repose of the conical part for a bin of stainless steel

  16. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  17. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Final report (Part I). Pulverized coal combustion and gasification in a cyclone reactor: experiment and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, J. S.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1979-05-01

    A unified experimental and analytical study of pulverized coal combustion and low-BTU gasification in an atmospheric cyclone reactor was performed. Experimental results include several series of coal combustion tests and a coal gasification test carried out via fuel-rich combustion without steam addition. Reactor stability was excellent over a range of equivalence ratios from .67 to 2.4 and air flowrates from 60 to 220 lb/hr. Typical carbon efficiencies were 95% for air-rich and stoichiometric tests and 80% for gasification tests. The best gasification results were achieved at an equivalence ratio of 2.0, where the carbon, cold gas and hot gas efficiencies were 83, 45 and 75%, respectively. The corresponding product gas heating value was 70 BTU/scf. A macroscopic model of coal combustion in the cyclone has been developed. Fuel-rich gasification can also be modeled through a gas-phase equilibrium treatment. Fluid mechanics are modeled by a particle force balance and a series combination of a perfectly stirred reactor and a plug flow reactor. Kinetic treatments of coal pyrolysis, char oxidation and carbon monoxide oxidation are included. Gas composition and temperature are checked against equilibrium values. The model predicts carbon efficiency, gas composition and temperature and reactor heat loss; gasification parameters, such as cold and hot gas efficiency and make gas heating value, are calculated for fuel-rich conditions. Good agreement exists between experiment and theory for conditions of this investigation.

  18. Illinois reclaimed soil productivity: Restoration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smout, G.

    1998-01-01

    Consolidation Coal Co. (Consol) has nearly 8,000 acres of high capability and prime farmland reclamation responsibility in Illinois. It has been involved in research in the area of restored soil productivity since 1976 with the University of Illinois and Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Consol maintains an intensive program to demonstrate and test deep tillage equipment. The research and in-house demonstrations identified soil physical strength (compaction) as the main limiting factor to restoring a soil's productive capacity. There are two primary ways to address this issue, prevention and amelioration. The former was not an option for Consol because many acres were already reclaimed and the company had a major scraper fleet. Along with other operators in Illinois, Consol started an aggressive search for equipment and techniques that could loosen compacted soils. In 1987 Consol was the first to use the D.M.I.-Super Tiger deep soil plow, originally developed and manufactured by D.M.I., Inc. of Goodfield, Illinois. This plow is composed of a single parabolic, static shank with a 44-inch wide sweep weighing 1,200 pounds. It is capable of plowing 48 inches deep while leaving the top soil in place. A Caterpillar D9L tractor with 460 horsepower is used to pull the plow. In 1990 the decision was made to commit to this equipment as the best technology currently available. In 1994 Consol received a patent waiver from D.M.I. to build its own plow. The Consol built plow has been in use since the summer of 1995. To date, Consol has plowed over 3,900 acres with a D.M.I. plow

  19. Superacid Catalyzed Depolymerization and Conversion of Coals. Final Technical Report. [HF:BF{sub 2}/H{sub 2}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G.

    1980-01-01

    We were interested in applying superacid catalyzed cleavage-depolymerization and ionic hydrogenation low temperature conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbon, as well as obtaining information about the reactions involved and the structure of intermediates of the coal liquefaction process. In order to show the feasibility of our proposed research we have carried out preliminary investigation in these areas. Preceding our work there was no practical application of a superacid system to coal liquefaction. We carried out an extensive study of the potential of the HF:BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system for coal hydroliquefaction. Under varying conditions of reactant ratio, reaction time and temperature, we were able to obtain over 95% pyridine extractible product by treating coal in HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system at approx. 100 degrees C for 4 hours. The coal to acid ratio was 1:5 and FB{sub 3} at 900 psi and H{sub 2} at 500 psi were used. These are extremely encouraging results in that the conditions used are drastically milder than those used in any known process, such as Exxon donor solvent and related processes. The cyclohexane extractibility of the treated coal was as high as 27% and the yield of liquid distillate at 400 degrees C/5 x 10{sup -3}/sup torr/ was approx. 30%. The infrared spectrum of product coal, extracts and distillates were distinctly different from the starting coal and show a significant increase in the amount of saturates. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of cyclohexane extract of the treated coal shows essentially all aliphatic photons. The spectra of other treated coal extracts show increased amounts and types of aliphatic protons as well as significant amounts of protons bound to unsaturated sites. This again indicates that the HF-BF{sub 3} system is depolymerizing the coal to small fragments which are soluble in non-polar solvents.

  20. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  1. Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of coal-water slurries. Final project report, 1 September 1989--28 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.; Metghalchi, H.; Cumper, J.; Atal, A.; Estrada, K.R.; Murphy, B.; Steciak, J.; Hottel, H.C.; Simons, G.

    1993-07-01

    To conduct studies on the combustion of coal water fuels (CWFs) an appropriate facility was designed and constructed. The main components were (1) a high-temperature isothermal laminar flow furnace that facilitates observation of combustion events in its interior. The design of this system and its characterization are described in Chapter 1. (2) Apparatus for slurry droplet/agglomerate particle generation and introduction in the furnace. These devices are described in Chapters 1 and 3 and other attached publications. (3) An electronic optical pyrometer whose design, construction theory of operation, calibration and performance are presented in Chapter 2. (4) A multitude of other accessories, such as particle fluidization devices, a suction thermometer, a velocimeter, high speed photographic equipment, calibration devices for the pyrometer, etc., are described throughout this report. Results on the combustion of CWF droplets and CWF agglomerates made from micronized coal are described in Chapter 3. In the same chapter the combustion of CWF containing dissolved calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) axe described. The combustion behavior of pre-dried CWF agglomerates of pulverized grain coal is contrasted to that of agglomerates of micronized coal in Chapter 4. In the same chapter the combustion of agglomerates of carbon black and diesel soot is discussed as well. The effect of CMA on the combustion of the above materials is also discussed. Finally, the sulfur capture capability of CMA impregnated micronized and pulverized bituminous coals is examined in Chapter 5.

  2. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Exploration of coal-based pitch precursors for ultra-high thermal conductivity graphite fibers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, G.V. [Amoco Performance Products, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-27

    Goal was to explore the utility of coal-based pitch precursors for use in ultra high thermal conductivity carbon (graphite) fibers. From graphite electrode experience, it was established that coal-based pitches tend to form more highly crystalline graphite at lower temperatures. Since the funding was limited to year 1 effort of the 3 year program, the goal was only partially achieved. The coal-base pitches can form large domain mesophase in spite of high N and O contents. The mesophase reactivity test performed on one of the variants of coal-based pitch (DO84) showed that it was not a good candidate for carbon fiber processing. Optimization of WVU`s isotropic pitch process is required to tailor the pitch for carbon fiber processing. The hetero atoms in the coal pitch need to be reduced to improve mesophase formation.

  4. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  5. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  6. Dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products containing coal tar and menthol for over-the-counter human use; amendment to the monograph. Final rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products to include the combination of 1.8 percent coal tar solution and 1.5 percent menthol in a shampoo drug product to control dandruff. FDA did not receive any comments or data in response to its previously proposed rule to include this combination. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  7. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  8. Performance of a diesel engine operating on raw coal-diesel fuel and solvent refined coal-diesel fuel slurries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, H.P.

    1980-03-01

    Performance tests using an 11 kW single cylinder diesel engine were made to determine the effects of three different micronized coal-fuel oil slurries being considered as alternative fuels. Slurries containing 20, 32, and 40%-wt micronized raw coal in No. 2 fuel oil were used. Results are presented indicating the changes in the concentrations of SO/sub X/ and NO/sub X/ in the exhaust, exhaust opacity, power and efficiency, and in wear rates relative to operation on fuel oil No. 2. The engine was operated for 10 h at full load and 1400 rpm on al fuels except the 40%-wt slurry. This test was discontinued because of extremely poor performance.

  9. Australian black coal statistics 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  10. Utilisation potential of products of microbial coal liquefaction. Final report; Verwertungspotential der Produkte der mikrobiellen Kohleverfluessigung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepsel, R.; Schmiers, H.; Grosse, S.; Weber, A.

    2002-07-01

    Ever since the discovery in the 1980s that microorganisms are capable of converting coal into soluble products research groups all over the world have been exploring the bioconversion of coal. It was at an advance stage of the present integrated project, which initially only involved microbiology research groups, that the need for a chemical working group with knowledge and experience in the area of coal chemistry and structural analysis of coal was recognised. The task of the chemical working group was to provide knowledge on the chemical nature of bioconversion products and the chemical processes of coal bioconversion. This involved identifying structural changes occurring in the feed coal as well as in its constituent humic acids and macromolecular matrix as a result of the activity of coal degrading microorganisms. [German] Nachdem Anfang der achtziger Jahre entdeckt wurde, dass sich Kohlen durch Mikroorganismen in loesliche Produkte ueberfuehren lassen, agieren weltweit Forschergruppen auf dem Gebiet der Biokonversion von Kohle. In einem fortgeschrittenen Bearbeitungsstadium des Verbundprojektes, an dem zunaechst nur mikrobiologische Arbeitsgruppen beteiligt waren, wurde die Notwendigkeit erkannt, eine chemische Arbeitsgruppe mit Kenntnissen und Erfahrungen auf den Gebieten der Kohlechemie und der Strukturanalytik von Kohlen zu integrieren. Aufgabenstellung der chemischen Arbeitsgruppe war und ist es, Erkenntnisse ueber die chemische Natur der Biokonversionsprodukte und die chemischen Ablaeufe der mikrobiellen Kohlekonversion bereitstellen. Die Aufgabenstellung umfasst die Aufklaerung der strukturellen Veraenderung der Einsatzkohle sowie ihrer Komponenten Huminsaeuren und makromolekulare Matrix durch die Einwirkung kohleabbauender Mikroorganismen. (orig.)

  11. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  12. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  13. Illinois forest statistics, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1987-01-01

    The third inventory of the timber resource of Illinois shows a 1% increase in commercial forest area and a 40% gain in growing-stock volume between 1962 and 1985. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  14. Illinois' Forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; David E. Haugen; Dick C. Little; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Illinois' forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average of 459 trees per acre. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types, which occupy 65 percent of total forest land area. Seventy-two percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 20 percent contains poletimber, and 8 percent contains...

  15. Evaluation of the effect of coal cleaning of fugitive elements. Part II. Analytical methods. Final report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, R.E.; Price, A.A.; Ford, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    This report contains the analytical and test methods which were used routinely at Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. during the project. The procedures contained herein should aid coal industry laboratories and others, including commercial laboratories, who might be required to determine trace elements in coal. Some of the procedures have been presented in previous BCR reports; however, this report includes additional procedures which are described in greater detail. Also presented are many as the more basic coal methods which have been in use at BCR for many years, or which have been adapted or refined from other standard reference sources for coal and water. The basis for choosing specific analytical procedures for trace elements in coal is somewhat complex. At BCR, atomic absorption was selected as the basic method in the development of these procedures. The choice was based on sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, practicability, and economy. Whenever possible, the methods developed had to be both adequate and amenable for use by coal industry laboratories by virtue of relative simplicity and cost. This is not to imply that the methods described are simple or inexpensive; however, atomic abosrption techniques do meet these criteria in relation to more complex and costly methods such as neutron activation, mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence, some of which require highly specialized personnel as well as access to sophisticated nuclear and computational facilities. Many of the analytical procedures for trace elements in coal have been developed or adapted specifically for the BCR studies. Their presentation is the principal purpose of this report.

  16. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  17. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  18. Review biodepyritisation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, C.; Sukla, L.B.; Misra, V.N. [Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a detailed summary of the recent and past research activities in the area of biodesulfurisation of coal. It provides information about microorganisms important for biodesulfurisation of coal, with the emphasis on Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The review presents an insight into various methods of desulfurisation of coal combining physical and biological methods. Also, there are discussions on coal structure, distribution, mechanism and kinetics of pyrite oxidation and jarosite precipitation. Finally, areas requiring further research are identified.

  19. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    A considerable increase in the volume of fines in rom coal caused Sahara Coal in Illinois to redesign the fine coal system in their Harrisburg preparation plant. Details of the new design, and particularly the fine refuse system which dewaters and dries 28 mesh x O clean coal, are given. Results have exceeded expectations in reducing product losses, operating costs and slurry pond cleaning costs.

  20. Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

  1. Energy conservation in coal conversion. Final report, September 15, 1977--September 1, 1978. Selected case studies and conservation methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcupile, J.C.

    1978-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the methodologies developed in the Energy Conservation in Coal Conversion August, 1977 Progress Report - Contract No. EY77S024196 - to an energy efficient, near-term coal conversion process design, and to develop additional, general techniques for studying energy conservation and utilization in coal conversion processes. The process selected for study was the Ralph M. Parsons Company of Pasadena, California ''Oil/Gas Complex, Conceptual Design/Economic Analysis'' as described in R and D Report No. 114 - Interim Report No. 4, published March, 1977, ERDA Contract No. E(49-18)-1975. Thirteen papers representing possible alternative methods of energy conservation or waste heat utilization have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  2. Coal marketing manual 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  3. Illinois' Forests 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2013-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Illinois' forests, completed in 2010, reports more than 4.8 million acres of forest land and 97 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory and elm/ash/cottonwood forest-type groups, which occupy 93 percent of total forest land area. The volume of growing stock on timberland totals 7.2 billion cubic feet. The average...

  4. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Walker, Harold [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD

  5. Revised users manual, Pulverized Coal Gasification or Combustion: 2-dimensional (87-PCGC-2): Final report, Volume 2. [87-PCGC-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1987-12-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and non-reactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. Recent code revisions and additions are described. The model, referred to as 87-PCGC-2, is applicable to cylindrical axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using either a flux method or discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a Lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. Several multi-step coal devolatilization schemes are included along with a heterogeneous reaction scheme that allows for both diffusion and chemical reaction. Major gas-phase reactions are modeled assuming local instantaneous equilibrium, and thus the reaction rates are limited by the turbulent rate mixing. A NO/sub x/ finite rate chemistry submodel is included which integrates chemical kinetics and the statistics of the turbulence. The gas phase is described by elliptic partial differential equations that are solved by an iterative line-by-line technique. Under-relaxation is used to achieve numerical stability. The generalized nature of the model allows for calculation of isothermal fluid mechanicsgaseous combustion, droplet combustion, particulate combustion and various mixtures of the above, including combustion of coal-water and coal-oil slurries. Both combustion and gasification environments are permissible. User information and theory are presented, along with sample problems. 106 refs.

  6. Relation between particle size and properties of some bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.D.; Cheng, M.; Goulet, J.-C.; Furimsky, E. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories)

    1990-02-01

    Coal fractions of different size distributions exhibited different H/C ratio, ash and sulphur contents, and surface structures. This was confirmed using two low-sulphur and two high-sulphur bituminous coals. The effect was much less pronounced for low-sulphur coals than for high-sulphur coals. A significant difference in properties was noted between the two high-sulphur coals in spite of similar basic compositional parameters. This was confirmed by the fractal dimensionality factor D of Illinois No. 6 coal, which exceeded the theoretical value. 14 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Regulations implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: determining coal miners' and survivors' entitlement to benefits. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    This final rule revises the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA or Act) regulations to implement amendments made by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA amended the BLBA in two ways. First, it revived a rebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis for certain claims. Second, it reinstituted automatic entitlement to benefits for certain eligible survivors of coal miners whose lifetime benefit claims were awarded because they were totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis. These regulations clarify how the statutory presumption may be invoked and rebutted and the application and scope of the survivor-entitlement provision. The rule also eliminates several unnecessary or obsolete provisions.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Transportation Options in the Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Rostam-Abadi; S. S. Chen; Y. Lu

    2004-09-30

    This report describes carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture options from large stationary emission sources in the Illinois Basin, primarily focusing on coal-fired utility power plants. The CO{sub 2} emissions data were collected for utility power plants and industrial facilities over most of Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and western Kentucky. Coal-fired power plants are by far the largest CO{sub 2} emission sources in the Illinois Basin. The data revealed that sources within the Illinois Basin emit about 276 million tonnes of CO2 annually from 122 utility power plants and industrial facilities. Industrial facilities include 48 emission sources and contribute about 10% of total emissions. A process analysis study was conducted to review the suitability of various CO{sub 2} capture technologies for large stationary sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each class of technology were investigated. Based on these analyses, a suitable CO{sub 2} capture technology was assigned to each type of emission source in the Illinois Basin. Techno-economic studies were then conducted to evaluate the energy and economic performances of three coal-based power generation plants with CO{sub 2} capture facilities. The three plants considered were (1) pulverized coal (PC) + post combustion chemical absorption (monoethanolamine, or MEA), (2) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) + pre-combustion physical absorption (Selexol), and (3) oxygen-enriched coal combustion plants. A conventional PC power plant without CO2 capture was also investigated as a baseline plant for comparison. Gross capacities of 266, 533, and 1,054 MW were investigated at each power plant. The economic study considered the burning of both Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The cost estimation included the cost for compressing the CO{sub 2} stream to pipeline pressure. A process simulation software, CHEMCAD, was employed to perform steady-state simulations of power generation systems

  9. A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids. Final report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

    1994-04-01

    A batch microreactor was designed and fabricated as a means of investigating maximum yields of liquids obtainable in very short reaction times of the order of a few seconds, and the maximum ratios of liquids/hydrocarbon (HC) gases obtainable under those conditions. A Wyodak sub-bituminous coal, crushed and sieved to {minus}200 mesh particle size, was used in the experiments, with a temperature of 500{degrees}C and a pressure of 1500 psi. The fine coal particles were fed dry to the reactor and heated to reaction temperature in times of one to two seconds. At a time of 3 seconds at reaction temperature, in a single pass a liquid yield of 60% by weight of the coal was obtained, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/(HC) gases of 30/1. When the unreacted solids were recycled to the reactor, and the results combined with those of the first pass, a liquid yield of 82% by weight of the coal was achieved, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/HC gases of 30/1. This ratio represents only about 3 wt percent HC gases, much lower that is produced in current advanced technologies, and represents a large saving in hydrogen consumption. A simulated distillation technique was applied to the liquids. The liquid product contained 86% by weight (of the liquids) total distillables (boiling point below 538{degrees}C), including 70% by weight of low-boiling fractions in the gasoline, kerosene and gas oil range (boiling point up to 325{degrees}C). The liquid product exhibited a H/C ratio of 1.5, which is considerably higher than observed in current advanced technologies for the primary liquids. Several catalysts were investigated. Iron catalysts, specifically ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferric sulfate pentahydrate, each produced these high conversions and high ratios of liquids/HC gases.

  10. Electroosmotically enhanced dewatering/deliquoring of fine-particle coal: Final report, January 1--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sami, Sedat [Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Davis, Philip K. [Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Smith, James G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1989-03-01

    This research is an investigation of the use of electroosmosis to dewater/deliquor ultrafine coal. Post-beneficiation dewatering/deliquoring methods for ultrafine coal are inadequate and generally require subsequent thermal drying. Thermal drying is not only expensive and time consuming, it also does not recover liquids for reuse in beneficiation processes. The degree of difficulty associated with dewatering increases as surface forces become more important than gravimetric forces. Electroosmotic flow has advantages for dewatering because it is much less sensitive to pore size than hydraulic gradient flow for the 1 to 75 ..mu..m ultrafine size range. The first year of this project focused upon preparation of ultrafine coal samples, development of test equipment and test cells, identification of variables affecting electroosmosis, and trial runs. Techniques and procedures not previously used by researchers of electroosmotic dewatering have revealed important information about the dynamics of the electroosmosis process. The identification of the first few millimeters of the cathode region of the cell as the sink for most of the energy input into the process provides the potential for improving efficiency by concentrating the second year effort on intervention in that region. Information gathered about differences in FTIR spectra as a function of location in the dewatering cell will be investigated. Changes in pH with temperature and by the application of electroosmotic current flow will receive attention, as well. 178 refs., 16 figs.

  11. Bioenergetic studies of coal sulfur oxidation by extremely thermophilic bacteria. Final report, September 15, 1992--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.M.; Han, C.J.

    1997-12-31

    Thermoacidophilic microorganisms have been considered for inorganic sulfur removal from coal because of expected improvements in rates of both biotic and abiotic sulfur oxidation reactions with increasing temperature. In this study, the bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon, Metallosphaera sedula, to environmental changes have been examined in relation to its capacity to catalyze pyrite oxidation in coal. Given an appropriate bioenergetic challenge, the metabolic response was to utilize additional amounts of energy sources (i.e., pyrite) to survive. Of particular interest were the consequences of exposing the organism to various forms of stress (chemical, nutritional, thermal, pH) in the presence of coal pyrite. Several approaches to take advantage of stress response to accelerate pyrite oxidation by this organism were examined, including attempts to promote acquired thermal tolerance to extend its functional range, exposure to chemical uncouplers and decouplers, and manipulation of heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic tendencies to optimize biomass concentration and biocatalytic activity. Promising strategies were investigated in a continuous culture system. This study identified environmental conditions that promote better coupling of biotic and abiotic oxidation reactions to improve biosulfurization rates of thermoacidophilic microorganisms.

  12. 75 FR 55973 - Safety Zone; Illinois River, Mile 000.5 to 001.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Illinois River, Mile 000.5 to 001.5 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for all waters of the Illinois River, Mile 000.5 to 001.5, extending the entire width of the river. This safety zone is needed to...

  13. 77 FR 31727 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2012-0073; FRL 9677-3] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container Exemption From VOC Coating Rules...), direct final rule approving a revision to the Illinois SIP that added a ``small container exemption'' for...

  14. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  15. Use of pyrolysis gas from coal as reburn fuel. Final report; Einsatz von kohlestaemmigem Pyrolysegas als Reduktionsbrennstoff. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Magel, C.; Moersch, O.; Ruediger, H.; Storm, C.; Schnell, U.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1996-12-31

    The research project`s aim was to reduce nitrogen emissions from pulverized-coal furnaces by fuel staging with pyrolysis gas from coal. The test fuels were 6 German and Australian coals. The aim achieved has been the statement that the described method is an adequate means to attain to and remain below emission values of 200 mg/m{sup 3}. The method of fuel staging using coal-original gases was investigated with tests focussing the most important process parameters such as coal type, devolatilization ratio, temperature, residence time, and stoichiometry. The relevant features determined with an entrained flow reactor and with a fluidized-bed reactor were the impact of devolatilization temperatures on carbonized residue and pyrolysis products, the distribution of fuel nitrogen, and the quality of gas and tar, including the respective effects on NO{sub x} formation and reduction in staged combustion. The validation of the mathematical model was done with the experimentally obtained data. The criteria considered fundamental for achieving the NO{sub x} reduction level are temperature, air ratio, and residence time in the reduction zone of the furnace. The pyrolysis tests manifested the strong influence of the coal type and the devolatilization conditions on the composition of the gases and the attainable NO{sub x} reduction. The tars in the pyrolysis gases, with their nitrogen compounds, improve the reducing effect of available nitrogen oxides. By using pyrolysis gases from coal as reburning fuel, NO{sub x} emissions of less than 200 mg/m{sup 3} can be obtained at air ratios around 0.95. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das Forschungsprojekt verfolgte das Ziel mit 6 deutschen und australischen Kohlen die Stickoxidemissionen aus Kohlestaubfeuerungen durch Brennstoffstufung mit Pyrolysegas als Reduktionsbrennstoff zu verringern. Das erreichte Ziel war der Nachweis, dass mit dem beschriebenen Verfahren NO{sub x}-Emissionswerte von 200 mg/m{sup 3} erreicht und unterschritten werden

  16. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  17. Novel approaches to a study of the fundamental organic chemistry of coal. Final report, September 1, 1977-September 1, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giam, C.S.; Goodwin, T.E.; Tabor, R.L.; Neff, G.; Smith, S.; Ionescu, F.; Trujillo, D.

    1979-01-01

    The studies are preliminary in nature, and the following conclusions are tentative. (1) The results with mixed carboxylic-sulfonic anhydrides seem to indicate an increase in polymerization of the coal molecular structure, when based on the results of pyrolysis/gas chromatographic analyses. The mixed anhydrides are such powerful acylating reagents that they should be capable of causing profound and dramatic structural modifications of coal and the results suggest sub-optimal reaction conditions. The results may also be due to the presence of only a small number of ether linkages connecting large molecular units together. Possibly, at elevated pressures and larger concentrations of mixed anhydride, a greater extent of depolymerization would occur, coupled perhaps with acylation. (2) The Nimz lignin degradation reaction has now been fully implemented and good conditions have been found for lignite reaction. The products from this degradation were basically hydrocarbon in nature. Thus, in the absence of monolignols, we postulate that such phenolic linkages of the type found in lignin are not found to a large degree in Texas lignites. (3) Our recently developed technique of analyzing methylene to methyl ratios by IR spectroscopy represents a useful method for characterization of both soluble and insoluble coal-derived products. The technique is less expensive than mass spectroscopy and not limited by solubility as in the case of NMR spectroscopy. (4) From the measurements of the acidic hydrogen content of the lignites studies, we have formed a postulate as to the involvement of heteroatoms (especially oxygen) in the lignite structure. We feel that heteroatoms in Texas lignites are involved mainly in carbonyl, low molecular weight alkoxy and/or heterocyclic units. (5) Conditions for depolymerizing and solubilizing lignites by use of t-butyllithium have been developed and utilized successfully.

  18. Screening of candidate corrosion resistant materials for coal combustion environments -- Volume 4. Final report, January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a silicon carbide heat exchanger is a critical step in the development of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) power system. SiC is the only material that provides the necessary combination of resistance to creep, thermal shock, and oxidation. While the SiC structural materials provide the thermomechanical and thermophysical properties needed for an efficient system, the mechanical properties of the SiC tubes are severely degraded through corrosion by the coal combustion products. To obtain the necessary service life of thousands of hours at temperature, a protective coating is needed that is stable with both the SiC tube and the coal combustion products, resists erosion from the particle laden gas stream, is thermal-shock resistant, adheres to SiC during repeated thermal shocks (start-up, process upsets, shut-down), and allows the EFCC system to be cost competitive. The candidate protective materials identified in a previous effort were screened for their stability to the EFCC combustion environment. Bulk samples of each of the eleven candidate materials were prepared, and exposed to coal slag for 100 hours at 1,370 C under flowing air. After exposure the samples were mounted, polished, and examined via x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In general, the alumina-based materials behaved well, with comparable corrosion depths in all five samples. Magnesium chromite formed a series of reaction products with the slag, which included an alumina-rich region. These reaction products may act as a diffusion barrier to slow further reaction between the magnesium chromite and the slag and prove to be a protective coating. As for the other materials; calcium titanate failed catastrophically, the CS-50 exhibited extension microstructural and compositional changes, and zirconium titanate, barium zironate, and yttrium chromite all showed evidence of dissolution with the slag.

  19. Too Much Coal, Too Little Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick van der Ploeg; Cees Withagen

    2011-01-01

    Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. "Preference reversal" can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil, before using oil and coal together, and finally coal on its own, The "laissez-faire" outcome uses coal forever or ...

  20. Coal anion structure and chemistry of coal alkylation. Fourth quarterly progress report, December 1, 1977--February 28, 1978. [Carbon atoms in butyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Three research problems are in progress. First, work is progressing well concerning the methods appropriate for the reductive alkylation of Illinois No. 6 coal samples. We have investigated the influence of the leaving group on the conversion of the Illinois coal to a soluble material. We find that the n-butyl iodide is more effective than other n-butyl halides. Second, preliminary results have been obtained concerning the distribution of hydrogen and deuterium atoms in the reaction of Illinois No. 6 coal samples with perdeuteriotetralin at 400/sup 0/C. Third, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of appropriate model compounds with n-butyl groups have been tabulated for comparison with the spectroscopic results obtained from coal alkylation products. Fourth, the chromatographic procedures necessary for the separation of the coal samples are being developed.

  1. Experimental studies on the group ignition of a cloud of coal particles: Volume 2, Pyrolysis and ignition modeling. Final report, August 15, 1988--October 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work are to formulate a model to simulate transient coal pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion of a cloud of coal particles and to compare results of the program with those reported in the literature elsewhere.

  2. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  3. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction. Final technical report, September 1, 1988--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisch, J.J.

    1992-04-07

    The ultimate objective of this research has been to uncover novel reagents and experimental conditions for heteroatom removal and hydrogen transfer processes, which would be applicable to the liquefaction of coal under low-severity conditions. To this end, one phase of this research has investigated the cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds involving sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen by subvalent transition-metal complexes. A second phase of the study has assessed the capability of the same transition-metal complexes or of organoaluminum Lewis acids to catalyze the cleavage of carbon-hydrogen bonds in aromatics and hence to promote hydrogen shuttling. Finally, a third phase of our work has uncovered a remarkable synergistic effect of combinations of transition metals with organoaluminum Lewis acids on hydrogen shuttling between aromatics and hydroaromatics. (VC)

  4. Coal-to-liquids bill introduced in the Senate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-06-15

    Of immense importance to the coal industry is the announcement, on 7 June 2006 by US Senators Barack Obama (D-IL) and Jim Bunning (R-KY) of S.3325, the 'Coal-to-Liquid Fund Promotion Act of 2006'. This legislation creates tax incentives for coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies and construction of CTL plants. If passed, this will create the infrastructure needed to make CTL a viable energy resource throughout America. The article gives comment and background to this proposed legislation. Illinois Basin coal is well suited for CTL because of its high Btu content. If Sasol constructs a proposed plant in Illinois it would increase coal production in the state by 10 mt. 1 fig.

  5. Illinois Accelerator Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Cooper, Charlie A.

    The Illinois Accelerator Research Center (IARC) hosts a new accelerator development program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. IARC provides access to Fermi's state-of-the-art facilities and technologies for research, development and industrialization of particle accelerator technology. In addition to facilitating access to available existing Fermi infrastructure, the IARC Campus has a dedicated 36,000 ft2 Heavy Assembly Building (HAB) with all the infrastructure needed to develop, commission and operate new accelerators. Connected to the HAB is a 47,000 ft2 Office, Technology and Engineering (OTE) building, paid for by the state, that has office, meeting, and light technical space. The OTE building, which contains the Accelerator Physics Center, and nearby Accelerator and Technical divisions provide IARC collaborators with unique access to world class expertise in a wide array of accelerator technologies. At IARC scientists and engineers from Fermilab and academia work side by side with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in accelerator science and translate them into applications for the nation's health, wealth and security.

  6. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  7. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  8. Ground level measurement of nuclei from coal development in the northern Great Plains: baseline measurements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B. L.; Johnson, L. R.; Sengupta, S.; Yue, P. C.

    1978-11-01

    The Institute of Atmospheric Sciences of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has completed 20 months of ambient air sampling at rural and remote sites in a five-state region of the northern Great Plains. Sampling was accomplished by use of a 27-ft motor home laboratory containing living accommodations for a field crew of two. The laboratory was outfitted with a number of instruments for measurement of pollutant parameters: cloud condensation nuclei, ice nuclei, Aitken nuclei, size distribution information for Aitken size particulate, sulfur dioxide, ozone, raindrop size distributions, and pH of precipitation. In addition, an instrumented meteorological tower provided wind speed, wind direction, ambient air temperature, and dew-point temperature. Instruments varied as to durability and success of operation, but better than 90% data retrieval was possible for the entire 20-month sampling study. Analyses of the large quantities of data obtained were not possible under the initial baseline measurement program, but examination of most parameters indicate that the air masses in the northern Great Plains are still relatively clean and are influenced primarily by local sources of contamination rather than large regional sources. Particulate concentrations in these remote areas are representative of mountain stations or clean rural conditions, and sulfur dioxide concentrations are at the threshold of detectability of the instrument. Precipitation is only very slightly acidic, and no significant quantity of amorphous particles (such as coal dust or combustion products) is found in the quantitative analyses of the high-volume filter collections. A summary of ''average'' conditions observed over the study area is tabulated.

  9. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  10. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  11. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  12. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  13. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  14. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-26

    In the second quarter of 1993, the United States produced 235 million short tons of coal. This brought the total for the first half of 1993 to 477 million short tons, a decrease of 4 percent (21 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first half of 1992. The decrease was due to a 26-million-short-ton decline in production east of the Mississippi River, which was partially offset by a 5-million-short-ton increase in coal production west of the Mississippi River. Compared with the first 6 months of 1992, all States east of the Mississippi River had lower coal production levels, led by West Virginia and Illinois, which produced 9 million short tons and 7 million short tons less coal, respectively. The principal reasons for the drop in coal output for the first 6 months of 1993 compared to a year earlier were: a decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets, particularly the steam coal markets; a draw-down of electric utility coal stocks to meet the increase in demand for coal-fired electricity generation; and a lower producer/distributor stock build-up. Distribution of US coal in the first half of 1993 was 15 million short tons lower than in the first half of 1992, with 13 million short tons less distributed to overseas markets and 2 million short tons less distributed to domestic markets.

  15. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  16. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yanna

    2017-12-20

    To increase our understanding of coal biogasification and move this technology closer toward field scale demonstration, we have thoroughly investigated coal bioconversion both ex situ and in situ. Specifically, we have screened a total of 12 parameters and identified those that exert statistically positive influence on coal biogasification. Based on these evaluations, a recipe for a nutrient solution was developed. With the addition of this nutrient solution, methane yield from Illinois coal was enhanced dramatically. In addition, we have demonstrated that coal bioconversion can be sustained over a long period of time as long as suitable conditions were maintained. Furthermore, biogasification of coal was tested under pressure simulating in situ conditions. Surprisingly, pressure was found to have no negative effects on microbial activities. Thus, the same recipe developed for ex situ may be used in situ as well.

  17. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Annual report, August 1982-August 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.J.; Tierney, J.W.; Adams, J.; Bhat, N.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Kakwani, R.; Qamar, I.

    1983-09-01

    The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal with experiments also being conducted with Upper Freeport and Illinois No. 6 coals. During the past year, filter cakes from the above coals with widely varied size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. A module of the network model for calculating single phase permeabilities was completed and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for the 1983-84; detailed descriptions of technical progress for particle/filter cake characterization; theoretical modeling, and enhanced dewatering methods; and appendices. 11 references, 35 figures, 11 tables.

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Illinois single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report - Part 10. Variability in the inorganic content of United States' coals: a multivariate statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glick, D.C.; Davis, A.

    1984-07-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques of correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and cluster analysis, implemented by computer programs, can be used to process a large data set and produce a summary of relationships between variables and between samples. These techniques were used to find relationships for data on the inorganic constituents of US coals. Three hundred thirty-five whole-seam channel samples from six US coal provinces were analyzed for inorganic variables. After consideration of the attributes of data expressed on ash basis and whole-coal basis, it was decided to perform complete statistical analyses on both data sets. Thirty variables expressed on whole-coal basis and twenty-six variables expressed on ash basis were used. For each inorganic variable, a frequency distribution histogram and a set of summary statistics was produced. These were subdivided to reveal the manner in which concentrations of inorganic constituents vary between coal provinces and between coal regions. Data collected on 124 samples from three stratigraphic groups (Pottsville, Monongahela, Allegheny) in the Appalachian region were studied using analysis of variance to determine degree of variability between stratigraphic levels. Most variables showed differences in mean values between the three groups. 193 references, 71 figures, 54 tables.

  20. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  1. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  2. Post-test analysis of 20kW molten carbonate fuel cell stack operated on coal gas. Final report, August 1993--February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A 20kW carbonate fuel cell stack was operated with coal gas for the first time in the world. The stack was tested for a total of 4,000 hours, of which 3,900 hours of testing was conducted at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Incorporated, Plaquemine, Louisiana outdoor site. The operation was on either natural gas or coal gas and switched several times without any effects, demonstrating duel fuel capabilities. This test was conducted with 9142 kJ/m{sup 3} (245 Btu/cft) coal gas provided by a slipstream from Destec`s entrained flow, slagging, slurry-fed gasifier equipped with a cold gas cleanup subsystem. The stack generated up to 21 kW with this coal gas. Following completion of this test, the stack was brought to Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and a detailed post-test analysis was conducted to identify any effects of coal gas on cell components. This investigation has shown that the direct fuel cell (DFC) can be operated with properly cleaned and humidified coal-as, providing stable performance. The basic C direct fuel cell component materials are stable and display normal stability in presence of the coal gas. No effects of the coal-borne contaminants are apparent. Further cell testing at ERC 1 17, confirmed these findings.

  3. Coal marketability: Effects of deregulation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attanasi, E.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical utility deregulation will force power plants to compete for sales because they will not longer have captive markets. Market uncertainty and uncertainty about future environmental regulations have encouraged power plants to shift to low sulfur coal and/or to use emissions allowances to comply with Phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Mines in Northern and Central Appalachia and the Illinois Basin shipped 240 million tons of non-compliance coal to power plants without scrubbers in 1997. Under Phase 2, this coal will be replaced by low sulfur coal and/or be used with emission permits. It is possible that Powder River Basin coal production will have to increase by over 200 million tons/year to meet new demand. The prices of emissions permits will impose penalties on non-compliance coal that will probably drive out marginal coal producers. For example, if the cost of an emission permit is $200, coal from the Pittsburgh bed could bear a sulfur penalty of $6.55 per ton and similarly, coal from the Herrinbed could bear a penalty of $8.64 per ton

  4. Conversion of metallurgical coke and coal using a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Siwei; Bayham, Samuel; Zeng, Liang; McGiveron, Omar; Chung, Elena; Majumder, Ankita; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accumulated more than 300 operation hours were accomplished for the moving bed reducer reactor. • Different reactor operation variables were investigated with optimal conditions identified. • High conversions of sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were achieved without flow problems. • Co-current and counter-current contact modes were tested and their applicability was discussed. - Abstract: The CLC process has the potential to be a transformative commercial technology for a carbon-constrained economy. The Ohio State University Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process directly converts coal, eliminating the need for a coal gasifier oran air separation unit (ASU). Compared to other solid-fuel CLC processes, the CDCL process is unique in that it consists of a countercurrent moving bed reducer reactor. In the proposed process, coal is injected into the middle of the moving bed, whereby the coal quickly heats up and devolatilizes, splitting the reactor roughly into two sections with no axial mixing. The top section consists of gaseous fuel produced from the coal volatiles, and the bottom section consists of the coal char mixed with the oxygen carrier. A bench-scale moving bed reactor was used to study the coal conversion with CO 2 as the enhancing gas. Initial tests using metallurgical cokefines as feedstock were conducted to test the effects of operational variables in the bottom section of the moving bed reducer, e.g., reactor temperature, oxygen carrier to char ratio, enhancer gas CO 2 flow rate, and oxygen carrier flow rates. Experiments directly using coal as the feedstock were subsequently carried out based on these test results. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and Illinois #6 coal were tested as representative sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, respectively. Nearly complete coal conversion was achieved using composite iron oxide particles as the oxygen carriers without any flow problems. The operational results demonstrated that a

  5. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  6. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  7. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  8. Habitat Preference, Dispersal, and Population Trends of Three Species of Invasive Asian Carps in Tributaries of the La Grange Reach of the Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Michael R. Wilson Illinois Natural History Survey University of Illinois at Urbana -Champaign Final report Approved for public release...summer of 2009, a drainage -wide survey of the La Grange Reach of the Illinois River was conducted to determine the extent to which these species were... Drainage System has proven to be a problem on a mammoth scale. Silver carp are arguably the most predominant fish species in the lower half of the

  9. Some regional costs of a synthetic fuel industry: The case of illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Green, E.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Federal Government's efforts to induce development of a coal-based synthetic fuel industry include direct subsidies, tax concessions, and assurances that it will purchase the industry's output, even if above the market price. In this note it is argued that these subsidies will enable this industry to secure a region's largest and lowest-cost coal deposits and that the costs imposed on other coal users will be substantial. Moreover, because the lowest-cost coal deposits will be committed to synthetic fuels production regardless of the industry's commercial viability, distortions in regional coal markets will develop. If economic efficiency requires that the price of the resource reflect its replacement value, then a State government is justified in imposing a tax on coal destined for subsidized synthetic fuel plants. Amounts of such a tax, based on the higher costs of coal that must be accepted by other users as the result of the subsidized synthetic fuel plants' preempting the largest and lowest-cost deposits, are estimated for the case of Illinois strippable coal. ?? 1981 Annals of Regional Science.

  10. Spin-mapping of Coal Structures with ESE and ENDOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belford, R. L.; Clarkson, R. B.

    1989-12-01

    The broad goals of this project are to determine by nondestructive magnetic resonance methods chemical and physical structural characteristics of organic parts of native and treated coals. In this project period, we have begun to explore a technique which promises to enable us to follow to course of coal cleaning processes with microscopic spatial resolution. For the past five years, our laboratory has worked on extensions of the EPR technique as applied to coal to address these analytical problems. In this report we (1) describe the world's first nuclear magnetic resonance imaging results from an Illinois {number sign}6 coal and (2) transmit a manuscript describing how organic sulfur affect the very-high-frequency EPR spectra of coals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive technique that has found wide medical application as a means of visualizing the interior of human bodies. We have used MRI techniques to study the diffusion of an organic solvent (DMSO) into the pores of Illinois {number sign}6 coal. Proton MRI images reveal that this solvent at room temperature does not penetrate approximately 30% of the coal volume. Regions of the coal that exclude solvent could be related to inertinite and mineral components. A multi-technique imaging program is contemplated.

  11. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region V. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    This report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. This volume is specifically for the states of Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

  12. γ-ray activity in bituminous, subbituminous and lignite coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.E.; Giorgio, H.R.

    1977-01-01

    Specimens of three different types of coal from four different geographical locations (Montana, North Dakota, Illinois and Pennsylvania) were examined by γ-ray spectrometry. Some samples were ashed in a muffle furnace. Other samples included pulverized coal, slag and fly ash from an electric power generating station. Activity from the 232 Th and 238 U series was present in all samples. Activity varied widely depending upon the source of the coal. The results indicate a need for additional examination of activity in coal to: (1) establish more precisely the relative environmental impact of coal-fired power stations compared with nuclear ones, (2) indicate the degree of sophistication required in environmental surveillance programs involving areas where both nuclear and coal-fired power stations are operational, and (3) determine the occupational exposure risks in mining operations. (author)

  13. Coal mine subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmody, R.G.; Hetzler, R.T.; Simmons, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Longwall coal mining in southern Illinois occurs beneath some of the best agricultural land in the U.S. This region is characterized by highly productive, nearly level, and somewhat poorly drained soils. Subsidence from longwall mining causes changes in surface topography which alters surface and subsurface hydrology. These changes can adversely affect agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas that can be deleterious to crop production. While most subsided areas show little impact from subsidence, some areas experience total crop failure. Coal companies are required by law to mitigate subsidence damage to cropland. The objective of this paper is to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring grain yields to their pre-mined levels. The research was conducted on sites selected to represent conventional mitigation techniques on the predominate soils in the area. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max.(L.) Merr] yields in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 from mitigated areas were compared to yields from nearby undisturbed areas

  14. The environment, public relations and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, W.J. (Coal Association of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1990-09-01

    Information is presented in note format. The presentation covers world environmental issues such as the greenhouse effect, an overview of the coal industry's role in atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and finally, the need for the coal industry to make the public aware of coal's current and future role in our economic and energy future.

  15. Green-House-Gas-Reduced Coal-and-Biomass-to-Liquid-Based Jet Fuel (GHGR-CBTL) Process - Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Thamina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Green-House-Gas-Reduced Coal-and-Biomass-to-Liquid-Based Jet Fuel (GHGR-CBTL) Process”. The main objective of the project was to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the GHGR-CBTL fuel-production technology from TRL 4 to TRL 5 by producing a drop-in synthetic Jet Propellant 8 (JP-8) with a greenhouse-gas footprint less than or equal to petroleum-based JP-8 by utilizing mixtures of coal and biomass as the feedstock. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. While the system was not fabricated and tested, major efforts were expended to design the 1-TPD and a full-scale plant. The system was designed, a Block-Flow Diagram (BFD), a Process-Flow Diagram (PFD), and Piping-and-Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) were produced, a Bill of Materials (BOM) and associated spec sheets were produced, commercially available components were selected and procured, custom components were designed and fabricated, catalysts were developed and screened for performance, and permitting activities were conducted. Optimization tests for JP-8 production using C2 olefin as the feed were performed over a range of temperatures, pressures and WHSVs. Liquid yields of between 63 to 65% with 65% JP-8 fraction (41-42% JP-8 yield) at 50 psig were achieved. Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) was performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and a GHGR-CBTL module was added to the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. Based upon the experimental results, the plant design was reconfigured for zero natural-gas imports and minimal electricity imports. The LCA analysis of the reconfigured process utilizing the GREET model showed that if the char from the process was utilized to produce combined heat and power (CHP) then a feed containing 23 wt% biomass and

  16. Place vs. time and vegetational persistence: A comparison of four tropical mires from the Illinois Basin during the height of the Pennsylvanian Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMichele, W.A.; Phillips, T.L.; Nelson, W. John

    2002-01-01

    Coal balls were collected from four coal beds in the southeastern part of the Illinois Basin. Collections were made from the Springfield, Herrin, and Baker coals in western Kentucky, and from the Danville Coal in southwestern Indiana. These four coal beds are among the principal mineable coals of the Illinois Basin and belong to the Carbondale and Shelburn Formations of late Middle Pennsylvanian age. Vegetational composition was analyzed quantitatively. Coal-ball samples from the Springfield, Herrin, and Baker are dominated by the lycopsid tree Lepidophloios, with lesser numbers of Psaronius tree ferns, medullosan pteridosperms, and the lycopsid trees Synchysidendron and Diaphorodendron. This vegetation is similar to that found in the Springfield and Herrin coals elsewhere in the Illinois Basin, as reported in previous studies. The Danville coal sample, which is considerably smaller than the others, is dominated by Psaronius with the lycopsids Sigillaria and Synchysidendron as subdominants. Coal balls from the Springfield coal were collected in zones directly from the coal bed and their zone-by-zone composition indicates three to four distinct plant assemblages. The other coals were analyzed as whole-seam random samples, averaging the landscape composition of the parent mire environments. This analysis indicates that these coals, separated from each other by marine and terrestrial-clastic deposits, have essentially the same floristic composition and, thus, appear to represent a common species pool that persisted throughout the late Middle Pennsylvanian, despite changes in baselevel and climate attendant the glacial interglacial cyclicity of the Pennsylvanian ice age. Patterns of species abundance and diversity are much the same for the Springfield, Herrin, and Baker, although each coal, both in the local area sampled, and regionally, has its own paleobotanical peculiarities. Despite minor differences, these coals indicate a high degree of recurrence of assemblage

  17. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finley

    2005-09-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has investigated the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in the 155,400-km{sup 2} (60,000-mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin. Within the Basin, underlying most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky, are relatively deeper and/or thinner coal resources, numerous mature oil fields, and deep salt-water-bearing reservoirs that are potentially capable of storing CO{sub 2}. The objective of this Assessment was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using these geological sinks for long-term storage to avoid atmospheric release of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion and thereby avoid the potential for adverse climate change. The MGSC is a consortium of the geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky joined by six private corporations, five professional business associations, one interstate compact, two university researchers, two Illinois state agencies, and two consultants. The purpose of the Consortium is to assess carbon capture, transportation, and storage processes and their costs and viability in the three-state Illinois Basin region. The Illinois State Geological Survey serves as Lead Technical Contractor for the Consortium. The Illinois Basin region has annual emissions from stationary anthropogenic sources exceeding 276 million metric tonnes (304 million tons) of CO{sub 2} (>70 million tonnes (77 million tons) carbon equivalent), primarily from coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year. Assessing the options for capture, transportation, and storage of the CO{sub 2} emissions within the region has been a 12-task, 2-year process that has assessed 3,600 million tonnes (3,968 million tons) of storage capacity in coal seams, 140 to 440 million tonnes (154 to 485 million tons) of capacity in mature oil reservoirs, 7,800 million tonnes (8,598 million tons) of capacity in saline

  18. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  19. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

  20. 78 FR 34255 - Regulated Navigation Area; Vessel Traffic in Vicinity of Marseilles Dam; Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule RNA Regulated Navigation Area A. Regulatory History... Navigation Area (RNA) on the Illinois River. This Temporary Final Rule stipulates operational requirements... Mile Marker 240.0 to Mile Marker 271.4. This RNA is necessary to protect the general public, vessels...

  1. New coal-based energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1986-01-01

    Conversion of coal into liquid fuels or into coal gas is considered and the use of high temperature nuclear reactors whose waste heat can be used for remote (district) heating mentioned. The use of high temperature reactors as energy source for coal gasification is also examined and, finally, the extraction of heat from combined coal, steel and high temperature nuclear reactors is suggested. (G.M.E.)

  2. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region IV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas and Louisiana.

  3. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia and Virginia.

  4. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.

  5. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Mechanical Drafting Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the mechanical drafting cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  6. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Architectural Drafting Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the architectural drafting cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  7. Fusion and its future in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1984-08-01

    This report was prepared by the Illinois Fusion Power Task Force under the sponsorship of the Governor's Commission on Sciences and Technology. The report presents the findings and recommendations of the Task Force, an explanation of the basic concepts of fusion, a summary of national and international programs and a description of ongoing fusion activities in Illinois

  8. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  9. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  10. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  11. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/1996 - 3/31/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous

  12. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  13. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  14. A spatial analysis of China's coal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Dunguo; Li Zhi

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of China's energy structure and the distribution of its coal resources make coal transportation a very important component of the energy system; moreover, coal transportation acts as a bottleneck for the Chinese economy. To insure the security of the coal supply, China has begun to build regional strategic coal reserves at some locations, but transportation is still the fundamental way to guaranty supply security. Here, we study China's coal transportation quantitatively with a linear programming method that analyses the direction and volume of China's coal flows with the prerequisite that each province's supply and demand balance is guaranteed. First, we analyse the optimal coal transportation for the status quo coal supply and demand given the bottleneck effects that the Daqin Railway has on China's coal flow; second, we analyse the influence of future shifts in the coal supply zone in the future, finding that China's coal flows will also change, which will pressure China to construct railways and ports; and finally, we analyse the possibility of exploiting Yangtze River capacity for coal transportation. We conclude the paper with suggestions for enhancing China's coal transportation security. - Highlights: ► We use linear programming to study China's coal transportation. ► First, analyse the optimal coal flow under the status quo condition. ► Second, analyse influences of coal supply zone shifts to Neimeng and Xinjiang. ► Third, analyse the influence of using Yangtze River for coal transportation. ► At last, we give suggestions about infrastructure construction to guaranty China's long-run coal supply security.

  15. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  16. State-of-the-art study of resource characterization and planning for underground coal mining. Final technical report as of June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.; Ingham, W.; Kauffman, P.

    1980-06-01

    With the rapid developments taking place in coal mining technology and due to high investment costs, optimization of the structure of underground coal mines is crucial to the success of the mining project. The structure of a mine, once it is developed, cannot be readily changed and has a decisive influence on the productivity, safety, economics, and production capacity of the mine. The Department of Energy desires to ensure that the resource characterization and planning activity for underground coal mining will focus on those areas that offer the most promise of being advanced. Thus, this project was undertaken by Management Engineers Incorporated to determine the status in all aspects of the resource characterization and planning activities for underground coal mining as presently performed in the industry. The study team conducted a comprehensive computerized literature search and reviewed the results. From this a selection of the particularly relevant sources were annotated and a reference list was prepared, catalogued by resource characterization and mine planning activity. From this data, and discussions with industry representatives, academia, and research groups, private and federal, an assessment and evaluation was made of the state-of-the-art of each element in the resource characterization and mine planning process. The results of this analysis lead to the identifcation of areas requiring research and, specifically, those areas where DOE research efforts may be focused.

  17. Preparation and evaluation of coal-derived activated carbons for removal of mercury vapor from simulated coal combustion flue fases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, H.-C.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Richardson, C.F.; Carey, T.R.; Chang, R.

    1998-01-01

    Coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) were tested for their suitability in removing trace amounts of vapor-phase mercury from simulated flue gases generated by coal combustion. CDACs were prepared in bench-scale and pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactors with a three-step process, including coal preoxidation, carbonization, and then steam activation. CDACs from high-organicsulfur Illinois coals had a greater equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity than activated carbons prepared from a low-organic-sulfur Illinois coal. When a low-organic-sulfur CDAC was impregnated with elemental sulfur at 600 ??C, its equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity was comparable to the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon prepared from the high-organicsulfur coal. X-ray diffraction and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure examinations showed that the sulfur in the CDACs was mainly in organic forms. These results suggested that a portion of the inherent organic sulfur in the starting coal, which remained in the CDACs, played an important role in adsorption of Hg0. Besides organic sulfur, the BET surface area and micropore area of the CDACs also influenced Hg0 adsorption capacity. The HgCl2 adsorption capacity was not as dependent on the surface area and concentration of sulfur in the CDACs as was adsorption of Hg0. The properties and mercury adsorption capacities of the CDACs were compared with those obtained for commercial Darco FGD carbon.

  18. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  19. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  20. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  1. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  2. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  3. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  4. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  5. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Hackley, K.; Dagamac, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Berger, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Schanche, G. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This research was an investigation of calcium hydroxide, a sulfur-capturing sorbent, as a binder for coal fines. The reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, referred to as carbonation, was studied as a method for improving pellet quality. Carbonation forms a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate. Research has demonstrated that calcium hydroxide is a viable binder for coal fines and that a roller-and-die pellet mill is an effective method of pellet formation. From a minus 28 mesh preparation plant fine coal sample, a roller-and-die pellet mill produced strong pellets when 5 and 10% calcium hydroxide was used as a binder. The pellets containing 10% calcium hydroxide strengthened considerably when air cured. This increase in strength was attributed to carbonation via atmospheric carbon dioxide. Pellets containing 10 wt% calcium hydroxide were produced using an extruder but pellets formed in this manner were much weaker than pellets produced with the roller-and-die mill. In tests performed using a laboratory hydraulic press, the effect of particle size and compaction pressure on pellet strength was studied. Particle distributions with mean sizes of 200, 90 and 40 microns were tested. The results indicate that pellet strength increased with decreasing particle size and increasing compaction pressure when calcium hydroxide was used as a binder. Pellets containing 10 wt% calcium hydroxide increased in strength by approximately 40% when air dried for one day. As above, this increase in strength was attributed to carbonation of the calcium hydroxide via atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  6. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  7. Investigation of trace elements in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluskoter, H.J.; Cahil, R.A.; Miller, W.G.; Ruch, R.R.; Shimp, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of coal samples is currently being extensively analyzed for constituents, including many trace elements, at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The samples include whole coals, washed coals, and bench samples. Among the many determinations made on each sample are analyses for approximately 60 elements, almost twice the number of elements previously determined. The increase is in part the result of the addition of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) equipment to the laboratory. Twenty-five samples of Herrin (No. 6) Coal that had been analyzed previously were subjected to INAA analysis and were found to include Ba, Ce, Cs, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, I, In, La, Lu, Rb, Sm, Sc, Ag, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, W, U, and Yb, none of which were reported by previous techniques. These elements generally are present in very small amounts and, with the exception of barium, exhibit no wide range in concentration. The rare earth elements are among those having the narrowest ranges. Wide variations in element content have been observed in bench sets of coals (samples of vertical segments of the coal seam). Many elements, notably germanium, are concentrated at the top and/or bottom of the seam, the high concentrations of Ge being found there in all four bench sets analyzed to date

  8. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  9. Determination of coalbed methane potential and gas adsorption capacity in Western Kentucky coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, S.M.; Takacs, K.G.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois Basin has not been developed for Coalbed Methane (CBM) production. It is imperative to determine both gas content and other parameters for the Kentucky portion of the Illinois Basin if exploration is to progress and production is to occur in this area. This research is part of a larger project being conducted by the Kentucky Geological Survey to evaluate the CBM production of Pennsylvanian-age western Kentucky coals in Ohio, Webster, and Union counties using methane adsorption isotherms, direct gas desorption measurements, and chemical analyses of coal and gas. This research will investigate relationships between CBM potential and petrographic, surface area, pore size, and gas adsorption isotherm analyses of the coals. Maceral and reflectance analyses are being conducted at the Center for Applied Energy Research. At the Indiana Geological Survey, the surface area and pore size of the coals will be analyzed using a Micrometrics ASAP 2020, and the CO2 isotherm analyses will be conducted using a volumetric adsorption apparatus in a water temperature bath. The aforementioned analyses will be used to determine site specific correlations for the Kentucky part of the Illinois Basin. The data collected will be compared with previous work in the Illinois Basin and will be correlated with data and structural features in the basin. Gas composition and carbon and hydrogen isotopic data suggest mostly thermogenic origin of coalbed gas in coals from Webster and Union Counties, Kentucky, in contrast to the dominantly biogenic character of coalbed gas in Ohio County, Kentucky.

  10. DRUCKFLAMM - Investigation on combustion and hot gas cleanup in pulverized coal combustion systems. Final report; DRUCKFLAMM - Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung und Heissgasreinigung bei der Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.R.G.; Benoehr, A.; Schuermann, H.; Stroehle, J.; Klaiber, C.; Kuhn, R.; Maier, J.; Schnell, U.; Unterberger, S.

    2001-07-01

    The ambitions of making energy supply more efficient and less polluting brought forth the development of coal based combined cycle power plants allowing considerable increases in net efficiencies. One of the regarded firing concepts for a coal based combined cycle power plant is represented by the pressurised pulverised coal combustion process which has the highest efficiency potential compared with the other coal based concepts. The fundamental purpose of the project was to gain firm knowledge concerning firing behaviour of coal in a pressurised pulverised coal combustion system. Detailed investigations were carried out in a pressurised entrained flow reactor taking into account fuel conversion and particle behaviour, pollutant formation and material behaviour under conditions of a pressurised pulverised coal firing. During the project's investigations several different measurement techniques were tested and partially also acquired (e.g. a two-colour-pyrometry system to measure simultaneous particle surface temperature and particle diameter of burning fuel particles). Calculation models under pressurised conditions for pressure vessel simulation and better scale-up were developed synchronously with the experimental investigations. The results gained using the pressurised entrained flow reactor show that many combustion mechanisms are influenced by increased pressure, for instance the fuel conversion is intensified and at the same time pollutant emissions decreased. The material investigations show that the ceramic materials used due to the very high combustion temperatures are very sensitive versus slagging and fast temperature changes, therefore further development requirements are needed to fully realise the high durability of ceramics in the pressurised furnace. Concerning the improvement of existing models for furnace simulation under pressurised conditions, a good resemblance can be observed when considering the actual measurement results from the test

  11. Commission on energy and the environment. Coal study. An overview paper by the NCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The environmental effects of deep-mined production and opencast coal production are examined. Methods of using coal and some environmental consequences of coal utilisation are considered. Finally it describes the geographical pattern of coal production and exploration and deals briefly with the planning and employment implications - particularly for new capacity. (25 refs.) Available from IEA Coal Research, please quote ICTIS/M0105.

  12. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  13. Dependence of liquefaction behavior on coal characteristics. Part VI. Relationship of liquefaction behavior of a set of high sulfur coals to chemical structural characteristics. Final technical report, March 1981 to February 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, P. H.; Given, P. H.

    1984-09-01

    The initial aim of this research was to use empirical mathematical relationships to formulate a better understanding of the processes involved in the liquefaction of a set of medium rank high sulfur coals. In all, just over 50 structural parameters and yields of product classes were determined. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the empirical relationships between the various properties, a number of relatively complex statistical procedures and tests were applied to the data, mostly selected from the field of multivariate analysis. These can be broken down into two groups. The first group included grouping techniques such as non-linear mapping, hierarchical and tree clustering, and linear discriminant analyses. These techniques were utilized in determining if more than one statistical population was present in the data set; it was concluded that there was not. The second group of techniques included factor analysis and stepwise multivariate linear regressions. Linear discriminant analyses were able to show that five distinct groups of coals were represented in the data set. However only seven of the properties seemed to follow this trend. The chemical property that appeared to follow the trend most closely was the aromaticity, where a series of five parallel straight lines was observed for a plot of f/sub a/ versus carbon content. The factor patterns for each of the product classes indicated that although each of the individual product classes tended to load on factors defined by specific chemical properties, the yields of the broader product classes, such as total conversion to liquids + gases and conversion to asphaltenes, tended to load largely on factors defined by rank. The variance explained and the communalities tended to be relatively low. Evidently important sources of variance have still to be found.

  14. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Storage Options in the Illinois Basin: Validation Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) assessed the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in the 155,400 km{sup 2} (60,000 mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin, which underlies most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky. The region has annual CO{sub 2} emissions of about 265 million metric tonnes (292 million tons), primarily from 122 coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010). Validation Phase (Phase II) field tests gathered pilot data to update the Characterization Phase (Phase I) assessment of options for capture, transportation, and storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in three geological sink types: coal seams, oil fields, and saline reservoirs. Four small-scale field tests were conducted to determine the properties of rock units that control injectivity of CO{sub 2}, assess the total storage resources, examine the security of the overlying rock units that act as seals for the reservoirs, and develop ways to control and measure the safety of injection and storage processes. The MGSC designed field test operational plans for pilot sites based on the site screening process, MVA program needs, the selection of equipment related to CO{sub 2} injection, and design of a data acquisition system. Reservoir modeling, computational simulations, and statistical methods assessed and interpreted data gathered from the field tests. Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) programs were established to detect leakage of injected CO{sub 2} and ensure public safety. Public outreach and education remained an important part of the project; meetings and presentations informed public and private regional stakeholders of the results and findings. A miscible (liquid) CO{sub 2} flood pilot project was conducted in the Clore Formation sandstone (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) at Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern

  15. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  16. 78 FR 23495 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... technology (RACT) policy. DATES: This final rule is effective on May 20, 2013. ADDRESSES: EPA has established... repair coatings used by a can, coil, vinyl, metal furniture and magnet wire coating operation, provided..., including can, coil, vinyl, metal furniture, and magnet wire coatings. (4) Illinois EPA and ACA agree that...

  17. 78 FR 34258 - Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Temporary Final Rule RNA Regulated Navigation Area A. Regulatory History and Information On April 18, 2013... 3, 2013 the Coast Guard established an RNA on the Illinois River from the gates of the Dresden Lock and Dam at Mile Marker 271.4 to Mile Marker 240.0 (USCG-2013-0344). This RNA was established to ensure...

  18. 78 FR 26301 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2010-0394; EPA-R05-OAR-2012-0786; FRL-9786-1] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and... consumer products categories into the State's SIP. Finally, EPA is proposing to approve language to clarify...

  19. A Plan for Environmental/Energy Education in the Public Community College System of Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report examines the environmental training efforts of community colleges in Illinois. The text includes a series of nine model environmental protection curricula and outlines appropriate course descriptions for pollution control and abatement, radiation, and general environmental technology. A final section offers recommendations which…

  20. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  1. Solid state 13C NMR analysis of shales and coals from Laramide Basins. Final report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.; Jiao, Z.S.; Zhao, Hanqing; Surdam, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) jointly sponsored research (JSR) project augmented and complemented research conducted by the University of Wyoming Institute For Energy Research for the Gas Research Institute. The project, {open_quotes}A New Innovative Exploitation Strategy for Gas Accumulations Within Pressure Compartments,{close_quotes} was a continuation of a project funded by the GRI Pressure Compartmentalization Program that began in 1990. That project, {open_quotes}Analysis of Pressure Chambers and Seals in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana,{close_quotes} characterized a new class of hydrocarbon traps, the discovery of which can provide an impetus to revitalize the domestic petroleum industry. In support of the UW Institute For Energy Research`s program on pressure compartmentalization, solid-state {sup 13}C NMR measurements were made on sets of shales and coals from different Laramide basins in North America. NMR measurements were made on samples taken from different formations and depths of burial in the Alberta, Bighorn, Denver, San Juan, Washakie, and Wind River basins. The carbon aromaticity determined by NMR was shown to increase with depth of burial and increased maturation. In general, the NMR data were in agreement with other maturational indicators, such as vitrinite reflectance, illite/smectite ratio, and production indices. NMR measurements were also obtained on residues from hydrous pyrolysis experiments on Almond and Lance Formation coals from the Washakie Basin. These data were used in conjunction with mass and elemental balance data to obtain information about the extent of carbon aromatization that occurs during artificial maturation. The data indicated that 41 and 50% of the original aliphatic carbon in the Almond and Lance coals, respectively, aromatized during hydrous pyrolysis.

  2. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal-fired, closed-cycle MHD power generation are reported. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) user's manual for 2-dimensional MHD generator code (2DEM); (B) performance estimates for a nominal 30 MW argon segmented heater; (C) the feedwater cooled Brayton cycle; (D) application of CCMHD in an industrial cogeneration environment; (E) preliminary design for shell and tube primary heat exchanger; and (F) plant efficiency as a function of output power for open and closed cycle MHD power plants. (WHK)

  3. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  4. Methane emissions from coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.; Mitchell, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the problems associated with the prediction of levels of methane emission from underground and surface coal mines. Current knowledge of coal mining emissions sources is outlined. On the basis of this information the methodology proposed by the IPCC/OECD Programme on National Inventories is critically examined and alternatives considered. Finally, the technical options for emissions control are examined together with their feasibility. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Black coal. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An overview is given of the situation of the world energy industry with regard to all energy carriers. Then energy-political conclusions are drawn for German black coal and the resulting prospects are detailed. Finally, some socio-political aspects are considered with regard to German black-coal mining: Workforce policy, tariff policy, social security and social safeguards for the adaptation process. (orig.) [de

  6. Bridge Programs in Illinois: Results of the 2010 Illinois Bridge Status Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. L.; Harmon, T.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a summary of major results of the Illinois Bridge Status Survey, administered online between April and June 2010. The purpose of the survey was to understand the extent to which bridge programs are being implemented in Illinois, as well as to build an online directory of bridge programs. Bridge programs are an emerging…

  7. 75 FR 9276 - Harvard Illinois Bancorp, Inc., Harvard, Illinois; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-35: OTS No. H-4649] Harvard Illinois Bancorp, Inc., Harvard, Illinois; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on February 12, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Harvard Savings Bank...

  8. Determination of intensity functions for predicting subsidence from coal mining, potash mining, and groundwater withdrawal using the influence function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, T; Yurchak, D [Twin Cities Research Center, Bureau of Mines, US Dept. of the Interior, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents research, conducted by the Bureau of Mines, on modifying the influence function method to predict subsidence. According to theory, this technique must incorporate an intensity function to represent the relative significance of the causes of subsidence. This paper shows that the inclusion of a reasonable intensity function increases the accuracy of the technique, then presents the required functions for case studies of longwall coal mining subsidence in Illinois, USA, potash mining subsidence in new Mexico, USA, and subsidence produced by ground water withdrawal in California, USA. Finally, the paper discusses a method to predict the resultant strain from a simply measured site constant and ground curvatures calculated by the technique. (orig.)

  9. Determination of intensity functions for predicting subsidence from coal mining, potash mining, and groundwater withdrawal using the influence function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, T.; Yurchak, D. [Twin Cities Research Center, Bureau of Mines, US Dept. of the Interior, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents research, conducted by the Bureau of Mines, on modifying the influence function method to predict subsidence. According to theory, this technique must incorporate an intensity function to represent the relative significance of the causes of subsidence. This paper shows that the inclusion of a reasonable intensity function increases the accuracy of the technique, then presents the required functions for case studies of longwall coal mining subsidence in Illinois, USA, potash mining subsidence in new Mexico, USA, and subsidence produced by ground water withdrawal in California, USA. Finally, the paper discusses a method to predict the resultant strain from a simply measured site constant and ground curvatures calculated by the technique. (orig.)

  10. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  11. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  12. Particulate behavior in a controlled-profile pulverized coal-fired reactor: A study of coupled turbulent particle dispersion and thermal radiation transport. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, M.; Webb, B.W.

    1996-06-01

    To aid in the evaluation and development of advanced coal-combustion models, comprehensive experimental data sets are needed containing information on both the condensed and gas phases. To address this need a series of test were initiated on a 300 kW laboratory-scale, coal-fired reactor at a single test condition using several types of instrumentation. Data collected on the reactor during the course of the test includes: gas, particle, and wall temperature profiles; radiant, total, and convective heat fluxes to the walls; particle size and velocity profiles; transmission measurements; and gas species concentrations. Solid sampling was also performed to determine carbon and total burnout. Along with the extensive experimental measurements, the particle dispersion and radiation submodels in the ACERC comprehensive 2D code were studied in detail and compared to past experimental measurements taken in the CPR. In addition to the presentation and discussion of the experimental data set, a detailed description of the measurement techniques used in collecting the data, including a discussion of the error associated with each type of measurement, is given.

  13. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  14. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  15. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  16. Paradise (and Herrin) lost: Marginal depositional settings of the Herrin and Paradise coals, Western Kentucky coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, J.M.K.; Shultz, M.G.; Rimmer, S.M. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hower, J.C. [University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Dr., Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Popp, J.T. [Alliance Coal, Lexington, KY 40503 (United States)

    2008-08-05

    This is the fourth installment in a series of papers on the Asturian (Westphalian D) disrupted mire margins, termed the ''ragged edge'' in previous papers, and limestone distributions in the Herrin-Baker coal interval in the Western Kentucky extension of the Illinois Basin. New data, indicating in-situ peat development and marine influence, collected from the first in-mine exposure of this interval are presented. Borehole data from the region are examined in the context of ''ragged edge'' exposures and a carbonate platform depositional model for this portion of the Illinois Basin is presented. This shows that deposition of the sequence was influenced both by the underlying sediments and by a marine transgression. The former influence is seen in variations in coal and limestone thickness over sandstone-filled channels versus over shale bayfill deposits. The latter is marked by the progressive upwards loss of coal benches (i.e., the bottom bench of both coals is the most extensive and the Herrin coal is more extensive than the overlying Paradise coal) and by marine partings in both coals. Further, the brecciated margins seen in both coal seams are similar to brecciated peats encountered along the Everglades margins of Southwest Florida. Overall coal distributions are similar to both those along the Everglades margins and those along a transect from the Belize coast to Ambergis Caye. (author)

  17. Pharmacia Building Q, Skokie, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-12-01

    This case study was prepared as one in a series for the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new and retrofit laboratory buildings in both the public and the private sectors. The energy-efficient elements of the laboratory featured in this case study-Pharmacia Corporation's new Building Q in Skokie, Illinois-include sustainable design, light-filled interior spaces for daylighting, energy-efficient fume hoods and other equipment, occupancy sensors to reduce lighting loads, and spectrally selective glazing to allow more light and less heat into the building. Water-saving fixtures are used, as well. Building Q has been certified Gold (the second highest rating) through the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) system.

  18. Australian coal prospects and response to air quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Australia is unique in its high dependency on coal as a domestic energy source and as a major export commodity. Coal provides about 41% of Australia's primary energy and is the country's largest export. Australia's domestic air quality issues and standards are reviewed and current Australian research aimed at reducing emissions from both bituminous and brown coal combustion is summarized. Australia's greenhouse policy is also discussed. The future role of coal in the world, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region, where three quarters of Australia's coal exports are sold, is reviewed. Forecasts of the world import demand for both metallurgical coal and thermal coal to the year 2000 are provided. The supply capacity of major coal exporting countries in summarized and estimates of export coal market shares in 2000 given. Finally, the future of Australia's domestic use of coal is discussed, in the light of climate change concerns

  19. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

    2002-01-01

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 10), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was compiled with Galatia coal and injected through the dual-register burner. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur Illinois Basin coal ((approx)1.0% S). The dual-register burner is a generic low-NO(sub x) burner that incorporates two independent wind boxes. In the second test (Test 11), regular ((approx)70% passing 200 mesh) and finely ground ((approx)90% passing 200 mesh) Pratt Seam coal was injected through the single-register burner to determine if coal grind affects NO(sub x) and unburned carbon emissions. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Significant progress has been made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO(sub x) emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. No additional results of CFD modeling have been received as delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator is expected during the next quarter. Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments with the single-register burner and a low-volatility bituminous coal. Some delays have been experienced in the acquisition and processing of biomass. Finally, a project review was held at the offices of Southern Research in Birmingham, on February 27, 2002

  1. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  2. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 5, Appendix D: Cost support information: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro`s estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  3. Study on the reliability of large coal-fired and nuclear power plants. Factors affecting power plant reliability. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The study consisted of a comparative evaluation of 2 nuclear units (Indian Point 2 - Consolidated Edison of New York, Turkey Point 4 - Florida Power and Light Company) and 2 coal-fired units (Bull Run and Widows Creek Unit 8 - Tennessee Valley Authority). The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the underlying causes of unit reliability and the causes of the observed differences in reliability performance of the units. Recommended actions for improving the reliability of one of the study units was to be presented in a format useful to other utility companies for improving reliability of their generating units. The emphasis of the study was on the aspects of management, manning, operations, and maintenance which had a significant impact on unit reliability. Volume 1 includes a summary, a description of the major findings from the comparative evaluation, conclusions based on these findings, and recommendations for improving the reliability of the below average units

  4. Field performance of wood-burning and coal-burning appliances in Crested Butte during the 1989-90 heating season. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaasma, D.R.; Champion, M.R.; Gundappa, M.

    1991-10-01

    The field performance of woodburning and coalburning appliances in and around Crested Butte, CO, has been evaluated. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and weekly average burn rates. Woodburning appliances included conventional airtight stoves, EPA-certified catalytic stoves, and EPA-certified noncatalytic stoves. Compared to the emissions measured from conventional stoves, the certified stoves reduced PM emission factors (g/kg) by 53% and CO emission factors by 49%. Coalburning appliances included a commercial scale boiler, a residential stoker, and hand-fired coalstove. The coalburning appliances were compared to conventional woodstoves on a grams of pollutant per joule of heat output basis. The automatically stoked coal appliances reduced PM and CO emissions by roughly 84% and 85%, respectively. The hand-fired stove was cleaner than expected, reducing PM by 55% and CO by 27%

  5. Mode of occurrence of arsenic in four US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Huggins, Frank E.; Palmer, C.A.; Shah, N.; Crowley, S.S.; Huffman, G.P.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated analytical approach has been used to determine the mode of occurrence of arsenic in samples of four widely used US coals: the Pittsburgh, Illinois #6, Elkhorn/Hazard, and Wyodak. Results from selective leaching, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, and electron microprobe analysis show that pyrite is the principal source of arsenic in the three bituminous coals, but the concentration of As in pyrite varies widely. The Wyodak sample contains very little pyrite; its arsenic appears to be primarily associated with organics, as As3+, or as arsenate. Significant (10-40%) fractions of arsenate, derived from pyrite oxidation, are also present in the three bituminous coal samples. This information is essential in developing predictive models for arsenic behavior during coal combustion and in other environmental settings.

  6. Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S. D.; Carter, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is developing and evaluating new cost-effective methods for reclaiming refuse areas of this type. The program involved determining the final land use for the site, development of detailed engineering plans and specifications for the reclamation effort, a prereclamation environmental inventory, and implementation. Post-construction evaluation is now in process to determine the effectiveness of the reclamation effort. Detailed investigations are being conducted to determine surface water quality improvement, the amount of suitable surface cover and amendments required for revegetation, and field evaluation of candidate vegetation species for revegetation. Other research is examining soil microbial populations, soil fauna reactions, and changes in surface material characteristics at the reclamation site. Surveys are being conducted on groundwater quality, effects on the aquatic ecosystem, and wildlife use of the area. An economic evaluation is underway to determine the cost effectiveness of the total effort and of individual reclamation procedures. Preliminary results from the first year's environmental evaluation of various method tested will be described in detail. An economic assessment, including cost effectiveness, of the first year's work is given.

  7. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  8. British coal-down to the line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The long-running saga of British Coal's decline is in its final stages with virtually no change from last October when the British government announced plants to close 31 of the 50 remaining mines. That announcement produced a political outcry but having privatized the electricity industry in 1990 the government had effectively left itself up the creek without a paddle. It had no powers to force the generators to buy more coal. The status of the British coal industry is discussed

  9. Public education and enforcement research study : Macomb, Illinois : analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The Public Education and Enforcement Research Study (PEERS) was a collaborative effort between the Federal Railroad Administration, the Illinois Commerce Commission, and local communities in the State of Illinois. This project was designed to promote...

  10. Infrared absorption characteristics of hydroxyl groups in coal tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, S A; Chu, C J; Hange, R H; Margrave, J L

    1987-01-01

    Tar evolution was observed over a temperature range of 150-600 C for four coals. Pittsburgh bituminous, Illinois No.6, Rawhide subbituminous, and Texas lignite. Isolation of the evolved tars in a nitrogen matrix at 15 degrees K produced better resolved infrared spectra than those in a coal matrix, thus enhancing structural characterization of the tar molecules. Two distinct hydroxyl functional groups in the tar molecules free of hydrogen bonding were identified for the first time without interference from H/sub 2/O absorptions. These absorptions at 3626.5 cm/sup -1/ have been assigned to phenolic hydroxyls. It is suggested that carboxylic and aliphatic hydroxyl groups do not survive the vaporization process. Tars from Illinois No.6 were found to contain the largest amount of phenolic hydroxyl; Pittsburgh No. 8 tar contains approximately half of that for Illinois No.6 while Rawhide and Texas lignite contain much less phenolic than either of the other coals. 10 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  11. Optimal carbon tax with a dirty backstop: Oil, coal, or renewables?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees A.

    2011-01-01

    Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. "Preference reversal" can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil, before using oil and coal together, and finally coal on its own. The "laissez-faire" outcome uses coal forever or ...

  12. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  14. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  16. Hydrodeoxygenation of coal using organometallic catalyst precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen R.

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this dissertation was to determine the desirability of organometallic compounds for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of coal during liquefaction. The primary focus of this study was the removal of phenol-like compounds from coal liquids for the production of a thermally stable jet fuel. Investigation of the HDO ability of an organometallic compound containing both cobalt and molybdenum (CoMo-T2) was achieved using a combination of model compound and coal experiments. Model compounds were chosen representing four oxygen functional groups present in a range of coals. Electron density and bond order calculations were performed for anthrone, dinaphthyl ether, xanthene, di-t-butylmethylphenol, and some of their derivatives to ascertain a potential order of hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation reactivity for these compounds. The four model compounds were then reacted with CoMo-T2, as well as ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM). Products of reaction were grouped as compounds that had undergone deoxygenation, those that had aromatic rings reduced, those that were products of both reaction pathways, and those produced through other routes. ATTM had an affinity for both reaction types. Its reaction order for the four model compounds with respect to deoxygenated compounds was the same as that estimated from electron density calculations for hydrogenolysis reactivity. CoMo-T2 appeared to show a preference toward hydrogenation, although deoxygenated products were still achieved in similar, or greater, yields, for almost all the model compounds. The reactivity order achieved for the four compounds with CoMo-T2 was similar to that estimated from bond order calculations for hydrogenation reactivity. Three coals were selected representing a range of coal ranks and oxygen contents. DECS-26 (Wyodak), DECS-24 (Illinois #6), and DECS-23 (Pittsburgh #8) were analyzed by CPMAS 13C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS to determine the functional groups comprising the oxygen content of these

  17. Analytic studies on pollutant deposition through domestic coal combustion -influence of the current structural change on pollution in an urban region. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engewald, W.; Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper the author reports on the continuation of an OEKOR part project in which he had undertaken a chemical characterisation of emissions from domestic brown coal combustion. On the basis of a partitioning by land use of the Greater Leipzig region he initiated long-term observations of local pollution levels for the various structural types of land. The aim of the work was to facilitate a comprehensive analysis of local air quality in terms of VOC levels. The current concern about VOCs results from the toxicological risk they have been proven to pose to the human organism and from their relevance to the chemistry of the atmosphere (e.g., as precursors of ground-level ozone and other oxidising agents). The task to be accomplished was broken down into the following main steps: Development and trial of a sampling and analysis method for determining an as wide a spectrum of environmental VOCs as possible; elaboration of a measuring strategy for obtaining results of high representativeness and power; installation and operation of pollution monitoring sites in selected structural types of area characteristic of Leipzig; execution of measuring campaigns of several weeks each at selected sites during both winter and summer periods. (orig./MSK) [de

  18. Coal-related research, organic chemistry, and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Coal chemistry research topics included: H exchange at 400 0 C, breaking C-C bonds in coal, molecular weight estimation using small-angle neutron scattering, 13 C NMR spectra of coals, and tunneling during H/D isotope effects. Studies of coal conversion chemistry included thermolysis of bibenzyl and 1-naphthol, heating of coals in phenol, advanced indirect liquefaction based on Koelbel slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor, and plasma oxidation of coal minerals. Reactions of PAHs in molten SbCl 3 , a hydrocracking catalyst, were studied. Finally, heterogeneous catalysis (desulfurization etc.) was studied using Cu, Au, and Ni surfaces. 7 figures, 6 tables

  19. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  20. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  1. Computer application in coal preparation industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, M.; Wu, L.; Ni, Q. (China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several packages of microcomputer programs developed for designing and managing the coal preparation plants. Three parts are included: Coal Cleaning Package (CCP), Coal Preparation Optimization Program (CPO) and Coal Preparation Computer Aided Design System (CPCAD). The function of CCP is: evaluating and predicting coal cleaning result. Coal presentation process modelling and optimization; coal preparation flowsheet design and optimization. The CPO is a nonlinear optimization program. It can simulate and optimize the profit for different flowsheet to get the best combination of the final products. The CPCAD was developed based upon AutoCAD and makes full use of AutoLISP, digitizer menus and AutoCAD commands, combining the functions provided by AutoCAD and the principle used in conventional coal preparation plant design, forming a designer-oriented CPCAD system. These packages have proved to be reliable, flexible and easy to learn and use. They are a powerful tool for coal preparation plant design and management. (orig.).

  2. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  3. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  4. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  5. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  6. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  7. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  8. Coal distribution, January--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, ''Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs

  9. Characterization of coal-derived liquids and other fossil-fuel-related materials employing mass spectrometry. Final report, September 30, 1976-September 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheppele, S E

    1982-05-01

    A document was prepared which assessed the state-of-the art in the mass spectrometric characterization of fossil fuel materials and the relevance of these data to the fossil fuel industry. A Kratos DS50 SM data system was successfully interfaced to a CEC 21-110B mass spectrometer. Communications between the NOVA 3/12 computer in the data system and the OSU central computer were established. A Grant Comparator/Microdensitometer was acquired and made operational. Plans were developed and hardware acquired for interfacing the densitometer to the NOVA 3/12 computer. A quartz direct introduction probe was acquired for the CEC 21-110B. A temperature controller for the probe was acquired and interfaced to the slow speed ADC on the auxillary board in the data system/mass spectrometer interface. The combined FI/EI source was modified to operate in the FD mode and an apparatus was fabricated for conditioning FD emitters. A CSI supergrater 3 was interfaced to the PE 3920 gas chromatograph. The upgraded facility was used to develop mass spectrometric methods for the characterization of fossil fuel materials and to apply methods to the characterization of these materials. Activities included: (1) initial development of field-ionization mass spectrometry for the characterization of saturated hydrocarbons, (2) computerization of the technique of probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry, (3) initation of the development of a new method for the computer assisted assignment of formulas to ion masses, (4) characterization of neutral fractions from a hydrotreated tar-sands oil, and (5) characterization of coal-derived oils and asphaltenes.

  10. Integrated engineering and cost model for management of coal combustion byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevim, H. [Department of Mining Engineering, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois (United States); Renninger, S. [US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States)

    1998-07-01

    An integrated engineering and cost model has been developed as a part of an overall research project for exploring the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of disposing coal combustion byproducts and flue gas desulfurisation products in underground coal mines in Illinois. The features of the model have been keyed in user-friendly software. In this paper, the purpose and the structure of the model are described. The capabilities of the software are illustrated through an example involving transportation of byproducts in containers from a power plant to a mine site, and subsequent placement of the byproducts in a abandoned underground coal mine using a hydraulic injection system. 3 refs.

  11. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Accounting Services Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the accounting services cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among education,…

  12. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Welding Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the welding cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among education, business,…

  13. Elder Abuse and Neglect: The Illinois Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.

    This document outlines the ideas of the Illinois Department of Aging on the implementation and management of the Elder Abuse and Neglect Intervention Program. These topics are addressed in order to provide a basis for discussion of key elements of the proposed program and serve as a guide in the development of rules, policies, and procedures for…

  14. Illinois Walls in alternative market structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.; Tuinstra, J.

    2005-01-01

    This note extends on our paper Illinois Walls: How Barring Indirect Purchaser Suits Facilitates Collusion (Schinkel, Tuinstra and Rüggeberg, 2005, henceforth STR). It presents analyses of two alternative, more competitive, market structures to conclude that when the conditions for existence of

  15. Substitutes for School Nurses in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollinger, Linda Jeno; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Belmonte-Mann, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore utilization of nurse substitutes in the school setting in Illinois. The literature described personnel who staff the school health office in the absence of the school nurse and the barriers to obtaining nurse substitutes. There were no empirical studies conducted on school nurse substitutes in…

  16. Mathematics Placement at the University of Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren Reddy, Alison; Harper, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Data from the ALEKS-based placement program at the University of Illinois is presented visually in several ways. The placement exam (an ALEKS assessment) contains precise item-specific information and the data show many interesting properties of the student populations of the placement courses, which include Precalculus, Calculus, and Business…

  17. Computer Activities in Illinois Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, J. Richard; And Others

    A brief, non-technical questionnaire was sent to 875 secondary school administrators (primarily principals) in the State of Illinois. Information was collected in four areas: (1) general school characteristics, (2) availability and use of computers, (3) perceived need for and qualifications of teachers of computer science, and (4) perceived need…

  18. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  19. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  20. Coal statistics 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statistical Office of the European Communities

    1978-01-01

    Presents tables of data relating to the coal market in the European Community in 1977. The tables cover hard coal production, supply and trade; briquettes; cokes; lignite, brown coal briquettes and peat; and mines and coke ovens.

  1. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  2. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  3. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  4. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  5. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. 1982 Australian coal conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  7. Coal pillar design procedures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    York, G

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report Coal pillar design procedures G. York, I. Canbulat, B.W. Jack Research agency: CSIR Mining Technology Project number: COL 337 Date: March 2000 2 Executive Summary Examination of collapsed pillar cases outside of the empirical... in strength occurs with increasing specimen size. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 UNIAX IA L COMPR EHEN SIV E S TR ENG TH (M Pa ) CUBE SIZE (cm) Figure 1...

  8. Development of a ceramic heat exchanger for a combined cycle plant with pressurized coal dust combustion. Final report; Entwicklung eines keramischen Waermeaustauschers fuer eine Kombianlage mit Kohlenstaubdruckfeuerung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leithner, R.; Ehlers, C.

    2001-12-01

    State of Research: The Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion Combined Cycle (PPCCCC) with a directly fired gas turbine can reach electrical efficiencies beyond 50%. The required gas quality upstream the gas turbine has not been reached yet at temperatures above 1000 C. One approach tested is the precipitation of ash and alkalines at temperatures above the ash melting point. This principle contains problems concerning the remaining content of ash and alkalines in the flue gas and damages to the refractory materials due to corrosion. Goal of the Investigation: An alternative process had to be investigated in which the flue gas is cleaned according to the state of the art, i.e. below the ash fusion temperature. This principle requires cooling down the flue gas and heating it up again after cleaning in a high temperature heat exchanger. Method: A ceramic tube-and-shell heat exchanger in a model scale was designed and was operated at realistic conditions in an atmospheric test plant in connection with a high temperture precipitation. Result: The heat exchanger showed a good performance concerning design and material. The expected temperatures were not reached totally because of untight joints. Clogging occurred in the tube entrances at high temperatures because of sintered ash agglomerates. First tests to clean the entrances during operation showed positive results. The ash precipitation by means of a cyclone and ceramic filter candles was performed without difficulties. Conclusion: Avoiding and improving joints will help to achieve higher temperatures. A process of cleaning the tubes in-line has to be introduced to prevent the clogging effects. If this is successfully done for high temperatures, an attractive principle for a PPCCCC-process is available which reaches the gas purity required. (orig.) [German] Derzeitiger Stand der Forschung: Der Kohlenstaubdruckfeuerungs-Kombiprozess mit direkt befeuerter Gasturbine verspricht elektrische Wirkungsgrade ueber 50%. Die

  9. Ultravitrinite coals from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapo, A.V.; Letushova, I.A.

    1979-03-01

    Chemical and petrographic analysis was conducted on coals from the Anadyrya and Bukhti Ugol'noi deposits. Characteristics of the most prevalent type of vitrinite coals in both regions are presented here. Anadyrya coals belong to a transitional phase between brown coal and long flame. Ultravitrinite coals predominate. Gas coals from Bukti Ugol'noi have a higher carbon content than Anadyrya coals. They also have a higher hydrogen content and yield of initial resin. In several cases there was also a higher yield of volatile substances. Chukotka coals are characterized by a 10 percent higher initial resin yield than equally coalified Donetsk coals, other indicators were equal to those of Donetsk coals. Because of this, Chukotka coals are suitable for fuel in power plants and as raw materials in the chemical industry. (15 refs.) (In Russian)

  10. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield, forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N2 at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900°C and retention times (3-28 s were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900°C. The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300°C. Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900°C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenosferes, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed.

  11. New approach for coal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-05-01

    The paper describes current progress of coal analysis and the existing problems. It focuses on the current major tasks of coal analysis, namely, to achieve three goals and to finish five tasks. Specific measures are mentioned, strengthening leadership and improvement of management, correct handling of three relations, i.e. relations between local and overall interests, between quantity and quality, and between rewards and punishments. The weak links should be improved i.e. the organization, the quality of the staff and the testing facilities should be improved. Finally, the paper says that improvement must be dependent on the progress of science and technology.

  12. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  13. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  14. Multiple-heteroatom-containing sulfur compounds in a high sulfur coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, R.E.; Neill, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis of a high sulfur coal has been combined with high resolution mass spectrometry yielding information on aromatic sulfur compounds containing an additional heteroatom. Sulfur emission from coal utilization is a critical problem and in order to devise efficient methods for removing organic sulfur, it is important to know what types of molecules contain sulfur. A high sulfur Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal (Argonne Premium Coal Sample No. 3) was pyrolyzed on a platinum grid using a quartz probe inserted into a modified all glass heated inlet system and the products characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). A significant number of products were observed which contained both sulfur and an additional heteroatom. In some cases two additional heteroatoms were observed. These results are compared to those found in coal extracts and liquefaction products

  15. Combustion and emissions characterization of pelletized coal fuels. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

    1993-05-01

    The aim of this project is to demonstrate that sorbent-containing coal pellets made from low grade coal or coal wastes are viable clean burning fuels, and to compare their performance with that of standard run-of-mine coal. Fuels to be investigated are: (a) carbonated pellets containing calcium hydroxide sorbent, (b) coal fines-limestone pellets with cornstarch as binder, (c) pellets made from preparation plant recovered coal containing limestone sorbent and gasification tar as binder, and (d) a standard run-of-mine Illinois seam coal. The fuels will be tested in a laboratory scale 411 diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor. Progress this quarter has centered on the development of a hydraulic press based pellet mill capable of the high compaction pressures necessary to produce the gasification tar containing pellets outlined in (c) above. Limited quantities of the pellets have been made, and the process is being fine tuned before proceeding into the production mode. Tests show that the moisture content of the coal is an important parameter that needs to be fixed within narrow limits for a given coal and binder combination to produce acceptable pellets. Combustion tests with these pellet fuels and the standard coal are scheduled for the next quarter.

  16. Heating plant overcomes coal crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinkovic, B.

    2006-01-01

    At the last moment Kosice managed to overcome the threat of a more than 30-percent heating price increase. The biggest local heat producer, Teplaren Kosice, is running out of coal supplies. The only alternative would be gas, which is far more expensive. The reason for this situation was a dispute of the heating plant with one of its suppliers, Kimex. Some days ago, the dispute was settled and the heating plant is now expecting the first wagon loads of coal to arrive. These are eagerly awaited, as its supplies will not last for more than a month. It all started with a public tender for a coal supplier. Teplaren Kosice (TEKO) announced the tender for the delivery of 120,000 tons of coal in June. Kimex, one of the traditional and biggest suppliers, was disqualified in the course of the tender. The winners of the tender were Slovenergo, Bratislava and S-Plus Trade, Vranov nad Toplou. TEKO signed contracts with them but a district court in Kosice prohibited the company from purchasing coal from these contractors. Kimex filed a complaint claiming that it was disqualified unlawfully. Based on this the court issued a preliminary ruling prohibiting the purchase of coal from the winners of the tender. The heating plant had to wait for the final verdict. The problem was then solved by the company's new Board of Directors, who were appointed in mid October who managed to sign new contracts with the two winners and Kimex. The new contracts cover the purchase of 150-thousand tons of coal, which is 30,000 more than in the original tender specification. Each company will supply one third. (authors)

  17. Record coking coal settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  18. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  19. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  1. Coal information 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive reference book on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects to 2010. It contains an in-depth analysis of the 1995 international coal market covering prices, demand, trade, supply and production capacity as well as over 450 pages of country specific statistics on OECD and key non-OECD coal producing and consuming countries. The book also includes a summary of environmental policies on climate change and on coal-related air quality issues as well as essential facts on coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions, on coal ports world-wide and on emission standards for coal-fired boilers in OECD countries. Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Oil and Gas Information and Electricity Information. Coal Information 1995 is published in July 1996. (author)

  2. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  3. Analytical support for coal technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek Václav

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of success in the selection negotiation The Brown Coal Research Institute j.s.c. Most was authorized to process the project Phare D5/93 with the title "Analytical support to clean coal technologies". The elaboration of the task run in 1997 in a close cooperation with the Mining University - TU Ostrava; DBI - AUA GmbH, Freiberg, Germany; DMT mbH, Essen, Germany and Cerchar, Mazingarbe, France. In the work the available reserves of brown and hard coal and from them following possible levels of annual minings in relation to prognosed needs of the electro-energetics and heating-industry were evaluated. The knowledge about the contents of selected trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, V, Zn in Czech (CZ coal were also evaluated it was investigated. Further, the distribution of trace elements during the burning process in four types of boilers in CZ. was investigated. The CZ and EU legislation related to trace elements in coal and combustion products was finally comparred. It was stated that the CZ legal standards are not at variant with EU the standards.

  4. Quarterly coal statistics of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-27

    These quarterly statistics contain data from the fourth quarter 1990 to the fourth quarter 1991. The first set of tables (A1 to A30) show trends in production, trade, stock change and apparent consumption data for OECD countries. Tables B1 to B12 show detailed statistics for some major coal trade flows to and from OECD countries and average value in US dollars. A third set of tables, C1 to C12, show average import values and indices. The trade data have been extracted or derived from national and EEC customs statistics. An introductory section summarizes trends in coal supply and consumption, deliveries to thermal power stations; electricity production and final consumption of coal and tabulates EEC and Japanese steam coal and coking coal imports to major countries.

  5. A clean coal: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this report comments the evolution of coal demand which has doubled during the last 35 years for different reasons (increase of electricity production, development of China and India), but is still based on local production although coal international trade increased indeed quicker than coal demand. It notices that there is still a lot of coal available for the future, and that demand will keep on increasing. It outlines that coal will have to reduce its impacts on the environment, and presents the technologies which will allow this reduction. It also presents the technologies for CO 2 capture and storage (CCS), and evokes its regulatory issues and its environmental impacts. Some research and development projects in CCS in different countries (Europe, Germany, United States, Australia) are presented. Finally, it stresses the importance of a global deployment of much less polluting technologies to limit greenhouse gas emissions

  6. ACR coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference document on production, exports, prices and demand of coal in world markets. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is provided. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, Canada, Indonesia, China, C.I.S. and Colombia. A very comprehensive coal quality specification for nearly all the coal brands exported from Australia, as well as leading non-Australian coal brands, is included.

  7. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  8. Studies on the effect of coal particle size on biodepyritization of high sulfur coal in batch bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sradhanjali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The moderate thermophilic mix culture bacteria were used to depyritize the Illinois coal of varying particle sizes (-100 μm, 100-200 μm, +200 μm. Mineral libration analysis showed the presence of pyrite along with other minerals in coal. Microbial depyritization of coal was carried out in stirred tank batch reactors in presence of an iron-free 9K medium. The results indicate that microbial depyritization of coal using moderate thermophiles is an efficient process. Moreover, particle size of coal is an important parameter which affects the efficiency of microbial depyritization process. At the end of the experiment, a maximum of 75% pyrite and 66% of pyritic sulphur were removed from the median particle size. The XRD analysis showed the absence of pyrite mineral in the treated coal sample. A good mass balance was also obtained with net loss of mass ranging from 5-9% showing the feasibility of the process for large scale applications.

  9. Modeling the international competitiveness of Botswana's coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichani, Khaulani

    Botswana has vast proven deposits of steam coal, which for a long time it has wanted to develop but without much success. The main objectives of this study are: (1) to analyze the time schedule of coal exports likely to be forthcoming from Botswana and the land routes for these exports; (2) to determine the competitiveness of Botswana's coal in the world steam coal markets and (3) to make recommendations on the appropriate policy for the exploitation of this coal. To accomplish these objectives, we construct a model of the seaborne steam coal trade consisting of exporters and importers with a substantial share in this trade. We econometrically estimate the long run marginal cost functions for net exporters and employ these to construct a spatial and dynamic model of the world steam coal trade with elastic supply and inelastic demand. This model is applied to simulate Botswana's competitiveness in this trade over the period 1995 to 2010 from a 1990 base year with a decision criterion that minimizes the sum of discounted capital costs of mine development, variable supply costs, rail and maritime transportation costs. Finally, we employ the model to forecast the likely optimal size of mine, timing of production capacity and choice of export port for Botswana's coal for the years 2005 and 2010. The base year for the forecast is 2000. The simulation results indicate that Botswana's coal would have been competitive in the steam coal markets of Western Europe and Asia. The forecast results indicate that Botswana's coal would also be competitive in these markets in the future. These results are least sensitive to changes in rail transportation and variable supply costs but are sensitive to capital costs for mine development.

  10. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  11. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of

  12. Safe Driving in Illinois. A Manual to Accompany the Illinois Rules of the Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gail; Nowack, Linda

    Designed to accompany and supplement the Illinois Rules of the Road manual, this book is intended to better prepare future drivers for the written test for the instruction permit or driver's license. It includes many pictures and shows and describes driving situations a driver will probably face when behind the wheel. Parts dealing with important…

  13. Guide for Migrants in the State of Illinois = Guia para Migrantes en el Estado de Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemach, Sharon; Koepplinger, Jessica

    Prepared for migrant farmworkers traveling in the State of Illinois, the booklet, written in English and Spanish, provides basic information on (1) employment conditions--requirements of crew leaders and employers, deductions from wages, and laws regulating child labor; (2) housing--conditions of the camp grounds and of living units; (3)…

  14. Coal, economic development and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallboys, Richard.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the current importance of coal to the world's energy supply. It outlines its growing importance as a fuel for many developing economies around the world and for the most dynamic industrialised countries of Asia. It then refers to the key environmental issues that are involved in a growing worldwide use of coal and emphasises the role that coal will increasingly play in generating the electricity that accompanies an improving standard of living for the world's poor. Finally, the environmental consequences of economic development by and for those who want to live at a standard of living that Australians take for granted are discussed. 4 tabs

  15. Interrelating the breakage and composition of mined and drill core coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terril Edward

    Particle size distribution of coal is important if the coal is to be beneficiated, or if a coal sales contract includes particle size specifications. An exploration bore core sample of coal ought to be reduced from its original cylindrical form to a particle size distribution and particle composition that reflects, insofar as possible, a process stream of raw coal it represents. Often, coal cores are reduced with a laboratory crushing machine, the product of which does not match the raw coal size distribution. This study proceeds from work in coal bore core reduction by Australian investigators. In this study, as differentiated from the Australian work, drop-shatter impact breakage followed by dry batch tumbling in steel cylinder rotated about its transverse axis are employed to characterize the core material in terms of first-order and zeroth-order breakage rate constants, which are indices of the propensity of the coal to degrade during excavation and handling. Initial drop-shatter and dry tumbling calibrations were done with synthetic cores composed of controlled low-strength concrete incorporating fly ash (as a partial substitute for Portland cement) in order to reduce material variables and conserve difficult-to-obtain coal cores. Cores of three different coalbeds--Illinois No. 6, Upper Freeport, and Pocahontas No. 5 were subjected to drop-shatter and dry batch tumbling tests to determine breakage response. First-order breakage, characterized by a first-order breakage index for each coal, occurred in the drop-shatter tests. First- and zeroth-order breakage occurred in dry batch tumbling; disappearance of coarse particles and creation of fine particles occurred in a systematic way that could be represented mathematically. Certain of the coal cores available for testing were dry and friable. Comparison of coal preparation plant feed with a crushed bore core and a bore core prepared by drop-shatter and tumbling (all from the same Illinois No.6 coal mining

  16. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  17. Characteristics of Illinois School Districts That Employ School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Lisabeth M.; Guenette, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that school nursing services are cost-effective, but the National Association of School Nurses estimates that 25% of schools do not have a school nurse (SN). The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of Illinois school districts that employed SNs. This was a secondary data analysis of Illinois School Report…

  18. Financial Reporting Practices in Illinois Public Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeadas, Gus J.

    A study was conducted to determine how well Illinois' 38 community college districts satisfied the needs of board members, creditors, investors, and tax payers for financial information. A list of 38 financial reporting requirements was developed from the requirements of the Illinois Community College Board (ICCB) and guidelines from the Audits of…

  19. 75 FR 52963 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... the damage in certain areas of the State of Illinois resulting from severe storms and flooding during... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Illinois (FEMA-1935-DR), dated August 19, 2010, and related... assistance is supplemental, any Federal funds provided under the Stafford Act for Hazard Mitigation and Other...

  20. 76 FR 57022 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and...: Illinois has submitted a coastal management program to NOAA for approval under the Coastal Zone Management...

  1. Formal Dismissal Procedures Under Illinois Teacher Tenure Laws. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Newell N.; And Others

    This handbook, an updated and revised version of the 1975 original, contains the new statutory requirements, state board of education rules, and court decisions pertaining to teacher dismissal in Illinois. This handbook is designed to acquaint Illinois school administrators and school board members with the legal procedures necessary in dismissal…

  2. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: In-Store Retailing Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the in-store retailing cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards…

  3. 77 FR 2286 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12717-002] Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting a. Date and Time of Meeting: Thursday, January 26, 2012 from 11... Meeting: Commission staff will meet with Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC to discuss potentially moving...

  4. 75 FR 40816 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12626-002; Project No. 12717-002] Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting July 7, 2010. a. Date and Time of Meeting: Thursday, July 22, 2010 from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. CDT. b. Place: Illinois Historic Preservation...

  5. Continuous monitoring of sediment and nutrients in the Illinois River at Florence, Illinois, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrio, Paul J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Domanski, Marian M.; Siudyla, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    The Illinois River is the largest river in Illinois and is the primary contributing watershed for nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended-sediment loading to the upper Mississippi River from Illinois. In addition to streamflow, the following water-quality constituents were monitored at the Illinois River at Florence, Illinois (U.S. Geological Survey station number 05586300), during May 2012–October 2013: phosphate, nitrate, turbidity, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen. The objectives of this monitoring were to (1) determine performance capabilities of the in-situ instruments; (2) collect continuous data that would provide an improved understanding of constituent characteristics during normal, low-, and high-flow periods and during different climatic and land-use seasons; (3) evaluate the ability to use continuous turbidity as a surrogate constituent to determine suspended-sediment concentrations; and (4) evaluate the ability to develop a regression model for total phosphorus using phosphate, turbidity, and other measured parameters. Reliable data collection was achieved, following some initial periods of instrument and data-communication difficulties. The resulting regression models for suspended sediment had coefficient of determination (R2) values of about 0.9. Nitrate plus nitrite loads computed using continuous data were found to be approximately 8 percent larger than loads computed using traditional discrete-sampling based models. A regression model for total phosphorus was developed by using historic orthophosphate data (important during periods of low flow and low concentrations) and historic suspended-sediment data (important during periods of high flow and higher concentrations). The R2of the total phosphorus regression model using orthophosphorus and suspended sediment was 0.8. Data collection and refinement of the regression models is ongoing.

  6. Illinois energy conservation plan report: 1979 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    In response to Energy Policy and this Conservation Act (PL 94-163) and Energy Conservation and Production Act (PL 94-385), this paper describes the activities to be undertaken by Illinois to meet the mandatory requirements of the Acts and to carry out other activities to encourage energy conservation by energy-consuming sectors in the state. Programs reach the residential, commercial/industrial, agricultural, educational, transportation, and government sectors. The overall goal of the program is to reduce projected energy consumption in 1980 by 5% through information and educational activities.

  7. Final Scientific/Technical Report for project “Increasing the Rate and Extent of Microbial Coal to Methane Conversion through Optimization of Microbial Activity, Thermodynamics, and Reactive Transport”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Matthew [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2018-01-17

    Currently, coal bed methane (CBM) wells have a limited lifetime since the rate of methane removal via the installed wells is much faster than the in situ methane production rates. Along with water issues created by large amounts of CBM production water, the short life span of CBM wells is a huge deterrent to the environmental and economic feasibility of CBM production. The process of biogenic methanogenesis can be enhanced via the stimulation of the associated microbial communities that can convert the organic fractions of coal to methane. This process is termed Microbially-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (MECBM). However, the rates of methane production are still limited and long incubation times are necessary. We hypothesized that the elucidation of chemical and biological parameters that limited MECBM together with thermodynamic considerations would inform strategies to optimize the process under flow conditions. We incorporated microbiological, physicochemical, and engineering processes to develop a more sustainable CBM production scheme with native coal and native microorganisms. The proposed combination of microbial ecology and physiology as well as optimized engineering principles minimized key constraints that impact microbial coal conversion to methane under environmentally relevant conditions. The combined approach for bench-scale tests resulted in more effective and less environmentally burdensome coal-dependent methane production with the potential for H2O and CO2 management.

  8. The increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Iino; T. Takanohashi; C. Li; N. Kashimura; K. Masaki; T. Shishido; I. Saito; H. Kumagai [Institute for Energy Utilization, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    We have reported that the water treatments of bituminous coals at 600 K for 1 h increased their extraction yields greatly (Energy Fuels, 2005, 18, 1414). In this paper the effect of coal rank on the extraction yields enhancement by the water treatment has been investigated using four Argonne Premium coals, i.e., Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), Illinois No.6 (IL), and Beulah Zap (BZ) coals with C % (daf) in the range 67 - 90%. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly with a 1:1 carbon disulfide / N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone mixed solvent (CS2 / NMP) at room temperature. While, the water treatments at 500 K or the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave little increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were carried out from ultimate and proximate compositions, FT-IR spectrum, solvent swelling, NMR relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The effect of extraction temperature on the extraction yield enhancement was also investigated using polar NMP or non-polar 1-MN solvent. From these results it is concluded that for high coal rank coals the loosening of non-covalent bonds is responsible for the extraction yields enhancement by the water treatment. The loosening non-covalent bonds may be {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic rings for PO, and both {pi}-{pi} interactions and hydrogen bonds for UF. While, for lower rank IL and BZ, which showed decrease in O% and hydrogen-bonded OH, the yield enhancements may be due to the loosening of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Kinetic comparison of biological and conventional flotation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, E.; Oliazadeh, M.; Kolahdoozan, M. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    Froth flotation is commonly used in coal processing to selectively recover the organic material (coal) from inorganic waste material. Tabas coal, located in east Iran, contains fine disseminated pyrite which is floated with coal during flotation, and hence decreasing the quality of the final concentrate. Reagents, such as sodium cyanide, are typically added to depress pyrite. Due to the toxicity of cyanide, alternative strategies for depressing pyrite flotation are being investigated. In this paper the metallurgical performance of Tabas coal treated with sodium cyanide is compared to that of Tabas coal which has undergone bacterial treatment using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Results indicate that bacterial treatment decreases the flotation rate of pyrite and improves the selectivity between coal and gangue. The possibility of using bacteria in place of toxic chemicals such as cyanide has significant environmental benefit.

  10. Trends in Japanese coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, S

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses 1) the latest forecast for coal demand in Japan; 2) trends in Japanese steam coal demand, with breakdown by industry; 3) the organization of steam coal supply, with details of the distribution network and of the new coal cartridge system; 4) the demand for metallurgical coal. Other topics outlined include the current status of Japanese coal production, Japanese coal trade, and the development of overseas coal resources. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  11. Coal and gas competition in global markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Global consumption of commercial energy totalled 18 Gt of coal equivalent in 2010. With a 28% share, coal ranked second after oil as one of the major sources of primary energy and natural gas (at 21%) ranked third. Gross power generation with coal was approximately 41% and gas 22%. Natural gas as a global commodity is growing rapidly with the advent of unconventional sources such as shale gas. Recently, gas has become the fuel of choice for new power generating plants in some countries. Overall production of coal has increased in the same time-frame. The share of coal in electricity production was constant in Europe from early 2000 but recently increased. This was due to the high cost of gas in Europe and a low emissions penalty levied by the regulator, making coal currently more competitive in Europe compared to gas. Coal utilisation continues to increase in Asia but is facing serious competition with gas in the USA, where the share of electricity generated with coal dropped in 2012. However, natural gas used to generate electricity in early 2013 was below the high level seen during the comparable 2012 period, when low natural gas prices led to significant displacement of coal by natural gas for power generation. The current consensus in the USA is that while coal may recover ground in the short term, it loses in the long term as coal plants are retired. The discovery, production and availability of significant amounts of gas have implications for not only the price of natural gas but also the price of coal as well as supply and demand, and utilisation of both fuels internationally. The interaction between coal and gas in the global markets today is investigated in this review and the near-term outlook and impact on both fuels is presented. In this report, reserves, production and trade, supply and demand, pricing, utilisation and consumption, public attitudes and finally near/short to medium-term prospects are discussed for both coal and gas.

  12. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  14. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Chunqi Li; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Institute for Energy Utilization

    2004-10-01

    The effect of water treatment at 500 and 600 K on solvent extractions of Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) coals was investigated. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly in the extractions with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent, NMP, or 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). However, the water treatments at 500 K and the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave only a slight increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were performed using ultimate and proximate compositions, Fourier transform infrared analysis, solvent swelling, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The swelling degree in methanol and toluene was increased by the water treatment at 600 K, suggesting that crosslinks become loosened by the treatment. The results of infrared analysis and the extraction temperature dependency of the extraction yields with NMP and 1-MN suggest that the loosening of {pi} - interactions, and of both {pi} - interactions and hydrogen bonds, are responsible for the yield enhancements for PO and UF coals, respectively. However, for IL coal, which exhibited a decrease in oxygen content and the amount of hydrogen-bonded OH, suggesting the occurrence of some chemical reactions, the yield enhancements may be due to the relaxation of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups, such as the breaking of ether bonds. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Coal. [1987 and 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    Despite increases in recently negotiated coal prices in US dollar terms, unit export returns for Australian coal are expected to rise only marginally in 1988-89 due to the anticipated appreciation of the Australian dollar. Australian coal production is expected to recover in 1988-89, after falling in 1987-88. A table summarising coal statistics in 1985-87 is presented. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Coal dust symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This paper gives a report of the paper presented at the symposium held in Hanover on 9 and 10 February 1981. The topics include: the behaviour of dust and coal dust on combustion and explosion; a report on the accidents which occurred at the Laegerdorf cement works' coal crushing and drying plant; current safety requirements at coal crushing and drying plant; and coal crushing and drying. Four papers are individually abstracted. (In German)

  18. Coal world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  19. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  20. Application of EREP, LANDSAT, and aircraft image data to environmental problems related to coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, R. V.; Russell, O. R.; Martin, K. R.; Wier, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were used to study coal mining sites within the Eastern Interior Coal Basin (Indiana, Illinois, and western Kentucky), the Appalachian Coal Basin (Ohio, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania) and the anthracite coal basins of northeastern Pennsylvania. Remote sensor data evaluated during these studies were acquired by LANDSAT, Skylab and both high and low altitude aircraft. Airborne sensors included multispectral scanners, multiband cameras and standard mapping cameras loaded with panchromatic, color and color infrared films. The research conducted in these areas is a useful prerequisite to the development of an operational monitoring system that can be peridically employed to supply state and federal regulatory agencies with supportive data. Further research, however, must be undertaken to systematically examine those mining processes and features that can be monitored cost effectively using remote sensors and for determining what combination of sensors and ground sampling processes provide the optimum combination for an operational system.

  1. Management of coal combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-02-01

    It has been estimated that 780 Mt of coal combustion products (CCPs) were produced worldwide in 2010. Only about 53.5% were utilised, the rest went to storage or disposal sites. Disposal of coal combustion waste (CCW) on-site at a power plant may involve decades-long accumulation of waste, with hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of tonnes of dry ash or wet ash slurry being stored. In December 2008, a coal combustion waste pond in Kingston, Tennessee, USA burst. Over 4 million cubic metres of ash sludge poured out, burying houses and rivers in tonnes of toxic waste. Clean-up is expected to continue into 2014 and will cost $1.2 billion. The incident drew worldwide attention to the risk of CCW disposal. This caused a number of countries to review CCW management methods and regulations. The report begins by outlining the physical and chemical characteristics of the different type of ashes generated in a coal-fired power plant. The amounts of CCPs produced and regulations on CCW management in selected countries have been compiled. The CCW disposal methods are then discussed. Finally, the potential environmental impacts and human health risks of CCW disposal, together with the methods used to prevent them, are reviewed.

  2. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  3. Coal economics and taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain opening remarks, the luncheon and dinner addresses, list of delegates and the papers presented at the four sessions on Coal Mines cost money - for what.; Coal mines cost money - Where the money comes from; taxation and royalty policies; and the coal industry view on operating costs. Sixteen papers are abstracted separately.

  4. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  5. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  6. Executive summary - Geologic assessment of coal in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has assessed the quantity and quality of the nation's coal deposits that potentially could be mined during the next few decades. For eight years, geologic, geochemical, and resource information was collected and compiled for the five major coal-producing regions of the United States: the Appalachian Basin, Illinois Basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plateau, and the western part of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain (Gulf Coast) region (Figure 1). In particular, the NCRA assessed resource estimates, compiled coal-quality information, and characterized environmentally sensitive trace elements, such as arsenic and mercury, that are mentioned in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990). The results of the USGS coal assessment efforts may be found at: http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/coal/coal-assessments/index.html and a summary of the results from all assessment areas can be found in Ruppert et al. (2002) and Dennen (2009).Detailed assessments of the major coal-producing areas for the Gulf Coast region along with reviews of the stratigraphy, coal quality, resources, and coalbed methane potential of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene coal deposits are presented in this report (Chapters 5-10).

  7. Problems in reclaiming farmland in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandt, A F

    1981-09-01

    It is concluded that land newly mined for coal should not immediately be planted with corn. A legume-grass mixture should be seeded to permit the restored land to settle properly. During the settling period, the soil's chemical, physical and biological aspects will also stabilize. Therefore, a crop rotation should include alfalfa or similar legumes along with the corn-soybean raw crops.

  8. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  9. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  10. The Marketing Performance of Illinois and Kansas Wheat Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Sarah N.; Aulerich, Nicole M.; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the marketing performance of wheat farmers in Illinois and Kansas over 1982-2004. The results show that farmer benchmark prices for wheat in Illinois and Kansas fall in the middle-third of the price range about half to three-quarters of the time. Consistent with previous studies, this refutes the contention that Illinois and Kansas wheat farmers routinely market the bulk of their wheat crop in the bottom portion of the price range. Tests of the aver...

  11. Specific Energy of Hard Coal Under Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental tests of energy parameters of hard coals under loading, collected from research sites located within five main geologic structures of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW - Main Trough, Main Anticline, Bytom Trough, Rybnik Trough and Chwałowice Trough. Coals from12 mines were analysed, starting with seams of group 200, through groups 400, 500, 600 and, finally, seams of group 700. Coal of each of the groups of seams underwent uniaxial compression stress of the energy parameters, in a servo-controlled testing machine MTS-810NEW, for the full range of strain of the tested coal samples. Based on the tests the dependence of different types of specific energy of longitudinal strain of coals on the value of uniaxial compression strength was determined. The dependence of the value of dissipated energy and kinetic energy of coals on the uniaxial compression strength was described with a linear function, both for coals which due to their age belong to various bed sand for various lithotypes of coal. An increase in the value of dissipated energy and in kinetic energy was observed, which was correlated with an increase in uniaxial compression strength of coal. The share of dissipated energy is dominant in the total energy of strain. Share of recoverable energy in the total energy of strain is small, independent of the compression strength of coals and is at most a few per cent high. In coals of low strength and dominant share of dissipated energy, share of recoverable energy is the biggest among the tested coals. It was shown that following an increase in compression strength the share of recoverable energy decreases, while the share of dissipated energy in the total energy increases. Further studies of specific energy of longitudinal strain of rocks in the full-range strain will be the next step inperfecting methodology of research into natural rock burst susceptibility of Carboniferous rock mass and changes in the

  12. Inventory of Rare of Endangered Vascular Plants Occurring in the Floodplain of the Mississippi River between Cairo, Illinois, and St. Paul, Minnesota, and in the Floodplain of the Illinois River between Grafton, Illinois, and Chicago,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    counties). ramily Cyperaceae Cyperus iria L. Illinois (Alexander). Family Ranunculaceae Ranunculus sardous Crantz. Illinois (Jackson, Union). Family ...adventive floodplain species is appended. P1 r 4 Sagittaria calycina Engelm. Arrowhead Family Alismataceae Status: Not rare nor endangered. This usually...spongia (Bosc) Steud. Frogbit Family Hydrocharitaceae Status: Rare (Illinois). This is a Coastal Plain species which ranges from Texas to Florida and

  13. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  14. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  15. Catalytic hydrotreatment of coal-derived naphtha using commercial catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, S.-J.; Keogh, R.A.; Thomas, G.A.; Davis, B.H. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research)

    Naphtha samples derived from the liquefaction of a bituminous Illinois No. 6 and a subbituminous Black Thunder coal were hydrotreated using commercial Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], and Ni-W/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts. It was easier to remove the N, O and S heteroatoms from Illinois No. 6 naphtha than from the Black Thunder naphtha. Nitrogen and oxygen were more difficult to remove than sulfur in the temperature range 200-400[degree]C. Considerable differences in catalyst activity for the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions were observed. The Ni-Mo catalyst was found to be the most active catalyst for the HDN and HDO reactions and the least active catalyst for the HDS. The Co-Mo catalyst was the most active catalyst for the sulfur removal. For the Illinois No. 6 naphtha, a first-order reaction applies for the HDN and HDO reactions for all three catalysts. However, for the Black Thunder naphtha, the first-order reaction applies only at the lower space velocities; a large deviation is observed at higher space velocities. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  17. Washability of Australian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, R L

    1979-06-01

    Australian coals tend to be young in geological age and high in ash by world standards; preparation of the coal before marketing is almost universal. On the basis of float and sink data from 39 locations in the eastern Australian coalfields, the coals are place in four categories representing increasing difficulty in their washability characteristics. These seem to be related neither to the geological age nor the geographical position of the deposit and Hunter Valley coals, for example, span all categories. The influence of crushing on the washability of Australian coals is briefly considered and from limited data it is concluded to be appreciably smaller than for British or North American coals. A strategy for the float and sink analysis of Australian coals is proposed and the influence of washability characteristics on current trends in the selection of separating processes for coking and steaming products is discussed.

  18. How 60 Minutes ticked off Illinois Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A November 60 Minutes broadcast on CBS television asserting that costs are out of control at the Illinois Power Co's(IP) Clinton nuclear power project because of management incompetence triggered a series of rebuttals and counter-rebuttals. A review of the events and correspondence during the planning stage and after the broadcast explores the question of construction cost overruns and the economic impact the broadcast had on IP's investors, employees, and customers. A parallel filming by IP was aired to show how the CBS edited the interview with IP officials. IP personnel feel betrayed by what they consider misconceptions and errors in the broadcast and are unhappy that an employee morale problem was worsened. Counter-arguments by both parties indicate a disagreement on both facts and interpretations

  19. Illinois trauma centers and community violence resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennet Butler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elder abuse and neglect (EAN, intimate partner violence (IPV, and street-based community violence (SBCV are significant public health problems, which frequently lead to traumatic injury. Trauma centers can provide an effective setting for intervention and referral, potentially interrupting the cycle of violence. Aims: To assess existing institutional resources for the identification and treatment of violence victims among patients presenting with acute injury to statewide trauma centers. Settings and Design: We used a prospective, web-based survey of trauma medical directors at 62 Illinois trauma centers. Nonresponders were contacted via telephone to complete the survey. Materials and Methods: This survey was based on a survey conducted in 2004 assessing trauma centers and IPV resources. We modified this survey to collect data on IPV, EAN, and SBCV. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and bivariate statistics were performed using STATA statistical software. Results: We found that 100% of trauma centers now screen for IPV, an improvement from 2004 (P = 0.007. Screening for EAN (70% and SBCV (61% was less common (P < 0.001, and hospitals thought that resources for SBCV in particular were inadequate (P < 0.001 and fewer resources were available for these patients (P = 0.02. However, there was lack of uniformity of screening, tracking, and referral practices for victims of violence throughout the state. Conclusion: The multiplicity of strategies for tracking and referring victims of violence in Illinois makes it difficult to assess screening and tracking or form generalized policy recommendations. This presents an opportunity to improve care delivered to victims of violence by standardizing care and referral protocols.

  20. Health Literacy Based Communication by Illinois Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Devraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health literacy has received attention as an important issue for pharmacists to consider when interacting with patients. Yet, there is little information about methods pharmacists use to communicate with patients and their extent of use of health literacy based interventions during patient interactions. The purpose of this study was to examine methods of communication and types of health literacy based interventions that practicing pharmacists use in Illinois. Methods: A survey instrument addressing the study purpose was designed along with other items that were part of a larger study. Eleven items in the survey referred to pharmacist-patient communication. The instrument was pilot tested before administering to a random sample of 1457 pharmacists from the Illinois Pharmacists Association. Data were primarily collected via a mailed survey using Dillman’s five step total design method (TDM. Two reminder letters were mailed at two week intervals to non-respondents. Results: Usable responses were obtained from 701 respondents (48.1% response rate. Using simple words (96% and asking patients open-ended questions to determine comprehension (85% were the most frequent methods that pharmacists used to communicate with patients. Only 18% of respondents always asked patients to repeat medication instructions to confirm understanding. The various recommended types of health literacy interventions were “always” performed by only 8 to 33% of the respondents. More than 50% of respondents indicated that they rarely or never had access to an interpreter (51%, or employed bilingual pharmacists (59%. Only 11% of pharmacists said that they rarely/never pay attention to nonverbal cues that may suggest low health literacy. Conclusions: Pharmacists infrequently use action oriented health literacy interventions such as using visual aids, having interpreter access, medication calendars, etc. Additional training on health literacy, its scope, and

  1. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  2. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  3. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  4. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  5. 77 FR 56717 - Specifications for Medical Examinations of Underground Coal Miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... CFR Part 37 Specifications for Medical Examinations of Underground Coal Miners; Final Rule #0;#0... 0920-AA21 Specifications for Medical Examinations of Underground Coal Miners AGENCY: Centers for... medical examinations of underground coal miners. Existing regulations established specifications for...

  6. Practice Characteristics of Recent Illinois College of Optometry Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailmard, Neil B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Demographic information regarding mode of practice, income and satisfaction level is provided for 1978-82 graduates of the Illinois College of Optometry. A practice management questionnaire is appended. (Author/MLW)

  7. Franchise Agreements and Clean Energy: Issues in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates the impact on energy efficiency of municipal franchise agreements that supply electricity or gas service without a direct charge (unbilled energy) for certain municipal government facilities in Illinois.)

  8. Ice Skating Instruction at the University of Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Char; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign conducts a instructional ice skating program for its students and the community. Activities include: a figure skating club; a speed skating club; ice hockey program; and ice skating classes. (CJ)

  9. 77 FR 61595 - Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Illinois Municipal Power filed its Revised and Superseding Proposed Revenue Requirement for reactive supply... Reference Room in Washington, DC. There is an ``eSubscription'' link on the web site that enables...

  10. Taxation of forest and associated land in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Baumgartner; Ronald I. Beazley

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the operation and impact of the property tax on forest and associated land in Illinois and evaluates the potential of adjustments in the tax as an incentive to better management of forest and associated land.

  11. Teaching Pharmaceutical Biotechnology at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Michael J.; Klegerman, Melvin E.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Pharmaceutics at the University of Illinois at Chicago has been carrying out research in pharmaceutical biotechnology that has allowed unique student involvement and promises further interdisciplinary research and instructional activities. (MSE)

  12. Enhancing pavement performance prediction models for the Illinois Tollway System

    OpenAIRE

    Laxmikanth Premkumar; William R. Vavrik

    2016-01-01

    Accurate pavement performance prediction represents an important role in prioritizing future maintenance and rehabilitation needs, and predicting future pavement condition in a pavement management system. The Illinois State Toll Highway Authority (Tollway) with over 2000 lane miles of pavement utilizes the condition rating survey (CRS) methodology to rate pavement performance. Pavement performance models developed in the past for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) are used by th...

  13. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  14. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  15. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  16. Too little oil, too much coal: Optimal carbon tax and when to phase in oil, coal and renewables

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees A.

    2011-01-01

    Our main message is that it is optimal to use less coal and more oil once one takes account of coal being a backstop which emits much more CO2 than oil. The way of achieving this is to have a steeply rising carbon tax during the initial oil-only phase, a less-steeply rising carbon tax during the intermediate phase where oil and coal are used alongside each other and the following coal-only phase, and a flat carbon tax during the final renewables-only phase. The "laissez-faire" outcome uses co...

  17. 78 FR 68903 - Dynegy Inc., Illinois Power Holdings, LLC and Illinois Power Holdings II, LLC-Acquisition of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... and Western Railroad Company and Joppa & Eastern Railroad Company Dynegy Inc. (Dynegy), Illinois Power... Coffeen and Western Railroad Company (CWRC) and the Joppa & Eastern Railroad (JERR), both Class III rail...

  18. Leakage Risk Assessment of CO{sub 2} Transportation by Pipeline at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project, Decatur, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoldi, A.; Oldenburg, C. M.

    2013-12-17

    The Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) is designed to confirm the ability of the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a major regional saline-water-bearing formation in the Illinois Basin, to store 1 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injected over a period of three years. The CO{sub 2} will be provided by Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) from its Decatur, Illinois, ethanol plant. In order to transport CO{sub 2} from the capture facility to the injection well (also located within the ADM plant boundaries), a high-pressure pipeline of length 3,200 ft (975 m) has been constructed, running above the ground surface within the ADM plant footprint. We have qualitatively evaluated risks associated with possible pipeline failure scenarios that lead to discharge of CO{sub 2} within the real-world environment of the ADM plant in which there are often workers and visitors in the vicinity of the pipeline. There are several aspects of CO{sub 2} that make its transportation and potential leakage somewhat different from other substances, most notable is its non-flammability and propensity to change to solid (dry ice) upon strong decompression. In this study, we present numerical simulations using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods of the release and dispersion of CO{sub 2} from individual hypothetical pipeline failures (i.e., leaks). Failure frequency of the various components of a pipeline transportation system over time are taken from prior work on general pipeline safety and leakage modeling and suggest a 4.65% chance of some kind of pipeline failure over the three-years of operation. Following the Precautionary Principle (see below), we accounted for full-bore leakage scenarios, where the temporal evolution of the mass release rate from the high-pressure pipeline leak locations was simulated using a state-of-the-art Pipe model which considers the thermodynamic effects of decompression in the entire pipeline. Failures have been simulated at four representative locations along

  19. Dual-track CCS stakeholder engagement: Lessons learned from FutureGen in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, G.; Greenberg, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    FutureGen, as originally planned, was to be the world's first coal-fueled, near-zero emissions power plant with fully integrated, 90% carbon capture and storage (CCS). From conception through siting and design, it enjoyed strong support from multiple stakeholder groups, which benefited the overall project. Understanding the stakeholder engagement process for this project provides valuable insights into the design of stakeholder programs for future CCS projects. FutureGen is one of few projects worldwide that used open competition for siting both the power plant and storage reservoir. Most site proposals were coordinated by State governments. It was unique in this and other respects relative to the site selection method used on other DOE-supported projects. At the time of site selection, FutureGen was the largest proposed facility designed to combine an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coal-fueled power plant with a CCS system. Stakeholder engagement by states and the industry consortium responsible for siting, designing, building, and operating the facility took place simultaneously and on parallel tracks. On one track were states spearheading state-wide site assessments to identify candidate sites that they wanted to propose for consideration. On the other track was a public-private partnership between an industry consortium of thirteen coal companies and electric utilities that comprised the FutureGen Alliance (Alliance) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The partnership was based on a cooperative agreement signed by both parties, which assigned the lead for siting to the Alliance. This paper describes the stakeholder engagement strategies used on both of these tracks and provides examples from the engagement process using the Illinois semi-finalist sites. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  1. Cuttability of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1978-01-01

    The process of cutting dull M, dull bright MB, bright dull BM, and bright B coal under various compressive stress conditions was studied in laboratory tests. The efficiency of ploughs depends much more on the natural mining conditions than does that of shearer-loaders. For seams of medium workability, it is difficult to forecast whether ploughs will be successful. Cuttability tests are a good way of determining whether ploughs can be used. The effort necessary to cut coal in a stressed condition depends not only on such properties as the workability defined by the Protodyakonov index or compressive strength, but also, and mainly, on the petrographic structure and elastic properties of the coal. In bright coals with high elastic strain, and with BM and MB coals, a much greater increment of effort is necessary with increase in compressive stresses. The cuttability of dull coals from difficult mines was not very different.

  2. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  3. Coal-to-liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  4. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  5. Applying Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach to Evaluate and Classify the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential in Eastern Alborz Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Saffari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject analysis of the potential of spontaneous combustion in coal layers with analytical and numerical methods has been always considered as a difficult task because of the complexity of the coal behavior and the number of factors influencing it. Empirical methods, due to accounting for certain and specific factors, have not accuracy and efficiency for all positions. The Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach as a systematic method for analyzing and classifying is proposed in engineering projects. The present study is concerned with employing the RES approach to categorize coal spontaneous combustion in coal regions. Using this approach, the interaction of parameters affecting each other in an equal scale on the coal spontaneous combustion was evaluated. The Intrinsic, geological and mining characteristics of coal seams were studied in order to identifying important parameters. Then, the main stages of implementation of the RES method i.e. interaction matrix formation, coding matrix and forming a list category were performed. Later, an index of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential (CSCPi was determined to format the mathematical equation. Then, the obtained data related to the intrinsic, geological and mining, and special index were calculated for each layer in the case study (Pashkalat coal region, Iran. So, the study offers a perfect and comprehensive classification of the layers. Finally, by using the event of spontaneous combustion occurred in Pashkalat coal region, an initial validation for this systematic approach in the study area was conducted, which suggested relatively good concordance in Pashkalat coal region.

  6. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  7. Coal utilization, the environment, and the role of geologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutcher, L.A.F.; Dutcher, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    The United States has demonstrated reserves (coal potentially minable with current technology) sufficient to meet demand for at least 300 yrs (Illinois Coal Association, 1990, p. 5) at the 1990 production rate of 930,900,000 tonnes (1,024,000,000 tons) (Energy Information Administration, 1991, p. 6). These deposits, underlying about 13% of the country's land area, are the energy equivalent of about 2,000,000,000,000 bbl of crude oil - more than triple the world's known oil reserves. About 85% of coal used in the nation goes to the electric utility industry to generate 55% of the electricity produced in the US. The remaining buyers include steel, other industrial facilities, and retail dealers to a limited extent. Future increases in demand will depend upon economic growth of domestic and foreign markets and the price of competing fuels. However, future demand especially will depend upon the scope of government regulation and the progress of research and technology development in reducing environmental impacts resulting from mining and utilization and in advancing clean coal-burning technologies

  8. Drainage from coal mines: Chemistry and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildeman, T.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the research on coal-mine drainage chemistry was conducted a decade ago, and now increased environmental awareness has brought about renewed interest in the findings. Consideration of the trace minerals and elements in coal points to the possible generation of acidic waters upon weathering, especially when pyrite is present. When pyrite weathers, it produces H + and Fe 3+ which catalyze the incongruent weathering of other carbonates and sulfides. In this weathering mechanism, catalysis by bacteria is important. Of the environmental problems in coal mine drainage, the mineral acidity of the water is the most serious. This is caused not only by the H + , but also by Mn 4+ , Fe 3+ , and Al 3+ that are found or generated within the drainage. Case studies in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Colorado show that the abundance and form of pyrite in the deposit and in the overburden determines the level of acidity and the concentration of heavy metal pollutants in the drainage. Recent trends in environmental enforcement that emphasize integrated stream water standards and biotoxicity assays point to the possibility that the concentrations of heavy metals in coal mine drainages may cause environmental concern

  9. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  10. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourillon, C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  11. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  12. Analysis of ecological environment impact of coal exploitation and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoliu; Luo, Hong; Lv, Lianhong; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Baoshi

    2018-02-01

    Based on the theory of life cycle assessment, the ecological and environmental impacts of coal mining, processing, utilization and transportation will be analyzed, with analysing the status of china’s coal exploitation and utilization as the basis, it will find out the ecological and environmental impact in the development and utilization of coal, mainly consist of ecological impact including land damage, water resource destructionand biodiversity loss, etc., while the environmental impact include air, water, solid waste pollutions. Finally with a summary of the ecological and environmental problems, to propose solutionsand countermeasures to promote the rational development and consumption of coal, as well as to reduce the impact of coal production and consumption on the ecological environment, finally to achieve the coordinated development of energy and the environment.

  13. Prime farmland disturbance from coal surface mining in the corn belt, 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D.P.

    1979-09-01

    The five midwestern states that make up the Corn Belt farm production region - Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Ohio - contain about 110 billion tons of coal reserves (19% of which are surface mineable) and 110 million acres of arable land (69% of which are prime farmlands). In 1975, this region was the site of 21% of the nation's total coal production and 50% of the nation's corn and soybean harvest. Because corn and soybeans are key elements in US foreign trade and because nearly two-thirds of the regional coal production is from surface coal mines, it is important to understand the potential conflicts that may arise between the coal and agricultural industries in the Corn Belt. This report presents background data on the coal and agricultural industries in the Corn Belt states, along with the results of a quantitative analysis of the potential disruption of land and associated prime farmland due to future coal surface mining activity in the region. Estimates of potential land dusruptions indicate that 452,000 acres of land, including 127,000 acres of prime farmland, could be disturbed in the period 1980-2000. Additionally, the data indicate that certain counties in the Corn Belt states may experience impacts significantly greater than the regional average would suggest.

  14. Investigation of the remaining major and trace elements in clean coal generated by organic solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Wang; Chunqi Li; Kinya Sakanishi; Tetsuya Nakazato; Hiroaki Tao; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takayuki Takarada; Ikuo Saito [National Institute Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2005-09-01

    A sub-bituminous Wyodak coal (WD coal) and a bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal (IL coal) were thermally extracted with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) to produce clean extract. A mild pretreatment with acetic acid was also carried out. Major and trace inorganic elements in the raw coals and resultant extracts were determined by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS), and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). It was found that the extraction with 1-MN resulted in 73-100% reductions in the concentration of Li, Be, V, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Ba, Hg, and Pb. The extraction with NMP yielded more extract than that with 1-MN, but it retained more organically associated major and trace metals in the extracts. In the extraction of WD coal with NMP, the acid pretreatment not only significantly enhanced the extraction yield but also significantly reduced the concentrations of alkaline earth elements such as Be, Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba in the extract. In addition, the modes of occurrence of trace elements in the coals were discussed according to their extraction behaviors. 30 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. The Philippine coal industry its challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon, Francisco B.

    1997-01-01

    The demand for energy has been increasing over the years especially with the country's accelerated economic growth as we move closer its vision of industrialization by the turn of the century. Pursuant to this, the Department of Energy (DOE) was mandated to ensure the country's energy supply availability at affordable costs with due consideration to environmental concerns. Likewise, our organization, the Philippine Chamber of Coal Mines, Inc. (PHILCOAL), an association of local coal producers has taken the role of continuing its task of promoting the development and growth of the coal industry and to cooperate with the governmental agencies in their program of accelerating the development; growth and stability of the energy's coal sector. This paper will present a brief overview of the current situation of the coal industry, citing among others the country's coal reserves, quality, the industry's performance and the coal supply and demand projected for a five-year period. This paper shall also briefly discuss the government's plan to intensify coal exploration efforts so as to ensure the expansion of the country's production capabilities, the establishment of more terminals and infrastructures and accelerate the implementation of mine-mouth power generation and co-regeneration projects in potential coal areas. The implementation of the government's plan for the coal sector will require substantial capital and this paper will cite the principal areas where local and foreign project can come in. Finally this paper conclusively state that the country will remain a net importer of coal on account of the inability of local coal producers to meet increasing rate and coal demand. (author)

  17. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  18. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Shih, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  19. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  20. Australian coal year book 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This yearbook presents a review of the Australian coal industry during the 1984-85 financial year. Included are details on mines, future prospects, coal export facilities and ports, annual cost statistics and a index of coal mine owners.

  1. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  2. Interaction and the structures of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaprakasit, Pakorn

    solvents, which in turn enhances the coal extraction yield. Finally, the evidence for the presence of a glass transition temperature in coal was examined. The results from Differential Scanning Calorimetry showed that no transition similar to the Tg can be observed in bulk coal or its low-molecular weight fraction, pyridine soluble extracted material, at a temperature near 110°C. In contrast, an irreversible transition that is due to water evaporation has been found. Thermomechanical measurements, which are very sensitive to the presence of a Tg in synthetic polymers, also provided no evidence for a Tg below temperatures where chemical reactions occur. Additionally, the results from Thermomechanical Analysis showed an expansion in size when the coal was heated to 300°C, which is associated with a "caking" process. The degree of expansion during this "caking" process is about five times greater in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane than the parallel, indicating an accommodation of anisotropic strain relaxation, which was generated in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane during the coalification process.

  3. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  4. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  5. Report on the final evaluation on the 'development of a bituminous coal liquefaction technology (NEDOL method)' in the Sunshine Project; Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu (NEDOL ho) kaihatsu saishu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Development of a bituminous coal liquefaction technology (NEDOL method) can be judged appropriate as a national project in the comprehensive view with the 21st century just around the corner. It is a fact that this project has spent the national budget not in a small amount. There is no prospect of the technology to be put into practical use in Japan at the present time. The coal liquefaction technology is a technology required inevitably in the situation where shortage of crude oil supply may endanger the existence of a nation. Therefore, there is sufficient significance in having demonstrated the effectiveness of the NEDOL method which can be applied to a large number of coal types and expected of high liquefaction yield. The contents of the 'technological package' to be prepared are so demanded that its usefulness can be retained until the time of a demonstration plant design and operation will come in the future. It is also desired that the human resources and the testing devices will be kept ensured, and the technologies developed under this project will be maintained and expanded. The present technology has low necessity of immediately putting into practical use in Japan at the present time. However, the technology should be kept available for use at any time, and retained for use in an urgent situation. (NEDO)

  6. Definite Project Report for Section 205 Flood Control, Illinois River, Liverpool, Illinois, with Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    woodlands Wolf’s bluegrass (Poa wolfii) Meadows and woodlands pink milkwort (Polygala incarnata) Sand and gravel prairies and dry open sites spearwort...with deposits ranging up to 50 feet thick in uneroded locations. In some places, the Peoria Loess may be underlain by a brown to pink silt known as...suildirp - P.O. Box! ?004 Pock 1s’lare, T1linols 612014-1004 SintcecrelIy, Scd BY J. T. SCHNEME* Du~ley M. Hanson, P.F. rewp, Fisrn’ehed: Rovrormble Floy

  7. Thermal coal utilization for the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A selection of papers is presented originating from talks to coal utilization workshops for the ASEAN region in 1981. The papers cover: planning aspects - economic and technical aspects of coal usage, long term planning for fuel coal needs, planning and coal selection for coal-fired power plants, coal availability and marketing, and economic aspects of coal usage in developing countries; combustion and plant - changing from coal to oil, principles and problems of coal combustion, use of indigenous and imported coals and their effects on plant design, coal pulverizing mills, ash and dust disposal, environmental aspects of coal combustion, industrial sized coal-fired boilers; transport and storage -ocean shipment, coal receival facilities and associated operations, shipping and rail transport, coal handling and transport, environmental issue in the transport and handling of coal, coal preparation and blending; testing and properties - coal types, characterization properties and classification; training power plant operators; the cement industry and coal, the Australian black coal industry.

  8. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  9. Role of iron catalyst impregnated by solvent swelling method in pyrolytic removal of coal nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, J.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S.; Nielsen, M.; Furimsky, E. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology

    1995-11-01

    Organometallic iron precursors, ferrocene and ferric acetate, were impregnated into Illinois No. 6 (IL), Wyoming (WY) and Yallourn (YL) coals by solvent swelling technique in THF, ethanol, and a THF/ethanol binary solvent. Then iron-impregnated coals were pyrolyzed in a flow of helium at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed and a thermobalance. Conversion of coal nitrogen to N{sub 2} was 20, 38 and 30% respectively, for original IL, WY, and YL coals. Iron formed from both precursors lowered the onset temperature of N{sub 2} evolution by 20-100{degree}C. When ferrocene was impregnated in coals at a concentration of 1.7-1.8 wt% as Fe, nitrogen conversion was increased to 52, 71 and 68% for IL, WY and YL coals, respectively. Ferric acetate impregnated into IL coal from THF/ethanol solution increased the nitrogen conversion much more than that from ethanol solution. The expansion of microporous coal structure by the swelling was essential for better dispersion of the catalyst precursor. The evolution of HCN as well as NH{sub 3} was effectively suppressed above 600{degree}C by the presence of iron but not influenced significantly by combinations of catalyst precursors and solvents. The increase in N{sub 2} yield was compensated by the decrease in nitrogen emitted as HCN and NH{sub 3} and in tar and char. The increase in CO evolution from the iron-impregnated IL coal at 600-800{degree}C was explained by catalytic rearrangement of aromatic structure of char, accompanying the removal of nitrogen as N{sub 2}. In a range of 600-750{degree}C, the evolution of CO as well as N{sub 2} from the other coals increased remarkably with a significant decrease in CO{sub 2} gasification in char microproes. 32 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Mercury stable isotope signatures of world coal deposits and historical coal combustion emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruoyu; Sonke, Jeroen E; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Belkin, Harvey E; Liu, Guijian; Shome, Debasish; Cukrowska, Ewa; Liousse, Catherine; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Streets, David G

    2014-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from coal combustion contribute approximately half of anthropogenic Hg emissions to the atmosphere. With the implementation of the first legally binding UNEP treaty aimed at reducing anthropogenic Hg emissions, the identification and traceability of Hg emissions from different countries/regions are critically important. Here, we present a comprehensive world coal Hg stable isotope database including 108 new coal samples from major coal-producing deposits in South Africa, China, Europe, India, Indonesia, Mongolia, former USSR, and the U.S. A 4.7‰ range in δ(202)Hg (-3.9 to 0.8‰) and a 1‰ range in Δ(199)Hg (-0.6 to 0.4‰) are observed. Fourteen (p coal Hg emissions tracing. A revised coal combustion Hg isotope fractionation model is presented, and suggests that gaseous elemental coal Hg emissions are enriched in the heavier Hg isotopes relative to oxidized forms of emitted Hg. The model explains to first order the published δ(202)Hg observations on near-field Hg deposition from a power plant and global scale atmospheric gaseous Hg. Yet, model uncertainties appear too large at present to permit straightforward Hg isotope source identification of atmospheric forms of Hg. Finally, global historical (1850-2008) coal Hg isotope emission curves were modeled and indicate modern-day mean δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values for bulk coal emissions of -1.2 ± 0.5‰ (1SD) and 0.05 ± 0.06‰ (1SD).

  11. Dry piston coal feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  12. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  13. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  14. Black coal. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R

    1973-01-01

    Statistics are given for the Australian black coal industry for 1970-3 (production, value, employment, wages and salaries, productivity, trade, stocks, consumption, export contracts, exploration, etc.). In less detail, world coal trade is reviewed and coke production is mentioned briefly. (LTN )

  15. Illinois perspective on low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchison, D.

    1984-01-01

    Illinois is a big generator of low level radioactive waste. It has had extensive experience with controversial waste disposal and storage facilities. This experience makes it difficult for the public and political leaders in Illinois to support the establishment of new disposal facilities in the state. Yet, with extensive debates and discussions concerning the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the proposed Midwest Compact, political leaders and the public are facing up to the fact that they must be responsible for the disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in the state. The Governor and many political leaders from Illinois support the regional approach and believe it can be an innovative and progressive way for the state to deal with the range of low level waste management and disposal problems. A version of the Midwest Interstate Low Level Waste Compact has become Illinois law, but it has significant differences from the one adopted by five other states. Like other states in the midwest and northeast, Illinois is opposed to Congressional consent of the four pending compacts before the remaining two compacts, the northeast and midwest are sent to Washington and interregional agreements are negotiated between the sited and non-sited regions. A new national system must be established before access to existing commercial disposal becomes restricted

  16. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  17. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernikau, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  18. Methane of the coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the transformation process of the vegetable material to the coal (Carbonization), the products that are generated include CH 4, CO2, N2 and H2. The methane is generated by two mechanisms: below 50 centigrade degree, as product of microbial decomposition, the methanogenic is generated; and above 50 centigrade degree, due to the effects of the buried and increase of the range of the coal, the thermogenic methane is detachment, as a result of the catagenic. The generated methane is stored in the internal surfaces of the coal, macro and micro pores and in the natural fractures. The presence of accumulations of gas of the coal has been known in the entire world by many years, but only as something undesirable for its danger in the mining exploitation of the coal

  19. China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  20. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)