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Sample records for ili mozhet li

  1. Hasan Âli Yücel’in Edebiyat Tarihçiliği Hasan Âli Yücel's Literature History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim ÖZEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hasan Âli Yücel, who stands out as an effective character in Turkish culture and education life, was closely related to literature while he was a teacher and afterwards. In this sense, his poetry books, the active role that he played in translating classical works to Turkish and his books about literature shows this relationship. Among his literature related books there are feeder works to both literature historyand Turkish literature history.Literature history is a sub-branch of literature science and it is adiscipline which studies a nation’s literature considering its literaryworks. In Turkish literature, sociological method of Fuad Köprülü, whobuilds upon his literature history works on a scientific ground, wasaccepted by literature history researchers. Hasan Âli Yücel’s viewsabout literature history are also shaped around the views of FuadKöprülü. Like Köprülü, who sees literature history as a part of history ofcivilization, Hasan Âli Yücel sees literature as a part of society andconsidered Turkish literature together with both Turkish culture andhistory. He made his assessments and findings about Turkish literaturewithin the framework of these considerations.In this study, firstly Yücel’s views about Turkish literature historyand classification of Turkish literature then his imposed tasks toliterature historians are discussed. After that, application of his viewsabout literature historiography and the methods that he applied on hisworks called “Türk Edebiyatı Nümûneleri”, “Türk Edebiyatına Toplu BirBakış” and “Edebiyat Tarihimizden” have been tried to examine. Türk kültür ve eğitim hayatında etkili bir kişilik olarak ön plana çıkan Hasan Âli Yücel, öğretmenlik yaptığı yıllarda ve sonrasında edebiyatla yakından ilişkili olmuştur. Bu manada, Yücel’in yazdığı şiir kitapları, klasik eserlerin Türkçeye çevrilmesinde gösterdiği etkin rol ve edebiyat ile ilgili yazd

  2. Mozhet li natsija zashtshitit ot natsionaliszma? / Sergei Ivanov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ivanov, Sergei, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu Parlamentaarne Assamblee (ENPA) käsitleb küsimust, kas rahvuse mõiste täpsustamine võib aidata tagada rahvusvähemuste õigusi 21. sajandi Euroopas. Rahvuse mõiste muutumisest läbi ajaloo, ENPA seisukohtadest, mis puudutavad rahvusvähemusi

  3. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  4. Resection of Residual Disease Following Isolated Limb Infusion (ILI) is Equivalent to a Complete Response Following ILI Alone in Advanced Extremity Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J; Chen, YA; Fisher, KJ; Beasley, GM; Tyler, DS; Zager, JS

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Isolated limb infusion (ILI) is a limb-preserving treatment for in-transit extremity melanoma. The benefit of resecting residual disease following ILI is unclear. Methods A multi-institutional experience was analyzed comparing patients who underwent ILI plus resection of residual disease (ILI+RES) versus ILI-alone. Results 176 patients were included: 154 ILI-alone and 22 ILI+RES. There were no differences between the groups with respect to gender, age, extremity affected, or time from diagnosis to ILI. All surgical resections were performed as an outpatient procedure, separate from the ILI. Within the ILI+RES group, fifteen (68%) had a partial response (PR), two (9%) stable disease (SD), and 5 (23%) progressive disease (PD). The ILI-alone group had 52 (34%) CR, 30 (19%) PR, 15 (10%) SD, and 46 (30%) PD. Eleven (7%) ILI-alone patients did not have 3-month response available for review. Evaluating overall survival (OS) from date of ILI, the ILI-alone group had a median OS of 30.9 months, whereas the ILI+RES group had not reached median OS, p=0.304. Although the ILI+RES group had a slightly longer disease free survival (DFS) compared to those with a CR after ILI-alone (12.4 vs. 9.6), this was not statistically significant, p=0.978. Within the ILI+RES group, those with an initial PR following ILI had improved DFS vs. those with SD or PD following ILI, pILI offers a DFS and OS similar to those who have a CR after ILI-alone, and may offer a treatment strategy that benefits more patients undergoing ILI. PMID:24162840

  5. Genel Bilişsel Yetenek Ölçümlerinde Süre ve Performans İlişkisinde A Tipi Kişiliğin Rolü(The Role of Type A Personality on the Relationship between Time and Performance in Measurement of General Cognitive Ability)

    OpenAIRE

    Murat GÜLER; H. Nejat BASIM

    2016-01-01

    Organizasyonların personel seçiminde kullanılan bilişsel yetenek ölçümlerinin, objektif ve yansız olarak yapılması, ihtiyaç duyulan uygun nitelikteki insan kaynağının temin edilmesi için önemli bir husustur. Ancak, bilişsel yetenek testlerinin kişilik özelliklerinden etkilendiğine dair bazı bulgular öne sürülmektedir. Mevcut araştırmada, genel bilişsel yetenek (GBY) ölçümlerinde süre ve performans ilişkisinde A Tipi kişiliğin rolü 271 üniversite öğrencisinden elde edilen verilerle...

  6. Genel Bilişsel Yetenek Ölçümlerinde Süre ve Performans İlişkisinde A Tipi Kişiliğin Rolü(The Role of Type A Personality on the Relationship between Time and Performance in Measurement of General Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat GÜLER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizasyonların personel seçiminde kullanılan bilişsel yetenek ölçümlerinin, objektif ve yansız olarak yapılması, ihtiyaç duyulan uygun nitelikteki insan kaynağının temin edilmesi için önemli bir husustur. Ancak, bilişsel yetenek testlerinin kişilik özelliklerinden etkilendiğine dair bazı bulgular öne sürülmektedir. Mevcut araştırmada, genel bilişsel yetenek (GBY ölçümlerinde süre ve performans ilişkisinde A Tipi kişiliğin rolü 271 üniversite öğrencisinden elde edilen verilerle incelenmiştir. Veriler, A Tipi Kişilik Ölçeği ve Raven Standart Progresif Matrisler Testi ile toplanmıştır. Genel örneklemde ve A Tiplerinde GBY test performansı ve süresi ile A Tipi kişilik arasında anlamlı bir ilişki gözlenmezken, B Tiplerinde test süresinin ve yaşın GBY test performansının yordayıcısı olduğuna ilişkin bulgulara ulaşılmıştır. Objectively and impartially application of cognitive ability measurements that used in personnel selection of organizations, is a vital issue for providing needed appropriate human resources. But, some findings have been suggested that personality traits influence the measurement of cognitive abilities. In the current study the relationship between general cognitive ability (GCA and Type A personality (TAP was investigated with the data collected from 271 university students. The assessment instruments used were: Type-A Behavior Scale and Raven Standard Progressive Matrices Test. The findings revealed that, while there was no relationship between GCA, testing time and TAP in the general sample and Type A group, testing time and age were predictors of the GCA test performance in the Type B group

  7. Sveučilišni pravilnik o odijevanju

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić, Zoran; Musa, Miljenko

    2011-01-01

    Namjera je ovoga rada pokazati kako je pravilnik o odijevanju prijeko potreban i nužan dio procesa brendiranja sveučilišta. U tu je svrhu provedeno istraživanje koje je obuhvatilo brojna cijenjena sveučilišta na Zapadu. Na početku se određuje značenje izraza pravilnik o odijevanju u njegovu izvornome obliku dress code, zatim se ukazuje na tri razine važnosti ovoga pravilnika u pisanu obliku (individualna, institucionalna i društvena), kao i na tri moguća pristupa ovomu fenomenu (konzervativni...

  8. Ultra LI-ideals in lattice implication algebras and MTL-algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Dudek, Wieslaw A

    2007-01-01

    A mistake concerning the ultra \\textit{LI}-ideal of a lattice implication algebra is pointed out, and some new sufficient and necessary conditions for an \\textit{LI}-ideal to be an ultra \\textit{LI}-ideal are given. Moreover, the notion of an \\textit{LI}-ideal is extended to MTL-algebras, the notions of a (prime, ultra, obstinate, Boolean) \\textit{LI}-ideal and an \\textit{ILI}-ideal of an MTL-algebra are introduced, some important examples are given, and the following notions are proved to be equivalent in MTL-algebra: (1) prime proper \\textit{LI}-ideal and Boolean \\textit{LI}-ideal, (2) prime proper \\textit{LI}-ideal and \\textit{ILI}-ideal, (3) proper obstinate \\textit{LI}-ideal, (4) ultra \\textit{LI}-ideal.

  9. Elipsa suvremenog čitanja ili žanrovske besmislice

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Miomir; Ercegovac, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Književna ili, bolje reći, izdavačka hiperprodukcija u ekonomskoj borbi pretvorila je knjigu između ostalog i u tržišni proizvod, a trend bjesomučnog tiskanja iznjedrio je i neke nove književne ili „književne“ žanrove. Nova literatura, može se reći, uprostila je jezik, ali donekle i samu književnost. Tako je pojava takozvanog „ženskog pera“ (chick lit –literature for chicks) u mnogome obezvrijedila i ponizila „žensko pismo“ – francusku feminističku kritiku društva, a pojava „aerodromskog roma...

  10. Water Consumption of Agriculture and Natural Ecosystems along the Ili River in China and Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Thevs; Sabir Nurtazin; Volker Beckmann; Ruslan Salmyrzauli; Altyn Khalil

    2017-01-01

    The Ili River is a transboundary river shared by China, upstream, and Kazakhstan, downstream. The Ili is the main water supplier to Lake Balkhash, the largest lake in Central Asia after desiccation of the Aral Sea. Agreements over water allocation have not been concluded between China and Kazakhstan. This paper investigated water consumption of agriculture and riparian ecosystems in the Ili river basin, to provide information for further debate on water allocation, through the Simplified Surf...

  11. Are atypical lymphocytes present with viral influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in hospitalized adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, B A; Connolly, J J; Irshad, N

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if atypical lymphocytes were of diagnostic value in viral influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in hospitalized adults during the influenza season. Are atypical lymphocytes present with viral ILIs in hospitalized adults? During the influenza season, hospitals are inundated with influenza and viral ILIs, e.g., human parainfluenza virus-3 (HPIV-3). Without specific testing, clinically, it is difficult to differentiate influenza from ILIs, and surrogate influenza markers have been used for this purpose, e.g., relative lymphopenia. The diagnostic significance of atypical lymphocytes with ILIs is not known. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 35 adults admitted with pneumonia due to viral ILI. The diagnosis of 14 patients was by respiratory virus polymerase chain reaction (PCR). During the 2015 influenza A season with ILIs, atypical lymphocytes were not present in influenza A (H3N2) patients but atypical lymphocytes were present in some ILIs, particularly HPIV-3. With viral ILIs, atypical lymphocytes should suggest a non-influenza viral diagnosis.

  12. Integrating Information Literacy Instruction (ILI) through Resource-Based School Projects: An Interpretive Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Halida; Noordin, Siti Arpah; Mokhtar, Sobariah Awang; Abrizah, A.

    2011-01-01

    Resource-based school projects have good potential to be an effective approach in information literacy instruction (ILI). These projects offer the opportunity for students to engage in information problem-solving learning activities and employ various learning skills, including information literacy (IL). The researchers seek to explore ILI through…

  13. Loess magnetic properties in the Ili Basin and their correlation with the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAOTO; Ishikawa

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, magnetoclimatological studies of loess-paleosol sequences in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) have made outstanding achievements, which greatly promote the understanding of East Asian paleomonsoon evolution, inland aridification of Asia, and past global climate changes. Loess magnetic properties of the CLP have been well studied. In contrast, loess magnetic properties from outside the CLP in China have not been fully understood. We have little knowledge about the magnetic properties of loess in the Ili Basin, an intermontane depression of the Tianshan (or Tien Shan) Mountains. Here, we present the results of rock magnetic measurements of the Ili loess including mass magnetic susceptibility (χ) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), high/low temperature dependence of susceptibility (TDS) and hysteresis, as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral analysis. Based on the comparison with loess-paleosol sequences in the CLP (hereafter referred to as the Chinese loess), we discuss the possible magnetic susceptibility enhancement mechanism of the Ili loess. The results show that 1) the total magnetic mineral concentration of the Ili loess is far lower than that of the Chinese loess, though they have similar magnetic mineral compositions. The ferrimagnetic minerals in the Ili loess are magnetite and maghemite, and the antiferromagnetic mineral is hematite; XRD analysis also identifies the presence of ilmenite. The ratio of maghemite is lower in the Ili loess than in the Chinese loess, but the ratios of magnetite and hematite are higher in the Ili loess than in the Chinese loess. 2) The granularity of magnetic minerals in the Ili loess, dominated by pseudo-single domain (PSD) and multi-domain (MD) grains, is generally much coarser than that of the Chinese loess. Ultrafine pedogenically-produced magnetic grains have a very limited contribution to the susceptibility enhancement. Rather, PSD and MD particles of magnetite and maghemite are

  14. Distribution of influenza-like illness (ILI by occupation in Washington State, September 2009-August 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi J Anderson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aim to estimate the prevalence of influenza-like illness (ILI by occupation and to identify occupations associated with increased ILI prevalence. METHODS: Between September 2009 and August 2010, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC included questions on ILI symptoms on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Washington State collects the occupation of all employed BRFSS respondents. ILI prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated by occupational group. RESULTS: There were 8,758 adult, currently employed, non-military respondents to the Washington BRFSS during the study period. The ILI prevalence for all employed respondents was 6.8% (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI = 6.1, 7.6. PRs indicated a lower prevalence of ILI in Technicians (PR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2, 0.9 and Truck Drivers (PR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.7 and higher prevalence in Janitors and Cleaners (PR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3, 4.7 and Secretaries (PR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 5.4. CONCLUSIONS: Some occupations appear to have higher prevalence of ILI than others. These occupational differences may be explained, in part, by differing levels of social contact with the public or contact with contaminated surfaces at work, or by other occupational factors such as stress or access to health care resources.

  15. Öljysäiliöaluksen suojakaasujärjestelmä

    OpenAIRE

    Leppä, Jani

    2010-01-01

    1960-luvun lopussa säiliöaluksilla sattui räjähdysonnettomuuksia lähes viikoittain. Tuolloin alettiin miettiä erilaisia ratkaisuja säiliöalusten turvallisuuden parantamiseksi. Ratkaisuksi ongelmaan kehitettiin suojakaasujärjestelmä, jolla alennetaan lastitankkien happipitoisuutta niin matalalle tasolle, että räjähdys lastitankissa on teoriassa mahdoton. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tehdä tietopaketti, joka käsittelee öljysäiliöaluksen suojakaasujärjestelmää sekä siihen olennaisesti lii...

  16. Zametjat li v Pekine estonskii flag ili jego otsutstvije? / Viktoria Savtshuk, Susanna Berezina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savtshuk, Viktoria

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu infokeskuses toimunud debatist, kus teemaks oli Pekingi olümpiamängude võimalik boikoteerimine seoses hiljutiste sündmustega Tiibetis. Debatis osalesid Riigikogu Tiibeti toetusrühma liige Silver Meikar ja parlamendiliige ning Eesti Olümpiakomitee asepresident Jüri Tamm

  17. Statistical implications of adjustments of raw ILI (In-Line Inspection) data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timashev, Svyatoslav A.; Bushinskaya, Anna V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Ural Branch. Sciences and Engineering Center ' Reliability and Safety of Large Systems and Machines'

    2009-07-01

    The paper describes the implications and inferences that inevitably arise when deliberate 'adjustments' of raw MFL ILI data are made when delivering the final report on conducted ILI and/or performing defect sizing and reliability assessments needed for pipeline integrity management plans (IMPs). The root causes of data adjustments are discussed, main types of adjustments are classified and the consequences as related to pipeline residual life, reliability and safety are described. A comparison is performed between adjustment and the full statistical analysis (FSA), as applied to raw ILI and verification data. The consequences of defect data adjustment as related to pipeline reliability and POF and possible litigation issues are discussed. Case studies are presented which demonstrate the application of the FSA method to the results of ILI and verification measurements on pipelines that are located on three continents. Some assessments of the actual reliability of pipelines with defects are given. (author)

  18. Relationship between of job satisfaction levels and life satisfaction levels of physical education and sports teachers (Example of Sanliurfa ProvinceBeden eğitimi ve spor öğretmenlerinin iş tatmin düzeyleri ve yaşam tatmin düzeyleri arasındaki ilişki (Şanlıurfa İli örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Fatih Küçükibiş

    2016-09-01

    levels and life satisfaction levels.   Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı beden eğitimi ve spor öğretmenlerinin iş tatmini düzeyleri ile yaşam tatmin düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkiyi analiz ederek, demografik değişkenler açısından incelemektir. Bu araştırmaya Şanlıurfa’da görev yapan 308 beden eğitimi ve spor öğretmeni gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. Araştırmaya katılan öğretmenlere Minnesota İş Tatmini (içsel tatmin ve dışsal tatmin Ölçeği’nin 20 maddelik kısa formu ile Diener ve ark., tarafından geliştirilen 5 maddeden oluşan Yaşam Tatmini Ölçeği ve kişisel bilgileri içeren bilgi formları uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen verilerin değerlendirilmesinde değişkenler arasındaki ilişkiler pearson korelasyon analizi ile incelenmiş olup, değişkenlerin karşılaştırılmasında iki grup için; bağımsız örneklem t testi, ikiden fazla grup için; tek yönlü varyans analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmaya göre; beden eğitimi ve spor öğretmenlerinin yaşam tatmin düzeyleri ile genel iş tatmin düzeyleri (r=0,456; p<0,001, içsel tatmin (r=0,423; p<0,001 düzeyleri ve dışsal tatmin (r=0,385; p<0,001 düzeyleri arasında pozitif yönlü orta derece anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Yine beden eğitimi ve spor öğretmenlerinin genel iş tatmin düzeyleri ile içsel tatmin (r=0,920; p<0,001 düzeyleri ve dışsal tatmin (r=0,855; p<0,001 düzeyleri arasında da pozitif yönlü yüksek derece anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca beden eğitimi ve spor öğretmenlerinin içsel tatmin düzeyleri ve dışsal tatmin (r=0,584; p<0,001 düzeyleri arasında da pozitif yönlü orta derece anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Buna göre; Öğretmenlerin içsel tatmin düzeyleri arttıkça dışsal tatmin düzeyleri de artmaktadır. Sonuç olarak; beden eğitimi ve spor öğretmenlerinin genel iş tatmin (içsel ve dışsal düzeyleri arttıkça yaşam tatmin düzeylerinin de

  19. Water Consumption of Agriculture and Natural Ecosystems along the Ili River in China and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Thevs

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ili River is a transboundary river shared by China, upstream, and Kazakhstan, downstream. The Ili is the main water supplier to Lake Balkhash, the largest lake in Central Asia after desiccation of the Aral Sea. Agreements over water allocation have not been concluded between China and Kazakhstan. This paper investigated water consumption of agriculture and riparian ecosystems in the Ili river basin, to provide information for further debate on water allocation, through the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI approach using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite images. The overall water consumption in the Ili river basin was 14.3 km3/a in 2000, 17.2 km3/a in 2005, and 15 km3/a in 2014. In 2000, China and Kazakhstan consumed 38% and 62% of the water, respectively. By 2014, the relative share of China’s water consumption increased to 43%. In China, 80% of the water consumption is due to agriculture. High runoff during the past 10 years enabled increasing water consumption in China and sufficient water supply to agriculture and riparian ecosystems in Kazakhstan. When runoff of the Ili River decreases, as expected for most rivers in Central Asia, then irrigation efficiency has to be further increased in China, and irrigation systems in Kazakhstan have to be restored and modernized in order to reduce water consumption and protect Lake Balkhash and the riparian ecosystems.

  20. Internet lidar system (ILIS): new generation of lidar system using Internet technology for realizing unattended lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Hidenori; Asai, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Kohei; Itabe, Toshikasu

    2001-02-01

    Most of lidar systems are being manually operated on site, therefore, a frequency of observations is limited due to a manpower etc if the lidar site is geographically far away from a laboratory. In such a case, an unattended automatic lidar system or a remote controllable one is expected as for increasing the frequencies. On the other hand, as well known, a computer is linked to the other through the Internet, and remotely operated each other. We have proposed the Internet LIdar System (named ILIS) as the unattended operational lidar. A concept of the ILIS is controllable through the Internet, anytime and anywhere. The ILIS proposed here has been successfully operating every night without any difficulty of the geographical distance of 1,000km.

  1. Characteristics Studies on Uyghur Place Names in Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯庆梅

    2015-01-01

    Because of its peculiar language environment with multi ethnicities and the One Belt and One Road initiative, the stud-ies of place names in Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture attract many linguists'interests. This paper focuses on characteristics stud-ies of Uyghur place names in Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture based on Universal Principles of Tendencies proposed by the Polish linguist Witold Manczak. Through careful and thorough study, this paper found that because of different traditional lifestyles and different political strategies through different historical periods, as urban people, the Uyghur place names highlighted the Uyghur people's great contributions to artificial constructions.

  2. Komercijalizacija radija – tržišna ili politička odluka?

    OpenAIRE

    Mučalo, Marina

    1999-01-01

    Elektronički su mediji u brojnim zemljama od samog početka usko povezani i uvjetovani komercijalnim sadržajima. Međutim, podjednako kao što se nezavisno razvijao sustav komercijalnih radija, demokratske su države vrlo brzo počele graditi i/ili unapređivati dopunske sustave javnih i/ili nekomercijalnih radija. Zakon o telekomunikacijama iz 1994. ponovo je dozvolio privatno vlasništvo nad elektroničkim medijima, te se broj radijskih postaja u Republici Hrvatskoj povećao za sto posto. Danas ih j...

  3. Ten-year performance of Influenzanet: ILI time series, risks, vaccine effects, and care-seeking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander P. van Noort

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent public health threats have propelled major innovations on infectious disease monitoring, culminating in the development of innovative syndromic surveillance methods. Influenzanet is an internet-based system that monitors influenza-like illness (ILI in cohorts of self-reporting volunteers in European countries since 2003. We investigate and confirm coherence through the first ten years in comparison with ILI data from the European Influenza Surveillance Network and demonstrate country-specific behaviour of participants with ILI regarding medical care seeking. Using regression analysis, we determine that chronic diseases, being a child, living with children, being female, smoking and pets at home, are all independent predictors of ILI risk, whereas practicing sports and walking or bicycling for locomotion are associated with a small risk reduction. No effect for using public transportation or living alone was found. Furthermore, we determine the vaccine effectiveness for ILI for each season.

  4. Analyzing Idioms and Their Frequency in Three Advanced ILI Textbooks: A Corpus-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Sepideh; Rajabpoor, Aboozar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at identifying and quantifying the idioms used in three ILI "Advanced" level textbooks based on three different English corpora; MICASE, BNC and the Brown Corpus, and comparing the frequencies of the idioms across the three corpora. The first step of the study involved searching the books to find multi-word…

  5. Analysis on Cu and Zn Concentrations in Agricultural Soils of Ili District, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jing-na

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is mainly to investigate the contents of copper(Cuand zinc(Znin agricultural soils to provide basic infor-mation for the establishment of green and organic production base in Ili District, Xinjiang Autonomous Region. 600 topsoil samples of the a-gricultural land were collected from eight counties of Ili District, and the contents of Cu and Zn were determined by AAS after microwave di-gestion. The statistics analysis showed that the mean contents of Cu and Zn in the agricultural soils of Ili District were 28.68 mg·kg-1 and 83.17 mg·kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of Cu in the agricultural soils of Ili District ranged from 11.07 mg·kg-1 to 59.90 mg·kg-1, 85% of which ranged from 20 mg·kg-1 to 40 mg·kg-1; and the concentrations of Zn in the agricultural soils of Ili District ranged from 39.58 mg·kg-1 to 160.40 mg·kg-1, 90%of which ranged from 60 mg·kg-1 to 110 mg·kg-1. Furthermore, compared the Cu and Zn contents of the tested soils among the eight counties, Cu contents in Tekes County were higher than other counties, while Zn contents showed little difference. The con-tents of Cu and Zn in the tested soils were all below the threshold values that were established in the national environmental quality standard for soils(secondary standards, GB 15618-1995, but about 7% and 21% were higher than the Cu and Zn background values of soil in Ili District, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in soils of Ili District accord with the environmental requirements for or-ganic and green production base regulated by national standard of organic products(GB/T 19630-2011and industrial standard of green food(NY/T 391-2013.

  6. Probabilistic daily ILI syndromic surveillance with a spatio-temporal Bayesian hierarchical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Chien Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For daily syndromic surveillance to be effective, an efficient and sensible algorithm would be expected to detect aberrations in influenza illness, and alert public health workers prior to any impending epidemic. This detection or alert surely contains uncertainty, and thus should be evaluated with a proper probabilistic measure. However, traditional monitoring mechanisms simply provide a binary alert, failing to adequately address this uncertainty. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based on the Bayesian posterior probability of influenza-like illness (ILI visits, the intensity of outbreak can be directly assessed. The numbers of daily emergency room ILI visits at five community hospitals in Taipei City during 2006-2007 were collected and fitted with a Bayesian hierarchical model containing meteorological factors such as temperature and vapor pressure, spatial interaction with conditional autoregressive structure, weekend and holiday effects, seasonality factors, and previous ILI visits. The proposed algorithm recommends an alert for action if the posterior probability is larger than 70%. External data from January to February of 2008 were retained for validation. The decision rule detects successfully the peak in the validation period. When comparing the posterior probability evaluation with the modified Cusum method, results show that the proposed method is able to detect the signals 1-2 days prior to the rise of ILI visits. CONCLUSIONS: This Bayesian hierarchical model not only constitutes a dynamic surveillance system but also constructs a stochastic evaluation of the need to call for alert. The monitoring mechanism provides earlier detection as well as a complementary tool for current surveillance programs.

  7. Survival and Transcendence of Transnational Indigenous Latina Immigrants (ILIs) in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Machado-Casas

    2013-01-01

    Transnational indigenous Latino immigrants today seem to live multiple lives across multiple borders. Based on a 3-year Mix methods research study that took place in a new immigrant-receiving community in North Carolina, the manuscript describes the experiences of Indigenous Latina Immigrants (ILIs) living in the United States, specifically pedagogies of survival based on fluid social identities. The indigenous women who took part in this study had to adopt fluid unknown identities both in th...

  8. Characteristics Studies on Kazak Place Names in Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯庆梅

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on characteristics studies of Kazak place names in Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture based on Univer⁃sal Principles of Tendencies proposed by the Polish linguist Witold Manczak. Through careful and thorough study, this paper found that because of different traditional lifestyles and different political strategies through different historical periods, this paper proved that the Kazaks as the nomads were proficient in observing the environmental conditions, and made full use of them to name places.

  9. Survival and Transcendence of Transnational Indigenous Latina Immigrants (ILIs in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Machado-Casas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transnational indigenous Latino immigrants today seem to live multiple lives across multiple borders. Based on a 3-year Mix methods research study that took place in a new immigrant-receiving community in North Carolina, the manuscript describes the experiences of Indigenous Latina Immigrants (ILIs living in the United States, specifically pedagogies of survival based on fluid social identities. The indigenous women who took part in this study had to adopt fluid unknown identities both in the home for cultural survival, and also outside the home (external identities for physical and social survival, often in hostile environments. In addition, it raises questions about the ways multilingualism affects border mobility and transnationality as well as how indigenous Latina immigrants become Camaleónas guerreras (Chameleon Warriors who use “critical survival tools” as a transnational bridge to facilitate their survival in a hostile US environment, the community, and in schools.

  10. Stekljannõh del master, ili Steklo otdelno, kotletõ otdelno / Julia Totskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Totskaja, Julia

    1999-01-01

    Õpingutest rahvakoolis Bornholmi saarel Taanis jutustab Narva Kolledzhi üliõpilane Galina Dõtshenko: ka maalimise ja klaasikunsti õppimisest. Oma tööde näituse korraldas ta Narva Kolledzhi lugemissaalis

  11. ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP AND MAQASID AL-SHARI’AH: REINVESTIGATING THE DIMENSIONS OF ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP INVENTORY (ILI) VIA CONTENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

    OpenAIRE

    Mahazan, A. M.; Nurhafizah, S.; Rozita, A.; H. Siti Aishah; Wan Mohd. Fazrul Azdi, W. R.; Mohd. Rumaizuddin, G.; Yuseri, A.; Mohd. Rosmizi, A. R.; H. Muhammad; Mohd. Azhar, I. R.; Abdullah, A.G.; Muhammad Yusuf, K.; Khairunneezam, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate separate themes of Islamic Leadership based on analyses conducted on selected literature of conventional and Islamic Leadership. The themes of Islamic Leadership were identified for the purpose of developing a specific inventory to measure Islamic Leadership or the Islamic Leadership Inventory (ILI). In identifying the themes of Islamic Leadership, this research applied qualitative content analysis procedures on four categories of literature. The...

  12. The Invertebrate Lysozyme Effector ILYS-3 Is Systemically Activated in Response to Danger Signals and Confers Antimicrobial Protection in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravato-Nobre, Maria João; Vaz, Filipa; Filipe, Sergio; Chalmers, Ronald; Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the relative contributions and importance of antibacterial effectors in the nematode C. elegans, despite extensive work on the innate immune responses in this organism. We report an investigation of the expression, function and regulation of the six ilys (invertebrate-type lysozyme) genes of C. elegans. These genes exhibited a surprising variety of tissue-specific expression patterns and responses to starvation or bacterial infection. The most strongly expressed, ilys-3, was investigated in detail. ILYS-3 protein was expressed constitutively in the pharynx and coelomocytes, and dynamically in the intestine. Analysis of mutants showed that ILYS-3 was required for pharyngeal grinding (disruption of bacterial cells) during normal growth and consequently it contributes to longevity, as well as being protective against bacterial pathogens. Both starvation and challenge with Gram-positive pathogens resulted in ERK-MAPK-dependent up-regulation of ilys-3 in the intestine. The intestinal induction by pathogens, but not starvation, was found to be dependent on MPK-1 activity in the pharynx rather than in the intestine, demonstrating unexpected communication between these two tissues. The coelomocyte expression appeared to contribute little to normal growth or immunity. Recombinant ILYS-3 protein was found to exhibit appropriate lytic activity against Gram-positive cell wall material. PMID:27525822

  13. [Environmental geochemical baseline of heavy metals in soils of the Ili river basin and pollution evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Ru; Nasier, Telajin; Cheng, Yong-Yi; Zhan, Jiang-Yu; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Environmental geochemical baseline models of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Hg were established by standardized method in the ehernozem, chestnut soil, sierozem and saline soil from the Ili river valley region. The theoretical baseline values were calculated. Baseline factor pollution index evaluation method, environmental background value evaluation method and heavy metal cleanliness evaluation method were used to compare soil pollution degrees. The baseline factor pollution index evaluation showed that As pollution was the most prominent among the four typical types of soils within the river basin, with 7.14%, 9.76%, 7.50% of sampling points in chernozem, chestnut soil and sierozem reached the heavy pollution, respectively. 7.32% of sampling points of chestnut soil reached the permitted heavy metal Pb pollution index in the chestnut soil. The variation extent of As and Pb was the largest, indicating large human disturbance. Environmental background value evaluation showed that As was the main pollution element, followed by Cu, Zn and Pb. Heavy metal cleanliness evaluation showed that Cu, Zn and Pb were better than cleanliness level 2 and Hg was the of cleanliness level 1 in all four types of soils. As showed moderate pollution in sierozem, and it was of cleanliness level 2 or better in chernozem, chestnut soil and saline-alkali soil. Comparing the three evaluation systems, the baseline factor pollution index evaluation more comprehensively reflected the geochemical migration characteristics of elements and the soil formation processes, and the pollution assessment could be specific to the sampling points. The environmental background value evaluation neglected the natural migration of heavy metals and the deposition process in the soil since it was established on the regional background values. The main purpose of the heavy metal cleanliness evaluation was to evaluate the safety degree of soil environment.

  14. Relevance of components of Investment Model and some variables in close relationships with high and low self-monitoringYakın ilişkilerde Yatırım Modeli unsurlarının ve bazı değişkenlerin yüksek ve düşük izlenim ayarlamacılığı ile ilgisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzade Aslan Yılmaz

    2015-10-01

    da evli olmayan bir romantik ilişkisi bulunan 472 kişiye kişisel bilgi formu, Kendini Ayarlama Ölçeği (Bacanlı, 1990; Snyder, 1974 ve İlişki İstikrarı Ölçeği (Büyükşahin, Hasta ve Hovardaoğlu, 2005; Rusbult, Martz ve Agnew,1998 uygulanmıştır. Yapılan lojistik regresyon analizi ile araştırma kapsamında ele alınan ve yakın ilişkilerle ilgili değişkenlerin ve Yatırım Modeli unsurlarının yüksek ya da düşük izlenim ayarlamacılığı gruplarından herhangi biriyle ilgili olup olmadığı test edilmiştir. Analiz sonucunda seçeneklerin niteliğini değerlendirme (pozitif olarak ve ilişkide sorun yaşama  (negatif olarak değişkenlerinin yüksek izlenim ayarlamacılığı ile ilgili olduğu bulunmuştur. Sonuçlar kuramsal yaklaşımlar çerçevesinde tartışılmıştır.

  15. The importance of the quality of coach–athlete relationship for athletes’ motivationAntrenör sporcu ilişkisinin sporcuların güdülenmesi için önemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Özşaker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to reveal whether the coach-athlete relationship is a determinant of athletes’ motivation. 312 (63.5% males and 179 (36.5% females as a total of 491 athletes from team and individual sports voluntarily participated to the research. Mean age of the participants’ was found to be 19.11±2.70. The Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q and Sports Motivation Scale (SMS were used as the data collection tools. For the data analyses; descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analyses (enter method were used. Level of significance was determined to be .05. The results showed that intrinsic motivation was significantly correlated with closeness (r = .235, commitment (r = .240 and complementary (r = .153. Also, extrinsic motivation was significantly correlated with closeness (r = .346, commitment (r = .307 and complementary (r = .270. The results of the regression analysis revealed that closeness (β = .197, p = .009 and commitment (β = .197, p = .006 were the significant predictors of intrinsic motivation [F (3, 487 = 12.539, p = .000, R2=.07] and that extrinsic motivation was significantly predicted by closeness (β = .283, p = .000, [F (3, 487 = 23.296, p = .000, R2=.13]. As a conclusion, the results of this research indicate that there is a significant correlation between the coach-athlete relationship and athletes’ motivation and that some aspects of the quality of coach-athlete relationship could contribute to athletes’ motivation.   Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı antrenör sporcu ilişkisi ile sporcuların güdülenmeleri arasındaki ilişkiyi belirlemektir. Bu amaçla takım sporları ve bireysel sporlardan, 312 (%63.5 erkek- 179 (%36.5 kadın sporcu olmak üzere toplam 491 sporcu gönüllü olarak araştırmaya katılmıştır. Sporcuların yaşları 19.11±2.70 olarak belirlenmiştir. Araştırmada, Antrenör-Sporcu İlişkisi Envanteri ve Sporda Güdülenme

  16. Land and Water Use in Rice-upland Crop Rotation Areas in Lower Ili River Basin, Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIMIZU Katsuyuki; KITAMURA Yoshinobu; ANZAI Toshihiko; KUBOTA Jumpei

    2010-01-01

    The lower Ili River Basin is located in semi-arid area, and the annual rainfall is 177 mm. Therefore, the irrigation is inevitable for agriculture. Large-scale irrigated agriculture had been developed since 1960's in the lower parts of the river and the total irrigated area is about 32 000 hm2. In the project area, the paddy nee-upland crop rotation has been practiced. Due to the domestic water use for hydropower and agriculture as well as water use among riparian countries, the deficit of water for agriculture in the lower part has been concerned. The authors, therefore, conducted the field survey and water balance analysis of the Akdara irrigation project in the lower Ili River Basin in order to assess the land and water uses. Moreover, the impact of the water use on water environment to the basin was analyzed. The following results were obtained as following (1) the groundwater level in the irrigated district varied from 1.5 m to 3.5 m through year. (2) 1970's groundwater level was drastically raised from 8 m to 3 m and the groundwater had been recharged in this period. (3) Water use efficiency of agriculture, which is the ratio of total evapotranspiration to the total water withdrawal was as low as 0.23.

  17. Orhan Pamuk’un Masumiyet Müzesi Romaninda Baba oğul ilişkisi

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, Öğr. Gör. Fethi

    2013-01-01

    Baba oğul ilişkisi edebiyatta sıkça işlenen bir temadır Roman öncesi dönemde arkaik örneklerine rastlanan bu tema romanın bir tür olarak ortaya çıkmasıyla birçok edebiyatçı ve romancı tarafından değişik boyutlarıyla ele alınmıştır Benzer bir durum Türk Edebiyatı için de geçerlidir Özellikle gelenekçi modern Doğu Batı vb karşıtlıklar etrafında şekillenen bu baba oğul ilişkisinin temel özelliği kopuk gergin ve çatışmalı bir karakter taşımasıdır Tanzimat’tan günümüze uzanan süreç içerisi...

  18. Impact of the interaction effect of the constructive and destructive responses to dissatisfaction on romantic relationship satisfactionYapıcı ve yıkıcı çatışma çözme tepkilerinin karşılıklı etkileşiminin ilişki doyumu üzerindeki etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Taluy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore to what extent the effects of interaction between the self and the partner’s perceived responses to dissatisfaction, predict the relationship satisfaction in romantic relationships. The relationship satisfaction subscale of Relationship Stability Scale (Büyükşahin, Hasta & Hovardaoğlu, 2005; Rusbult, Martz & Agnew,1998 and Responses to Dissatisfaction Scale (Taluy, 2013; Rusbult, Verette, Whitney, Slovik & Lipkus, 1991 were administered to 198 female and 118 male dating individuals. Moderated regression is conducted to investigate whether the moderation effect of the responses to dissatisfaction predicts the relationship satisfaction. Results reveal that among women the perceived partner’s “exit” is the predictor of relationship satisfaction whereas among men the perceived partner’s “neglect” is the predictor of relationship satisfaction. The investigation between the interaction effect of self and the partner’s perceived responses to dissatisfaction indicates that the individual’s and the perceived partner’s “exit”; the individual’s “neglect” and the perceived partner’s “loyalty” responses are the predictors of relationship satisfaction among women. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical approaches.   Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı, romantik bir ilişkide yaşanan sorunlar karşısında verilen tepkilerin karşılıklı etkileşiminin ilişki doyumunu ne derecede yordadığını incelemektir. Çalışmaya, şu anda yakın ilişki yaşayan 198’i kadın, 118’i erkek olan toplam 316 kişi katılmıştır. Çalışmada İlişki İstikrarı Ölçeği’nin (Büyükşahin, Hasta ve Hovardaoğlu, 2005; Rusbult, Martz ve Agnew,1998 ilişki doyumu boyutu ve İkili İlişkilerde Çatışma Çözme Tepkileri Ölçeği (Taluy, 2013; Rusbult, Verette, Whitney, Slovik ve Lipkus, 1991 uygulanmıştır.  Yapılan bir dizi düzenleyici değişkenli regresyon analizi ile çatışma

  19. Vinac Marijana Jaića Molitvenik ili dio kućne baštine

    OpenAIRE

    Blažević, Krešimir

    2006-01-01

    U ovom članku želio sam pokazati kako se mnoge stvari mogu i moraju redefinirati i nanovo razjasniti u recentno vrijeme. Marijan Jaić, vjerojatno najtiražniji hrvatski pisac, dugo godina je bio u zapećku proučavanja hrvatske književnosti. Iako je zanimanje za Jaića u posljednjih desetak ili petnaest godina naraslo (napisano je puno knjiga o njemu i njegovu radu), još uvijek nije njegov rad do kraja obrađen i prostora za istraživanje o Jaićevu radu još uvijek ima. Jaić možda i nije književnik ...

  20. ‘Nothing is true, everything is permitted.’ : The portrayal of the Nizari Isma’ilis in the Assassin’s Creed game series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Ubisoft’s Assassin’s Creed does a remarkable – though not flawless – job in presenting a well-balanced game narrative, which incorporates not only a historically justified representation of the Nizari Isma’ilis, but also implicitly corrects one of the most famous Western legends about the so-called

  1. Critical Evaluation of the New Headway Advanced and the ILI Advanced Series: A Comparison of Curricular Components and CLT Objectives Based on ACTFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Zare-Behtash

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The critical evaluation of systematic planning, development and review practices of instructional materials intend to improve the quality of teaching and learning. This study investigates the objectives of communicative language teaching and curricular components of two important textbooks which are widely studied in Iran: the New Headway Advanced Series (2015, the Iran Language Institute (ILI Advanced1 (2008. The evaluation is done in terms of two prospects; firstly, the interpretation of communicative language teaching objectives and secondly, curricular components of the books. To this aim, a checklist of 5 Cs standards and seven curricular components evaluation developed by American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL was employed. The evaluation reveals that the New Headway advanced series is more preferable and desirable than the ILI Advanced 1 due to the design and organization, authenticity, attractiveness, functionality, practicality and the other qualities mentioned above regarding communication, cultures, connection, comparison, and community in all aspects. The evaluation based on the seven curricular components- language systems, communication strategies, cultural knowledge, learning strategies, content from other subject areas, critical thinking skills, technology and the other features- indicates that the ILI textbook enjoys low standards and is not well developed in all components. The ILI textbook is highly reading and writing oriented and not appropriate for transactional and interactional learning purposes. This study acquaints language teachers and learners with the more desirable and cogent book.

  2. Genetic Differentiation of Ili Schizothorax(Schizothorax pseudaksaiensis)Populations in Ili River Basin%伊犁河流域不同群体伊犁裂腹鱼遗传差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡林钢; 孟玮; 杨天燕; 牛建功

    2014-01-01

    IlischizothoraxSchizothorax pseudaksaiensisfoundonlyinIliRiverinXinjiangisanindigenousandecologicallysensitive species in Ili R iver basin. In the past years, the population of S. pseudaksaiensis w as sharply declined due to overfishing and the changes in habitats by exploitation of hydraulic projects. A total of 54 individuals w ere collected from four sam pling sites in the Ili River,aligned1109bpsequenceswereanalyzedinthemitochondrialDNA cytochromebgenetoevaluatethegeneticstructureofS. pseudaksaiensis and im pactfactors.Sixteen haplotypes w ere defined in 54 individuals,the m axim alvalue in Y am adu river population (YJ)andtheminimum inQiapuqihaireservoirpopulation (YQ).Thetwocladeswereobservedinbothmolecularphylogenetictree and haplotype netw ork,and haplotypes in differentpopulations w ere found to be interspersed.The average genetic distances revealed that the differentiation w as still intraspecific in four populations, not subspecies level. T he differentiation tendency of the haplotypes w as involved in the separation effect of dam s. From the perspective view of conservation biology, different m anagem ent strategies should be adopted to the tw o groups ofS.pseudaksaiensis.%伊犁裂腹鱼(Schizothorax pseudaksaiensis)仅分布于新疆伊犁河流域,是该流域典型的土著种和生态敏感种。近年来,过度捕捞及水利工程开发使栖息地环境改变,种群数量急剧减少。本研究分析了伊犁河流域4个采样点共计54尾伊犁裂腹鱼线粒体DNA细胞色素b基因(长度为1109bp)的序列,探讨了伊犁裂腹鱼遗传结构及其影响因素。54尾个体共定义了16种单倍型,其中雅玛渡采样点群体(YJ)享有单倍型的数量最多,而恰普其海水库群体(YQ)享有单倍型的数量最少。单倍型分子系统树和中介网络图均分为两支,不同群体间单倍型交叉出现。平均遗传距离表明,4个伊犁裂腹鱼群体的遗传

  3. Li(+) solvation in glyme-Li salt solvate ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kazuhide; Tatara, Ryoichi; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Saito, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Kazuki; Mandai, Toshihiko; Matsugami, Masaru; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2015-03-28

    Certain molten complexes of Li salts and solvents can be regarded as ionic liquids. In this study, the local structure of Li(+) ions in equimolar mixtures ([Li(glyme)]X) of glymes (G3: triglyme and G4: tetraglyme) and Li salts (LiX: lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (Li[TFSA]), lithium bis(pentafluoroethanesulfonyl)amide (Li[BETI]), lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li[OTf]), LiBF4, LiClO4, LiNO3, and lithium trifluoroacetate (Li[TFA])) was investigated to discriminate between solvate ionic liquids and concentrated solutions. Raman spectra and ab initio molecular orbital calculations have shown that the glyme molecules adopt a crown-ether like conformation to form a monomeric [Li(glyme)](+) in the molten state. Further, Raman spectroscopic analysis allowed us to estimate the fraction of the free glyme in [Li(glyme)]X. The amount of free glyme was estimated to be a few percent in [Li(glyme)]X with perfluorosulfonylamide type anions, and thereby could be regarded as solvate ionic liquids. Other equimolar mixtures of [Li(glyme)]X were found to contain a considerable amount of free glyme, and they were categorized as traditional concentrated solutions. The activity of Li(+) in the glyme-Li salt mixtures was also evaluated by measuring the electrode potential of Li/Li(+) as a function of concentration, by using concentration cells against a reference electrode. At a higher concentration of Li salt, the amount of free glyme diminishes and affects the electrode reaction, leading to a drastic increase in the electrode potential. Unlike conventional electrolytes (dilute and concentrated solutions), the significantly high electrode potential found in the solvate ILs indicates that the solvation of Li(+) by the glyme forms stable and discrete solvate ions ([Li(glyme)](+)) in the molten state. This anomalous Li(+) solvation may have a great impact on the electrode reactions in Li batteries.

  4. Isotope labeled internal standards (ILIS) as a basis for quality control in clinical studies using plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeli, Melinda; Végvári, Akos; Marko-Varga, György; Laurell, Thomas

    2010-04-18

    For clinical proteomic studies, the quality of the biofluid samples such as human blood plasma is extremely important. In this study we have investigated the stability of human plasma samples by spiking stable isotope-labeled peptides into the plasma and monitoring their degradation under different storage conditions. FPA-1, C4A and C3f were synthesized with isotopically labeled amino acids, and used as reference peptides. The mixture of internal calibrants was spiked into plasma at the starting point of investigation, mimicking the time of collection for future biobanking efforts, and their qualitative and quantitative changes were analyzed over time by using both MALDI-MS (LTQ Orbitrap XL) and nanoLC-ESI-MS (LTQ XL ETD). We have found that all three synthetic peptides were stable in plasma at -20 and -80 degrees C during the examined 2-month period. However, different proteolytic degradation profiles of the peptides were observed at room temperature. We anticipate that the use of these isotope-labeled peptides as internal standards (ILIS) provides a quality control for long-term storage and proteomic plasma analysis.

  5. Internet-based monitoring of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the general population of the Netherlands during the 2003–2004 influenza season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Richard L; Bartelds, Aad IM; van Noort, Sander P; Koppeschaar, Carl E; Paget, John; Schellevis, François G; van der Zee, Jouke

    2006-01-01

    Background An internet-based survey of influenza-like illness (ILI) – the Great Influenza Survey or GIS – was launched in the Netherlands in the 2003–2004 influenza season. The aim of the present study was to validate the representativeness of the GIS population and to compare the GIS data with the official ILI data obtained by Dutch GPs participating in the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. Method Direct mailings to schools and universities, and repeated interviews on television and radio, and in newspapers were used to kindle the enthusiasm of a broad section of the public for GIS. Strict symptomatic criteria for ILI were formulated with the assistance of expert institutes and only participants who responded at least five times to weekly e-mails asking them about possible ILI symptoms were included in the survey. Validation of GIS was done at different levels: 1) some key demographic (age distribution) and public health statistics (prevalence of asthma and diabetes, and influenza vaccination rates) for the Dutch population were compared with corresponding figures calculated from GIS; 2) the ILI rates in GIS were compared with the ILI consultation rates reported by GPs participating in the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. Results 13,300 persons (53% of total responders), replied at least five times to weekly e-mails and were included in the survey. As expected, there was a marked under-representation of the age groups 0–10 years and 81->90 years in the GIS population, although the similarities were remarkable for most other age groups, albeit that the age groups between 21 and 70 years were slightly overrepresented. There were striking similarities between GIS and the Dutch population with regard to the prevalence of asthma (6.4% vs. 6.9%) and the influenza vaccination rates, and to a lesser degree for diabetes (2.4% vs. 3.5%). The vaccination rates in patients with asthma or diabetes, and persons older than 65 years were 68%, 85%, and 85% respectively in

  6. Internet-based monitoring of influenza-like illness (ILI in the general population of the Netherlands during the 2003–2004 influenza season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An internet-based survey of influenza-like illness (ILI – the Great Influenza Survey or GIS – was launched in the Netherlands in the 2003–2004 influenza season. The aim of the present study was to validate the representativeness of the GIS population and to compare the GIS data with the official ILI data obtained by Dutch GPs participating in the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. Method Direct mailings to schools and universities, and repeated interviews on television and radio, and in newspapers were used to kindle the enthusiasm of a broad section of the public for GIS. Strict symptomatic criteria for ILI were formulated with the assistance of expert institutes and only participants who responded at least five times to weekly e-mails asking them about possible ILI symptoms were included in the survey. Validation of GIS was done at different levels: 1 some key demographic (age distribution and public health statistics (prevalence of asthma and diabetes, and influenza vaccination rates for the Dutch population were compared with corresponding figures calculated from GIS; 2 the ILI rates in GIS were compared with the ILI consultation rates reported by GPs participating in the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. Results 13,300 persons (53% of total responders, replied at least five times to weekly e-mails and were included in the survey. As expected, there was a marked under-representation of the age groups 0–10 years and 81->90 years in the GIS population, although the similarities were remarkable for most other age groups, albeit that the age groups between 21 and 70 years were slightly overrepresented. There were striking similarities between GIS and the Dutch population with regard to the prevalence of asthma (6.4% vs. 6.9% and the influenza vaccination rates, and to a lesser degree for diabetes (2.4% vs. 3.5%. The vaccination rates in patients with asthma or diabetes, and persons older than 65 years were 68%, 85%, and

  7. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

  8. Dora Sečić, Kraljevska sveučilišna knjižnica u Zagrebu. Razvoj i djelovanje srednjoeuropske knjižnice od 1874. do 1918. Lokve: Nacionalna i sveučilišna knjižnica — Benja, 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikša Stančić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Monografija dr. sc. Dore Sečić posvećena je Kraljevskoj sveučilišnoj knjižnici u Zagrebu u razdoblju od njezina osnivanja 1874. do kraja Prvoga svjetskog rata 1918. godine. Autorica je utvrdila društvene i političke uvjete njezina osnivanja i djelovanja, objasnila njezinu specifičnu funkciju sveučilišne i istodobno nacionalne knjižnice, odredila njezin položaj u sklopu knjižnica u Austro-Ugarskoj Monarhiji, razinu uključenosti knjižničarske struke koja je u njoj razvijana u domete suvremene knjižničarske struke u svijetu i napose na srednjoeuropskom prostoru, te opisala organizaciju i djelovanje Knjižnice u obrađivanom razdoblju. Monografija započinje prikazom položaja sjeverne Hrvatske u Austro-Ugarskoj Monarhiji u uvjetima dualizma i ograničene hrvatske političke i gospodarske autonomije te upravne odvojenosti Dalmacije i Istre. Pritom je za monografiju posvećenu osnivanju i djelovanju sveučilišne knjižnice napose relevantno pitanje razvoja visokog školstva, odnosno osnivanja i djelovanja zagrebačkog sveučilišta. Prikaz stanja u znanstvenim knjižnicama i knjižničarstvu u Europi, napose u sveučilišnim knjižnicama u Austro-Ugarskoj i vodećoj Sveučilišnoj knjižnici u Beču, a zatim prikaz pruskog knjižničarstva koje je pred kraj 19. st. izradilo suvremene metode poslovanja znanstvenih knjižnica i obrade knjižne građe, referentni je okvir uz pomoć kojega je autorica mogla ocijeniti kvalitetu djelovanja novoosnovane znanstvene knjižnice koja je postala jedna od središnjih hrvatskih nacionalnih kulturnih institucija. Autorica prati organizaciju i djelovanje Kraljevske sveučilišne knjižnice od njezina osnivanja i prvobitnog smještaja na Gornjem gradu, a zatim i njezino djelovanje nakon preseljenja 1882. zajedno sa Sveučilištem u njegovu današnju zgradu pa do useljenja 1913. u novu zgradu na Marulićevu trgu, što je svaki put bilo popraćeno preustrojem knjižnice. U monografiji je napose, na

  9. BARCELONA & Li-Fi

    OpenAIRE

    Verdú Leal, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Project focused on the study of the possibility of introducing the Li-Fi technology in the city of Barcelona as a pioneering example of Smart City. Proyecto enfocado al estudio de la posibilidad de implantar la tecnología Li-Fi en la ciudad de Barcelona como ejemplo pionero de Smart City. Projecte enfocat a l'estudi de la possibilidad d'implantació la tecnologia Li-Fi a la ciudad de Barcelona com exemple innovador de Smart City.

  10. Staraja doroga : [luuletused] / Aleksandr Mezhirov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mezhirov, Aleksandr

    2001-01-01

    Sisu: Alter ego ; "Tshto mne delat v "Strele"..." ; "V 41-m, v lessah Pervojanu..." ; Za kogo? Za togo li... ; "Ne zabõvai menja, Moskva moja..." ; "Jesli bõ Zoja i Anna..." ; "Vospominanjami ne mutshai..." ; "Mozhet rodina sõna obidet..." ; Nabokov

  11. Staraja doroga : [luuletused] / Aleksandr Mezhirov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mezhirov, Aleksandr

    2001-01-01

    Sisu: Alter ego ; "Tshto mne delat v "Strele"..." ; "V 41-m, v lessah Pervojanu..." ; Za kogo? Za togo li... ; "Ne zabõvai menja, Moskva moja..." ; "Jesli bõ Zoja i Anna..." ; "Vospominanjami ne mutshai..." ; "Mozhet rodina sõna obidet..." ; Nabokov

  12. Landau - genii ili manjak?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Telefilm vene füüsikust Lev Landaust "Minu mees - geenius" ("Moi muzh - genii"), Cora Landau memuaaride raamatu "Kuidas me elasime" ("Kak mõ zhili") ekraniseering, on enne esilinastust tekitanud Venemaal skandaali

  13. Landau - genii ili manjak?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Telefilm vene füüsikust Lev Landaust "Minu mees - geenius" ("Moi muzh - genii"), Cora Landau memuaaride raamatu "Kuidas me elasime" ("Kak mõ zhili") ekraniseering, on enne esilinastust tekitanud Venemaal skandaali

  14. Fibromyalji'li hastalarda serum 25-hidroksi D vitamini ve parathormon düzeyleri

    OpenAIRE

    Yener, Mahmut; Akkuş, Selami

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 2006 Haziran; 13(2) Araştırma Makalelesi Fibromyalji'li hastalarda serum 25-hidroksi D vitamini ve parathormon düzeyleri Mahmut Yener, Selami Akkuş Özet Son zamanlarda yapılan çalışmalar düşük D vitamini düzeyleri ile nonspesifik kas iskelet sistemi semptomları arasında ilişki olduğunu bildirmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı fibromyaljili hastalarda D vitamini ve parathormon d...

  15. Inheritance and Innovation of Historical Culture in Urban Square Landscape Design under the Background of Globalization-Taking Xinjiang Ili Han Dynasty Culture Square as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Wu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we take the landscape design of Xinjiang Ili Han Dynasty Culture Square as an example, conducts discussion over the inheritance and innovation of historical culture elements in three aspects, that is, theme connotation, general spatial layout and main design technique, on the basis that the category and type of historical culture and the application rule of historical culture in urban square design have been expounded. This study has conducted an initial discussion, which is to offer inspirations and references for the relevant theoretical study and design practice.

  16. Iz povijesti Zavoda za bolesti zubi Stomatološkog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Specijalizacija iz Dentalne patologije

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Pri Stomatološkom fakulteteu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu od godine 1972. provodi se trodjelna specijallizacija koja je obuhvaćala područja dentalne i oralne patologije s parodontologijom. Od ukupno 148 polaznika, specijalistički ispti položilo je 124 kandidata (77 žena i 47 muškaraca). Kao temeljnu specijalnost, dentalnu je patologiju odabralo 75 polaznika, oralnu patologiju 20, a parodontologiju 29 polazbnika. Odlukom Ministarstva zdravstva Republike Hrvatske godine 1995., specijalizacija je razdi...

  17. Evli erkeklerde eşlerine yönelik şiddet ve ilişkili etmenler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guljan Dönmez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Amaç: Araştırmanın amacı 25-49 yaş arası evli erkeklerde eşlerine yönelik şiddet uygulama durumunun, türlerinin ve etkileyen etmenlerin belirlenmesidir. Yöntem: Kesitsel tipteki çalışmanın evreni, İzmir’in Konak İlçesi’nde bulunan Esentepe Sağlık Ocağı Bölgesi’nde yaşayan 25-49 yaş arası 2615 evli erkektir. Sistematik örnekleme yöntemi ile seçilen 254 kişiye ulaşılmıştır. Bağımlı değişken olan şiddet varlığı “Yeniden Gözden Geçirilen Çatışma Taktikleri Ölçeği” (The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales=CTS 2 ile belirlenmiştir. Bağımsız değişkenler erkeğe ve eşine ilişkin sosyodemografik değişkenler, evliliğe ve aileye, sağlık durumuna, cinsel yaşama ilişkin özelliklerdir. Veri t Testi, Ki-kare, Lojistik Regresyon Analizi ile çözümlenmiştir. Bulgular: Eşe yönelik psikolojik şiddet sıklığı %93, fiziksel şiddet %37.5, ekonomik şiddet %34.4, cinsel şiddet %3.9 olarak saptanmıştır. Psikolojik şiddete maruziyet, ortaokul ve üzeri öğrenimli kadınlarda anlamlı olarak daha fazladır. Erkeklerin işsiz olması ya da düzensiz işlerde çalışması, haftada birkaç kez ya da her gün alkol kullanması, istenmeyen gebelik varlığı, kadının 25-34 yaş grubunda olması fiziksel şiddette belirleyici etmenler olarak saptanmıştır. Sonuç: Eşleri tarafından kadına yönelik olarak uygulanan psikolojik şiddet sıklığı beklenenden çok yüksek bulunmuştur. Üç erkekten biri ekonomik ve fiziksel şiddet uygulamaktadır. Cinsel şiddet düşük saptanmasına karşın sorunun daha büyük boyutlarda olabileceği düşünülmektedir.

    Anahtar Kelimeler: Aile içi şiddet, toplumsal cinsiyet, kadın sağlığı

    Spouse violence and related factors in married men

    Dance Researcher Li Yayuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Li Yayuan, a dance researcher with the China National Song and Dance Ensemble,choreographs African-inspired dances. Over 40 years old,she performed and taught in African countries, traveling to Senegal to learn the country’s dances in 1990,

  18. With or without "Li."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingquan

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrates how the important distinction between the locative and nonlocative implication of a noun is essential for the presence of the Chinese locative particle "li," identifying groups of nouns that can not take the particle, nouns that optionally use the particle, and nouns that must use the particle. (CB)

  19. Multiplexed evaluation of serum and CSF pharmacokinetics of brain-targeting single-domain antibodies using a NanoLC-SRM-ILIS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqqani, Arsalan S; Caram-Salas, Nadia; Ding, Wen; Brunette, Eric; Delaney, Christie E; Baumann, Ewa; Boileau, Eve; Stanimirovic, Danica

    2013-05-06

    FC5 and FC44 are single-domain antibodies (VHHs), selected by functional panning of phage-display llama VHH library for their ability to internalize human brain endothelial cells (BEC) and to transmigrate the in vitro BBB model. Quantification of brain delivery of FC5 and FC44 in vivo was challenging using classical methods because of their short plasma half-life and their loss of functionality with radioactive labeling. A highly sensitive (detection limit ILIS method to detect and quantify unlabeled VHHs in multiplexed assays was developed and applied to comparatively evaluate brain delivery of FC5 and FC44, and two control VHHs, EG2 and A20.1. FC5 and FC44 compared to control VHHs demonstrated significantly (p ILIS analyses of plasma and CSF levels of codosed VHHs demonstrated that while all 4 VHHs have similar blood pharmacokinetics, only FC5 and FC44 show elevated CSF levels, suggesting that they are potential novel carriers for delivery of drugs and macromolecules across the BBB.

  1. LiDy(PO34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia Chehimi-Moumen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of lithium dysprosium polyphosphate, LiDy(PO34, were prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3n chains extending along the b axis. Dy3+ and Li+ cations alternate in the middle of four such chains, with Dy...Li distances of 3.54 (1 and 3.48 (1 Å. The DyO8 dodecahedra and LiO4 tetrahedra deviate significantly from the ideal geometry. Both Dy and Li occupy special positions (Wyckoff position 4e, site symmetry 2.

  2. Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Carlos Andrés; Molina, Gustavo; Cock-Rada, Alicia María

    2016-06-03

    The Li-Fraumeni syndrome is characterized clinically by the appearance of tumors in multiple organs generally at an early age. This hereditary condition is caused by germinal mutations in the TP53 gene, which codifies for the tumoural suppressor gene p53. We present the case of a patient aged 31 with clinical and molecular diagnosis of Li-Fraumeni syndrome who presented two synchronous tumors: a leiomyosarcoma on the forearm and a phyllodes breast tumour. She had a family history of cancer, including a son diagnosed with a cortical adrenal carcinoma when he was three years old, who died at five from the disease. Furthermore, her maternal grandmother and great-grandmother died of stomach cancer at 56 and 60 years old, respectively, while her other great-grandmother and a great aunt presented with breast cancer at the ages of 60 and 40, respectively. After genetic counseling, complete sequencing and analysis of duplications and deletions in the TP53 gene were ordered prior to diagnosis. The molecular analysis of a DNA sample taken from peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed the germinal mutation c.527G>T (p.Cys176Phe) on exon 5 of the TP53 gene, a deleterious mutation described previously in tumoural tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first published case in Colombia of Li-Fraumeni syndrome with confirmed molecular diagnosis. The diagnosis and management of Li-Fraumeni syndrome should be performed by a multidisciplinary team, and genetic counselling should be offered to patients and their relatives.

  3. Ruminant beslemede kullanılan bazı yemlerin in vivo ve in vitro sindirebilirlikleri arasındaki ilişkiler

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Bu araştırma, Türkiye'de yetiştirilen bazı ruminant yemlerinin "in vivo" ve "in vitro" yöntemleri kullanmak suretiyle organik madde ve kuru madde sindirilebilirliklerini, bunlar arasındaki ilişkileri ve yemlerin metabolik enerji değerlerini belirlemek amacıyla yürütülmüştür. "in vivo" yöntem (naylon torba yöntemi) ve "in vitro" yöntemler (kesif yemler yöntemi vesellülaz yöntemi) uygulanarak, kaba yemler (yonca kuru otu ve buğday samanı) 48 saat, kesif yemler 24 saat inkübasyona bırak...

  4. MRP1 G1666A gen polimorfizmi ile idrar arsenik düzeyleri arasındaki ilişki

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Özdemir, Fezile; Tutkun, Engin; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-01-01

    Çoklu ilaç direnci ile ilişkili protein 1 (Multidrug-Resistance associated Protein 1=MRP1), ATP bağlayan kaset (ATP-binding cassette, ABC) taşıyıcı protein ailesinin bir üyesidir. Birçok endojen ve ekzojen bileşiği hücre dışına taşıyarak organizmayı hücresel düzeyde, ksenobiyotik birikiminden ve dolayısıyla toksisitesinden korumaktadır. MRP1, özellikle Faz II reaksiyonlarında üretilen glutatyon-, glukuronid- ve sülfat-konjugatlarını taşımaktadır.MRP1, ABCC1 geni tarafından kodlanmaktadır ve b...

  5. The relationship among academic expectations, academic satisfaction and career planning: The sample of tourism undergraduate studentsAkademik beklenti, akademik memnuniyet ve kariyer planlaması ilişkisi: Turizm lisans öğrencileri örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Demir

    2016-01-01

    Yükseköğretim kurumları, bireylerin kariyer planlamasında önemli bir yere sahiptir. Ancak, yükseköğretime giriş sınavının okul seçiminde en önemli faktör olarak görülmesi, bireylerin kariyer tercihlerini doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak etkilemekte ve bu durum onların beklenti ve memnuniyet düzeylerine bağlı olarak olumlu ya da olumsuz sonuçlar doğurabilmektedir. Türkiye’deki kamu üniversitelerinde 2012-2013 eğitim öğretim yılında, turizm lisans eğitimi alan dördüncü sınıf öğrencilerini kapsayan bu araştırmanın amacı, kurumlarından akademik beklentileri ile onlara sağlanan akademik hizmetlerden memnuniyet düzeylerini karşılaştırmak ve kariyer planlaması ile ilişkisini ortaya koymaktır. Konuyla ilgili literatürden yararlanılarak, beklenti, memnuniyet ve kariyer planlamasına yönelik beşli Likert türü bir anket formu oluşturulmuştur. Yüz yüze görüşme yöntemi ile 583 adet anket formu toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde PASW istatistik programı kullanılarak değişkenlere faktör analizi, korelasyon ve çoklu regresyon analizi uygulanmıştır. Sonuçta, bireylerin beklentileri ile memnuniyet düzeylerinin ters yönlü bir ilişkisi olduğu, aynı zamanda bu iki temel faktörün kariyer planlamasını etkilediği bulgusuna ulaşılmıştır.

  6. Legendary Story of Li Xiaoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN a building in Fangzhuang’s residentquarters lives an old woman of Chinesedescent.Not so unusual you would thinkexcept that she holds an American passportand all her descendants have typical Westemcountenances.This American Chinese womanis called Li Xiaoli. In 1916 Li Xiaoli,originally named LiYueying,was born into a rich and influentialfamily in Lishi,Shanxi Province.Her fatherjoined the army after the Revolution of 1911.

  7. 基于MODIS/NDVI的新疆伊犁河谷植被变化%Vegetation dynamics in Ili River valley of Xinjiang based on MODIS/NDVI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫俊杰; 乔木; 周宏飞; 周生斌; 卢磊; 宋鹏

    2013-01-01

    利用2000-2010年16d合成的MODIS/NDVI数据,结合植被异常指数、趋势线分析和Hurst 指数等分析方法,对新疆伊犁河谷植被覆盖的时空变化特征进行了分析.结果表明:(1)伊犁河谷内植被覆盖随海拔增高而先增加后减小,最高植被覆盖区位于2000~2 500m的高程带;2000-2010年伊犁河谷各高程带内植被覆盖整体下降趋势明显,但海拔低于1000m的高程带除外.(2)受干湿环境影响,伊犁河谷全区平均被植异常指数最高值出现在降水最多的2002年,最低值出现在降水最少的2008年,但不同区域植被异常指数的变化存在较大差异.(3)伊犁河谷内植被覆盖增加和减小的区域分别占总面积的4.09%和19.34%,增加区域主要位于伊犁河两岸的平原区,减小区域主要位于乌孙山两端以及伊犁河谷周围海拔2000m左右的低山区域;变标度极差分析结果表明,伊犁河谷内植被覆盖年际变化呈现很强的持续性,未来一定时间内将保持现有变化趋势不变.%16-day composite data set of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from an moderate-resolu-tion imaging spectroradiometer(MODIS) was used to capture essential feature of temporal and spatial vegetation variability in Ili River valley of Xinjiang during the 2000-2010 period.Various statistical analyses involving vegetation anomaly index,linear regression analysis and Hurst index were applied.Examination shows as follows:(1) Vegetation cover of Ili River Valley increases firstly and then decreases as altitude increases,with highest vegetation cover located in the area with the altitude from 2 000 to 2 500 m.Generally,vegetation cover of different elevation zones of Ili River valley followed a decreasing trend during the period of 2000-2010,not including the areas located below 1 000 m above the sea level.(2)As vegetation anomaly index is subject to humidity of the air,so the highest spatially averaged vegetation anomaly index value

  8. Influence mechanism of landscape structure in River Ili delta%伊犁河三角洲景观结构的影响机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗格平; 王渊刚; 朱磊; 陈耀亮

    2012-01-01

    Since the Ili River delta of Kazakhstan has experienced less human direct disturbances during 1975 -2007, it is suitably regarded as a case to analyze landscape pattern changes and its driving mechanism for understanding the importance of spatial ecological dynamics and maintaining sustainable development in unique wetland ecosystems of arid Central Asia. In the study, two types of data were used: (1) hydrological data, fluvial runoff volume from Ili River (1953 -2007) and water levels of Lake Balkhash in the last 54 years (1953 -2006) , and (2) land cover maps extracted from Landsat images in 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2007. Arid area in Central Asia, the classification system of landscape was established based on the land-cover maps of River Hi delta. Using the methods of landscape structure gradient of analysis, landscape disturbance index and Kappa index, the change of landscape structure from 1975 to 2007 was analyzed and the driving mechanism of landscape structure was dis-cussed. River Ili delta displays special characteristics of landscape in the horizontal structure, vertical structure and internal structure along the topographic gradient and hydrological gradient in the watershed, particularly the landscape types related to water, such as lake, swamp, and flood land. Under the influence of human activities and climatic change, the spatial change in the landscape structure show a certain periodicity and instability in the late 32 years. The spatial change in vertical structure of landscape is generally influenced by corridor width and length as well as the change in landscape types; the spatial change in horizontal structure is characterized by landscape fragmentation, which results in reduction in landscape connectivity. Effect of disturbance on landscape structure shows the distinct differences and temporal-spatial variability with different landscape types, in which lake and marsh are most easy to be disturbed. The change in spatial distribution and area of

  9. Electric dipolarizability of 7Li

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudhir R Jain; Arun K Jain; S Kailas

    2008-12-01

    We calculate the electric dipolarizability of 7Li nucleus within the cluster model and estimate a value of about 0.0188 fm3. We also discuss the possibility of observing this in the scattering of 7Li from a 208Pb target at energies about 30 MeV.

  10. "Örgüt Kültürü” Ve “Liderlik” türlerine ilişkin algılamalar ile yöneticilerin demografik özellikleri arasındaki ilişki: Bir alan araştırması

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail BAKAN

    2008-01-01

    Literatürde, liderliğin örgütün etkinliği ve örgütsel kültürün oluşumu ve değişiminde önemli rol oynadığı ileri sürülmektedir. Bu nedenle, bu araştırmada, liderlik ve örgüt kültürü kavramları çalışmanın temel değişkenleri olarak kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışmada farklı “liderlik” ve “örgüt kültürü” türlerine ilişkin yöneticilerin algılamaları ile demografik özellikleri arasındaki ilişkiler incelenmiştir. Araştırma verileri, Kahramanmaraş’ta faaliyette bulunan 12 firmada çalışan yöneticilere uygula...

  11. Electronic Properties of LiFePO4 and Li doped LiFePO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.L.; Zhuang, G.V.; Ross, P.N.; Guo, J.-H.; Jow, T.R.

    2006-05-31

    LiFePO{sub 4} has several potential advantages in comparison to the transition metal oxide cathode materials used in commercial lithium-ion batteries. However, its low intrinsic electronic conductivity ({approx} 10{sup -9} S/cm) is problematic. We report here a study by soft x-ray absorption/emission spectroscopy of the electronic properties of undoped LiFePO{sub 4} and Li-doped LiFePO{sub 4} in which Li{sup +} ions are substituted for Fe{sup 2+} ions in an attempt to increase the intrinsic electronic conductivity. The conductivities of the Li{sub 1+x}Fe{sub 1-x}PO{sub 4} samples were, however, essentially unchanged from that of the undoped LiFePO{sub 4}. Nonetheless, evidence for changing the electronic properties of LiFePO{sub 4} by doping with excess Li+ was observed by the XAS/XES spectroscopy. New pre-edge features the O-1s XAS spectrum of Li{sub 1.05}Fe{sub 0.95}PO4 is a direct indication that the charge compensation for substitution of Fe{sup 2+} by Li{sup +} resides in the unoccupied O-2p orbitals. A charge transfer (CT) excitation was also observed in the doped material implying that the unoccupied O-2p orbitals created by doping are strongly hybridized with unoccupied Fe-3d orbitals of neighboring sites. However, the strong covalent bonding within the (PO{sub 4}){sup 3-} anions and the large separation of the Fe cations means that the charge created by doping is not delocalized in the manner of electrons or holes in a semiconductor.

  12. Enhanced Li-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Ross

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Au with Pd nanoparticles were synthesized and coated onto the spinel LiMn2O4 via a coprecipitation calcination method with the objective to improve the microstructure, conductivity, and electrochemical activities of pristine LiMn2O4. The novel LiPdAuxMn2-xO4 composite cathode had high phase purity, well crystallized particles, and more regular morphological structures with narrow size distributions. At enlarged cycling potential ranges the LiPdAuxMn2-xO4 sample delivered 90 mAh g−1 discharge capacity compared to LiMn2O4 (45 mAh g−1. It was concluded that even a small amount of the Pd and Au enhanced both the lithium diffusivity and electrochemical conductivity of the host sample due to the beneficial properties of their synergy.

  13. Estonija mozhet ostatsja bez uzkoi kolei / Jelizaveta Gavrilova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gavrilova, Jelizaveta

    2005-01-01

    Poola-Leedu-Läti-Eesti raudteeprojekt Rail Baltica on lülitatud Euroopa Komisjoni transpordi prioriteetide hulka. Eesti probleemiks on kujunenud madal koostöövõime infrastruktuuride valduse küsimuses riigi ja erafirma Eesti Raudtee vahel

  14. Miiduranna mozhet stat novõm tsentrom Viimsi / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2007-01-01

    Milstrandi naftaterminali ja Miiduranna sadama tulevikust. Sadamaalale parima hoonestuslahenduse leidmiseks korraldatud rahvusvahelise konkursi võitis Taani arhitektuuribüroo Hvidt & Molgaard tööga ±Miidport Village¬. Milstrandi terminali piirkonna ümberkujundamise ideelahenduse koostas arhitektuuribüroo Luhse & Tuhal arhitekt Tanel Tuhal

  15. Mozhet kontshitsja, no ne "Vishnjovõi sad" / Jelena Skulskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skulskaja, Jelena, 1950-

    2008-01-01

    Vene teatrifestivali "Kuldne mask Eestis" viimasest etendusest, Anton Tshehhovi "Kirsiaiast" Eimuntas Nekroshiuse lavastuses. Lavastus sündis K. Stanislavski nim. Rahvusvahelise Fondi ja teatri Meno Fortas ühisprojektina

  16. Gorodok v Tondi mozhet stat tsentrom raiona Kristiine / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2007-01-01

    Pro Kapital rajab Tallinnas Tondi tänava kasarmute rajooni elu- ja ärilinnakut. Kasarmuhooned renoveeritakse. Kvartali arhitektuurilise lahenduse autorid on Reino Rass ja Martin Aunin firmast EA Reng ning Sergio Levati itaalia büroost MSC Associati. Kommenteerib Andrus Laurits

  17. Mozhet kontshitsja, no ne "Vishnjovõi sad" / Jelena Skulskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skulskaja, Jelena, 1950-

    2008-01-01

    Vene teatrifestivali "Kuldne mask Eestis" viimasest etendusest, Anton Tshehhovi "Kirsiaiast" Eimuntas Nekroshiuse lavastuses. Lavastus sündis K. Stanislavski nim. Rahvusvahelise Fondi ja teatri Meno Fortas ühisprojektina

  18. V parke Tuvi mozhet pojavitsja angel / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Leedu skulptori Vaidas Ramoshka kiviskulptuur "Ingel" pannakse Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu taga asuvasse Tuvi parki. Leedu pealinna Vilniuse üks sümbol-kujudest kingitakse Tallinnale kui tulevasele kultuuripealinnale

  19. Jevro mozhet sdelat bolshe, tshem atomnaja bomba / Giovanni Porzio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Porzio, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Teherani ajatollade surmarelv - lähitulevikus avatav Iraani naftabörs, nafta ostu-müügi süsteem eurodes, mis saab olema tõsiste tagajärgedega nii USA majandusele kui ameerika naftakompaniidele. Iraani naftabörs peab muutma Iraani põhiliseks tehingute keskuseks regioonis. Naftadollarid ja -eurod

  20. Obnovim sostav pravlenija ... mozhet, utshredit zaodno i EKO? / Hannes Vallikivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Валликиви, Ханнес, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Suurfirmade Euroopa äriühinguks ümberkujundamise võitudest ja kaotustest. Lisatud: Eestis asutati esimene Euroopa äriühing ; millised on Euroopa äriühingu eelised? ; mis on Euroopa äriühing ehk Societas Europea? ; neli võimalust Euroopa äriühingu loomiseks ; olulised regulatsioonid

  1. Krizis islama mozhet porodit novõhh monstrov / Vladimir Rodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodin, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    Autor juhib tähelepanu nende terrorirühmituste hulga kasvule, mille liikmed ei ole islamistid. Tema sõnul ei ole olemas ühtse eesmärgiga rahvusvahelist terrorismi, al-Qaida aga pole nii võimas struktuur, nagu seda kujutatakse. Samas toetavad terroriorganisatsioonide eluvõimelisust USA-vastased meeleolud

  2. V parke Tuvi mozhet pojavitsja angel / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Leedu skulptori Vaidas Ramoshka kiviskulptuur "Ingel" pannakse Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu taga asuvasse Tuvi parki. Leedu pealinna Vilniuse üks sümbol-kujudest kingitakse Tallinnale kui tulevasele kultuuripealinnale

  3. Jevro mozhet sdelat bolshe, tshem atomnaja bomba / Giovanni Porzio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Porzio, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Teherani ajatollade surmarelv - lähitulevikus avatav Iraani naftabörs, nafta ostu-müügi süsteem eurodes, mis saab olema tõsiste tagajärgedega nii USA majandusele kui ameerika naftakompaniidele. Iraani naftabörs peab muutma Iraani põhiliseks tehingute keskuseks regioonis. Naftadollarid ja -eurod

  4. Miiduranna mozhet stat novõm tsentrom Viimsi / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2007-01-01

    Milstrandi naftaterminali ja Miiduranna sadama tulevikust. Sadamaalale parima hoonestuslahenduse leidmiseks korraldatud rahvusvahelise konkursi võitis Taani arhitektuuribüroo Hvidt & Molgaard tööga ±Miidport Village¬. Milstrandi terminali piirkonna ümberkujundamise ideelahenduse koostas arhitektuuribüroo Luhse & Tuhal arhitekt Tanel Tuhal

  5. Gorodok v Tondi mozhet stat tsentrom raiona Kristiine / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2007-01-01

    Pro Kapital rajab Tallinnas Tondi tänava kasarmute rajooni elu- ja ärilinnakut. Kasarmuhooned renoveeritakse. Kvartali arhitektuurilise lahenduse autorid on Reino Rass ja Martin Aunin firmast EA Reng ning Sergio Levati itaalia büroost MSC Associati. Kommenteerib Andrus Laurits

  6. The examination of relationship between human values and moral maturity in adolescenceErgenlerde insani değerler ve ahlaki olgunluk arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sarıçam

    2014-06-01

    öre anlamlı düzeyde daha yüksek bulunmuştur (p<.05. Ayrıca 16-18 yaşında olan öğrencilerin insani değerler ve ahlaki olgunluk düzeyleri, 13-15 yaşındaki öğrencilere göre anlamlı olarak daha yüksek bulunmuştur(p<.01. Araştırmada her iki cinsiyetinde Kohlberg’in geleneksel ahlak düzeyinde olduğunu tespit etmiştir. Son olarak araştırmada insani değerlerin bütün boyutlarının ahlaki olgunlukla pozitif yönde ilişkide olduğu ve beş alt boyutunun ahlaki olgunluğun toplam varyansını  %24’ünü açıkladığı bulunmuştur(p<.01. Araştırma bulguları literatür eşliğinde tartışılmış, araştırmanın sınırlılıkları belirtilerek gelecek çalışmalara önerilerde bulunulmuştur. 

  7. Knjižnična podrška studentskom učenju i istraživanju: ocjena kvalitete hrvatskih visokoškolskih knjižnica u postupku reakreditacije visokih učilišta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Pikić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potpisivanjem Bolonjske deklaracije Republika Hrvatska obavezala se na kontinuirano praćenje kvalitete sustava za visoko obrazovanje, koje se u praksi između ostaloga odvija postupkom reakreditacije. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je ispitati razinu uspješnosti hrvatskih visokoškolskih knjižnica pomoću analize ocjena knjižničnih resursa koje su dali članovi stručnih povjerenstava prvog ciklusa reakreditacije hrvatskih visokih učilišta. Istraživanje obuhvaća sva hrvatska visoka učilišta koja su prošla postupak reakreditacije od samog početka njezina provođenja (ak. god. 2010./11. pa do kraja 2015. U tom periodu kroz postupak je prošlo ukupno 129 visokih učilišta ili dijelova visokih učilišta. Rezultati su pokazali da su, ukupno gledajući, hrvatske visokoškolske knjižnice u prosjeku dobile ocjenu 3. Također se pokazalo da nema razlike u ocjeni knjižničnih resursa između sveučilišnih sastavnica te veleučilišta i visokih škola, zatim između javnih i privatnih visokih učilišta te na kraju između glavnih sveučilišnih središta: Zagreba, Splita, Rijeke i Osijeka.

  8. Housing market and economic growth relation: time series analysis over Turkey (2000-2012Konut piyasasi ve ekonomik büyüme ilişkisi: Türkiye üzerine zaman serileri analizi (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Kargı

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, certain selected factors about growth data and housing market within last decade are examined. Housing is a human’s physiological need and economic development can be carried out by means of extending the possibility of satisfying this high valuable need or there can be shown a linkage between economic growth and processes at market. For this reason when we handle 2000-2012 period, the indicators about economic growth and housing acquisition are being searched to explain this main hypothesis. From the obtained quarter data about concerning period, correlation relations, augmented Dickey-Fuller Unit Root Test, Granger Causality analysis and multiple regression models are researched. ÖzetBu çalışmada, son on yıllık döneme ilişkin, büyüme verileri ile konut piyasasına ilişkin seçilmiş bazı değişkenler arasındaki ekonomik ilişkiler incelenmektedir. Konut, insanların fizyolojik bir ihtiyacıdır ve iktisadi gelişme, ekonomik değeri yüksek olan bu ihtiyacın giderilme olanaklarının genişlenmesi ile gösterilebilir veya bu piyasadaki gelişmeler ile iktisadi gelişme arasında bir bağ kurulabilir. Bu amaçla 2000-2012 dönemi ele alındığında, ekonomik büyüme ile konut edinimleri arasındaki ilişkiler içinde, bu ana hipotezi açıklamaya yarayacak göstergeler aranmaktadır. İlgili döneme ilişkin temin edilen çeyreklik veriler üzerinden korelasyon ilişkileri, genişletilmiş Dickey-Fuller Birim Kök Testi, Granger Nedensellik analizi ve çoklu regresyon modelleri ile nasıl bağlantılar olduğu araştırılmaktadır. Kredi hacmi genişlemesi ve konut harcamalarının GSYİH’ya oldukça duyarlı olması, Türkiye ekonomisinde bir konut balonu oluşmadığını göstermektedir.

  9. Electron-impact Ionization Of Li2 And Li+2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections for Li{sub 2} and Li{sup +}{sub 2} are calculated using a configuration-average distorted-wave method. Bound orbitals for the molecule and its ions are calculated using a single configuration self-consistent field method based on a linear combination of Slater-type orbitals. The bound orbitals are transformed onto a two-dimensional lattice ({tau}, {theta}), which is variable in the radial coordinate and constant in the angular coordinate, from which Hartree with local exchange potentials are constructed. The single particle Schrodinger equation is then solved for continuum distorted-waves with S-matrix boundary conditions. Total ionization cross sections for Li{sub 2} at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R = 5.0 and for Li{sup +}{sub 2} at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R = 5.9 are presented.

  10. Core TuLiP

    OpenAIRE

    Czenko, M.R.; Etalle, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    We propose CoreTuLiP - the core of a trust management language based on Logic Programming. CoreTuLiP is based on a subset of moded logic programming, but enjoys the features of TM languages such as RT; in particular clauses are issued by different authorities and stored in a distributed manner. We present a lookup and inference algorithm which we prove to be correct and complete w.r.t. the declarative semantics. CoreTuLiP enjoys uniform syntax and the well-established semantics and is express...

  11. Lise öğrencisi ergenlerde depresyon, internet bağımlılığı ve ilişkili faktörler

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Kamile

    2015-01-01

    Bu çalışma, lise öğrencisi ergenlerde depresyon, internet bağımlılığı ve ilişkili faktörleri incelemek amacı ile kesitsel bir araştırma olarak yapılmıştır. Trabzon İl Merkezinde Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğüne bağlı 5 lise de eğitim-öğretim gören 3289 öğrenci üzerinden örneklem büyüklüğü Büyüköztürk ve arkadaşları tarafından önerilen eşitlik ile hesaplanmış olup %95 güven aralığı ile 345 öğrenci olarak bulunmuştur. Araştırmanın desen etkisi 2 kabul edilip 690 öğrenciye ulaşılması hedeflenmiş ancak ö...

  12. Internet kullanicilarinin demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorlari tercihleri arasindaki ilişki üzerine bir araştirma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren AYRANCI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Günümüzde milyarlarca insan interneti farklı amaçlar için kullanmaktadır. Web arama motorları internet kullanıcıları arasında, ihtiyaç duyulan bilgiyi bulmak için çok popülerdir. Bu makale, internet kullanıcılarının bazı demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri arasında bir ilişkinin olup olmadığını anlamak için yapılan bir araştırmayı içermektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre demografik özelliklerin çoğu önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri ile bir takım bağlantılara sahiptir.

  13. Internet kullanicilarinin demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorlari tercihleri arasindaki ilişki üzerine bir araştirma

    OpenAIRE

    Evren AYRANCI

    2010-01-01

    Günümüzde milyarlarca insan interneti farklı amaçlar için kullanmaktadır. Web arama motorları internet kullanıcıları arasında, ihtiyaç duyulan bilgiyi bulmak için çok popülerdir. Bu makale, internet kullanıcılarının bazı demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri arasında bir ilişkinin olup olmadığını anlamak için yapılan bir araştırmayı içermektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre demografik özelliklerin çoğu önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri ile bir takım bağla...

  14. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater in the Horgos River Watershed in the NorthWestern Ili Basin in Sinkiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. H.; Jiang, J. Y.; Rao, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, hydrogeochemical and stable environmental isotopic (oxygen-18 and deuterium) data of groundwater in the Horgos River watershed in the north-western Ili Basin were examined to determine the groundwater chemical characteristics, as well as the origins of the groundwater and surface water. The quaternary aquifer's structure and spatial distribution is complex. Hydrogeochemical data shows that the groundwater is alkaline due to the presence of bicarbonate as the dominant anion. In the north, the dominant groundwater cation was Ca2+ while Mg2+ ions were highest in the south. In addition, water types varied from HCO3-SO4-Ca and HCO3-SO4-Ca-Mg to HCO3-SO4-Mg-Ca and SO4-HCO3-Mg-Ca. Overall, the groundwater in this study showed high total hardness. The dissolving and evaporation inspissation were considered the main controlling factors. Isotopic data (oxygen-18 and deuterium) indicated that the Horgos River was the main recharge source for the groundwater, which rapidly infiltrated across sandstone macropores. Furthermore, surface water and shallow groundwater were significantly affected by evaporation.

  15. Pismenost nakon decentralizacije. Nudi li Mreža novi oblik pismenosti?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Peović Vuković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rad će postaviti pitanje nudi li danas Mreža alat za “osnaživanje čitatelja”, kako je najavljivala hipertekstualna teorija devedesetih. Interaktivnost kao “prirodan” oblik pismenosti postala je ideologem razumijevanja elektroničke pismenosti. No je li danas uistinu riječ o demokratizaciji čitanja-pisanja putem odabira smjera, “kretanja” virtualnim prostorom teksta? Rad će naglasiti razliku između Web 2.0 žanrova i koncepcije hiperteksta te razliku tekstualne i vizualne pismenosti. Ono što ćemo ovdje nazvati “topografskom proizvodnošću” bitno se razlikuje od “distributivne proizvodnosti” kakvu danas susrećemo na Mreži. Mreža nije orijentirana isključivo na proizvodnju virtualnog dérivea, trodimenzionalnog prostora kretanja, već je riječ prvenstveno o komunikacijskom kanalu. Umjesto topografije, za Mrežu će biti ključno povezivanje bilo kojih dviju točaka i uspostavljanje kanala “distribucije”. Temelj distributivne strukture jesu mrežni protokoli, prvenstveno TCP/IP protokol koji omogućava peer-to-peer, izravnu komunikaciju dvaju računala. Kanali neovisne distribucije postojali su i ranije, prvenstveno u polju alternativnih ili opozicijskih kultura u obliku DIY praksi, no domet njihove distributivne mreže bio je slab. Mreža je kanal do sada nezamislive fleksibilne distribucije, nehijerarhijski kanal koji (digitalnoj proizvodnji pripaja dodatnu vrijednost. Politička, ekonomska i kulturalna pitanja redefinirana su arhitekturom te protokolima koji tu arhitekturu definiraju. Protokoli su pravila koja su podređena socijalnom konsenzusu. U tom smislu politička teorija novih medija mora napustiti mit “osnaživanja čitatelja” i krenuti prema složenom tipu materijalne analize ili analize arhitekture te socijalnih pravila koja tu arhitekturu definiraju. Proizvodno-distribucijski subjekti i tekstovi naseljavaju sve mrežne komunikacijske kanale. Bloganje, Twitteranje, Facebookanje, Flickeranje

  16. Polymorphism of LiAg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlyuk, V. V.; Dmytriv, G. S.; Tarasiuk, I. I.; Chumak, I. V.; Pauly, H.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2010-02-01

    A phase transition from the cubic CsCl-type structure (Pm-3m space group) into a tetragonal UPb-type structure (I4 1/amd) is observed for the LiAg binary compound at ambient conditions. The crystal structure of the tetragonal modification of the LiAg binary compound was solved by direct methods in SHELXS on the base of structure factors which were extracted from a powder diffraction pattern and refined by SHELXL and the Rietveld method ( a = 3.9605(1), c = 8.2825(2) Å, Bragg R-factor = 4.81, Rf-factor = 4.87). Elevated temperatures and/or a small Li-excess versus the equimolar composition favour the cubic structure whereas ambient and lower temperatures and/or a small Li-deficiency stabilize the tetragonal structure. This reconstructive transition is reversible but proceeds slowly.

  17. The Rise of Gong Li

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    THE advance of Chinese history and the development of the film industry have brought out a new generation of movie stars. Among them Gong Li is the most charming and most well known in the world. Gong Li was born in 1963, the youngest of five children in a family of intellectuals. Both her parents teach at a university. She liked to sing and dance since childhood and early on displayed

  18. Animal Husbandry Resource Advantage and Industrialization Develop Mode Choice in Ili River Basin,Xinjiang%伊犁河流域畜牧业产业化发展优势与模式选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈闻君

    2011-01-01

    新疆伊犁河流域畜牧资源丰富,是伊犁农村经济的支柱产业,在全疆国民经济中占有举足轻重的地位.在全球掀起的消费生态食品潮流下,生态畜牧业和生态畜产品有十分广阔的发展空间,为伊犁这个"牧业大州"畜牧业的发展提供了方向和机遇.在新疆生态极其脆弱且日趋恶化的大环境中,伊犁要实现从牧业大区向牧业强区的历史性跨越,必须借鉴其他地区的先进经验,大力发展生态畜牧业.%In Xinjiang Ili River Basin, there are rich Animal husbandry resource, the industry has important brace effect in rural economics of Ili area and country economics in xinjiang. When we face to eco-food consume tide of global, we find it has wide develop space that the eco-animal husbandry and eco-livestock product, it afford aspect and opportunity to Ili. If we want to achieve history span from herd big region to herd strong area, we must use the advanced experience of the world about eco-animal husbandry development, and choice eco-mode in this industry in Ili River Basin.

  19. LiFi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    利用闪烁的灯光来传输数字信息.这个过程被称为可见光通讯(VLC),人们常把它亲切地称为“LiFi”,以示它可能给目前以WiFi为代表的无线网络传输技术带来革命性的改变。最近,复旦大学计算机科学技术学院传出消息,一种利用屋内可见光传输网络信号的国际前沿通讯技术在实验室获得验证。研究人员将网络信号接入一盏1W的LED灯珠,灯光下的四台电脑即可上网,最高速率可达3.25G,平均上网速率达到150M。

  20. Structure and properties of Li-rich Zn-doped LiNbO3 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Li-rich Zn-doped LiNbO3 (LN) crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. The structure of the crystals was measured by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra. The results indicated that the Li-rich Zn-doped LN crystals had the same characteristics as the pure LN crystal. After Zn2+ entered into the lattice of Li-rich Zn-doped LN crystal, it replaced NbLi firstly. When there was no NbLi, Zn2+ replaced Li+ then. The second harmonic generation (SHG) property of Li-rich Zn-doped LiNbO3 crystal was measured. The results showed that the SHG conversation efficiency of Li-rich Zn-doped LiNbO3 crystals was higher than that of Zn-doped LiNbO3 crystals.

  1. Doğrudan Sermaye Yatırımları, Ticari Dışa Açıklık ve Ekonomik Büyüme Arasındaki İlişki: Türkiye ve BRICS Ülkeleri Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgün TOPALLI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Doğrudan sermaye yatırımları ve ekonomik büyüme ilişkisi gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkeler için tartışılan bir konudur. Bu çalışmanın amacı, BRICS ülkelerinde ve Türkiye’de 1982-2013 döneminde doğrudan sermaye yatırımları, ticari dışa açıklık ve ekonomik büyüme arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektir. İlişkiyi incelemek amacıyla CADF birim kök testi ve Emirmahmutoğlu ve Köse (2011 nedensellik testi kullanılmıştır. Sonuçlar ekonomik büyümeden doğrudan yabancı yatırımlara doğru tek yönlü nedensellik olduğunu göstermiştir. Ayrıca ekonomik büyüme ve ticari dışa açıklık arasında çift yönlü nedensellik ilişkisi olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Doğrudan yabancı yatırımlar ve ticari dışa açıklık arasında çift yönlü nedensellik ilişkisi saptanmıştır. Bireysel ülke sonuçlarına göre ise karma bulgular elde edilmiştir.

  2. ChTO DELAT'', ESLI V PERIOD LEChENIYa INGIBITORAMI FAKTORA NEKROZA OPUKhOLI α VOZNIK PSORIAZ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Muravyev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingibitory faktora nekroza opukholi α (FNO α – infliksimab, adalimumab i etanertsept – k aprelyu 2009 g. poluchili bolee 2 mln bol'nykh vo vsem mire. Vse eti preparaty okazalis' odinakovo effektivny (okolo 60% bol'nykh otvetili na lechenie pri revmatoidnom artrite (RA, ankiloziruyushchem spondilite (AS, psoriaze, psoriaticheskom artrite i odobreny dlya lecheniya etikh boleznei [1, 2]. Odnako ikh ispol'zovanie mozhet byt' svyazano s tselym ryadom neblagopriyatnykh reaktsii, odnoi iz kotorykh yavlyaetsya obostrenie ili razvitie novykh sluchaev psoriaza [3].

  3. ILY重组蛋白增强利妥昔单抗杀伤骨髓瘤ARH-77细胞的实验研究%Application of ILY recombinant protein in Rituximab to treat myeloma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤涛; 徐勇; 余玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective Through observing the CDC effect of CD59 inhibitor ILY recombinant protein in Rituximab to treat multiple myeloma ( MM ) ARH-77 cells, we investigate the feasibility of combination with ILY recombinant protein in MM therapy. Methods The expression of CD20 and CD59 in ARH-77 cells was analyzed by FACS. Cells death percentages were measured by alarma blue and typan blue in ARH-77 cells treated with ILY recombinant protein and Rituximab. Results High levels of CD20 and CD59 were detected on the surface of ARH-77 cells. ILY recombinant protein effectively enhanced CDC effect and reversed drug resistance mediated by Rituximab in MM cells. Conclusion The ILY recombinant protein significantly improves Rituximab effect in MM cells therapy,and may be a good adjunctive drug in monoclonal antibodies treatment with tumors.%目的 通过体外实验观察CD59抑制物ILY重组蛋白增强利妥昔单抗(Rituximab)对多发性骨髓瘤ARH-77细胞的补体依赖性细胞毒性效应(CDC效应),探讨联合应用该蛋白治疗多发性骨髓瘤的可行性.方法 FACS分析法侦测ARH-77细胞系的CD20和CD59抗原表达.Alarma blue及Typan blue法观察联合应用ILY重组蛋白及利妥昔单抗对骨髓瘤ARH-77细胞的CDC效应.结果 ARH-77细胞呈现高的CD20及CD59抗原表达;联合应用ILY重组蛋白,能增强利妥昔单抗对ARH-77细胞的CDC效应,逆转其耐药性.结论 ILY重组蛋白可有效地增强利妥昔单抗对多发性骨髓瘤细胞的杀伤效应,有望成为一种新的单克隆抗体治疗肿瘤的辅助药物.

  4. Determination and Analysis of Body Size and Serum Biochemical Indexes of the Meat Type Ili Horses%肉用型伊犁马体尺及血清生化指标测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑断疾; 王文奇; 王世昌; 何良军

    2015-01-01

    The present investigate to the body size and determinate the serum biochhenical indexes of the meat type Ili horses. , which provided the data reference for the future breeding and clinical diagnosis and treatment of the meat type Ili horses. Twenty―nine Ili mares with different age were measured body length (BL), heart girth (HG), withers height (WH) and Circumference of cannon bone (CCB), and determined serum biochemical indexes by jugular venous blood under the condition of grazing. (Result)The results indicated that WH, BH, HG, BL ratio and HG ration in different age of mares were significant difference ( <0.05), CCB and CCB ration were insignificant difference ( ﹥0.05). TP,ALB,SUN,Cr,CHOL,GLU,TG,AST and ALP in the horse serum were determined. (Conclusion)Ili horse's BL ratio, HG ratio and CCB ratio were 102.62%, 121.80%and 13.72%respectively and Ili horse is still dual―purpose type. Ili mare normal serum biochemical indexes range was defined under the condition of grazing, which provided veterinarian a reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of Ili horses.%本试验对肉用型伊犁马进行了体尺和血清生化指标测定,以了解肉用型伊犁马不同年龄阶段的体尺发育状况,掌握伊犁马正常血液指标范围,为今后肉用型伊犁马的培育和临床诊断治疗提供数据参考。在放牧条件下,选择不同年龄阶段的29匹肉用型伊犁母马,进行了体长、胸围、体高、管围等体尺指标测定,颈净脉采血测定了血清生化指标。结果表明:1)不同年龄阶段肉用型伊犁马马体高、体长、胸围、体长率、胸围率表现显著性的差异(<0.05),管围和管围率差异不显著(﹥0.05);2)测定了马血清中总蛋白、白蛋白、尿素氮、肌酐、胆固醇、葡萄糖、甘油三酯、谷草转氨酶、碱性磷酸酶等指标。伊犁马体长率、胸围率和管围率分别为102.62%、121.80%,13.72%;获得伊犁母马放牧条件下正常血

  5. Transport properties derived from ion-atom collisions: 6Li-6Li+ and 6Li-7Li+ Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouledroua, Moncef; Bouchelaghem, Fouzia; LPR Team

    2014-10-01

    This investigation treats quantum-mechanically the ion- atom collisions and computes the transport coefficients, such as the coefficients of mobility and diffusion. For the case of lithium, the calculations start by determining the gerade and ungerade potential curves through which ionic lithium approaches ground lithium. Then, by considering the isotopic effects and nuclear spins, the elastic and charge-transfer cross sections are calculated for the case of 6Li+and7Li+ colliding with 6Li. Finally, the temperature-dependent diffusion and mobility coefficients are analyzed, and the results are contrasted with those obtained from literature. The main results of this work have been recently published in. This work has been realized within the frames of the CNEPRU Project D01120110036 of the Algerian Ministry of Higher Education.

  6. CaCO3-N İlişkileri 4.Alkali Toprakta

    OpenAIRE

    Aydeniz, A.; BROHİ, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Kireçli alkali toprakta azot - kireç ilişkilerini açıklayabilmek için oldukça yüksek (% 17.8) kireç kapsayan tortul kökenli, Güney-Doğu Anadolu toprakların genel özelliklerini içeren Aİİgör (Urfa) toprağı alı¬narak buna 6 düzeyde (% 0-0.5-1-2-5-10) kireç ve 8 düzeyde (0-1*5-20 50-100-200-1000 ppm) azot katmak .suretiyle hazırlanan topraklarda, büyütme odasında, minibiyolojik yöntemle domates yetiştirmek ve 87 gün sonra hasat etmek suretiyle yapılan araştırma sonuçları şu şekil¬de özetlenebi...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Li-Fraumeni syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Li-Fraumeni syndrome Li-Fraumeni ...

  8. 2002 Willapa Bay LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA contracted with Spencer B. Gross, Inc. (SBG) to obtain airborne LiDAR of Willapa Bay, Washington during low tide conditions. The LiDAR data was processed to...

  9. Development of Advanced Li Rich xLi2MO3 (1 x)LiMO2 Composite Cathode for High Capacity Li Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    powders. The XRD spectra were collected in a range of 2θ values from 10 o to 70 o at a scanning rate of 0.5 degrees per min and a step size of 0.02 o...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0003 Development of Advanced Li Rich xLi2MO3-(1-x)LiMO2 Composite Cathode for High Capacity Li Ion Batteries Kuan-Zong Fung...Li Rich xLi2MO3-(1-x)LiMO2 Composite Cathode for High Capacity Li Ion Batteries 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-15-1-4115 5c.  PROGRAM

  10. Electrochemical Investigations of the Interface at Li/Li+ Ion Conducting Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-04

    acetone consisting of LiBF4 as the supporting electrolyte. Unlike the powdery deposits of LiPc obtained by using tetrabutyl ammonium perchlorate (TBAP...as the supporting electrolyte, the deposits are adherent to the substrates when LiBF4 is used as the supporting electrolyte. Chemical oxidation of...Li2Pc by TBAP is shown to be detrimental for the formation of powdery electrodeposits of LiPc, whereas LiBF4 does not oxidize Li2Pc and therefore

  11. Reactions of metallic Li or LiC6 with organic solvents for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Hirobayashi, Yuki; Takayanagi, Yuki; Ohzawa, Yoshimi

    2013-12-01

    DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) study has been made on the reactions of metallic Li or LiC6 with organic solvents for lithium ion battery. Ethylene carbonate (EC) more easily reacts with metallic Li and LiC6 than propylene carbonate (PC). This may be because formation of lithium alkyl carbonate is more difficult for PC than EC. On the other hand, diethyl carbonate (DEC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) react with Li in the same manner. Reactions of Li and LiC6 with organic solvents have been discussed based on the results of quantum calculation.

  12. Calibration of Li-glass Detector Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Li-glass detector will be used to measure the flux of neutron beam in Gamma-ray Total Absorption Facility(GTAF). We have calibrated the detection efficiency of Li-glass detector in 5SDH-2 accelerator. The beam of neutron was produced by the reaction 7Li

  13. Plan ili propal / Jekaterina Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodina, Jekaterina

    2007-01-01

    Läbimõtlemata linnaplaneerimisest Tallinnas. "Vaeste-Tiskre" eramajade rajooni elanikud protestivad samasse piirkonda viiekorruseliste korterelamute ehitamise vastu. Elanike protest peatas 24-korruselise elumaja planeeringu kinnitamise Õismäe elurajoonis. Peatati Hiiul Sanatooriumi parki sanatooriumi sildi all valmiva korterelamu ehitustööd

  14. Lukavstvo ili nevezhestvo? / Raivo Paavo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paavo, Raivo, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    Kommentaar M. Stalnuhhini artiklile "Miks Mõõdukad ei toetanud Riigikogus Keskerakonna sotsiaalmaksu muutmise seadust", vt. Narva, 25. jaan. 2001. Tshernobõli veteranide olukorrast. Autor: Rahvaerakond Mõõdukad. Parlamendisaadik

  15. Li Shuirong and his success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Qiwei

    2009-01-01

    @@ Li Shuirong,the CEO of Rongsheng Holding Group,was famous for his business talent.He started his business with eight shuttle weaving machines and 200 thousands Yuan assets in 1 989.In that year,all the enterprises of China faced several problems,like credit squeeze,expenditure decline and dropping rate of production.

  16. Li Na Aces French Open

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese tennis player becomes the first Asian to win a Grand Slam singles title Chinese tennis player Li Na beat defending champion Francesca Schiavone from Italy,6-4,7-6,on the clay court at Roland Garros,winning the 2011 French Open Tennis Tournament on June 4.She made history by becoming the first Chinese to win a grand slam singles title.

  17. The effect of mobbing behaviors on burnout of women’s basketball playersMobbing davranışlarının kadın basketbolcuların tükenmişliği üzerine etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Karık

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in order to examine the effect of mobbing behaviors on the occupational burnout of women’s basketball players. The research mainly looked into the effects of different dimensions of mobbing, namely as person-related mobbing, work-related mobbing and physically intimidating mobbing, on the emergence of emotional/physical exhaustion and devaluation as well as reduced sense of accomplishment among women’s basketball players.  The study used the NAQ-F (Negative Acts Questionnaire—Football scale developed by Yildiz (2015a to measure mobbing and the ABQ (Athlete Burnout Questionnaire scale developed by Raedeke and Smith (2001 to measure burnout. Data was gathered from a sample of basketball players (n=97 in the Turkish Women’s Premier Basketball League. Exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis were utilized for the evaluation of data. The study indicated that person-related mobbing and work-related mobbing had a significant and positive effect on basketball players’ burnout. The emotional/physical exhaustion of basketball players and reduced sense of accomplishment were found to be affected by person-related mobbing while the development of devaluation was positively correlated only with work-related mobbing.   Özet Bu çalışma, mobbing davranışlarının kadın basketbolcuların mesleki tükenmişliği üzerine etkisinin incelenmesi amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada temel olarak mobbing boyutlarından olan kişi ilişkili mobbing, iş ilişkili mobbing ve fiziksel korkutucu mobbingin kadın basketbolcuların duygusal tükenmesi, duyarsızlaşması ve başarıda düşüş hissine olan etkisi ele alınmıştır. Çalışmada veri toplama aracı olarak, mobbing için Yıldız (2015a tarafından geliştirilen NAQ-F ölçeği (Negative Acts Questionnaire—Football, tükenmişlik için Raedeke ve Smith (2001 tarafından geliştirilen ABQ ölçeği (Athlete

  18. A research on the levels of conscious consumerism of the sport consumerSpor tüketicilerinin bilinçli tüketicilik düzeyleri üzerine bir araştırma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ünal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine conscious consumerism levels of 370 sport consumers.Conscious Consumer scale, which adapted to Turkish by Halil İbrahim Sağlam works was used in the research. The reliability score was found as .74. In the research based on simple random sampling method, the number of persons in the population as (N=700, sample diameter was defined as (n = 370.As a result; it was determined that there is a positive relationship (medium level between conscious consumerism point, consumer responsibility point quality, consciousness point and budget-price point. A significant relationship (strong level was found between conscious consumerism point and quality consciousness point and budget-price analysis point. Also a positive significant relationship (weak level was found between conscious consumerism point, quality consciousness point and budget-price analysis point. It was determined that there is no statistical difference between male and female participants in terms of conscious consumerism, consumer responsibility consciousness, quality consciousness, and budget-price consciousness. ÖzetBu araştırma, 370 spor tüketicisinin, bilinçli tüketicilik düzeylerinin araştırılması amacıyla yapılmıştır.Araştırmada, Halil İbrahim Sağlam tarafından geçerlilik ve güvenirlik çalışması yapılan bilinçli tüketicilik ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Ölçeğin güvenirlik değeri (crombach alfa .74 olarak bulunmuştur. Basit rastgele örnekleme yöntemi uygulanarak yapılan çalışmada, kitledeki kişi sayısı (N=700 olarak alındığında, örneklem çapı (n = 370 olarak belirlenmiştir.Sonuç olarak; spor tüketicilerinin, bilinçli tüketicililik düzeyleri ile kalite bilinci ve bütçe-fiyat bilinçleri arasında orta düzeyli bir ilişki; bilinçli tüketicililik düzeyi ile tüketici sorumluluğu bilinci arasında kuvvetli bir ilişki olduğu; tüketici sorumluluğu bilinci ile kalite bilinci ve b

  19. Evli erkeklerde eşlerine yönelik şiddet ve ilişkili etmenler/Spouse violence and related factors in married men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Günay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Araştırmanın amacı 25-49 yaş arası evli erkeklerde eşlerine yönelik şiddet uygulama durumunun, türlerinin ve etkileyen etmenlerin belirlenmesidir. Yöntem: Kesitsel tipteki çalışmanın evreni, İzmir’in Konak İlçesi’nde bulunan Esentepe Sağlık Ocağı Bölgesi’nde yaşayan 25-49 yaş arası 2615 evli erkektir. Sistematik örnekleme yöntemi ile seçilen 254 kişiye ulaşılmıştır. Bağımlı değişken olan şiddet varlığı “Yeniden Gözden Geçirilen Çatışma Taktikleri Ölçeği” (The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales=CTS 2 ile belirlenmiştir. Bağımsız değişkenler erkeğe ve eşine ilişkin sosyodemografik değişkenler, evliliğe ve aileye, sağlık durumuna, cinsel yaşama ilişkin özelliklerdir. Veri t Testi, Ki-kare, Lojistik Regresyon Analizi ile çözümlenmiştir. Bulgular: Eşe yönelik psikolojik şiddet sıklığı %93, fiziksel şiddet %37.5, ekonomik şiddet %34.4, cinsel şiddet %3.9 olarak saptanmıştır. Psikolojik şiddete maruziyet, ortaokul ve üzeri öğrenimli kadınlarda anlamlı olarak daha fazladır. Erkeklerin işsiz olması ya da düzensiz işlerde çalışması, haftada birkaç kez ya da her gün alkol kullanması, istenmeyen gebelik varlığı, kadının 25-34 yaş grubunda olması fiziksel şiddette belirleyici etmenler olarak saptanmıştır. Sonuç: Eşleri tarafından kadına yönelik olarak uygulanan psikolojik şiddet sıklığı beklenenden çok yüksek bulunmuştur. Üç erkekten biri ekonomik ve fiziksel şiddet uygulamaktadır. Cinsel şiddet düşük saptanmasına karşın sorunun daha büyük boyutlarda olabileceği düşünülmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Aile içi şiddet, toplumsal cinsiyet, kadın sağlığı Spouse violence and related factors in married men Objective:The purpose of this study is to examine the presence, patterns and related factors of spouse violence among 25-49 years old men. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in the

  20. 6Li/7Li estimates for metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, A E Garcia; Inoue, S; Ryan, S G; Suzuki, T K; Chiba, M

    2009-01-01

    The presence of the lithium-6 isotope in some metal-poor stars is a matter of surprise because of the high values observed. Non-standard models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and pre-Galactic cosmic ray fusion and spallation have been proposed to explain these values. However, the observations of this light isotope are challenging which may make some detections disputable. The goal was to determine 6Li/7Li for a sample of metal-poor stars; three of them have been previously studied and the remaining two are new for this type of study. The purpose was to increase, if possible, the number of lithium-6 detections and to confirm previously published results. Spectra of the resonance doublet line of neutral lithium Li I 670.78nm were taken with the High Dispersion Spectrograph at the Subaru 8.2m-telescope for a sample of five metal-poor stars (-3.12 < [Fe/H] < -2.19). The contribution of lithium-6 to the total observed line profile was estimated from the 1D-LTE analysis of the line asymmetry. Observed asymmetri...

  1. Neutron Transfer reactions induced by 8Li on 9Be

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarães, V; Amro, H; Assunção, M; Barioni, A; Becchetti, F D; Carmargo, O; Garcia, H; Jiang, H; Kolata, J J; Lichtenthäler, R; Lizcano, D; Martines-Quiroz, E; Jiang, Hao

    2007-01-01

    Angular distributions for the elastic scattering of 8Li on 9Be and the neutron transfer reactions 9Be(8Li,7Li)10Be and 9Be(8Li,9Li)8Be have been measured with a 27 MeV 8Li radioactive nuclear beam. Spectroscopic factors for 8Li|n=9Li and 7Li|n=8Li bound systems were obtained from the comparison between the experimental differential cross section and finite-range DWBA calculations with the code FRESCO. The spectroscopic factors obtained are compared to shell model calculations and to other experimental values from (d,p) reactions. Using the present values for the spectroscopic factor, cross sections for the direct neutron-capture reactions 7Li(n,g)8Li and 8Li(n,g)9Li were calculated in the framework of a potential model.

  2. Li-Fi (Light - Fidelity)

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Dagligen blir vi ombedda att stänga av elektroniska apparater som kan sända och mottaga radiosignaler, speciellt i flygplan och sjukhusmiljöer där radiovågor kan störa viktig utrustning. Detta kan snart vara ett minne blott. En ny trådlös överförings teknik, Li-Fi, baserar sig på ljusvågor som till skillnad från radiovågor (Wi-Fi) inte stör känsliga instrument. Även om Li-Fi ännu är i sin linda kan man ana att det finns stor utvecklingspotential. I denna rapport sammanställs befintlig litterä...

  3. CASTABILITY OF Al-Li-Mg AND Al-Li-Cu-Mg ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to study the casting characteristics of various Al-Li alloys, which include fluidity and strengths of the alloys and their interaction with cast molds. Materials investigated are Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys with Li content of 2.5 wt%. The results show that sand molds with resin binders are good for Al-Li casting. Ceramic coatings can further reduce the metal-mold interactions. However, the permeability is also reduced by coating. The fluidity of Li-bea...

  4. Üliõpilase meelespea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    16. aprill. TPÜ valitsuse otsus nr. 3 kõlab nii : alustada TPÜ lõpetanutele UNESCO, Euroopa Nõukogu ja Euroopa Komisjoni ühise töögrupi poolt välja töötatud ingliskeelse ülikooli diplomi lisa Diplome Supplement (DS) väljastamist üliõpilase soovil ; kinnitada Diploma Supplementì väljastamise kord ja vormistamise maksumus 500 krooni : [täistekst

  5. Üliõpilase meelespea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    16. aprill. TPÜ valitsuse otsus nr. 3 kõlab nii : alustada TPÜ lõpetanutele UNESCO, Euroopa Nõukogu ja Euroopa Komisjoni ühise töögrupi poolt välja töötatud ingliskeelse ülikooli diplomi lisa Diplome Supplement (DS) väljastamist üliõpilase soovil ; kinnitada Diploma Supplementì väljastamise kord ja vormistamise maksumus 500 krooni : [täistekst

  6. Preparation and characterization of poly(lithium acrylate-arcylonitrile)/LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr solid polymer electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chun-yue; YUAN Yun-lan; CHEN Zhen-hua; XU Xian-hua; ZHANG Jian

    2005-01-01

    Through orthogonal experiment, a new type of LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salt with optimum mole ratio of n(LiClO4):n(LiNO3):n(LiBr)=1.6:3.8:1.0 was prepared. The poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile)/LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr solid polymer electrolytes were prepared with poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile) and LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts. The effect of LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts content on the conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes was studied by alternating current impedance method, and the structures of eutectic salts and solid polymer electrolytes were characterized by differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The results show that the room temperature conductivity of LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts reaches 3.11×10-4 S·cm-1. The poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile)/LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr solid polymer electrolytes possess the highest room temperature conductivity at 70% LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts content, and exhibit lower glass transition temperature of 75 ℃ compared with that of poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile) of 105 ℃. A complex may be formed in the solid polymer electrolytes from the differential thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction results show that the poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile) can suppress the crystallization of eutectic salts in this system.

  7. Türkiye'nin 7 akarsu havzasında horozbina, Salaria fluviatilis (Asso,1801, balığına ait boy-ağırlık ilişkisi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İlhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Türkiye‟nin 7 akarsu havzasından toplanmış olan Horozbina Balığı (Salaria fluviatilis‟na ait boy-ağırlık ilişkisinin ortaya çıkarılması amaçlanmıştır. Marmara, Küçük Menderes, Batı Karadeniz, Antalya, Doğu Akdeniz, Seyhan ve Ceyhan havzalarına ait akarsulardan toplanmış olan 652 birey incelenmiştir. Tüm bireyler dikkate alındığında türün Türkiye içsularındaki total boy dağılımı 2.0-12.9 cm, total ağırlık dağılımı 0.10-33.82 g, boy-ağırlık ilişkisi parametreleri a= 0.0135, b= 3.004, r2= 0.986 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ayrıca, büyüme tipi havzaların 5‟inde izometrik, 1 havzada pozitif allometrik ve 1 havzada da negatif allometrik olarak belirlenmiştir

  8. Meme kanseri riskinin beslenme ile ilişkili faktörler açısından değerlendirilmesi/The evaluation of risk of breast cancer from the perspective of nutritional factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, M. Soner; ATAK, Nazlı

    2014-01-01

    ÖzetBu çalışmanın amacı, meme kanseri riskinin beslenme ile ilişkili faktörler açısından değerlendirilmesidir. Gelişmiş ülkelerde önemli bir Halk Sağlığı sorunu olan meme kanserinin, gelişmekte olan ülkelerde de doğumda beklenen yaşam süresinin uzaması ve batılı yaşam biçiminin benimsenmesi sonucu insidansı artmaktadır. Yaşam biçimi davranışlarının özellikle de beslenmenin, kronik hastalıklarla olan ilişkisinin belirlenmesi ile birlikte, gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerdeki kadınlarda en s...

  9. Ultralong Lifespan and Ultrafast Li Storage: Single-Crystal LiFePO4 Nanomeshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Hui Juan; Feng, Yang Yang; Fang, Ling; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-27

    A novel LiFePO4 material, in the shape of a nanomesh, has been rationally designed and synthesized based on the low crystal-mismatch strategy. The LiFePO4 nanomesh possesses several advantages in morphology and crystal structure, including a mesoporous structure, its crystal orientation that is along the [010] direction, and a shortened Li-ion diffusion path. These properties are favorable for their application as cathode in Li-ion batteries, as these will accelerate the Li-ion diffusion rate, improve the Li-ion exchange between the LiFePO4 nanomesh and the electrolyte, and reduce the Li-ion capacitive behavior during Li intercalation. So the LiFePO4 nanomesh exhibits a high specific capacity, enhanced rate capability, and strengthened cyclability. The method developed here can also be extended to other similar systems, for instance, LiMnPO4 , LiCoPO4 , and LiNiPO4 , and may find more applications in the designed synthesis of functional materials.

  10. MEFV gen mutasyonlarının tüberküloza direnç ile olası ilişkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Ejder Yıldırım

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaç. Mycobacterium tuberculosis enfeksiyonu dünya üzerinde ciddi bir halk sağlığı sorunudur. T-helper 1 hücreleri tüberküloz patogenezinde önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Ailesel Akdeniz Ateşi (FMF hastaları ve taşıyıcılarında T-helper 1’in artmış aktivitesi söz konusudur. Bu çalışmayı, bağışıklık temelinde, MEFV gen mutasyonlarıyla tüberküloza karşı direnç arasında olası ilişkiyi değerlendirmek üzere yaptık. Yöntem. Bu çalışma 2007-2009 yılları arasında Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Göğüs Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı’na başvuran ve fizik muayene, mikrobiyolojik ve radyolojik tetkiklerle tüberküloz tanısı alan 51 hasta (23 kadın, 28 erkek ve 57 kişilik kontrol grubuyla (26 kadın, 31 erkek gerçekleştirilmiştir. Her iki grupta revers hibridizasyon FMF Strip Assay (ViennaLab Labordiagnostika, Vienna, Austria tekniği kullanılarak 12 yaygın MEFV gen mutasyonu araştırılmıştır. Bulgular. MEFV mutasyonlarının dağılımı açısından hasta ve kontrol grupları arasında önemli bir fark saptanmamıştır (p>0,05. Hasta grubunda 22 MEFV gen mutasyonu (%43,1 vardı. Homozigot mutasyon tespit edilmedi. Hasta grubundaki mutasyonların tamamı heterozigottu. Kontrol grubunda da homozigot mutasyona rastlanmazken, toplam 29 (%50,8 heterozigot mutasyona rastlandı. Sonuç. Elde edilen veriler tüberküloz hastalarında MEFV geni mutasyon sıklığının sağlıklı populasyona oranla önemli bir farklılık göstermediğini düşündürmektedir. FMF mutasyonları tüberküloza yakalanmakta değil ama hastalığın seyrinde etkili olabilir.

  11. The relationship between job satisfaction of teachers and their perception of transformational leadership characteristics for their school administratorsÖğretmenlerin iş doyumu ile yöneticileri için algıladıkları dönüşümcü liderlik özellikleri arasındaki ilişki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Nuri Tok

    2013-04-01

    teachers pleased of their job, doing their job fondly and loving their jobs more than others. Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı, öğretmenlerin iş doyumları (İD ile yöneticilerinin dönüşümcü liderlik (DL stilleri arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektir. Araştırmada tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada üç bölümden (Kişisel Bilgiler, Dönüşümcü Liderlik Anketi, İş Doyum Anketi oluşan veri toplama aracı kullanılmıştır. Araştırma için kullanılan anket, Denizli İli Merkezi’nde, Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı’na bağlı ilköğretim okulları arasından örneklem olarak alınan 19 okulda uygulanmıştır. Bu okullarda 328 öğretmene uygulanan veri toplama aracı değerlendirmeye alınmıştır. Araştırmada elde edilen sonuçlar frekans, ortalama değer ve standart sapma ile demografik sorulardan elde edilen yanıtlar ise yüzde ve frekans dağılımları ile sunulmuştur. Öğretmenlerin ölçeklerden elde ettikleri puanların cinsiyet, branş ve eğitim durumu özelliklerine göre farklılık gösterip göstermediği t-testi ile kıdem ve yaş özelliklerine göre farklılık gösterip göstermediği ise One–Way ANOVA ve The Kruskall-Wallis H Testi ile test edilmiştir. One–Way ANOVA Varyans Analizi sonrasında, kategoriler arasında farklılık görülmemiştir. The Kruskall-Wallis H Testisonrasında ise, farklılığın hangi kategorilerde arasında belirlemek amacıyla Mann–Whitney U testi kullanılmıştır.DL ile İD arasındaki ilişkiyi belirlemek amacıyla Spearman Korelasyon Testi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda okul yöneticilerinin DL özellikleri ile ilköğretim okullarında görev yapan öğretmenlerin İD arasında, düşük düzeyde ilişki olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu araştırmadaki öğretmen görüşlerine göre, okul yöneticilerinin DL davranışlarını gerçekleştirmede yeterli olmaları, bu liderlik davranışlarını sıklıkla sergilemeleri; öğretmenlerin işlerinden memnun olmalarını, i

  12. The relationship among self-esteem, intelligence, and academic achievementBenlik saygısı, zekâ ve akademik başarı ilişkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-esteem begins to develop at early ages and has relationship with various other variables. In this research, the relationship of self-esteem with intelligence and academic achievement was examined. The study group included 127 middle school students at adolescence. The students’ scores on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices Plus Test as well as their general point average (GPA scores were used. It was found no statistically significant relationship between self-esteem and intelligence. In addition, although there was a statistically significant relationship between intelligence and academic achievement, the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement was not statistically significant. Besides, self-esteem did not differentiated by students’ levels of intelligence. However, students’ self-esteem scores differentiated by their levels of achievement. Results of the study provided inferences and some suggestions to educators and parents.   ÖzetErken gelişim dönemlerinden itibaren oluşmaya başlayan benlik saygısı, farklı değişkenlerle ilişkilidir. Bu araştırmada, benlik saygısı ile zekâ ve akademik başarı arasındaki ilişki incelenmiştir. Ergenlik dönemindeki 127 öğrenciyle yapılan bu araştırmada, verilerin toplanması için Rosenberg Benlik Saygısı Ölçeği, Raven Standart Progresif Matrisler Plus Testi ve öğrencilerin akademik not ortalamaları kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, benlik saygısı ve zekâ arasında anlamlı bir ilişkiye rastlanmamıştır. Bunun yanında, zekâ ve akademik başarı arasında yüksek bir ilişki bulunmasına rağmen, benlik saygısı ve akademik başarı arasındaki ilişkinin anlamlı olmadığı ortaya çıkmıştır. Ayrıca benlik saygısı, öğrencilerin zekâ düzeylerine göre de farklılaşmamaktadır. Fakat farklı akademik başarıya sahip öğrenci gruplarında benlik saygısının farkl

  13. Inelastic H+Li and H^-+Li^+ collisions and non-LTE Li I line formation in stellar atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Barklem, P S; Asplund, M

    2003-01-01

    Rate coefficients for inelastic collisions between Li and H atoms covering all transitions between the asymptotic states Li(2s,2p,3s,3p,3d,4s,4p,4d,4f)+H(1s) and Li^+ +H^- are presented for the temperature range 2000-8000 K based on recent cross-section calculations. The data are of sufficient completeness for non-LTE modelling of the Li I 670.8 nm and 610.4 nm features in late-type stellar atmospheres. Non-LTE radiative transfer calculations in both 1D and 3D model atmospheres have been carried out for test cases of particular interest. Our detailed calculations show that the classical modified Drawin-formula for collisional excitation and de-excitation (Li*+H Li*'+H) over-estimates the cross-sections by typically several orders of magnitude and consequently that these reactions are negligible for the line formation process. However, the charge transfer reactions collisional ion-pair production and mutual neutralization (Li*+H Li^+ +H^-) are of importance in thermalizing Li. In particular, 3D non-LTE calcu...

  14. First observation of $^{13}$Li ground state

    CERN Document Server

    Kohley, Z; DeYoung, P A; Volya, A; Baumann, T; Bazin, D; Christian, G; Cooper, N L; Frank, N; Gade, A; Hall, C; Hinnefeld, J; Luther, B; Mosby, S; Peters, W A; Smith, J K; Snyder, J; Spyrou, A; Thoennessen, M

    2013-01-01

    The ground state of neutron-rich unbound $^{13}$Li was observed for the first time in a one-proton removal reaction from $^{14}$Be at a beam energy of 53.6 MeV/u. The $^{13}$Li ground state was reconstructed from $^{11}$Li and two neutrons giving a resonance energy of 120$^{+60}_{-80}$ keV. All events involving single and double neutron interactions in the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) were analyzed, simulated, and fitted self-consistently. The three-body ($^{11}$Li+$n+n$) correlations within Jacobi coordinates showed strong dineutron characteristics. The decay energy spectrum of the intermediate $^{12}$Li system ($^{11}$Li+$n$) was described with an s-wave scattering length of greater than -4 fm, which is a smaller absolute value than reported in a previous measurement.

  15. Electrical conductivity of Cu-Li alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱达川; 宋明昭; 陈家钊; 涂铭旌; 潘海滨

    2004-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of Cu-Li alloys was studied. And the distribution of electrons near Fermi surface was detected by synchrotron radiation instrument. The results show that the electrical conductivity of Cu-Li alloys decreases from 5. 22 × 10-9 S/m to 3. 69 × 10-9 S/m with the increase of Li content. Li can decrease the oxygen, sulfur and other impurities content in commercial Cu, but Li dissolved in Cu lattice leads to distortion of Cu lattice from 0. 005 %-0. 050 %, affects the valence band of Cu, increases the binding energy of surface electron, and decreases the electron density of Fermi surface simultaneously. So the electrical conductivity decreases gradually with the increase of Li content.

  16. 2006 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of Western Lewis County for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data set covers...

  17. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  18. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault River Basin survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and...

  19. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Entiat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the...

  20. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  1. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  2. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  3. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Tulalip Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC)to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  4. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  5. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Saddle Mountain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  6. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Willapa Valley (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In January, 2014 WSI, a Quantum Spatial (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  7. President Li Xiaolin Visits Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Min

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of Prince Alwaleed,chairman of Kingdom Holding Company of Saudi Arabia,CPAFFC President Li Xiaolin led a delegation to visit Saudi Arabia from Feb 16 to 20.During the visit,Ms.Li met with the prince,visited Kingdom Hospital and Kingdom School and held working talks with Alwaleed Philanthropies.During the meeting with Prince Alwaleed,Ms.Li mentioned that Chi-

  8. /sup 7/Li production in Nova explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.; Sparks, W.M.; Arnould, M.

    1978-06-01

    Calculations of /sup 7/Li production occurring as a concomitant of thermonuclear runaways in hydrogen envelopes of white dwarfs are reported. It is found that sufficient /sup 7/Li can be produced in models displaying fast--nova-like features to suggest that the corresponding objects represent significant contributors to the /sup 7/Li enrichment of galactic matter. The sensitivities of these results to various assumptions and uncertainties are discussed.

  9. beta -delayed charged particles from /sup 9/Li and /sup 11/Li

    CERN Document Server

    Langevin, M; Détraz, C; Epherre-Rey-Campagnolle, Marcelle; Guillemaud, D; Klapisch, Robert; Mark, S K T; Naulin, F; Thibault, C; Touchard, F

    1981-01-01

    beta -delayed emission of alpha particles rom /sup 9/Li and of both alpha and /sup 6/He particles from /sup 11/Li is observed. New beta branches are reported which populate high-energy levels in the daughter nuclei. The branching ratios are measured and the beta delayed neutron emission probabilities P/sub n/ for /sup 9/Li and P /sub 3n/ for /sup 11/Li are deduced. (14 refs).

  10. Iodide substitution in lithium borohydride, LiBH{sub 4}-LiI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rude, Line H., E-mail: line@inano.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Groppo, Elena, E-mail: elena.groppo@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica I.F.M. and NIS, Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Arnbjerg, Lene M., E-mail: lenem@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B., E-mail: inadr@inano.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Malmkjaer, Regitze A., E-mail: regitze.aagaard.malmkjaer@post.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Filinchuk, Yaroslav, E-mail: Yaroslav.Filinchuk@uclouvain.be [Center for Materials Crystallography, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines at ESRF, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place L. Pasteur 1, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Baricco, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.baricco@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica I.F.M. and NIS, Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Besenbacher, Flemming, E-mail: fbe@inano.au.dk [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jensen, Torben R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2011-08-18

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > Anion substitution in LiBH{sub 4}. > Structure and properties of two LiBH{sub 4}-LiI solid solutions. > Stability upon heating and over time. > Hydrogen storage properties of LiBH{sub 4}-LiI. - Abstract: The new concept, anion substitution, is explored for possible improvement of hydrogen storage properties in the system LiBH{sub 4}-LiI. The structural chemistry and the substitution mechanism are analyzed using Rietveld refinement of in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Sieverts measurements. Anion substitution is observed as formation of two solid solutions of Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}I{sub x}, which merge into one upon heating. The solid solutions have hexagonal structures (space group P6{sub 3}mc) similar to the structures of h-LiBH{sub 4} and {beta}-LiI. The solid solutions have iodide contents in the range {approx}0-62 mol% and are stable from below room temperature to the melting point at 330 deg. C. Thus the stability of the solid solutions is higher as compared to that of the orthorhombic and hexagonal polymorphs of LiBH{sub 4} and {alpha}- and {beta}-LiI. Furthermore, the rehydrogenation properties of the iodide substituted solid solution Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}I{sub x}, measured by the Sieverts method, are improved as compared to those of LiBH{sub 4}. After four cycles of hydrogen release and uptake the Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}I{sub x} solid solution maintains 68% of the calculated hydrogen storage capacity in contrast to LiBH{sub 4}, which maintains only 25% of the storage capacity after two cycles under identical conditions.

  11. Li Xiuying’s Family Planning Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    PEOPLE in Yinan County refer to Li Xiuying, a doctor highly respected for her gynecological and obstetrics surgical skills, as "Magic Scalpel Li." Li Xiuying assumed the post as vice director of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in the People’s Hospital in Yinan County at the young age of 27. She held the post for 12 years until 1988 when she was became director of the county’s Family Planning Service Center. Li had never pursued the new position, and was unable to accept the unexpected transfer, preferring instead to continue working in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics throughout her career.

  12. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, A.; Horne, C.R.; Chang, O.; Zhang, W.; Kong, W.; Wang, E.; Chern, T.; Doeff, M. M.

    2009-08-04

    The electrochemical performances of nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 materials are described in this communication. The nanomaterials were synthesized by pyrolysis of an aerosol precursor. Both compositions required moderate heat-treatment to become electrochemically active. LiFePO4 nanoparticles were coated with a uniform, 2-4 nm thick carbon-coating using an organic precursor in the heat treatment step and showed high tap density of 1.24 g/cm3, in spite of 50-100 nm particle size and 2.9 wtpercent carbon content. Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles were between 50-200 nm in size and showed tap density of 0.8 g/cm3. The nanomaterials were tested both in half cell configurations against Li-metal and also in LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells. Nano-LiFePO4 showed high discharge rate capability with values of 150 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 charges. Nano-Li4Ti5O12 also showed high charge capability with values of 148 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 discharges; the discharge (lithiation) capability was comparatively slower. LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells deliver charge/discharge capacity values of 150 and 122 mAh/g at C/5 and 5C, respectively.

  13. Synthesis of LiAlTiO4 and its selectivity to Li+ exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Dianquan; Zhang Fengbao; Zhang Guoliang; Liu Yifan

    2006-01-01

    The ion-exchanger LiAlTiO4 of spinel type was prepared by the common precipitation/hydrothermal crystallization method,and was acid-modified.Its ion-exchange properties for alkali ions such as saturation capacity of exchange,distribution coefficient and pH titration curve were determined.LiAlTiO4 was characterized by the X-ray diffraction method.The acid treatment of LiAlTiO4 caused Li+ extraction ratio to change from 28% to 72%,while the dissolution of Al is less than 6.8%.This inorganic ion-exchanger (LiAlTiO4-700) has a higher saturation capacity of exchange for Li than for other alkali ions,the saturation capacity of exchange for Li+ reaches 4.29 mmol/g (30.03 mg/g); LiAlTiO4-700(H) has a higher selectivity of ion exchange for Li+ than for other alkali ions.These results show LiAlTiO4-700(H) has better memory and selectivity of ion exchange,and higher capacity of ion exchange for Li+.It is a kind of prospective ionic sieve for Li+.

  14. Structure of {sup 10}Li from the properties of {sup 11}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, E. [Inst. de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Fedorov, D.V.; Jensen, A.S. [Inst. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Arhus (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The resonances of the neutron-{sup 9}Li two-body system are decisive for the description of the {sup 11}Li three-body system. Known properties narrow down the uncertainties provided the finite spin of the {sup 9}Li are properly accounted for. The positions of two doublets of 1{sup {+-}} and 2{sup {+-}} are predicted. (orig.)

  15. An evaluation of educational supervision from the perspective of critical theoryEleştirel kuram perspektifinden eğitim denetimine ilişkin bir değerlendirme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kesik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to take the educational supervisors’ ideas on the process of supervision and their roles  from the critical theory perspective. In this study designed with survey method, data were collected through semi structured interview forms and evaluated with content analysis. The working group of the study is ten education supervisors working in Manisa. As a result of the study, it was found that supervisors mostly delivered positive opinions in such dimensions of supervision as democratic, individual differences, communication, human relations; they adopted an ideal supervisory practice and reflected that to the process; they considered the supervision process as an interdisciplinary field and discussed it in terms of its relationship with society and culture, economy, and politics and lastly they delivered positive opinions about the role of curriculum and technology as the tools of education and teaching.  However it was determined that although the supervisors generally adopt an inclusive attitude in terms of democratic and pluralism, they have some kind of prejudices and has reflected this to their expressions; the relationships of supervision with society, culture, economy and politics haven’t been so comprehensive and remained at a micro level and lastly they didn’t deliver critical opinions on the role of curriculum and technology, they discussed it just in terms of constructivist theory. ÖzetBu araştırma il eğitim denetmenlerinin mevcut denetim sürecine ve denetmenlik rollerine ilişkin görüşlerini eleştirel kuram perspektifinden ele almayı amaçlamaktadır. Tarama modelinde tasarımlanan bu çalışmada yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu aracılığıyla veriler toplanmış ve betimsel analiz kullanılarak değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Manisa ilinde görev yapmakta olan 10 il eğitim denetmeni oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma sonucunda, denetmenlerin genel olarak denetimin

  16. Spatial relationships of life and death at The Foothills of Süphan during The Iron AgesDemir Çağları’nda, Süphan Dağı eteklerinde yaşam ve ölümün mekânsal ilişkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi Biber

    2016-08-01

    results of the piece pottery periodical analysis is understood in the Iron Age. Muş province, Malazgirt in the borders, had Belliahır location of the settlements and tombs, Civikan settlement and tombs and Kaşıkcı Plateau settlement and tombs have a special case.   Özet Bu makalede, Muş İli, Malazgirt İlçesi sınırları içerisinde, Süphan Dağı eteklerinde yer alan ve tarafımızdan Erken ve Orta Demir Çağlarına (yaklaşık M.Ö. 1300-600 tarihlendirilen Belliahır Mevkii Yerleşme ve Mezarları, Civikan Yerleşim ve Mezarları ile Kaşıkçı Yaylası Yerleşim ve Mezarları’nın yerleşim düzeni, diğer bir deyişle mekan ve mezarların birbiriyle konumsal ilişkileri değerlendirilmektedir. T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı’nın izinleriyle, 2010 ve 2011 yıllarında yaptığımız yüzey araştırmalarında tespit edilen söz konusu merkezler yerinde incelenerek, fotoğrafları çekilmiş, mimari çizimler yapılmış ve izinlerimiz kapsamında arkeolojik materyal toplanmıştır. Daha sonra laboratuarlarımızda ekibimiz tarafından yapılan çalışmalar ve değerlendirmelerle çalışma tamamlanmıştır. Yaşam ve ölüm insanoğlunun hayatında hep var olagelmiş iki olgudur. İnsanlar doğar, belli bir süre yaşar ve er geç bu süreç biter ve ölüm denilen gerçekle yüzleşilir. Bu iki olgunun yeryüzüyle ilişkisi doğaldır ki mekânlarla sağlanmaktadır. Yani hayat yaşam alanlarında sürerken ölüm mezarlarla bağlantılıdır. İnsanoğlunun var olduğu andan itibaren bu iki farklı dünya sürekli olarak birbiriyle ilişkili olmuştur. Ancak mekânsal kurguları zamana ve toplumlara göre değişkenlik göstermiştir. İnsanlar kimi zaman ölülerini yaşadıkları mekânların içine, evlerin tabanı veya sekilerin altına, kimi zaman da yaşam alanlarının dışında oluşturdukları, gömü geleneklerine göre değişiklik gösteren farklı tiplerdeki mezarlara gömmüşlerdir. Makaleye konu arkeolojik merkezlerde de

  17. Li ion diffusion in LiAlO2 investigated by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiwei; Lei, Li; Jiang, Xiaodong; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Tang, Mingjun; He, Duanwei

    2014-11-01

    The temperature dependence of Li ions behavior of γ-LiAlO2 has been studied from 78 to 873 K. On heating, the Li ions underwent positional disordering along the structural channels, with the Li ions related modes at 220, 366 and 400 cm-1 broadening and weakening dramatically. An anomalous maximum in the bandwidths of the Li ions related modes is observed. It should be apparent that there are at least two distinct thermally activated processes. A model suggested by Andrade and Porto is used to describe the linewidth of a phonon.

  18. Optimized synthesis technology of LiFePO4 for Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Tao; TIAN Yan-wen; DING Yang; ZHONG Can-yun; ZHAI Yu-chun

    2005-01-01

    The influence of factors of the carbon black content, sintering temperature, sintering time, molar ratio of Li to Fe, as well as the electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 for lithium ion battery were studied. The only technology was obtained by using range analysis through Latin orthogonal experiment of L44 (16). The results show that the optimization synthesis technology of LiFePO4 is content of 5% doping carbon, sintering temperature of 700 ℃,molar ratio of Li to Fe of 1.03 : 1 and sintering time of 16 h. The optimized cathode synthesis techniques can make LiFePO4 have good electrochemical properties.

  19. Kinetic measurement and prediction of the hydrogen outgassing from the polycrystalline LiH/Li2O/LiOH system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Grant, D M; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Siekhaus, W J; Balazs, B; Leckey, J H; Kirkpatrick, J; McLean II, W

    2005-04-06

    Due to the exothermic reaction of lithium hydride (LiH) salt with water during transportation and handling, there is always a thin film of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) present on the LiH surface. In dry or vacuum storage, this thin LiOH film slowly decomposes. We have used temperature-programmed reaction/decomposition (TPR) in combination with the isoconversion method of thermal analysis to determine the outgassing kinetics of H{sub 2}O from pure LiOH and H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O from this thin LiOH film. H{sub 2} production via the reaction of LiH with LiOH, forming a lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) interlayer, is thermodynamically favored, with the rate of further reaction limited by diffusion through the Li{sub 2}O and the stability of the decomposing LiOH. Lithium hydroxide at the LiOH/vacuum interface also decomposes easily to Li{sub 2}O, releasing H{sub 2}O which subsequently reacts with LiH in a closed system to form H{sub 2}. At the onset of dry decomposition, where H{sub 2} is the predominant product, the activation energy for outgassing from a thin LiOH film is lower than that for bulk LiOH. However, as the reactions at the LiH/Li{sub 2}O/LiOH and at the LiOH/vacuum interfaces proceed, the overall activation energy barrier for the outgassing approaches that of bulk LiOH decomposition. The kinetics developed here predicts a hydrogen evolution profile in good agreement with hydrogen release observed during long term isothermal storage.

  20. Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME:(NRCS) Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G11PD01254 Woolpert Order...

  1. Üliõpilasteatrid peavad Itaalias kongressi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Itaalia väikelinnas Urbinos lõpeb 27. juulil sealse ülikooli teatri Teatro Aenigma ja Rahvusvahelise Üliõpilasteatrite Assotsiatsiooni koostöös kuues tudengiteatrite maailmakongress. Eestist osaleb ja peab ettekande lavastaja ja Tartu Üliõpilasteatri kunstiline juht Kalev Kudu

  2. Phase evolution of Li{sub 2}ND, LiD and LiND{sub 2} in hydriding/dehydriding of Li{sub 3}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, W.-M.; Lamb, Joshua [Metallurgical Materials Engineering, MS 388, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Chandra, Dhanesh [Metallurgical Materials Engineering, MS 388, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)], E-mail: dchandra@unr.edu; Huq, Ashfia [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Richardson, James; Maxey, Evan [Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-10-31

    Neutron and synchrotron studies have been performed on in situ hydriding of Li{sub 3}N. Commercial Li{sub 3}N is composed of {alpha} phase ({approx}70 wt.%) and {beta} phase ({approx}30 wt.%). We have performed experiments to convert {beta} {yields} {alpha}, and studied in situ deuteration using neutron diffraction experiments. We found concurrent phase evolution of Li{sub 2}ND, LiD, and LiND{sub 2}. Mass percentages of the phases evolved as a function of time and temperature have been quantified using General Structure Analysis System (GSAS) refinement of the neutron diffraction data. The problem of formation of the stable LiD is discussed in light of decreasing of the amount of LiD phase when the temperature is increased from 200 to 320 deg. C during dehydriding, and in addition the concentration of Li{sub 2}ND phase increased at this temperature. Lattice parameters, volume changes, phase evolutions in wt.% as a function of temperature and time are presented.

  3. Li-5(BH4)(3)NH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolczyk, Anna; Paik, Biswajit; Sato, Toyoto

    2017-01-01

    = 7.0474(2) angstrom at 77 degrees C. The crystal structure of Lis(BH4)(3)NH has been solved in space group Pnma, and refined coupling density functional theory (DFT) and synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction data have been obtained for a 3LiBH(4):2Li(2)NH ball-milled and annealed sample...

  4. Üliõpilasteatrid peavad Itaalias kongressi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Itaalia väikelinnas Urbinos lõpeb 27. juulil sealse ülikooli teatri Teatro Aenigma ja Rahvusvahelise Üliõpilasteatrite Assotsiatsiooni koostöös kuues tudengiteatrite maailmakongress. Eestist osaleb ja peab ettekande lavastaja ja Tartu Üliõpilasteatri kunstiline juht Kalev Kudu

  5. Microstructure Analysis of Synthesized LiBOB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Marti Wigayati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lithium bis (oxalate borate or LiBOB is an active material used as the electrolyte for lithium battery application. LiBOB (LiB(C2O42 powder was prepared from LiOH, H2C2O4 and H3BO3. The employed method was solid state reaction. LiBOB powder produced from the reaction was then observed using SEM and TEM. Surface area was analyzed using Quantachrome Nova 4200e. From the analysis analyzed using XRD to identify the resulting phases, crystal structure, and crystallite size. The functional groups were analyzed using FT-IR. The particle morphology was result, it was seen that the resulted phases were C4LiBO8 and LiB(C2O42.H2O, the crystal structure was orthorhombic with space group Pbca and Pnma. From the particle morphology observation it was shown that micro pores were created irregularly. When the observation was deepened, nanopores with elongated round shape were seen within the micropores. The pore size was approximately 50–100 nm. The surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter of LiBOB powder was 88.556 m2/g, 0.4252 cm3/g, and 19.2 nm respectively.

  6. The Impact of Li Grain Size on Coulombic Efficiency in Li Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, B Layla; Stevens, Andrew; Qian, Jiangfeng; Park, Chiwoo; Xu, Wu; Henderson, Wesley A; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Mueller, Karl T; Browning, Nigel D

    2016-10-05

    One of the most promising means to increase the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium Li-ion batteries is to replace the graphite anode with a Li metal anode. While the direct use of Li metal may be highly advantageous, at present its practical application is limited by issues related to dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency, CE. Here operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is used to directly image the deposition/stripping of Li at the anode-electrolyte interface in a Li-based battery. A non-aqueous electrolyte containing small amounts of H2O as an additive results in remarkably different deposition/stripping properties as compared to the "dry" electrolyte when operated under identical electrochemical conditions. The electrolyte with the additive deposits more Li during the first cycle, with the grain sizes of the Li deposits being significantly larger and more variable. The stripping of the Li upon discharge is also more complete, i.e., there is a higher cycling CE. This suggests that larger grain sizes are indicative of better performance by leading to more uniform Li deposition and an overall decrease in the formation of Li dendrites and side reactions with electrolyte components, thus potentially paving the way for the direct use of Li metal in battery technologies.

  7. Electrochemistry of LiCl-Li2O-H2O Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natalie J. Gese; Batric Pesic

    2013-03-01

    Uranium can be recovered from uranium oxide (UO2) spent fuel through the combination of the oxide reduction and electrorefining processes. During oxide reduction, the spent fuel is introduced to molten LiCl-Li2O salt at 650 degrees C and the UO2 is reduced to uranium metal via two routes: (1) electrochemically, and (2) chemically by lithium metal (Li0) that is produced electrochemically. However, the hygroscopic nature of both LiCl and Li2O leads to the formation of LiOH, contributing hydroxyl anions (OH-), the reduction of which interferes with the Li0 generation required for the chemical reduction of UO2. In order for the oxide reduction process to be an effective method for the treatment of uranium oxide fuel, the role of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O system must be understood. The behavior of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O molten salt system was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry, while reduction to hydrogen was confirmed with gas chromatography.

  8. The Impact of Li Grain Size on Coulombic Efficiency in Li Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, B. Layla; Stevens, Andrew; Qian, Jiangfeng; Park, Chiwoo; Xu, Wu; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most promising means to increase the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium Li-ion batteries is to replace the graphite anode with a Li metal anode. While the direct use of Li metal may be highly advantageous, at present its practical application is limited by issues related to dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency, CE. Here operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is used to directly image the deposition/stripping of Li at the anode-electrolyte interface in a Li-based battery. A non-aqueous electrolyte containing small amounts of H2O as an additive results in remarkably different deposition/stripping properties as compared to the “dry” electrolyte when operated under identical electrochemical conditions. The electrolyte with the additive deposits more Li during the first cycle, with the grain sizes of the Li deposits being significantly larger and more variable. The stripping of the Li upon discharge is also more complete, i.e., there is a higher cycling CE. This suggests that larger grain sizes are indicative of better performance by leading to more uniform Li deposition and an overall decrease in the formation of Li dendrites and side reactions with electrolyte components, thus potentially paving the way for the direct use of Li metal in battery technologies.

  9. The Impact of Li Grain Size on Coulombic Efficiency in Li Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, B. Layla; Stevens, Andrew; Qian, Jiangfeng; Park, Chiwoo; Xu, Wu; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2016-10-05

    One of the most promising means to increase the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium (Li)-ion batteries is to replace the graphite anode with a Li metal anode1, 2, 3. While the direct use of Li metal may be highly advantageous4,5, at present its practical application is limited by issues related to dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency (CE)6. Here operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is used to directly image the deposition/stripping of Li at the anode-electrolyte interface in a Li-based battery. A non-aqueous electrolyte containing small amounts of H2O as an additive results in remarkably different deposition/stripping properties as compared to the "dry" electrolyte when operated under identical electrochemical conditions. The electrolyte with the additive deposits more Li during the first cycle, with the grain sizes of the Li deposits being significantly larger and more variable. The stripping of the Li upon discharge is also more complete, i.e., there is a higher cycling CE. This suggests that larger grain sizes are indicative of better performance by leading to more uniform Li deposition and an overall decrease in the formation of Li dendrites and side reactions with electrolyte components, thus potentially paving the way for the direct use of Li metal in battery technologies.

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Study of LiBH4-LiCl Solid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben R. Jensen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anion substitution is at present one of the pathways to destabilize metal borohydrides for solid state hydrogen storage. In this work, a solid solution of LiBH4 and LiCl is studied by density functional theory (DFT calculations, thermodynamic modeling, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. It is shown that Cl substitution has minor effects on thermodynamic stability of either the orthorhombic or the hexagonal phase of LiBH4. The transformation into the orthorhombic phase in LiBH4 shortly after annealing with LiCl is for the first time followed by infrared measurements. Our findings are in a good agreement with an experimental study of the LiBH4-LiCl solid solution structure and dynamics. This demonstrates the validity of the adopted combined theoretical (DFT calculations and experimental (vibrational spectroscopy approach, to investigate the solid solution formation of complex hydrides.

  11. Investigation of the role of 10Li resonances in the halo structure of 11Li through the Li11(p,dLi10 transfer reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanetullaev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The first measurement of the one-neutron transfer reaction 11Li(p,d10Li performed using the IRIS facility at TRIUMF with a 5.7A MeV 11Li beam interacting with a solid H2 target is reported. The 10Li residue was populated strongly as a resonance peak with energy Er=0.62±0.04 MeV having a total width Γ=0.33±0.07 MeV. The angular distribution of this resonance is characterized by neutron occupying the 1p1/2 orbital. A DWBA analysis yields a spectroscopic factor of 0.67±0.12 for p1/2 removal strength from the ground state of 11Li to the region of the peak.

  12. Ateroskleroz ile il-1α (interleukin-1α -889 c/t gen polimorfizmi arasındaki ilişkinin araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Başçil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Amaç. Genetik ve çevresel faktörler arasındaki ilişki sonucu ortaya çıkan kardiyovasküler hastalıkların gelişiminde inflamasyon anahtar rol oynamaktadır. İnterlökin-1α (IL-1α nın proinflamasyon regülasyonunda önemli rolü vardır. Bu çalışmada IL-1α-889 C/T polimorfizmi ile ateroskleroz arasındaki ilişkinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem. Bu çalışma popülasyonu 117 hasta (Grup I ve 117 sağlıklı (Grup II bireyden oluşmuştur. Grup I ve Grup II deki bireylerin genomik DNA’sı izole edildi. IL-1α genotipleri rastgele seçilen örneklerden direkt dizi analizi yapılarak doğrulandı. Bulgular. Grup I 78 erkek ve 39 kadın bireyden, Grup II ise 49 erkek ve 68 kadın bireyden oluşmaktadır. Grup I bireylerin yaş ortalaması 61,06; Grup II bireylerin yaş ortalaması ise 59,47’dir. Grup I’de 43 bireyde, Grup II’de ise 28 bireyde yüksek kolesterol (total kolesterol>200 mg/dL bulundu. Grup I’de 62 bireyde, Grup II’de 51 bireyde sigara içiciliği bulundu. Grup I’de 81 bireyde yüksek tansiyon ( sistolik kan basıncı>140 mmHg ve/veya diyastolik kan basıncı >90 mmHg, 42 bireyde diyabet, Grup II’de 32 bireyde yüksek tansiyon, 41 bireyde diyabet bulundu. Aterosklerotik Grup I’de CC genotip taşıyan bireyler grubun %54,70’ini, CT genotip taşıyan bireyler %35,04’nü ve TT genotip taşıyan bireyler ise %10,25’ini oluşturmaktadır. Grup II’de ise bu oranlar CC genotip taşıyanlarda %59,82; CT genotip taşıyanlarda %30,76 ve TT genotip taşıyanlarda %9,40 olarak saptanmıştır. IL-1α polimorfizmi için C allel frekansı Grup II’de %75,21 ve Grup I’de %72,22’dir. T allel frekansı dağılımı Grup II’de %24,78 ve Grup I’de ise %27,77’dir. Sonuç. Koroner Arter hastalığı olan Grup I ile, kontrol grubu olan Grup II arasında yaş, cinsiyet dağılımı, hipertansiyon ve hiperkolesterolemi açısından istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki saptanm

  13. Ders çalışma becerileri ile akademik risk alma arasındaki ilişkinin kanonik korelasyon ile incelenmesi [An investigation of the relationship between study skills and academic risk taking with canonical correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa İLHAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada ders çalışma becerileri ile akademik risk alma arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaca uygun olarak araştırmada ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, 2011-2012 Öğretim Yılı Güz Dönemi’nde Siirt Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi’nde öğrenim gören 221 üniversite öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada öğrencilerin ders çalışma becerilerini ölçmek için Bay, Tuğluk ve Gençdoğan (2004 tarafından geliştirilen “Ders Çalışma Becerileri Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Öğrencilerin akademik risk alma davranışlarını ölçmek amacıyla ise Clifford (1991 tarafından geliştirilen ve Korkmaz (2002 tarafından Türkçe’ye uyarlanan “Akademik Risk Alma Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada motivasyon, zaman yönetimi ve sınava hazırlanma-sınav kaygısı yönetimi değişkenlerinden oluşan ders çalışma becerileri veri seti ile başarısızlık sonrası olumsuzluk eğilimi, güç işlemleri tercih etme eğilimi, başarısızlık sonrası yeniden toparlanma ve etkin olma eğilimi ve ödev yapmama eğilimi değişkenlerinden oluşan akademik risk alma veri seti arasındaki ilişki kanonik korelasyon analizi ile incelenmiştir. Kanonik korelasyon analizi sonucunda, ders çalışma becerileri ve akademik risk alma arasında anlamlı ilişki tespit edilmiş ve veri setleri arasında paylaşılan ortak varyansın % 29.5 olduğu saptanmıştır.

  14. Kadın öğretmenlerin kariyer engelleri ile iş doyum düzeyleri arasındaki ilişki / Effect of career barriers facing women teachers on their level of job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf İNANDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ÖZETBu çalışmada, kadın öğretmenlerin kariyer engellerinin, onların iş doyum düzeyleriyle ilişkisini ve yordama düzeyini belirlemek amaçlanmaktadır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Türkiye’deki 21 ilin kent merkezlerindeki ilköğretim okullarında görev yapan 1.070 kadın öğretmen oluşturmaktadır. Betimsel nitelikte olan araştırmada, veriler ‘Kadınların Kariyer Engelleri Ölçeği’ (KKEÖ ve ‘İş Doyum Ölçeği’ (İDÖ ile toplanmıştır. Araştırma sonuçları, kadınların kariyer engelleri ile iş doyum düzeyleri arasında güçlü bir ilişki ortaya koymamaktadır. Yine araştırma sonuçlarına göre kadınların kariyer engelleri, iş doyumunun alt boyutları üzerinde sınırlı etkiye sahiptir. Kadın öğretmenlerin kariyer engelleri, iş doyumunun, sırasıyla, ‘iletişim’, ‘sosyal haklar’, ‘işin yapılma şekli’, ‘çalışma koşulları’, ‘maaş’, ‘işin yapısı’, ‘ilk amirle ilişkiler’, ‘yönetim’ ve ‘çalışma arkadaşları’ alt boyutlarını etkilemektedir. Kadın öğretmenlerin iş doyumları, en fazla, ‘toplumdaki cinsiyete ilişkin kalıp yargıları, ailevi durumlar ve kadınların kendi bakış açıları’ kaynaklı engellerden etkilenmektedir. Kadın öğretmenlerin kariyer engellerinin, onların iş doyumlarını düşük düzeyde yordaması, kadınların ve erkeklerin, kadınların yönetim süreçlerinde az olma durumlarını içselleştirmelerinden kaynaklanmış olabilir.

  15. Teachers’ perceptions and expectations of teacher leadership Öğretmenlerin öğretmen liderliğine ilişkin algıları ve beklentileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kıvanç Bozkuş

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, it is aimed to determine elementary and middle school teachers’, who work in the central county of Kütahya, perceptions and expectations of their leadership roles, the existence and level of the correlations between their perceptions and expectations and to what extent these teachers exhibit teacher leadership. Differences in perceptions and expectations across variables such as gender, branch, seniority, graduated school type are also researched. Data were gathered using the “Teacher Leadership Scale” developed by Beycioğlu and Aslan (2010. Quantitative data on 623 scale forms gathered from the participants have been analyzed. Findings imply that at schools, teacher leadership was exhibited to a certain degree, and the expectations of teacher leadership were higher than the perceptions. Expectations of teacher leadership did not vary across branches while perceptions did vary. Classroom teachers had higher perceptions in the sub factors of vocational development and collaboration with colleagues. Female teachers had higher perceptions and expectations of teacher leadership than male teachers. It is concluded that the results of this research may contribute to the comprehension of the status of teacher leadership at our schools. ÖzetÇalışmada Kütahya ili merkez ilçesinde görev yapan ilkokul ve ortaokul öğretmenlerinin liderlik rollerine ilişkin algıları, beklentileri, algılar ile beklentiler arasındaki ilişkilerin varlığı ve düzeyi ile bu öğretmenlerin ne derece liderlik sergilediklerinin saptanması amaçlanmıştır. Cinsiyet, branş, kıdem, mezun olunan okul türü gibi değişkenlere göre algı ve beklentilerde farklılık olup olmadığının belirlenmesi de amaçlanmıştır. Beycioğlu ve Aslan (2010 tarafından geliştirilen “Öğretmen Liderliği Ölçeği” ile veriler toplanmıştır. Katılımcılara uygulanan 623 ölçek formundan elde edilen nicel veriler analiz edilmi

  16. Anatolia tattoo art; Tunceli exampleAnadolu dövme sanatı; Tunceli ili örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çağlayandereli

    2016-05-01

    figures are not dominant in Tunceli tattoos. (4 Tribe’s figurs also are not dominant in Tunceli tattoos. (5 According to this, Tunceli tattoos can be evaluated a kind of figur in Anatolia tattoo tradition. (6 In Sociological, interest of traditional tattoo art is decreased in Tunceli and ‘tattoo desgins’ concerning Western Culture become widespread. According to this reason, the suggest of researchers is Tunceli and Anatolia tattoo art should become brand value via scientific researches and add to global relation networks.   Özet Makalede Tunceli kültürüne ait Anadolu dövme geleneği ve sanatı incelenmiştir. Yazının ilk atası kabul edilen dövme, süsleme veya mesaj verme amacıyla, belirli kültürel figürlerin, bedene; derinin alt yüzeyine nakşedilmesidir. Dövme, tarihin eski dönemlerine dayanan ve tüm toplumlarda görülen kültürel objedir. Dövme Anadolu medeniyetinin de renkli bir unsuru olagelmiştir. Dövme “damga” olarak kimi zaman bir meslek grubunu, sosyal statüyü veya aşiret ve tarikat gibi kişinin bağlı bulunduğu topluluğu belirtmek amacıyla kullanılmıştır. Aynı zamanda Anadolu dövme motiflerinin kişiyi hastalıklardan, nazardan koruduğuna; güzellik ve yiğitlik getirdiğine inanılmaktadır. Anadolu’da dövme sanatı farklı yöresel özgüllüklerinin bileşimi olan genel bir form ortaya çıkarır. Bunlardan Tunceli yöresi, “Alevi” ve “Kürt” kimliklerin coğrafi yoğunluğu bakımından, Türkiye’nin en özgün ili konumundadır. Tunceli’de yaşayan nüfusun büyük çoğunluğu, toplumun genelinden farklılaşan aşiret düzenindeki topluluklardan oluşmaktadır. Buna göre makalede Tunceli dövme sanatını betimlemek ve Anadolu dövme sanatından benzer ve farklı özelliklerini tespit etmek istenmiştir. Burada ortaya konan bilgiler Anadolu dövme sanatı literatürüne katkı yapabilecek niteliktedir. Makalede sunulan veriler Ağustos 2010 tarihine aittir. Tunceli kent merkezinde kartopu

  17. Attainable gravimetric and volumetric energy density of Li-S and li ion battery cells with solid separator-protected Li metal anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Bryan D

    2015-11-19

    As a result of sulfur's high electrochemical capacity (1675 mA h/gs), lithium-sulfur batteries have received significant attention as a potential high-specific-energy alternative to current state-of-the-art rechargeable Li ion batteries. For Li-S batteries to compete with commercially available Li ion batteries, high-capacity anodes, such as those that use Li metal, will need to be enabled to fully exploit sulfur's high capacity. The development of Li metal anodes has focused on eliminating Coulombically inefficient and dendritic Li cycling, and to this end, an interesting direction of research is to protect Li metal by employing mechanically stiff solid-state Li(+) conductors, such as garnet phase Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO), NASICON-type Li1+xAlxTi2-x(PO4)3 (LATP), and Li2S-P2S5 glasses (LPS), as electrode separators. Basic calculations are used to quantify useful targets for solid Li metal protective separator thickness and cost to enable Li metal batteries in general and Li-S batteries specifically. Furthermore, maximum electrolyte-to-sulfur ratios that allow Li-S batteries to compete with Li ion batteries are calculated. The results presented here suggest that controlling the complex polysulfide speciation chemistry in Li-S cells with realistic, minimal electrolyte loading presents a meaningful opportunity to develop Li-S batteries that are competitive on a specific energy basis with current state-of-the-art Li ion batteries.

  18. Elektromagnetni top - istraživački projekat ili uskoro u upotrebi? / Electromagnetic gun: Still just a research project or the reality of the operational use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena P. Bakić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Više od jednog veka istraživači u mnogim zemljama sveta bave se istraživanjem i razvojem elektromagnetnog (EM topa koji bi bio u mogućnosti da lansira projektil vrlo velikim brzinama. U publikovanoj stručnoj literaturi veći broj radova odnosi se na teorijska razmatranja pojedinih fenomena električnog pogona projektila i na hardverska rešenja električnih uređaja i komponenata, a manje su dostupni javnosti radovi koji se odnose na borbenu upotrebu, koncepciju rešenja i mogućnosti primene takvog oružja u borbenim sistemima vojske. U radu se ukazuje na osnovne probleme projektovanja takvog sistema naoružanja i saopštavaju se informacije na osnovu kojih se može proceniti da li će, kada i na kakvoj platformi EM top biti uveden u operativnu upotrebu. / For more than a century researchers in many countries have been engaged in research and development of electromagnetic (EM guns in order to launch projectiles with very high speed. In published sources many papers are related to theoretical considerations of certain phenomena of electrically driven projectiles and hardware solutions for electrical devices and components required for projectile launching. The works related to the philosophy of combat use, the concept of solutions and possibilities of application of such weapon systems are, however, less available to the public. The intention of the authors of this paper is to point out the basic problems of designing such weapon systems, and to give the readers the information on the basis of which they can assess whether it is possible, when and on what kind of platform for the EM gun to be approved for the operational use.

  19. Effect of a pyrrolidinium zwitterion on charge/discharge cycle properties of Li/LiCoO2 and graphite/Li cells containing an ionic liquid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Seitaro; Yoshizawa-Fujita, Masahiro; Takeoka, Yuko; Rikukawa, Masahiro

    2016-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) containing zwitterions have been studied as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The effects of addition of a pyrrolidinium zwitterion in an IL electrolyte on the thermal and electrochemical stability and charge/discharge properties of Li/LiCoO2 and graphite/Li cells were investigated. The thermal decomposition temperature of the IL electrolyte composed of N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide ([P13][FSA])/lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (LiTFSA) with 3-(1-butylpyrrolidinium)propane-1-sulfonate (Bpyps) as the zwitterionic additive, the thermal decomposition temperature was about 300 °C. The electrochemical window of [P13][FSA]/LiTFSA/Bpyps was 0-+5.4 V vs. Li/Li+, which was almost identical to that of [P13][FSA]/LiTFSA. Li|electrolyte|LiCoO2 cells containing the IL/Bpyps electrolyte system exhibited high capacities in the cut-off voltage range of 3.0-4.6 V, even after 50 cycles. The increase in the interfacial resistance between the electrolyte and cathode with cycling was suppressed. In the cyclic voltammograms of cells employing a graphite electrode, the intercalation/deintercalation of lithium ions were observed in the range of 0 and + 0.4 V vs. Li/Li+. Further, graphite|electrolyte|Li cells containing [P13][FSA]/LiTFSA/Bpyps exhibited stable charge/discharge cycle behaviour over 50 cycles.

  20. The single electrode Peltier heats of Li{sup +}/Li, H{sub 2}/H{sup -} and Li{sup +}/Pd-Li couples in molten LiCl-KCl systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Hironori; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Fundamental Energy Science, Kyoto (Japan)

    2004-10-30

    The thermoelectric power of the Li{sup +}/Li couple was measured in a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt at 633-773 K. The obtained value, 0.089 mV K{sup -1}, gives the single electrode Peltier heat for the reaction Li{sup +}+e{sup -} <--> Li as -5.8 kJ F{sup -1} at 673 K (endothermic cathodic reaction). The single electrode Peltier heat for the reaction 1/2H{sub 2} + e{sup -} <--> H{sup -} in a molten LiCl-KCl-LiH system has been calculated using the temperature dependence of the equilibrium potential of the H{sub 2}/H{sup -} couple measured with reference to the Li{sup +}/Li potential, which gives 5.8 kJ F{sup -l} (exothermic cathodic reaction) under the condition of hydrogen pressure of 1.0 atm, H{sup -} ion concentration of 0.01 (anion fraction) and 673 K. The single electrode Peltier heats for formation of Pd-Li alloys have been also evaluated. (Author)

  1. Li ion diffusion mechanisms in LiFePO4: an ab initio molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjun; Tse, John S

    2011-11-17

    The mechanisms for thermal (self) diffusion of Li ions in fully lithiated LiFePO(4) have been investigated with spin polarized ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. The effect of electron correlation is taken into account with the GGA+U formalism. It was found that Li ion diffusion is not a continuous process but through a series of jumps from one site to another. A dominant process is the hopping between neighboring Li sites around the PO(4) groups, which results in a zigzag pathway along the crystallographic b-axis. This observation is in agreement with a recent neutron diffraction experiment. A second process involves the collaborative movements of the Fe ions leading to the formation of antisite defects and promotes Li diffusion across the Li ion channels. The finding of the second mechanism demonstrates the benefit of ab initio molecular dynamics simulation in sampling diffusion pathways that may not be anticipated.

  2. First-principles study of Li ion diffusion in LiFePO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Chuying; Shi, Siqi; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Huang, Xuejie; Chen, Liquan

    2004-03-01

    The diffusion mechanism of Li ions in the olivine LiFePO4 is investigated from first-principles calculations. The energy barriers for possible spatial hopping pathways are calculated with the adiabatic trajectory method. The calculations show that the energy barriers running along the c axis are about 0.6, 1.2, and 1.5 eV for LiFePO4, FePO4, and Li0.5FePO4, respectively. However, the other migration pathways have much higher energy barriers resulting in very low probability of Li-ion migration. This means that the diffusion in LiFePO4 is one dimensional. The one-dimensional diffusion behavior has also been shown with full ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, through which the diffusion behavior is directly observed.

  3. First-principle studies on the Li-Te system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youchun; Tian, Fubo; Li, Da; Duan, Defang; Liu, Yunxian; Liu, Bingbing; Zhou, Qiang; Cui, Tian

    2017-01-01

    First-principle evolutionary calculation was performed to search for all probable stable lithium tellurium compounds. In addition to the well-known structures of Fm-3m Li2Te and Pnma Li2Te, several novel structures, including those of P4/nmm Li2Te, Imma Li8Te2, and C2/m Li9Te2, were determined under high pressure. The transformation sequence of Li2Te induced by pressure was presented as follows. The phase transition occurred at 7.5 GPa while transforming from Fm-3m phase to Pnma structure, then transformed to P4/nmm phase at 14 GPa. P4/nmm Li2Te can remain stable at least up to 140 GPa. Li8Te2 and Li9Te2 were stable at 8-120 GPa and 80-120 GPa, respectively. Interestingly, Li8Te2 and Li9Te2 were predicted to be metallic under high pressure, Li2Te would metalize on compression. P4/nmm Li2Te is likely a super ionic conductor due to the special characteristic. Metallic P4/nmm Li2Te may be a candidate mixed conductor material under extreme pressure. Charge transfer was studied using Bader charge analysis. Charge transferred from Li to Te, and the relative debilitated ionicity between Li and Te atoms existed at high pressure.

  4. Effect of the composition of Al-Li alloys on the quantitative relation between the δ'(Al3Li), S1(Al2MgLi), and T1(Al2CuLi) phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsofen, S. Ya.; Antipov, V. V.; Grushin, I. A.; Knyazev, M. I.; Khokhlatova, L. B.; Alekseev, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Al-Li alloys are considered. A quantitative approach to the determination of the ratio of the fractions of the binary and ternary intermetallic phases in Al-Mg(Cu)-Li alloys is developed on the basis of chemical and phase composition balance equations and the experimentally measured lattice parameter of the α solid solution. The ratio of the fractions of the δ'(Al3Li) and S1(T1) phases in Al-Mg(Cu)-Li alloys is shown to be determined by the ratio of the mole fractions of Li and Mg(Cu). Equations are proposed for calculating the weight fractions of the S1(Al2MgLi), T1(Al2CuLi) and δ'(Al3Li) phases in domestic and foreign Al-Mg-Li alloys 1420, 1424, 5090 and Al-Cu-Li alloys 1440, 1460, 1461, 1441, 1469, 2090, 2095, 8090, and Weldalite 049.

  5. Strain imaging of a LiCoO2 cathode in a Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yuki; Osaka, Ryuma; Butsugan, Kenta; Takata, Keiji

    2016-09-01

    Li-ion batteries have been recognized as promising devices for a sustainable society. Layered LiCoO2 and graphite are commonly used as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. When charging and discharging, Li-ions are extracted or inserted into the interlayers, which causes changes in volume. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) can allow high resolution imaging of these volume changes, which enables us to investigate Li-ion migration without destruction. We observed volume changes in the LiCoO2 cathode using SPM and successfully imaged the distribution of the volume changes corresponding to the LiCoO2 particles. Volume changes in the interspace were significantly larger than those in the particles. The large volume changes are caused by electrolyte flux induced by changes in concentration of Li ions. The volume changes were greatly reduced when the electrolyte dried out. The dry-out and infiltration of electrolyte between the LiCoO2 particles and the current collector spread out with the procedure of degradation of the batteries. The boundaries between the dry-out and infiltration regions acted as barriers of electrolyte flux.

  6. Uniform second Li ion intercalation in solid state {var_epsilon}-LiVOPO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangoh, Linda W.; Sallis, Shawn; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Lin, Yuh-Chieh; Wen, Bohua; Quackenbush, Nicholas F.; Chernova, Natasha A.; Guo, Jinghua; Ma, Lu; Wu, Tianpin; Lee, Tien-Lin; Schlueter, Christoph; Ong, Shyue Ping; Chapman, Karena W.; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Piper, Louis F. J.

    2016-08-01

    Full, reversible intercalation of two Li+ has not yet been achieved in promising VOPO4 electrodes. A pronounced Li+ gradient has been reported in the low voltage window (i.e. second lithium reaction) that is thought to originate from disrupted kinetics in the high voltage regime (i.e first lithium reaction). Here we employ a combination of hard and soft x–ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy techniques to depth profile solid state synthesized LiVOPO4 cycled within the low voltage window only. Analysis of the vanadium environment revealed no evidence of a Li+ gradient, which combined with almost full theoretical capacity confirms that disrupted kinetics in the high voltage window are responsible for hindering full two lithium insertion. Furthermore, we argue that the uniform Li+ intercalation is a prerequisite for the formation of intermediate phases Li1:50VOPO4 and Li1:75VOPO4. The evolution from LiVOPO4 to Li2VOPO4 via the intermediate phases is confirmed by direct comparison between O K–edge absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory.

  7. Uniform second Li ion intercalation in solid state ϵ-LiVOPO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangoh, Linda W.; Quackenbush, Nicholas F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Sallis, Shawn [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Ma, Lu; Wu, Tianpin; Chapman, Karena W. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Lin, Yuh-Chieh; Ong, Shyue Ping [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0448, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Wen, Bohua; Chernova, Natasha A.; Whittingham, M. Stanley [NECCES, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Guo, Jinghua [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lee, Tien-Lin; Schlueter, Christoph [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Piper, Louis F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Full, reversible intercalation of two Li{sup +} has not yet been achieved in promising VOPO{sub 4} electrodes. A pronounced Li{sup +} gradient has been reported in the low voltage window (i.e., second lithium reaction) that is thought to originate from disrupted kinetics in the high voltage regime (i.e., first lithium reaction). Here, we employ a combination of hard and soft x–ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy techniques to depth profile solid state synthesized LiVOPO{sub 4} cycled within the low voltage window only. Analysis of the vanadium environment revealed no evidence of a Li{sup +} gradient, which combined with almost full theoretical capacity confirms that disrupted kinetics in the high voltage window are responsible for hindering full two lithium insertion. Furthermore, we argue that the uniform Li{sup +} intercalation is a prerequisite for the formation of intermediate phases Li{sub 1.50}VOPO{sub 4} and Li{sub 1.75}VOPO{sub 4}. The evolution from LiVOPO{sub 4} to Li{sub 2}VOPO{sub 4} via the intermediate phases is confirmed by direct comparison between O K–edge absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory.

  8. [100]-Oriented LiFePO4 Nanoflakes toward High Rate Li-Ion Battery Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaojin; Peng, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Tao; Hu, Minmin; Zhu, Kongjun; Wang, Xiaohui

    2016-01-13

    [100] is believed to be a tough diffusion direction for Li(+) in LiFePO4, leading to the belief that the rate performance of [100]-oriented LiFePO4 is poor. Here we report the fabrication of 12 nm-thick [100]-oriented LiFePO4 nanoflakes by a simple one-pot solvothermal method. The nanoflakes exhibit unexpectedly excellent electrochemical performance, in stark contrast to what was previously believed. Such an exceptional result is attributed to a decreased thermodynamic transformation barrier height (Δμb) associated with increased active population.

  9. Synthesis and Performance of LiMnO2 as Cathodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shi-xi; LIU Han-xing; OUYANG Shi-xi; LI Qiang

    2003-01-01

    Two structure types of LiMnO2 were synthesized by sol-gel method and ion-exchange method respectively.The results indicate that orthorhombic phase LiMnO2 is more stable than layered LiMnO2,o-LiMnO2 can be synthesized directly by sol-gel methods followed by heat-treated in argon,but layered LiMnO2 was obtained only by indirect methods such as ion-exchange method.In this paper,we first synthesized layered NaMnO2 by the sol-gel method,and then obtained layered LiMnO2 by the ion-exchange method.The phase constitution,chemical composition,and images of the products were tested by XRD,AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy) and SEM.The electrochemical performances of the two structural types of LiMnO2 are obviously different during the initial few cycles,but later they both have a good capacity-retaining ability.The capacity of layered structure LiMnO2 is higher than that of o-LiMnO2.

  10. On the {\\ss}- decay in the Li-8 and Li-9 atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Alexei M

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear {\\ss}- decay from the ground and some excited states of the three-electron Li-8 and Li-9 atoms is considered. The final state probabilities for the arising Be+ ion are determined numerically with the use of highly accurate bound state wave functions of the Li atom and Be+ ion. The probability of electron ionization during the nuclear {\\ss}- decay of the Li atom is evaluated numerically. We also discuss a possibility to observe the double {\\ss}- decay by using the known values of the final state probabilities for the regular nuclear {\\ss}- decay.

  11. Li-ion Battery Aging Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been collected from a custom built battery prognostics testbed at the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE). Li-ion batteries were run...

  12. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  13. EKA tootedisaini üliõpilane...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tootedisaini osakonna IV kursuse üliõpilane Riho Tiivel võitis Itaalias toimunud disainikonkursi "ReAL 13 - Eating Anywhere" peapreemia oma alumiiniumist lusikaga "Spoon Container"

  14. LiYbCl4(THF4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Richtera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, di-μ-chlorido-dichlorido-1κ2Cl-tetrakis(tetrahydrofuran-1κ2O,2κ2O-lithiumytterbium(III, [LiYbCl4(C4H8O4], was prepared by the reaction of YbCl3(THF3 with LiCl in THF (THF is tetrahydrofuran. The central motif of the structure is a Yb(μ-Cl2Li ring. The Yb atom is hexacoordinated to four Cl atoms and two THF molecules oriented in a trans fashion. The Li atom has a tetrahedral environment and is coordinated to two Cl atoms and two THF molecules. No intermolecular interactions other than van der Waals forces were observed. Two of the THF molecules are disordered over two positions.

  15. Barrier Li Quantum Dots in Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYi-Min; LIXiao-Zhu; YANWen-Hong; BAOCheng-Guang

    2003-01-01

    The methods for the few-body system are introduced to investigate the states of the barrier Li quantum dots (QDs) in an arbitrary strength of magnetic field. The configuration, which consists of a positive ion located on the z-axis at a distaneed from the two-dimensional QD plane (the x-y plane) and three electrons in the dot plane bound by the positive ion, is called a barrier Li center. The system, which consists of three electrons in the dot plane bound by the ion,is called a barrier Li QD. The dependence of energy of the state of the barrier Li QD on an external magnetic field B and the distance d is obtained. The angular momentum L of the ground states is found to jump not only with the variation orB but also with d.

  16. EKA tootedisaini üliõpilane...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tootedisaini osakonna IV kursuse üliõpilane Riho Tiivel võitis Itaalias toimunud disainikonkursi "ReAL 13 - Eating Anywhere" peapreemia oma alumiiniumist lusikaga "Spoon Container"

  17. Li'l Red Schoolhouse workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Education specialists at Stennis conduct staff development workshops for elementary and secondary teachers of math, science and technology and other subjects as well as specialized workshops conducted in the NASA Li'l Red Schoolhouse.

  18. USGS Atchafalaya 2 LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin project area. The entire survey area for Atchafalaya encompasses approximately...

  19. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  20. Compaction of LiBH4-LiAlH4 nanoconfined in activated carbon nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plerdsranoy, Praphatsorn; Javadian, Payam; Jensen, Nicholai Daugaard

    2017-01-01

    To enhance volumetric hydrogen capacity for on-board fuel cells, compaction of LiAlH4-LiBH4 nanoconfined in activated carbon nanofibers (ACNF) is for the first time proposed. Loose powders of milled and nanoconfined LiAlH4-LiBH4 samples are compacted under 976 MPa to obtain the pellet samples wit...

  1. Optical and scintillation properties of Ce3+ doped LiYF4 and LiLuF4 crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combes, CM; Dorenbos, P; vanEijk, CWE; Pedrini, C; DenHartog, HW; Gesland, JY; Rodnyi, PA

    1997-01-01

    Optical properties of LiYF4:Ce and LiLuF4:Ce were studied viz. optical absorption spectra and X-ray induced emission spectra. The scintillation characteristics of LiYF4:Ce and LiLuF4:Ce were investigated viz. gamma-ray induced pulse height spectra and decay time measurements. A model is presented to

  2. Unravelling Li-Ion Transport from Picoseconds to Seconds: Bulk versus Interfaces in an Argyrodite Li6PS5Cl-Li2S All-Solid-State Li-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuang; Ganapathy, Swapna; de Klerk, Niek J J; Roslon, Irek; van Eck, Ernst R H; Kentgens, Arno P M; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2016-09-01

    One of the main challenges of all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is the restricted power density due to the poor Li-ion transport between the electrodes via the electrolyte. However, to establish what diffusional process is the bottleneck for Li-ion transport requires the ability to distinguish the various processes. The present work investigates the Li-ion diffusion in argyrodite Li6PS5Cl, a promising electrolyte based on its high Li-ion conductivity, using a combination of (7)Li NMR experiments and DFT based molecular dynamics simulations. This allows us to distinguish the local Li-ion mobility from the long-range Li-ion motional process, quantifying both and giving a coherent and consistent picture of the bulk diffusion in Li6PS5Cl. NMR exchange experiments are used to unambiguously characterize Li-ion transport over the solid electrolyte-electrode interface for the electrolyte-electrode combination Li6PS5Cl-Li2S, giving unprecedented and direct quantitative insight into the impact of the interface on Li-ion charge transport in all-solid-state batteries. The limited Li-ion transport over the Li6PS5Cl-Li2S interface, orders of magnitude smaller compared with that in the bulk Li6PS5Cl, appears to be the bottleneck for the performance of the Li6PS5Cl-Li2S battery, quantifying one of the major challenges toward improved performance of all-solid-state batteries.

  3. LiFi - Let There Be Light

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Mihir; Kulai, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    The paper proclaims a summary of Li-Fi technology. It is an efficient data communication mechanism involving visible light as a medium of transmission. This monograph introduces the concept of Li-Fi and its working model. Furthermore, it discusses its benefits, shortcomings and examines ways to mitigate the drawbacks. Additionally, it analyzes its present applications and explores its future scope in the competitive wireless network market.

  4. Stan Z. Li: Rolling face recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Among the galaxy of research and development organizations in northwest Beijing's Zhongguancun district, known as China's Silicon Valley, two are especially well-known to IT researchers: Microsoft Research Asia (MSRA), and, within a few blocks on the other side of the street, the CAS Institute of Automation (CASIA). While most people in Chinese scientific organizations strive to move to a large foreign counterpart, Dr. Stan Z. Li (LI Ziqing) moves against the stream.

  5. New Wedding Customs of the Li People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    HISTORICALLY, Hainan Island has been the land of the Li people. It was only during the Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D.25), when the centralizedgovernment established two prefectures here caned Zhuya and Dan’er, that the Han people began to come southward to this remote island. So when anthropologists study the history and local customs of Hainan, the earliest information concerns the development of the Li nationality. There is a museum which provides clues to this history, the

  6. Lithium diffusion in spinel Li4Ti5O12 and LiTi2O4 films detected with 8Liβ -NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Jun; Umegaki, Izumi; Uyama, Takeshi; McFadden, Ryan M. L.; Shiraki, Susumu; Hitosugi, Taro; Salman, Zaher; Saadaoui, Hassan; Morris, Gerald D.; MacFarlane, W. Andrew; Kiefl, Robert F.

    2017-09-01

    Diffusion of Li+ in (111) oriented thin films of the spinels Li4Ti5O12 and LiTi2O4 has been studied with 8Liβ -detected NMR in the temperature range between 5 and 310 K. In Li4Ti5O12 , the spin-lattice relaxation rate (1 /T1 ) versus temperature shows a clear maximum around 100 K (=Tmax ) which we attribute to magnetic freezing of dilute Ti3 + local magnetic moments, consistent with the results of magnetization and muon spin relaxation (μ+SR ) measurements. The decrease in 1 /T1 with temperature above Tmax indicates that Li+ starts to diffuse with a thermal activation energy (Ea) of 0.11(1) eV. In LiTi2O4 , on the contrary, as temperature increases from 200 K, 1 /T1 increases monotonically up to 310 K. This suggests that Li also starts to diffuse above 200 K with Ea=0.16 (2 ) eV in LiTi2O4 . Comparison with conventional Li-NMR on Li4Ti5O12 implies that both β -NMR and μ+SR sense short-range Li motion, i.e., a jump diffusion of Li+ to the nearest neighboring sites.

  7. Ionic Debye Screening in Dense Liquid Plasmas Observed for Li+p,d Reactions with Liquid Li Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Kasagi; H.Yonemura; Y.Toriyabe; A.Nakagawa; T.Sugawara; WANG Tie-shan

    2009-01-01

    Thick target yields of a particles emitted in the ~6Li(d,a)~4 He and ~7Li(p,a)~4 He reactions were measured for Li target in the solid and liquid phase.Observed reaction rates for the liquid Li are always larger than those for the solid.This suggests that the stopping power of hydrogen ion in the liquid Li metal might be smaller than in the solid.Using the empirically obtained stopping power for the liquid Li,we have deduced the screening potentials of the Li+p and Li+d reactions in both phases.The deduced screening potential for the liquid Li is about 500 eV larger than for the solid.This difference is attributed to the effect of liquefied Li~+ ions.It is concluded that the ionic screening is much stronger than the electronic screening in a low-temperature dense plasmas.

  8. Tracing Waste Water with Li isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and various domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. In the present study, we investigate waste water tracing by the use of Li isotopes in a small river basin near Orléans in France (l'Egoutier, 15 km² and 5 km long). It is well known that Li has strategic importance for numerous industrial applications including its use in the production of batteries for both mobile devices (computers, tablets, smartphones, etc.) and electric vehicles, but also in pharmaceutical formulations. In the present work, we collected river waters samples before and after the release from a waste water treatment plant connected to an hospital. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ7Li values around -0.5‰ ± 1 along the main course of the stream (n=7). The waste water sample is very different from the natural background of the river basin with Li concentration being twice of the values without pollution and significant heavy lithium contribution (δ7Li = +4‰). These preliminary results will be discussed in relation with factors controlling the distribution of Li and its isotopes in this specific system and compared with the release of other metals such as Pb or Zn.

  9. LiGa(OTf)(sub 4) as an Electrolyte Salt for Li-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V. Prakash; Prakash, G. K. Syria; Hu, Jinbo; Yan, Ping; Smart, Marshall; Bugga, ratnakumar; Chin, Keith; Surampudi, Subarao

    2008-01-01

    Lithium tetrakis(trifluoromethane sulfo - nato)gallate [abbreviated "LiGa(OTf)4" (wherein "OTf" signifies trifluoro - methanesulfonate)] has been found to be promising as an electrolyte salt for incorporation into both liquid and polymer electrolytes in both rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells. This and other ingredients have been investigated in continuing research oriented toward im proving the performances of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells, especially at low temperatures. This research at earlier stages, and the underlying physical and chemical principles, were reported in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. As described in more detail in those articles, lithiumion cells most commonly contain nonaqueous electrolyte solutions consisting of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in mixtures of cyclic and linear alkyl carbonates, including ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC). Although such LiPF6-based electrolyte solutions are generally highly ionically conductive and electrochemically stable, as needed for good cell performance, there is interest in identifying alternate lithium electrolyte salts that, relative to LiPF6, are more resilient at high temperature and are less expensive. Experiments have been performed on LiGa(OTf)4 as well as on several other candidate lithium salts in pursuit of this interest. As part of these experiments, LiGa(OTf)4 was synthesized by the reaction of Ga(OTf)3 with an equimolar portion of LiOTf in a solvent consisting of anhydrous acetonitrile. Evaporation of the solvent yielded LiGa(OTf)4 as a colorless crystalline solid. The LiGa(OTf)4 and the other salts were incorporated into solutions with PC and DMC. The resulting electrolyte solutions exhibited reasonably high ionic conductivities over a relatively wide temperature range down to 40 C (see figure). In cyclic

  10. Data mining of molecular dynamics data reveals Li diffusion characteristics in garnet Li7La3Zr2O12

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Chen; Ziheng Lu; Francesco Ciucci

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Li diffusion in solid conductors is essential for the next generation Li batteries. Here we show that density-based clustering of the trajectories computed using molecular dynamics simulations helps elucidate the Li diffusion mechanism within the Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) crystal lattice. This unsupervised learning method recognizes lattice sites, is able to give the site type, and can identify Li hopping events. Results show that, while the cubic LLZO has a much higher hopping rate c...

  11. Investigation and Analysis on the Present Cultivation of Corylus heterophylla Fisch.× Corylus avellana L. in Ili Area%伊犁河谷平欧杂交榛子栽培现状调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁永强; 尚振江; 许正; 陈淑英

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate and analyze the present cultivation state and habitat condition of Corylus heterophylla Fisch.×Corylus avellana L. in Ili. 5 hazelnut orchards which were 1-7 years old were investigated based on field survey in Chabuchar, Huocheng and Yining County in Ili area. The results showed that: there were significant differences existing between the cultivation and management. Among them, the 0.067 hm2 hazelnut orchards which was 6 years old in Ningguxinniulu village, town of Chabuchar County with higher levels of management, its average height, average DBH, average shoot length were 2.36 m, 16.25 cm, 33.8 cm, 0.48 cm respectively, with yield of 133 kg in the year of 2011, and the total income was. 7980 yuan. Compared with 0.67 hm2 hazelnut orchards which were 6 years old in Shangwugong Villages, town of Yining County, with yield of 90 kg in the same year, the total income only was 4050 yuan. The reason was that the extensive management and less input. The cultivation and development of Corylus heterophylla Fisch. × Corylus avellana L. in Ili area should be purchase seedlings from local area, make great efforts to improve management level, improve the quality of seedlings and their yield, so as to drive the development of regional economy.%  为了解平欧杂交榛子在新疆伊犁河谷的生长情况、抗逆性、榛子园管理现状、近几年产量及效益情况,对伊犁州直伊宁县、霍城县、察布查尔县等地的1~7年生共5个榛子园进行入户实地调查。结果表明,伊犁河谷杂交平欧榛子栽培管理存在显著差异,其中察布查尔县察布查尔镇宁古新牛录村0.067 hm26年生生产园杂交平欧榛子管理水平较高,平均树高2.36 m,平均胸径16.25 cm,平均新梢长度33.8 cm,平均新梢粗度0.48 cm,2011年总产量133 kg,收入为7980元;伊宁县莫洛托乎提于孜乡上吾宫村0.67 hm26年生平榛生产园管理粗放,投入少,2011年总产量90 kg

  12. The relationship between economic growth and employment: A dynamic empirical analysis for TurkeyEkonomik büyüme istihdam ilişkisi: Türkiye için dinamik bir uygulama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Uçak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of economic growth on employment has become an important topic in the literature with the effect of jobless growth debate in recent years. When we investigate the studies in the literature, we could find a few empirical studies which employ dynamic analysis in order to investigate effects of economic growth on employment for the Turkish economy. In order to fill this gap, we investigate the effect of economic growth on employment dynamically for the Turkish economy covering the period of 2000-2012 employing Kalman filter model. Our results indicate that, we found increasing effect of economic growth on employment at high growth term after the global financial crisis which different from high growth term between 2004-2005. We think that these results depend on the realization of demand postponed in the crisis period. Shortly, the usage of unemployed capacities showed positive effect on growth and employment in the economy after the global crisis.Ekonomik büyümenin istihdam üzerindeki etkisi son yıllarda istihdamsız büyüme tartışmalarının da etkisiyle gittikçe önemi artan konulardan biri haline gelmektedir. Geçmişteki çalışmalar dikkate alındığında Türkiye için büyüme ve istihdam ilişkisini dinamik olarak inceleyen çalışma eksikliği dikkati çekmektedir. Bu boşluğu biraz olsun doldurabilmek amacıyla, bu çalışmada 2000-2012 döneminde Türkiye ekonomisi için ekonomik büyümenin istihdam üzerindeki etkisi dinamik olarak Kalman Filtresi yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda, 2004-2005 dönemindeki yüksek büyüme dönemlerinden farklı olarak, küresel finansal kriz sonrası yaşanan        yüksek büyüme dönemlerinde büyümenin istihdam üzerindeki etkisinin artığı görülmektedir. Bu sonucun, kriz süresince ertelenen talebin realize edilmesine bağlı olduğunu düşünmekteyiz. Kısacası, kriz sonrası artan büyüme-istihdam ilişkisi atıl kapasitelerin kriz sonras

  13. Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01

    i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

  14. Geochemistry of the Miocene oil shale (Hançili Formation) in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin, Central Turkey: Implications for Paleoclimate conditions, source-area weathering, provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughi Moradi, A.; Sarı, A.; Akkaya, P.

    2016-07-01

    The geochemistry of oil shale units of Hançili Formation in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin (Central Turkey) was studied using various chemical analyses. The mineralogical composition of the samples were preliminarily investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficients of selected elements, indicating that the samples contain abundant clay minerals as well as K-feldspar and carbonate. The K2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios indicate that the major proportion of clay minerals is composed of smectite. Si, Al, Ti, K, Na, and Fe reside in clay minerals, while Ca, Mg, and Mn are mostly associated with carbonates (e.g., calcite and dolomite) and phosphorous (P) is present as apatite. The total REE content of the oil shale range from 19 to 113 ppm. The chondrite-normalized patterns of the oil shale show LREE enrichments, HREE deficits, negative Eu anomalies and negligible Ce anomalies. In general, major, trace and rare earth element abundances suggest that the studied oil shale in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin are mainly from the intermediate rocks, mixed with small amounts of basic rocks, and that their source rocks are mostly deposited in the continental collision setting. The REE geochemistry of the oil shale suggests that these samples were derived from a consistent terrigenous source and the Eu anomaly was inherited from the source rocks. The paleoclimate index (C-value), varies between 0.07 and 1.22 reflecting a generally semi-arid to humid conditions. In addition, Rb/Sr (~ 0.22) and Sr/Cu (~ 9.09) ratios support the idea that warm and humid conditions prevailed during deposition of the Hançili Formation. Sr/Ba ratios (0.54-3.7) of the studied samples suggest a paleoenvironment with variable salinity. The co-variation among this factor and paleoclimate indicators suggest that variations in climatic conditions exerted a primary control on salinity. The substantially low C-value and Rb/Sr ratio and significantly high ratios of Sr/Cu and Sr/Ba and also elevated carbonate

  15. Synthesis and electrochemistry of cubic rocksalt Li-Ni-Ti-O compounds in the phase diagram of LiNiO 2-LiTiO 2-Li[Li 1/3Ti 2/3]O 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianqi; Noguchi, Hideyuki; Li, Decheng; Muta, Takahisa; Wang, Xiaoqing; Yoshio, Masaki; Taniguchi, Izumi

    On the basis of extreme similarity between the triangle phase diagrams of LiNiO 2-LiTiO 2-Li[Li 1/3Ti 2/3]O 2 and LiNiO 2-LiMnO 2-Li[Li 1/3Mn 2/3]O 2, new Li-Ni-Ti-O series with a nominal composition of Li 1+ z/3Ni 1/2- z/2Ti 1/2+ z/6O 2 (0 ≤ z ≤ 0.5) was designed and attempted to prepare via a spray-drying method. XRD identified that new Li-Ni-Ti-O compounds had cubic rocksalt structure, in which Li, Ni and Ti were evenly distributed on the octahedral sites in cubic closely packed lattice of oxygen ions. They can be considered as the solid solution between cubic LiNi 1/2Ti 1/2O 2 and Li[Li 1/3Ti 2/3]O 2 (high temperature form). Charge-discharge tests showed that Li-Ni-Ti-O compounds with appropriate compositions could display a considerable capacity (more than 80 mAh g -1 for 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 0.27) at room temperature in the voltage range of 4.5-2.5 V and good electrochemical properties within respect to capacity (more than 150 mAh g -1 for 0 ≤ z ≤ 0.27), cycleability and rate capability at an elevated temperature of 50 °C. These suggest that the disordered cubic structure in some cases may function as a good host structure for intercalation/deintercalation of Li +. A preliminary electrochemical comparison between Li 1+ z/3Ni 1/2- z/2Ti 1/2+ z/6O 2 (0 ≤ z ≤ 0.5) and Li 6/5Ni 2/5Ti 2/5O 2 indicated that charge-discharge mechanism based on Ni redox at the voltage of >3.0 V behaved somewhat differently, that is, Ni could be reduced to +2 in Li 1+ z/3Ni 1/2- z/2Ti 1/2+ z/6O 2 while +3 in Li 6/5Ni 2/5Ti 2/5O 2. Reduction of Ti 4+ at a plateau of around 2.3 V could be clearly detected in Li 1+ z/3Ni 1/2- z/2Ti 1/2+ z/6O 2 with 0.27 ≤ z ≤ 0.5 at 50 °C after a deep charge associated with charge compensation from oxygen ion during initial cycle.

  16. Kinetic behavior of LiFeMgPO 4 cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jian; Wang, Chunsheng; Kasavajjula, Uday

    LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 material was prepared by mechanical milling method, followed by heat treatment. The equilibrium potential-composition isotherm of LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 and charge-discharge kinetics of LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 were measured using galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), potential-step chronoamperometry (PSCA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The rate performance of the cathode is controlled by the charge-transfer kinetics, electronic conductivity, Li-ion diffusion capability, and phase transformation rate. Since LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 has a fast charge-transfer reaction and high electronic and ionic diffusivity, the phase transformation between LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 and Li 0.1Fe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 begins to play a more important role in the charge-discharge process, as is evident by an inductive loop induced by the phase transformation in the low frequency region of EIS. The phase purity and morphology of LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 were also observed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  17. Hyperfine structure in photoassociative spectra of 6Li2 and 7Li2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, E.R.I.; McAlexander, W.I.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Hulet, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    We present spectra of hyperfine resolved vibrational levels of the A1Σu+and 1 3Σg+ states of 6Li2 and 7Li2 obtained via photoassociation of colliding ultracold atoms in a magneto-optical trap. A simple first-order perturbation theory analysis accurately accounts for the frequency splittings and rela

  18. LiSK - A C++ Library for Evaluating Classical Polylogarithms and $\\text{Li}_{22}$

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    I present a lightweight C++ library for the evaluation of classical polylogarithms Li_n and the special function Li_{22} for arbitrary complex arguments. The evaluation is possible in arbitrary precision arithmetic and features also an explicit double precision implementation for a much faster numerical evaluation. The implementation is based on arXiv:1601.02649.

  19. A design optimization methodology for Li+ batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmon, Stephanie; Maute, Kurt; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-05-01

    Design optimization for functionally graded battery electrodes is shown to improve the usable energy capacity of Li batteries predicted by computational simulations and numerically optimizing the electrode porosities and particle radii. A multi-scale battery model which accounts for nonlinear transient transport processes, electrochemical reactions, and mechanical deformations is used to predict the usable energy storage capacity of the battery over a range of discharge rates. A multi-objective formulation of the design problem is introduced to maximize the usable capacity over a range of discharge rates while limiting the mechanical stresses. The optimization problem is solved via a gradient based optimization. A LiMn2O4 cathode is simulated with a PEO-LiCF3SO3 electrolyte and both a Li Foil (half cell) and LiC6 anode. Studies were performed on both half and full cell configurations resulting in distinctly different optimal electrode designs. The numerical results show that the highest rate discharge drives the simulations and the optimal designs are dominated by Li+ transport rates. The results also suggest that spatially varying electrode porosities and active particle sizes provides an efficient approach to improve the power-to-energy density of Li+ batteries. For the half cell configuration, the optimal design improves the discharge capacity by 29% while for the full cell the discharge capacity was improved 61% relative to an initial design with a uniform electrode structure. Most of the improvement in capacity was due to the spatially varying porosity, with up to 5% of the gains attributed to the particle radii design variables.

  20. Coulomb excitation of {sup 8}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Marlete; Britos, Tatiane Nassar [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Descouvemont, Pierre [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium). Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique; Lepine-Szily, Alinka; Lichtenthaler Filho, Rubens; Barioni, Adriana; Silva, Diego Medeiros da; Pereira, Dirceu; Mendes Junior, Djalma Rosa; Pires, Kelly Cristina Cezaretto; Gasques, Leandro Romero; Morais, Maria Carmen; Added, Nemitala; Neto Faria, Pedro; Rec, Rafael [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work shows the Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li on targets that have effectively behavior of Rutherford in angles and energies of interest for determining the value of the B(E2) electromagnetic transition. Theoretical aspects involved in this type of measure, known as COULEX [1], and some results in the literature [2-3] will be presented. Some problems with the targets and measurement system while performing an experiment on Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li will be discussed: the energy resolution, background, possible contributions of the primary beam and also the excited states of the target near the region of elastic and inelastic peaks. They will be illustrated by measurements of the Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li on targets of {sup 197}Au and {sup 208}Pb using the system RIBRAS(Brazilian Radioactive Ion Beam). In this case, the {sup 8}Li beam(T{sub 1/2} = 838 ms)is produced by {sup 9}Be({sup 7}Li;{sup 8} Li){sup 8}Be reaction from RIBRAS system which is installed at Instituto de Fisica of the Universidade de Sao Paulo. The primary {sup 7L}i beam is provided by Pelletron Accelerator. [1] K. Alder and A. Winther, Electromagnetic Excitation, North-Holland, New York, 1975; [2] P. Descouvemont and D. Baye, Phys. Letts. B 292, 235-238, 1992; [3] J. A. Brown, F. D. Becchetti, J. W. Jaenecke, K, Ashktorab, and D. A. Roberts, J. J. Kolata, R. J. Smith, and K. Lamkin, R. E. Warner, Phys. Rev. Letts., 66, 19, 1991; [4] R. J. Smith, J. J Kolata, K. Lamkin and A. Morsard, F. D. Becchetti, J. A. Brown, W. Z. Liu, J. W. Jaenecke, and D. A. Roberts, R. E. Warner, Phys. Rev. C, 43, 5, 1991. (author)

  1. First Principles Study of Al-Li Intermetallic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-li; Duan, Xiao-hui; Ma, Yong-jun; Zeng, Min

    2012-12-01

    The structural properties, heats of formation, elastic properties, and electronic structures of four compositions of binary Al-Li intermetallics, Al3Li, AlLi, Al2Li3, and Al4Li9, are analyzed in detail by using density functional theory. The calculated formation heats indicate a strong chemical interaction between Al and Li for all the Al-Li intermetallics. In particular, in the Li-rich Al-Li compounds, the thermodynamic stability of intermetallics linearly decreases with increasing concentration of Li. According to the computational single crystal elastic constants, all the four Al-Li intermetallic compounds considered here are mechanically stable. The polycrystalline elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio have been deduced by using Voigt, Reuss, and Hill approximations, and the calculated ratios of bulk modulus to shear modulus indicate that the four compositions of binary Al-Li intermetallics are brittle materials. With the increase of Li concentration, the bulk modulus of Al-Li intermetallics decreases in a linear manner.

  2. Absolute level-resolved reactive and inelastic rate constants in Li+Li2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppage, Steven; Matei, Paula; Stewart, Brian

    2008-06-01

    We have used nuclear parity-changing collisions to obtain absolute level-to-level rate constants for reactive scattering in a triatomic system with identical nuclei. We have determined rate constants for the system 7Li2*(A 1Σu+)(vi=2,ji=19)+7Li-->7Li+7Li2*(A 1Σu+)(vf,jf), from laser-induced fluorescence spectra of lithium vapor in a heat pipe oven. Parity-preserving collisions yielded measurements of absolute rotationally and vibrationally inelastic rate constants as well. We compare the reactive rate constants with statistical prior distributions and the inelastic results with previously measured results on the Ne+7Li2* system.

  3. Electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 cathode material for Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuzhong; LI Chao; FAN Yanliang; XU Jiaqiang; WANG Tao; YANG Shuting

    2006-01-01

    In the search for improved materials for rechargeable lithium batteries, LiFePO4 offers interesting possibilities because of its low raw materials cost, environmental friendliness and safety. The main drawback with using the material is its poor electronic conductivity and this limitation has to be overcome. Here Al-doped LiFePO4/C composite cathode materials were prepared by a polymer-network synthesis technique. Testing of X-ray diffraction, charge-discharge, and cyclic voltammetry were carried out for its performance. Results show that Al-doped LiFePO4/C composite cathode materials have a high initial capacity, good cycle stability and excellent low temperature performance. The electrical conductivity of LiFePO4 material can be obviously improved by doping Al. The better electrochemical performances of Al-doped LiFePO4/C composite cathode materials have a connection with its conductivity.

  4. Characteristic of Absorption Heat Transfer using LiBr+LiI Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimori, Atsushi; Ozaki, Eiichi; Nakao, Kazushige

    LiBr-H20 absorption chiller is widely used in Japan, and many research have been made for absorption characteristic in terms of enhancing heat transfer. Another study have been performed for widening working range with higher crystallization limits, and it was reported that adding LiI salt to LiBr-H20 working fluid provide about 5 [mass%] higher crystallization limit under the condition of absorption pressure range. It is necessary to reveal absorption heat transfer performance to utilize this working fluid pair for absorption chiller. In this study absorption heat transfer characteristic was investigated for horizontal and vertical tube. As a result, it was found that heat transfer coefficient increased as mass flow rate of solution increased and mass concentration of solution decrease and that these characteristic were almost the same as LiBr solution, though this solution gave slightly less heat transfer coefficient than LiBr solution.

  5. Rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth in Li-O2 batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, B; Mitchell, R; Bessler, W G; Shao-Horn, Y; Bazant, M Z

    2013-01-01

    Compact solid discharge products enable energy storage devices with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, but solid deposits on active surfaces can disturb charge transport and induce mechanical stress. In this Letter we develop a nanoscale continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes, based on a theory of electrochemical non-equilibrium thermodynamics originally applied to Li-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory predicts a transition from complex to uniform morphologies of Li2O2 with increasing current. Discrete particle growth at low discharge rates becomes suppressed at high rates, resulting in a film of electronically insulating Li2O2 that limits cell performance. We predict that the transition between these surface growth modes occurs at current densities close to the exchange current density of the cathode reaction, consistent with experimental observations.

  6. Suppressing The Growth Of Dendrites In Secondary Li Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Evan D.; Perrone, David E.; Shen, David H.

    1996-01-01

    Proposed technique for suppressing growth of lithium dendrites in rechargeable lithium electrochemical power cells involves periodic interruption of steady charging current with short, high-current discharge pulses. Technique applicable to lithium cells of several different types, including Li/TiS(2), Li/NbSe(3), Li/CoO(2), Li/MoS(2), Li/Vo(x), and Li/MnO(2). Cells candidates for use in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other applications in which high-energy-density rechargeable batteries needed.

  7. Li-FSI Impurity Impact Study: Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pupek, Krzysztof [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dzwiniel, Trevor [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krumdick, Gregory [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI ) as an alternative to LiPF6 and as an additive to electrolytes used in lithium-ion cells. LiFSI has attracted attention because it is reported to have higher ionic conductivity, better high temperature stability, and enhanced stability toward hydrolysis, Also, LiFSI additive to electrolytes can bring benefits of improved storage properties and reduced gas evolution in the cells. Different levels of different electrochemically active impurities could affect the performance of LiFSI as an electrolyte salt for Li-ion batteries, generating inconsistent and conflicting interpretations of the experimental data.

  8. Anharmonicity and phase stability of antiperovskite Li3OCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Hua; Emly, Alexandra; Van der Ven, Anton

    2015-06-01

    A lattice-dynamics study of the cubic Li3OCl antiperovskite, a candidate solid electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries, reveals the presence of dynamical instabilities with respect to rotations of the Li6O octahedra. Calculated energy landscapes in the subspace of unstable octahedral rotational modes are very shallow with at most a 1 meV per formula unit reduction in energy upon breaking the cubic symmetry. While Li3OCl is not stable relative to decomposition into Li2O and LiCl at 0 K, estimates of the vibrational free energy suggest that Li3OCl antiperovskite should become entropically stabilized above approximately 480 K.

  9. 6^Li in the atmosphere of GJ 117

    CERN Document Server

    Christian, D J; Jevremovic, D; Hauschildt, P H; Baron, E

    2005-01-01

    We present high resolution VLT UVES observations of the active K dwarf GJ 117. 6^Li enhancement has been shown for energetic solar events, one chromospherically active binary, and several dwarf halo stars. Our analysis reveals the detection of 6^Li on this source with 6^Li/7^Li = 0.030+/-0.010. We found no significant contribution from other lines, including Ti I, in the Li profile of GJ 117 and a template star of similar spectral type and metallicity. We discuss the possibility for 6^Li production by spallation and find it to be consistent with the activity levels of the object.

  10. Theory of laser enhancement and suppression of cold reactions: the fermion-boson 6Li+7Li2(variant Planck's over 2pi omega0) 6Li7Li+7Li radiative collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Parker, Gregory A; Brumer, Paul; Thanopulos, Ioannis; Shapiro, Moshe

    2008-03-28

    We present a nonperturbative time-dependent quantum mechanical theory of the laser catalysis and control of a bifurcating A+BC(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0))ABC*(v)(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0) )AB+C reaction, with ABC*(v) denoting an intermediate, electronically excited, complex of ABC in the vth vibrational state. We apply this theory to the low collision energy fermion-boson light-induced exchange reaction, (6)Li((2)S)+(7)Li(2)((3)Sigma(u)(+))(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0))((6)Li(7)Li(7)Li)*(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0))(6)Li(7)Li((3)Sigma(+))+(7)Li((2)S). We show that at very low collision energies and energetically narrow (approximately 0.01 cm(-1)) initial reactant wave packets, it is possible to tune the yield of the exchange reaction from 0 to near-unity (yield >or=99%) values. Controllability is somewhat reduced at collisions involving energetically wider (approximately 1 cm(-1)) initial reactant wave packets. At these energetic bandwidths, the radiative reactive control, although still impressive, is limited to the 0%-76% reactive-probabilities range.

  11. Enhanced high temperature performance of LiMn2O4 coated with Li3BO3 solid electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liu Jinlian; Wu Xianming; Chen Shang; Liu Jianben; He Zeqiang

    2013-08-01

    Cathode material, LiMn2O4, was synthesized by solid-state reaction followed by surface coating of Li3BO3 solid electrolyte. Structure and electrochemical performance of the prepared powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge–discharge techniques, respectively. Results show that Li3BO3 coated LiMn2O4 has similar X-ray diffraction patterns as LiMn2O4. The discharge specific capacities of LiMn2O4 coated with 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 wt% Li3BO3 are 123.3, 118.2 and 110 mAh/g, respectively, which is slightly smaller than that of 124.4 mAh/g for LiMn2O4. However, the capacity retention of Li3BO3 coated LiMn2O4 is at least 5.6 and 7.6% higher than LiMn2O4 when cycled at room temperature and 55 °C, respectively. Li3BO3 coated LiMn2O4 shows much better cycling behaviours than LiMn2O4.

  12. Quantitative analysis of Li by PIGE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M.; Mateus, R.; Santos, C.; Cruz, J.; Silva, H.; Luis, H.; Martins, L.; Jesus, A. P.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the cross section of the reactions 7Li(p,pγ)7Li (γ - 478 keV) at the proton energy range 2.0-4.2 MeV was measured. The measurements were carried out at the 3 MV Tandem Accelerator at the CTN/IST Laboratory in Lisbon. To validate the obtained results, calculated gamma-ray yields were compared, at several proton energy values, with experimental yields for thick samples made of inorganic compounds containing lithium. In order to quantify the light elements present in the samples, we used a standard free method for PIGE in thick samples, based on a code - Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis (ERYA), which integrates the nuclear reaction excitation function along the depth of the sample. We also demonstrated the capacity of the technique for analysis of Li ores, as Spodumene, Lithium Muscovite and Holmquistite, and Li-alloys for plasma facing materials showing that this is a reliable and accurate method for PIGE analysis of Li in thick samples.

  13. Halkla İlişkilerde Meslekleşme Sorunu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Öksüz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Halkla ilişkiler, herkesin yapabildiği belirli bir eğitimi ve yeterliliği gerektirmeyen bir iş olarak görülmektedir. Halkla ilişkilerin bir meslek olmadığı düşüncesi, halkla ilişkiler eğitimi alan kişilerin işsiz kalması, halkla ilişkiler uygulamacılarının alt konumlarda istihdam edilmesi ve düşük ücretle çalıştırılması gibi pek çok sorunun kaynağını oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, halkla ilişkilerin meslekleşme sorununu nedenleri ile irdelemektir. Bu doğrultuda, halkla ilişkilerin meslek konumunu elde edememesine neden olan faktörler tartışılmıştır. Halkla ilişkiler mesleğinin hak ettiği değere sahip olamamasının altında, toplum tarafından tanınmama, imaj sorunu, profesyonel standartların ve yetkinliklerin belirsizliği, kamu yararı sağlamadığı görüşü ile akreditasyon ve lisanslamanın olmaması gibi pek çok faktör yatmaktadır. 

  14. Periodontal hastalıklar ile erken yaşlarda görülen ateroskleroza bağlı koroner hastalıklar arasındaki ilişkinin değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    KARAGÖZ, Şükran

    2011-01-01

    Bu çalışmada erken yaşta (?50 yaş) koroner arter hastalığı (KAH) tanısı almış olan kişilerle aterosklerotik kardiyovasküler hastalığı olmayanlar arasında bazı periodontal parametreler ve bazı kan tahlili parametreleri bakımından kıyaslama yaparak, periodontal hastalık gibi enflamatuvar bir durumun erken yaşlarda ortaya çıkışı ile erken yaşlarda KAH gelişimi arasındaki olası ilişkinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır.Çalışmamızda KAH tanısı almış, yaşları 31-50 arasında (or...

  15. Teacher’s views about supporting learner autonomyÖğretmenlerin öğrenen özerkliğinin desteklenmesine ilişkin görüşleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytunga Oğuz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy support provided by the teacher to students in the learning environment affects their intrinsic motivation and active participation in learning. For this reason, teachers to demonstrate autonomy supportive behaviors carry importance. This research aims to determine the primary and secondary school in-service teachers’ views of autonomy supportive behaviors. The teachers working in primary and secondary schools of Kütahya constitute the target population and 492 teachers were sampled from it for this study. Learner Autonomy Support Scale has been used as a data collection tool. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Pearson correlation analysis techniques were used in the data analysis procedure. According to the findings, in general teachers perceive autonomy supporting behaviors necessary in the learning environment, yet, in their opinion these behaviors are being demonstrated most of the time. There is a statistically significant difference between the teachers’ views regarding the necessity of autonomy support and its demonstration. Opinions differ depending on gender, school type and fields. Teachers view on the necessity of autonomy support is at a higher level than their view on its demonstration. Therefore, teachers might be given in-service training with regard to demonstrate autonomy supportive behavior. Özet Öğretmenin öğrenme ortamında öğrencilere sağlayacağı özerklik desteği onların içsel olarak güdülenmelerini ve öğrenmeye etkin bir biçimde katılımlarını etkilemektedir. Bu nedenle, öğretmenlerin özerklik destekleyici davranışları göstermeleri önem taşımaktadır. Bu araştırmada, ilköğretim ve ortaöğretim okullarında görev yapan öğretmenlerin öğrenen özerkliğini destekleme davranışlarına ilişkin görüşlerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini Kütahya il merkezindeki ilköğretim ve ortaöğretim okullarında görev yapan öğretmenler,

  16. Emeklilik Fonları ve Finansal İstikrar: Şili ve Türkiye Örneklerinden Dersler(Pension Funds and Financial Stability: Lessons from Chile and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Akgiray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Emeklilik fonları, i uzun vadeli yatırım perspektifine sahip olması, ii finansal piyasalardaki oynaklığı uzun vadeye yayarak absorbe edebilmesi, ve iii yatırımlarını hisse senedi ve altyapı fonları ile reel ekonomiye aktarmaları sayesinde; finansal piyasalardaki oynaklığın azalmasına katkıda bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışma, gelişmekte olan ülkelerde (GOÜ,  emeklilik fonlarının ekonomideki payının en düşük olduğu ülkelerden Türkiye'de (%2 ve en yüksek olduğu ülkelerden Şili'de (%66 emeklilik sistemlerinin karşılaştırmalı analizini sunarak, emeklilik fonlarının finansal piyasalardaki oynaklığa olan etkisini 2004-2014 dönemi için incelemektedir. Çalışma aynı zamanda, Türkiye’de uygulanması planlanan ‘otomatik katılım sistemi’ ve bu sistemi tamamlayıcı ‘fon ürünleri’ üzerine politika önerilerini de kapsamaktadır.

  17. Hastane yöneticilerinin yönetici işlevlerine ilişkin görüşlerinin değerlendirilmesi (Ankara il merkezi örneği)

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Ayşe

    2008-01-01

    Araştırmanın amacı, hastane yöneticilerinin yönetici işlevlerine ilişkin görüşlerinin değerlendirilmesidir. Araştırmanın evreninin Ankara il merkezinde buluna hastanelerde çalışan hastane yöneticileri (başhekim, başhekim yardımcısı, müdür, müdür yardımcısı, başhemşire, başhemşire yardımcısı) oluşturmuştur. Araştırma Eylül- Haziran 2007 tarihleri arasında gerçekleştirilmiştir.Araştırmada tanımlayıcı tipte olan veri toplama aracı olarak Prof. Dr. Ömer Peker'in Yönetici eğit...

  18. Formation and reduction behaviors of zirconium oxide compounds in LiCl-Li2O melt at 923 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamura, Yoshiharu; Iizuka, Masatoshi; Kitawaki, Shinichi; Nakayoshi, Akira; Kofuji, Hirohide

    2015-11-01

    The reduction behaviors of ZrO2, Li2ZrO3 and (U,Pu,Zr)O2 in a LiCl-Li2O salt bath at 923 K were investigated. This study was conducted as part of a feasibility study on the pyrochemical treatment of damaged fuel debris generated by severe accidents at light water reactors. It was demonstrated in electrolytic reduction tests that the uranium in synthetic corium specimens of (U,Pu,Zr)O2 with various ZrO2 contents could be reduced to the metallic form and that part of the zirconium was converted to Li2ZrO3. Zirconium metal and Li2ZrO3 were obtained by the reduction of ZrO2. The reduction of Li2ZrO3 did not proceed even in LiCl containing no Li2O. Moreover, the stable chemical forms of the ZrO2-Li2O complex oxide were investigated as a function of the Li2O concentration in LiCl. ZrO2 was converted to Li2ZrO3 at a Li2O concentration of 0.018 wt%. As the Li2O concentration was increased, Li2ZrO3 was converted to Li6Zr2O7 and then to Li8ZrO6. It is suggested that the removal of Li2ZrO3 from the reduction product is a key point in the pyrochemical treatment of corium.

  19. Corrosion studies of LiH thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, J. P.; King, M. O.; Galloway, E. C.; Watts, J. F.

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of LiH and its corrosion products were studied using temperature programmed decomposition (TPD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Thin films were grown on Ni(100) in an ultra high vacuum system using an electron beam evaporator. Characteristic Li KLL AES peaks were identified for Li, LiH, Li2O and LiOH which facilitated identification of thin film composition. XPS of the O 1s region revealed three distinct chemical shifts which were attributed to Li2O, LiOH and chemisorbed H2O. We show that exposing LiH to very low H2O partial pressures results in formation of LiOH/Li2O domains on LiH. We also show that these XPS peaks can be linked to reaction mechanisms in the TPD profiles. TPD traces have been explicitly modelled to determine the activation energies of the reactions and compare favourably with previous measurements on bulk LiH samples.

  20. Heat capacities of polycrystalline {sup n}LiH and {sup n}LiD by differential scanning calorimetric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jat, Ram Avtar [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Parida, S.C., E-mail: sureshp@barc.gov.i [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Krishnan, K. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Anand, N.S.; Sawant, S.G.; Agarwal, Renu; Singh, Ziley [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Aggarwal, S.K. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Venugopal, V. [RC and I Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-08-27

    The heat capacities of polycrystalline {sup n}LiH and {sup n}LiD were measured by differential scanning calorimeter in the temperature range from 125 to 800 K. The smoothed values of heat capacities were used to calculate various thermodynamic functions for {sup n}LiH and {sup n}LiD from 0 to 800 K. Isotopic effect on heat capacity of {sup n}LiH and {sup n}LiD is predominant at higher temperatures (>80 K) whereas below 80 K the isotopic effect is negligible.

  1. Photoluminescence and Optically Stimulated Luminescence Studies of LiAlO2 and LiGaO2 Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    PHOTOLUMINESCENCE AND OPTICALLY STIMULATED LUMINESCENCE STUDIES OF LiAlO2 AND LiGaO2 CRYSTALS THESIS Ian P. Ferguson, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT...STIMULATED LUMINESCENCE STUDIES OF LiAlO2 AND LiGaO2 CRYSTALS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics Graduate School of...FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENP-MS-15-M-106 PHOTOLUMINESCENCE AND OPTICALLY STIMULATED LUMINESCENCE STUDIES OF LiAlO2 AND LiGaO2

  2. Li14P2O3N6 and Li7PN4: Computational study of two nitrogen rich crystalline LiPON electrolyte materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qawasmeh, Ahmad; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    2017-10-01

    Two lithium oxonitridophosphate materials are computationally examined and found to be promising solid electrolytes for possible use in all solid-state batteries having metallic Li anodes - Li14P2O3N6 and Li7PN4. The first principles simulations are in good agreement with the structural analyses reported in the literature for these materials and the computed total energies indicate that both materials are stable with respect to decomposition into binary and ternary products. The computational results suggest that both materials are likely to form metastable interfaces with Li metal. The simulations also find both materials to have Li ion migration activation energies comparable or smaller than those of related Li ion electrolyte materials. Specifically, for Li7PN4, the experimentally measured activation energy can be explained by the migration of a Li ion vacancy stabilized by a small number of O2- ions substituting for N3- ions. For Li14P2O3N6, the activation energy for Li ion migration has not yet been experimentally measured, but simulations predict it to be smaller than that measured for Li7PN4.

  3. Lattice dynamics in Bosonic 7 Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huiyao Y.; Jung, Minwoo; Rabinowitz, Jacob; Madjarov, Ivaylo S.; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    The light mass and strong spin-dependent interactions in 7 Li make it an attractive candidate to study Bosonic quantum magnetism and lattice dynamics in regimes where rapid dynamics is favored, e.g. percolative transport and entropy segregation. Such studies require large ensembles of quantum degenerate 7 Li atoms which has proved to be a technical challenge. We describe our ongoing efforts to overcome this challenge using Raman sideband cooling (RSC). In addition to enabling the rapid production of large degenerate gases, RSC is also a very powerful means of local control of lattice gas dynamics. Extending this to a spinful 7 Li Bose gas will also enable studies of transport and defect dynamics in F=1 lattice gases. This work is supported by the ARO MURI on non-equilibrium dynamics.

  4. Hydrogen diffusion in Al-Li alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyalebechi, P. N.

    1990-08-01

    The diffusion coefficients of hydrogen in binary Al-Li alloys containing 1,2, and 3 wt pct Li have been determined from desorption curves of samples saturated with hydrogen at 473 to 873 K. Within this temperature range, the diffusivity of hydrogen in the binary Al-Li alloys investigated has an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence and follows the equation of the general form D = DT) where D 0exp(-Q/R is the diffusion coefficient (m2/s), D 0 is the preexponential or frequency factor (m2/s), R is the gas constant (J/K mol), Q is the activation energy (J/mol), and T is absolute temperature (K). The rate of diffusion of hydrogen in aluminum decreases with increase in lithium additions. This is provisionally attributed to the stronger local binding energy between hydrogen and lithium atoms in the aluminum metal lattice.

  5. Solid-liquid Metastable Equilibria in Quaternary System Li_2SO_4 + Li_2CO_3 + Li_2B_4O_7 + H_2O at 288 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG Shi-hua; ZHANG Zhen-lei; LI Ming

    2009-01-01

    Metastable equilibrium solubilities and densities of quaternary system Li_2SO_4+Li_2CO_3+Li_2B_4O_7+H_2O at 288 K were determined by isothermal evaporation method. According to the experimental data, the metastable equilibrium phase diagram was plotted. The metastable phase diagram had one invariant point F, three double saturated liquid curves E1F, E2F and E3F, and three crystallization fields corresponding to Li_2SO_4·H_2O, Li_2CO_3 and LiBO_2·8H_2O. It was found that lithium sulphate(Li_2SO_4) had the highest concentration and strong salting-out effects on the other salts. There were no solid solutions or double salts formed in the quaternary system at 288 K.

  6. Elastic and inelastic scattering of {sup 6}Li + {sup 18}O versus {sup 7}Li + {sup 18}O and {sup 6}Li + {sup 16}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudchik, Adam T., E-mail: rudchik@kinr.kiev.ua [Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kliczewski, Stanislaw [H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chercas, Kostyantyn A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kemper, Kirby W. [Physics Department, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States); Koshchy, Evgeniy I. [Kharkiv National University, pl. Svobody 4, 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rusek, Krzysztof [National Centre for Nuclear Research, ul. Hoża 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University, ul. L. Pasteura 5A, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Rudchik, Andryi A.; Mezhevych, Sergyi Yu.; Pirnak, Valeryi M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Plujko, Volodymyr A. [Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, vul. Volodymyrs' ka 64, 01033 Kyiv (Ukraine); Ponkratenko, Oleg A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Choiński, Jaroslaw [Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University, ul. L. Pasteura 5A, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Czech, Bronislaw; Siudak, Regina; Szczurek, Antoni [H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland); Stolarz, Anna [Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University, ul. L. Pasteura 5A, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Zelinskyi, Ruslan M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 47, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-02-15

    Inverse kinematics scattering of {sup 18}O on {sup 6}Li at E{sub lab}({sup 18}O) = 114 MeV was measured to obtain elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections. In this way cross sections for excited states in {sup 6}Li and {sup 18}O were determined. The data were analyzed within the optical model and coupled reaction channel method. The {sup 6}Li + {sup 18}O optical potential as well as the {sup 6}Li and {sup 18}O deformation parameters were deduced. Contributions of different nuclear processes to the {sup 6}Li + {sup 18}O elastic and inelastic scattering were explored. The isotopic differences between the {sup 6,7}Li + {sup 18}O and {sup 6}Li + {sup 16,18}O potential parameters were determined.

  7. LiFePO4/polymer/natural graphite: low cost Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaghib, K. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC, J3X 1S1 (Canada)]. E-mail: karimz@ireq.ca; Striebel, K. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Guerfi, A. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC, J3X 1S1 (Canada); Shim, J. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Armand, M. [Joint International Lab. CNRS/UdM UMR 2289 Departement de Chimie, Universite de Montereal, P.O. Box 6128, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Gauthier, M [Joint International Lab. CNRS/UdM UMR 2289 Departement de Chimie, Universite de Montereal, P.O. Box 6128, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2004-11-30

    The aging and performance of natural graphite/PEO-based gel electrolyte/LiFePO{sub 4} cells are reported. The gel polymer electrolytes were produced by electron-beam irradiation and then soaked in a liquid electrolyte. The natural graphite anode in gel electrolyte containing LiBF4-EC/GBL exhibited high reversible capacity (345 mAh/g) and high coulombic efficiency (91%). The LiFePO{sub 4} cathode in the same gel-polymer exhibited a reversible capacity of 160 mAh/g and 93% coulombic efficiency. Better performance was obtained at high-rate discharge with 6% carbon additive in the cathode, however the graphite anode performance suffers at high rate. The Li-ion gel polymer battery shows a capacity fade of 13% after 180 cycles and has poor performance at low temperature due to low diffusion of the lithium to the graphite in the GBL system. The LiFePO{sub 4}/gel/Li system has an excellent rate capacity. LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material is suitable for HEV application.

  8. LiFePO{sub 4}/polymer/natural graphite: low cost Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaghib, K.; Guerfi, A. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Varennes (Canada); Striebel, K.; Shim, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Armand, M.; Gauthier, M. [Universite de Montreal (Canada). Joint International Lab.

    2004-11-30

    The aging and performance of natural graphite/PEO-based gel electrolyte/LiFePO{sub 4} cells are reported. The gel polymer electrolytes were produced by electron-beam irradiation and then soaked in a liquid electrolyte. The natural graphite anode in gel electrolyte containing LiBF4-EC/GBL exhibited high reversible capacity (345 mAh/g) and high coulombic efficiency (91%). The LiFePO4 cathode in the same gel-polymer exhibited a reversible capacity of 160 mAh/g and 93% coulombic efficiency. Better performance was obtained at high-rate discharge with 6% carbon additive in the cathode, however the graphite anode performance suffers at high rate. The Li-ion gel polymer battery shows a capacity fade of 13% after 180 cycles and has poor performance at low temperature due to low diffusion of the lithium to the graphite in the GBL system. The LiFePO{sub 4}/gel/Li system has an excellent rate capacity. LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material is suitable for HEV application. (author)

  9. LiFePO 4 safe Li-ion polymer batteries for clean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Charest, P.; Guerfi, A.; Shim, J.; Perrier, M.; Striebel, K.

    The performance of natural graphite-fibers/PEO-based gel electrolyte/LiFePO 4 cells (7 mAh, 4 cm 2) is reported. The gel polymer electrolytes were produced by electron-beam irradiation and then soaked in a liquid electrolyte. The natural graphite-fiber composite anode in gel electrolyte containing 1.5 M LiFSI-EC/GBL (1:3) exhibited high reversible capacity (361 mAh g -1) and high Coulombic efficiency (92%). The LiFePO 4 cathode in the same gel polymer exhibited a reversible capacity of 161 mAh g -1 and 93% Coulombic efficiency. A 1.5 M solution of LiFSI in ethylene carbonate (EC)/γ-butyrolactone (GBL) (1:3, v/v) mixed solvent is advantageous for use as the electrolyte in the laminated film bag because of its high flame point (135 °C), high boiling point (219 °C), low vapor pressure and high conductivity (10.2 mS cm -1 at 20 °C). The Li-ion gel polymer battery shows a very low capacity fade of 5% after 500 cycles and also has high-rate capability. The Li-ion gel polymer cell using LiFePO 4 cathodes is suitable for HEV applications.

  10. LiFePO{sub 4} safe Li-ion polymer batteries for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaghib, K.; Charest, P.; Guerfi, A.; Perrier, M. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, 1800 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Que. (Canada J3X 1S1); Shim, J.; Striebel, K. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2005-08-26

    The performance of natural graphite-fibers/PEO-based gel electrolyte/LiFePO{sub 4} cells (7mAh, 4cm{sup 2}) is reported. The gel polymer electrolytes were produced by electron-beam irradiation and then soaked in a liquid electrolyte. The natural graphite-fiber composite anode in gel electrolyte containing 1.5M LiFSI-EC/GBL (1:3) exhibited high reversible capacity (361mAhg{sup -1}) and high Coulombic efficiency (92%). The LiFePO{sub 4} cathode in the same gel polymer exhibited a reversible capacity of 161mAhg{sup -1} and 93% Coulombic efficiency. A 1.5M solution of LiFSI in ethylene carbonate (EC)/{gamma}-butyrolactone (GBL) (1:3, v/v) mixed solvent is advantageous for use as the electrolyte in the laminated film bag because of its high flame point (135{sup o}C), high boiling point (219{sup o}C), low vapor pressure and high conductivity (10.2mScm{sup -1} at 20{sup o}C). The Li-ion gel polymer battery shows a very low capacity fade of 5% after 500cycles and also has high-rate capability. The Li-ion gel polymer cell using LiFePO{sub 4} cathodes is suitable for HEV applications. (author)

  11. Preparation and Characterisation of LiFePO4/CNT Material for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushanah Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Li-ion battery cathode materials were synthesised via a mechanical activation and thermal treatment process and systematically studied. LiFePO4/CNT composite cathode materials were successfully prepared from LiFePO4 material. The synthesis technique involved growth of carbon nanotubes onto the LiFePO4 using a novel spray pyrolysis-modified CVD technique. The technique yielded LiFePO4/CNT composite cathode material displaying good electrochemical activity. The composite cathode exhibited excellent electrochemical performances with 163 mAh/g discharge capacity with 94% cycle efficiency at a 0.1 C discharge rate in the first cycle, with a capacity fade of approximately 10% after 30 cycles. The results indicate that carbon nanotube addition can enable LiFePO4 to display a higher discharge capacity at a fast rate with high efficiency. The research is of potential interest for the application of carbon nanotubes as a new conducting additive in cathode preparation and for the development of high-power Li-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles.

  12. Line shift, line asymmetry, and the 6Li/7Li isotopic ratio determination

    CERN Document Server

    Cayrel, Roger; Chand, Hum; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Spite, Monique; Spite, François; Petitjean, Patrick; Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Caffau, Elisabetta

    2007-01-01

    Context: Line asymmetries are generated by convective Doppler shifts in stellar atmospheres, especially in metal-poor stars, where convective motions penetrate to higher atmospheric levels. Such asymmetries are usually neglected in abundance analyses. The determination of the 6Li/7Li isotopic ratio is prone to suffering from such asymmetries, as the contribution of 6Li is a slight blending reinforcement of the red wing of each component of the corresponding 7Li line, with respect to its blue wing. Aims: The present paper studies the halo star HD 74000 and estimates the impact of convection-related asymmetries on the Li isotopic ratio determination. Method: Two methods are used to meet this aim. The first, which is purely empirical, consists in deriving a template profile from another element that can be assumed to originate in the same stellar atmospheric layers as Li I, producing absorption lines of approximately the same equivalent width as individual components of the 7Li I resonance line. The second metho...

  13. NASA Goddard’s LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT Airborne Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuong Ly

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of LiDAR and optical remotely sensed data provides unique information about ecosystem structure and function. Here, we describe the development, validation and application of a new airborne system that integrates commercial off the shelf LiDAR hyperspectral and thermal components in a compact, lightweight and portable system. Goddard’s LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT airborne imager is a unique system that permits simultaneous measurements of vegetation structure, foliar spectra and surface temperatures at very high spatial resolution (~1 m on a wide range of airborne platforms. The complementary nature of LiDAR, optical and thermal data provide an analytical framework for the development of new algorithms to map plant species composition, plant functional types, biodiversity, biomass and carbon stocks, and plant growth. In addition, G-LiHT data enhance our ability to validate data from existing satellite missions and support NASA Earth Science research. G-LiHT’s data processing and distribution system is designed to give scientists open access to both low- and high-level data products (http://gliht.gsfc.nasa.gov, which will stimulate the community development of synergistic data fusion algorithms. G-LiHT has been used to collect more than 6,500 km2 of data for NASA-sponsored studies across a broad range of ecoregions in the USA and Mexico. In this paper, we document G-LiHT design considerations, physical specifications, instrument performance and calibration and acquisition parameters. In addition, we describe the data processing system and higher-level data products that are freely distributed under NASA’s Data and Information policy.

  14. Packing Transitions in Nanosized Li Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, M W; Weare, J H; Sung, Ming Wen; Kawai, Ryoichi; Weare, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Packing transitions in the lowest energy structures of Li clusters as a function of size have been identified via simulated annealing. For N>21, the large $p$ character of Li leads to unexpected ionic structures. At N~25, a packing pattern based on interpenetrating 13-atom icosahedra and similar to that of Na and K appears. This pattern persists until at N=55, where another transition to a structure based on a Mackay icosahedron occurs. For clusters of size 55 and 147, the optimized FCC structure representative of the bulk is still slightly higher in energy than the optimal MIC. (RK-94-03)

  15. The 'LiC Detector Toy' program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regler, M.; Mitaroff, W.; Valentan, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Höfler, R.

    2008-07-01

    LiC is a simple but powerful and flexible software tool, written in MatLab, for basic detector design studies (geometries, material budgets) by determining the resolution of reconstructed track parameters. It is based on a helix track model including multiple scattering, and consists of a simplified simulation of the detector followed by track reconstruction using the Kalman filter. After a short description of LiC's main characteristics, we demonstrate its capabilities by applying this tool in a performance study of the LDC and SiD detector concepts at the International Linear Collider (ILC).

  16. Achromatic Cooling Channel with Li Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2002-04-29

    A linear cooling channel with Li lenses, solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities is considered. A special lattice design is used to minimize chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. Transverse emittance of muon beam decreases from 2 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel of about 110 m length. Longitudinal heating is modest, therefore transmission of the channel is rather high: 96% without decay and 90% with decay. Minimal beam emittance achievable by similar channel estimated as about 0.25 mm at surface field of Li lenses 10 T.

  17. Lise Öğrencilerinde Sanal Zorbalık ve Problemli İnternet Kullanımı İlişkisi

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUNDAĞ, Yunus

    2016-01-01

    Bu çalışmanın amacı lise dönemindeki ergenlerin sanal zorba ve kurban olma davranışları ile problemli internet kullanımları arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektir. Çalışma 2015-2016 Eğitim-Öğretim yılında Bolu’da bir Anadolu Lisesinde yapılmıştır. Katılımcılar 9. ve 10. sınıfta öğrenimine devam eden 310 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Veri toplama aracı olarak Sanal Zorba/Kurban Ölçeği ile İnternet Bağımlılığı Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Verilerin çözümlenmesinde Non-parametrik tekniklerden Spearman-Brown İliş...

  18. Öğretmen algılarına göre ilk ve ortaokul yöneticilerinin demokratik tutumları ile okul kültürü arasındaki ilişki [The relationship between democratic attitudes of primary and secondary school managers and school culture as measured by teachers’ perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdağı AKAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmanın amacı, öğretmen algılarına göre ilk ve ortaokul yöneticilerinin demokratik tutumları ile okul kültürü arasındaki ilişkiyi belirlemektir. Çalışma ilişkisel tarama modelinde tasarlanmıştır. Araştırmada bulundukları okulda en az üç yıl görev yapan 180 ilk ve ortaokul öğretmenine yanıtlamaları için Demokratik Tutum Ölçeği ve Örgüt Kültürü Ölçeği yöneltilmiştir. Elde edilen verilerin analizinde Aritmetik Ortalama, Standart Sapma, Pearson Momentler Çarpımı Korelasyonu ve Basit Doğrusal Regresyon Analizinden yararlanılmıştır. Bulgular, öğretmenlerin algıladıkları okul yöneticilerinin demokratik tutumları ile okul kültürü arasında istatistiksel olarak pozitif yönde anlamlı bir ilişkinin bulunduğunu göstermektedir.

  19. Comment on "Cycling Li-O₂ batteries via LiOH formation and decomposition".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Pande, Vikram; Abraham, K M; Luntz, Alan C; McCloskey, Bryan D; Addison, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Based on a simple thermodynamic analysis, we show that iodide-mediated electrochemical decomposition of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) likely occurs through a different mechanism than that proposed by Liu et al (Research Article, 30 October 2015, p. 530). The mismatch in thermodynamic potentials for iodide/triiodide (I(-)/I3 (-)) redox and O2 evolution from LiOH implies a different active iodine/oxygen electrochemistry on battery charge. It is therefore possible that the system described in Liu et al may not form the basis for a rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of LiZnP and LiZnAs semiconductor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Benjamin W.; Reichenberger, Michael A.; Arpin, Kevin R.; Sunder, Madhana; Nelson, Kyle A.; Ugorowski, Philip B.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2015-02-01

    Research for a reliable solid-state semiconductor neutron detector continues because such a device has not been developed, and would have greater efficiency, than present-day gas-filled 3He and 10BF3 neutron detectors. Further, a semiconductor neutron detector would be more compact and rugged than most gas-filled or scintillator neutron detectors. The 6Li(n,t)4He reaction yields a total Q value of 4.78 MeV, a larger yield than the 10B(n,α)7Li, and is easily identified above background radiation interactions. Hence, devices composed of either natural Li (naturally 7.5% 6Li) or enriched 6Li (approximately 95% 6Li) may provide a semiconductor material for compact high-efficiency neutron detectors. A sub-branch of the III-V semiconductors, the filled tetrahedral compounds, known as Nowotny-Juza compounds (AIBIICV), are desirable for their cubic crystal structure and semiconducting electrical properties. These compounds were originally studied for photonic applications. In the present work, Equimolar portions of Li, Zn, and P or As were sealed under vacuum (10-6 Torr) in quartz ampoules with a boron nitride lining, and loaded into a compounding furnace. The ampoule was heated to 200 °C to form the Li-Zn alloy, subsequently heated to 560 °C to form the ternary compound, LiZnP or LiZnAs, and finally annealed to promote crystallization. The chemical composition of the synthesized starting material was confirmed at Galbraith Laboratories, Inc. by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), which showed the compounds can be reacted in equal ratios, 1-1-1, to form ternary compounds. Recent additions to the procedure have produced higher yields, and greater synthesis reliability. Synthesized powders were also characterized by x-ray diffraction, where lattice constants of 5.751±.001 Å and 5.939±.002 Å for LiZnP and LiZnAs, respectively, were determined.

  1. Charge carrier density in Li-intercalated graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2012-05-01

    The electronic structures of bulk C 6Li, Li-intercalated free-standing bilayer graphene, and Li-intercalated bilayer and trilayer graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) are studied using density functional theory. Our estimate of Young\\'s modulus suggests that Li-intercalation increases the intrinsic stiffness. For decreasing Li-C interaction, the Dirac point shifts to the Fermi level and the associated band splitting vanishes. For Li-intercalated bilayer graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) the splitting at the Dirac point is tiny. It is also very small at the two Dirac points of Li-intercalated trilayer graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1). For all the systems under study, a large enhancement of the charge carrier density is achieved by Li intercalation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tallinnasse kogunesid üliõpilasliidrid üle Euroopa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Üliõpilasliit korraldas Tallinnas 2.-5. mail konverentsi „Financing of higher education - financing the students future”, kus osalesid 120 üliõpilasesindajat 40-st riigist üle Euroopa

  3. Tallinnasse kogunesid üliõpilasliidrid üle Euroopa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Üliõpilasliit korraldas Tallinnas 2.-5. mail konverentsi „Financing of higher education - financing the students future”, kus osalesid 120 üliõpilasesindajat 40-st riigist üle Euroopa

  4. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  5. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  6. Hydrogen storage in LiH: A first principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Suman; Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.

    2014-04-01

    First principles calculations have been performed on the Lithium hydride (LiH) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory. We have extended our calculations for LiH+2H and LiH+6H in NaCl structure. The structural stability of three compounds have been studied. It is found that LiH with 6 added Hydrogen atoms is most stable. The obtained results for LiH are in good agreement with reported experimental data. Electronic structures of three compounds are also studied. Out of three the energy band gap in LiH is ˜3.0 eV and LiH+2H and LiH+6H are metallic.

  7. Hydrogen storage in LiH: A first principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banger, Suman, E-mail: sumanphy28@gmail.com; Nayak, Vikas, E-mail: sumanphy28@gmail.com; Verma, U. P., E-mail: sumanphy28@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior-474011 (India)

    2014-04-24

    First principles calculations have been performed on the Lithium hydride (LiH) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory. We have extended our calculations for LiH+2H and LiH+6H in NaCl structure. The structural stability of three compounds have been studied. It is found that LiH with 6 added Hydrogen atoms is most stable. The obtained results for LiH are in good agreement with reported experimental data. Electronic structures of three compounds are also studied. Out of three the energy band gap in LiH is ∼3.0 eV and LiH+2H and LiH+6H are metallic.

  8. A New Li Anode Technology for Improved Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium (Li) metal-based rechargeable batteries have many advantages over Li-ion systems including significantly higher energy density, lower cost, and the option of...

  9. New Li Battery Chemistry for Improved Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current state-of-the-art Lithium (Li) or Li-ion systems are unable to meet the performance goals of space-rated rechargeable batteries for many NASA's future robotic...

  10. Hydrogen Sorption in Erbium Borohydride Composite Mixtures with LiBH4 and/or LiH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Heere

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth (RE metal borohydrides have recently been receiving attention as possible hydrogen storage materials and solid-state Li-ion conductors. In this paper, the decomposition and reabsorption of Er(BH43 in composite mixtures with LiBH4 and/or LiH were investigated. The composite of 3LiBH4 + Er(BH43 + 3LiH has a theoretical hydrogen storage capacity of 9 wt %, nevertheless, only 6 wt % hydrogen are accessible due to the formation of thermally stable LiH. Hydrogen sorption measurements in a Sieverts-type apparatus revealed that during three desorption-absorption cycles of 3LiBH4 + Er(BH43 + 3LiH, the composite desorbed 4.2, 3.7 and 3.5 wt % H for the first, second and third cycle, respectively, and thus showed good rehydrogenation behavior. In situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD after ball milling of Er(BH43 + 6LiH resulted in the formation of LiBH4, revealing that metathesis reactions occurred during milling in these systems. Impedance spectroscopy of absorbed Er(BH43 + 6LiH showed an exceptional high hysteresis of 40–60 K for the transition between the high and low temperature phases of LiBH4, indicating that the high temperature phase of LiBH4 is stabilized in the composite.

  11. Performance of new 10 kW class MCFC using Li/K and Li/Na electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshiba, Fumihiko; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Takao [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) uses generally mixture of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate (Li/K) as the electrolyte. NiO cathode dissolution is one of serious problems for MCFC life. The NiO cathode has been found to dissolve into the electrolyte as Ni{sup 2+} ion which is reduced to metallic Ni by H{sub 2} in the fuel gas and bridges the anode and the cathode. The bridges short circuit and degrade cell performance and shorten cell life. Since solubility of NiO in mixture of lithium carbonate and sodium carbonate (Li/Na) is lower than in Li/K, it takes longer time to take place slowing by NiO cathode dissolution in Li/Na compared with in Li/K. The ionic conductivity of Li/Na is higher than of Li/K, however, oxygen solubility in Li/Na is lower 9 than in Li/K. A new 10 kW class MCFC stack composed of Li/K cells and Li/Na cells, was tested. Basic performance of the Li/K cells and Li/Na cells of the stack was reported.

  12. Studies on the thermal decomposition kinetics of LiPF6 and LiBC4O8

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Shi-You; Ma Pei-Hua; Cui Xiao-Ling; Ren Qi-Du; Li Fa-Qiang

    2008-03-01

    Thermal decomposition of LiPF6 and LiBC4O8 (lithium bis(oxalate)borate, abbreviated as LiBOB) were studied using TG (thermogravimetry)-DTG (derivative thermogravimetry) method with different heating rate of 5, 10, 20 and 40°C min-1 or at different constant temperature C (109.80, 118.79, 148.41, 176.86 °C for LiPF6 and 278.51, 298.13, 317.65, 336.13 for LiBOB). From the nonisothermal kinetics we calculate that LiPF6 is 1.01, LiBOB is 1.04, LiPF6 is 91907.61 J/mol, and LiBOB is 205179.88 J/mol; from the isothermal kinetics we calculate that n for both LiPF6 and LiBOB are 1, LiPF6 is 91907.61 J/mol, LiBOB is 205179.88 J/mol, lnALiPF6 is 16.89 s-1, and lnALiBOB is 31.96 s-1. The results obtained from the two ways have minor differences and can validate each other.

  13. Structure characteristics and electrochemical properties of LiMn2O4 modified by LiCoO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenping Cai; Mingxun Li; Shigang Lu; Weihua Jin

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the cycle performance of LiMn2O4, the modified LiMn2O4 was prepared by solid-state reactions using LiMn2O4 and LiCoO2 as precursors. XRD and EDS were used to study the structure properties of the modified LiMn2O4. The electrochemical properties of the modified LiMn2O4 were also investigated. The results show that Li and Co atoms could insert into the LiMn2O4 crystal lattice and a newly formed spinel phase, modified LiMn2O4 was obtained. The modified LiMn2O4 exhibits excellent cycle ability at room and elevated temperatures compared to pure LiMn2O4. The improved electrochemical stability of the modified LiMn2O4 attributes to the entrance of Li and Co ions inserted into the spinel crystal structure.

  14. Experimental studies with metal-hydrogen-systems for the development of the Li/LiH-process. Experimentelle Untersuchungen an Metall-Wasserstoff-Systemen zur Entwicklung des Li/LiH-Prozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W.

    1982-01-25

    In this work an attempt is made to further develop the Li/LiH-process, which is a hybrid cyclic process, for the thermochemical splitting of water. The studies presented are related with the more critical aspects of the method, such as the development of the membrane on the basis of homogeneous alloys, and the segregation of hydrogen from Li/LiH-melts.

  15. A NOTE ON THE LI-CU-O SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, R

    1991-01-01

    In the Li-Cu-O system two new ternary phases have been found, tentatively described by the stoichiometries LiCu3O3 and LiCu2O2, and both containing Cu(I) and Cu(II). They exhibit p-type "hopping" conduction owing to localized charge carriers. Their powder patterns are successfully indexed on high-sy

  16. Lithium intercalation into layered LiMnO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitins, G.; West, Keld

    1997-01-01

    Recently Armstrong and Bruce(1) reported a layered modification of lithium manganese oxide, LiMnO2, isostructural with LiCoO2. LiMnO2 obtained by ion exchange from alpha-NaMnO2 synthesized in air is characterized by x-ray diffraction and by electrochemical insertion and extraction of lithium in a...

  17. LiDAR utility for natural resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Thomas Hudak; Jeffrey Scott Evans; Alistair Mattthew Stuart. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Applications of LiDAR remote sensing are exploding, while moving from the research to the operational realm. Increasingly, natural resource managers are recognizing the tremendous utility of LiDAR-derived information to make improved decisions. This review provides a cross-section of studies, many recent, that demonstrate the relevance of LiDAR across a suite of...

  18. Lattice sites of Li in CdTe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Restle, M; BharuthRam, K; Quintel, H; Ronning, C; Hofsass, H; Wahl, U; Jahn, SG

    1996-01-01

    The lattice site occupation of Li in CdTe at temperatures between 40 and 500 K was investigated with the emission channeling method. Radioactive Li-8 ions were implanted at low doses into CdTe single crystals. Emission channeling patterns of alpha-particles emitted in the nuclear decay of Li-8 (t(1/

  19. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This...

  20. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  1. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  2. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish River Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) co-acquired Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Truecolor Orthophotographs of the Snohomish River Estuary, WA on July 20 &...

  3. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Douglas Co.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Douglas County PUD area of interest (AOI) east of Wenatchee, WA on May 2nd ?...

  4. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 167 square miles and covers a...

  5. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Yakima County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 77 square miles and covers a...

  6. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Upper Naches River, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Upper Naches River Valley and Nile Slide area of interest on September 30th,...

  7. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County project of 2005. The project site covered approximately 223 square miles, divided...

  8. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Bare-Earth Topographic LiDAR: Lynnwood

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Lynnwood, Snohomish County, Washington. This...

  9. 2007 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Sumpter, OR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the USDA Forest Service on September 17, 2007. The project covers an 8-mile...

  10. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Rattlesnake

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on six days between September 15th and November 5th, and from November 6th ? 13th,...

  11. 2000 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 1,146 square miles and covers part...

  12. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Yakima County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 77 square miles and covers a...

  13. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Yakima County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to complete the 2005 project for Yakima County. This project has partial coverage of Yakima County,...

  14. Bulk and Surface Properties of Liquid Al-Li and Li-Zn Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Marcela; Gancarz, Tomasz; Gasior, Wladyslaw; Pasturel, Alain

    2014-11-01

    Physicochemical properties like density, surface tension, and viscosity of liquid binary Al-Li and Li-Zn alloys have been measured using draining crucible method. The experimentally measured surface-tension values have been compared to theoretical results based either on the Butler model or the compound formation model assuming the existence of the most favored A 1 B 2 and A 2 B 3 clusters. Several models for viscosity calculation have been also applied and discussed in confrontation with measured data. Finally, the clustering effects in the liquid Al-Li and Li-Zn alloys have been examined using two microscopic functions, i.e., the concentration fluctuation function in the long-wavelength limit and the Warren-Cowley short-range order parameter.

  15. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  16. Enabling High Energy Density Li-Ion Batteries through Li{sub 2}O Activation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Cui, Yanjie; Chen, Zonghai; Belharouak, Ilias; Yahia, Hamdi B.; Wu, Huiming; Assary, Rajeev; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Lithium oxide (Li2O) is activated in the presence of a layered composite cathode material (HEM) significantly increasing the energy density of lithium-ion batteries. The degree of activation depends on the current rate, electrolyte salt, and anode type. In full-cell tests, the Li2O was used as a lithium source to counter the first-cycle irreversibility of high-capacity composite alloy anodes. When Li2O is mixed with HEM to serve as a cathode, the electrochemical performance was improved in a full cell having an SiO-SnCoC composite as an anode. The mechanism behind the Li2O activation could also explain the first charge plateau and the abnormal high capacity associated with these high energy cathode materials.

  17. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  18. Electrochemical formation of Mg-Li-Ca alloys by codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca from LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong De; Zhang, Mi Lin; Xue, Yun; Han, Wei; Cao, Dian Xue; Jing, Xiao Yan; He, Li Yi; Yuan, Yi

    2009-08-07

    This work presents electrochemical formation of Mg-Li-Ca alloys via codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca on a molybdenum electrode in KCl-LiCl-MgCl(2)-CaCl(2) melts at 943 K. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed that the underpotential deposition (UPD) of calcium on pre-deposited magnesium leads to the formation of a liquid Mg-Ca alloy, and the succeeding underpotential deposition of lithium on pre-deposited Mg-Ca alloy leads to the formation of a liquid Mg-Li-Ca solution. Chronopotentiometric measurements indicated that the codepositon of Mg, Li and Ca occurs at current densities more negative than -0.31 A cm(-2) in LiCl-KCl-MgCl(2) (5 wt%) melts containing 1 wt% CaCl(2). Chronoamperograms demonstrated that the onset potential for the codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca is -2.200 V, and the codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca is formed when the applied potentials are more negative than -2.200 V. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Mg-Li-Ca alloys with different phases were formed via galvanostatic electrolysis. The microstructures of typical alpha and beta phases of Mg-Li-Ca alloys were characterized by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) showed that the element Ca mainly distributes along grain boundary in Mg-Li-Ca alloys. The results of inductively coupled plasma analysis determined that the chemical compositions of Mg-Li-Ca alloys correspond with the phase structures of XRD patterns, and the lithium and calcium contents of Mg-Li-Ca alloys depend on the concentrations of MgCl(2) and CaCl(2).

  19. Irene Väli / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    AS Haapsalu Kuurort juhataja Irene Väli juhtimispõhimõtted, muudatuste elluviimise taktika, karjäär, väärtushinnangud, organisatsiooni arenguvõimalused, puhkus ja perekond. Eluloolised andmed, haridus, töökogemus. Kommenteerib kuurordi ilukeskuse juhataja Merle Murik

  20. Orienteerumiskaart vs. LiDAR / Marek Karm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karm, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaureusetööst, mille eesmärk oli võrrelda orienteerumiskaardi reljeefi LiDAR-i andmete põhjal saadava reljeefimudeliga ning leida vastus küsimusele, kas o-kaart võib olla kasulik kooste- või kontrollmaterjal mistahes reljeefimudelile

  1. Grozit li Estonii energetitsheskii krizis? / Jevgenija Garanzha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garanža, Jevgenija, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Euroopani ulatunud Venemaa gaasitüli Ukraina ja Gruusiaga paneb mõtlema ka Eesti energeetilise julgeoleku üle. Euroopa Liidus kuulub Eesti imporditavatest energiakandjatest kõige vähem sõltuvate riikide hulka. Diagramm: Eesti põhilised energeetilised ressursid

  2. Examples for Application of Hegu (LI 4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Linchao

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hegu (LI 4), a source point of Large Intestine Channel for clearing intestine and regulating stomach and spleen, can be clinically used to treat stomachache, diarrhea, vomiting, hiccup and constipation caused by dysfunction of the spleen,stomach and intestine with good curative effect.Examples are taken as follows:

  3. Orienteerumiskaart vs. LiDAR / Marek Karm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karm, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaureusetööst, mille eesmärk oli võrrelda orienteerumiskaardi reljeefi LiDAR-i andmete põhjal saadava reljeefimudeliga ning leida vastus küsimusele, kas o-kaart võib olla kasulik kooste- või kontrollmaterjal mistahes reljeefimudelile

  4. LI Ligang honored with Doornbos prize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Together with two colleagues from Europe and US,Dr.LI Ligang from the CAS Shanghai Astronomical Observatory has been awarded the Doornbos Memorial Prize for his outstanding contributions to the studies of thermal convection inside the earth and a planet,dynamo theory,and simulation.

  5. Pakistanis Eager to Welcome Premier Li Keqiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed; Ali; Nawaz; Gilani

    2013-01-01

    <正>"We the Pakistani Nation,are very much eager to welcome Chinese Premier Li Keqiang on his first visit to Pakistan after taking over the Premiership of the People’s Republic of China whom we are enjoying deep rooted and exemplary friendship for

  6. Gadamer em 10 lições

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Aparecido de Freitas da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Resenho, aqui, 10 Lições sobre Gadamer, importante trabalho introdutório sobre a gênese e o desenvolvimento do programa hermenêutico de Hans-Georg Gadamer (1900-2002, notável pensador, cuja obra impacta, decisivamente, o panorama intelectual do século passado.

  7. 6Li foil thermal neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chung, Kiwhan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macarthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on the design of a multilayer thermal neutron detector based on {sup 6}Li reactive foil and thin film plastic scintillators. The {sup 6}Li foils have about twice the intrinsic efficiency of {sup 10}B films and about four times higher light output due to a unique combination of high energy of reaction particles, low self absorption, and low ionization density of tritons. The design configuration provides for double sided readout of the lithium foil resulting in a doubling of the efficiency relative to a classical reactive film detector and generating a pulse height distribution with a valley between neutron and gamma signals similar to {sup 3}He tubes. The tens of microns thickness of plastic scintillator limits the energy deposited by gamma rays, which provides the necessary neutron/gamma discrimination. We used MCNPX to model a multilayer Li foil detector design and compared it with the standard HLNCC-II (18 {sup 3}He tubes operated at 4 atm). The preliminary results of the {sup 6}Li configuration show higher efficiency and one third of the die-away time. These properties, combined with the very short dead time of the plastic scintillator, offer the potential of a very high performance detector.

  8. Reversible hydrogen storage in titanium-catalyzed LiAlH{sub 4}-LiBH{sub 4} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, J.F. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Guo, Z.P., E-mail: zguo@uow.edu.a [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); CSIRO National Hydrogen Materials Alliance, CSIRO Energy Centre, 10 Murray Dwyer Circuit, Steel River Estate, Mayfield West, NSW 2304 (Australia); Liu, H.K. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); CSIRO National Hydrogen Materials Alliance, CSIRO Energy Centre, 10 Murray Dwyer Circuit, Steel River Estate, Mayfield West, NSW 2304 (Australia); Yu, X.B., E-mail: yuxuebin@fudan.edu.c [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); CSIRO National Hydrogen Materials Alliance, CSIRO Energy Centre, 10 Murray Dwyer Circuit, Steel River Estate, Mayfield West, NSW 2304 (Australia); Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2009-11-13

    We have investigated the hydrogen storage properties of the LiAlH{sub 4}-LiBH{sub 4} system, both un-doped and doped with titanium based catalysts. It was found that TiF{sub 3} exhibited the superior catalytic effects in terms of enhancing the hydriding/dehydriding kinetics and reducing the dehydrogenation temperature of the LiAlH{sub 4}-LiBH{sub 4} system. Compared to the un-doped LiAlH{sub 4}-LiBH{sub 4} system, the onset temperatures of the 5 mol% TiF{sub 3}-doped sample for the first and second dehydrogenation steps were decreased by 64 and 150 deg. C, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns of the dehydrogenated samples revealed that the produced Al from LiAlH{sub 4} could react with B from the decomposition of LiBH{sub 4} to form AlB{sub 2} and LiAl compounds. Pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) and van't Hoff plots made it clear that the decomposition enthalpy of LiBH{sub 4} in the TiF{sub 3}-doped LiAlH{sub 4}-LiBH{sub 4} system is decreased from 74 kJ/(mol of H{sub 2}) for the pure LiBH{sub 4} to 60.4 kJ/(mol of H{sub 2}). The dehydrogenation products of the TiF{sub 3}-doped LiAlH{sub 4}-LiBH{sub 4} sample can absorb 3.76 and 4.78 wt.% of hydrogen in 1 h and 14 h, respectively, at 600 deg. C and under 4 MPa of hydrogen. The formation of LiBH{sub 4} was detected by X-ray diffraction in the rehydrogenated sample.

  9. Multi-spin-state at a Li3PO4/LiCoO2 (104) interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumita, Masato; Ohno, Takahisa

    2016-02-14

    We have found the disproportion between the intermediate spin (IS) and low spin (LS) configurations of Co atoms at a Li3PO4/LiCoO2 (104) interface through density functional molecular dynamics (DF-MD). The manifold of the spin state at the interface, however, does not affect the band alignment between the Li3PO4 and LiCoO2 regions.

  10. On the reduction of generalized polylogarithms to Li n and Li2 ,2 and on the evaluation thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frellesvig, Hjalte; Tommasini, Damiano; Wever, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    We give expressions for all generalized polylogarithms up to weight four in terms of the functions log, Li n , and Li2,2, valid for arbitrary complex variables. Furthermore we provide algorithms for manipulation and numerical evaluation of Li n and Li2,2, and add codes in Mathematica and C++ implementing the results. With these results we calculate a number of previously unknown integrals, which we add in appendix C.

  11. Synthesis Of Fe Doped LiMn2O4 Cathode Materials For Li Battery By Solid State Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horata N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 is expected as a cathode material for the rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. LiMn2O4 has been received attention because this has advantages such as low cost and low toxicity compared with other cathode materials of LiCoO2 and LiNiO2. However, LiMn2O4 has some problems such as small capacity and no long life. LiMn2O4 is phase transformation at around human life temperature. One of the methods to overcome this problem is to stabilize the spinel structure by substituting Mn site ion in LiMn2O4 with transition metals (Al, Mg, Ti, Ni, Fe, etc.. LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 spinel was synthesized from Li2CO3, Fe2O3 and MnO2 powder. The purpose of this study is to report the optimal condition of Fe doped LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4. Li2CO3, Fe2O3, and MnO2 mixture powder was heated up to 1173 K by TG-DTA. Li2CO3 was thermal decomposed, and CO2 gas evolved, and formed Li2O at about 800 K. LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 was synthesized from a consecutive reaction Li2O, Fe2O3 and MnO2 at 723 ~ 1023 K. Active energy is calculated to 178 kJmol−1 at 723 ~ 1023 K. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern of the LiFe0.1Mn1.9O4 heated mixture powder at 1023 K for 32 h in air flow was observed.

  12. Reaction mechanism study of 7Li(7Li, 6He) reaction at above Coulomb barrier energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Parkar; V Jha; S Santra; B J Roy; K Ramachandran; A Shrivastava; K Mahata; A Chatterjee; S Kailas

    2009-02-01

    The elastic scattering and the 6He angular distributions were measured in 7Li + 7Li reaction at two energies, lab = 20 and 25 MeV. FRDWBA calculations have been performed to explain the measured 6He data. The calculations were very sensitive to the choice of the optical model potentials in entrance and exit channels. The one-step proton transfer was found to be the dominant reaction mechanism in 6He production.

  13. Clay nanocomposites for use in Li batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gregory John

    1999-11-01

    Nanocomposites, materials made of more than one component and combined in an ordered manner on the nanometer scale, were synthesized using clay mineral hosts with various types of guests. The guests include polymers such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyaniline (PANI), large molecules such as ethylmethyl sulfone, tetramethylene sulfone, and various length alkylamines. Vanadyl groups (VO 2+) were also incorporated with the clays. The otherwise non-swellable mica clay, synthetic Na-fluorophlogopite, was expanded by intercalation of acidic ions such as Cu2+ and Fe3+. As aqueous solutions, these ions caused the stable fluoromica to go from its dehydrated interlayer spacing of 9.8 A to over 14 A. This clay became a host for many other reactions including swelling with alkylamines to over 25 A. However, despite hydrated Cu2+ ions swelling fluorophlogopite, polymeric species such as PEO or PANI could not be inserted. Another clay that was used for formation of nanocomposites came from a procedure for the synthesis of Li-taeniolite, Li(Mg2Li)Si 4O10F2. The clay was synthesized following a high temperature method that led to a non-reactive product. Instead, a novel precursor route was employed that gave a clay product with a single hydration layer. Various chemical analyses gave a formula of Li0.8(Mg 2.2Li0.8)Si4O10(F1.6O 0.4)·H2O. For the purpose of forming nanocomposite electrolytes, ethylmethyl sulfone was synthesized and incorporated into the clay. For comparison of different shaped sulfones, tetramethylene sulfone also was inserted into the layers for electrolytic studies. To make a polymer-clay electrolyte, polyethylene oxide was intercalated into the Li-taeniolite. All of these new electrolyte materials were characterized using impedance spectroscopy for measurement of their conductivity. Syntheses and analyses are thoroughly discussed for all of these materials. Special attention is placed on powder x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric techniques to

  14. Study on Relationship of Milk Composition with Different Times in Ili Horse%伊犁马不同时间点乳样乳成分相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吾布力·沙地克; 刘玲玲; 耿明; 何美升; 刘武军

    2014-01-01

    The parity and milk performance were collected in 33 Ili horses used for the experiment, the milk yield were recorded in four times (12:00, 14:00 , 16:00 ,20:00), the day milk yield were mixed in 2:2:2:4 proportion and determined the milk composition, the results were statistically analyzed using SPSS17.0 package. The results showed that milk protein and milk sugar in 12:00, milk sugar in 14:00 had differences as compared with the all day milk(P<0.05), milk sugar in 18:00 had signifi⁃cant differences with the all day milk(P<0.01). The milk protein and milk sugar in day were strongly and positively correlated with milk samples in 12:00 and 18:00(R2=0.792,P<0.01;R2=0.988,P<0.01). The milk protein, butterfat content, milk sugar and nonfat solid in day had a strong linear regression relation with what in 12:00, 14:00 and 18:00. So if the Ili horse were milking four times one day, the milk ingredients in day could be deducible according to the milk samples in 12:00, 14:00 and 18:00.%本试验选择昭苏马场胎次、泌乳性能相近的伊犁马30匹,每天挤乳四次(12时、14时、16时、20时),记录产乳量,并使用流量计并按照2:2:2:4的比例混合制成50 mL的全天样,分别进行乳成分测定,采用SPSS17.0进行统计分析。结果显示,12时乳样乳蛋白率、乳糖率、14时乳样乳糖率分别和全天样有显著差异(P<0.05),18时乳样乳糖率与全天样呈极显著差异(P<0.01);全天样的乳蛋白率、乳糖率分别与12时乳样、18时乳样呈强相关(R2=0.792,P<0.01;R2=0.988,P<0.01);全天样乳蛋白(Y,%)、乳脂率(F,%)、乳糖(P,%)、非脂固形物(G,%)含量与12、14、18时乳样呈较强的线性回归关系。因此对于一天挤乳4次的伊犁马,可根据12、14、18时乳样乳成分的测定值预测全天样的乳成分含量。

  15. Preparation of Li-rich layered-layered type xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMnO2 nanorods and its electrochemical performance as cathode material for Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Qinggang; Hu, Xiaohong; Peng, Tianyou; Liu, Jianqiang

    2017-06-01

    Layered-layered type xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMnO2 (x = 0.91, 0.78, 0.67, 0.54, 0.42, and 0.32) nanorods with a diameter of 100-200 nm and length of 400-1000 nm are prepared through a pyrolysis reduction process of monoclinic Li2MnO3 (m-Li2MnO3) nanorods. All the synthesized xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMnO2 nanorods exhibit the main characteristic diffraction peaks of m-Li2MnO3 in addition to some weak peaks attributable to m-LiMnO2 especially for those composites with x window of 2.0-4.8 V. The m-LiMnO2 portion in those synthesized composites can significantly enhance the reversible capacity but lower the cyclic stability, while the m-Li2MnO3 portion can improve the cyclic stability due to its retardation effect of the layered-to-spinel transformation during the charge/discharge processes, and thus xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMnO2 nanorods with x = 0.54 exhibits the best cyclic and rate performance since it contains appropriate m-Li2MnO3/m-LiMnO2 contents to balance the reversible capacity and Jahn-Teller effect. The present findings demonstrate an effective strategy for the development of low-cost pure Mn-based Li-rich layered cathode materials with adjustable reversible capacity, cyclic and rate performance by tailoring the composition.

  16. In-house fabrication and testing capabilities for Li and Li-ion 18650 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, G.

    2010-04-01

    For over 10 years Sandia Labs have been involved in an US DOE-funded program aimed at developing electric vehicle batteries for transportation applications. Currently this program is called "Advanced Battery Research (ABR)." In this effort we were preparing 18650 cells with electrodes supplied by or purchased from private companies for thermal abuse and electrical characterization studies. Lately, we are coating our own electrodes, building cells and evaluating performance. This paper describes our extensive in-house facilities for slurry making, electrode coating, cell winding etc. In addition, facilities for electrical testing and thermal abuse will be described. This facility allows us to readjust our focus quickly to the changing demands of the still evolving ABR program. Additionally, we continue to make cells for our internal use. We made several 18650 cells both primary (Li-CFx) and secondary (Li-ion) and evaluated performance. For example Li-CFx cells gave ~2.9Ahr capacity at room temperature. Our high voltage Li-ion cells consisting of carbon anode and cathode based on LiNi 0.4Mn 0.3Co 0.3O2 in organic electrolytes exhibited reproducible behavior and gave capacity on the order of 1Ahr. Performance of Li-ion cells at different temperatures and thermal abuse characteristics will be presented.

  17. Correlation of anisotropy and directional conduction in β-Li3PS4 fast Li+ conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Lu; Liu, Zengcai; dela Cruz, Clarina R.; Liang, Chengdu; An, Ke

    2015-07-01

    This letter reports the correlation of anisotropy and directional conduction in the fast Li+ conductor β-Li3PS4, one of the low-symmetry crystalline electrolyte candidates. The material has both high conductivity and good stability that serves well for the large-scale energy storage applications of all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. The anisotropic physical properties, demonstrated here by the thermal expansion coefficients, are crucial for compatibility in the solid-state system and battery performance. Neutron and X-ray powder diffraction measurements were done to determine the crystal structure and thermal stability. The crystallographic b-axis was revealed as a fast expansion direction, while negligible thermal expansion was observed along the a-axis around the battery operating temperatures. The anisotropic behavior has its structural origin from the Li+ conduction channels with incomplete Li occupancy and a flexible connection of LiS4 and PS4 tetrahedra within the framework. This indicates a strong correlation in the direction of the ionic transport in the low-symmetry Li+ conductor.

  18. Epitaxial thin film growth of LiH using a liquid-Li atomic template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguchi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: oguchi@nanosys.mech.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Nanomechanics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Micro System Integration Center (muSIC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan); Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-ichi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Advanced Institute for Materials Research (AIMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ohsawa, Takeo; Shiraki, Susumu; Hitosugi, Taro [Advanced Institute for Materials Research (AIMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kuwano, Hiroki [Department of Nanomechanics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-11-24

    We report on the synthesis of lithium hydride (LiH) epitaxial thin films through the hydrogenation of a Li melt, forming abrupt LiH/MgO interface. Experimental and first-principles molecular dynamics studies reveal a comprehensive microscopic picture of the crystallization processes, which sheds light on the fundamental atomistic growth processes that have remained unknown in the vapor-liquid-solid method. We found that the periodic structure that formed, because of the liquid-Li atoms at the film/MgO-substrate interface, serves as an atomic template for the epitaxial growth of LiH crystals. In contrast, films grown on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates indicated polycrystalline films with a LiAlO{sub 2} secondary phase. These results and the proposed growth process provide insights into the preparation of other alkaline metal hydride thin films on oxides. Further, our investigations open the way to explore fundamental physics and chemistry of metal hydrides including possible phenomena that emerge at the heterointerfaces of metal hydrides.

  19. Li-rich layer-structured cathode materials for high energy Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liu; Lee, Kim Seng; Lu, Li

    2014-08-01

    Li-rich layer-structured xLi2MnO3 ṡ (1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, etc.) materials have attracted much attention due to their extraordinarily high reversible capacity as the cathode material in Li-ion batteries. To better understand the nature of this type of materials, this paper reviews history of development of the Li-rich cathode materials, and provides in-depth study on complicated crystal structures and reaction mechanisms during electrochemical charge/discharge cycling. Despite the fabulous capability at low rate, several drawbacks still gap this type of high-capacity cathode materials from practical applications, for instance the large irreversible capacity loss at first cycle, poor rate capability, severe voltage decay and capacity fade during electrochemical charge/discharge cycling. This review will also address mechanisms for these inferior properties and propose various possible solutions to solve above issues for future utilization of these cathode materials in commercial Li-ion batteries.

  20. The perspectives of university students on gender rolesÜniversite öğrencilerinin toplumsal cinsiyet rollerine ilişkin bakış açıları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Dinç

    2016-09-01

    universities with the objective to raise intellectual individuals should enable their students to gain awareness on gender roles as well as acquire the fundamental vocational information.    Özet Amaç: Bu çalışma üniversite öğrencilerinin toplumsal cinsiyet rollerine ilişkin bakış açılarını belirlemek amacıyla tanımlayıcı olarak yapılmıştır.  Yöntem: Araştırmanın evrenini Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Sağlık Yüksekokulu Acil Yardım ve Afet Yönetimi Bölümüne devam eden öğrenciler oluşturmuştur. Araştırmanın yapıldığı tarihte okulda bulunan ve araştırmaya katılmayı kabul eden 224 öğrenci çalışma kapsamına alınmıştır. Araştırmanın uygulaması 27 Mart-27 Mayıs 2014 tarihleri arasında yapılmıştır. Çalışmada, veri toplamak amacıyla literatür doğrultusunda hazırlanan anket formu ve Toplumsal Cinsiyet Rolleri Tutum Ölçeği (TCRTÖ kullanılmıştır. Verilerin değerlendirilmesinde tanımlayıcı istatistikler, t-testi, mann-whitney U ve varyans (one-way anova testleri kullanılmıştır.  Bulgular: Çalışmaya katılan öğrencilerin %49.6’sı erkek, %50.4’ü kız öğrencilerden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada öğrencilerin TCRTÖ toplam puan ortalamasının kızlarda 155,17±16,47, erkeklerde 129,56±20,52 olduğu belirlenmiştir. Cinsiyete göre TCRTÖ alt boyutları incelendiğinde; kız öğrencilerin erkek öğrencilerden daha fazla, toplumsal cinsiyet rollerine ilişkin ‘eşitlikçi tutuma sahip’ olduğu saptanmıştır. Araştırmada öğrencilerin sosyo-demografik özelliklerinin, toplumsal cinsiyet rollerine ilişkin tutumları üzerindeki etkisine bakıldığında ise, yaş grupları, sınıflar arası, bitirilen lise, yaşadıkları yer, anne babanın çalışma durumu, ekonomik düzeyleri, kardeş sayıları, anne babanın eğitim durumu açısından aralarında fark olmadığı belirlenmiştir. Ancak aile tipi açısından çekirdek aileden gelen öğrencilerin daha e

  1. Metaphorical perception of primary school children in related to classroom conceptİlkokul öğrencilerinin sınıf kavramına ilişkin metaforik algıları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Sarıtaş

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research conducted to define primary school students’ metaphorical perception of classroom concept, it is tried to be determined that concept of classroom metaphors and their common features which are owned by the students are gathered under which conceptual categories. In other words, in this study, a classroom concept is tried to picture via metaphors. In this research, qualitative research technique was used to collect, analyze and interpret data and technically metaphor analysis was used. Fourth and fifth grade totally 307 students attended the research. Participants are asked to conclude the sentence “The classroom is like   ………………….   because …………….  .” These handwritten paragraphs were used as the basic source in the research. Through the students’ products 67 valid metaphors in total were produced. 5 metaphors articulated by many participants respectively follow these: 1- my house (81 participants, 2- family, home (28 participants, 3- A blackboard jungle (25 participants, 4- Dumpsite (20 participants, 5- Carnival (19 participants. These metaphors are categorized into 5 different conceptual classifications via availment of literature. These are physical planning, planning-programming activities, time planning, and relationship planning and behavioral planning.Özet İlkokul öğrencilerinin sınıf kavramına ilişkin metaforik algılarını belirlemeyi amaçlayan bu çalışmada, öğrencilerin sahip oldukları sınıf kavramına ilişkin metaforlar ile bu metaforların ortak özellikler bakımından hangi kavramsal kategoriler altında toplandığı belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Başka bir ifade ile sınıf kavramı metaforlar aracılığıyla resmedilmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırmada, verilerin toplanması, analizi ve yorumlanmasında nitel araştırma yöntemi, teknik olarak da metafor analizi kullanılmıştır. Dördüncü ve beşinci sınıf öğrencilerinden toplam

  2. Pulmoner emboli tanısında D-dimer düzeyleri ile ventilasyon/perfüzyon sintigrafisindeki bulgular arasındaki ilişki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye Hasbek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaç. Pulmoner emboli (PE ölüm riskinin yüksek olması ve PE kuşkusu ile başlanan antikoagülan tedavinin yüksek kanama riski taşıması, tanının en kısa sürede doğrulanmasını ya da dışlanmasını gerektiren kardiovasküler hastalıktır. Ventilasyon/perfüzyon (V/P sintigrafisi PE şüphesinde yaygın kullanılan testlerden biridir. D-dimer fibrin yıkımının bir ürünüdür. Ancak akut trombozlar için spesifik değildir. Bu çalışmada amacımız, D-dimer düzeyleri ile ventilasyon/perfüzyon sintigrafisindeki perfüzyon defekt sayısı arasındaki ilişkiyi araştırmaktı. Yöntem. Çalışmamızda, PE ön tanısı ile takip edilen 100 olgunun D-dimer düzeyleri ile V/P sintigrafileri arasındaki ilişki araştırıldı. Hastaların sintigrafik bulguları perfüzyon defekti açısından; “perfüzyon defekti yok”, “subsegmenter tutulum”, “bir segment tutulum”, “iki segment tutulum”, “üç segment tutulum” ve “üçten fazla segment tutulum” şeklinde altı gruba; pulmoner emboli olasılığı açısından ise “pulmoner emboli yok”, “düşük olasılıklı”, “orta olasılıklı” ve “yüksek olasılıklı” şeklinde dört gruba ayrıldı. D-dimer düzeyi referans aralığı 0,00-0,50 µg/mL idi. Bulgular. Çalışmaya alınan 100 hastanın 52’si erkek 48’i kadındı. Pulmoner emboli olmayan 65 hastada D-dimer: 4,39 ± 9 µg/mL; düşük olasılıklı 20 hastada D-dimer: 4,57 ± 4 µg/mL; orta olasılıklı olan 9 hastada D-dimer: 6,38 ± 6 µg/mL; yüksek olasılıklı olan 6 hastada D-dimer: 8.0±8µg/mL olarak bulundu (p>0,05. Perfüzyon defekti izlenen segment sayısına göre; perfüzyon defekti olmayan 22 hastada D-dimer: 3,01 ± 4 µg/mL; subsegmenter defekti olan 8 hastada D-dimer: 3,62 ± 3 µg/mL; 1 segment defekti olan 14 hastada D-dimer: 10,7 ± 18 µg/mL; 2 segment defekti olan 11 hastada D-dimer: 3,16 ± 2 µg/mL; 3 segment defekti olan 10 hastada D-dimer: 3,86 ± 3

  3. Correlation between depression and eating attitudes and behaviors among those who performed regular physical activitiesDüzenli fiziksel aktivite yapan bireylerde depresyon ve yeme tutum ve davranışları ilişkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Yıldırım

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at identifying correlational status between depression level and eating attitudes and behaviors among those who performed regular physical activities. The study designed in descriptive model was done with relational screening model. The sample of the study was composed of 294 individuals who performed regular physical activities at least three days a week in Afyonkarahisar Province. The data of the study were collected using a questionnaire consisted of Personal Information Form, Eating Attitudes Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. The data were processed with SPSS.  The distribution of the data was assessed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. As a result of test; it was seen that the data did not follow a normal distribution and thus were analyzed with non-parametric tests. For the data analyses; descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U-Test, Kruskal Wallis H- Test and Spearman Correlation coefficients were employed. According to the findings, it was found that those who performed physical activities regularly had no depression and had normal eating behavior in the 72.45%' s of the individuals and abnormal eating behavior  detected in the 27.55% of the individuals. Besides; it was found that there was statistically significant difference in eating attitudes and behaviors in terms of sex variable but there was not statistically significant difference in depression level in terms of sex variable. As for sports history; there was no statistically significant difference in eating attitudes and behaviors while there was statistically significant difference in depression levels. As a result; it was detected that there was a positive relationship between depression levels with eating behavior and attitudes in the individuals who performed regular physical activity.   Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı düzenli fiziksel aktivite yapan bireylerin yeme tutum davranışları ile depresyon düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektir

  4. Li-ion conduction in the LiBH4:LiI system from Density Functional Theory calculations and Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrdal, Jon Steinar Gardarsson; Blanchard, Didier; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2013-01-01

    defect sites, giving rise to high defect mobility. QENS results at 380 K show long-range diffusion of Li+, with jump lengths of one unit cell and jump rates in agreement with those obtained from DFT, and the application of the bias potential increases the diffusion constant by a factor of 2. At 300 K......The hexagonal high-temperature polymorph of LiBH4 is stabilized by solid solution with LiI to exhibit superionic Li+ ionic conductivity at room temperature. Herein, the mechanisms for the Li+ diffusion are investigated for the first time by density functional theory (DFT) calculations coupled......, the QENS data reveal jump events of shorter length (2 Å), which could correspond to a jump process of Li+ interstitials to an intermediate lattice site, in agreement with DFT calculations....

  5. Concentration dependence of Li+/Na+ diffusion in manganese hexacyanoferrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takachi, Masamitsu; Fukuzumi, Yuya; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    Manganese hexacyanoferrates (Mn-HCFs) with a jungle-gym-type structure are promising cathode materials for Li+/Na+ secondary batteries (LIBs/SIBs). Here, we investigated the diffusion constants D Li/D Na of Li+/Na+ against the Li+/Na+ concentration x Na/x Li and temperature (T) of A 1.32Mn[Fe(CN)6]0.833.6H2O (A = Li and Na). We evaluated the activation energy E\\text{a}\\text{Li}/E\\text{a}\\text{Na} of D Li/D Na against x Na/x Li. We found that E\\text{a}\\text{Na} steeply increases with x Na from 0.41 eV at x Na = 0.69 to 0.7 eV at 1.1. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Na} is ascribed to the occupancy effect of the Na+ site. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Li} is suppressed, probably because the number of Li+ sites is three times that of Na+ sites.

  6. Revision of the Li13Si4 structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Fässler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides Li17Si4, Li16.42Si4, and Li15Si4, another lithium-rich representative in the Li–Si system is the phase Li13Si4 (tridecalithium tetrasilicide, the structure of which has been determined previously [Frank et al. (1975. Z. Naturforsch. Teil B, 30, 10–13]. A careful analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns of Li13Si4 revealed discrepancies between experimentally observed and calculated Bragg positions. Therefore, we redetermined the structure of Li13Si4 on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Compared to the previous structure report, decisive differences are (i the introduction of a split position for one Li site [occupancy ratio 0.838 (7:0.162 (7], (ii the anisotropic refinement of atomic displacement parameters for all atoms, and (iii a high accuracy of atom positions and unit-cell parameters. The asymmetric unit of Li13Si4 contains two Si and seven Li atoms. Except for one Li atom situated on a site with symmetry 2/m, all other atoms are on mirror planes. The structure consists of isolated Si atoms as well as Si–Si dumbbells surrounded by Li atoms. Each Si atom is either 12- or 13-coordinated. The isolated Si atoms are situated in the ab plane at z = 0 and are strictly separated from the Si–Si dumbbells at z = 0.5.

  7. Synthesis and optical characterization of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamiv, V.; Teslyuk, I.; Dyachok, Ya.; Romanyuk, G.; Krupych, O.; Mys, O.; Martynyuk-Lototska, I.; Burak, Ya.; Vlokh, R.

    2010-10-01

    In the current work we report on the synthesis of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 borate glasses. The results for their piezo-optic, acousto-optic, acoustic, elastic, refractive, optical transmission, and optical resistance properties are also presented. It is shown that some of these glasses represent efficient acousto-optic materials that are transparent down to the vacuum ultraviolet range and highly resistant to laser radiation.

  8. Synthesis and optical characterization of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiv, V; Teslyuk, I; Dyachok, Ya; Romanyuk, G; Krupych, O; Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Burak, Ya; Vlokh, R

    2010-10-01

    In the current work we report on the synthesis of LiKB(4)O(7), Li(2)B(6)O(10), and LiCsB(6)O(10) borate glasses. The results for their piezo-optic, acousto-optic, acoustic, elastic, refractive, optical transmission, and optical resistance properties are also presented. It is shown that some of these glasses represent efficient acousto-optic materials that are transparent down to the vacuum ultraviolet range and highly resistant to laser radiation.

  9. Exploring Half Metals in Li-based Half Heusler Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemeyer, B.; Shaughnessy, M.; Fong, C. Y.

    2011-11-01

    We examine the electronic and magnetic properties of three Li-related half Heusler alloys, namely LiMnN, LiMnP, and LiMnSi in a structure close to the well-known zinc-blende structure in the attempt to search for new half metallic materials. If they do demonstrate half metallic properties, this will open new grounds for finding half metallic spintronic materials. Our results will furnish guidelines for future exploration of alkali-related half metals. Using the primitive cell LiMnSi is a half metal, while the pnictides are not. However when the conventional cell is used, we find that Li3Mn4P4 and Li3Mn4N4 are half metals. The physical reason for these two pnictides to be half metallic and for their magnetic moment per unit cell will be presented.

  10. Li+ ion conductivities in boro-tellurite glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Harish Bhat; M Kandavel; Munia Ganguli; K J Rao

    2004-04-01

    Lithium ion conductivity has been investigated in a boro-tellurite glass system, LiCl.LiBO$_{2}\\cdot$TeO2.In the absence of LiCl, the conductivity increases with increasing non-bridging oxygen (NBO) concentration. LiCl addition has little influence on total conductivity although the observed barriers are low. Formation of LiCl clusters appears evident. In the a.c. conductivity and dielectric studies, it is observed that the conductivity mechanism remains the same in all compositions and at all temperatures. A suggestion is made that Li+ ion transport may be driven by bridging oxygen $\\leftrightarrow$ non-bridging oxygen (BO $\\leftrightarrow$ NBO) switching, which is why the two different types of Li+ ions in the clusters and in the neighbourhood of NBOs, do not manifest in the conductivity studies.

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure, and TEM analysis of Sr19Li44 and Sr3Li2: a reinvestigation of the Sr-Li phase diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Kienle, Lorenz; Duppel, Viola; Simon, Arndt

    2015-02-02

    Two intermetallic phases in the Sr-Li system have been synthesized and structurally characterized. According to single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, Sr(19)Li(44) and Sr(3)Li(2) crystallize with tetragonal unit cells (Sr(19)Li(44), I-42d, a = 15.9122(7) Å, c = 31.831(2) Å, Z = 4, V = 8059(2) Å(3); Sr(3)Li(2), P42/mnm, a = 9.803(1) Å, c = 8.784(2) Å, Z = 4, V = 844.2(2) Å(3)). The first compound is isostructural with the recently discovered Ba(19)Li(44). Sr in Sr(19)Li(44) can be fully replaced by Ba with no changes to the crystal structure, whereas the substitution of Sr by Ca is only possible within a limited concentration range. Sr(3)Li(2) can be assigned to the Al(2)Zr(3) structure type. The crystal structure determination of Sr(19)Li(44) was complicated by multiple twinning. As an experimental highlight, an electron microscopy investigation of the highly moisture- and electron-beam-sensitive crystals was performed, enabling high-resolution imaging of the defect structure.

  12. Underpotential deposition of Li in a molten LiCl-Li{sub 2}O electrolyte for the electrochemical reduction of U from uranium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Jin-Mok; Jeong, Sang Mun; Lee, Hansoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    Reactive metal oxides are conventionally reduced to metal by metallothermic reduction. This paper presents on the efficient reduction method based on the electrochemical reaction in a molten LiCl-Li{sub 2}O electrolyte at 650 C. An underpotential deposition of Li on uranium oxides was observed that enabled the mass electrochemical reduction of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to U. An advantage of using in-situ generated Li as a reductant is that a high-speed electrochemical reduction could be achieved with a wider operating voltage window when compared to a direct electrochemical reduction. (author)

  13. Thermophysical properties of LiCoO₂-LiMn₂O₄ blended electrode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotcu, Petronela; Seifert, Hans J

    2016-04-21

    Thermophysical properties of two cathode types for lithium-ion batteries were measured by dependence on temperature. The cathode materials are commercial composite thick films containing LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 blended active materials, mixed with additives (binder and carbon black) deposited on aluminium current collector foils. The thermal diffusivities of the cathode samples were measured by laser flash analysis up to 673 K. The specific heat data was determined based on measured composite specific heat, aluminium specific heat data and their corresponding measured mass fractions. The composite specific heat data was measured using two differential scanning calorimeters over the temperature range from 298 to 573 K. For a comprehensive understanding of the blended composite thermal behaviour, measurements of the heat capacity of an additional LiMn2O4 sample were performed, and are the first experimental data up to 700 K. Thermal conductivity of each cathode type and their corresponding blended composite layers were estimated from the measured thermal diffusivity, the specific heat capacity and the estimated density based on metallographic methods and structural investigations. Such data are highly relevant for simulation studies of thermal management and thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries, in which the bulk properties are assumed, as a common approach, to be temperature independent.

  14. Li interactions with the B40 fullerene and its application in Li-ion batteries: DFT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Morteza; Bagheri, Zargham; Bodaghi, Ali

    2017-05-01

    The interaction of Li and Li+ with a B40 all-boron fullerene was theoretically investigated at the B3LYP, and Minnesota 2006 levels of theory. It was found that, unexpectedly, the interaction Li+ cation with the electron deficient B40 fullerene is stronger than the Li atom. It indicates that the B40 fullerene does not act as a conventional Lewis acid because of its highly correlated structure. Frontier molecular orbitals, partial density of states, and natural bond orbital analyses were used to discuss this unusual behavior. Our calculations indicate that this behavior makes the B40 fullerene more appropriate for application in the Li-ion batteries as anode material. The calculated cell voltage is about 530 mV. Also, it was found that Hartree Fock (HF) exchange percentage of density functionals has a reverse effect on the adsorption energies of Li and Li+. This energy is increased and decreased, respectively, for Li+ and Li adsorptions by increasing %HF exchange. Finally, a potential energy surface for Li and Li+ penetration into B40 fullerene was predicted.

  15. Data mining of molecular dynamics data reveals Li diffusion characteristics in garnet Li7La3Zr2O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi; Lu, Ziheng; Ciucci, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Li diffusion in solid conductors is essential for the next generation Li batteries. Here we show that density-based clustering of the trajectories computed using molecular dynamics simulations helps elucidate the Li diffusion mechanism within the Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) crystal lattice. This unsupervised learning method recognizes lattice sites, is able to give the site type, and can identify Li hopping events. Results show that, while the cubic LLZO has a much higher hopping rate compared to its tetragonal counterpart, most of the Li hops in the cubic LLZO do not contribute to the diffusivity due to the dominance of back-and-forth type jumps. The hopping analysis and local Li configuration statistics give evidence that Li diffusivity in cubic LLZO is limited by the low vacancy concentration. The hopping statistics also shows uncorrelated Poisson-like diffusion for Li in the cubic LLZO, and correlated diffusion for Li in the tetragonal LLZO in the temporal scale. Further analysis of the spatio-temporal correlation using site-to-site mutual information confirms the weak site dependence of Li diffusion in the cubic LLZO as the origin for the uncorrelated diffusion. This work puts forward a perspective on combining machine learning and information theory to interpret results of molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. Li-Ge-H system: Hydrogenation and structural properties of LiGeHx (0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlyuk, V.; Ciesielski, W.; Kulawik, D.; Prochwicz, W.; Rożdżyńska-Kiełbik, B.

    2016-11-01

    The synthesis, isothermal section at 450 °C of the Li-Ge-H system in the concentration region from 40 at.% Li to 70 at.% Li and structural characterizations of the observed phases are reported. The hydrogenation and structural properties of the LiGeHx (0 < x < 0.25) phase were studied by volumetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The absorption of hydrogen by LiGe binary compound produce the ternary hydride phase LiGeHx (0 < x < 0.25), thus the volume tetragonal unit cell increases on 1.8 Å3. The LiGeHx solid solution is formed by means of the insertion of hydrogen atoms into tetrahedral voids of parent LiGe structure. The extension of homogeneity range of LiGeHx (0 < x < 0.25) phase and its crystal structure were more precisely refined using X-ray diffraction data. Electronic structure calculations reveal an increased occupation of electronic states at the Fermi level for LiGeHx in comparison to LiGe.

  17. Data mining of molecular dynamics data reveals Li diffusion characteristics in garnet Li7La3Zr2O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi; Lu, Ziheng; Ciucci, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Li diffusion in solid conductors is essential for the next generation Li batteries. Here we show that density-based clustering of the trajectories computed using molecular dynamics simulations helps elucidate the Li diffusion mechanism within the Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) crystal lattice. This unsupervised learning method recognizes lattice sites, is able to give the site type, and can identify Li hopping events. Results show that, while the cubic LLZO has a much higher hopping rate compared to its tetragonal counterpart, most of the Li hops in the cubic LLZO do not contribute to the diffusivity due to the dominance of back-and-forth type jumps. The hopping analysis and local Li configuration statistics give evidence that Li diffusivity in cubic LLZO is limited by the low vacancy concentration. The hopping statistics also shows uncorrelated Poisson-like diffusion for Li in the cubic LLZO, and correlated diffusion for Li in the tetragonal LLZO in the temporal scale. Further analysis of the spatio-temporal correlation using site-to-site mutual information confirms the weak site dependence of Li diffusion in the cubic LLZO as the origin for the uncorrelated diffusion. This work puts forward a perspective on combining machine learning and information theory to interpret results of molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:28094317

  18. Enhanced Performance of Li|LiFePO4 Cells Using CsPF6 as an Electrolyte Additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Liang; Chen, Xilin; Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Xiang, Hongfa; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-10-20

    The practical application of lithium (Li) metal anode in rechargeable Li batteries is hindered by both the growth of Li dendrites and the low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated charge/discharge cycles. Recently, we have discovered that CsPF6 as an electrolyte additive can significantly suppress Li dendrite growth and lead to highly compacted and well aligned Li nanorod structure during Li deposition on copper substrates. In this paper, the effect of CsPF6 additive on the performance of rechargeable Li metal batteries with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cathode was further studied. Li|LFP coin cells with CsPF6 additive in electrolytes show well protected Li anode surface, decreased resistance, enhanced rate capability and extended cycling stability. In Li|LFP cells, the electrolyte with CsPF6 additive shows excellent long-term cycling stability (at least 500 cycles) at a charge current density of 0.5 mA cm-2 without internal short circuit. At high charge current densities, the effect of CsPF6 additive becomes less significant. Future work needs to be done to protect Li metal anode, especially at high charge current densities and for long cycle life.

  19. Li-Metal-Free Prelithiation of Si-Based Negative Electrodes for Full Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haitao; Wang, Xuehang; Chen, De

    2015-08-24

    Most of the high-capacity positive-electrode materials [for example, S, O2 (air), and MOx (M: V, Mn, Fe, etc.)] are Li-deficient and require the use of a Li-metal electrode or prelithiation. Herein, we report a novel electrolytic cell in which the Si electrode can be prelithiated in a well-controlled manner from Li-containing aqueous solution in a Li-metal-free way. MnOx/Si and S/Si Li-ion full cells were assembled by using the prelithiated Si negative electrodes, which resulted in high specific energies of 349 and 732 Wh kg(-1), respectively. The MnOx/Si full cell still retains 138 Wh kg(-1) even at a high specific power of 1710 W kg(-1). This is the first report of a whole process of making a full Li-ion battery with both Li-deficient electrodes without the use of Li metal as the Li source. This novel prelithiation process, with high controllability, no short circuiting, and an abundant Li source, is expected to contribute significantly to the development of safe, green, and powerful Li-ion batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Carbon Nano Fiber/LiFePO{sub 4} composites for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvaneswari, M.S.; Bramnik, N.N.; Ensling, D.; Jaegermann, W. [Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Ehrenberg, H. [Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstr, 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    Carbon Nano Fibers (CNFs) coated with LiFePO{sub 4} particles have been prepared by a non-aqueous sol-gel technique. The functionalization of the CNFs by HNO{sub 3} acid treatment has been confirmed by Raman and XPS analyses. The samples pure LiFePO{sub 4} and LiFePO{sub 4}-CNF have been characterized by XRD, SEM, RAMAN, XPS and electrochemical analysis. The LiFePO{sub 4}-CNF sample shows better electrochemical performance compared to as-prepared LiFePO{sub 4}. LiFePO{sub 4}-CNF (10 wt.%) delivers a higher specific capacity ({proportional_to}140 mAh g{sup -1}) than LiFePO{sub 4} with carbon black (25 wt.%) added after synthesis ({proportional_to}120 mAh g{sup -1}) at 0.1C. (author)

  1. LiBOB基电解液在锂离子动力电池中的应用%The application of LiBOB based electrolyte in power Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连芳; 闫坤; 邢桃峰; 仇卫华

    2011-01-01

    The unique advantages of lithium bis(oxalate) borate (LiBOB) as electrolyte salt for power Li-ion battery and the key problems of LiBOB-based electrolyte were summarized. The review was especially focused on the effect of impurities,optimization of its solvents and the compatibility of LiBOB-based electrolyte with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4 electrodes.%介绍了双草酸硼酸锂(LiBOB)作为锂离子动力电池电解质锂盐的独特优势以及LiBOB基电解液应用中的关键问题.主要针对LiBOB基电解液中杂质影响和溶剂优化,以及与LiMnO、LiFePO正极材料的相容性进行了阐述.

  2. Dielectric properties of Li doped Li-Nb-O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perentzis, G.; Horopanitis, E.E.; Papadimitriou, L. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Durman, V.; Saly, V.; Packa, J. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 81219 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2007-03-15

    Lithium niobate LiNbO{sub 3} was prepared as a thin film layered structure deposited on stainless steel substrate using e-gun evaporation. The Li doping was provided for by the formation of Li-Nb-O/Li/LiNb-O sandwich structure and annealing at about 250 C. AC impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed on the samples at temperatures from the interval between 28 and 165 C and in a frequency range of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 6} Hz. Using the values Z' and Z'' at different frequencies, the dielectric parameters - parts of the complex permittivity {epsilon}' and {epsilon}'' and loss tangent tan {delta} were calculated. The results prove validity of the proposed equivalent circuit containing parallel RC elements connected in series where the first RC element represents the bulk of material and the second RC element belongs to the double layer at the metal interface. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Thermal and Cycle-Life Behavior of Commercial Li-ion and Li-Polymer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.; Quinzio, M. V.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerated and real-time LEO cycle-life test data will be presented for a range of commercial Li-ion and Li-polymer (gel type) cells indicating the ranges of performance that can be obtained, and the performance screening tests that must be done to assure long life. The data show large performance variability between cells, as well as a highly variable degradation signature during non-cycling periods within the life tests. High-resolution Dynamic Calorimetry data will be presented showing the complex series of reactions occurring within these Li cells as they are cycled. Data will also be presented for cells being tested using an Adaptive Charge Control Algorithm (ACCA) that continuously adapts itself to changes in cell performance, operation, or environment to both find and maintain the optimum recharge over life. The ACCA has been used to prevent all unneeded overcharge for Li cells, NiCd cells and NiH2 cells. While this is important for all these cell types, it is most critical for Li-ion cells, which are not designed with electrochemical tolerance for overcharge.

  4. Sloboda u istini ili sloboda kao istina?

    OpenAIRE

    Lukšić, Branimir

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the author analyses political and economic liberalism, its contribution to and implications in the philosophy of law, and investigates its philosophical and metaphysical presu- ppositions, before subjecting it to a critical assessment. In this context he discusses various modifications of the utilitarian theory of values which underpins the classical political liberalism, the cult of freedom, freedom as a happening and the philosophical modifi-cations of the basic lib...

  5. Made in Narva ili nashi v Seule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Hiigelsuure titaanskulptuuri "Post-Mapping" valmistamisest saksa firma Trinon Titanium Narva tehases ja selle paigaldamisest tehnoloogiainstituudi hoone fuajeesse Soulis. Skulptuuri autor on arhitekt Lawrence Wallen

  6. Kiberataki - ugroza realnaja ili virtualnaja? / Jevgenija Garanzha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garanža, Jevgenija, 1979-

    2008-01-01

    Autor arutleb koos kaitseministeeriumi side- ja infotehnoloogia osakonna juhataja Mihkel Tammetiga, milline on küberrünnakutest tulenev reaalne ja virtuaalne oht. Vt. samas: Ajalehe märkus NATO juures tegutseva küberkaitse keskuse kohta; Mõistest "botnet"

  7. Seks-market ili rabstvo? / Ilja Sundelevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sundelevitsh, Ilja

    2007-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline kunstinäitus "Kehaturg" Tallinna Kunstihoones. Kuraator Reet Varblane. Teemaks prostitutsioon. Sandra Jõgeva ava-performance'ist, Shula Kesheti ja Tatjana Antoshina töödest ning pseudonüümi Foxy Haze (Liina Siib?) all esineva eesti videokunstniku uurimus-videost. Värvilised illustratsioonid

  8. Nasledniki SSSR : druzja ili vragi? / Aleksandr Vassiljev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vassiljev, Aleksandr

    2007-01-01

    Autori arvates ei saa eitada ajaloolist fakti Nõukogude Liidu olemasolust, kuid see ei tohi takistada riikide edasist arengut. 27. veebruaril toimub Riias konverents "Nõukogude Liidu pärand: milles seisneb Venemaa ja teiste riikide õigusjärgsus?"

  9. Seks-market ili rabstvo? / Ilja Sundelevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sundelevitsh, Ilja

    2007-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline kunstinäitus "Kehaturg" Tallinna Kunstihoones. Kuraator Reet Varblane. Teemaks prostitutsioon. Sandra Jõgeva ava-performance'ist, Shula Kesheti ja Tatjana Antoshina töödest ning pseudonüümi Foxy Haze (Liina Siib?) all esineva eesti videokunstniku uurimus-videost. Värvilised illustratsioonid

  10. Kiberataki - ugroza realnaja ili virtualnaja? / Jevgenija Garanzha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garanža, Jevgenija, 1979-

    2008-01-01

    Autor arutleb koos kaitseministeeriumi side- ja infotehnoloogia osakonna juhataja Mihkel Tammetiga, milline on küberrünnakutest tulenev reaalne ja virtuaalne oht. Vt. samas: Ajalehe märkus NATO juures tegutseva küberkaitse keskuse kohta; Mõistest "botnet"

  11. Made in Narva ili nashi v Seule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Hiigelsuure titaanskulptuuri "Post-Mapping" valmistamisest saksa firma Trinon Titanium Narva tehases ja selle paigaldamisest tehnoloogiainstituudi hoone fuajeesse Soulis. Skulptuuri autor on arhitekt Lawrence Wallen

  12. Absorption of Stationary Elastic Vibrations ili Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    e. v. Karus

    1958-06-01

    Full Text Available Il carattere di divergenze e d'assorbimentodelle onde sismiche è stato investigato medianteil metodo sismo-acustico basato sullemisurazioni di ampiezze e fasi delle oscillazioniquali sono eccitate nelle roccia da unasorgente d'oscillazioni armoniche stazionarie.I risultati d'investigazione sperimentalemediante il m. s.-a. d'assorbimento della rocciapermettono di differenziare le roccie diversesecondo i parametri d'assorbimento. L'assorbimentomassimo è proprio di roccia sedimentariail minimo di roccia d'eruzione edi roccia sottoposta a un metamorfismo.La proporzionalità inversa è stata osservatatra la velocità delle onde elastiche e ladiminuzione d'assorbimento per i tipi diversidi roccia. È dimostrato che il coefficiente d'assorbimentoè aumentato linearmente con lafrequenza. È osservato il fenomeno della dispersioneanomala della velocità di fase.I dati sperimentali ottenuti confermano leconclusioni della teoria basata sul fenomenod'elasticità in seguito a quella svolta daB. V. Derjagin.

  13. Po zvjozdotshkam ili spravedlivosti / Irina Kablukova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kablukova, Irina

    2007-01-01

    Autor püüab välja selgitada, kuidas siseministeerium jagab valitsuse poolt eraldatud täiendavad 220 miljonit krooni korrakaitseorganitele. Lisaks politseiameti andmed politseitöötajate palkadest

  14. SAS : kosheljok ili proshtshai, Estonian Air!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Lennukompanii SAS saatis Eesti valitsusele kirja, milles teatab, et on nõus raskustesse sattunud Estonian Airile lisainvesteeringuid tegema ainult siis, kui valitsus müüb SAS-ile oma osaluse. Ettevõtjate, parlamendiliige Marko Mihkelsoni ja ministrite arvamusi

  15. Spectroscopy of Li9Λ by electroproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuoli, G. M.; Cusanno, F.; Marrone, S.; Acha, A.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Aniol, K. A.; Baturin, P.; Bertin, P. Y.; Benaoum, H.; Blomqvist, K. I.; Boeglin, W. U.; Breuer, H.; Brindza, P.; Bydžovský, P.; Camsonne, A.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E. A.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Coman, L.; Craver, B. J.; De Cataldo, G.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deur, A. P.; Ferdi, C.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Folts, E.; Fratoni, R.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gayou, O.; Giuliani, F.; Gomez, J.; Gricia, M.; Hansen, J. O.; Hayes, D.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T. K.; Hyde, C. E.; Ibrahim, H. F.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Kaufman, L. J.; Kino, K.; Kross, B.; Lagamba, L.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R. A.; Lucentini, M.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Meziani, Z. E.; McCormick, K.; Michaels, R. W.; Millener, D. J.; Miyoshi, T.; Moffit, B.; Monaghan, P. A.; Moteabbed, M.; Camacho, C. Muñoz; Nanda, S.; Nappi, E.; Nelyubin, V. V.; Norum, B. E.; Okasyasu, Y.; Paschke, K. D.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Punjabi, V. A.; Qiang, Y.; Reimer, P. E.; Reinhold, J.; Reitz, B.; Roche, R. E.; Rodriguez, V. M.; Saha, A.; Santavenere, F.; Sarty, A. J.; Segal, J.; Shahinyan, A.; Singh, J.; Širca, S.; Snyder, R.; Solvignon, P. H.; Sotona, M.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V. A.; Suzuki, T.; Ueno, H.; Ulmer, P. E.; Veneroni, P.; Voutier, E.; Wojtsekhowski, B. B.; Zheng, X.; Zorn, C.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Background: In the absence of accurate data on the free two-body hyperon-nucleon interaction, the spectra of hypernuclei provides information on the details of the effective hyperon-nucleon interaction. Purpose: To obtain a high-resolution binding-energy spectrum for the 9Be (e ,e'K+) Li9Λ reaction. Method: Electroproduction of the hypernucleus Li9Λ has been studied for the first time with sub-MeV energy resolution in Hall A at Jefferson Lab on a 9Be target. In order to increase the counting rate and to provide unambiguous kaon identification, two superconducting septum magnets and a ring imaging Cherenkov detector were added to the Hall A standard equipment. Results: The cross section to low-lying states of Li9Λ is concentrated within 3 MeV of the ground state and can be fit with four peaks. The positions of the doublets agree with theory while a disagreement could exist with respect to the relative strengths of the peaks in the doublets. The Λ separation energy, BΛ, of 8.36 ±0.08 (stat.) ±0.08 (syst.) MeV was measured, in agreement with an earlier experiment.

  16. Endurance testing with Li/Na electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J.; Sishtla, C.I. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), under subcontract to M-C Power Corporation under DOE funding, has been operating bench-scale fuel cells to investigate the performance and endurance issues of the Li/Na electrolyte because it offers higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current densities, lower vapor pressures, and lower cathode dissolution rates than the Li/K electrolyte. These cells have continued to show higher performance and lower decay rates than the Li/K cells since the publication of our two previous papers in 1994. In this paper, test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17,000 hours with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hours at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system-defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.

  17. CuLi2Sn and Cu2LiSn: Characterization by single crystal XRD and structural discussion towards new anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürtauer, Siegfried; Effenberger, Herta S.; Flandorfer, Hans

    2014-12-01

    The stannides CuLi2Sn (CSD-427095) and Cu2LiSn (CSD-427096) were synthesized by induction melting of the pure elements and annealing at 400 °C. The phases were reinvestigated by X-ray powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Within both crystal structures the ordered CuSn and Cu2Sn lattices form channels which host Cu and Li atoms at partly mixed occupied positions exhibiting extensive vacancies. For CuLi2Sn, the space group F-43m. was verified (structure type CuHg2Ti; a=6.295(2) Å; wR2(F²)=0.0355 for 78 unique reflections). The 4(c) and 4(d) positions are occupied by Cu atoms and Cu+Li atoms, respectively. For Cu2LiSn, the space group P63/mmc was confirmed (structure type InPt2Gd; a=4.3022(15) Å, c=7.618(3) Å; wR2(F²)=0.060 for 199 unique reflections). The Cu and Li atoms exhibit extensive disorder; they are distributed over the partly occupied positions 2(a), 2(b) and 4(e). Both phases seem to be interesting in terms of application of Cu-Sn alloys as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  18. Electrochemical Formation of Al-Li Alloys by Codeposition of Al and Li from LiCl-KCl-AlF3 Melts at 853 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yi; ZHANG Mi-lin; HAN Wei; LI Mei; YANG Yu-sheng

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Al(Ⅲ) ions was studied in molten LiCl-KCl melts on a molybdenum electrode.Cyclic voltammetry,chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry were used to explore the deposition mechanism of Al and Li.Cyclic voltammetry expriment indicates that under potential deposition(UPD) of lithium on pre-deposited aluminium led to the formation of liquid Al-Li alloys at 853 K.The diffusion coefficient of Al(Ⅲ) ions at 853 K in LiCl-KCl-AlF3(1%,mass fraction) melts was determined to be (2.79±0.05)× 10-5 cm2/s.Chronopotentiograms and chronoamperograms demonstrate that the codeposition of Al(Ⅲ) and Li(Ⅰ) ions formed Al-Li alloys at cathodic current densities higher than-0.28 A/cm2 or cathodic potentials more negative than-2.20 V.X-Ray diffraction(XRD) pattern indicates that Al-Li alloys with different phases formed via galvanostatic electrolysis.Inductively coupled plasma(ICP) analyses of the samples obtained by electrolysis show that lithium and aluminium contents of Al-Li alloys could be controlled by AlF3 concentration and current intensity.

  19. Nanoparticle shapes of LiMnPO4, Li+ diffusion orientation and diffusion coefficients for high volumetric energy Li+ ion cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nam Hee; Yin, Hui; Vavrova, Tatiana; Lim, Jonathan H.-W.; Steiner, Ullrich; Grobéty, Bernard; Fromm, Katharina M.

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticles of LiMnPO4 were fabricated in rod, elongated as well as cubic shapes. The 1D Li+ preferred diffusion direction for each shape was determined via electron diffraction spot patterns. The shape of nano-LiMnPO4 varied the diffusion coefficient of Li+ because the Li+ diffusion direction and the path length were different. The particles with the shortest dimension along the b-axis provided the highest diffusion coefficient, resulting in the highest gravimetric capacity of 135, 100 and 60 mAh g-1 at 0.05C, 1C and 10C, respectively. Using ball-milling, a higher loading of nano-LiMnPO4 in the electrode was achieved, increasing the volumetric capacity to 263 mAh cm-3, which is ca. 3.5 times higher than the one obtained by hand-mixing of electrode materials. Thus, the electrochemical performance is governed by both the diffusion coefficient of Li+, which is dependent on the shape of LiMnPO4 nanoparticles and the secondary composite structure.

  20. Characterizing Lava Flows With LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, N. I.; Cashman, K. V.; Deardorff, N.; Dietterich, H. R.; House, P. K.; Soule, S.

    2009-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) have been used in volcanology in predictive modeling of lava flow paths, both for assessment of potential hazards and specific predictions of lava flow paths. Topographic analysis of a lava flow is potentially useful for mapping and quantifying flow surface morphologies, which in turn can be used to determine flow emplacement conditions, such as effusion rate, steadiness of flow, and interactions with pre-existing topography and surface water. However, this has been limited in application because of the coarse resolution of most DEMs. In recent years, use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) airborne laser altimetry, capable of producing high resolution (≤ 1 meter) DEMs, has become increasingly common in the geomorphic and mapping community. However, volcanologists have made little use of airborne LiDAR. Here we compare information obtained using field observations and standard (10 meter) DEMs against LiDAR high resolution DEMs to assess the usefulness, capabilities, and limitations of LiDAR as applicable to lava flows. We compare morphologic characteristics of five lava flows of different compositions, tectonic settings, flow extents, slopes, and eruption duration: (1) 1984 Mauna Loa lava flow, Hawaii; (2) December 1974 Kilauea lava flow, Hawaii; (3) c. 1600 ybp Collier Cone lava flow, central Oregon Cascades; (4) Holocene lava flows from the Sand Mountain volcanic chain, central Oregon Cascades; and (5) Pleistocene lava flows along the Owyhee River, eastern Oregon basin and range. These lava flows range in composition from basalt to andesite, and have eruption durations ranging from 6 hours (observed) to years (inferred). We measure channel width, levee and flow front heights, compression ridge amplitude, wavelength and tumuli dimensions, and surface roughness. For all but the smallest scale features, LiDAR is easily used to quantify these features, which often is impossible or technically challenging to do in the field, while

  1. LiFePO 4 water-soluble binder electrode for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfi, A.; Kaneko, M.; Petitclerc, M.; Mori, M.; Zaghib, K.

    A new water-soluble elastomer from ZEON Corp. was evaluated as binder with LiFePO 4 cathode material in Li-ion batteries. The mechanical characteristic of this cathode was compared to that with PVdF-based cathode binder. The elastomer-based cathode shows high flexibility with good adhesion. The electrochemical performance was also evaluated and compared to PVdF-based cathodes at 25 and at 60 °C. A lower irreversible capacity loss was obtained with the elastomer-based cathode, however, aging at 60 °C shows a comparable cycle life to that observed with PVdF-based cathodes. The LiFePO 4-WSB at high rate shows a good performance with 120 mAh g -1 at 10 C rate at 60 °C.

  2. LiFePO{sub 4} water-soluble binder electrode for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerfi, A.; Petitclerc, M.; Zaghib, K. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, 1800 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Que. J3X 1S1 (Canada); Kaneko, M.; Mori, M. [ZEON Corporation, R and D Center, 1-2-1 Yako, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-9507 (Japan)

    2007-01-01

    A new water-soluble elastomer from ZEON Corp. was evaluated as binder with LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material in Li-ion batteries. The mechanical characteristic of this cathode was compared to that with PVdF-based cathode binder. The elastomer-based cathode shows high flexibility with good adhesion. The electrochemical performance was also evaluated and compared to PVdF-based cathodes at 25 and at 60{sup o}C. A lower irreversible capacity loss was obtained with the elastomer-based cathode, however, aging at 60{sup o}C shows a comparable cycle life to that observed with PVdF-based cathodes. The LiFePO{sub 4}-WSB at high rate shows a good performance with 120mAhg{sup -1} at 10C rate at 60{sup o}C. (author)

  3. Coincidence in the two-photon spectra of Li and Li2 at 735 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraffenreid, W.; Sansonetti, Craig J.

    2005-02-01

    A coincidence between the 22S1/2-32S1/2 two-photon transition in the atomic spectrum of 6Li and the X 1Σ+g→ E 1Σ+g two-photon ro-vibrational series of 7Li2 was observed near 735 nm in a heat pipe oven using a tunable laser and thermionic diode detection scheme. The molecular transition obscures one component of the 6Li atomic transition. Selective detection of the atomic transition was obtained by adding an intensity-modulated laser that drives atoms from the 3S to 16P state. The coincident molecular transition and four nearby molecular lines were identified using previously determined Dunham coefficients.

  4. A Stable, Magnetic, and Metallic Li3O4 Compound as a Discharge Product in a Li-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guochun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2014-08-07

    The Li-air battery with the specific energy exceeding that of a Li ion battery has been aimed as the next-generation battery. The improvement of the performance of the Li-air battery needs a full resolution of the actual discharge products. Li2O2 has been long recognized as the main discharge product, with which, however, there are obvious failures on the understanding of various experimental observations (e.g., magnetism, oxygen K-edge spectrum, etc.) on discharge products. There is a possibility of the existence of other Li-O compounds unknown thus far. Here, a hitherto unknown Li3O4 compound as a discharge product of the Li-air battery was predicted through first-principles swarm structure searching calculations. The new compound has a unique structure featuring the mixture of superoxide O2(-) and peroxide O2(2-), the first such example in the Li-O system. The existence of superoxide O2(-) creates magnetism and hole-doped metallicity. Findings of Li3O4 gave rise to direct explanations of the unresolved experimental magnetism, triple peaks of oxygen K-edge spectra, and the Raman peak at 1125 cm(-1) of the discharge products. Our work enables an opportunity for the performance of capacity, charge overpotential, and round-trip efficiency of the Li-air battery.

  5. Dom Fahle mozhet stat lutshim zdanijem v mire / Andrus Kõresaar ; interv. Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõresaar, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    Fahle maja Tallinnas kandideerib Londoni Disainimuuseumi korraldatud rahvusvahelisel disainivõistlusel 2007. aasta maailma parima ehitise tiitlile. Projekteeris KOKO Arhitektid. Hoone ühe arhitekti Andrus Kõresaarega kunagise tehasehoone algsest seisukorrast ja rekonstrueerimisest korterelamuks

  6. Ekspeditor mozhet stat logistitsheskoi kompanijei = A forwarder can become a logistics company / Nikolai Titjuhhin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Titjuhhin, Nikolai

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne 3.-4. detsembrini 2003 Tallinnas toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverents-näitusel "Logistics and transport in international trade" ekspediitor- ja logistikafirmade tegevusest, teenustest ning koostöövõimalustest teenusepakkujatega, sh rakendades logistilise outsourcing'u kontseptsiooni

  7. Ekonomitsheskaja sotrudnitshestvo Moskovskoi oblasti s Severo-Vostokom Estonii mozhet stat realnostju / Jevgenija Zelenskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zelenskaja, Jevgenija

    2008-01-01

    Kohtla-Järvel viibis delegatsioon Venemaalt eesotsas oma kandidatuuri Vene presidendivalimistel üles seadnud Andrei Bogdanovi ja Demokraatliku Partei keskkomitee esimehe Aleksandr Nõrkoga, et arutleda Kirde-Eesti ja Moskva oblasti majanduskoostöö perspektiivide üle

  8. Vmesto Key Kaubamaja v Mustamjae mozhet bõt postrojeno novoje kommertsheskoje zdanije

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna Mustamäe linnaosas Kadaka tee 70 asunud Key Kaubamaja asemele kavandatakse kahekorruselist kaubamaja ja kuuekorruselist büroohoonet. Detailplaneeringu eskiisprojekti koostas Ruum ja Maastik OÜ

  9. Vmesto Key Kaubamaja v Mustamjae mozhet bõt postrojeno novoje kommertsheskoje zdanije

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna Mustamäe linnaosas Kadaka tee 70 asunud Key Kaubamaja asemele kavandatakse kahekorruselist kaubamaja ja kuuekorruselist büroohoonet. Detailplaneeringu eskiisprojekti koostas Ruum ja Maastik OÜ

  10. Vladimir Anshon : "Tolko sostradanije mozhet uderzhat ot neobratimõh postupkov..." / Eteri Kekelidze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kekelidze, Eteri, 1944-

    2007-01-01

    Teatrikunstnik Vladimir Anshon lavakujundusest Adolf Shapiro poolt Tallinna Linnateatris lavastatud Luigi Pirandello näidendile "Nii see on, kui teile nii näib". XI Praha lavastuskunstnike kvadriennaali žürii liige Vladimir Anshon žürii tööst. Eestit esindab näitusel Ene-Liis Semper

  11. Ekspeditor mozhet stat logistitsheskoi kompanijei = A forwarder can become a logistics company / Nikolai Titjuhhin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Titjuhhin, Nikolai

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne 3.-4. detsembrini 2003 Tallinnas toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverents-näitusel "Logistics and transport in international trade" ekspediitor- ja logistikafirmade tegevusest, teenustest ning koostöövõimalustest teenusepakkujatega, sh rakendades logistilise outsourcing'u kontseptsiooni

  12. Dom Fahle mozhet stat lutshim zdanijem v mire / Andrus Kõresaar ; interv. Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõresaar, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    Fahle maja Tallinnas kandideerib Londoni Disainimuuseumi korraldatud rahvusvahelisel disainivõistlusel 2007. aasta maailma parima ehitise tiitlile. Projekteeris KOKO Arhitektid. Hoone ühe arhitekti Andrus Kõresaarega kunagise tehasehoone algsest seisukorrast ja rekonstrueerimisest korterelamuks

  13. Ekonomitsheskaja sotrudnitshestvo Moskovskoi oblasti s Severo-Vostokom Estonii mozhet stat realnostju / Jevgenija Zelenskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zelenskaja, Jevgenija

    2008-01-01

    Kohtla-Järvel viibis delegatsioon Venemaalt eesotsas oma kandidatuuri Vene presidendivalimistel üles seadnud Andrei Bogdanovi ja Demokraatliku Partei keskkomitee esimehe Aleksandr Nõrkoga, et arutleda Kirde-Eesti ja Moskva oblasti majanduskoostöö perspektiivide üle

  14. The Spectral Properties of Zn doped LiNbO3 Crystals%掺锌LiNbO3晶体的光谱性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵业权; 徐悟生; 朱质彬; 张玥; 徐蔚青; 王继扬

    2000-01-01

    LiNbO3中掺进2 mol%,4 mol%,6 mol%,8 mol%的ZnO,生长Zn(2 mol%):LiNbO3,Zn(4 mol%):LiNbO3,Zn(6 mol%):LiNbO3和Zn(8 mol%):LiNbO3晶体,测试LiNbO3和掺锌LiNbO3晶体的透射光谱.LiNbO3和掺锌LiNbO3晶体在350-900 nm的范围内都是透明的.Zn:LiNbO3晶体的吸收边发生紫移.对Zn:LiNbO3晶体吸收边紫移的机理进行探讨.

  15. Reoxidation of uranium metal immersed in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt after electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Jeong; Kim, Sung-Wook; Lee, Sang Kwon; Lee, Sung-Jai; Heo, Dong Hyun; Kang, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2017-03-01

    We present our findings that uranium (U) metal prepared by using the electrolytic reduction process for U oxide (UO2) in a Li2O-LiCl salt can be reoxidized into UO2 through the reaction between the U metal and Li2O in LiCl. Two salt types were used for immersion of the U metal: one was the salt used for electrolytic reduction, and the other was applied to the unused LiCl salts with various concentrations of Li2O and Li metal. Our results revealed that the degree of reoxidation increases with the increasing Li2O concentration in LiCl and that the presence of the Li metal in LiCl suppresses the reoxidation of the U metal.

  16. Diffusion of $^{6}$Li in Ta and W

    CERN Document Server

    Vacik, J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was the study of 6Li diffusion in the Ta and W refractory metals. The samples were prepared by ion implantation of 380 keV 6Li+ ions into W and Ta thin foils (up to the fluence of 1016 ions/cm2) and annealed up to the temperature 1940 °C. The depth profiles of 6Li were determined using the Thermal Neutron Depth Profiling (TNDP) technique. The results showed that diffusion of 6Li in both W and Ta foils is very complex and cannot be described by simple Fick’s laws. Trapping centers (in the subsurface layers of both W and Ta metals) were supposed in a trial to explain the 6Li diffusion behaviour. However, the 6Li depth profiles were only partly explained. Other aspects are necessary to take into account for more proper quantification; such as spatially dependent diffusion coefficients, etc.

  17. Üliõpilasteatrid - teistmoodi teater / Kalev Kudu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kudu, Kalev, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Üliõpilasteatrite VI maailmakongressist 21. - 26. juulini Urbinos Itaalias. Autor oma ettekandest teemal "Üliõpilasteater kui mäss. Üliõpilasteatrite eriline missioon globaliseeruvas maailmas". Lühiintervjuu Liege'i ülikooli professori, üliõpilasteatri kunstilise juhi ja Rahvusvahelise Üliõpilasteatrite Liidu (AITU) esimehe Robert Germayga. Etendustest: "Shahrazad - neitsi Bagdadist" (Bologna ülikool, Itaalia"), "Mbomo-mvet" (Yaounde ülikool, Kamerun), "The Believed Dead" (Brescia Katoliiklik Ülikool, Itaalia), "Teenrid" (Teatro Verga, Milano ülikool, Itaalia), "Antigone" (Ateena ülikool, Kreeka), "Tilt!" (Teatro Aenigma, Urbino ülikool, Itaalia), "Paroodia" (Milano ja Urbino ülikoolide üliõpilased), "Erose tiivad" (Saloniki ülikool, Kreeka), "Kolmas laps" (Long Islandi ülikool, USA), "Lee-Oki lugu" (Hoseo ülikool, Lõuna-Korea), "Ülikond" (Vilniuse Tehnikaülikool, Leedu)

  18. Phase Diagrams for the PEO-LiX Electrolyte System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    rather flat, in sharp contrast to previous results. 3.2c PEO- LiBF4 System Pure PEO forms complexes with LiBF , and the subsequent phase diagram for...study; 0 ----NMR(15); 0 -DSC or DTA(7, 10,12); A ---a.c.conductivity(6,10,12); 4- optical microscopy(6). is 350 - (PEO) n- LiBF4 300 (PEO) n-LiCF 3SO 3...the PEO- LiBF4 system IS" , " ATOM RATIO O/Li 50 25 8 4 2 1 250 200 150 1 00 -50I 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 XLiPF6 -’+’ Figure 6. Phase diagram of the

  19. Mobilities of Li(+)-attached butanol isomers in He gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Saito, K; Koizumi, T; Matoba, S; Kojima, T M; Tanuma, H; Shiromaru, H

    2013-08-28

    Mobilities of Li(+)-attached butanol isomers, (n-BuOH)Li(+), (s-BuOH)Li(+), (i-BuOH)Li(+), and (t-BuOH)Li(+), in helium gas were measured over a range of reduced electric fields (E/N = 25-96 Td) at room temperature. Arrival time measurements accurately identified small differences in the measured mobilities of the isomer ions. At low E/N (≤30 Td, corresponding to a mean collision energy ε≤0.05 eV), (n-BuOH)Li(+) showed a mobility about 1.5% greater than that of the other ions, but at high E/N (≥75 Td, ε≥0.1 eV) its mobility was about 1.1% less.

  20. Elastic properties of Li+ doped lead zinc borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaramakrishna, R.; Lakshmikantha, R.; Anavekar, R. V.

    2014-04-01

    Glasses in the system 0.25PbO-(0.25-x) ZnO-0.5B2O3-xLi2O have been prepared by the melt quenching technique. Elastic properties, DSC studies have been employed to study the role of Li2O in the present glass system. Elastic properties and Debye temperature have been determined using pulsed echo ultrasonic interferometer operating at 10MHz. Sound velocities Vl, Vt and elastic moduli decrease up to 5 mol% and then gradually increase with increase in Li2O concentration. Debye temperature and the glass transition temperature decreases with increase in Li2O. Densities remains almost constant up to 15 mol% Li2O concentration and increases monotonically while the molar volume decreases with the increase of Li2O concentration. The results are discussed in view of the borate structural network and dual role of Zn and Pb in these glasses.

  1. Üliõpilasteatrid - teistmoodi teater / Kalev Kudu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kudu, Kalev, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Üliõpilasteatrite VI maailmakongressist 21. - 26. juulini Urbinos Itaalias. Autor oma ettekandest teemal "Üliõpilasteater kui mäss. Üliõpilasteatrite eriline missioon globaliseeruvas maailmas". Lühiintervjuu Liege'i ülikooli professori, üliõpilasteatri kunstilise juhi ja Rahvusvahelise Üliõpilasteatrite Liidu (AITU) esimehe Robert Germayga. Etendustest: "Shahrazad - neitsi Bagdadist" (Bologna ülikool, Itaalia"), "Mbomo-mvet" (Yaounde ülikool, Kamerun), "The Believed Dead" (Brescia Katoliiklik Ülikool, Itaalia), "Teenrid" (Teatro Verga, Milano ülikool, Itaalia), "Antigone" (Ateena ülikool, Kreeka), "Tilt!" (Teatro Aenigma, Urbino ülikool, Itaalia), "Paroodia" (Milano ja Urbino ülikoolide üliõpilased), "Erose tiivad" (Saloniki ülikool, Kreeka), "Kolmas laps" (Long Islandi ülikool, USA), "Lee-Oki lugu" (Hoseo ülikool, Lõuna-Korea), "Ülikond" (Vilniuse Tehnikaülikool, Leedu)

  2. Li-Ion Cell Development for Low Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.-K.; Sakamoto, J. S.; Surampudi, S.; Wolfenstine, J.

    2000-01-01

    JPL is involved in the development of rechargeable Li-ion cells for future Mars Exploration Missions. The specific objectives are to improve the Li-ion cell cycle life performance and rate capability at low temperature (Li-ion rate capability at low temperature has been attributed to: (1) the electrolytes becoming viscous or freezing and/or (2) reduced electrode capacity that results from decreased Li diffusivity. Our efforts focus on increasing the rate capability at low temperature for Li-ion cells. In order to improve the rate capability we evaluated the following: (1) cathode performance at low temperatures, (2) electrode active material particle size on low temperature performance and (3) Li diffusivity at room temperature and low temperatures. In this paper, we will discuss the results of our study.

  3. SPECT and {sup 123}I-Iodolisuride ({sup 123}-I-ILIS) in extra-pyramidal syndromes. The use of different models of {gamma}-cameras; TEMP a l'{sup 123}I-Iodolisuride chez des patients presentant un syndrome extrapyramidal. Utilisation de differents modeles {gamma}-camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, M.J.; Jannuario, C.; Santos, A.C.; Cunha, L.; Pedroso de Lima, J.J. [FMC Coimbra (Portugal); Prunier-Levilion, C.; Autret, A.; Guilloteau, D.; Besnard, J.C.; Baulieu, J.L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France); Chassat, F.; Bekhechi, D.; Marchand, J.; Mauclaire, L. [CIS bio international, CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Catela, L. [ITN, Sacavem (Portugal)

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate {sup 123}I-ILIS as a radioligand of dopamine receptors in patients with extra-pyramidal diseases by using different cameras in two different centers. 45 patients were included and divided in 2 groups: group I (n=28): idiopathic Parkinson disease, group II (n=17): other extra-pyramidal syndrome. {sup 123}I-ILIS, 1.7 to 2.8 MBq/kg, was injected after informed consent. Imaging was performed with a single head camera, a dual head camera, a triple head camera and a brain dedicated annular detector. The pattern of the transverse slices containing the basal ganglia was classified according to 3 types: type 1: visible basal ganglia and invisible cortex, type 2: invisible basal ganglia and visible cortex, type 3: visible basal ganglia and cortex. Striatal/frontal cortex ratio (S/FC) was calculated from standardized, geometrical ROI's. No patient showed any undesirable effect. All SPECT images were interpretable. In group 1, 45/45 scintigraphic pattern were type 1 or 3, in group II 18/23 scintigraphic patterns were type 2 or 3. S/FC was significantly lower in group II than in group I patients. We conclude that {sup 123}I-ILIS SPECT can be performed with any conventional {gamma}-camera. It provides functional informations about the striatal dopaminergic synapse in patients with extra-pyramidal degenerative disease, and could be useful in the differential diagnosis between Parkinson disease and other extra-pyramidal syndromes. (author)

  4. Li overlayer formation, oxidation and sputtering characteristics of Al-Li alloys and W/Al-Li composites for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, A.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); DeWald, A.B.; Scott, P.; Savage, H. (Corium Industries, Inc., Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The next generation of long pulse fusion devices will impose severe requirements on the properties of plasma-facing materials. In devices such as ITER, a divertor design is being considered, using a divertor plate which would be either tungsten or a low-Z material such as graphite or beryllium. Strongly segregating lithium alloys have been proposed as a means of producing a self-sustaining low-Z overlayer which lowers plasma Z{sub eff} and resists self-sputtering. Aluminum-lithium alloys are among the better-characterized lithium-bearing alloys, and it has been demonstrated that lithium segregates strongly in aluminum. However, aluminum has a relatively low melting point, and for low lithium concentrations, the lithium diffusion rate is too slow to replenish lithium at the rate at which it is eroded by the incoming plasma. It has been suggested previously that the superionic {beta} phase Al-Li alloy (48--54 at. % Li) should have high enough diffusivity to be able to replenish surface lithium, and that incorporation of the {beta}-phase AlLi in a composite with tungsten would provide high temperature strength and melt layer stability, along with significantly better thermal conductivity than pure tungsten. Such a composite has been fabricated, as well as a variation containing titanium as a means of controlling oxidation at grain boundaries. The Li overlayer formation, erosion, and replenishment are characterized for the {beta}-phase LiAl alloy, and W-AlLi and W-Ti-AlLi composites. It is found that if there is no oxide layer to inhibit the Li segregation, Li diffusion is extremely rapid, and an oxygen-free Li overlayer is formed which is stable under continuous ion beam sputtering. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Study of vaporization of LiI, LiI/C70, LiI/LiF/C70 from the Knudsen cell located into ionization chamber of the mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đustebek Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vaporization of LiI, LiI/C70 and LiI/LIF/C70 were studied using a Knudsen cell located into ionization chamber of a magnetic sector mass spectrometer in a temperature range from 350 ˚C to 850 ˚C. Аs the ion species, LinI+ (n = 2, 3, 4, and 6 were identified from a mixture LiI/C70. While the clusters LinI+ and LinF+ (n = 2 - 6 were detected from a mixture LiI/LiF/C70. The intensities of LinI+ were higher than the emission of LinF+ cluster when the ratio of LiI to LiF was 2:1. By contrast, the emission of the LinF+ is favored when the ratio of LiI to LiF was 1:2. These results show that the vaporization of a mixture LiI/LIF/C70 from the Knudsen cell located into ionization chamber of the mass spectrometer represents an efficient and simple way to obtain and investigate clusters of the type LinX, X-F, I. In this work it has also been shown that the trend of the ln (Intensity, arbit. units versus temperature for all LinI+ clusters before and after the melting point of LiI was not same. It suggested that the way of the formation of these clusters can be different due to changes in temperature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172019

  6. The impact of nanomaterials on Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.K.; Wang, G.X.; Guo, Z.P.; Wang, J.Z.; Konstantinov, K. [Wollongong Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Inst. for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science

    2006-07-01

    Nanotechnology is now being considered for use in lithium (Li) secondary batteries. This study investigated the impact of various nanomaterials on Li rechargeable battery performance. The study included an evaluation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs); NiO and WS{sub 2} nanotubes; Sn, si, Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}, Si-C, Si mesocarbon microbeads; Si-TiC, Si-PPY and multiwalled nanotubes and Sn/SnNi nano-composites. Nanoparticles dispersed in polymer electrolytes in the Li secondary batteries were also investigated. Phase-pure compounds were prepared using sol-gel synthesis. A layer of carbon was coated on the surface of the Li crystals. Nanoparticles were dispersed in polymer electrolytes of polyethylene oxide (PEO). When NiSi was used in the Li cells, it provided a high lithium storage capacity in the initial discharge, during which Si acted as an active element to combine with Li to form Li{sub x}Si. Nano-Si-MCMB anodes showed superior performance. MCMB graphite was almost dimensionally invariable during Li insertion and extraction. The phase-pure Li compounds prepared by sol-gel fabrication methods significantly enhanced the electronic conductivity, and the Ti-doped and undoped Li iron phosphates demonstrated a stable discharge capacity. Results of the study showed that nanoparticle-dispersed polymer electrolytes that were smaller in size influenced the crystallization kinetics of the PEO polymer chains. High-energy ball milling lowered the glass transition temperature of the composite polymers, and increased the ionic conductivity by more than an order of magnitude when compared with the unmilled samples. It was concluded that the highest ionic conductivity was achieved when using LiPF{sub 6} as an added Li salt, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a dispersed particle. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  7. The interaction of 11Li with 208Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Vinodkumar, A M; Yanez, R; Leonard, M; Yao, L; Bricault, P; Dombsky, M; Kunz, P; Lassen, J; Morton, A C; Ottewell, D; Preddy, D; Trinczek, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: 11Li is one of the most studied halo nuclei. The fusion of 11Li with 208Pb has been the subject of a number of theoretical studies with widely differing predictions, ranging over four orders of magnitude, for the fusion excitation function. Purpose: To measure the excitation function for the 11Li + 208Pb reaction. Methods: A stacked foil/degrader assembly of 208Pb targets was irradiated with a 11Li beam producing center of target beam energies from above barrier to near barrier energies (40 to 29 MeV). The intensity of the 11Li beam (chopped) was 1250 p/s and the beam on-target time was 34 hours. The alpha-decay of the stopped evaporation residues was detected in a alpha-detector array at each beam energy in the beam-off period (the beam was on for <= 5 ns and then off for 170 ns). Results: The 215At evaporation residues were associated with the fusion of 11Li with 208Pb. The 213,214At evaporation residues were formed by the breakup of 11Li into 9Li + 2n, with the 9Li fusing with 208Pb. The 214...

  8. Nb-based MXenes for Li-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2015-11-16

    Li-ion batteries depend critically on the stability and capacity of the electrodes. In this respect the recently synthesized two-dimensional MXenes are promising materials, as they combine an excellent Li-ion capacity with very high charging rates. We employ density functional theory to investigate the impact of Li adsorption on the structural and electronic properties of monolayer Nb2C and Nb2CX2. The Li ions are predicted to migrate easily on the pristine MXene due to a diffusion barrier of only 36 meV, whereas larger diffusion barriers are obtained for the functionalized MXenes.

  9. Electrical conduction of LiF interlayers in organic diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Janssen, René A. J.; Meskers, Stefan C. J., E-mail: s.c.j.meskers@tue.nl [Molecular Materials and Nanosystems and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gomes, Henrique L. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco, Pais, 1, 1049–001, Lisboa, Portugal and Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Leeuw, Dago M. de [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany and King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-21

    An interlayer of LiF in between a metal and an organic semiconductor is commonly used to improve the electron injection. Here, we investigate the effect of moderate bias voltages on the electrical properties of Al/LiF/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes by systematically varying the thickness of the LiF layer (2-50 nm). Application of forward bias V below the bandgap of LiF (V < E{sub g} ∼ 14 V) results in reversible formation of an electrical double layer at the LiF/poly(spirofluorene) hetero-junction. Electrons are trapped on the poly(spirofluorene) side of the junction, while positively charged defects accumulate in the LiF with number densities as high as 10{sup 25}/m{sup 3}. Optoelectronic measurements confirm the built-up of aggregated, ionized F centres in the LiF as the positive trapped charges. The charged defects result in efficient transport of electrons from the polymer across the LiF, with current densities that are practically independent of the thickness of the LiF layer.

  10. Prediction of superconductivity in Li-intercalated bilayer phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, G. Q. [Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xing, Z. W., E-mail: zwxing@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xing, D. Y. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-03-16

    It is shown that bilayer phosphorene can be transformed from a direct-gap semiconductor to a BCS superconductor by intercalating Li atoms. For the Li-intercalated bilayer phosphorene, we find that the electron occupation of Li-derived band is small and superconductivity is intrinsic. With increasing the intercalation of Li atoms, both increased metallicity and strong electron-phonon coupling are favorable for the enhancement of superconductivity. The obtained electron-phonon coupling λ can be larger than 1 and the superconducting temperature T{sub c} can be increased up to 16.5 K, suggesting that phosphorene may be a good candidate for a nanoscale superconductor.

  11. The Role of Lithium Passivation in LiSO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-29

    studied by mass spectrometry and scanning kuger spectroscopy. Abraham and Chaudhri (6) used IR and XPS techniques to study lithiu.i films from aged and...Lpeclfic conductivity of about 10-9 (ohm-cm)- 1 for the Li passivation layer. Peled (9) developed a model tc describe the film formation in the Li...the Li corrosion products precipitate to form the primary passivation layer. In analogy with the model put forth by Peled (9) for the Li/SOC1 2 couple

  12. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Meritxell Queraltó; Jordi Llop; Emilio Gil; Jordi Llorens

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiD...

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of LiCoO2 recycled from the incisors bound of Li-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinhui; ZHONG Shengwen; XIONG Daoling; CHEN Hao

    2009-01-01

    A new LiCoO2 recovery technology for Li-ion batteries was studied in this paper. LiCoO2 was peeled from the Al foil with dimethyl acetamide (DMAC), and then polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and carbon powders in the active material were eliminated by high tempera-1.00. The new LiCoO2 was obtained by calcining the mixture at 850℃ for 12 h in air. The structure and morphology of the recycled powders and resulting samples were studied by XRD and SEM techniques, respectively. The layered structure of LiCoO2 synthesized by adding Li2CO3 is the best, and it is found to have the best characteristics as a cathode material in terms of charge-discharge capacity and cycling mAh.g-1.

  14. The relationship between primary and middle school principals’ change leadership behaviors and teachers’ organizational commitmentİlkokul ve ortaokul müdürlerinin değişim liderliği davranışları ile öğretmenlerin örgütsel bağlılıkları arasındaki ilişki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Çetin Çağrıcı

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to determine whether primary and middle school teachers’ perceptions of school principals’ change leadership behaviors are correlated with their organizational commitment. The sample of the study was comprised of 252 teachers working at 56 primary and middle schools in Birecik district of Şanlıurfa province. To collect data, “Change Leadership Scale” and “Organizational Commitment Scale” were used. Research data were analyzed using means, standard deviations, correlation analysis and regression analysis. It was concluded that school principals exhibited change leadership behaviors at moderate level (partly agree, and teachers’ organizational commitment perceptions were at moderate level (partly agree as well. Regression analysis indicated that school principals’ change leadership behaviors were significant and positive predictors of teachers’ organizational commitment. Based on the findings of the research, it can be recommended that school principals must display democratic management, involve teachers in the decisions made regarding change and provide them with required environment and conditions for their professional development in order to enhance teachers’ organizational commitment.   Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı ilkokul ve ortaokullarda görev yapan öğretmenlerin, okul müdürlerinin değişim liderliği davranışlarına ilişkin algılarının, örgütsel bağlılıklarıyla ilişkisi olup olmadığını belirlemektir. Bu araştırmanın örneklemini, Şanlıurfa İli Birecik İlçesi’ ndeki 56 ilköğretim okulunda görev yapan 252 öğretmen oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada veri toplamak amacıyla “Değişim Liderliği Ölçeği” ve “Örgütsel Bağlılık Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Araştırma verileri ortalama, standart sapma, korelasyon analizi, regresyon analizi ile çözümlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak; okul müdürlerinin değişim liderliği davran

  15. 基于TerraScan的LiDAR数据处理%LiDAR' Data Processing Based on TerraScan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金浪

    2007-01-01

    介绍LiDAR技术的国内外发展情况,围绕LiDAR数据后处理软件TerraScan的应用,详细论述该软件的数据处理流程,特别针对LiDAR数据特点和处理技术难点提出笔者的看法.

  16. Li/SO2 cells and Li/SOCl2 cells: Safe use and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C. G.

    1992-05-01

    Most lithium/sulfur dioxide (Li/SO2) cells and lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl2)) cells have pressure relief safety devices called vents built into them. These vents are designed to open under conditions of increasing internal cell pressure. The likelihood of cell venting has been reduced to very low levels by optimizing cell designs. If fully developed Li/SO2 cells or Li/SOCl2 cells (or batteries) are discharged within the intended design limits, they are essentially nonhazardous. In addition, the consequences of cell ventings are being minimized by use of appropriate absorbant materials and protective coatings. During battery assembly and test, detection and monitoring equipment is used to sense the presence of vented gases. Tester data analysis techniques have been developed to foresee either an increasing likelihood of a vent or the presence of a vented cell. Standard cleanup procedures have been developed to safely decontaminate the assembly or test area following a cell vent.

  17. Systematic Phase Diagram of LiSi and LiAl compounds from Minima Hopping Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Aldo; Marques, Miguel; Botti, Silvana; Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael; Valencia-Jaime, Irais; Amsler, Max; Goedecker, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    We performed an extensive theoretical exploration of the structural phase diagram of LiSi and LiAl alloys through global structural prediction. These compounds have very interesting properties. For example, LiSi alloys have been considered for high energy density anodes for future rechargeable battery technology, while LiAl alloys are expected to have applications in the field of structural components due to its light weight and maleability. The global structural prediction was performed with the minima hopping method. In this method the low energy structures are obtained by solving a set of dynamical equations of motion that allows efficient visits to local minima on the Born Oppenheimer surface. We found very good agreement between our simulations and previously reported stoichiometries. Moreover, we were able to identify several novel thermodynamically stable compositions that have not been previously synthesized. The ground-state structures were further characterized both structurally and electronically. Our calculations show that global structural prediction is a very powerful tool to predict new thermodynamically stable materials, and that it consistently outperforms other methods commonly used. Support from ACS-PRF #54075-ND10 is recognized.

  18. Impedance Simulation of a Li-Ion Battery with Porous Electrodes and Spherical Li+ Intercalation Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, R.W.J.M.; Chung, F.; Kelder, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a semimathematical model for the simulation of the impedance spectra of a rechargeable lithium batteries consisting of porous electrodes with spherical Li+ intercalation particles. The particles are considered to have two distinct homogeneous phases as a result of the intercalation and

  19. 2004 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Portland, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The all returns ASCII files contain the X,Y,Z values of all the LiDAR returns collected during the survey mission. In addition each return also has a time stamp,...

  20. Impedance Simulation of a Li-Ion Battery with Porous Electrodes and Spherical Li+ Intercalation Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, R.W.J.M.; Chung, F.; Kelder, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a semimathematical model for the simulation of the impedance spectra of a rechargeable lithium batteries consisting of porous electrodes with spherical Li+ intercalation particles. The particles are considered to have two distinct homogeneous phases as a result of the intercalation and de

  1. Formation of ultracold LiCs molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, S D; Lange, J; Vogel, L; Wester, R; Weidemüller, M; Kraft, Stephan D.; Staanum, Peter; Lange, Joerg; Vogel, Leif; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    We present the first observation of ultracold LiCs molecules. The molecules are formed in a two-species magneto-optical trap and detected by two-photon ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The production rate coefficient is found to be in the range $10^{-18}\\unit{cm^3s^{-1}}$ to $10^{-16}\\unit{cm^3s^{-1}}$, at least an order of magnitude smaller than for other heteronuclear diatomic molecules directly formed in a magneto-optical trap.

  2. Practical Methods in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela

    develops a battery system model for battery management system testing on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator • Manuscript V extends the previous work, introducing theoretical principles and presenting a practical method to develop ad hoc software and strategies for testing • Manuscript VI presents......This thesis presents, as a collection of papers, practical methods in Li-ion batteries for simplified modeling (Manuscript I and II), battery electric vehicle design (III), battery management system testing (IV and V) and balancing system control (VI and VII). • Manuscript I tackles methodologies...

  3. Raman spectrum of the solid electrolytes LiI·H2O and LiI·D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Finn Willy

    1986-01-01

    The Raman spectra of cubic LiI·H2O and LiI·D2O have been revised. The spectra reveal only internal and librational modes of H2O (D2O). The isotopic ratios νH/νD, are in the range 1.33-1.78......The Raman spectra of cubic LiI·H2O and LiI·D2O have been revised. The spectra reveal only internal and librational modes of H2O (D2O). The isotopic ratios νH/νD, are in the range 1.33-1.78...

  4. An atomic beam of 6Li — 7Li for high resolution spectroscopy from matrix isolation sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A. N.; Sacramento, R. L.; Silva, B. A.; Uhlmann, F. O.; Wolff, W.; Cesar, C. L.

    2016-07-01

    We propose the Matrix Isolation Sublimation (MlSu) technique for generating cold lithium atoms for the measurement of the 6Li - 7Li isotope shift in D1 and D2 transitions. The technique is capable of generating cold 6Li and 7Li beams at 4 K with forward velocity of 125 m/s. Using this beam we offer a distinguished source of lithium atoms for transitions measurements, adding a new possibility to make high resolution spectroscopy towards improving the experimental checks of the theory.

  5. Reversible superconductor-insulator transition in LiTi2O4 induced by Li-ion electrochemical reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, K; Niwa, M; Mashiko, H; Oshima, T; Ohtomo, A

    2015-11-06

    Transition metal oxides display various electronic and magnetic phases such as high-temperature superconductivity. Controlling such exotic properties by applying an external field is one of the biggest continuous challenges in condensed matter physics. Here, we demonstrate clear superconductor-insulator transition of LiTi2O4 films induced by Li-ion electrochemical reaction. A compact electrochemical cell of pseudo-Li-ion battery structure is formed with a superconducting LiTi2O4 film as an anode. Li content in the film is controlled by applying a constant redox voltage. An insulating state is achieved by Li-ion intercalation to the superconducting film by applying reduction potential. In contrast, the superconducting state is reproduced by applying oxidation potential to the Li-ion intercalated film. Moreover, superconducting transition temperature is also recovered after a number of cycles of Li-ion electrochemical reactions. This complete reversible transition originates in difference in potentials required for deintercalation of initially contained and electrochemically intercalated Li(+) ions.

  6. Defect Structure of Li-Doped BPO 4: A Nanostructured Ceramic Electrolyte for Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, M. J. G.; Kelder, E. M.; Schoonman, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the defect chemistry of Li-doped BPO4(BPO4-xLi2O, 0≤x≤0.1) is studied. This nanostructured ceramic electrolyte is used in all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. By changing the Li-doping level the influence on the crystal structure is studied and related to t he properties of the material. X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR),31P,11B, and7Li magic-angle-spinning solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, neutron diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma optical-emission spectroscopy measurements are used in order to study the structure. The electrical properties are studied with AC-impedance spectroscopy (AC-IS). The experimental data show that the defect structure of Li-doped BPO4can be described with two defect models, Li″B+2Li·iand V‴B+3Li·i, suggesting that the ionic conductivity takes place via interstitial Li ions.

  7. Li2CuVO4: A high capacity positive electrode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Shikano, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yoichi

    2016-07-01

    The new compound Li2CuVO4 was synthesized by a solid state reaction route, and its crystal structure was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Li2CuVO4 was characterized by galvanometric cycling, cycle voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The structure of Li2CuVO4 is isotypic to Pmn21-Li3VO4. It can be described as a disordered wurtzite structure with rows of Li1/Cu1 atoms alternating with rows of (Li2/Cu2)-V-(Li2/Cu2) atoms along [100]. All cations are tetrahedrally coordinated. The lithium and copper atoms are statistically disordered over two crystallographic sites. The electrochemical cycling between 2.0 and 4.7 V indicates that almost two lithium atoms could be extracted and re-intercalated. This delivers a maximum discharge capacity of 257 mA h g-1 at a C/50 rate (theoretical capacity = 139 mA h g-1 for one lithium). Li2CuVO4 shows also high rate capability with a capacity of 175 mA h g-1 at 1C rate. This demonstrates that Cu-based compounds can be very interesting as electrodes for Li-ion batteries if Cu-dissolution is avoided.

  8. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of spherical LiFePO4 cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jianxin; SHEN Xiangqian; JING Maoxiang; ZHAN Yun

    2006-01-01

    Spherical LiFePO4 and LiFePO4/C composite powders for lithium ion batteries were synthesized by a novel processing route of co-precipitation and subsequent calcinations in a nitrogen and hydrogen atmosphere. The precursors of LiFePO4, LiFePO4/C composite and the resultant products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the electrochemical performances were investigated by galvanostatic charge and discharge tests. The precursors composed of amorphous Fe3(PO4)2·xH2O and crystalline Li3PO4 obtained in the co-precipitation processing have a sphere-like morphology. The spherical LiFePO4 derived from the calcinations of the precursor at 700 ℃ for 10 h in a reduction atmosphere shows a discharge capacity of 119 mAh·g -1 at the C/10 rate, while the LiFePO4/C composite with 10wt.% carbon addition exhibits a discharge capacity of 140 mAh·g -1.The electrochemical performances indicate that the LiFePO4/C composite has a higher specific capacity and a more stable cycling performance than the bare olivine LiFePO4 due to the carbon addition enhancing the electronic conductivity.

  9. Coulomb dissociation and momentum distributions for [sup 11]Li [yields] [sup 9]Li + n + n breakup reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbensen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Momentum distributions for the [sup 11]Li [yields] [sup 9]Li+n+n breakup reaction, generated by Coulomb dipole excitations, axe calculated in a 3-body model for [sup 11]Li. The relative momentum distribution of the two neutrons is in good agreement with recent 3-body coincidence measurements but the momentum distribution for the [sup 9]Li recoil and the decay energy spectrum are much narrower than observed. These discrepancies may be due to higher order dynamical effects which have been ignored.

  10. Coulomb dissociation and momentum distributions for {sup 11}Li {yields} {sup 9}Li + n + n breakup reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbensen, H.

    1993-03-01

    Momentum distributions for the {sup 11}Li {yields} {sup 9}Li+n+n breakup reaction, generated by Coulomb dipole excitations, axe calculated in a 3-body model for {sup 11}Li. The relative momentum distribution of the two neutrons is in good agreement with recent 3-body coincidence measurements but the momentum distribution for the {sup 9}Li recoil and the decay energy spectrum are much narrower than observed. These discrepancies may be due to higher order dynamical effects which have been ignored.

  11. Electrodeposition of Mg-Li-Al-La Alloys on Inert Cathode in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Chen, Qiong; Sun, Yi; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Milin

    2011-12-01

    Electrochemical preparation of Mg-Li-Al-La alloys on inert electrodes was investigated in LiCl-KCl melt at 853 K (580 °C). Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and square wave voltammograms (SWVs) show that the existence of AlCl3 or AlF3 could promote La deposition on an active Al substrate, which is predeposited on inert electrodes. All electrochemical tests show that the reduction of La3+ is a one-step reduction process with three electrons exchanged. The reduction of La(III)→La(0) occurred at -2.04 V, and the underpotential deposition (UPD) of La was detected at -1.55 V ( vs Ag/AgCl). The same phenomena concerning La UPD were observed on two inert cathodes, W and Mo. In addition, Mg-Li-Al-La alloys were obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis on the W cathode from La2O3 in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-KF melts with aluminum as the anode. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that various phases like the Al2La, Al12Mg17, and βLi phase (LiMg/Li3Mg7) existed in the Mg-Li-Al-La alloys. The distribution of Mg, Al, and La in Mg-Li-Al-La alloys from the analysis of a scan electron micrograph (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) indicated that the elements Mg, Al, and La distributed homogeneously in the alloys.

  12. Effect of borate coating on corrosion resistance of pure nickel in molten LiCl-Li2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞岩; 王旭; 张俊善; 王秀敏; 祝美丽

    2004-01-01

    The pack boriding process was used to treat pure nickel at a boriding temperature of 950 ℃ for a boriding time of 5 h. A dense and continuous borided layer with 40 μm thickness was obtained on pure nickel. Corrosion behavior of the borided layer was investigated in molten LiCl-10% Li2O(mass fraction) at 750 ℃ in air. The mass lower than that of unborided pure nickel. The preferential corrosion of B in borided layer effectively prevents the corrosion of nickel, which improves the corrosion resistance of pure nickel in molten LiCl-Li2 O.

  13. LiCoO2 electrode/electrolyte interface of Li-ion batteries investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The storage behavior and the first delithiation of LiCoO2 electrode in 1 mol/L LiPF6-EC:DMC:DEC electrolyte were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It has found that, along with the increase of storage time, the thickness of SEI film increases, and some organic carbonate lithium compounds are formed due to spontaneous reactions occurring between the LiCoO2 electrode and the electrolyte. When electrode potential is changed from 3.8 to 3.95 V, the reversible breakdown of the resistive SEI film occurs, which is attributed to the reversible dissolution of the SEI film component. With the increase of electrode potential, the thickness of SEI film increases rapidly above 4.2 V, due to overcharge reactions. The inductive loop observed in impedance spectra of the LiCoO2 electrode in Li/LiCoO2 cells is attributed to the formation of a Li1-xCoO2/LiCoO2 concentration cell. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the lithium-ion insertion-deinsertion in LiCoO2 hosts can be well described by both Langmuir and Frumkin insertion isotherms, and the symmetry factor of charge transfer has been evaluated at 0.5.

  14. LINE EMISSION AND ANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN C6+ ELECTRON-CAPTURE FROM LI(2S), LI-ASTERISK(2P) AND H-ASTERISK(N=2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLSON, RE; HOEKSTRA, R

    1995-01-01

    Line emission cross sections for visible transitions after electron capture collisions of C6+ With Li(2s), Li-*(2p), and H-*(n = 2) are calculated for energies up to 50 keV/u; the values agree with available Li(2s) data. Anisotropy parameters are also given for aligned Li-*(2p). The results were obt

  15. Reversible Li-insertion in nanoscaffolds: A promising strategy to alter the hydrogen sorption properties of Li-based complex hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, Peter; Verkuijlen, Margriet H. W.; Barre, Charlotte; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; de Jongh, Petra E.

    Intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium into graphene layers is a well-established phenomenon in Li-ion battery technology. Here we show how this phenomenon can be exploited to destabilize, and alter the hydrogen sorption behaviour of Li-based metal hydrides (LiBH4 and LiAlH4), thereby

  16. Reversible Li-insertion in nanoscaffolds: A promising strategy to alter the hydrogen sorption properties of Li-based complex hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, Peter; Verkuijlen, Margriet H. W.; Barre, Charlotte; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; de Jongh, Petra E.

    2016-01-01

    Intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium into graphene layers is a well-established phenomenon in Li-ion battery technology. Here we show how this phenomenon can be exploited to destabilize, and alter the hydrogen sorption behaviour of Li-based metal hydrides (LiBH4 and LiAlH4), thereby achievi

  17. İkinci Dünya Savaşı Sırasında Türkiye-Sovyetler Birliği İlişkileri ve Türkiye'nin Amerika Birleşik Devletleri ile Yakınlaşmasına Etkileri Turkey-Soviet Union Relations During Second World War and Effects On The Turkey Rapprochement With USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ERTEM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The newly established two state, Turkey and the Soviet Union arebecame in close diplomatic relations in the years of 1920’s and in firsthalf of 1930’s. On December 17, 1925, a Treaty of Non-aggression wassigned between Turkey and Soviet Union. In the year of 1932, PrimeMinister of the Republic of Turkey, İsmet İnönü has made a visit toMoscow at the invitation of the Soviet Union. As a result of this visit, an16 million Turkish Lira credit has provided to Turkey by the SovietUnion.As Second World War approached, Turkey faced with territorialclaims of Soviet Union in Turkish Straits and Eastern Anatolia. Becauseof these Soviet claims, Turkey tried to establish closer relations withWestern states. On the other hand, Turkey also tried to improverelations with the Soviets. Due to the neutrality diplomacy in SecondWorld War, Turkey succeed to stay out of war and also protected itselffrom Soviet threat. However, Turkey, who has not joined the war,remained alone against the Soviet demands at the end of war. As aresult, to protect itself, Turkey approached to the Western Block,especially to the USA in the Cold War. On alliance with the USA, Turkeycould defend itself against Soviet threat in the years of 40’s and 50’s. Türkiye ve Sovyetler Birliği, yeni kurulan iki devlet olarak 1920’li ve 1930’lu yılların ilk yarısı boyunca yakın diplomatik ilişkiler içerisinde olmuşlardır. 1925 yılında iki ülke arasında imzalanan Dostluk ve Saldırmazlık Antlaşması, bu yakınlaşmanın önemli sonuçlarındandır. 1932 yılında Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Başbakanı İsmet İnönü’nün Sovyetler Birliği’nin davetlisi olarak Moskova’yı ziyareti ve burada Stalin’le olan samimi görüşmeleri, iki ülke arasındaki iyi ilişkileri 1920’li yıllardan 1930’lu yılların başlarına taşımıştır. Bu ziyaret sonunda Sovyetler Birliği tarafından Türkiye’ye 16 milyon liralık kredi verilmesi, iki ülke arasındaki ili

  18. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Li,Cr-containing molybdates Li 3Cr(MoO 4) 3, LiCr(MoO 4) 2 and Li 1.8Cr 1.2(MoO 4) 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapulova, A.; Mikhailova, D.; Senyshyn, A.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2009-12-01

    Single crystals of LiCr(MoO 4) 2, Li 3Cr(MoO 4) 3 and Li 1.8Cr 1.2(MoO 4) 3 were grown by a flux method during the phase study of the Li 2MoO 4-Cr 2(MoO 4) 3 system at 1023 K. LiCr(MoO 4) 2 and Li 3Cr(MoO 4) 3 single phases were synthesized by solid-state reactions. Li 3Cr(MoO 4) 3 adopts the same structure type as Li 3In(MoO 4) 3 despite the difference in ionic radii of Cr 3+ and In 3+ for octahedral coordination. Li 3Cr(MoO 4) 3 is paramagnetic down to 7 K and shows a weak ferromagnetic component below this temperature. LiCr(MoO 4) 2 is isostructural with LiAl(MoO 4) 2 and orders antiferromagnetically below 20 K. The magnetic structure of LiCr(MoO 4) 2 was determined from low-temperature neutron diffraction and is based on the propagation vektor k⇒=({1}/{2},{1}/{2},0). The ordered magnetic moments were refined to 2.3(1) μ B per Cr-ion with an easy axis close to the [1 1 1¯] direction. A magnetic moment of 4.37(3) μ B per Cr-ion was calculated from the Curie constant for the paramagnetic region. The crystal structures of the hitherto unknown Li 1.8Cr 1.2(MoO 4) 3 and LiCr(MoO 4) 2 are compared and reveal a high degree of similarity: In both structures MoO 4-tetrahedra are isolated from each other and connected with CrO 6 and LiO 5 via corners. In both modifications there are Cr 2O 10 fragments of edge-sharing CrO 6-octahedra.

  19. Üliõpilasesindajad võtsid vastu resolutsiooni välistudengite kaitseks / Sandra Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Eesti Üliõpilaskondade Liidu eestvedamisel toimunud Balti- ja Põhjamaade üliõpilaste kohtumisest, kus võeti vastu otsus äärmuste osas kelle tegevuse tõttu on ohustatud rahvusvaheliste üliõpilaste heaolu

  20. Nanoshell Encapsulated Li-ion Battery Anodes for Long Cycle Life Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new high capacity rechargeable Li battery anode based on Li metal alloys protected by carbon nanoshells will be developed. A reversible Li-ion capacity exceeding...

  1. Fast neutron measurements with 7Li and 6Li enriched CLYC scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaz, A.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Cattadori, C.; Ceruti, S.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T.; Mattei, I.; Mentana, A.; Million, B.; Pellegri, L.; Rebai, M.; Riboldi, S.; Salamida, F.; Tardocchi, M.

    2016-07-01

    The recently developed Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) crystals are interesting scintillation detectors not only for their gamma energy resolution (<5% at 662 keV) but also for their capability to identify and measure the energy of both gamma rays and fast/thermal neutrons. The thermal neutrons were detected by the 6Li(n,α)t reaction while for the fast neutrons the 35Cl(n,p)35S and 35Cl(n,α)32P neutron-capture reactions were exploited. The energy of the outgoing proton or α particle scales linearly with the incident neutron energy. The kinetic energy of the fast neutrons can be measured using both the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique and using the CLYC energy signal. In this work, the response to monochromatic fast neutrons (1.9-3.8 MeV) of two CLYC 1″×1″ crystals was measured using both the TOF and the energy signal. The observables were combined to identify fast neutrons, to subtract the thermal neutron background and to identify different fast neutron-capture reactions on 35Cl, in other words to understand if the detected particle is an α or a proton. We performed a dedicated measurement at the CN accelerator facility of the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories (Italy), where the fast neutrons were produced by impinging a proton beam (4.5, 5.0 and 5.5 MeV) on a 7LiF target. We tested a CLYC detector 6Li-enriched at about 95%, which is ideal for thermal neutron measurements, in parallel with another CLYC detector 7Li-enriched at more than 99%, which is suitable for fast neutron measurements.

  2. Fast neutron measurements with {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li enriched CLYC scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giaz, A., E-mail: agnese.giaz@mi.infn.it [INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Brambilla, S. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Camera, F. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano, Physics Department, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cattadori, C. [INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20125 Milano (Italy); Ceruti, S. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano, Physics Department, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, PD (Italy); Mattei, I. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mentana, A. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano, Physics Department, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Million, B.; Pellegri, L. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rebai, M. [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Physics Department, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Riboldi, S. [INFN Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano, Physics Department, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Salamida, F. [INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20125 Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 2015 Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-21

    The recently developed Cs{sub 2}LiYCl{sub 6}:Ce (CLYC) crystals are interesting scintillation detectors not only for their gamma energy resolution (<5% at 662 keV) but also for their capability to identify and measure the energy of both gamma rays and fast/thermal neutrons. The thermal neutrons were detected by the {sup 6}Li(n,α)t reaction while for the fast neutrons the {sup 35}Cl(n,p){sup 35}S and {sup 35}Cl(n,α){sup 32}P neutron-capture reactions were exploited. The energy of the outgoing proton or α particle scales linearly with the incident neutron energy. The kinetic energy of the fast neutrons can be measured using both the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique and using the CLYC energy signal. In this work, the response to monochromatic fast neutrons (1.9–3.8 MeV) of two CLYC 1″×1″ crystals was measured using both the TOF and the energy signal. The observables were combined to identify fast neutrons, to subtract the thermal neutron background and to identify different fast neutron-capture reactions on {sup 35}Cl, in other words to understand if the detected particle is an α or a proton. We performed a dedicated measurement at the CN accelerator facility of the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories (Italy), where the fast neutrons were produced by impinging a proton beam (4.5, 5.0 and 5.5 MeV) on a {sup 7}LiF target. We tested a CLYC detector {sup 6}Li-enriched at about 95%, which is ideal for thermal neutron measurements, in parallel with another CLYC detector {sup 7}Li-enriched at more than 99%, which is suitable for fast neutron measurements.

  3. Density functional theory study of lithium diffusion at the interface between olivine-type LiFePO4 and LiMnPO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wang, Zhiguo; Qing Fu, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Coating LiMnPO4 with a thin layer of LiFePO4 shows a better electrochemical performance than the pure LiFePO4 and LiMnPO4, thus it is critical to understand Li diffusion at their interfaces to improve the performance of electrode materials. Li diffusion at the (1 0 0)\\text{LiFeP{{\\text{O}}4}} //(1 0 0)\\text{LiMnP{{\\text{O}}4}} , (0 1 0)\\text{LiFeP{{\\text{O}}4}} //(0 1 0)\\text{LiMnP{{\\text{O}}4}} , and (0 0 1)\\text{LiFeP{{\\text{O}}4}} //(0 0 1)\\text{LiMnP{{\\text{O}}4}} interfaces between LiFePO4 and LiMnPO4 was investigated using density functional theory. The calculated diffusion energy barriers are 0.55 eV for Li to diffuse along the (0 0 1) interface, 0.44 and 0.49 eV for the Li diffusion inside the LiMnPO4 and along the (1 0 0) interface, respectively. When Li diffuses from the LiFePO4 to LiMnPO4 by passing through the (0 1 0) interfaces, the diffusion barriers are 0.45 and 0.60 eV for the Li diffusions in both sides. The diffusion barriers for Li to diffuse in LiMnPO4 near the interfaces decrease compared with those in the pure LiMnPO4. The calculated diffusion coefficient of Li along the (1 0 0) interface is in the range of 3.65  ×  10-11-5.28  ×  10-12 cm2 s-1, which is larger than that in the pure LiMnPO4 with a value of 7.5  ×  10-14 cm2 s-1. Therefore, the charging/discharging rate performance of the LiMnPO4 can be improved by surface coating with the LiFePO4.

  4. Li3PO4-added garnet-type Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12 for Li-dendrite suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Biyi; Li, Wenlong; Duan, Huanan; Wang, Haojing; Guo, Yiping; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes a strategy to stabilize the garnet/Li interface by introducing Li3PO4 as an additive in garnet-type Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12. The Li3PO4-added Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12 electrolyte exhibits a room-temperature Li-ion conductivity of 1.4 × 10-4 S cm-1, which is less than that of the Li3PO4-free counterparts (4.6 × 10-4 S cm-1). However, the presence of Li3PO4 improves the interfacial compatibility and suppresses Li-dendrite formation during Li-metal plating/stripping. The symmetric Li/garnet/Li cells with Li3PO4-added Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12 have been successfully cycled at a current density of 0.1 mA cm-2 at 60 °C for 60 h; on contrast, the control cells with Li3PO4-free Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12 display noisy potential with large voltage polarization and get short-circuited completely after 33-h cycling under the same operating condition. The outstanding interface stability can be attributed to the in situ reaction of the Li flux with Li3PO4 to form a self-limiting and ion-conducting interphase, Li3P, which is confirmed experimentally.

  5. Computational modeling of Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, D.; Magri, M.; Salvadori, A.

    2016-08-01

    This review focuses on energy storage materials modeling, with particular emphasis on Li-ion batteries. Theoretical and computational analyses not only provide a better understanding of the intimate behavior of actual batteries under operational and extreme conditions, but they may tailor new materials and shape new architectures in a complementary way to experimental approaches. Modeling can therefore play a very valuable role in the design and lifetime prediction of energy storage materials and devices. Batteries are inherently multi-scale, in space and time. The macro-structural characteristic lengths (the thickness of a single cell, for instance) are order of magnitudes larger than the particles that form the microstructure of the porous electrodes, which in turn are scale-separated from interface layers at which atomistic intercalations occur. Multi-physics modeling concepts, methodologies, and simulations at different scales, as well as scale transition strategies proposed in the recent literature are here revised. Finally, computational challenges toward the next generation of Li-ion batteries are discussed.

  6. Spectroscopy of Lambda-9Li by electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Urciuoli, G M; Marrone, S; Acha, A; Ambrozewicz, P; Aniol, K A; Baturin, P; Bertin, P Y; Benaoum, H; Blomqvist, K I; Boeglin, W U; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Bydzovsky, P; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chen, J -P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E A; Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Coman, L; Craver, B J; De Cataldo, G; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A P; Ferdi, C; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Giuliani, F; Gomez, J; Gricia, M; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T K; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kino, K; Kross, B; Lagamba, L; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lucentini, M; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R W; Millener, D J; Miyoshi, T; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P A; Moteabbed, M; Camacho, C Munoz; Nanda, S; Nappi, E; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Okasyasu, Y; Paschke, K D; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Punjabi, V A; Qiang, Y; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Roche, R E; Rodriguez, V M; Saha, A; Santavenere, F; Sarty, A J; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Snyder, R; Solvignon, P H; Sotona, M; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V A; Suzuki, T; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Veneroni, P; Voutier, E; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Zheng, X; Zorn, C

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of accurate data on the free two-body hyperon-nucleon interaction, the spectra of hypernuclei can provide information on the details of the effective hyperon-nucleon interaction. Electroproduction of the hypernucleus Lambda-9Li has been studied for the first time with sub-MeV energy resolution in Hall A at Jefferson Lab on a 9Be target. In order to increase the counting rate and to provide unambiguous kaon identification, two superconducting septum magnets and a Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH) were added to the Hall A standard equipment. The cross section to low-lying states of Lambda-9Li is concentrated within 3 MeV of the ground state and can be fitted with four peaks. The positions of the doublets agree with theory while a disagreement could exist with respect to the relative strengths of the peaks in the doublets. A Lambda separation energy of 8.36 +- 0.08 (stat.) +- 0.08 (syst.) MeV was measured, in agreement with an earlier experiment.

  7. Electrocatalysis in Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al salem, Hesham I. A.

    Stabilizing polysulfide-shuttle process while ensuring high sulfur loading holds the key to realize high theoretical energy density (2500 Wh/kg) of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Though several carbon based porous materials have been used as host structures for sulfur and its intermediate polysulfides, the week adsorption of polysulfides on carbon surface and its poor reaction kinetics limits them from practical application. Here, we preset a novel electcatalysis approach to stabilize polysulfide shuttle process and also enhance its red-ox kinetics. As a proof of concept, we have studied in-detail using conventional electrocatalyst (Pt/graphene composite), further the same extended to cost-effective electrocatalysts such as WS2 nanosheets and Metal carbides for viable practical applications. Nature of electrocatalyst, concentration of polysulfides and temperature of the cell on electrochemical properties will be discussed. We reveal substantial improvement in electrochemical properties such as specific capacity, rate capability, and coulombic efficiency and corroborate our findings with systematic experimental studies. Interaction between electrocatalyst and polysulfides has been evaluated by conducting X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy studies at various electrochemical conditions. As a conclusion, introducing a catalyst in the Li-S system will open a new avenue for improving electrochemical performance.

  8. Computational modeling of Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, D.; Magri, M.; Salvadori, A.

    2016-12-01

    This review focuses on energy storage materials modeling, with particular emphasis on Li-ion batteries. Theoretical and computational analyses not only provide a better understanding of the intimate behavior of actual batteries under operational and extreme conditions, but they may tailor new materials and shape new architectures in a complementary way to experimental approaches. Modeling can therefore play a very valuable role in the design and lifetime prediction of energy storage materials and devices. Batteries are inherently multi-scale, in space and time. The macro-structural characteristic lengths (the thickness of a single cell, for instance) are order of magnitudes larger than the particles that form the microstructure of the porous electrodes, which in turn are scale-separated from interface layers at which atomistic intercalations occur. Multi-physics modeling concepts, methodologies, and simulations at different scales, as well as scale transition strategies proposed in the recent literature are here revised. Finally, computational challenges toward the next generation of Li-ion batteries are discussed.

  9. 不同品种父本杂交改良伊犁马公驹8~11月龄冬季舍饲生长发育研究%Analysis and Study on the Growth of 8 -11 Months Ili Colts of Different Male Parents by Supplementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚洪忠; 乔春江; 孟军; 谭小海; 姚新奎; 魏睿元; 刘佳; 李志军; 邓海峰; 马江飞

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The objective of this study was to measure the body measurement and body weight of Hi horse and different male breeds of 8 -11 months colts, and carry out preliminary study on the growth and development of the different male breeds of hybrid offspring of Ili horses in order to provide basis and theoretical data by using hybridization technique. [ Method ] Body measurement ( height at withers, body length, heart girth, circumference of cannon bone) and body weight were measured in 8 -11 months age of Hi horses and different male breeds hybrid horse. After that, the growth curve was made and their differences were compared and analyzed. [Result] The result of height at withers, body length, heart girth and bodyweight in 8 - 11 months age of Ili horses and different male breeds hybrid foals showed that the hybrid F, horse (thorough bred ) > hybrid F] horse (new Kirgiz horse (saddle type) > hybrid F, horse (new Kirgiz horse (dairy type) > hybrid F, horse (Orlov trotter) > Ili horse; The result of circumference of cannon bone showed that the hybrid F, horse (thorough bred) > hybrid F, horse ( new Kirgiz horse ( saddle type) > hybrid F, horse ( new Kirgiz horse ( dairy type) > Ili horse > hybrid Fs horse ( Orlov trotter). [ Conclusion ] Regulation of the growth of 8 -11 months male foals in different male breed hybrid horse is similar to that of Ili horse, but the absolute value is more than that of Ili horse. There are differences between the different breeds of hybrid offsprings, and all of them have the growth characteristics of its male parent, which proved that improved effect of Ili horse hybridized by introducing quality breed horse is remarkable; There exists a potential of breeding new breeds in introducing quality breed horse by hybridization and taking Ili horse as a female parent.%[目的]通过对伊犁马及其不同品种父本杂交F1公驹8 -11月龄体尺、体重测定,初步研究伊犁马不同品种父本杂交后代生

  10. LiCHy: The CAF’s LiDAR, CCD and Hyperspectral Integrated Airborne Observation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Pang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design, implementation and performance of a novel airborne system, which integrates commercial waveform LiDAR, CCD (Charge-Coupled Device camera and hyperspectral sensors into a common platform system. CAF’s (The Chinese Academy of Forestry LiCHy (LiDAR, CCD and Hyperspectral Airborne Observation System is a unique system that permits simultaneous measurements of vegetation vertical structure, horizontal pattern, and foliar spectra from different view angles at very high spatial resolution (~1 m on a wide range of airborne platforms. The horizontal geo-location accuracy of LiDAR and CCD is about 0.5 m, with LiDAR vertical resolution and accuracy 0.15 m and 0.3 m, respectively. The geo-location accuracy of hyperspectral image is within 2 pixels for nadir view observations and 5–7 pixels for large off-nadir observations of 55° with multi-angle modular when comparing to LiDAR product. The complementary nature of LiCHy’s sensors makes it an effective and comprehensive system for forest inventory, change detection, biodiversity monitoring, carbon accounting and ecosystem service evaluation. The LiCHy system has acquired more than 8000 km2 of data over typical forests across China. These data are being used to investigate potential LiDAR and optical remote sensing applications in forest management, forest carbon accounting, biodiversity evaluation, and to aid in the development of similar satellite configurations. This paper describes the integration of the LiCHy system, the instrument performance and data processing workflow. We also demonstrate LiCHy’s data characteristics, current coverage, and potential vegetation applications.

  11. 2006 OSIP OGRIP: Upland Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  12. Review on Li Shiqiao’s Understanding the Chinese City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martijn; de; Geus

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the Chinese City Author:Li Shiqiao Year:2014Publisher:SAGE Publications Ltd.ISBN:978-1466208830(264 pages,in English)1.Introduction Li Shiqiao’s latest book,Understanding the Chinese City,tries to create a conceptual framework for understanding the Chinese city that captures its contemporary hypermodernity and its

  13. NASA/GSFC Testing of Li-Ion Cells: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph paper presents a report on the ongoing testing of Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) cells. Characterizes cells according to capacity, self-discharge, and mid-discharge voltage. Determines the cycling performance of Li-Ion cells as batteries according to number of cycles, charge voltage, and temperature.

  14. President Li Xiaolin Meets with Apple Vice-President Jackson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Yingshan

    2016-01-01

    On April 26,2016,CPAFFC President Li Xiaolin met with VicePresident Lisa Jackson of Apple Inc.She briefed Jackson on the CPAFFC’s history and major projects,including the China-US Governors Forum.Li also stressed that both China and the United States should enhance cooperation based on mutual trust.She hoped

  15. Oxygen Luminescence Centers in LiF-MeO Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitsyna, L. A.; Suleimen, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    Spectral-kinetic parameters of luminescence of LiF crystals doped with various polyvalent metal oxides (Li, Ti, Fe, W, U) were studied in the temperature range of 100-300 K and the absorbed doses range of 0-105 Gy. A model for describing polyvalent activation cation role in the processes of radiation energy dissipation in the crystal volume is suggested.

  16. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  17. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  18. Üliõpilasteater sõidab Belgiasse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Tartu Üliõpilasteater on Eugene Ionesco "Ninasarvikuga" (lavastaja Kalev Kudu) Belgias festivalil. Festivali korraldab Liege'i Kuninglik Ülikool ja sellest saab alguse Tartu Üliõplasteatri ja Liege'i Kuningliku Ülikooli teatri kolmeaastane koostööprojekt, mida rahastavad peamiselt mõlema riigi kultuuriministeeriumid

  19. THE STRUCTURE OF LIQUID LI-SI ALLOYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEJONG, PHK; VERKERK, P; VANDERLUGT, W; DEGRAAF, LA

    1993-01-01

    The reverse Monte Carlo method is used to analyse neutron diffraction data on liquid Li65Si35. A well defined Si-Si partial pair correlation function is obtained with strong indications for covalent Si-Si bonds. It is also clear that most of the Si4 stars and Si5 rings occurring in solid Li12Si7 hav

  20. ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE OF LI-DOPED NIO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELP, J; ESKES, H; KUIPER, P; SAWATZKY, GA

    1992-01-01

    The electronic structure of Li(x)Ni1-xO has been investigated using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy (BIS), and model-Hamiltonian cluster calculations. The measurements support the conclusion that the Li-doped holes have mainly oxygen character. The

  1. Nanostructured Materials for Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifei Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue “Nanostructured Materials for Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond” of Nanomaterials is focused on advancements in the synthesis, optimization, and characterization of nanostructured materials, with an emphasis on the application of nanomaterials for building high performance Li-ion batteries (LIBs and future systems.[...

  2. "Fish-Scale" Boy——Li Junwei in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    AFTER a long struggle with the rare disease, ichthy-erythroderma, 12-year-old Li Junwei was eventually able to go to school. This has been his desire for years. Li was born in Gaoxiong City in Taiwan. Since infancy he has been

  3. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...

  4. Understanding oxygen reactions in aprotic Li-O2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunchao, Ma; Yelong, Zhang; Qinghua, Cui; Jing, Zhao; Zhangquan, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in many aspects of the emerging aprotic Li-O2 battery system, an in-depth understanding of the oxygen reactions is still underway. The oxygen reactions occurring in the positive electrode distinguish Li-O2 batteries from the conventional Li-ion cells and play a crucial role in the Li-O2 cell’s performance (capacity, rate capability, and cycle life). Recent advances in fundamental studies of oxygen reactions in aprotic Li-O2 batteries are reviewed, including the reaction route, kinetics, morphological evolution of Li2O2, and charge transport within Li2O2. Prospects are also provided for future fundamental investigations of Li-O2 chemistry. Project supported by the Recruitment Program of Global Youth Experts of China, the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010401), the Science and Technology Development Program of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150623002TC), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20131139).

  5. 2006 OSIP OGRIP: Upland Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  6. Te/C nanocomposites for Li-Te Secondary Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seo, Jeong-Uk; Seong, Gun-Kyu; Park, Cheol-Min

    2015-01-01

    ... (ca. 550 mA h cm(-3) at 5C rate). The mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite electrodes were found to be suitable for use as either the cathode in Li-Te secondary batteries or a high-potential anode in rechargeable Li-ion batteries...

  7. 2006 OSIP OGRIP Coastal Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  8. Structural analysis of traditional Kadın Zeybek dances in İzmirİzmir ili geleneksel Kadın Zeybek oyunlarının yapısal analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Yamaner Okdan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available İzmir has a dance culture where zeybek dances are performed predominantly. When the zeybek dances performed by men are danced by women they are called “kadın (female zeybek”. Kadın zeybek dances are more agile in terms of rhythm, and simpler and elegant in terms of movement when compared to male zeybek dances. In traditional life, women aren’t welcome to dance in the same environment with men. Thus, female dances are performed indoors where men aren’t allowed to participate or even see the woman dancing. The staging of folk dances since the 1930’s has caused this rule applied in traditional life to lose its validity in urban atmosphere. While female dances are carried to the stage over time, men and women started to dance together on stage. As a result of these dances developments traditional dances gained a new category called “mixed dances” meaning dances performed by both sexes. Today, traditional dances are classified under the titles “female dances”, “male dances” and “mixed-sex dances” according to the gender of the dancer. This article is on the structural analysis of the zeybek dances performed by women only.   Özet İzmir ili, zeybek türü oyunların ağırlıklı olarak oynandığı bir oyun kültürüne sahiptir. Erkekler tarafından oynanan zeybek oyunlarının kadınlar tarafından oynanan şekline kadın zeybeği denmektedir. Kadın zeybek oyunları erkek zeybek oyunlarına kıyasla ritmik yapı itibarıyla daha kıvrak, oynanış tavrı bakımından daha zarif oyunlardır. Geleneksel yaşamda kadının erkekle aynı ortamda oyun oynaması hoş karşılanmaz. Bu nedenle kadın oyun icraları erkeğin katılamadığı ve hatta oynayan kadını göremediği mekanlarda -kapalı alanlar- gerçekleşir. Halk oyunlarının 1930’lu yıllardan itibaren sahneye taşınması, geleneksel yaşamda uygulanan bu kuralın şehirlerde geçerliliğini yitirmesine neden olmuştur. Zamanla kadın oyunları sahneye ta

  9. 泸州市流感样病例感染常见呼吸道病毒的流行特征分析%Epidemiological characteristics of common respiratory viruses among ILIs in Luzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 李玉梅; 徐伟; 张铃; 李洁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of common respiratory virus in ILIs in Luzhou city,so as to provide reference for differential diagnosis and prevention.Methods From June 2014 to January 2016,1628 influenza-like illness specimens were selected as research objects in hospital.Common respiratory virus were detected by real-time PCR and characteristics of viruses was analyzed.Results A total of 642 samples was positive and the detection positive rate was 39.4%.The positive detection rate of rhinovirus was the highest,followed by influenza A virus,influenza B virus,respiratory syncytial virus B,adenovirus.The positive detection rate of virus was highest (13.2%) in summer and there was statistically significance between different seasons (P <0.05).The positive detection rates of virus in different age groups had significant differences (P < 0.05).A total of 23 samples showed mixed infections,mainly rhinovirus and other viral infections (19 cases).Conclusions Respiratory viruses,including rhinovirus,influenza A and B viruses were common in Luzhou city.Pathogenic Spectrum was different in different seasons and the detection and prevention of the respiratory viruses should be strengthened.%目的 分析泸州市流感样病例感染常见呼吸道病毒的流行特征,为临床鉴别和疾病防控提供参考.方法 选取2014年6月-2016年1月流感哨点流感样病例标本1628例为研究对象,采用荧光定量PCR检测常发呼吸道病毒等,分析其流行特征.结果 1628份标本中,共检测出病毒642份,检出率为39.4%,鼻病毒检出率最高,其次为甲、乙型流感病毒、呼吸道合胞病毒B、腺病毒.夏季呼吸道病毒检出率最高,为13.2%,其次是冬季、春季,秋季检出率最低,不同季节病院检出率差异明显(P<0.05).不同年龄组呼吸道病毒检出率存在显著差异(P<0.05),0~4岁儿童病毒检出率最高.共23分标本出现混合感染,其中鼻病

  10. The link between international entrepreneurship and export performance: Example of ManisaUluslararası girişimcilik ve ihracat performansı ilişkisi: Manisa örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Kurt

    2016-11-01

    ğlamda araştırma firmaların dış ticaret departmanlarında çalışanlara dağıtılan 200 ankete sağlıklı cevap veren 120 kişi üzerinde uygulanmıştır. Anket sonucunda veri setinin faktör analizi için uygun olup olmadığı incelenmiş ve 8 faktör elde edilmiştir. Ancak sekizinci faktör 2 değişkeni içerdiği için oluşturulamamıştır. Veri setine daha sonra tek yönlü varyans analizi ve korelasyon analizi uygulanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda ihracat pazar performansı ve uluslararası girişimcilik alt boyutları arasında çeşitli yön ve kuvvetlerde ilişki olduğu görülmektedir.

  11. LiDAR - An emerging tool for geological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past five to ten years the use and applicability of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology has increased dramatically. As a result, more and more LiDAR data now are being collected across the country for a wide range of applications, and LiDAR currently is the technology of choice for high resolution terrain model creation, 3-D city and infrastructure modeling, forestry, and a wide range of scientific applications. LiDAR is a key technology for geological applications both within and outside the U.S. Geological Survey, and efforts are underway to try to collect high resolution LiDAR data for the entire United States (https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3089/pdf/fs2012-3089.pdf).

  12. Reversible storage of hydrogen in destabilized LiBH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajo, John J; Skeith, Sky L; Mertens, Florian

    2005-03-10

    Destabilization of LiBH4 for reversible hydrogen storage has been studied using MgH2 as a destabilizing additive. Mechanically milled mixtures of LiBH4 + (1/2)MgH2 or LiH + (1/2)MgB2 including 2-3 mol % TiCl3 are shown to reversibly store 8-10 wt % hydrogen. Variation of the equilibrium pressure obtained from isotherms measured at 315-400 degrees C indicate that addition of MgH2 lowers the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation enthalpy by 25 kJ/(mol of H2) compared with pure LiBH4. Formation of MgB2 upon dehydrogenation stabilizes the dehydrogenated state and, thereby, destabilizes the LiBH4. Extrapolation of the isotherm data yields a predicted equilibrium pressure of 1 bar at approximately 225 degrees C. However, the kinetics were too slow for direct measurements at these temperatures.

  13. Four-body dynamics in 6Li elastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Shin; Ogata, Kazuyuki; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    We analyze 6Li elastic scattering in a wide range of incident energies (Ein), assuming the n + p + alpha + target four-body model and solving the dynamics with the four-body version of the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC). Four-body CDCC well reproduces the experimental data with no adjustable parameter for 6Li + 209Bi scattering at Ein = 24-50 MeV and 6Li + 208Pb scattering at Ein = 29-210 MeV. In the wide Ein range, 6Li breakup is significant and provides repulsive corrections to the folding potential. As an interesting property, d breakup is strongly suppressed in 6Li-breakup processes independently of Ein. We investigate what causes the d-breakup suppression.

  14. Preparation of Partial Spherical LiFePO4 Using Spherical Li3PO4 as Aprecursor%以球形Li3PO4制备球形LiFePO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于春洋; 潘志红

    2007-01-01

    以曲拉通100作表面活性剂,用超声波法制备了球形度较好、平均粒径为10μm的球形Li3PO4.以球形Li3PO4为前驱体制备了部分球形的LiFePO4,并对其电化学性能进行了研究.由该法制备的LiFePO4振实密度为1.20 g/cm3,较其他方法制备的LiFePO4密度有所提高.

  15. The effect of vibrational entropy on the solubility and stability of ordered Al3Li phases in Al-Li alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zugang; Seidman, David N.; Wolverton, C.

    2013-10-01

    The solubility and stability of three possible ordered Al3Li structures in Al-Li alloys are studied using first-principles calculations: δ'-Al3Li(L12), δ-Al3Li(DO22), and β-Al3Li(DO3). We find that δ'-Al3Li(L12) is the most stable phase and β-Al3Li(DO3) is energetically unfavorable. The vibrational formation entropy makes a significant contribution to the solubility for all three ordered Al3Li structures and yields a 1.6-fold increase in the calculated solubility of δ'-Al3Li(L12), a 1.8-fold increase for δ-Al3Li(DO22), and a 2.5-fold increase for β-Al3Li(DO3). The solubility of δ'-Al3Li(L12) is greater than those of δ-Al3Li(DO22) and β-Al3Li(DO3), and the δ'-Al3Li(L12) solvus curve is in good agreement with the experimental one.

  16. Structural characterization of slightly boron-deficient LiB, LiB0.9 and LiB0.8, under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Alcubilla, Ainhoa; Gurtubay, Idoia G; Bergara, Aitor

    2014-11-26

    Results of computational investigations of two slightly boron-deficient lithium borides, LiB(0.9) and LiB(0.8), under pressure are reported. Structure predictions based on particle swarm optimization reveal that at low pressure both compositions adopt chain structures, as stoichiometric 1 : 1 LiB. With increasing pressure both undergo phase transitions to layered arrangements. The evolution of the structural parameters of these stoichiometries as a function of pressure and the results obtained from the enthalpies indicate that boron-deficient structures are more favoured than 1 : 1 LiB, even at zero pressure. Moreover, as pressure is increased a larger deficiency in B seems to be favoured.

  17. Fast Li ion dynamics in the solid electrolyte Li7 P3 S11 as probed by (6,7) Li NMR spin-lattice relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmuth, Dominik; Epp, Viktor; Wilkening, Martin

    2015-08-24

    The development of safe and long-lasting all-solid-state batteries with high energy density requires a thorough characterization of ion dynamics in solid electrolytes. Commonly, conductivity spectroscopy is used to study ion transport; much less frequently, however, atomic-scale methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are employed. Here, we studied long-range as well as short-range Li ion dynamics in the glass-ceramic Li7 P3 S11 . Li(+) diffusivity was probed by using a combination of different NMR techniques; the results are compared with those obtained from electrical conductivity measurements. Our NMR relaxometry data clearly reveal a very high Li(+) diffusivity, which is reflected in a so-called diffusion-induced (6) Li NMR spin-lattice relaxation peak showing up at temperatures as low as 313 K. At this temperature, the mean residence time between two successful Li jumps is in the order of 3×10(8) s(-1) , which corresponds to a Li(+) ion conductivity in the order of 10(-4) to 10(-3) S cm(-1) . Such a value is in perfect agreement with expectations for the crystalline but metastable glass ceramic Li7 P3 S11 . In contrast to conductivity measurements, NMR analysis reveals a range of activation energies with values ranging from 0.17 to 0.26 eV, characterizing Li diffusivity in the bulk. In our case, through-going Li ion transport, when probed by using macroscopic conductivity spectroscopy, however, seems to be influenced by blocking grain boundaries including, for example, amorphous regions surrounding the Li7 P3 S11 crystallites. As a result of this, long-range ion transport as seen by impedance spectroscopy is governed by an activation energy of approximately 0.38 eV. The findings emphasize how surface and grain boundary effects can drastically affect long-range ionic conduction. If we are to succeed in solid-state battery technology, such effects have to be brought under control by, for example, sophisticated densification or through the preparation

  18. The single-electrode Peltier heats of Li-Al alloy electrodes in LiCl-KCl eutectic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amezawa, Koji; Ito, Yasuhiko; Tomii, Yoichi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents the single-electrode Peltier heat of cathodic (or anodic) reaction of Li-Al alloy electrode in a coexisting phase state, or an intermetallic compound phase state estimated by thermoelectric-power measurement. The thermoelectric-power measurements of Li-Al alloys in various coexisting phase states were carried out with both potentiometric and potential-sweep methods in the LiCl-KCl eutectic system between 673 and 843 K. The values of the thermoelectric power of Li-Al alloys calculated by using thermodynamic literature data were in good agreement with those obtained by experiment. The single-electrode Peltier heat changes drastically with change of its phase state, and it was found that the formation reactions of [beta] (Li[sub 0.5]Al[sub 0.5]) and [gamma] (Li[sub 0.6]Al[sub 0.4]) phases are exothermic, and those of liquid phase from [beta] and [gamma] phase are endothermic. The single-electrode Peltier heat for the cathodic formation reaction of Li-Al alloy in intermetallic compound [gamma] phase is estimated to be exothermic by using the measured values of thermoelectric powers of Li-Al alloys in ([beta] + [gamma]) and ([gamma] + liq.) regions.

  19. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Kittitas-Colockum Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on 6 days between September 15th and November 5th, 2010 for the Puget Sound LiDAR...

  20. Recycle and synthesis of LiCoO2 from incisors bound of Li-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-jian; HU Qi-yang; LI Xin-hai; WANG Zhi-xing; GUO Hua-jun

    2006-01-01

    A new LiCoO2 recovery technology of Li-ion battery was studied. LiCoO2 was initially separated from the Al foil with dimethyl acetamide(DMAC), and then the polyvinylidene fluoride(PVDF) and carbon powders in the active material were eliminated by high temperature calcining. The content of the elements in the recovered powder was analyzed. The structure and morphology of the resulted samples were observed by XRD and SEM. Then the Li2CO3 was added in the recycled powder to adjust the Li/Co molar ratio to 1. The new LiCoO2 was synthesized by calcining at 850 ℃ for 12 h in air. The well-crystallized single phase LiCoO2 without Co3O4 phase was obtained. The recycle-synthesized LiCoO2 powders have good characteristics as a cathode active material in terms of charge-discharge capacity and cycling performance.

  1. Are lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) and lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3}) ferroelectrics bioactive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilarinho, Paula Maria, E-mail: paula.vilarinho@ua.pt; Barroca, Nathalie; Zlotnik, Sebastian; Félix, Pedro; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2014-06-01

    The use of functional materials, such as ferroelectrics, as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ, is new and holds great promise. But the usage of materials in any bioapplication requires information on biocompatibility and desirably on bioactive behavior when bone tissue engineering is envisaged. Both requirements are currently unknown for many ferroelectrics. Herein the bioactivity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} is reported. The formation of apatite-like structures on the surface of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} powders after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different soaking periods indicates their bioactive potential. The mechanism of apatite formation is suggested. In addition, the significant release of lithium ions from the ferroelectric powders in the very first minutes of soaking in SBF is examined and ways to overcome this likely hurdle addressed. - Highlights: • LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} are bioactive ferroelectrics. • Cauliflower apatite type structures indicative of in-vitro bioactivity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3.} • Negative surface charges anchor Ca{sup 2+} to which PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} attracts forming apatite structure nuclei. • Use of ferroelectrics as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ is new and holds great promise.

  2. Electrochemical Performance of PEO10LiX-Li2TiO3 Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU,Mi(路密); SHI,Peng-Fei(史鹏飞)

    2004-01-01

    The conductivities of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes (PE) can be improved by the addition of inorganic inert powder. The composite polymer electrolytes (CPE) PEO10LiX (X= or )-Li2TiO3 were prepared by solution casting with inorganic solid electrolyte Li2TiO3 powder as a filler. Results showed that the conductivities of PEO10LiClO4-3wt% Li2TiO3 and PEO10LiN(CF3SO2)2-10wt% Li2TiO3 at 30 ℃ were 8.6×10-6 and 5.6×10-5 S·cm-1, respectively. The conductivities of CPE increased with the decrease of filler's particle size. The ionic conduction mechanism analysis showed that there may be three conduction routes in the CPE, i.e., PEO bulk, polymer-filler interface and Li2TiO3 crystal.

  3. Direct view on the phase evolution in individual LiFePO4 nanoparticles during Li-ion battery cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Van Hulzen, M.; Singh, D.P.; Brownrigg, A.W.; Wright, J.P.; Van Dijk, N.H.; Wagemaker, M.

    2015-01-01

    Phase transitions in Li-ion electrode materials during (dis)charge are decisive for battery performance, limiting high-rate capabilities and playing a crucial role in the cycle life of Li-ion batteries. However, the difficulty to probe the phase nucleation and growth in individual grains is hinderin

  4. A miscibility gap in LiF-BeF₂ and LiF-BeF₂-ThF₄

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.P.M. van der; Konings, R.J.M.; Jacobs, M.H.G.; Oonk, H.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    LiF BeF₂ and LiF BeF₂ ThF₄ are key systems for Molten Salt Reactor fuel. The liquid phase of these systems has been assessed using Redlich Kister polynomials. The result shows a miscibility gap on the BeF₂-rich side. This has never been proven experimentally. Nevertheless, evidence for a two liquids

  5. Experimental and computational studies on structural transitions in the LiBH4-LiI pseudobinary system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguchi, H.; Matsuo, M.; Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo

    2009-01-01

    Structural transition properties of the LiBH4+xLiI (x=0–1.00) pseudobinary system were examined by powder x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry combined with periodic density functional theory calculations. We experimentally and computationally confirmed the stabilization...

  6. Optical waveguides in LiNbO3 and stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals by proton exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The formation of optical planar waveguides in LiNbO3 and stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals by proton exchange was reported. The prism-coupling method was used to characterize the dark-line spectroscopy at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm, re-spectively. The mode optical near-field outputs from proton-exchanged LiNbO3 and SLN waveguides at 633 nm were presented. The mode field from stoichiometric LiNbO3 (SLN) waveguide is lighter and more uniform than that from LiNbO3 waveguide, which means the quality of the waveguide in SLN crystal is better than that of the LiNbO3 waveguide. For proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides, the evo-lution of the refractive index profile with annealing was presented. The disorder profiles of Nb atoms in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides were obtained by Rutherford backscattering/channeling technique. It is shown that the longer the exchange time, the larger the displacement of Nb atoms.

  7. Mössbauer spectra as a “fingerprint” in tin lithium compounds: Applications to Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F.; Lippens, P. E.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.-C.; Gillot, F.; Morcrette, M.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Several Li-Sn crystalline phases, i.e. Li 2Sn 5, LiSn, Li 7Sn 3, Li 5Sn 2, Li 13Sn 5, Li 7Sn 2 and Li 22Sn 5 were prepared by ball-milling and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. The analysis of the Mössbauer hyperfine parameters, i.e. isomer shift ( δ) and quadrupole splitting ( Δ), made it possible to define two types of Li-Sn compounds: the Sn-richest compounds (Li 2Sn 5, LiSn) and the Li-richest compounds (Li 7Sn 3, Li 5Sn 2, Li 13Sn 5, Li 7Sn 2, Li 22Sn 5). The isomer shift values ranged from 2.56 to 2.38 mm s -1 for Li 2Sn 5, LiSn and from 2.07 to 1.83 mm s -1 for Li 7Sn 3, Li 5Sn 2, Li 13Sn 5, Li 7Sn 2 and Li 22Sn 5, respectively. A Δ- δ correlation diagram is introduced in order to identify the different phases observed during the electrochemical process of new Sn-based materials. This approach is illustrated by the identification of the phases obtained at the end of the first discharge of η-Cu 6Sn 5 and SnB 0.6P 0.4O 2.9.

  8. Li vaporization property of two-phase material of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} for tritium breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Seiya [Course of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Masuko, Yuki; Kato, Hirokazu; Yuyama, Hayato; Sakai, Yutaro [Department of Prime Mover Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Niwa, Eiki; Hashimoto, Takuya [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, 3-8-1 Sakurajousui, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Mukai, Keisuke [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hosino, Tsuyoshi [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuch, Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Sasaki, Kazuya, E-mail: k_sasaki@tokai-u.jp [Course of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Department of Prime Mover Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Course of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized two phase materials based on Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}. • We investigated the Li vaporization property of the two-phase materials. • Li vaporization occurs significantly from only Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} grains in the vicinity of the surface of the pellets. • The Li vaporization is remarkable only for an early short time for the vaporization from Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} grains at the vicinity of the surface. • The second stable phase added functions effectively for inhibition of the Li vaporization. - Abstract: Li vaporization property of two-phase materials of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} in a working condition for the solid tritium breeder used in the demonstration power plant of fusion reactor was investigated, and the suppression mechanism of the vaporization was considered. The Li vaporization rate from the specimen pellet was measured by gravimetric method, and the change of Li concentration distribution in the pellet was analyzed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer. Li was vaporized only from the Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} at the vicinity of the surface of the pellet. The remarkable vaporization of Li arose only in an early short time. The inhibition of the vaporization from the Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} was successful by adding the small amount of the stable secondary phase of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}.

  9. Improving rate performance of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials by hybrid coating of nano-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shi-Xi, E-mail: zhaosx@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Ding, Hao; Wang, Yan-Chao [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Bao-Hua [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Nan, Ce-Wen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-07-25

    Highlights: •This paper reports an improved solid-state method which leads to a uniform coating. The influence of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and carbon coating on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} was studied. •LiFePO{sub 4} coating with Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and carbon shows a higher capacity than pure carbon coating sample. •Results indicate that the surface structure has an important influence on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4}. The addition of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} can decrease the interfacial resistance of Li FePO{sub 4}. -- Abstract: Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} coating on the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} particles was prepared by direct dispersing LiFePO{sub 4} precursor in starch slurry with nano-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The existence of nano-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was confirmed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). And the particle size and morphology were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope analysis (TEM). The effects of the mixture coating on rate performance of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode vs Li anode at 25 °C was investigated. Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and carbon mixing coated LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials exhibited markedly improved rate capability relative to bare carbon-coated LiFePO{sub 4}. Analyses on cell impedance showed that the Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} coating decreased the interfacial impedance. Transmission electron microscope analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammograms (CV) were carried out to explain the reason of better rate performance by Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} coating.

  10. High precision measurement of the 11Li and 9Li quadrupole moment ratio using zero-field β-NQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, A.; Pearson, M. R.; Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J. E.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Mané, E.; Morris, G. D.; Shelbaya, O. T. J.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of electric quadrupole moments of 11Li and 9Li was measured using the zero-field β-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance technique at Triumf-Isac. The precision on the ratio Q11/Q9 = 1.0775(12) was improved by more than one order of magnitude and an absolute value for the quadrupole moment of 11Li was inferred. Systematic effects, as argued here, are not expected to contribute to the ratio on this scale. The zero-field spin-lattice relaxation time for 8Li implanted within SrTiO3 at 295 K in zero-field was found to be T1 = 1.73(2) s. A comparison of the quadrupole moments of 9, 11Li and their ratio is made with the latest models, however, no conclusion may yet be drawn owing to the size of the theoretical uncertainties.

  11. 5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

  12. Lamb shifts and hyperfine structure in 6Li+ and 7Li+: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, E.; Sinclair, A. G.; Poulsen, Ove;

    1994-01-01

    High-precision laser-resonance measurements accurate to +/-0.5 MHz, or better are reported for transitions among the 1s2s S-3(1)-1s2p P-3(J) hyperfine manifolds for each of J = 0, 1, and 2 in both Li-6(+) and Li-7(+). A detailed analysis of hyperfine structure is performed for both the S and P...... states, using newly calculated values for the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole coupling constants, and the hyperfine shifts subtracted from the measurements. The resulting transition frequencies are then analysed on three different levels. First, the isotope shifts in the fine-structure splittings....... The accuracy of 11 parts per million is the best two-electron Lamb shift measurement in the literature, and is comparable to the accuracies achieved in hydrogen. Theoretical contributions to the two-electron Lamb shift are discussed, including terms of order (alpha Z)(4) recently obtained by Chen, Cheng...

  13. Triple α resonances in the 6Li + 6Li → 3α reaction at low energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tumino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The 6Li + 6Li → 3α reaction has been measured in a kinematically complete experiment at 3.1 MeV of beam energy. The reaction mainly proceeds via intermediate 8Be states. The interaction between any two of the three α particles provides events with one, two or three 8Be interfering levels, with strong enhancement in the α–α coincidence yield. Evidence of three 8Be levels within the same 3α event suggests that one α particle is exchanged between the other two. This is a condition for Efimov states to occur in nuclei, for which no observation exists yet. The hyperspherical formalism for the low-energy three-body problem has been applied to point out the 3α particle correlation.

  14. Storage and Effective Migration of Li-Ion for Defected β-LiFePO4 Phase Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua; Song, Xiaohe; Zhuo, Zengqing; Hu, Jiangtao; Liu, Tongchao; Duan, Yandong; Zheng, Jiaxin; Chen, Zonghai; Yang, Wanli; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng

    2016-01-13

    Lithium iron phosphate, a widely used cathode material, crystallizes typically in olivine-type phase, α-LiFePO4 (αLFP). However, the new phase β-LiFePO4 (βLFP), which can be transformed from αLFP under high temperature and pressure, is originally almost electrochemically inactive with no capacity for Li-ion battery, because the Li-ions are stored in the tetrahedral [LiO4] with very high activation barrier for migration and the one-dimensional (1D) migration channels for Li-ion diffusion in αLFP disappear, while the Fe ions in the β-phase are oriented similar to the 1D arrangement instead. In this work, using experimental studies combined with density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that βLFP can be activated with creation of effective paths of Li-ion migration by optimized disordering. Thus, the new phase of βLFP cathode achieved a capacity of 128 mAh g(-1) at a rate of 0.1 C (1C = 170 mA g(-1)) with extraordinary cycling performance that 94.5% of the initial capacity retains after 1000 cycles at 1 C. The activation mechanism can be attributed to that the induced disorder (such as FeLiLiFe antisite defects, crystal distortion, and amorphous domains) creates new lithium migration passages, which free the captive stored lithium atoms and facilitate their intercalation/deintercalation from the cathode. Such materials activated by disorder are promising candidate cathodes for lithium batteries, and the related mechanism of storage and effective migration of Li-ions also provides new clues for future design of disordered-electrode materials with high capacity and high energy density.

  15. Denizli ili sınırlarındaki Büyük Menderes nehri ve yan kolu Çürüksu çayının su kalitesinin belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Akyıldız, Gürçay Kıvanç

    2008-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Denizli İli sınırlarındaki Büyük Menderes Nehri ve yan kolu Çürüksu Çayı'nın su kalitesini belirlemek amaçlı toplam 14 istasyondan, Ocak 2006-Aralık 2007 tarihleri arasında aylık olarak fiziksel, kimyasal ve biyolojik veriler toplanmıştır. Su kalitesi tayini için, Saprobi İndeks, BBI, ETBI, Rev. BMWP, CS, Klee (1991) ve Su Kalitesi Kontrol Yönetmeliği (1988) kullanılmıştır. İstasyonlardan alınan biyolojik verilerin Temel Bileşen Analizi ve Kanonik Uyum Analizi ile ordinasyon ana...

  16. Distinguishing magnetic vs. quadrupolar relaxation in b-NMR using 8Li and 9Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzichristos, A.; McFadden, R. M. L.; Karner, V. L.; Cortie, D. L.; Fang, A.; Levy, C. D. P.; Macfarlane, W. A.; Morris, G. D.; Pearson, M. R.; Salman, Z.; Kiefl, R. F.

    2016-09-01

    Beta-detected NMR is a powerful technique in condensed matter physics. It uses the parity violation of beta decay to detect the NMR signal from a beam of highly polarized radionuclides implanted in a sample material. Spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) is studied by monitoring the rate with which the asymmetry between the beta counts in two opposing detectors is lost. Unlike classical NMR, b-NMR can study thin films and near-surface effects. The most common b-NMR isotope at TRIUMF is 8Li, which has a quadrupole moment, thus it is sensitive to both magnetic fields and electric field gradients. A challenge with 8Li b-NMR is identifying the predominant mechanism of SLR in a given sample. It is possible to distinguish between SLR mechanisms by varying the probe isotope. For two isotopes with different nuclear moments, the ratio of SLR rates should be different in the limits of either pure magnetic or quadrupolar relaxation. This method has been used in classical NMR and we report its first application to b-NMR. We measured the SLR rates for 8Li and 8Li in Pt foil and SrTiO3. Pt is a test case for pure magnetic relaxation. SrTiO3 is a non-magnetic insulator, but the source of its relaxation is not well understood. Here we show that its relaxation is mainly quadrupolar. We thank TRIUMF's CMMS for their technical support. This work was supported by: NSERC Discovery Grants to R.F.K. and W.A.M.; and IsoSiM fellowships to A.C. and R.M.L.M.

  17. High speed pulsed laser cutting of LiCoO2 Li-ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fortunato, Alessandro; Carmignato, Simone; Fiorini, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    Laser cutting of Li-ion battery electrodes represents an alternative to mechanical blanking that avoids complications associated with tool wear and allows assembly of different cell geometries with a single device. In this study, laser cutting of LiCoO2 Li-ion battery electrodes is performed at up to 5m /s with a 1064nm wavelength nanosecond pulsed fiber laser with a maximum average power of 500W and a repetition rate of up to 2MHz . Minimum average cutting power for cathode and anode multi-layer films is established for 12 parameter groups with velocities over the range 1 - 5m /s , varying laser pulse fluence and overlap. Within the tested parameter range, minimum energy per unit cut length is found to decrease with increasing repetition rate and velocity. SEM analysis of the resulting cut edges reveals visible clearance widths in the range 20 - 50 μm , with cut quality found to improve with velocity due to a reduction in lateral heat conduction losses. Raman line map spectra reveal changes in the cathode at 60 μm from the cut edge, where bands at 486cm-1 and 595cm-1 , corresponding to the Eg and A1g modes of LiCoO2 , are replaced with a single wide band centered at 544cm-1 , and evidence of carbon black is no longer present. No changes in Raman spectra are observed in the anode. The obtained results suggest that further improvements in cutting efficiency and quality could be achieved by increasing the repetition rate above 2MHz , thereby improving ablation efficiency of the metallic conductor layers. The laser source utilized in the present study nonetheless represents an immediately available solution for repeatability and throughput that are superior to mechanical blanking.

  18. Pediatric cancer and Li-Fraumeni/Li-Fraumeni-like syndromes: a review for the pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rossi Giacomazzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: cancer is the second leading cause of death in children between the ages of 0 and 14 years, corresponding to approximately 3% of all cases diagnosed in Brazil. A significant percentage (5-10% of pediatric cancers are associated with hereditary cancer syndromes, including Li-Fraumeni/Li-Fraumeni-like syndromes (LFS/LFL, both of which are caused by TP53 germline mutations. Recent studies have shown that a specific TP53 mutation, known as p.R337H, is present in 1 in 300 newborns in Southern and Southeast Brazil. In addition, a significant percentage of children with LFS/LFL spectrum tumors in the region have a family history compatible with LFS/LFL. Objective: to review clinical relevant aspects of LFS/LFL by our multidisciplinary team with focus on pediatric cancer. Methods: the NCBI (PubMed and SciELO databases were consulted using the keywords Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome and pediatric cancer; and all manuscripts published between 1990 and 2014 using these keywords were retrieved and reviewed. Conclusion: although LFS/LFL is considered a rare disease, it appears to be substantially more common in certain geographic regions. Recognition of population- specific risks for the syndrome is important for adequate management of hereditary cancer patients and families. In Southern and Southeastern Brazil, LFS/ LFL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with cancer, especially if within the spectrum of the syndrome. Due to the complexities of these syndromes, a multidisciplinary approach should be sought for the counseling, diagnosis and management of patients and families affected by these disorders. Pediatricians and pediatric oncologists in areas with high prevalence of hereditary cancer syndromes have a central role in the recognition and proper referral of patients and families to genetic cancer risk evaluation and management programs.

  19. Caratteristiche sismiche e geodinamiche della Val Padana flua li risultano dali' attività sismica ivi verificatasi dall' inizio dell' Era Volgare a tutto il 1969

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. SPADEA

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Ai fllli ,li trarre (lualche elelllollto, attu a eontribuin'
    alla ,'Ulloscellza ,Iella sisillicit.i~ ,Iella Val j'a,lana - - illLesa ill sellso lato
    ~i è ritelluto utile esalilinare i terr"mo1.i, verifica1.isi nell'l'ra volgare, Ira
    le Pn'alpi (inl'luHe e l'avamJlaese degli AJlJlllllnini.
    ~atumlmente, l'esame si è CUllereLato ilei Lm,lul'I'e sui gru(li ,li ulla
    scala si~mi{'a (ilei easo speeil1('o, la seala .'IIen:alli a Il gradi, le Ilotizie ma(·.ro·
    ~ismÌl'.he, quali risultano da veuchie (·.rolla(·he, in Jlarticolare ,bil volume
    del Baratt.a sui Terremoti d'[talia . ~i SOIlO eo~ì ottenute le i~oHism", relativ"
    ad oltre treeento t.elTemoti, chc ~OIlO servite per la det.erminazione appros.
    simativa delle pro[ondit.à ipocentmli e delle energie ~ vihtppate all'ipoeentro.
    l"el [ICriu,lu che va (Ial 1100 al 1.'i00 ca, si SOIlU veriticati nella Yall'adall:!
    (specialmellte nella sua parte urielltale ,l('i torre moti violelltis~imi fra i
    più violenti uhe si UOIiOScallO , (·.he llanno provo{'ato vi1:1.ime e (Ianni in·
    genti>;i;imi ili ZUlle mulLu c~te~o. Tale at.tiviti~ è all(lat.a gradualmclIte ~cf'_·
    malldo Ilei seculi SU(·.l'c~sivi, {'.onservalllio ulla l'erta illten~itil e fn;qlwllza ai
    margini noni orÌell1.ali (l'rCallli helhmesi e sud orientali ("[.'orlivese eRa·
    vennate ,ldla Valle.
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    epieentmlc, 1('1' dno tCl'1'omot.i, origillallti in Val l'adalla, a profolldità ,li·
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    cosi ehe le massime acee!emziolli - « ('etori~ paril

  20. Material review of Li ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christoph J.; Geiger, Sigrid; Falusi, Sandra; Roth, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Separators for Li Ion batteries have a strong impact on cell production, cell performance, life, as well as reliability and safety. The separator market volume is about 500 million m2 mainly based on consumer applications. It is expected to grow strongly over the next decade for mobile and stationary applications using large cells. At present, the market is essentially served by polyolefine membranes. Such membranes have some technological limitations, such as wettability, porosity, penetration resistance, shrinkage and meltdown. The development of a cell failure due to internal short circuit is potentially closely related to separator material properties. Consequently, advanced separators became an intense area of worldwide research and development activity in academia and industry. New separator technologies are being developed especially to address safety and reliability related property improvements.

  1. Transport measurement of Li doped monolayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Ali; Sajadi, Ebrahim; Dosanjh, Pinder; Folk, Joshua; Stöhr, Alexander; Forti, Stiven; Starke, Ulrich

    Lithium adatoms on monolayer graphene have been predicted to induce superconductivity with a critical temperature near 8 K, and recent experimental evidence by ARPES indicates a critical temperature nearly that high. Encouraged by these results, we investigated the effects of lithium deposited at cryogenic temperatures on the electronic transport properties of epitaxial and CVD monolayer graphene down to 3 K. The change of charge carrier density due to Li deposition was monitored both by the gate voltage shift of the Dirac point and by Hall measurements, in low and high doping regimes. In the high doping regime, a saturation density of 2×1013 cm-2 was observed independent of sample type, initial carrier density and deposition conditions. No signatures of superconductivity were observed down to 3 K.

  2. Gelled membranes for Li and Li-ion batteries prepared by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, D.; Meyer, B.; Salomon, M.

    Composite polymer gelled membranes have been prepared an electrospinning technique. Electrospinning of polymer fibers or electrospraying of particles is typically accomplished by applying a strong electric field (ca. 1-25 kV cm -1) to a polymer solution or slurry of solids in an appropriate solvent. The fibers are collected as a mat (membrane) on a grounded target such as Al, Cu, Ni, etc. Typical membranes (mats) consist of nanometer size fibers and have porosities of 65-85%. In the present paper, we describe the fabrication of electrospun membranes for use as gelled electrolytes in Li and Li-ion batteries. The electrospun polymer membranes used in this work are based on the polyimides (PIs) Matrimid and Ultem 1000. Pure PI membranes have been prepared, and blends of Matrimid and Ultem with PVdF-HFP and PAN have been studied in 250 mAh and 7 Ah Li-ion cells. Fully imidized polyimides such as Matrimid and Ultem 1000 do not form gels, and are used as a host matrix of high mechanical strength to immobilize the gelling constituents PVdF or PAN.

  3. Gelled membranes for Li and Li-ion batteries prepared by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, D.; Meyer, B.; Salomon, M. [MaxPower, Inc., 141 Christopher Lane, Harleysville, PA 19438 (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Composite polymer gelled membranes have been prepared an electrospinning technique. Electrospinning of polymer fibers or electrospraying of particles is typically accomplished by applying a strong electric field (ca. 1-25 kV cm{sup -1}) to a polymer solution or slurry of solids in an appropriate solvent. The fibers are collected as a mat (membrane) on a grounded target such as Al, Cu, Ni, etc. Typical membranes (mats) consist of nanometer size fibers and have porosities of 65-85%. In the present paper, we describe the fabrication of electrospun membranes for use as gelled electrolytes in Li and Li-ion batteries. The electrospun polymer membranes used in this work are based on the polyimides (PIs) Matrimid and Ultem 1000. Pure PI membranes have been prepared, and blends of Matrimid and Ultem with PVdF-HFP and PAN have been studied in 250 mAh and 7 Ah Li-ion cells. Fully imidized polyimides such as Matrimid and Ultem 1000 do not form gels, and are used as a host matrix of high mechanical strength to immobilize the gelling constituents PVdF or PAN. (author)

  4. Extraction of Li and Co from Li-ion Batteries by Chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzolu, Jafar Sharrivar; Gharabaghi, Mahdi; Mobin, Mohammad; Alilo, Hojat

    2016-05-01

    In this work a process involving ultrasonic washing and leaching and precipitation was used to recover Li and Co from spent Li-ion batteries. Ultrasonic washing was used to reduce energy consumption and pollution whereas hydrochloric acid was used as leaching reagent. 98 % of Li and nearly 99 % of Co were obtained under optimum condition of 5 M hydrochloric acid solution, temperature of 95 °C, reaction time of 70 min, and solid-liquid ratio of 10 g/L. In this process at first nickel, copper, iron, aluminum, cobalt, and manganese were precipitated from leaching solution using sodium hydroxide at pH f 12.5 and reaction time of 1 h and temperature was 55 °C and all metal recoveries were more than 99 %. In the precipitation experiments, lithium loss was only 18.34 %. In the next stage, white lithium carbonate was precipitated by addition of saturated sodium carbonate solution to the left filtrate from first precipitation step. The purity of the recovered powder of lithium was 95 %.

  5. Extraction of Li and Co from Li-ion Batteries by Chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzolu, Jafar Sharrivar; Gharabaghi, Mahdi; Mobin, Mohammad; Alilo, Hojat

    2017-04-01

    In this work a process involving ultrasonic washing and leaching and precipitation was used to recover Li and Co from spent Li-ion batteries. Ultrasonic washing was used to reduce energy consumption and pollution whereas hydrochloric acid was used as leaching reagent. 98 % of Li and nearly 99 % of Co were obtained under optimum condition of 5 M hydrochloric acid solution, temperature of 95 °C, reaction time of 70 min, and solid-liquid ratio of 10 g/L. In this process at first nickel, copper, iron, aluminum, cobalt, and manganese were precipitated from leaching solution using sodium hydroxide at pH f 12.5 and reaction time of 1 h and temperature was 55 °C and all metal recoveries were more than 99 %. In the precipitation experiments, lithium loss was only 18.34 %. In the next stage, white lithium carbonate was precipitated by addition of saturated sodium carbonate solution to the left filtrate from first precipitation step. The purity of the recovered powder of lithium was 95 %.

  6. NMR spin-lattice relaxation study of 7Li and 93Nb nuclei in Ti- or Fe-doped LiNbO3:Mg single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Yeom

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to understand the effects of paramagnetic impurities, we investigated the temperature dependent of the spin-lattice relaxation times of pure LiNbO3, LiNbO3:Mg, LiNbO3:Mg/Ti, LiNbO3:Mg/Fe, and LiNbO3:Mg/Fe (thermally treated at 500°C single crystals. The results for the LiNbO3:Mg single crystals doped with Fe3+ or Ti3+ are discussed with respect to the site distribution and atomic mobility of Li and Nb. In addition, the effects of a thermal treatment on LiNbO3:Mg/Fe single crystals were examined based on the T1 analysis of 7Li and 93Nb. It was found that the presence of impurities in the crystals induced systematic changes of activation energies concerning atomic mobility.

  7. Lição de Anatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Leocadio da Nova

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Na formação médica, diagnosticamos a falência do modelo pedagógico/assistencial que se revela, dentre outros sintomas, na ideologia de frieza e distanciamento que perpassa a prática médica. Este modelo de relação médico-paciente reproduziria a relação estudante-cadáver. Visando modificar tal ideologia, desenvolvemos, na UFRJ, em atividade interdisciplinar com a Anatomia, grupos de reflexão com os alunos do primeiro período da Faculdade de Medicina. A partir dos resultados, de dois anos dessa pesquisa, denominada "O cadáver e a formação médica", realizamos, com o apoio da Fundação José Bonifácio, um vídeo didático, "Lição de Anatomia", por meio de equipe multidisciplinar, incluindo professores e alunos do Instituto de Artes e Comunicação Social da UFF, da Faculdade de Medicina da UFRJ e do Núcleo de Tecnologia Educacional para a Saúde da UFRJ (NUTES. Pretendemos que a utilização desse recurso audiovisual constitua mais uma ferramenta para a melhoria do ensino e da prática médica, introduzindo a discussão de questões éticas. A pesquisa e a realização do vídeo nos mostraram a possibilidade de se repensar e inovar o ensino universitário, o que foi, para todos nós, uma lição de convívio democrático.

  8. Li-ion diffusion kinetics in LiCoPO{sub 4} thin films deposited on NASICON-type glass ceramic electrolytes by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J.; Imanishi, N.; Zhang, T.; Hirano, A.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    LiCoPO{sub 4} thin films were deposited on Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} (LATSP) solid electrolyte by radio frequency magnetron sputtering and were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The films show a (1 1 1) preferred orientation upon annealing and are chemically stable with LATSP up to 600 C in air. An all-solid-state Li/PEO{sub 18}-Li(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N/LATSP/LiCoPO{sub 4}/Au cell was fabricated to investigate the electrochemical performance and Li-ion chemical diffusion coefficients, D{sub Li}, of the LiCoPO{sub 4} thin films. The potential dependence of D{sub Li} values of the LiCoPO{sub 4} thin film was investigated by potentiostatic intermittent titration technique and was compared with those of the LiFePO{sub 4} thin film. These results showed that the intercalation mechanism of Li-ion in LiCoPO{sub 4} is different from that in LiFePO{sub 4}. (author)

  9. Electrochemical Characteristics and Li+ Ion Intercalation Kinetics of Dual-phase Li4Ti5O12/Li2TiO3 Composite in Voltage Range of 0−3 V

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatti, Humaira S

    2016-04-20

    Li4Ti5O12, Li2TiO3 and dual-phase Li4Ti5O12/Li2TiO3 composite were prepared by sol-gel method with average particle size of 1 µm, 0.3 µm and 0.4 µm, respectively. Though Li2TiO3 is electrochemically inactive, the rate capability of Li4Ti5O12/Li2TiO3 is comparable to Li4Ti5O12 at different current rates. Li4Ti5O12/Li2TiO3 also shows good rate performance of 90 mA h g-1 at high rate of 10 C in voltage range of 1−3 V, attributable to increased interfaces in the composite. While Li4Ti5O12 delivers capacity retention of 88.6 % at 0.2 C over 50 cycles, Li4Ti5O12/Li2TiO3 exhibits no capacity fading at 0.2 C (40 cycles) and capacity retention of 98.45 % at 0.5 C (50 cycles). This highly stable cycling performance is attributed to the contribution of Li2TiO3 in preventing undesirable reaction of Li4Ti5O12 with the electrolyte during cycling. CV curves of Li4Ti5O12/Li2TiO3 in 0−3 V range exhibit two anodic peaks at 1.51 V and 0.7−0.0 V, indicating two modes of lithium intercalation into the lattice sites of active material. Owing to enhanced intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in 0−3 V, composite electrode delivers superior rate performance of 203 mAh/g at 2.85 C and 140 mAh/g at 5.7 C with good reversible capacity retention over 100 cycles.

  10. Characteristics of LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.45Co0.1Mn0.45O2 as cathodes of lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua-jun; LI Xin-hai; ZHANG Xin-ming; ZENG Su-ming; WANG Zhi-xing; PENG Wen-jie

    2005-01-01

    LiNi0. 45 Co0. 10 Mn0. 4sO2 was synthesized from Li2CO3 and a triple oxide of nickel, cobalt and manganese at 950 ℃ in air. The structures and characteristics of LiNi0. 45 Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2, LiCoO2 and LiMn2 O4 were investigated by XRD, SEM and electrochemical measurements. The results show that LiNi0.4s Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2 has a layered structure with hexagonal lattice. The commercial LicoO2 has sphere-like appearance and smooth surfaces, while the LiMn2 O4 and LiNi0.45 Co0. 10 Mn0. 45 O2 consist of cornered and uneven particles. LiNi0. 45 Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2 has a large disLiMn2 O4 and LiCoO2, respectively. LiCoO2 and LiMn2 O4 have higher discharge voltage and better rate-capability than LiNi0. 45Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2. All the three cathodes have excellent cycling performance with capacity retention of above 89.3 % at the 250th cycle. Batteries with LiMn2 O4 or LiNi0.45 Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2 cathodes show better safety performance under abusive conditions than those with LiCoO2 cathodes.

  11. Lithium Ion Mobility in Lithium Phosphidosilicates: Crystal Structure, (7) Li, (29) Si, and (31) P MAS NMR Spectroscopy, and Impedance Spectroscopy of Li8 SiP4 and Li2 SiP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoletti, Lorenzo; Kirchhain, Holger; Landesfeind, Johannes; Klein, Wilhelm; van Wüllen, Leo; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Fässler, Thomas F

    2016-12-05

    The need to improve electrodes and Li-ion conducting materials for rechargeable all-solid-state batteries has drawn enhanced attention to the investigation of lithium-rich compounds. The study of the ternary system Li-Si-P revealed a series of new compounds, two of which, Li8 SiP4 and Li2 SiP2 , are presented. Both phases represent members of a new family of Li ion conductors that display Li ion conductivity in the range from 1.15(7)×10(-6) Scm(-1) at 0 °C to 1.2(2)×10(-4) Scm(-1) at 75 °C (Li8 SiP4 ) and from 6.1(7)×10(-8) Scm(-1) at 0 °C to 6(1)×10(-6) Scm(-1) at 75 °C (Li2 SiP2 ), as determined by impedance measurements. Temperature-dependent solid-state (7) Li NMR spectroscopy revealed low activation energies of about 36 kJ mol(-1) for Li8 SiP4 and about 47 kJ mol(-1) for Li2 SiP2 . Both compounds were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (single crystal and powder methods) and by (7) Li, (29) Si, and (31) P MAS NMR spectroscopy. Both phases consist of tetrahedral SiP4 anions and Li counterions. Li8 SiP4 contains isolated SiP4 units surrounded by Li atoms, while Li2 SiP2 comprises a three-dimensional network based on corner-sharing SiP4 tetrahedra, with the Li ions located in cavities and channels.

  12. Preparation, Thermal Stability and Electrochemical Properties of LiODFB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongming Zhou; Furong Liu; Jian Li

    2012-01-01

    Lithium oxalyldifluoroborate (LiODFB) was synthesized in dimethyl carbonate solvent and purified by the method of solvent-out crystallization. The structure characterization and thermal stability of LiODFB were performed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). LiODFB was exposed to 50% humid air at 25 ℃for different time, then dried at 80 ℃ for 12 h, and the electrochemical properties of the cells using 1 mol/L dried LiODFB in ethylene carbonate -I- dimethyl carbonate + ethyl(methyl)carbonate were investigated. The results showed that, pure crystallization LiODFB was obtained; it had good thermal stability with a thermal decomposition temperature of 248 ℃; when it was exposed to humid air, it was firstly converted into LiODFB.H20; with increasing exposure time, more and stronger impurity peaks in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of LiODFB were observed, and both the discharge specific capacity and the capacity retention decreased gradually.

  13. Integrated LiH Debris Shields for Warm PRS Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, R. E.; Thornhill, J. W.; Clark, R. W.; Dasgupta, A.

    2006-10-01

    Plasma radiation sources can profitably employ thick LiH debris shields integrated into the return current surface. Shield material selection demands the highest specific enthalpy Hm to vaporization or decomposition in an attenuation length λ(Eprs) at the k-shell transmission energy of interest. As a figure of merit then, E ≡Hmρ/ M λ(Eprs) [kJcm^2] can order candidate materials. LiH is the best possible material for this purpose, offering E values of 130 for the 13 keV k-shell lines of Kr. In a level comparison, Be offers only 47 and pure Li, 77.5. For the Ti k-shell lines, a similar ordering is: LiH, 22.44; Be, 3.08; Li, 10.40. Early studies of these designs showed promise even for the more opaque Ar and Ti k-shell radiation. Here we examine the much easier problem for a Kr k-shell PRS and consider the influence of l-shell and m-shell radiation on the hydrodynamic flows developed in the LiH and its decay products. The radiation loading of the LiH shield is computed self consistently within the more generous trade space of stagnation energy, machine current, implosion time, and delivered mass for drivers capable of useful Kr k-shell yield. R.E.Terry, NRL Memo Report 6720--96-7868.

  14. Developing New Electrolytes for Advanced Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis Wayne

    The use of renewable energy sources is on the rise, as new energy generating technologies continue to become more efficient and economical. Furthermore, the advantages of an energy infrastructure which relies more on sustainable and renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly apparent. The most readily available of these renewable energy sources, wind and solar energy in particular, are naturally intermittent. Thus, to enable the continued expansion and widespread adoption of renewable energy generating technology, a cost-effective energy storage system is essential. Additionally, the market for electric/hybrid electric vehicles, which both require efficient energy storage, continues to grow as more consumers seek to reduce their consumption of gasoline. These vehicles, however, remain quite expensive, due primarily to costs associated with storing the electrical energy. High-voltage and thermally stable Li-ion battery technology is a promising solution for both grid-level and electric vehicle energy storage. Current limitations in materials, however, limit the energy density and safe operating temperature window of the battery. Specifically, the state-of-the-art electrolyte used in Li-ion batteries is not compatible with recently developed high-voltage positive electrodes, which are one of the most effectual ways of increasing the energy density. The electrolyte is also thermally unstable above 50 °C, and prone to thermal runaway reaction if exposed to prolonged heating. The lithium salt used in such electrolytes, LiPF6, is a primary contributor to both of these issues. Unfortunately, an improved lithium salt which meets the myriad property requirements for Li-ion battery electrolytes has eluded researchers for decades. In this study, a renewed effort to find such a lithium salt was begun, using a recently developed methodology to rapidly screen for desirable properties. Four new lithium salts and one relatively new but uncharacterized lithium salt were

  15. Big Bang 6Li nucleosynthesis studied deep underground (LUNA collaboration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezzi, D.; Anders, M.; Aliotta, M.; Bellini, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Boeltzig, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C. G.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; Elekes, Z.; Erhard, M.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülop, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Marta, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F.; Prati, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Scott, D. A.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.; Takacs, M.

    2017-03-01

    The correct prediction of the abundances of the light nuclides produced during the epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the main topics of modern cosmology. For many of the nuclear reactions that are relevant for this epoch, direct experimental cross section data are available, ushering the so-called "age of precision". The present work addresses an exception to this current status: the 2H(α,γ)6Li reaction that controls 6Li production in the Big Bang. Recent controversial observations of 6Li in metal-poor stars have heightened the interest in understanding primordial 6Li production. If confirmed, these observations would lead to a second cosmological lithium problem, in addition to the well-known 7Li problem. In the present work, the direct experimental cross section data on 2H(α,γ)6Li in the BBN energy range are reported. The measurement has been performed deep underground at the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) 400 kV accelerator in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The cross section has been directly measured at the energies of interest for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis for the first time, at Ecm = 80, 93, 120, and 133 keV. Based on the new data, the 2H(α,γ)6Li thermonuclear reaction rate has been derived. Our rate is even lower than previously reported, thus increasing the discrepancy between predicted Big Bang 6Li abundance and the amount of primordial 6Li inferred from observations.

  16. Hydrogen reversibility of LiBH₄-MgH₂-Al composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjarne R S; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B; Skibsted, Jørgen; Jensen, Torben R

    2014-05-21

    The detailed mechanism of hydrogen release in LiBH4-MgH2-Al composites of molar ratios 4 : 1 : 1 and 4 : 1 : 5 are investigated during multiple cycles of hydrogen release and uptake. This study combines information from several methods, i.e., in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction, (11)B magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR, Sievert's measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectroscopy. The composites of LiBH4-MgH2-Al are compared with the behavior of the LiBH4-Al and LiBH4-MgH2 systems. The decomposition pathway of the LiBH4-MgH2-Al system is different for the two investigated molar ratios, although it ultimately results in the formation of LiAl, Mg(x)Al(1-x)B2 and Li2B12H12 in both cases. For the 4 : 1 : 1-molar ratio, Mg(0.9)Al(0.1) and Mg17Al12 are observed as intermediates. However, only Mg is observed as an intermediate in the 4 : 1 : 5-sample, which may be due to an earlier formation of Mg(x)Al(1-x)B2, reflecting the complex chemistry of Al-Mg phases. Hydrogen release and uptake reveals a decrease in the hydrogen storage capacity upon cycling. This loss reflects the formation of Li2B12H12 as observed by (11)B NMR and infrared spectroscopy for the cycled samples. Furthermore, it is shown that the Li2B12H12 formation can be limited significantly by applying moderate hydrogen partial pressure during decomposition.

  17. Li's criterion for the Riemann hypothesis - numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Maślanka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been some interest in a criterion for the Riemann hypothesis proved recently by Xian-Jin Li [Li X.-J.: The Positivity of a Sequence of Numbers and the Riemann Hypothesis. J. Number Theory 65 (1997, 325-333]. The present paper reports on a numerical computation of the first 3300 of Li's coefficients which appear in this criterion. The main empirical observation is that these coefficients can be separated in two parts. One of these grows smoothly while the other is very small and oscillatory. This apparent smallness is quite unexpected. If it persisted till infinity then the Riemann hypothesis would be true.

  18. Degradation Studies on LiFePO4 cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scipioni, Roberto; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine a laboratory LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode and propose a simple model that predicts the electrode capacity as function of C-rate, number of cycles and calendar time. Microcracks were found in Li1-xFePO4 particles in a degraded LFP electrode and low-acceleration voltage (1 kV) FIB....../SEM analysis allowed us to obtain phase contrast between FePO4 and LiFePO4. The evolution of micro-cracks is expected to increase the concentration of LFP particles which are not electronically accessible and thus cause a loss in capacity....

  19. Cai-Li Communication Protocol in Noisy Quantum Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Hua; YAN Xu-Dong; ZHANG Xian-Zhou

    2004-01-01

    @@ Since the original Cai-Li protocol [Chin. Phys. Lett. 21 (2004) 601] can be used only in an ideal quantum communication, we present the modified Cai-Li protocol that can be used in the a noisy quantum channel by using Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes to correct errors. We also give a tight bound on the connection between information Eve eavesdropped with a measurement attack in line B → A and detection probability,which shows that the Cai-Li protocol can be used as a quasisecure direct quantum communication.

  20. Tensor Modeling Based for Airborne LiDAR Data Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Liu, C.; Pfeifer, N.; Yin, J. F.; Liao, Z. Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Feature selection and description is a key factor in classification of Earth observation data. In this paper a classification method based on tensor decomposition is proposed. First, multiple features are extracted from raw LiDAR point cloud, and raster LiDAR images are derived by accumulating features or the "raw" data attributes. Then, the feature rasters of LiDAR data are stored as a tensor, and tensor decomposition is used to select component features. This tensor representation could keep the initial spatial structure and insure the consideration of the neighborhood. Based on a small number of component features a k nearest neighborhood classification is applied.