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Sample records for iii-v nitride materials

  1. Doping of III-nitride materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pampili, Pietro; Parbrook, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    In this review paper we will report the current state of research regarding the doping of III-nitride materials and their alloys. GaN is a mature material with both n-type and p-type doping relatively well understood, and while n-GaN is easily achieved, p-type doping requires much more care. There are significant efforts to extend the composition range that can be controllably doped for AlGaInN alloys. This would allow application in shorter and longer wavelength optoelectronics as well as ex...

  2. Cr-doped III-V nitrides: Potential candidates for spintronics

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin

    2011-02-19

    Studies of Cr-doped III-V nitrides, dilute magnetic alloys in the zincblende crystal structure, are presented. The objective of the work is to investigate half-metallicity in Al 0.75Cr 0.25N, Ga 0.75Cr 0.25N, and In 0.75Cr 0.25N for their possible application in spin-based electronic devices. The calculated spin-polarized band structures, electronic properties, and magnetic properties of these compounds reveal that Al 0.75Cr 0.25N and Ga 0.75Cr 0.25N are half-metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors while In 0.75Cr 0.25N is metallic in nature. The present theoretical predictions provide evidence that some Cr-doped III-V nitrides can be used in spintronics devices. © 2011 TMS.

  3. Cr-doped III-V nitrides: Potential candidates for spintronics

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin; Arif, Suneela K.; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Maqbool, Muhammad; Ahmad, Roshan; Goumri-Said, Souraya; Prisbrey, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of Cr-doped III-V nitrides, dilute magnetic alloys in the zincblende crystal structure, are presented. The objective of the work is to investigate half-metallicity in Al 0.75Cr 0.25N, Ga 0.75Cr 0.25N, and In 0.75Cr 0.25N for their possible application in spin-based electronic devices. The calculated spin-polarized band structures, electronic properties, and magnetic properties of these compounds reveal that Al 0.75Cr 0.25N and Ga 0.75Cr 0.25N are half-metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors while In 0.75Cr 0.25N is metallic in nature. The present theoretical predictions provide evidence that some Cr-doped III-V nitrides can be used in spintronics devices. © 2011 TMS.

  4. III-nitride integration on ferroelectric materials of lithium niobate by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Madison, Shannon M.; Henderson, Walter; Ralph, Stephen E.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2005-01-01

    Integration of III-nitride electrical devices on the ferroelectric material lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) has been demonstrated. As a ferroelectric material, lithium niobate has a polarization which may provide excellent control of the polarity of III-nitrides. However, while high temperature, 1000 deg. C, thermal treatments produce atomically smooth surfaces, improving adhesion of GaN epitaxial layers on lithium niobate, repolarization of the substrate in local domains occurs. These effects result in multi domains of mixed polarization in LiNbO 3 , producing inversion domains in subsequent GaN epilayers. However, it is found that AlN buffer layers suppress inversion domains of III-nitrides. Therefore, two-dimensional electron gases in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction structures are obtained. Herein, the demonstration of the monolithic integration of high power devices with ferroelectric materials presents possibilities to control LiNbO 3 modulators on compact optoelectronic/electronic chips

  5. Room-temperature ballistic transport in III-nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matioli, Elison; Palacios, Tomás

    2015-02-11

    Room-temperature (RT) ballistic transport of electrons is experimentally observed and theoretically investigated in III-nitrides. This has been largely investigated at low temperatures in low band gap III-V materials due to their high electron mobilities. However, their application to RT ballistic devices is limited by their low optical phonon energies, close to KT at 300 K. In addition, the short electron mean-free-path at RT requires nanoscale devices for which surface effects are a limitation in these materials. We explore the unique properties of wide band-gap III-nitride semiconductors to demonstrate RT ballistic devices. A theoretical model is proposed to corroborate experimentally their optical phonon energy of 92 meV, which is ∼4× larger than in other III-V semiconductors. This allows RT ballistic devices operating at larger voltages and currents. An additional model is described to determine experimentally a characteristic dimension for ballistic transport of 188 nm. Another remarkable property is their short carrier depletion at device sidewalls, down to 13 nm, which allows top-down nanofabrication of very narrow ballistic devices. These results open a wealth of new systems and basic transport studies possible at RT.

  6. Optimal III-nitride HEMTs: from materials and device design to compact model of the 2DEG charge density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Rakheja, Shaloo

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we develop a physically motivated compact model of the charge-voltage (Q-V) characteristics in various III-nitride high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) operating under highly non-equilibrium transport conditions, i.e. high drain-source current. By solving the coupled Schrödinger-Poisson equation and incorporating the two-dimensional electrostatics in the channel, we obtain the charge at the top-of-the-barrier for various applied terminal voltages. The Q-V model accounts for cutting off of the negative momenta states from the drain terminal under high drain-source bias and when the transmission in the channel is quasi-ballistic. We specifically focus on AlGaN and AlInN as barrier materials and InGaN and GaN as the channel material in the heterostructure. The Q-V model is verified and calibrated against numerical results using the commercial TCAD simulator Sentaurus from Synopsys for a 20-nm channel length III-nitride HEMT. With 10 fitting parameters, most of which have a physical origin and can easily be obtained from numerical or experimental calibration, the compact Q-V model allows us to study the limits and opportunities of III-nitride technology. We also identify optimal material and geometrical parameters of the device that maximize the carrier concentration in the HEMT channel in order to achieve superior RF performance. Additionally, the compact charge model can be easily integrated in a hierarchical circuit simulator, such as Keysight ADS and CADENCE, to facilitate circuit design and optimization of various technology parameters.

  7. Investigation of Emerging Materials for Optoelectronic Devices Based on III-Nitrides

    KAUST Repository

    Muhammed, Mufasila Mumthaz

    2018-03-11

    III-nitride direct bandgap semiconductors have attracted significant research interest due to their outstanding potential for modern optoelectronic and electronic applications. However, the high cost of III-nitride devices, along with low performance due to dislocation defects, remains an obstacle to their further improvement. In this dissertation, I present a significant enhancement of III-nitride devices based on emerging materials. A promising substrate, (-201)-oriented β-Ga2O3 with unique properties that combine high transparency and conductivity, is used for the first time in the development of high-quality vertical III-nitride devices, which can be cost-effective for large-scale production. In addition, hybridizing GaN with emerging materials, mainly perovskite, is shown to extend the functionality of III-nitride applications. As a part of this investigation, high-performance and high-responsivity fast perovskite/GaN-based UV-visible broadband photodetectors were developed. State-of-the-art GaN epilayers grown on (-201)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using AlN and GaN buffer layers are discussed, and their high optical quality without using growth enhancement techniques is demonstrated. In particular, a low lattice mismatch (⁓4.7%) between GaN and the substrate results in a low density of dislocations ~4.8Å~107 cm−2. To demonstrates the effect of (-201)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate on the quality of III-nitride alloys, high-quality ternary alloy InxGa1−xN film is studied, followed by the growth of high quality InxGa1−xN/GaN single and multiple quantum wells (QWs). The optical characterization and carrier dynamics by photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL measurements were subsequently performed. Lastly, to investigate the performance of a vertical emitting device based on InGaN/GaN multiple QWs grown on (-201)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate, high-efficiency vertical-injection emitting device is developed and extensively investigated. The conductive nature of

  8. Investigation of Emerging Materials for Optoelectronic Devices Based on III-Nitrides

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila

    2018-01-01

    performance due to dislocation defects, remains an obstacle to their further improvement. In this dissertation, I present a significant enhancement of III-nitride devices based on emerging materials. A promising substrate, (-201)-oriented β-Ga2O3 with unique

  9. Ion implantation and annealing studies in III-V nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolper, J.C.; Pearton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ion implantation doping and isolation is expected to play an enabling role for the realization of advanced III-Nitride based devices. In fact, implantation has already been used to demonstrate n- and p-type doping of GaN with Si and Mg or Ca, respectively, as well as to fabricate the first GaN junction field effect transistor. Although these initial implantation studies demonstrated the feasibility of this technique for the III-Nitride materials, further work is needed to realize its full potential. After reviewing some of the initial studies in this field, the authors present new results for improved annealing sequences and defect studies in GaN. First, sputtered AlN is shown by electrical characterization of Schottky and Ohmic contacts to be an effect encapsulant of GaN during the 1,100 C implant activation anneal. The AlN suppresses N-loss from the GaN surface and the formation of a degenerate n + -surface region that would prohibit Schottky barrier formation after the implant activation anneal. Second, they examine the nature of the defect generation and annealing sequence following implantation using both Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Hall characterization. They show that for a Si-dose of 1 x 10 16 cm -2 50% electrical donor activation is achieved despite a significant amount of residual implantation-induced damage in the material

  10. Anomalous microstructural changes in III-nitrides under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheyev, S.O.; Williams, J.S.; Jagadish, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Group-III nitrides (GaN, AlGaN, and InGaN) are currently a 'hot topic' in the physics and material research community due to very important technological applications of these materials in (opto)electronics. In the fabrication of III-nitride-based devices, ion bombardment represents a very attractive processing tool. However, ion-beam-produced lattice disorder and its undesirable consequences limit technological applications of ion implantation. Hence, studies of ion-beam-damage processes in Ill-nitrides are not only physically interesting but also technologically important. In this study, wurtzite GaN, AlGaN, and InGaN films exposed to ion bombardment under a wide range of irradiation conditions are studied by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/C) spectrometry. Results show that, unlike the situation for mature semiconductors such as Si and GaAs, Ill-nitrides exhibit a range of intriguing behavior involving extreme microstructural changes under ion bombardment. In this presentation, the following aspects are discussed: (i) formation of lattice defects during ion bombardment, (ii) ion-beam-induced phase transformations, (iii) ion-beam-produced stoichiometric imbalance and associated material decomposition, and (iv) an application of charging phenomena during ESEM imaging for studies of electrical isolation in GaN by MeV light ion irradiation. Emphasis is given to the (powerful) application of electron microscopy techniques for the understanding of physical processes occurring in Ill-nitrides under ion bombardment. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  11. Hydrogen-mediated Nitrogen Clustering in Dilute III-V Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, M.-H.; Limpijumnong, S.; Zhang, S. B

    2006-01-01

    First-principles calculation reveals multi-N clusters to be the ground states for hydrogenated N in dilute III-V nitrides. While hydrogenation of a single N, forming H*{sub 2}(N), can relax the large strain induced by the size-mismatched N, formation of the clusters will relax the strain even more effectively. This suppresses the formation of H*{sub 2}(N), the existence of which has recently been debated. More importantly, postgrowth dehydrogenation of the N-H clusters provides an explanation to the observed metastable bare N clusters in GaAsN grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy or metal-organic chemical vapor deposition.

  12. Hydrogen-Mediated Nitrogen Clustering in Dilute III-V Nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mao-Hua; Limpijumnong, Sukit; Zhang, S. B.

    2006-08-01

    First-principles calculation reveals multi-N clusters to be the ground states for hydrogenated N in dilute III-V nitrides. While hydrogenation of a single N, forming H2*(N), can relax the large strain induced by the size-mismatched N, formation of the clusters will relax the strain even more effectively. This suppresses the formation of H2*(N), the existence of which has recently been debated. More importantly, postgrowth dehydrogenation of the N-H clusters provides an explanation to the observed metastable bare N clusters in GaAsN grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy or metal-organic chemical vapor deposition.

  13. Semipolar III-nitride laser diodes with zinc oxide cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myzaferi, Anisa; Reading, Arthur H; Farrell, Robert M; Cohen, Daniel A; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P

    2017-07-24

    Incorporating transparent conducting oxide (TCO) top cladding layers into III-nitride laser diodes (LDs) improves device design by reducing the growth time and temperature of the p-type layers. We investigate using ZnO instead of ITO as the top cladding TCO of a semipolar (202¯1) III-nitride LD. Numerical modeling indicates that replacing ITO with ZnO reduces the internal loss in a TCO clad LD due to the lower optical absorption in ZnO. Lasing was achieved at 453 nm with a threshold current density of 8.6 kA/cm 2 and a threshold voltage of 10.3 V in a semipolar (202¯1) III-nitride LD with ZnO top cladding.

  14. Recent Advances on p-Type III-Nitride Nanowires by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songrui Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available p-Type doping represents a key step towards III-nitride (InN, GaN, AlN optoelectronic devices. In the past, tremendous efforts have been devoted to obtaining high quality p-type III-nitrides, and extraordinary progress has been made in both materials and device aspects. In this article, we intend to discuss a small portion of these processes, focusing on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE-grown p-type InN and AlN—two bottleneck material systems that limit the development of III-nitride near-infrared and deep ultraviolet (UV optoelectronic devices. We will show that by using MBE-grown nanowire structures, the long-lasting p-type doping challenges of InN and AlN can be largely addressed. New aspects of MBE growth of III-nitride nanostructures are also discussed.

  15. Titanium nitride as an electrocatalyst for V(II)/V(III) redox couples in all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chunmei; Wang, Haining; Lu, Shanfu; Wu, Chunxiao; Liu, Yiyang; Tan, Qinglong; Liang, Dawei; Xiang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiN NPs) are proposed as a novel catalyst towards the V(II)/V(III) redox pair for the negative electrode in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB). Electrochemical properties of TiN NPs were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that TiN NPs demonstrate better electrochemical activity and reversibility for the processes of V(II)/V(III) redox couples as compared with the graphite NPs. TiN NPs facilitate the charge transfer in the V(II)/V(III) redox reaction. Performance of a VRFB using a TiN NPs coated carbon paper as a negative electrode is much higher than that of a VRFB with a raw carbon paper electrode. The columbic efficiency (CE), the voltage efficiency (VE) and the energy efficiency (EE) of the VRFB single cell at charge-discharge current density of 30 mA/cm 2 are 91.74%, 89.11% and 81.74%, respectively. During a 50 charge-discharge cycles test, the CE values of VRFB with TiN NPs consistently remain higher than 90%.

  16. Transferrable monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit for multifunctional optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Gao, Xumin; Yuan, Jialei; Zhang, Shuai; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Fenghua; Jiang, Yuan; Zhu, Hongbo; Wang, Yongjin

    2017-12-01

    A monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit with integrated functionalities was implemented by integrating multiple components with different functions into a single chip. In particular, the III-nitride-on-silicon platform is used as it integrates a transmitter, a waveguide, and a receiver into a suspended III-nitride membrane via a wafer-level procedure. Here, a 0.8-mm-diameter suspended device architecture is directly transferred from silicon to a foreign substrate by mechanically breaking the support beams. The transferred InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well diode (MQW-diode) exhibits a turn-on voltage of 2.8 V with a dominant electroluminescence peak at 453 nm. The transmitter and receiver share an identical InGaN/GaN MQW structure, and the integrated photonic circuit inherently works for on-chip power monitoring and in-plane visible light communication. The wire-bonded monolithic photonic circuit on glass experimentally demonstrates in-plane data transmission at 120 Mb/s, paving the way for diverse applications in intelligent displays, in-plane light communication, flexible optical sensors, and wearable III-nitride optoelectronics.

  17. Suspended HfO2 photonic crystal slab on III-nitride/Si platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjin; Feng, Jiao; Cao, Ziping; Zhu, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    We present here the fabrication of suspended hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) photonic crystal slab on a III-nitride/Si platform. The calculations are performed to model the suspended HfO 2 photonic crystal slab. Aluminum nitride (AlN) film is employed as the sacrificial layer to form air gap. Photonic crystal patterns are defined by electron beam lithography and transferred into HfO 2 film, and suspended HfO 2 photonic crystal slab is achieved on a III-nitride/Si platform through wet-etching of AlN layer in the alkaline solution. The method is promising for the fabrication of suspended HfO 2 nanostructures incorporating into a III-nitride/Si platform, or acting as the template for epitaxial growth of III-nitride materials. (orig.)

  18. III-V semiconductor materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, R J

    1989-01-01

    The main emphasis of this volume is on III-V semiconductor epitaxial and bulk crystal growth techniques. Chapters are also included on material characterization and ion implantation. In order to put these growth techniques into perspective a thorough review of the physics and technology of III-V devices is presented. This is the first book of its kind to discuss the theory of the various crystal growth techniques in relation to their advantages and limitations for use in III-V semiconductor devices.

  19. Progress in Group III nitride semiconductor electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yue; Zhang Jinfeng; Shen Bo; Liu Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been a rapid domestic development in group III nitride semiconductor electronic materials and devices. This paper reviews the important progress in GaN-based wide bandgap microelectronic materials and devices in the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, which focuses on the research of the fundamental physical mechanisms of group III nitride semiconductor electronic materials and devices with the aim to enhance the crystal quality and electric performance of GaN-based electronic materials, develop new GaN heterostructures, and eventually achieve high performance GaN microwave power devices. Some remarkable progresses achieved in the program will be introduced, including those in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and metal—oxide—semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) with novel high-k gate insulators, and material growth, defect analysis and material properties of InAlN/GaN heterostructures and HEMT fabrication, and quantum transport and spintronic properties of GaN-based heterostructures, and high-electric-field electron transport properties of GaN material and GaN Gunn devices used in terahertz sources. (invited papers)

  20. Stable Solar-Blind Ultraviolet III-Nitride Photocathode for Astronomy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lloyd

    In this effort, we propose to develop a new type of cesium-free photocathode using III- nitride materials (GaN, AlN, and their alloys) to achieve highly efficient, solar blind, and stable ultraviolet (UV) response. Currently, detectors used in UV instruments utilize a photocathode to convert UV photons into electrons that are subsequently detected by microchannel plate or CCD. The performance of these detectors critically depends on the efficiency and stability of their photocathodes. In particular, photocathode instability is responsible for many of the fabrication difficulties commonly experienced with this class of detectors. In recent years, III-nitride (in particular GaN) photocathodes have been demonstrated with very high quantum efficiency (>50%) in parts of UV spectral range; however, these photocathodes still rely on cesiation for activation. The proposed photocathode structure will achieve activation through methods for band structure engineering such as delta- doping and polarization field engineering. Compared to the current state-of-the-art in flight-ready microchannel plate/Cs2Te sealed tubes, photocathodes based on III-nitride materials will increase the quantum efficiency by nearly an order of magnitude and significantly enhance both fabrication yield and reliability, since they will not require cesium or other highly reactive materials for activation. This performance will enable a next-generation UV spectroscopic and imaging mission that is of high scientific priority for NASA. This photocathode uses near-surface band-structure engineering to create a permanently activated surface, with high efficiency and air-stable UV response. We will combine this III-nitride structure with our unique III-nitride processing technology to optimize the efficiency and uniformity of the photocathode. In addition, through our design, growth, and processing techniques, we will extend the application of these photocathodes into far UV for both semitransparent and

  1. Optical absorption and oxygen passivation of surface states in III-nitride photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Ian; Callsen, Gordon; Jacopin, Gwénolé; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    III-nitride surface states are expected to impact high surface-to-volume ratio devices, such as nano- and micro-wire light-emitting diodes, transistors, and photonic integrated circuits. In this work, reversible photoinduced oxygen desorption from III-nitride microdisk resonator surfaces is shown to increase optical attenuation of whispering gallery modes by 100 cm-1 at λ = 450 nm. Comparison of photoinduced oxygen desorption in unintentionally and n+-doped microdisks suggests that the spectral changes originate from the unpinning of the surface Fermi level, likely taking place at etched nonpolar III-nitride sidewalls. An oxygen-rich surface prepared by thermal annealing results in a broadband Q improvement to state-of-the-art values exceeding 1 × 104 at 2.6 eV. Such findings emphasize the importance of optically active surface states and their passivation for future nanoscale III-nitride optoelectronic and photonic devices.

  2. Photoelectrochemistry of III-V epitaxial layers and nanowires for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Enck, Ryan; Chung, Roy; Kelley, Stephen; Sampath, Anand; Reed, Meredith; Xu, Xiaoqing; Clemens, Bruce

    2017-05-01

    III-V materials, which exhibit high absorption coefficients and charge carrier mobility, are ideal templates for solar energy conversion applications. This work describes the photoelectrochemistry research in several IIIV/electrolyte junctions as an enabler for device design for solar chemical reactions. By designing lattice-matched epitaxial growth of InGaP and GaP on GaAs and Si, respectively, extended depletion region electrodes achieve photovoltages which provide an additional boost to the underlying substrate photovoltage. The InGaP/GaAs and GaP/Si electrodes drive hydrogen evolution currents under aqueous conditions. By using nanowires of InN and InP under carefully controlled growth conditions, current and capacitance measurements are obtained to reveal the nature of the nanowire-electrolyte interface and how light is translated into photocurrent for InP and a photovoltage in InN. The materials system is expanded into the III-V nitride semiconductors, in which it is shown that varying the morphology of GaN on silicon yields insights to how the interface and light conversion is modulated as a basis for future designs. Current extensions of this work address growth and tuning of the III-V nitride electrodes with doping and polarization engineering for efficient coupling to solar-driven chemical reactions, and rapid-throughput methods for III-V nanomaterials synthesis in this materials space.

  3. III-nitrides, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, and their heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan

    2017-04-01

    Group III-nitride materials have attracted great attention for applications in high efficiency electronic and optoelectronics devices such as high electron mobility transistors, light emitting diodes, and laser diodes. On the other hand, group VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) in the form of MX2 has recently emerged as a novel atomic layered material system with excellent thermoelectric, electronic and optoelectronic properties. Also, the recent investigations reveal that the dissimilar heterojunctions formed by TMDs and III-nitrides provide the route for novel devices in the area of optoelectronic, electronics, and water splitting applications. In addition, integration of III-nitrides and TMDs will enable high density integrated optoelectronic circuits and the development of hybrid integration technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated kinetically controlled growth processes in plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) for the III-nitrides and their engineered heterostructures. Techniques such as Ga irradiation and nitrogen plasma exposure has been utilized to implement bulk GaN, InGaN and their heterostructures in PAMBE. For the growth of III-nitride based heterostructures, the in-situ surface stoichiometry monitoring (i-SSM) technique was developed and used for implementing stepped and compositionally graded InGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs). Their optical and microstrain analysis in conjunction with theoretical studies confirmed improvement in the radiative recombination rate of the graded-MQWs as compared to that of stepped-MQWs, owing to the reduced strain in graded-MQWs. Our achievement also includes the realization of the p-type MoS2 by engineering pristine MoS2 layers in PAMBE. Mainly, Ga and nitrogen plasma irradiation on the pristine MoS2 in PAMBE has resulted in the realization of the p-type MoS2. Also, GaN epitaxial thin layers were deposited on MoS2/c-sapphire, WSe2/c-sapphire substrates by PAMBE to study the band

  4. A Stable, Non-Cesiated III-Nitride Photocathode for Ultraviolet Astronomy Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lloyd

    In this effort, we propose to develop a new type of cesium-free photocathode using III-nitride (III-N) materials (GaN, AlN, and their alloys) and to achieve highly efficient, solar blind, and stable UV response. Currently, detectors used in UV instruments utilize a photocathode to convert UV photons into electrons that are subsequently detected by microchannel plate or CCD. The performance of these detectors critically depends on the efficiency and stability of their photocathodes. In particular, photocathode instability is responsible for many of the fabrication difficulties commonly experienced with this class of detectors. In recent years, III-N (in particular GaN) photocathodes have been demonstrated with very high QE (>50%) in parts of UV spectral range. Moreover, due to the wide bandgaps of III-nitride materials, photocathode response can be tailored to be intrinsically solar-blind. However, these photocathodes still rely on cesiation for activation, necessitating all-vacuum fabrication and sealed-tube operation. The proposed photocathode structure will achieve activation through methods for band structure engineering such as delta-doping and polarization field engineering. Compared to the current state-of-the-art in flight-ready microchannel plate sealed tubes, photocathodes based on III-N materials will yield high QE and significantly enhance both fabrication yield and reliability, since they do not require cesium or other highly reactive materials for activation. This performance will enable a ~4 meter medium class UV spectroscopic and imaging mission that is of high scientific priority for NASA. This work will build on the success of our previous APRA-funded effort. In that work, we demonstrated III-nitride photocathode operation without the use of cesium and stable response with respect to time. These accomplishments represent major improvements to the state-of-the-art for photocathode technologies. In the proposed effort, we will implement III-nitride

  5. III-nitrides, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, and their heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan

    2017-01-01

    Group III-nitride materials have attracted great attention for applications in high efficiency electronic and optoelectronics devices such as high electron mobility transistors, light emitting diodes, and laser diodes. On the other hand, group VI

  6. Enhanced thermaly managed packaging for III-nitride light emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudsieh, Nicolas

    In this Dissertation our work on `enhanced thermally managed packaging of high power semiconductor light sources for solid state lighting (SSL)' is presented. The motivation of this research and development is to design thermally high stable cost-efficient packaging of single and multi-chip arrays of III-nitrides wide bandgap semiconductor light sources through mathematical modeling and simulations. Major issues linked with this technology are device overheating which causes serious degradation in their illumination intensity and decrease in the lifetime. In the introduction the basics of III-nitrides WBG semiconductor light emitters are presented along with necessary thermal management of high power cingulated and multi-chip LEDs and laser diodes. This work starts at chip level followed by its extension to fully packaged lighting modules and devices. Different III-nitride structures of multi-quantum well InGaN/GaN and AlGaN/GaN based LEDs and LDs were analyzed using advanced modeling and simulation for different packaging designs and high thermal conductivity materials. Study started with basic surface mounted devices using conventional packaging strategies and was concluded with the latest thermal management of chip-on-plate (COP) method. Newly discovered high thermal conductivity materials have also been incorporated for this work. Our study also presents the new approach of 2D heat spreaders using such materials for SSL and micro LED array packaging. Most of the work has been presented in international conferences proceedings and peer review journals. Some of the latest work has also been submitted to well reputed international journals which are currently been reviewed for publication. .

  7. Strain distribution and defect analysis in III-nitrides by dynamical AFM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minj, Albert; Cavalcoli, Daniela; Cavallini, Anna; Gamarra, Piero; Di Forte Poisson, Marie-Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report on significant material information provided by semi-contact phase-images in a wide range of hard III-nitride surfaces. We show that the phase contrast, which is fundamentally related to the energy dissipation during tip–surface interaction, is sensitive to the crystalline nature of the material and thus could potentially be used to determine the crystalline quality of thin nitride layers. Besides, we found that the structural defects, especially threading dislocations and cracks, act as selective sites where energy mainly dissipates. Consequently, in nitrides defects with very low dimensions can actually be imaged with phase-contrast imaging. (paper)

  8. Morphology of interior interfaces in dilute nitride III/V material systems; Morphologie innerer Grenzflaechen in verduennt stickstoffhaltigen III/V-Materialsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberhoff, S.

    2007-12-03

    This study aims to clarify structure formation processes in dilute N-containing III/V-based material systems, using highly selective etching methods and subsequent atomic force microscopy (AFM) to expose and analyse interior interfaces. In the first part of this study it was directly proved for the first time that adding Sb during growth interruption inhibits the GI-induced structural phase transition and reduces the diffusivity on GaAs and (GaIn)(NAs) surfaces. However, applying Sb during GI does not affect the driving force of the structural phase transition. Therefore a fundamental analysis about the incorporation of Sb into GaAs, Ga(NAs) and (GaIn)(NAs) was carried out in the second part of the study. Using a combination of high resolution X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and SIMS measurements, it was verified that incorporating Sb into (GaIn)(NAs) causes an increase of the In content and a decrease of the N content. In the third part of the study, novel etching methods for the GaP-based material system Ga(NAsP) are introduced which provide the opportunity to analyse structure formation processes on interior interfaces in this material system by AFM. (orig.)

  9. Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirste, Ronny; Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    We review recent advances of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT)-based electronic biosensors. We discuss properties and fabrication of III-nitride-based biosensors. Because of their superior biocompatibility and aqueous stability, GaN-based devices are ready to be implemented as next-generation biosensors. We review surface properties, cleaning, and passivation as well as different pathways toward functionalization, and critically analyze III-nitride-based biosensors demonstrated in the literature, including those detecting DNA, bacteria, cancer antibodies, and toxins. We also discuss the high potential of these biosensors for monitoring living cardiac, fibroblast, and nerve cells. Finally, we report on current developments of covalent chemical functionalization of III-nitride devices. Our review concludes with a short outlook on future challenges and projected implementation directions of GaN-based HEMT biosensors.

  10. III-Nitride Micro and Nano Structures for Solid State Lightning

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Slimane, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    efficacy. Typically, LEDs rely on group-III-nitride materials to generate visible light. One of the techniques to generate white light is to coat blue LEDs with yellow phosphor, or ultraviolet (UV) LEDs with red-green-blue (RGB) phosphor. Other scheme

  11. III-nitride semiconductors and their modern devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book is dedicated to GaN and its alloys AlGaInN (III-V nitrides), semiconductors with intrinsic properties well suited for visible and UV light emission and electronic devices working at high temperature, high frequency, and harsh environments. There has been a rapid growth in the industrial activity relating to GaN, with GaN now ranking at the second position (after Si) among all semiconductors. This is mainly thanks to LEDs, but also to the emergence of lasers and high power and high frequency electronics. GaN-related research activities are also diversifying, ranging from advanced optical sources and single electron devices to physical, chemical, and biological sensors, optical detectors, and energy converters. All recent developments of nitrides and of their technology are gathered here in a single volume, with chapters written by world leaders in the field. This third book of the series edited by B. Gil is complementary to the preceding two, and is expected to offer a modern vision of nitrides and...

  12. Characteristics of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Source for the Production of Active Nitrogen Species in III-V Nitride Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A simple analysis is provided to determine the characteristics of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source for the generation of active nitrogen species in the molecular beam epitaxy of III-V nitrides. The effects of reactor geometry, pressure, power, and flow rate on the dissociation efficiency and ion flux are presented. Pulsing the input power is proposed to reduce the ion flux.

  13. Optical and Temporal Carrier Dynamics Investigations of III-Nitrides for Semiconductor Lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Ajia, Idris A.

    2018-05-22

    III-nitride semiconductors suffer significant efficiency limitations; ‘efficiency’ being an umbrella term that covers an extensive list of challenges that must be overcome if they are to fulfil their vast potential. To this end, it is imperative to understand the underlying phenomena behind such limitations. In this dissertation, I combine powerful optical and structural characterization techniques to investigate the effect of different defects on the carrier dynamics in III-nitride materials for light emitting devices. The results presented herein will enhance the current understanding of the carrier mechanisms in such devices, which will lead to device efficiency improvements. In the first part of this dissertation, the effects of some important types of crystal defects present in III-nitride structures are investigated. Here, two types of defects are studied in two different III-nitride-based light emitting structures. The first defects of interest are V-pit defects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) blue LEDs, where their contribution to the high-efficiency of such LEDs is discussed. In addition, the effect of these defects on the efficiency droop phenomenon in these LEDs is elucidated. Secondly, the optical effects of grain boundary defects in AlN-rich AlGaN/AlGaN MQWs is studied. In this study, it is shown that grain boundary defects may result in abnormal carrier localization behavior in these deep ultraviolet (UV) structures. While both defects are treated individually, it is evident from these studies that threading dislocation (TD) defects are an underlying contributor to the more undesirable outcomes of the said defects. In the second part, the dissertation reports on the carrier dynamics of III-nitride LED structures grown on emerging substrates—as possible efficiency enhancing techniques—aimed at mitigating the effects of TD defects. Thus, the carrier dynamics of GaN/AlGaN UV MQWs grown, for the first time, on (2̅01) – oriented β-Ga2O

  14. Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Wallis, D J; Humphreys, C J

    2013-01-01

    The use of III-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is now widespread in applications such as indicator lamps, display panels, backlighting for liquid-crystal display TVs and computer screens, traffic lights, etc. To meet the huge market demand and lower the manufacturing cost, the LED industry is moving fast from 2 inch to 4 inch and recently to 6 inch wafer sizes. Although Al 2 O 3 (sapphire) and SiC remain the dominant substrate materials for the epitaxy of nitride LEDs, the use of large Si substrates attracts great interest because Si wafers are readily available in large diameters at low cost. In addition, such wafers are compatible with existing processing lines for 6 inch and larger wafers commonly used in the electronics industry. During the last decade, much exciting progress has been achieved in improving the performance of GaN-on-Si devices. In this contribution, the status and prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si substrates are reviewed. The issues involved in the growth of GaN-based LED structures on Si and possible solutions are outlined, together with a brief introduction to some novel in situ and ex situ monitoring/characterization tools, which are especially useful for the growth of GaN-on-Si structures. (review article)

  15. Effect of III-nitride polarization on V{sub OC} in p-i-n and MQW solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkoong, Gon; Boland, Patrick; Foe, Kurniawan; Latimer, Kevin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Applied Research Center, 12050 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Bae, Si-Young; Shim, Jae-Phil; Lee, Dong-Seon [School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro (Oryong-dong), Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Seong-Ran [Korea Photonics Technology Institute, 971-35, Wolchul-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-779 (Korea, Republic of); Doolittle, W. Alan [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    We performed detailed studies of the effect of polarization on III-nitride solar cells. Spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations were assessed to determine their impacts upon the open circuit voltages (V{sub OC}) in p-i(InGaN)-n and multi-quantum well (MQW) solar cells. We found that the spontaneous polarization in Ga-polar p-i-n solar cells strongly modifies energy band structures and corresponding electric fields in a way that degrades V{sub OC} compared to non-polar p-i-n structures. In contrast, we found that piezoelectric polarization in Ga-polar MQW structures does not have a large influence on V{sub OC} compared to non-polar MQW structures. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Growth, morphology, and structural properties of group-III-nitride nanocolumns and nanodisks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, E.; Ristic, J.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Grandal, J.; Cerutti, L.; Trampert, A.; Jahn, U.; Sanchez, G.; Griol, A.; Sanchez, B.

    2007-01-01

    The growth conditions to achieve group-III-nitride nanocolumns and nanocolumnar heterostructures by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The evolution of the nanocolumnar morphology with the growth conditions is determined for (Ga,Al)N and (In,Ga)N nanocolumns. The mechanisms behind the nanocolumnar growth under high N-rich conditions are clarified in the sense that no seeding or catalysts are required, as it is the case in the vapour-liquid-solid model that applies to most nanocolumns grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition, either with group-III nitrides, II-VI or III-V compounds. Some examples of nanocolumnar heterostructures are given, like quantum disks and cylindrical nanocavities. Preliminary results on the growth of arrays of ordered GaN nanocolumns are reported. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  18. III-Nitride Membranes for Thermal Bio-Sensing and Solar Hydrogen Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami Tarek Mahmoud

    2017-09-01

    III-nitride nanostructures have generated tremendous scientific and technological interests in studying and engineering their low dimensional physics phenomena. Among these, 2D planar, free standing III-nitride nanomembranes are unrivalled in their scalability for high yield manufacture and can be mechanically manipulated. Due to the increase in their surface to volume ratio and the manifestation of quantum phenomena, these nanomembranes acquire unique physical properties. Furthermore, III-nitride membranes are chemically stable and biocompatible. Finally, nanomembranes are highly flexible and can follow curvilinear surfaces present in biological systems. However, being free-standing, requires especially new techniques for handling nanometers or micrometers thick membrane devices. Furthermore, effectively transferring these membrane devices to other substrates is not a direct process which requires the use of photoresists, solvents and/or elastomers. Finally, as the membranes are transferred, they need to be properly attached for subsequent device fabrications, which often includes spin coating and rinsing steps. These engineering complications have impeded the development of novel devices based on III-nitride membranes. In this thesis, we demonstrate the versatility of III-nitride membranes where we develop a thermal bio-sensor nanomembrane and solar energy photo-anode membrane. First, we present a novel preparation technique of nanomembranes with new characteristics; having no threading dislocation cores. We then perform optical characterization to reveal changes in their defect densities compared to the bulk crystal. We also study their mechanical properties where we successfully modulate their bandgap emission by 55 meV through various external compressive and tensile strain fields. Furthermore, we characterize the effect of phonon-boundary scattering on their thermal properties where we report a reduction of thermal conductivity from 130 to 9 W/mK. We employ

  19. III-Nitrides growth and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on ferroelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Namkoong, Gon; Madison, Shannon M.; Ralph, Stephen E.; Doolittle, W. Alan; Losurdo, Maria; Bruno, Giovanni; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2007-01-01

    The growth of III-nitrides on the ferroelectric materials lithium niobate (LN) and lithium tantalate (LT) via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using rf plasma source has been investigated. We have found that gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers have a crystalline relationship with lithium niobate (tantalate) as follows: (0 0 0 1) GaN || (0 0 0 1) LN (LT) with [10-10] GaN || [11-20] LN (LT). The surface stability of LN and LT substrates has been monitored by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry in the vacuum chamber. Three different temperature zones have been discerned; surface degas and loss of OH group (100-350 deg. C); surface segregation/accumulation of Li and O-species (400-700 deg. C); surface evaporation of O-species and Li desorption (over 750 deg. C). However, LT shows only surface degassing in the range of 100-800 deg. C. Therefore, congruent LN substrates were chemically unstable at the growth temperature of 550-650 deg. C, and therefore developed an additional phase of Li-deficient lithium niobate (LiNb 3 O 8 ) along with lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ), confirmed by X-ray diffraction. On the other hand, LT showed better chemical stability at these temperatures, with no additional phase development. The structural quality of GaN epitaxial layers has shown slight improvement on LT substrates over LN substrates, according to X-ray diffraction. Herein, we demonstrate AlGaN/GaN heterostructure devices on ferroelectric materials that will allow future development of multifunctional electrical and optical applications

  20. III-Nitrides growth and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on ferroelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Keun [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 777 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Namkoong, Gon [Old Dominion University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Madison, Shannon M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 777 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Ralph, Stephen E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 777 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Doolittle, W. Alan [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 777 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)]. E-mail: alan.doolittle@ece.gatech.edu; Losurdo, Maria [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4 70126 Bari (Italy); Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4 70126 Bari (Italy); Cho, Hyung Koun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sung Kyun Kwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The growth of III-nitrides on the ferroelectric materials lithium niobate (LN) and lithium tantalate (LT) via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using rf plasma source has been investigated. We have found that gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers have a crystalline relationship with lithium niobate (tantalate) as follows: (0 0 0 1) GaN || (0 0 0 1) LN (LT) with [10-10] GaN || [11-20] LN (LT). The surface stability of LN and LT substrates has been monitored by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry in the vacuum chamber. Three different temperature zones have been discerned; surface degas and loss of OH group (100-350 deg. C); surface segregation/accumulation of Li and O-species (400-700 deg. C); surface evaporation of O-species and Li desorption (over 750 deg. C). However, LT shows only surface degassing in the range of 100-800 deg. C. Therefore, congruent LN substrates were chemically unstable at the growth temperature of 550-650 deg. C, and therefore developed an additional phase of Li-deficient lithium niobate (LiNb{sub 3}O{sub 8}) along with lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}), confirmed by X-ray diffraction. On the other hand, LT showed better chemical stability at these temperatures, with no additional phase development. The structural quality of GaN epitaxial layers has shown slight improvement on LT substrates over LN substrates, according to X-ray diffraction. Herein, we demonstrate AlGaN/GaN heterostructure devices on ferroelectric materials that will allow future development of multifunctional electrical and optical applications.

  1. III-nitrides on oxygen- and zinc-face ZnO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Burnham, Shawn; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Trybus, Elaissa; Doolittle, W. Alan; Losurdo, Maria; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni; Nemeth, Bill; Nause, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of III-nitrides grown on zinc- and oxygen-face ZnO by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern indicates formation of a cubic phase at the interface between III-nitride and both Zn- and O-face ZnO. The polarity indicates that Zn-face ZnO leads to a single polarity, while O-face ZnO forms mixed polarity of III-nitrides. Furthermore, by using a vicinal ZnO substrate, the terrace-step growth of GaN was realized with a reduction by two orders of magnitude in the dislocation-related etch pit density to ∼10 8 cm -2 , while a dislocation density of ∼10 10 cm -2 was obtained on the on-axis ZnO substrates

  2. Spin-State-Controlled Photodissociation of Iron(III) Azide to an Iron(V) Nitride Complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andris, E.; Navrátil, R.; Jašík, J.; Sabenya, G.; Costas, M.; Srnec, Martin; Roithová, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 45 (2017), s. 14057-14060 ISSN 1521-3773 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Ion spectroscopy * Iron(V) nitride * Photodissociation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry

  3. Single Photon Counting UV Solar-Blind Detectors Using Silicon and III-Nitride Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Jewell, April D.; Hennessy, John J.; Carver, Alexander G.; Jones, Todd J.; Goodsall, Timothy M.; Hamden, Erika T.; Suvarna, Puneet; Bulmer, J.; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Charbon, Edoardo; Padmanabhan, Preethi; Hancock, Bruce; Bell, L. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) studies in astronomy, cosmology, planetary studies, biological and medical applications often require precision detection of faint objects and in many cases require photon-counting detection. We present an overview of two approaches for achieving photon counting in the UV. The first approach involves UV enhancement of photon-counting silicon detectors, including electron multiplying charge-coupled devices and avalanche photodiodes. The approach used here employs molecular beam epitaxy for delta doping and superlattice doping for surface passivation and high UV quantum efficiency. Additional UV enhancements include antireflection (AR) and solar-blind UV bandpass coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition. Quantum efficiency (QE) measurements show QE > 50% in the 100–300 nm range for detectors with simple AR coatings, and QE ≅ 80% at ~206 nm has been shown when more complex AR coatings are used. The second approach is based on avalanche photodiodes in III-nitride materials with high QE and intrinsic solar blindness. PMID:27338399

  4. Charge carrier transport properties in layer structured hexagonal boron nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Doan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its large in-plane thermal conductivity, high temperature and chemical stability, large energy band gap (˜ 6.4 eV, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN has emerged as an important material for applications in deep ultraviolet photonic devices. Among the members of the III-nitride material system, hBN is the least studied and understood. The study of the electrical transport properties of hBN is of utmost importance with a view to realizing practical device applications. Wafer-scale hBN epilayers have been successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical deposition and their electrical transport properties have been probed by variable temperature Hall effect measurements. The results demonstrate that undoped hBN is a semiconductor exhibiting weak p-type at high temperatures (> 700 °K. The measured acceptor energy level is about 0.68 eV above the valence band. In contrast to the electrical transport properties of traditional III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, the temperature dependence of the hole mobility in hBN can be described by the form of μ ∝ (T/T0−α with α = 3.02, satisfying the two-dimensional (2D carrier transport limit dominated by the polar optical phonon scattering. This behavior is a direct consequence of the fact that hBN is a layer structured material. The optical phonon energy deduced from the temperature dependence of the hole mobility is ħω = 192 meV (or 1546 cm-1, which is consistent with values previously obtained using other techniques. The present results extend our understanding of the charge carrier transport properties beyond the traditional III-nitride semiconductors.

  5. Transferable tight-binding model for strained group IV and III-V materials and heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yaohua; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy B.; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    It is critical to capture the effect due to strain and material interface for device level transistor modeling. We introduce a transferable s p3d5s* tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor interactions for arbitrarily strained group IV and III-V materials. The tight-binding model is parametrized with respect to hybrid functional (HSE06) calculations for varieties of strained systems. The tight-binding calculations of ultrasmall superlattices formed by group IV and group III-V materials show good agreement with the corresponding HSE06 calculations. The application of the tight-binding model to superlattices demonstrates that the transferable tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor interactions can be obtained for group IV and III-V materials.

  6. Mocvd Growth of Group-III Nitrides on Silicon Carbide: From Thin Films to Atomically Thin Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.

    Group-III nitride semiconductors (AlN, GaN, InN and their alloys) are considered one of the most important class of materials for electronic and optoelectronic devices. This is not limited to the blue light-emitting diode (LED) used for efficient solid-state lighting, but other applications as well, such as solar cells, radar and a variety of high frequency power electronics, which are all prime examples of the technological importance of nitride based wide bandgap semiconductors in our daily lives. The goal of this dissertation work was to explore and establish new growth schemes to improve the structural and optical properties of thick to atomically thin films of group-III nitrides grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on SiC substrates for future novel devices. The first research focus of this dissertation was on the growth of indium gallium nitride (InGaN). This wide bandgap semiconductor has attracted much research attention as an active layer in LEDs and recently as an absorber material for solar cells. InGaN has superior material properties for solar cells due to its wavelength absorption tunability that nearly covers the entire solar spectrum. This can be achieved by controlling the indium content in thick grown material. Thick InGaN films are also of interest as strain reducing based layers for deep-green and red light emitters. The growth of thick films of InGaN is, however, hindered by several combined problems. This includes poor incorporation of indium in alloys, high density of structural and morphological defects, as well as challenges associated with the segregation of indium in thick films. Overcoming some of these material challenges is essential in order integrate thick InGaN films into future optoelectronics. Therefore, this dissertation research investigated the growth mechanism of InGaN layers grown in the N-polar direction by MOCVD as a route to improve the structural and optical properties of thick InGaN films. The growth

  7. Progress in efficient doping of high aluminum-containing group III-nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y.-H.; Towe, E.

    2018-03-01

    The group III-nitride (InN, GaN, and AlN) class of semiconductors has become one of two that are critical to a number of technologies in modern life—the other being silicon. Light-emitting diodes made from (In,Ga)N, for example, dominate recent innovations in general illumination and signaling. Even though the (In,Ga)N materials system is fairly well established and widely used in advanced devices, challenges continue to impede development of devices that include aluminum-containing nitride films such as (Al,Ga)N. The main difficulty is efficient doping of films with aluminum-rich compositions; the problem is particularly severe for p-type doping, which is essential for Ohmic contacts to bipolar device structures. This review briefly summarizes the fundamental issues related to p-type doping, and then discusses a number of approaches that are being pursued to resolve the doping problem or for circumventing the need for p-type doping. Finally, we discuss an approach to doping under liquid-metal-enabled growth by molecular beam epitaxy. Recent results from a number of groups appear to indicate that p-type doping of nitride films under liquid-metal-enabled growth conditions might offer a solution to the doping problem—at least for materials grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

  8. Mobility in n-doped wurtzite III-Nitrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the mobility of n-doped wurtzite III-Nitrides is reported. We have determined the nonequilibrium thermodynamic state of the III-Nitrides systems driven far away from equilibrium by a strong electric field in the steady state, which follows after a very fast transient. The dependence of the mobility (which depends on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic state of the sample on the electric field strength is derived, which decreases with the strength of electric field. We analyzed the contributions to the mobility arising out of the different channels of electron scattering, namely, the polar optic, deformation, piezoelectric, interactions with the phonons, and with impurities. The case of n-InN, n-GaN, and n-AlN have been analyzed: as expected the main contribution comes from the polar-optic interactions in these strongly polar semiconductors. The other interactions are in decreasing order, the deformation acoustic, the piezoelectric, and the one due to impurities.

  9. Transparent conducting oxide clad limited area epitaxy semipolar III-nitride laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Myzaferi, A.

    2016-08-11

    The bottom cladding design of semipolar III-nitride laser diodes is limited by stress relaxation via misfit dislocations that form via the glide of pre-existing threading dislocations (TDs), whereas the top cladding is limited by the growth time and temperature of the p-type layers. These design limitations have individually been addressed by using limited area epitaxy (LAE) to block TD glide in n-type AlGaN bottom cladding layers and by using transparent conducting oxide (TCO) top cladding layers to reduce the growth time and temperature of the p-type layers. In addition, a TCO-based top cladding should have significantly lower resistivity than a conventional p-type (Al)GaN top cladding. In this work, LAE and indium-tin-oxide cladding layers are used simultaneously in a (202⎯⎯1) III-nitride laser structure. Lasing was achieved at 446 nm with a threshold current density of 8.5 kA/cm2 and a threshold voltage of 8.4 V.

  10. Polarity Control in Group-III Nitrides beyond Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Stefan; Stolyarchuk, Natalia; Markurt, Toni; Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Collazo, Ramón; Courville, Aimeric; Di Felice, Rosa; Sitar, Zlatko; Vennéguès, Philippe; Albrecht, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the polarity of polar semiconductors on nonpolar substrates offers a wealth of device concepts in the form of heteropolar junctions. A key to realize such structures is an appropriate buffer-layer design that, in the past, has been developed by empiricism. GaN or ZnO on sapphire are prominent examples for that. Understanding the basic processes that mediate polarity, however, is still an unsolved problem. In this work, we study the structure of buffer layers for group-III nitrides on sapphire by transmission electron microscopy as an example. We show that it is the conversion of the sapphire surface into a rhombohedral aluminum-oxynitride layer that converts the initial N-polar surface to Al polarity. With the various AlxOyNz phases of the pseudobinary Al2O3 -AlN system and their tolerance against intrinsic defects, typical for oxides, a smooth transition between the octahedrally coordinated Al in the sapphire and the tetrahedrally coordinated Al in AlN becomes feasible. Based on these results, we discuss the consequences for achieving either polarity and shed light on widely applied concepts in the field of group-III nitrides like nitridation and low-temperature buffer layers.

  11. Band structure effects on resonant tunneling in III-V quantum wells versus two-dimensional vertical heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Philip M., E-mail: philip.campbell@gatech.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Electronic Systems Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A.; Vogel, Eric M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Ready, W. Jud [Electronic Systems Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.

  12. Band structure effects on resonant tunneling in III-V quantum wells versus two-dimensional vertical heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Philip M.; Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A.; Ready, W. Jud; Vogel, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.

  13. III-Nitride Micro and Nano Structures for Solid State Lightning

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Slimane, Ahmed

    2014-08-01

    Visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used in daily consumer electronics systems, such as general lighting, displays, communication, sensing, and also biomedical applications. To mitigate the ever increasing technology demand, there are tremendous on-going efforts in improving material properties and micro-fabrication techniques. In general, visible LEDs are environmentally friendly, robust and reliable light emitters with small device footprint, and are capable of delivering high luminous efficacy. Typically, LEDs rely on group-III-nitride materials to generate visible light. One of the techniques to generate white light is to coat blue LEDs with yellow phosphor, or ultraviolet (UV) LEDs with red-green-blue (RGB) phosphor. Other scheme relies on combination of RGB LEDs, where high brightness green and blue LEDs are generally grown on robust sapphire substrate. But the current challenges in high threading dislocation density of III-Nitride materials on sapphire or hetero-substrate, phosphor degradation, and bulk-LED mechanical design constraints imposed by the supporting substrate wafer motivate further scientific investigations into strain-engineering, novel reliable phosphor-semiconductor, color-tuning techniques, and transferrable III-nitride vertical LEDs. The current research presents a significant step towards the utilization of annealed porous GaN as a template for subsequent growth of fully relaxed GaN-based epitaxy materials. In our study, we observed significant compressive strain relaxation of 0.41 ± 0.04 GPa in annealed porous GaN fabricated using UV-assisted electroless etching. Moreover the use of GaN nanoparticles with large wavelength tunability and 10 µm InGaN microstructures with different indium composition ushers a new way of making reliable phosphor for white light generation. We also investigate the epitaxial lift-off of InGaN LED structures by selectively etching unintentionally doped GaN sacrificial buffer layer. High Ga

  14. Amber light-emitting diode comprising a group III-nitride nanowire active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Koleske, Daniel

    2014-07-22

    A temperature stable (color and efficiency) III-nitride based amber (585 nm) light-emitting diode is based on a novel hybrid nanowire-planar structure. The arrays of GaN nanowires enable radial InGaN/GaN quantum well LED structures with high indium content and high material quality. The high efficiency and temperature stable direct yellow and red phosphor-free emitters enable high efficiency white LEDs based on the RGYB color-mixing approach.

  15. Half-metallicity and electronic structures for carbon-doped group III-nitrides: Calculated with a modified Becke-Johnson potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuai-wei; Wang, Ri-gao; Xu, Pemg

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structures and magnetism for carbon-doped group III-nitrides are investigated by utilizing the first principle method with the modified Becke-Johnson potential. Calculations show that carbon substituting cations (anions) would induce the group III-nitrides to be paramagnetic metals (half-metallic ferromagnets). Single carbon substituting nitrogen could produce 1.00μB magnetic moment. Electronic structures indicate that the carriers-mediated double-exchange interaction plays a crucial role in forming the ferromagnetism. Based on the mean-field theory, the Curie temperature for carbon-doped group III-nitrides would be above the room temperature. Negative chemical pair interactions imply that carbon dopants tend to form clustering distribution in group III-nitrides. The nitrogen vacancy would make the carbon-doped group III-nitrides lose the half-metallic ferromagnetism.

  16. Enhanced non-radiative energy transfer in hybrid III-nitride structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R. M.; Athanasiou, M.; Bai, J.; Liu, B.; Wang, T.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of surface states has been investigated in hybrid organic/inorganic white light emitting structures that employ high efficiency, nearfield non-radiative energy transfer (NRET) coupling. The structures utilize blue emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanorod arrays to minimize the separation with a yellow emitting F8BT coating. Surface states due to the exposed III-nitride surfaces of the nanostructures are found to reduce the NRET coupling rate. The surface states are passivated by deposition of a silicon nitride layer on the III-nitride nanorod surface leading to reduced surface recombination. A low thickness surface passivation is shown to increase the NRET coupling rate by 4 times compared to an un-passivated hybrid structure. A model is proposed to explain the increased NRET rate for the passivated hybrid structures based on the reduction in surface electron depletion of the passivated InGaN/GaN MQW nanorods surfaces

  17. Phonon and free-charge carrier properties in group-III nitride heterostructures investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry and optical Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeche, Stefan

    The material class of group-III nitrides gained tremendous technological importance for optoelectronic and high-power/high-frequency amplification devices. Tunability of the direct band gap from 0.65 eV (InN) to 6.2 eV (AlN) by alloying, high breakthrough voltages and intrinsic mobilities, as well as the formation of highly mobile 2d electron gases (2DEG) at heterointerfaces make these compounds ideal for many applications. GaN and Ga-rich alloys are well studied and current research is mainly device-oriented. For example, choice and quality of the gate dielectric significantly influence device performance in high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) which utilize highly mobile 2DEGs at heterointerfaces. Experimental access to the 2DEG channel properties without influence from parasitic currents or contact properties are desirable. In- and Al-rich ternary alloys are less explored than Ga-rich compounds. For InN and In-rich alloys, while many material parameters such as stiffness constants or effective mass values are largely unknown, reliable p-type doping is a major challenge, also because p-type conducting channels are buried within highly conductive n-type material formed at the surface and interfaces preventing electrical characterization. For AlN and high-Al content alloys, doping mechanisms are not understood and reliable fabrication of material with high free-charge carrier (FCC) concentrations was achieved just recently. Difficulties to form ohmic contacts impair electrical measurements and optical characterization is impeded by lack of high-energy excitation sources. In this work, spectroscopic ellipsometry over the wide spectral range from the THz to VUV in combination with optical Hall effect (generalized ellipsometry with applied magnetic field) from THz to MIR are applied in order to investigate the phonon modes and FCC properties in group-III nitride heterostructures. Adequate model descriptions and analysis strategies are introduced which allow

  18. Progress in III-V materials technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ian R.

    2004-12-01

    Compound semiconductors, in the form of GaAs and InP have achieved major commercial significance in areas of application such as mobile communications, displays and telecoms and offer a versatility of function beyond the capabilities of Si. III-V compounds, and in particular GaAs, have since their early development been the subject of defence related interest. Support from this sector established the basic materials technologies and nurtured development up until their commercial breakthrough into consumer products. GaAs, for example, now provides essential components for mobile phones and CD / DVD players. An overview is presented of the crystal growth and processing methods used in the manufacture of these materials. Current state of the art characteristics on crystal form and quality are discussed, together with the evolution of single crystal growth techniques. Consideration is given to how these principal compounds together with the minor materials, InSb, GaSb and InAs are employed in diverse applications over a broad spectral range, together with information on markets and future perspectives.

  19. Anisotropy of the nitrogen conduction states in the group III nitrides studied by polarized x-ray absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Institute of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Liliental-Weber, Z.; Gullikson, E.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Group III nitrides (AlN, GaN, and InN) consist of the semiconductors which appear recently as a basic materials for optoelectronic devices active in the visible/ultraviolet spectrum as well as high-temperature and high-power microelectronic devices. However, understanding of the basic physical properties leading to application is still not satisfactory. One of the reasons consists in unsufficient knowledge of the band structure of the considered semiconductors. Several theoretical studies of III-nitrides band structure have been published but relatively few experimental studies have been carried out, particularly with respect to their conduction band structure. This motivated the authors to examine the conduction band structure projected onto p-states of the nitrogen atoms for AlN, GaN and InN. An additional advantage of their studies is the availability of the studied nitrides in two structures, hexagonal (wurtzite) and cubic (zincblende). This offers an opportunity to gain information about the role of the anisotropy of electronic band states in determining various physical properties.

  20. Anisotropy of the nitrogen conduction states in the group III nitrides studied by polarized x-ray absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Gullikson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Group III nitrides (AlN, GaN, and InN) consist of the semiconductors which appear recently as a basic materials for optoelectronic devices active in the visible/ultraviolet spectrum as well as high-temperature and high-power microelectronic devices. However, understanding of the basic physical properties leading to application is still not satisfactory. One of the reasons consists in unsufficient knowledge of the band structure of the considered semiconductors. Several theoretical studies of III-nitrides band structure have been published but relatively few experimental studies have been carried out, particularly with respect to their conduction band structure. This motivated the authors to examine the conduction band structure projected onto p-states of the nitrogen atoms for AlN, GaN and InN. An additional advantage of their studies is the availability of the studied nitrides in two structures, hexagonal (wurtzite) and cubic (zincblende). This offers an opportunity to gain information about the role of the anisotropy of electronic band states in determining various physical properties

  1. Optical and Temporal Carrier Dynamics Investigations of III-Nitrides for Semiconductor Lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Ajia, Idris A.

    2018-01-01

    In the first part of this dissertation, the effects of some important types of crystal defects present in III-nitride structures are investigated. Here, two types of defects are studied in two different III-nitride-based light emitting structures. The first defects of interest are V-pit defects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) blue LEDs, where their contribution to the high-efficiency of such LEDs is discussed. In addition, the effect of these defects on the efficiency droop phenomenon in these LEDs is elucidated. Secondly, the optical effects of grain boundary defects in AlN-rich AlGaN/AlGaN MQWs is studied. In this study, it is shown that grain boundary defects may result in abnormal carrier localization behavior in these deep ultraviolet (UV) structures. While both defects are treated individually, it is evident from these studies that threading dislocation (TD) defects are an underlying contributor to the more undesirable outcomes of the said defects. In the second part, the dissertation reports on the carrier dynamics of III-nitride LED structures grown on emerging substrates—as possible efficiency enhancing techniques—aimed at mitigating the effects of TD defects. Thus, the carrier dynamics of GaN/AlGaN UV MQWs grown, for the first time, on (2̅01) – oriented β-Ga2O3 is studied. It is shown to be a candidate substrate for highly efficient vertical UV devices. Finally, results from the carrier dynamics investigation of an AlGaN/AlGaN MQW LED structure homoepitaxially grown on AlN substrate are discussed, where it is shown that its high-efficiency is sustained at high temperatures through the thermal redistribution of carriers to highly efficient recombination sites.

  2. New Tunneling Features in Polar III-Nitride Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimy Encomendero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades, repeatable resonant tunneling transport of electrons in III-nitride double barrier heterostructures has remained elusive at room temperature. In this work we theoretically and experimentally study III-nitride double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs, the quantum transport characteristics of which exhibit new features that are unexplainable using existing semiconductor theory. The repeatable and robust resonant transport in our devices enables us to track the origin of these features to the broken inversion symmetry in the uniaxial crystal structure, which generates built-in spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization fields. Resonant tunneling transport enabled by the ground state as well as by the first excited state is demonstrated for the first time over a wide temperature window in planar III-nitride RTDs. An analytical transport model for polar resonant tunneling heterostructures is introduced for the first time, showing a good quantitative agreement with experimental data. From this model we realize that tunneling transport is an extremely sensitive measure of the built-in polarization fields. Since such electric fields play a crucial role in the design of electronic and photonic devices, but are difficult to measure, our work provides a completely new method to accurately determine their magnitude for the entire class of polar heterostructures.

  3. Evidence of Type-II Band Alignment in III-nitride Semiconductors: Experimental and theoretical investigation for In0.17Al0.83N/GaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaming; Xu, Fujun; Zhang, Xia; An, Wei; Li, Xin-Zheng; Song, Jie; Ge, Weikun; Tian, Guangshan; Lu, Jing; Wang, Xinqiang; Tang, Ning; Yang, Zhijian; Li, Wei; Wang, Weiying; Jin, Peng; Chen, Yonghai; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Type-II band alignment structure is coveted in the design of photovoltaic devices and detectors, since it is beneficial for the transport of photogenerated carriers. Regrettably, for group-III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, all existing devices are limited to type-I heterostructures, owing to the unavailable of type-II ones. This seriously restricts the designing flexibility for optoelectronic devices and consequently the relevant performance of this material system. Here we show a brandnew type-II band alignment of the lattice-matched In0.17Al0.83N/GaN heterostructure from the perspective of both experimental observations and first-principle theoretical calculations. The band discontinuity is dominated by the conduction band offset ΔEC, with a small contribution from the valence band offset ΔEV which equals 0.1 eV (with being above). Our work may open up new prospects to realize high-performance III-Nitrides optoelectronic devices based on type-II energy band engineering. PMID:25283334

  4. Growth of group III nitride films by pulsed electron beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, J.; Sakurada, K.; Shih, F.-Y.; Kobayashi, A.; Fujioka, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have grown group III nitride films on Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1), 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1), and ZnO (0001-bar) substrates by pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) for the first time and investigated their characteristics. We found that c-plane AlN and GaN grow epitaxially on these substrates. It has been revealed that the growth of GaN on atomically flat 6H-SiC substrates starts with the three-dimensional mode and eventually changes into the two-dimensional mode. The GaN films exhibited strong near-band-edge emission in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra. We also found that the use of PED allows us to reduce the epitaxial growth temperature for GaN down to 200 deg. C. - Graphical abstract: We have grown group III nitride films by pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) and found that the films of group III nitrides grow epitaxially on 6H-SiC and Al 2 O 3 substrates. We also found that the use of PED allows us to reduce the epitaxial growth temperature for GaN down to 200 deg. C.

  5. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cm

  6. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Shen, Chao; Margalith, T.; Ng, Tien Khee; Denbaars, S. P.; Ooi, Boon S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cm

  7. Development of III-nitride semiconductors by molecular beam epitaxy and cluster beam epitaxy and fabrication of LEDs based on indium gallium nitride MQWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tai-Chou Papo

    The family of III-Nitrides (the binaries InN, GaN, AIN, and their alloys) is one of the most important classes of semiconductor materials. Of the three, Indium Nitride (InN) and Aluminum Nitride (AIN) have been investigated much less than Gallium Nitride (GaN). However, both of these materials are important for optoelectronic infrared and ultraviolet devices. In particular, since InN was found recently to be a narrow gap semiconductor (Eg=0.7eV), its development should extend the applications of nitride semiconductors to the spectral region appropriate to fiber optics communication and photovoltaic applications. Similarly, the development of AIN should lead to deep UV light emitting diodes (LEDs). The first part of this work addresses the evaluation of structural, optical and transport properties of InN films grown by two different deposition methods. In one method, active nitrogen was produced in the form of nitrogen radicals by a radio frequency (RF) plasma-assisted source. In an alternative method, active nitrogen was produced in the form of clusters containing approximately 2000 nitrogen molecules. These clusters were produced by adiabatic expansion from high stagnation pressure through a narrow nozzle into vacuum. The clusters were singly or doubly ionized with positive charge by electron impact and accelerated up to approximately 20 to 25 KV prior to their disintegration on the substrate. Due to the high local temperature produced during the impact of clusters with the substrate, this method is suitable for the deposition of InN at very low temperatures. The films are auto-doped n-type with carrier concentrations varying from 3 x 1018 to 1020 cm-3 and the electron effective mass of these films was determined to be 0.09m0. The majority of the AIN films was grown by the cluster beam epitaxy method and was doped n- and p- type by incorporating silicon (Si) and magnesium (Mg) during the film deposition. All films were grown under Al-rich conditions at relatively

  8. Structure, phonons and related properties in zinc-IV-nitride (IV = silicon, germanium, tin), scandium nitride, and rare-earth nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Tula R.

    This thesis presents a study of the phonons and related properties in two sets of nitride compounds, whose properties are until now relatively poorly known. The Zn-IV-N2 group of compounds with the group IV elements Si, Ge and Sn, form a series analogous to the well known III-N nitride series with group III element Al, Ga, In. Structurally, they can be derived by doubling the period of III-V compounds in the plane in two directions and replacing the group-III elements with Zn and a group-IV element in a particular ordered pattern. Even though they are similar to the well-known III-V nitride compounds, the study of the properties of these materials is in its early stages. The phonons in these materials and their relation to the phonons in the corresponding group-III nitrides are of fundamental interest. They are also of practical interest because the phonon related spectra such as infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy are sensitive to the structural quality of the material and can thus be used to quantify the degree of crystalline perfection of real samples. First-principles calculations of the phonons and related ground state properties of these compounds were carried out using Density Functional Perturbation Theory (DFPT) with the Local Density Approximation (LDA) for exchange and correlation and using a pseudopotential plane wave implementation which was developed by several authors over the last decades. The main focus of our study is on the phonons at the center of the Brillouin zone because the latter are most directly related to commonly used spectroscopies to probe the vibrations in a solid: infrared reflectivity and Raman spectroscopy. For a semiconducting or insulating compound, a splitting occurs between transverse and longitudinal phonons at the Gamma-point because of the long-range nature of electrostatic forces. The concepts required to handle this problem are reviewed. Our discussion emphasizes how the various quantities required are related to

  9. Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Margalith, T.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a III-nitride tunnel junction (TJ) intracavity contact. The violet nonpolar VCSEL employing the TJ is compared to an equivalent VCSEL with a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contact. The TJ VCSEL shows a threshold current density (J th ) of ∼3.5 kA/cm 2 , compared to the ITO VCSEL J th of 8 kA/cm 2 . The differential efficiency of the TJ VCSEL is also observed to be significantly higher than that of the ITO VCSEL, reaching a peak power of ∼550 μW, compared to ∼80 μW for the ITO VCSEL. Both VCSELs display filamentary lasing in the current aperture, which we believe to be predominantly a result of local variations in contact resistance, which may induce local variations in refractive index and free carrier absorption. Beyond the analyses of the lasing characteristics, we discuss the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) regrowth of the TJ, as well as its unexpected performance based on band-diagram simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the intrinsic advantages of using a TJ intracavity contact in a VCSEL using a 1D mode profile analysis to approximate the threshold modal gain and general loss contributions in the TJ and ITO VCSEL

  10. Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J. T., E-mail: jtleona01@gmail.com; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Margalith, T.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    We report on a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a III-nitride tunnel junction (TJ) intracavity contact. The violet nonpolar VCSEL employing the TJ is compared to an equivalent VCSEL with a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contact. The TJ VCSEL shows a threshold current density (J{sub th}) of ∼3.5 kA/cm{sup 2}, compared to the ITO VCSEL J{sub th} of 8 kA/cm{sup 2}. The differential efficiency of the TJ VCSEL is also observed to be significantly higher than that of the ITO VCSEL, reaching a peak power of ∼550 μW, compared to ∼80 μW for the ITO VCSEL. Both VCSELs display filamentary lasing in the current aperture, which we believe to be predominantly a result of local variations in contact resistance, which may induce local variations in refractive index and free carrier absorption. Beyond the analyses of the lasing characteristics, we discuss the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) regrowth of the TJ, as well as its unexpected performance based on band-diagram simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the intrinsic advantages of using a TJ intracavity contact in a VCSEL using a 1D mode profile analysis to approximate the threshold modal gain and general loss contributions in the TJ and ITO VCSEL.

  11. Optical and Micro-Structural Characterization of MBE Grown Indium Gallium Nitride Polar Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    El Afandy, Rami

    2011-07-07

    Gallium nitride and related materials have ushered in scientific and technological breakthrough for lighting, mass data storage and high power electronic applications. These III-nitride materials have found their niche in blue light emitting diodes and blue laser diodes. Despite the current development, there are still technological problems that still impede the performance of such devices. Three-dimensional nanostructures are proposed to improve the electrical and thermal properties of III-nitride optical devices. This thesis consolidates the characterization results and unveils the unique physical properties of polar indium gallium nitride quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique. In this thesis, a theoretical overview of the physical, structural and optical properties of polar III-nitrides quantum dots will be presented. Particular emphasis will be given to properties that distinguish truncated-pyramidal III-nitride quantum dots from other III-V semiconductor based quantum dots. The optical properties of indium gallium nitride quantum dots are mainly dominated by large polarization fields, as well as quantum confinement effects. Hence, the experimental investigations for such quantum dots require performing bandgap calculations taking into account the internal strain fields, polarization fields and confinement effects. The experiments conducted in this investigation involved the transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. The analysis of the temperature dependence and excitation power dependence of the PL spectra sheds light on the carrier dynamics within the quantum dots, and its underlying wetting layer. A further analysis shows that indium gallium nitride quantum dots through three-dimensional confinements are able to prevent the electronic carriers from getting thermalized into defects which grants III-nitrides quantum dot based light emitting diodes superior thermally induced optical

  12. High surface area V-Mo-N materials synthesized from amine intercalated foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawiec, Piotr; Narayan Panda, Rabi; Kockrick, Emanuel; Geiger, Dorin; Kaskel, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ternary V-Mo nitrides were prepared via nitridation of amine intercalated oxide foams or bulk ternary oxides. Specific surface areas were in the range between 40 and 198 m 2 g -1 and strongly depended on the preparation method (foam or bulk oxide). Foamed precursors were favorable for vanadium rich materials, while for molybdenum rich samples bulk ternary oxides resulted in higher specific surface areas. The materials were characterized via nitrogen physisorption at 77 K, X-ray diffraction patterns, electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline ternary V-Mo nitrides were prepared via nitridation of amine intercalated oxide foams or bulk ternary oxides. Foamed precursors were favorable for vanadium rich materials, while for molybdenum rich samples bulk ternary oxides resulted in higher specific surface areas

  13. Implications of the Differential Toxicological Effects of III-V Ionic and Particulate Materials for Hazard Assessment of Semiconductor Slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ruibin; Pon, Nanetta; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-12-22

    Because of tunable band gaps, high carrier mobility, and low-energy consumption rates, III-V materials are attractive for use in semiconductor wafers. However, these wafers require chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) for polishing, which leads to the generation of large quantities of hazardous waste including particulate and ionic III-V debris. Although the toxic effects of micron-sized III-V materials have been studied in vivo, no comprehensive assessment has been undertaken to elucidate the hazardous effects of submicron particulates and released III-V ionic components. Since III-V materials may contribute disproportionately to the hazard of CMP slurries, we obtained GaP, InP, GaAs, and InAs as micron- (0.2-3 μm) and nanoscale (particles for comparative studies of their cytotoxic potential in macrophage (THP-1) and lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines. We found that nanosized III-V arsenides, including GaAs and InAs, could induce significantly more cytotoxicity over a 24-72 h observation period. In contrast, GaP and InP particulates of all sizes as well as ionic GaCl3 and InCl3 were substantially less hazardous. The principal mechanism of III-V arsenide nanoparticle toxicity is dissolution and shedding of toxic As(III) and, to a lesser extent, As(V) ions. GaAs dissolves in the cell culture medium as well as in acidifying intracellular compartments, while InAs dissolves (more slowly) inside cells. Chelation of released As by 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid interfered in GaAs toxicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that III-V arsenides, GaAs and InAs nanoparticles, contribute in a major way to the toxicity of III-V materials that could appear in slurries. This finding is of importance for considering how to deal with the hazard potential of CMP slurries.

  14. III-V microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nougier, JP

    1991-01-01

    As is well known, Silicon widely dominates the market of semiconductor devices and circuits, and in particular is well suited for Ultra Large Scale Integration processes. However, a number of III-V compound semiconductor devices and circuits have recently been built, and the contributions in this volume are devoted to those types of materials, which offer a number of interesting properties. Taking into account the great variety of problems encountered and of their mutual correlations when fabricating a circuit or even a device, most of the aspects of III-V microelectronics, from fundamental p

  15. Hybrid III-V/silicon lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, P.; Jany, C.; Le Liepvre, A.; Accard, A.; Lamponi, M.; Make, D.; Levaufre, G.; Girard, N.; Lelarge, F.; Shen, A.; Charbonnier, P.; Mallecot, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Gentner, J.-.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Olivier, S.; Descos, A.; Ben Bakir, B.; Messaoudene, S.; Bordel, D.; Malhouitre, S.; Kopp, C.; Menezo, S.

    2014-05-01

    The lack of potent integrated light emitters is one of the bottlenecks that have so far hindered the silicon photonics platform from revolutionizing the communication market. Photonic circuits with integrated light sources have the potential to address a wide range of applications from short-distance data communication to long-haul optical transmission. Notably, the integration of lasers would allow saving large assembly costs and reduce the footprint of optoelectronic products by combining photonic and microelectronic functionalities on a single chip. Since silicon and germanium-based sources are still in their infancy, hybrid approaches using III-V semiconductor materials are currently pursued by several research laboratories in academia as well as in industry. In this paper we review recent developments of hybrid III-V/silicon lasers and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several integration schemes. The integration approach followed in our laboratory makes use of wafer-bonded III-V material on structured silicon-on-insulator substrates and is based on adiabatic mode transfers between silicon and III-V waveguides. We will highlight some of the most interesting results from devices such as wavelength-tunable lasers and AWG lasers. The good performance demonstrates that an efficient mode transfer can be achieved between III-V and silicon waveguides and encourages further research efforts in this direction.

  16. Growth and characterisation of group-III nitride-based nanowires for devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijers, R J

    2007-08-30

    One of the main goals of this thesis was to get more insight into the mechanisms driving the growth of nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The influence of the group-III and group-V flux as well as the substrate temperature T{sub sub} has been studied leading to the conclusion that the III-V ratio determines the growth mode. Ga desorption limits the temperature range to grow GaN nanowires and dissociation of InN is the limiting factor for InN nanowire growth. A reduction of the surface diffusivity on polar surfaces under N-rich conditions explains the anisotropic growth. Growth kinetics of the nanowires show that there are two important contributions to the growth. The first is growth by direct impingement and its contribution is independent of the nanowire diameter. The second contribution comes from atoms, which absorb on the substrate or wire sidewalls and diffuse along the sidewalls to the top of the wire, which acts as an effective sink for the adatoms due to a reduced surface mobility on the polar top of the wires. This diffusion channel, which is enhanced at higher T{sub sub}, becomes more significant for smaller wire diameters, because its contribution scales like 1/d. Experiments with an interruption of the growth and sharp interfaces in TEM images of heterostructures show that the suggestion in literature of a droplet-mediated PA-MBE nitride growth has to be discarded. Despite a thin amorphous silicon nitride wetting layer on the substrate surface, both GaN and InN nanowires grow in the wurtzite structure and epitaxially in a one-to-one relation to the Si(111) substrate surface. There is no evidence for cubic phases. TEM images and optical studies display a high crystalline and optical quality of GaN and InN nanowires. The substrate induces some strain in the bottom part of the nanowires, especially in InN due to the lower T{sub sub} than for GaN, which is released without the formation of dislocations. Only some stacking

  17. Optical characterisation of III-V nitride-based multiphase and diluted magnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegscheider, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the investigation of the optical properties of transition metal doped Gallium nitride. The Gallium nitride layers are epitaxially grown in a full metalorganic chemical vapour deposition process whereas the transition metals iron or manganese as well as the n and p-type dopants silicon and magnesium are incorporated simultaneously. Background and driving force of the realization of such material systems is basically the evocation of ferromagnetic spin alignment where free carriers ensure the correspondence between the localized spin state provided by the metal ions. The production of completely new devices for semiconductor industries based on the possibility to switch on or off the ferrimagnetic alignment by changing the free carrier concentration can be expected in the near future. In this context photoluminescence studies in the ultraviolet and mid infrared spectral range at temperatures between the liquid helium point and room temperature at atmospheric pressure were made. These measurements basically provide information on optical transitions between the conduction and valence band and deep defects as well as on crystal field forced transitions within the d-orbitals of the metal ion involved. In this context valuable knowledge could have been gained on doping concentrations, growth fashions and parameters, formation of secondary phases as well as on the doping efficiency and incorporation sites of the metal atoms. (author) [de

  18. III-Nitride Membranes for Thermal Bio-Sensing and Solar Hydrogen Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.

    2017-01-01

    demonstrate the versatility of III-nitride membranes where we develop a thermal bio-sensor nanomembrane and solar energy photo-anode membrane. First, we present a novel preparation technique of nanomembranes with new characteristics; having no threading

  19. Gallium nitride-based micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonas, Andreas Robert

    Gallium Nitride and its associated alloys InGaN and AlGaN have many material properties that are highly desirable for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), and more specifically micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS). The group III-nitrides are tough, stiff, optically transparent, direct bandgap, chemically inert, highly piezoelectric, and capable of functioning at high temperatures. There is currently no other semiconductor system that possesses all of these properties. Taken together, these attributes make the nitrides prime candidates not only for creating new versions of existing device structures, but also for creating entirely unique devices which combine these properties in novel ways. Unfortunately, their chemical resiliency also makes the group III-nitrides extraordinarily difficult to shape into devices. In particular, until this research, no undercut etch technology existed that could controllably separate a selected part of a MEMS device from its sapphire or silicon carbide substrate. This has effectively prevented GaN-based MEMS from being developed. This dissertation describes how this fabrication obstacle was overcome by a novel etching geometry (bandgap-selective backside-illuminated photoelectochemical (BS-BIPEC) etching) and its resulting morphologies. Several gallium-nitride based MEMS devices were created, actuated, and modelled, including cantilevers and membranes. We describe in particular our pursuit of one of the many novel device elements that is possible only in this material system: a transducer that uses an externally applied strain to dynamically change the optical transition energy of a quantum well. While the device objective of a dynamically tunable quantum well was not achieved, we have demonstrated sufficient progress to believe that such a device will be possible soon. We have observed a shift (5.5meV) of quantum well transition energies in released structures, and we have created structures that can apply large biaxial

  20. Electronic properties of III-nitride semiconductors: A first-principles investigation using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Rafael B.; Almeida, J. S. de; Ferreira da Silva, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we use density functional theory to investigate the influence of semilocal exchange and correlation effects on the electronic properties of III-nitride semiconductors considering zinc-blende and wurtzite crystal structures. We find that the inclusion of such effects through the use of the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential yields an excellent description of the electronic structures of these materials giving energy band gaps which are systematically larger than the ones obtained with standard functionals such as the generalized gradient approximation. The discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical band gaps is then significantly reduced with semilocal exchange and correlation effects. However, the effective masses are overestimated in the zinc-blende nitrides, but no systematic trend is found in the wurtzite compounds. New results for energy band gaps and effective masses of zinc-blende and wurtzite indium nitrides are presented

  1. Direct Growth of III-Nitride Nanowire-Based Yellow Light-Emitting Diode on Amorphous Quartz Using Thin Ti Interlayer

    KAUST Repository

    Prabaswara, Aditya

    2018-02-06

    Consumer electronics have increasingly relied on ultra-thin glass screen due to its transparency, scalability, and cost. In particular, display technology relies on integrating light-emitting diodes with display panel as a source for backlighting. In this study, we undertook the challenge of integrating light emitters onto amorphous quartz by demonstrating the direct growth and fabrication of a III-nitride nanowire-based light-emitting diode. The proof-of-concept device exhibits a low turn-on voltage of 2.6 V, on an amorphous quartz substrate. We achieved ~ 40% transparency across the visible wavelength while maintaining electrical conductivity by employing a TiN/Ti interlayer on quartz as a translucent conducting layer. The nanowire-on-quartz LED emits a broad linewidth spectrum of light centered at true yellow color (~ 590 nm), an important wavelength bridging the green-gap in solid-state lighting technology, with significantly less strain and dislocations compared to conventional planar quantum well nitride structures. Our endeavor highlighted the feasibility of fabricating III-nitride optoelectronic device on a scalable amorphous substrate through facile growth and fabrication steps. For practical demonstration, we demonstrated tunable correlated color temperature white light, leveraging on the broadly tunable nanowire spectral characteristics across red-amber-yellow color regime.

  2. Facile CO cleavage by a multimetallic CsU2 nitride complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcone, Marta; Scopelliti, Rosario; Mazzanti, Marinella; Kefalidis, Christos E.; Maron, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Uranium nitrides are important materials with potential for application as fuels for nuclear power generation, and as highly active catalysts. Molecular nitride compounds could provide important insight into the nature of the uranium-nitride bond, but currently little is known about their reactivity. In this study, we found that a complex containing a nitride bridging two uranium centers and a cesium cation readily cleaved the C≡O bond (one of the strongest bonds in nature) under ambient conditions. The product formed has a [CsU 2 (μ-CN)(μ-O)] core, thus indicating that the three cations cooperate to cleave CO. Moreover, the addition of MeOTf to the nitride complex led to an exceptional valence disproportionation of the CsU IV -N-U IV core to yield CsU III (OTf) and [MeN=U V ] fragments. The important role of multimetallic cooperativity in both reactions is illustrated by the computed reaction mechanisms.

  3. Facile CO Cleavage by a Multimetallic CsU2 Nitride Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Marta; Kefalidis, Christos E; Scopelliti, Rosario; Maron, Laurent; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2016-09-26

    Uranium nitrides are important materials with potential for application as fuels for nuclear power generation, and as highly active catalysts. Molecular nitride compounds could provide important insight into the nature of the uranium-nitride bond, but currently little is known about their reactivity. In this study, we found that a complex containing a nitride bridging two uranium centers and a cesium cation readily cleaved the C≡O bond (one of the strongest bonds in nature) under ambient conditions. The product formed has a [CsU2 (μ-CN)(μ-O)] core, thus indicating that the three cations cooperate to cleave CO. Moreover, the addition of MeOTf to the nitride complex led to an exceptional valence disproportionation of the CsU(IV) -N-U(IV) core to yield CsU(III) (OTf) and [MeN=U(V) ] fragments. The important role of multimetallic cooperativity in both reactions is illustrated by the computed reaction mechanisms. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. III-nitride based light emitting diodes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Morkoç, Hadis

    2017-01-01

    The revised edition of this important book presents updated and expanded coverage of light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on heteroepitaxial GaN on Si substrates, and includes new chapters on tunnel junction LEDs, green/yellow LEDs, and ultraviolet LEDs. Over the last two decades, significant progress has been made in the growth, doping and processing technologies of III-nitride based semiconductors, leading to considerable expectations for nitride semiconductors across a wide range of applications. LEDs are already used in traffic signals, signage lighting, and automotive applications, with the ultimate goal of the global replacement of traditional incandescent and fluorescent lamps, thus reducing energy consumption and cutting down on carbon-dioxide emission. However, some critical issues must be addressed to allow the further improvements required for the large-scale realization of solid-state lighting, and this book aims to provide the readers with details of some contemporary issues on which the performanc...

  5. III-Nitride Blue Laser Diode with Photoelectrochemically Etched Current Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalini, Ludovico

    Group III-nitride is a remarkable material system to make highly efficient and high-power optoelectronics and electronic devices because of the unique electrical, physical, chemical and structural properties it offers. In particular, InGaN-based blue Laser Diodes (LDs) have been successfully employed in a variety of applications ranging from biomedical and military devices to scientific instrumentation and consumer electronics. Recently their use in highly efficient Solid State Lighting (SSL) has been proposed because of their superior beam quality and higher efficiency at high input power density. Tremendous advances in research of GaN semi-polar and non-polar crystallographic planes have led both LEDs and LDs grown on these non-basal planes to rival with, and with the promise to outperform, their equivalent c-plane counterparts. However, still many issues need to be addressed, both related to material growth and device fabrication, including a lack of conventional wet etching techniques. GaN and its alloys with InN and AlN have proven resistant essentially to all known standard wet etching techniques, and the predominant etching methods rely on chlorine-based dry etching (RIE). These introduce sub-surface damage which can degrade the electrical properties of the epitaxial structure and reduce the reliability and lifetime of the final device. Such reasons and the limited effectiveness of passivation techniques have so far suggested to etch the LD ridges before the active region, although it is well-known that this can badly affect the device performance, especially in narrow stripe width LDs, because the gain guiding obtained in the planar configuration is weak and the low index step and high lateral current leakage result in devices with threshold current density higher than devices whose ridge is etched beyond the active region. Moreover, undercut etching of III-nitride layers has proven even more challenging, with limitations in control of the lateral etch

  6. Plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxial growth of aluminum nitride studied with real time grazing angle small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Virginia R.; Nepal, Neeraj; Johnson, Scooter D.; Robinson, Zachary R.; Nath, Anindya; Kozen, Alexander C.; Qadri, Syed B.; DeMasi, Alexander; Hite, Jennifer K.; Ludwig, Karl F.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2017-05-01

    Wide bandgap semiconducting nitrides have found wide-spread application as light emitting and laser diodes and are under investigation for further application in optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and efficient power switching technologies. Alloys of the binary semiconductors allow adjustments of the band gap, an important semiconductor material characteristic, which is 6.2 eV for aluminum nitride (AlN), 3.4 eV for gallium nitride, and 0.7 eV for (InN). Currently, the highest quality III-nitride films are deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Temperatures of 900 °C and higher are required to deposit high quality AlN. Research into depositing III-nitrides with atomic layer epitaxy (ALEp) is ongoing because it is a fabrication friendly technique allowing lower growth temperatures. Because it is a relatively new technique, there is insufficient understanding of the ALEp growth mechanism which will be essential to development of the process. Here, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering is employed to observe the evolving behavior of the surface morphology during growth of AlN by ALEp at temperatures from 360 to 480 °C. Increased temperatures of AlN resulted in lower impurities and relatively fewer features with short range correlations.

  7. Charge transport in non-polar and semi-polar III-V nitride heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konar, Aniruddha; Verma, Amit; Fang, Tian; Zhao, Pei; Jana, Raj; Jena, Debdeep

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the intense research focus on the optical properties, the transport properties in non-polar and semi-polar III-nitride semiconductors remain relatively unexplored to date. The purpose of this paper is to discuss charge-transport properties in non-polar and semi-polar orientations of GaN in a comparative fashion to what is known for transport in polar orientations. A comprehensive approach is adopted, starting from an investigation of the differences in the electronic bandstructure along different polar orientations of GaN. The polarization fields along various orientations are then discussed, followed by the low-field electron and hole mobilities. A number of scattering mechanisms that are specific to non-polar and semi-polar GaN heterostructures are identified, and their effects are evaluated. Many of these scattering mechanisms originate due to the coupling of polarization with disorder and defects in various incarnations depending on the crystal orientation. The effect of polarization orientation on carrier injection into quantum-well light-emitting diodes is discussed. This paper ends with a discussion of orientation-dependent high-field charge-transport properties including velocity saturation, instabilities and tunneling transport. Possible open problems and opportunities are also discussed. (paper)

  8. The role of In in III-nitride ternary semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Redondo cubero, A

    This proposal aims to study the role of In in the outstanding efficiency of luminescent devices based on group III-nitride ternary semiconductors. To study the microscopic environments of In in GaInN and AlInN, Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experiments will be performed using the PAC-probes $^{111m}$Cd($^{111}$Cd), $^{115}$Cd($^{115}$In) and $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). Temperature dependent PAC measurements using the $^{111}$In($^{111}$Cd) probe indicated that In in GaN and AlN forms a complex with a defect, possibly a nitrogen vacancy (V$_{N}$), which is stable up to high temperatures and might be involved in the luminescence mechanisms. Analysing these results two questions arose: \\\\ \\\\1. Does the fact that the actual measurement is performed with the daughter nucleus $^{111}$Cd (being an acceptor) influence the probe-defect interaction? This question can be answered by performing measurements with the complementary probe $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). \\\\ \\\\ 2. What is the significance of $\\textit{a...

  9. Facile CO cleavage by a multimetallic CsU{sub 2} nitride complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, Marta; Scopelliti, Rosario; Mazzanti, Marinella [Ecole Polytechnique de Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland). Inst. des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques; Kefalidis, Christos E.; Maron, Laurent [Toulouse Univ. (France). LPCNO, CNRS et INSA, UPS

    2016-09-26

    Uranium nitrides are important materials with potential for application as fuels for nuclear power generation, and as highly active catalysts. Molecular nitride compounds could provide important insight into the nature of the uranium-nitride bond, but currently little is known about their reactivity. In this study, we found that a complex containing a nitride bridging two uranium centers and a cesium cation readily cleaved the C≡O bond (one of the strongest bonds in nature) under ambient conditions. The product formed has a [CsU{sub 2}(μ-CN)(μ-O)] core, thus indicating that the three cations cooperate to cleave CO. Moreover, the addition of MeOTf to the nitride complex led to an exceptional valence disproportionation of the CsU{sup IV}-N-U{sup IV} core to yield CsU{sup III}(OTf) and [MeN=U{sup V}] fragments. The important role of multimetallic cooperativity in both reactions is illustrated by the computed reaction mechanisms.

  10. Diagnostic of corrosion–erosion evolution for [Hf-Nitrides/V-Nitrides]n structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, C.; Villarreal, M. [Thin Film Group, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, J.C., E-mail: jcaicedoangulo1@gmail.com [Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Aperador, W. [Ingeniería Mecatrónica, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá (Colombia); Caicedo, H.H. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Prieto, P. [Thin Film Group, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Center of Excellence for Novel Materials, CENM, Cali (Colombia)

    2013-10-31

    HfN/VN multilayered systems were grown on 4140 steel substrates with the aim to improve their electrochemical behavior. The multilayered coatings were grown via reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering technique by systematically varying the bilayer period (Λ) and the bilayer number (n) while maintaining constant the total coating thickness (∼ 1.2 μm). The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Tafel curves. XRD results showed preferential growth in the face-centered cubic (111) crystal structure for [HfN/VN]{sub n} multilayered coatings. The maximum corrosion resistance was obtained for coatings with (Λ) equal to 15 nm, corresponding to bilayer n = 80. Polarization resistance and corrosion rate was around 112.19 kΩ cm{sup 2} and 0.094*10{sup −3} mmy respectively; moreover, these multilayered system showed a decrease of 80% on mass loss due to the corrosive–erosive process, in relation to multilayered systems with n = 1 and Λ = 1200. HfN/VN multilayers have been designed and deposited on Si (100) and AISI 4140 steel substrates with bilayer periods (Λ) in a broad range, from nanometers to hundreds of nanometers to study the microstructural evolution and electrochemical progress with decreasing bilayer thickness. - Highlights: • Enhancements on surface electrochemical properties and response to surface corrosion attack. • Superficial phenomenon that occurs in corrosion surface of [Hf-Nitrides/V-Nitrides]n • Corrosion–erosion evolution for [Hf-Nitrides/V-Nitrides]n structures.

  11. Diagnostic of corrosion–erosion evolution for [Hf-Nitrides/V-Nitrides]n structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, C.; Villarreal, M.; Caicedo, J.C.; Aperador, W.; Caicedo, H.H.; Prieto, P.

    2013-01-01

    HfN/VN multilayered systems were grown on 4140 steel substrates with the aim to improve their electrochemical behavior. The multilayered coatings were grown via reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering technique by systematically varying the bilayer period (Λ) and the bilayer number (n) while maintaining constant the total coating thickness (∼ 1.2 μm). The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Tafel curves. XRD results showed preferential growth in the face-centered cubic (111) crystal structure for [HfN/VN] n multilayered coatings. The maximum corrosion resistance was obtained for coatings with (Λ) equal to 15 nm, corresponding to bilayer n = 80. Polarization resistance and corrosion rate was around 112.19 kΩ cm 2 and 0.094*10 −3 mmy respectively; moreover, these multilayered system showed a decrease of 80% on mass loss due to the corrosive–erosive process, in relation to multilayered systems with n = 1 and Λ = 1200. HfN/VN multilayers have been designed and deposited on Si (100) and AISI 4140 steel substrates with bilayer periods (Λ) in a broad range, from nanometers to hundreds of nanometers to study the microstructural evolution and electrochemical progress with decreasing bilayer thickness. - Highlights: • Enhancements on surface electrochemical properties and response to surface corrosion attack. • Superficial phenomenon that occurs in corrosion surface of [Hf-Nitrides/V-Nitrides]n • Corrosion–erosion evolution for [Hf-Nitrides/V-Nitrides]n structures

  12. Transformational III-V Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible electronics using III-V materials for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. This thesis describes a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS

  13. Microwave irradiation-assisted deposition of Ga2O3 on III-nitrides for deep-UV opto-electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Piyush; Ul Muazzam, Usman; Pratiyush, Anamika Singh; Mohan, Nagaboopathy; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Muralidharan, R.; Shivashankar, S. A.; Nath, Digbijoy N.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the deposition of Ga2O3 on III-nitride epi-layers using the microwave irradiation technique. We also report on the demonstration of a Ga2O3 device: a visible-blind, deep-UV detector, with a GaN-based heterostructure as the substrate. The film deposited in the solution medium, at <200 °C, using a metalorganic precursor, was nanocrystalline. XRD confirms that the as-deposited film, when annealed at high temperature, turns to polycrystalline β-Ga2O3. SEM shows the as-deposited film to be uniform, with a surface roughness of 4-5 nm, as revealed by AFM. Interdigitated metal-semiconductor-metal devices with Ni/Au contact exhibited a peak spectral response at 230 nm and a good visible rejection ratio. This demonstration of a deep-UV detector on the β-Ga2O3/III-nitride stack is expected to open up possibilities of functional and physical integration of β-Ga2O3 and GaN material families towards enabling next-generation high-performance devices by exciting band and heterostructure engineering.

  14. Transparent conducting oxide clad limited area epitaxy semipolar III-nitride laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Myzaferi, A.; Reading, A. H.; Cohen, D. A.; Farrell, R. M.; Nakamura, S.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    The bottom cladding design of semipolar III-nitride laser diodes is limited by stress relaxation via misfit dislocations that form via the glide of pre-existing threading dislocations (TDs), whereas the top cladding is limited by the growth time

  15. Caractérisations de matériaux et tests de composants des cellules solaires à base des nitrures des éléments III-V

    OpenAIRE

    Gorge , Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Among III-V nitrides, the InGaN material has intensively been studied since the year 2000 for photovoltaic applications, in particular for multi-junction solar cells, thanks to its large tunable band gap covering almost the entire solar spectrum. Then, it will be possible to reach high efficiency and low cost. However, one of the problems of InGaN material is the absence of lattice-matched substrate leading to high defect density which limits device performances. We have thus studied the feas...

  16. Optical and Micro-Structural Characterization of MBE Grown Indium Gallium Nitride Polar Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    El Afandy, Rami

    2011-01-01

    Gallium nitride and related materials have ushered in scientific and technological breakthrough for lighting, mass data storage and high power electronic applications. These III-nitride materials have found their niche in blue light emitting diodes

  17. Synthesis and characterization of group V metal carbide and nitride catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heock-Hoi

    1998-11-01

    Group V transition metal carbides and nitrides were prepared via the temperature programmed reaction (TPR) of corresponding oxides with NHsb3 or a CHsb4/Hsb2 mixture. Except for the tantalum compounds, phase-pure carbides and nitrides were prepared. The vanadium carbides and nitrides were the most active and selective catalysts. Therefore the principal focus of the research was the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of high surface area vanadium nitride catalysts. A series of vanadium nitrides with surface areas up to 60 msp2/g was prepared. Thermal gravimetric analysis coupled with x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the solid-state reaction proceeded by the sequential reduction of Vsb2Osb5 to VOsb{0.9} and concluded with the topotactic substitution of nitrogen for oxygen in VOsb{0.9}. The transformation of Vsb2Osb5 to VN was pseudomorphic. An experimental design was executed to determine effects of the heating rates and space velocities on the VN microstructures. The heating rates had minor effects on the surface areas and pore size distributions; however, increasing the space velocity significantly increased the surface area. The materials were mostly mesoporous. Oxygen chemisorption on the vanadium nitrides scaled linearly with the surface area. The corresponding O/Vsbsurface ratio was ≈0.6. The vanadium nitrides were active for butane activation and pyridine hydrodenitrogenation. During butane activation, their selectivities towards dehydrogenation products were as high as 98%. The major product in pyridine hydrodenitrogenation was pentane. The reaction rates increased almost linearly with the surface area suggesting that these reactions were structure insensitive. The vanadium nitrides were not active for crotonaldehyde hydrogenation; however, they catalyzed an interesting ring formation reaction that produced methylbenzaldehyde and xylene from crotonaldehyde. A new method was demonstrated for the production of very

  18. Hybrid III-V-on-Si Vertical Cavity laser for Optical Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Gyeong Cheol; Semenova, Elizaveta; Chung, Il-Sug

    2013-01-01

    Combining a III-V active material onto the Si platform is an attractive approach for silicon photonics light source. We have developed fabrication methods for novel III-V on Si vertical cavity lasers.......Combining a III-V active material onto the Si platform is an attractive approach for silicon photonics light source. We have developed fabrication methods for novel III-V on Si vertical cavity lasers....

  19. Method to grow group III-nitrides on copper using passivation layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiming; Wang, George T; Figiel, Jeffrey T

    2014-06-03

    Group III-nitride epilayers can be grown directly on copper substrates using intermediate passivation layers. For example, single crystalline c-plane GaN can be grown on Cu (110) substrates with MOCVD. The growth relies on a low temperature AlN passivation layer to isolate any alloying reaction between Ga and Cu.

  20. Leading Modes of the 3pi0 production in proton-proton collisions at incident proton momentum 3.35GeV/c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampana, Balakrishnam R.

    The III-nitride semiconductor material system, which consists of InN, GaN, AlN and their alloys, offers a substantial potential in developing ultra-high efficiency photovoltaics mainly due to its wide range of direct-bandgap (0.7 eV -- 3.4 eV), and other electronic, optical and mechanical properties. However, this novel InGaN material system poses technological challenges which extended into the performance of InGaN devices. The development of wide-band gap p--n InGaN homojunction solar cells with bandgap type III-nitride epilayer to reduce the series resistance is evaluated. The III-nitrides are primarily grown on sapphire substrate and in a continued effort they are realized later on silicon substrate. InGaN solar cell structures were grown simultaneously on GaN/sapphire and GaN/silicon templates and their photoresponse is compared.

  1. Performance analysis of nitride alternative plasmonic materials for localized surface plasmon applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, U.; Naik, G. V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    . Titanium nitride and zirconium nitride, which were recently suggested as alternative plasmonic materials in the visible and near-infrared ranges, are compared to the performance of gold. In contrast to the results from quasistatic methods, both nitride materials are very good alternatives to the usual...

  2. Single-layer group IV-V and group V-IV-III-VI semiconductors: Structural stability, electronic structures, optical properties, and photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-He; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2017-07-01

    Recently, single-layer group III monochalcogenides have attracted both theoretical and experimental interest at their potential applications in photonic devices, electronic devices, and solar energy conversion. Excited by this, we theoretically design two kinds of highly stable single-layer group IV-V (IV =Si ,Ge , and Sn; V =N and P) and group V-IV-III-VI (IV =Si ,Ge , and Sn; V =N and P; III =Al ,Ga , and In; VI =O and S) compounds with the same structures with single-layer group III monochalcogenides via first-principles simulations. By using accurate hybrid functional and quasiparticle methods, we show the single-layer group IV-V and group V-IV-III-VI are indirect bandgap semiconductors with their bandgaps and band edge positions conforming to the criteria of photocatalysts for water splitting. By applying a biaxial strain on single-layer group IV-V, single-layer group IV nitrides show a potential on mechanical sensors due to their bandgaps showing an almost linear response for strain. Furthermore, our calculations show that both single-layer group IV-V and group V-IV-III-VI have absorption from the visible light region to far-ultraviolet region, especially for single-layer SiN-AlO and SnN-InO, which have strong absorption in the visible light region, resulting in excellent potential for solar energy conversion and visible light photocatalytic water splitting. Our research provides valuable insight for finding more potential functional two-dimensional semiconductors applied in optoelectronics, solar energy conversion, and photocatalytic water splitting.

  3. Dissolution performance of plutonium nitride based fuel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, E.; Hedberg, M. [Nuclear Chemistry, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivaegen 4, Gothenburg, SE41296 (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    Nitride fuels have been regarded as one viable fuel option for Generation IV reactors due to their positive features compared to oxides. To be able to close the fuel cycle and follow the Generation IV concept, nitrides must, however, demonstrate their ability to be reprocessed. This means that the dissolution performance of actinide based nitrides has to be thoroughly investigated and assessed. As the zirconium stabilized nitrides show even better potential as fuel material than does the pure actinide containing nitrides, investigations on the dissolution behavior of both PuN and (Pu,Zr)N has been undertaken. If possible it is desirable to perform the fuel dissolutions using nitric acid. This, as most reprocessing strategies using solvent-solvent extraction are based on a nitride containing aqueous matrix. (Pu,Zr)N/C microspheres were produced using internal gelation. The spheres dissolution performance was investigated using nitric acid with and without additions of HF and Ag(II). In addition PuN fuel pellets were produced from powder and their dissolution performance were also assessed in a nitric acid based setting. It appears that both PuN and (Pu,Zr)N/C fuel material can be completely dissolved in nitric acid of high concentration with the use of catalytic amounts of HF. The amount of HF added strongly affects dissolution kinetics of (Pu, Zr)N and the presence of HF affects the 2 solutes differently, possibly due to inhomogeneity o the initial material. Large additions of Ag(II) can also be used to facilitate the dissolution of (Pu,Zr)N in nitric acid. PuN can be dissolved by pure nitric acid of high concentration at room temperature while (Pu, Zr)N is unaffected under similar conditions. At elevated temperature (reflux), (Pu,Zr)N can, however, also be dissolved by concentrated pure nitric acid.

  4. EDITORIAL: Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Kneissl, Michael

    2012-02-01

    -based laser diodes is compared. Leung et al discuss the optical emission characteristics of semipolar (1122) GaN light-emitting diodes on m-sapphire and stripe-etched r-sapphire, and Jung et al present results on high brightness non-polar a-plane GaN light-emitting diodes. Finally, in a review Konar et al discuss the charge transport in non- and semipolar III-V nitride heterostructures, and Ishida et al present the latest results on non-polar AlGaN/GaN HFETs with a normally-off operation. Overall, we think that this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in the field on non-polar and semipolar nitride materials and devices. In view of the rapidly growing interest in this field, the demonstrated enhanced device performance and the wide range of applications, this special issue can be considered a very timely contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the IOP editorial staff, in particular Jarlath McKenna, for their support, and we would also like to thank all contributors for their efforts in making this special issue possible.

  5. Electron scattering by native defects in III-V nitrides and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, L.; Walukiewicz, W.

    1996-03-01

    We have calculated the electron mobilities in GaN and InN taking into consideration scattering by short range potentials, in addition to all standard scattering mechanisms. These potentials are produced by the native defects which are responsible for the high electron concentrations in nominally undoped nitrides. Comparison of the calculated mobilities with experimental data shows that scattering by short range potentials is the dominant mechanism limiting the electron mobilities in unintentionally doped nitrides with large electron concentrations. In the case of Al x Ga 1-x N alloys, the reduction in the electron concentration due to the upward shift of the conduction band relative to the native defect level can account for the experimentally measured mobilities. Resonant scattering is shown to be important when the defect and Fermi levels are close in energy

  6. Transformational III-V Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.

    2014-04-01

    Flexible electronics using III-V materials for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. This thesis describes a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process for transforming traditional III-V materials based electronics into flexible one. The thesis reports releasing 200 nm of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) from 200 nm GaAs / 300 nm Aluminum Arsenide (AlAs) stack on GaAs substrate using diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF). This process enables releasing a single top layer compared to peeling off all layers with small sizes at the same time. This is done utilizing a network of release holes that contributes to the better transparency (45 % at 724 nm wavelengths) observed. Fabrication of metal oxide semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAPs) on GaAs is followed by releasing it to have devices on flexible 200 nm GaAs. Similarly, flexible GaSb and InP fabrication process is also reported to transform traditional electronics into large-area flexible electronics.

  7. Lattice site location of impurities in group III nitrides using emission channeling

    CERN Document Server

    De Vries, Bart; Wahl, Ulrich

    The group III nitrides comprise the semiconducting materials InN, GaN, AlN and their ternary alloys. During the last decade, GaN has attracted widespread attention due to its large band gap and hardness. These properties, combined with the fact that its band gap can be adjusted by alloying it with InN and AlN, make GaN a suitable material for the fabrication of optical components that operate in the blue to ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and for microwave and high-power applications. Indeed, during the last couple of years, GaN-based blue and violet light-emitting devices (LEDs) and laser diodes have been realized and commercialized: the violet laser diodes will even be the keystone to the next generation of optical data storage standards, Blu-ray and HD-DVD. \\\\ \\\\ A key aspect in device production is the incorporation of dopants that can alter the electronic, magnetic or optical properties of the host material. For example, Si is often used to generate n-type GaN, while Mg is the most fr...

  8. Test study of boron nitride as a new detector material for dosimetry in high-energy photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, D.; Halbur, J.; Lemmer, S.; Delfs, B.; Harder, D.; Looe, H. K.; Poppe, B.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this test study is to check whether boron nitride (BN) might be applied as a detector material in high-energy photon-beam dosimetry. Boron nitride exists in various crystalline forms. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) possesses high mobility of the electrons and holes as well as a high volume resistivity, so that ionizing radiation in the clinical range of the dose rate can be expected to produce a measurable electrical current at low background current. Due to the low atomic numbers of its constituents, its density (2.0 g cm-3) similar to silicon and its commercial availability, h-BN appears as possibly suitable for the dosimetry of ionizing radiation. Five h-BN plates were contacted to triaxial cables, and the detector current was measured in a solid-state ionization chamber circuit at an applied voltage of 50 V. Basic dosimetric properties such as formation by pre-irradiation, sensitivity, reproducibility, linearity and temporal resolution were measured with 6 MV photon irradiation. Depth dose curves at quadratic field sizes of 10 cm and 40 cm were measured and compared to ionization chamber measurements. After a pre-irradiation with 6 Gy, the devices show a stable current signal at a given dose rate. The current-voltage characteristic up to 400 V shows an increase in the collection efficiency with the voltage. The time-resolved detector current behavior during beam interrupts is comparable to diamond material, and the background current is negligible. The measured percentage depth dose curves at 10 cm  ×  10 cm field size agreed with the results of ionization chamber measurements within  ±2%. This is a first study of boron nitride as a detector material for high-energy photon radiation. By current measurements on solid ionization chambers made from boron nitride chips we could demonstrate that boron nitride is in principle suitable as a detector material for high-energy photon-beam dosimetry.

  9. Selective layer disordering in III-nitrides with a capping layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2016-06-14

    Selective layer disordering in a doped III-nitride superlattice can be achieved by depositing a dielectric capping layer on a portion of the surface of the superlattice and annealing the superlattice to induce disorder of the layer interfaces under the uncapped portion and suppress disorder of the interfaces under the capped portion. The method can be used to create devices, such as optical waveguides, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, solar cells, modulators, laser, and amplifiers.

  10. Wear behaviour of nitrogen-implanted and nitrided Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinella, R.; Giovanardi, S.; Chevallard, G.; Villani, M.; Molinari, A.; Tosello, C.

    1985-01-01

    The comparison between the wear behaviour of nitrogen-implanted Ti-6Al-4V alloy and that of nitrided Ti-6Al-4V alloy is reported. Both treatments were carried out at temperatures from 573 to 973 K on lapped surfaces; in order to compare roughness effects, nitriding was also carried out on rougher samples. An improvement in wear resistance for lapped surfaces was noted after implantation at 573 K or higher temperatures and after nitriding at temperatures over 773 K only; however, at 873 K, nitriding was more effective than implantation. Rough nitrided surfaces showed better wear resistance than lapped nitrided surfaces or lapped implanted surfaces. Most probably the improvement in wear resistance on implanted samples is due to a reduction in friction induced by chemical modification of the surface as a result of oxide and TiN. Scanning electron microscopy observations which show subsurface voids and coalescence are in good agreement with a wear model previously reported. As implantation preserves the surface finish, a possible application is suggested. (Auth.)

  11. High-density plasma etching of III-nitrides: Process development, device applications and damage remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajwinder

    Plasma-assisted etching is a key technology for III-nitride device fabrication. The inevitable etch damage resulting from energetic pattern transfer is a challenge that needs to be addressed in order to optimize device performance and reliability. This dissertation focuses on the development of a high-density inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) etch process for III-nitrides, the demonstration of its applicability to practical device fabrication using a custom built ICP reactor, and development of techniques for remediation of etch damage. A chlorine-based standard dry etch process has been developed and utilized in fabrication of a number of electronic and optoelectronic III-nitride devices. Annealing studies carried out at 700°C have yielded the important insight that the annealing time necessary for making good-quality metal contacts to etch processed n-GaN is very short (water, prior to metallization, removes some of the etch damage and is helpful in recovering contact quality. In-situ treatment consisting of a slow ramp-down of rf bias at the end of the etch is found to achieve the same effect as the ex-situ treatment. This insitu technique is significantly advantageous in a large-scale production environment because it eliminates a process step, particularly one involving treatment in hydrochloric acid. ICP equipment customization for scaling up the process to full 2-inch wafer size is described. Results on etching of state of the art 256 x 256 AlGaN focal plane arrays of ultraviolet photodetectors are reported, with excellent etch uniformity over the wafer area.

  12. Iron Carbides and Nitrides: Ancient Materials with Novel Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhantong; Zhang, Peng; Lei, Xiang; Wang, Xiaobai; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Hua

    2018-02-07

    Iron carbides and nitrides have aroused great interest in researchers, due to their excellent magnetic properties, good machinability and the particular catalytic activity. Based on these advantages, iron carbides and nitrides can be applied in various areas such as magnetic materials, biomedical, photo- and electrocatalysis. In contrast to their simple elemental composition, the synthesis of iron carbides and nitrides still has great challenges, particularly at the nanoscale, but it is usually beneficial to improve performance in corresponding applications. In this review, we introduce the investigations about iron carbides and nitrides, concerning their structure, synthesis strategy and various applications from magnetism to the catalysis. Furthermore, the future prospects are also discussed briefly. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The anharmonic phonon decay rate in group-III nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, G P

    2009-01-01

    Measured lifetimes of hot phonons in group-III nitrides have been explained theoretically by considering three-phonon anharmonic interaction processes. The basic ingredients of the theory include full phonon dispersion relations obtained from the application of an adiabatic bond charge model and crystal anharmonic potential within the isotropic elastic continuum model. The role of various decay routes, such as Klemens, Ridley, Vallee-Bogani and Barman-Srivastava channels, in determining the lifetimes of the Raman active zone-centre longitudinal optical (LO) modes in BN (zincblende structure) and A 1 (LO) modes in AlN, GaN and InN (wurtzite structure) has been quantified.

  14. Pulsed laser deposition of II-VI and III-V semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mele, A.; Di Palma, T.M.; Flamini, C.; Giardini Guidoni, A. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dep. di Chimica

    1998-12-01

    Pulsed laser irradiation of a solid target involves electronic excitation and heating, followed by expansion from the target of the elliptical gas cloud (plume) which can be eventually condensed on a suitable substrate. Pulsed laser ablation has been found to be a valuable technique to prepare II-VI and III-V thin films of semiconductor materials. Pulsed laser ablation deposition is discussed in the light of the results of an investigation on CdS, CdSe, CdTe and CdSe/CdTe multilayers and AIN, GaN and InN together with Al-Ga-In-N heterostructures. [Italiano] L`irradiazione di un target solido, mediante un fascio laser impulsato, genera una serie di processi che possono essere schematizzati come segue: riscaldamento ed eccitazione elettronica del target, da cui consegue l`espulsione di materiale sotto forma di una nube gassosa di forma ellissoidale (plume), che espande e puo` essere fatta depositare su un opportuno substrato. L`ablazione lasersi e` rivelata una tecnica valida per preparare film sottili di composti di elementi del II-VI e del III-V gruppo della tavola periodica. La deposizione via ablazione laser viene discussa alla luce dei risultati ottenuti nella preparazione di film di CdS, CdSe, CdTe e di film multistrato di CdSe/CdTe, di film di AIN, GaN, InN e di eterostrutture di Al-Ga-In-N.

  15. III-nitride Photonic Integrated Circuit: Multi-section GaN Laser Diodes for Smart Lighting and Visible Light Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-04-01

    The past decade witnessed the rapid development of III-nitride light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs), for smart lighting, visible-light communication (VLC), optical storage, and internet-of-things. Recent studies suggested that the GaN-based LDs, which is free from efficiency droop, outperform LEDs as a viable high-power light source. Conventionally, the InGaN-based LDs are grown on polar, c-plane GaN substrates. However, a relatively low differential gain limited the device performance due to a significant polarization field in the active region. Therefore, the LDs grown on nonpolar m-plane and semipolar (2021)-plane GaN substrates are posed to deliver high-efficiency owing to the entirely or partially eliminated polarization field. To date, the smart lighting and VLC functionalities have been demonstrated based on discrete devices, such as LDs, transverse-transmission modulators, and waveguide photodetectors. The integration of III-nitride photonic components, including the light emitter, modulator, absorber, amplifier, and photodetector, towards the realization of III-nitride photonic integrated circuit (PIC) offers the advantages of small-footprint, high-speed, and low power consumption, which has yet to be investigated. This dissertation presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of the multi-section InGaN laser diodes with integrated functionalities on semipolar (2021)-plane GaN substrates for enabling such photonic integration. The blue-emitting integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode (IWM-LD) exhibits a high modulation efficiency of 2.68 dB/V. A large extinction ratio of 11.3 dB is measured in the violet-emitting IWM-LD. Utilizing an integrated absorber, a high optical power (250mW), droop-free, speckle-free, and large modulation bandwidth (560MHz) blue-emitting superluminescent diode is reported. An integrated short-wavelength semiconductor optical amplifier with the laser diode at ~404 nm is demonstrated with a large gain of 5

  16. Optical characterization of gallium nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirilyuk, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Group III-nitrides have been considered a promising system for semiconductor devices since a few decades, first for blue- and UV-light emitting diodes, later also for high-frequency/high-power applications. Due to the lack of native substrates, heteroepitaxially grown III-nitride layers are usually

  17. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  18. Group III nitride semiconductors for short wavelength light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, J. W.; Foxon, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    The group III nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN) represent an important trio of semiconductors because of their direct band gaps which span the range 1.95-6.2 eV, including the whole of the visible region and extending well out into the ultraviolet (UV) range. They form a complete series of ternary alloys which, in principle, makes available any band gap within this range and the fact that they also generate efficient luminescence has been the main driving force for their recent technological development. High brightness visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are now commercially available, a development which has transformed the market for LED-based full colour displays and which has opened the way to many other applications, such as in traffic lights and efficient low voltage, flat panel white light sources. Continuously operating UV laser diodes have also been demonstrated in the laboratory, exciting tremendous interest for high-density optical storage systems, UV lithography and projection displays. In a remarkably short space of time, the nitrides have therefore caught up with and, in some ways, surpassed the wide band gap II-VI compounds (ZnCdSSe) as materials for short wavelength optoelectronic devices. The purpose of this paper is to review these developments and to provide essential background material in the form of the structural, electronic and optical properties of the nitrides, relevant to these applications. We have been guided by the fact that the devices so far available are based on the binary compound GaN (which is relatively well developed at the present time), together with the ternary alloys AlGaN and InGaN, containing modest amounts of Al or In. We therefore concentrate, to a considerable extent, on the properties of GaN, then introduce those of the alloys as appropriate, emphasizing their use in the formation of the heterostructures employed in devices. The nitrides crystallize preferentially in the hexagonal wurtzite structure and devices have so

  19. Inverse magnetostrictive characteristics of Fe-Co composite materials using gas-nitriding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kenya; Yang, Zhenjun; Narita, Fumio

    2018-03-01

    The inverse magnetostrictive response, known as the Villari effect, of magnetostrictive materials is a change in magnetization due to an applied stress. It is commonly used for sensor applications. This work deals with the inverse magnetostrictive characteristics of Fe-Co bimetal plates that were subjected gas-nitriding process. Gas-nitriding was performed on bimetal plates for 30 min at 853 K as a surface heat treatment process. The specimens were cooled to room temperature after completing the nitriding treatment. Three-point bending tests were performed on the plates under a magnetic field. The changes on the magnetic induction of the plates due to the applied load are discussed. The effect of the nitriding treatment on the inverse magnetostrictive characteristics, magnetostrictive susceptibility, and magnetic hysteresis loop was examined. Our work represents an important step forward in the development of magnetostrictive sensor materials.

  20. Fabrication of vanadium nitride by carbothermal nitridation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xitang; Wang Zhuofu; Zhang Baoguo; Deng Chengji

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium nitride is produced from V 2 O 5 by carbon-thermal reduction and nitridation. When the sintered temperature is above 1273 K, VN can be formed, and the nitrogen content of the products increased with the firing temperature raised, and then is the largest when the sintered temperature is 1573 K. The C/V 2 O 5 mass ratio of the green samples is the other key factor affecting on the nitrogen contents of the products. The nitrogen content of the products reaches the most when the C/V 2 O 5 mass ratio is 0.33, which is the theoretical ratio of the carbothermal nitridation of V 2 O 5 . (orig.)

  1. An analytic current-voltage model for quasi-ballistic III-nitride high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Rakheja, Shaloo

    2018-05-01

    We present an analytic model to describe the DC current-voltage (I-V) relationship in scaled III-nitride high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) in which transport within the channel is quasi-ballistic in nature. Following Landauer's transport theory and charge calculation based on two-dimensional electrostatics that incorporates negative momenta states from the drain terminal, an analytic expression for current as a function of terminal voltages is developed. The model interprets the non-linearity of access regions in non-self-aligned HEMTs. Effects of Joule heating with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity are incorporated in the model in a self-consistent manner. With a total of 26 input parameters, the analytic model offers reduced empiricism compared to existing GaN HEMT models. To verify the model, experimental I-V data of InAlN/GaN with InGaN back-barrier HEMTs with channel lengths of 42 and 105 nm are considered. Additionally, the model is validated against numerical I-V data obtained from DC hydrodynamic simulations of an unintentionally doped AlGaN-on-GaN HEMT with 50-nm gate length. The model is also verified against pulsed I-V measurements of a 150-nm T-gate GaN HEMT. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental and numerical results for output current, transconductance, and output conductance is demonstrated over a broad range of bias and temperature conditions.

  2. Zr{sub 2}N{sub 2}Se. The first zirconium(IV) nitride selenide by the oxidation of zirconium(III) nitride with selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissner, Falk; Hack, Bettina; Schleid, Thomas [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Lerch, Martin [Institute for Chemistry, Technical University of Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The oxidation of zirconium(III) nitride (ZrN) with suitable amounts of selenium (Se) in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) as flux yields small yellow brownish platelets of the first zirconium(IV) nitride selenide with the composition Zr{sub 2}N{sub 2}Se. The new compound crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}/mmc (no. 194) with a = 363.98(2) pm, c = 1316.41(9) pm (c/a = 3.617) and two formula units per unit cell. The crystallographically unique Zr{sup 4+} cations are surrounded by three selenide and four nitride anions in the shape of a capped trigonal antiprism. The Se{sup 2-} anions are coordinated by six Zr{sup 4+} cations as trigonal prism and the N{sup 3-} anions reside in tetrahedral surrounding of Zr{sup 4+} cations. These [NZr{sub 4}]{sup 13+} tetrahedra become interconnected via three edges each to form {sup 2}{sub ∞}{[(NZr_4_/_4)_2]"2"+} double layers parallel to the (001) plane, which are held together by monolayers of Se{sup 2-} anions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Hot carrier dynamics in plasmonic transition metal nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Adela; Florio, Fred; Sundararaman, Ravishankar

    2018-06-01

    Extraction of non-equilibrium hot carriers generated by plasmon decay in metallic nano-structures is an increasingly exciting prospect for utilizing plasmonic losses, but the search for optimum plasmonic materials with long-lived carriers is ongoing. Transition metal nitrides are an exciting class of new plasmonic materials with superior thermal and mechanical properties compared to conventional noble metals, but their suitability for plasmonic hot carrier applications remains unknown. Here, we present fully first principles calculations of the plasmonic response, hot carrier generation and subsequent thermalization of all group IV, V and VI transition metal nitrides, fully accounting for direct and phonon-assisted transitions as well as electron–electron and electron–phonon scattering. We find the largest frequency ranges for plasmonic response in ZrN, HfN and WN, between those of gold and silver, while we predict strongest absorption in the visible spectrum for the VN, NbN and TaN. Hot carrier generation is dominated by direct transitions for most of the relevant energy range in all these nitrides, while phonon-assisted processes dominate only below 1 eV plasmon energies primarily for the group IV nitrides. Finally, we predict the maximum hot carrier lifetimes to be around 10 fs for group IV and VI nitrides, a factor of 3–4 smaller than noble metals, due to strong electron–phonon scattering. However, we find longer carrier lifetimes for group V nitrides, comparable to silver for NbN and TaN, while exceeding 100 fs (twice that of silver) for VN, making them promising candidates for efficient hot carrier extraction.

  4. Electrical properties of dislocations in III-Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcoli, D.; Minj, A.; Pandey, S.; Cavallini, A. [Physics and Astronomy Dept. University of Bologna, Italy viale C Berti Pichat 6/II, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-02-21

    Research on GaN, AlN, InN (III-N) and their alloys is achieving new heights due their high potential applications in photonics and electronics. III-N semiconductors are mostly grown epitaxially on sapphire, and due to the large lattice mismatch and the differences in the thermal expansion coefficients, the structures usually contain many threading dislocations (TDs). While their structural properties have been widely investigated, their electrical characteristics and their role in the transport properties of the devices are still debated. In the present contribution we will show conductive AFM studies of TDs in GaN and Al/In GaN ternary alloys to evidence the role of strain, different surface polarity and composition on their electrical properties. Local I-V curves measured at TDs allowed us to clarify their role in the macroscopic electrical properties (leakage current, mobilities) of III-N based devices. Samples obtained by different growers (AIXTRON, III-V Lab) were studied. The comparison between the results obtained in the different alloys allowed us to understand the role of In and Al on the TDs electrical properties.

  5. Electrical properties of dislocations in III-Nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcoli, D.; Minj, A.; Pandey, S.; Cavallini, A.

    2014-02-01

    Research on GaN, AlN, InN (III-N) and their alloys is achieving new heights due their high potential applications in photonics and electronics. III-N semiconductors are mostly grown epitaxially on sapphire, and due to the large lattice mismatch and the differences in the thermal expansion coefficients, the structures usually contain many threading dislocations (TDs). While their structural properties have been widely investigated, their electrical characteristics and their role in the transport properties of the devices are still debated. In the present contribution we will show conductive AFM studies of TDs in GaN and Al/In GaN ternary alloys to evidence the role of strain, different surface polarity and composition on their electrical properties. Local I-V curves measured at TDs allowed us to clarify their role in the macroscopic electrical properties (leakage current, mobilities) of III-N based devices. Samples obtained by different growers (AIXTRON, III-V Lab) were studied. The comparison between the results obtained in the different alloys allowed us to understand the role of In and Al on the TDs electrical properties.

  6. III-nitride Photonic Integrated Circuit: Multi-section GaN Laser Diodes for Smart Lighting and Visible Light Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-01-01

    The past decade witnessed the rapid development of III-nitride light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs), for smart lighting, visible-light communication (VLC), optical storage, and internet-of-things. Recent studies suggested that the Ga

  7. Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Atsumi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to α-rays but poor sensitivity to γ-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in a neutron-detection signal after α-rays were generated by the capture of neutrons by the B atoms. These results prove that BGaN is useful as a neutron-detecting semiconductor material.

  8. Hard template synthesis of porous carbon nitride materials with improved efficiency for photocatalytic CO_2 utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharov, M.; Shcherban, N.; Filonenko, S.; Mishura, A.; Skoryk, M.; Shvalagin, V.; Granchak, V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous carbon nitrides were obtained via bulk and matrix pyrolysis of melamine. • Carbon nitride obtained in MCF has the highest bandgap and photocatalytic activity. • Acetaldehyde was the major product of the photoreduction reaction of CO2. - Abstract: Porous carbon nitrides of different morphology were obtained via bulk and hard template (SBA-15 and MCF) pyrolysis of melamine. Matrix method allowed obtaining ordered porous C_3N_4 with higher bandgap (2.87 eV) in the contrary to the bulk sample (2.45 eV). Obtained carbon nitrides were found to be p-type semiconductors with catalytic activity towards photoreduction of carbon dioxide with water vapour. Carbon nitride obtained in MCF has the higher bandgap, developed surface, sponge-like morphology, spatially ordering and it's characterized by the highest photocatalytic activity.

  9. Critical thickness for the formation of misfit dislocations originating from prismatic slip in semipolar and nonpolar III-nitride heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Smirnov, A. M.; Young, E. C.; Bougrov, V. E.; Speck, J. S.; Romanov, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the critical thickness for misfit dislocation (MD) formation in lattice mismatched semipolar and nonpolar III-nitride wurtzite semiconductor layers for the case of MDs originated from prismatic slip (PSMDs). It has been shown

  10. III-V quantum light source and cavity-QED on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxmoore, I J; Toro, R; Del Pozo-Zamudio, O; Wasley, N A; Chekhovich, E A; Sanchez, A M; Beanland, R; Fox, A M; Skolnick, M S; Liu, H Y; Tartakovskii, A I

    2013-01-01

    Non-classical light sources offer a myriad of possibilities in both fundamental science and commercial applications. Single photons are the most robust carriers of quantum information and can be exploited for linear optics quantum information processing. Scale-up requires miniaturisation of the waveguide circuit and multiple single photon sources. Silicon photonics, driven by the incentive of optical interconnects is a highly promising platform for the passive optical components, but integrated light sources are limited by silicon's indirect band-gap. III-V semiconductor quantum-dots, on the other hand, are proven quantum emitters. Here we demonstrate single-photon emission from quantum-dots coupled to photonic crystal nanocavities fabricated from III-V material grown directly on silicon substrates. The high quality of the III-V material and photonic structures is emphasized by observation of the strong-coupling regime. This work opens-up the advantages of silicon photonics to the integration and scale-up of solid-state quantum optical systems.

  11. Self-healing in carbon nitride evidenced as material inflation and superlubric behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoglidis, Konstantinos D; Palisaitis, Justinas; Dos Santos, Renato Batista; Rivelino, Roberto; Persson, Per O Å; Gueorguiev, Gueorgui K; Hultman, Lars

    2018-05-01

    All known materials wear under extended mechanical contacting. Superlubricity may present solutions, but is an expressed mystery in C-based materials. We report negative wear of carbon nitride films; a wear-less condition with mechanically-induced material inflation at the nanoscale and friction coefficient approaching ultralow values (0.06). Superlubricity in carbon nitride is expressed as C-N bond breaking for reduced coupling between graphitic-like sheets and eventual N 2 desorption. The transforming surface layer acts as a solid lubricant, while the film bulk retains its high elasticity. The present findings offer new means for materials design at the atomic level, and for property optimization in wear-critical applications like magnetic reading devices or nanomachines.

  12. CVD mechanism of pyrolytic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, H.; Monden, K.; Ide, M.

    1987-01-01

    Pyrolytic boron nitride (P-BN) has become a essential material for III-V compound semiconductor manufacturing process. As the demand from electronics industry for larger single crystals increases, the demand for larger and more economical P-BN components is growing rapidly. P-BN is manufactured by low pressure CVD using boron-trihalides and ammonia as the reactants. In spite that P-BN has been in the market for quite a long time, limited number of fundamental studies regarding the kinetics and the formation mechanism of P-BN have been reported. As it has been demonstrated in CVD of Si, knowledge and both theoretical and empirical modeling of CVD process can be applied to improve the deposition technology and to give more uniform deposition with higher efficiency, and it should also apply to the deposition of P-BN

  13. A comparative study of the thermal interface materials with graphene and boron nitride fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, F.; Salgado, R.; Legedza, S.; Renteria, J.; Balandin, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    We report the results of an experimental study that compares the performance of graphene and boron nitride flakes as fillers in the thermal interface materials. The thickness of both fillers varied from a single atomic plane to about a hundred. The measurements have been conducted using a standard TIM tester. Our results show that the addition of a small fraction of graphene (f=4 wt%) to a commercial thermal interface material increases the resulting apparent thermal conductivity substantially stronger than the addition of boron nitride. The obtained data suggest that graphene and fewlayer graphene flakes couple better to the matrix materials than the boron nitride fillers. A combination of both fillers can be used to increase the thermal conductivity while controlling the electrical conduction.

  14. Gallium Nitride Crystals: Novel Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouzhi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Lv, Jiaxin; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2016-05-01

    A type of single-crystal gallium nitride mesoporous membrane is fabricated and its supercapacitor properties are demonstrated for the first time. The supercapacitors exhibit high-rate capability, stable cycling life at high rates, and ultrahigh power density. This study may expand the range of crystals as high-performance electrode materials in the field of energy storage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Critical thickness for the formation of misfit dislocations originating from prismatic slip in semipolar and nonpolar III-nitride heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Smirnov, A. M.

    2016-01-20

    We calculate the critical thickness for misfit dislocation (MD) formation in lattice mismatched semipolar and nonpolar III-nitride wurtzite semiconductor layers for the case of MDs originated from prismatic slip (PSMDs). It has been shown that there is a switch of stress relaxation modes from generation of basal slip originated MDs to PSMDs after the angle between c-axis in wurtzite crystal structure and the direction of semipolar growth reaches a particular value, e.g., ∼70° for Al0.13Ga0.87N/GaN (h0h̄ 1) semipolar heterostructures. This means that for some semipolar growth orientations of III-nitride heterostructures biaxial relaxation of misfit stress can be realized. The results of modeling are compared to experimental data on the onset of plastic relaxation in AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures.

  16. High-phase-purity zinc-blende InN on r-plane sapphire substrate with controlled nitridation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, C.-L.; Wu, C.-T.; Hsu, H.-C.; Hsu, G.-M.; Chen, L.-C.; Liu, T.-W.; Shiao, W.-Y.; Yang, C. C.; Gaellstroem, Andreas; Holtz, Per-Olof; Chen, C.-C.; Chen, K.-H.

    2008-01-01

    High-phase-purity zinc-blende (zb) InN thin film has been grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on r-plane sapphire substrate pretreated with nitridation. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the phase of the InN films changes from wurtzite (w) InN to a mixture of w-InN and zb-InN, to zb-InN with increasing nitridation time. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals an ultrathin crystallized interlayer produced by substrate nitridation, which plays an important role in controlling the InN phase. Photoluminescence emission of zb-InN measured at 20 K shows a peak at a very low energy, 0.636 eV, and an absorption edge at ∼0.62 eV is observed at 2 K, which is the lowest bandgap reported to date among the III-nitride semiconductors

  17. Titanium Nitride and Nitrogen Ion Implanted Coated Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Berzins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials have been investigated since the mid-1980s and considered in various applications in dentistry such as implants, abutments, orthodontic wires, endodontic files, periodontal/oral hygiene instruments, and casting alloys for fixed restorations. Multiple methodologies have been employed to create the coatings, but detailed structural analysis of the coatings is generally lacking in the dental literature. Depending on application, the purpose of the coating is to provide increased surface hardness, abrasion/wear resistance, esthetics, and corrosion resistance, lower friction, as well as greater beneficial interaction with adjacent biological and material substrates. While many studies have reported on the achievement of these properties, a consensus is not always clear. Additionally, few studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of the coatings in a clinical setting. Overall, titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials potentially offer advantages over uncoated counterparts, but more investigation is needed to document the structure of the coatings and their clinical effectiveness.

  18. Characteristics of Au/PZT/TiO2/Nitride/Si structure capacitors with ICP nitride treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Hyung Seob; Kim, Tae Ho; Jeon, Chang Bae; Lee, Jae Gab; Kim, Ji Young

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of PZT/TiO 2 ferroelectric gate stack capacitors with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) nitridation were investigated for field effect transistor (FET)-type Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM) applications. If a high accumulation capacitance is to be had, the ICP nitridation time needs to be optimized. While a short ICP treatment time results in thermal oxide growth due to lack of nitrogen, a long nitridation time causes a nitride layer which is too thick. Au/PZT(200 nm)/TiO 2 (40 nm)/Nitride/Si (MeFINS) structure capacitors show a memory window (ΔV) of 1.6 V under ±3-V operation while Au/PZT(200 nm)/TiO 2 (40 nm)/Si (MeFIS) capacitors without nitride treatment exhibit a small memory window of 0.6 V. At the same time, the capacitance of the MeFINS device is almost twice that of the MeFIS capacitor. This result implies that the ICP nitride treatment suppresses the formation of a low dielectric constant interfacial SiO x layer and alleviates the series capacitance problem

  19. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in the near-infrared using III-nitride heterostructures coupled to metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Omri; Ma, Xuedan; Brener, Igal; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Shaner, Eric A.; Song, Alex Y.

    2015-01-01

    We use planar metamaterial resonators to enhance by more than two orders of magnitude the near infrared second harmonic generation obtained from intersubband transitions in III-Nitride heterostructures. The improvement arises from two factors: employing an asymmetric double quantum well design and aligning the resonators' cross-polarized resonances with the intersubband transition energies. The resulting nonlinear metamaterial operates at wavelengths where single photon detection is available, and represents a different class of sources for quantum photonics related phenomena

  20. Generation and Characteristics of IV-VI transition Metal Nitride and Carbide Nanoparticles using a Reactive Mesoporous Carbon Nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Alhajri, Nawal Saad

    2016-02-22

    Interstitial nitrides and carbides of early transition metals in groups IV–VI exhibit platinum-like electronic structures, which make them promising candidates to replace noble metals in various catalytic reactions. Herein, we present the preparation and characterization of nano-sized transition metal nitries and carbides of groups IV–VI (Ti, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, and W) using mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (mpg-C3N4), which not only provides confined spaces for restricting primary particle size but also acts as a chemical source of nitrogen and carbon. We studied the reactivity of the metals with the template under N2 flow at 1023 K while keeping the weight ratio of metal to template constant at unity. The produced nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, CHN elemental analysis, nitrogen sorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that Ti, V, Nb, Ta, and Cr form nitride phases with face centered cubic structure, whereas Mo and W forme carbides with hexagonal structures. The tendency to form nitride or carbide obeys the free formation energy of the transition metal nitrides and carbides. This method offers the potential to prepare the desired size, shape and phase of transition metal nitrides and carbides that are suitable for a specific reaction, which is the chief objective of materials chemistry.

  1. Analysis of novel silicon and III-V solar cells by simulation and experiment; Analyse neuartiger Silizium- und III-V-Solarzellen mittels Simulation und Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermle, Martin

    2008-11-27

    This work presents various simulation studies of silicon and III-V solar cells. For standard silicon solar cells, one of the critical parameters to obtain good performance, is the rear side recombination velocity. The optical and electrical differences of the different cell structures were determined. The optical differences and the effective recombination velocity Sback of the different rear side structures for 1 Ohmcm material were extracted. Beside standard silicon solar cells, back junction silicon solar cells were investigated. Especially the influence of the front surface field and the electrical shading due to the rear side, was investigated. In the last two chapters, III-V solar cells were analysed. For the simulation of III-V multi-junction solar cells, the simulation of the tunneldiode is the basic prerequisite. In this work, the numerical calibration of an GaAs tunneldiode was achieved by using an non-local tunnel model. Using this model, it was possible to successfully simulate a III-V tandem solar cell. The last chapter deals with an optimization of the III-V 3-junction cell for space applications. Especially the influence of the GaAs middle cell was investigated. Due to structural changes, the end-of-life efficiency was drastically increased.

  2. Carbon Nitride Materials as Efficient Catalyst Supports for Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Jorge

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nitride materials with graphitic to polymeric structures (gCNH were investigated as catalyst supports for the proton exchange membrane (PEM water electrolyzers using IrO2 nanoparticles as oxygen evolution electrocatalyst. Here, the performance of IrO2 nanoparticles formed and deposited in situ onto carbon nitride support for PEM water electrolysis was explored based on previous preliminary studies conducted in related systems. The results revealed that this preparation route catalyzed the decomposition of the carbon nitride to form a material with much lower N content. This resulted in a significant enhancement of the performance of the gCNH-IrO2 (or N-doped C-IrO2 electrocatalyst that was likely attributed to higher electrical conductivity of the N-doped carbon support.

  3. Zwitterion-functionalized polymer microspheres as a sorbent for solid phase extraction of trace levels of V(V), Cr(III), As(III), Sn(IV), Sb(III) and Hg(II) prior to their determination by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Gong, Dirong; Zhao, Junyi; Ren, Hongyun; Wang, Jiani; Zhang, Xian

    2018-03-19

    This paper describes the preparation of zwitterion-functionalized polymer microspheres (ZPMs) and their application to simultaneous enrichment of V(V), Cr(III), As(III), Sn(IV), Sb(III) and Hg(II) from environmental water samples. The ZPMs were prepared by emulsion copolymerization of ethyl methacrylate, 2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate followed by modification with 1,3-propanesultone. The components were analyzed by elemental analyses as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The ZPMs were packed into a mini-column for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the above metal ions. Following extraction with 40 mM NH 4 NO 3 and 0.5 M HNO 3 solution, the ions were quantified by ICP-MS. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors (from a 40 mL sample) are up to 60 for the ions V(V), As(III), Sb(III) and Hg(II), and 55 for Cr(III) and Sn(IV). The detection limits are 1.2, 3.4, 1.0, 3.7, 2.1 and 1.6 ng L -1 for V(V), Cr(III), As(III), Sn(IV), Sb(III) and Hg(II), respectively, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) are below 5.2%. The feasibility and accuracy of the method were validated by successfully analyzing six certified reference materials as well as lake, well and river waters. Graphical abstract Zwitterion-functionalized polymer microspheres (ZPMs) were prepared and packed into a mini-column for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) via pump 1. Then V(V), Cr(III), As(III), Sn(IV), Sb(III) and Hg(II) ions in environmental waters were eluted and submitted to ICP-MS via pump 2.

  4. III-V-on-silicon solar cells reaching 33% photoconversion efficiency in two-terminal configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariou, Romain; Benick, Jan; Feldmann, Frank; Höhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert; Beutel, Paul; Razek, Nasser; Wimplinger, Markus; Bläsi, Benedikt; Lackner, David; Hermle, Martin; Siefer, Gerald; Glunz, Stefan W.; Bett, Andreas W.; Dimroth, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Silicon dominates the photovoltaic industry but the conversion efficiency of silicon single-junction solar cells is intrinsically constrained to 29.4%, and practically limited to around 27%. It is possible to overcome this limit by combining silicon with high-bandgap materials, such as III-V semiconductors, in a multi-junction device. Significant challenges associated with this material combination have hindered the development of highly efficient III-V/Si solar cells. Here, we demonstrate a III-V/Si cell reaching similar performances to standard III-V/Ge triple-junction solar cells. This device is fabricated using wafer bonding to permanently join a GaInP/GaAs top cell with a silicon bottom cell. The key issues of III-V/Si interface recombination and silicon's weak absorption are addressed using poly-silicon/SiOx passivating contacts and a novel rear-side diffraction grating for the silicon bottom cell. With these combined features, we demonstrate a two-terminal GaInP/GaAs//Si solar cell reaching a 1-sun AM1.5G conversion efficiency of 33.3%.

  5. Microstructures of group III-nitrides after implantation with gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, P.J.

    2001-05-01

    High doses of gallium have been implanted into layers of aluminium nitride (AIN), indium nitride (InN) and amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiN x ) in an attempt to bond gallium with nitrogen and form binary or ternary alloys. The microstructure of the resultant layers have been characterised using, principally, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The implantation of a high dose of Ga ions into AIN was successful in synthesising a GaN/GaAlN compound. The resultant layers were largely uniform but contained aluminium precipitates near the surface. These precipitates were pure Al and were most common in the region associated with the maximum Ga concentration. Deconvolution of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peaks indicated that Ga existed in a number of chemical states, including the nitride. Electron diffraction patterns from the implanted layers were closely indexed to both AIN and GaN. A further N implant was used to reduce the concentration of the aluminium precipitates and increase the concentration of GaN bonds. The yield of Ga-N bonds dramatically increased and a reduction in the concentration of Al precipitates was observed. Laser and thermal annealing was performed on the implanted AIN substrates. The near surface regions of the implanted specimens appeared to free of precipitates and bubbles. Laser annealing did have a noticeable effect on the electrical and optical properties of the layers. After laser annealing the conductivity of the Ga implanted layer was lower, indicating that the quality of the material had improved. PL measurements showed that a new PL peak at 2.6 eV appeared after laser annealing. It has been found that implanting InN with gallium can yield Ga-N bonds. However, Ga implants into InN were not as successful at synthesising GaN compounds as those by implanting Ga into AIN, due to the low thermal stability of InN. The implanted InN layers were very irregular and contained large indium precipitates and

  6. Structural, electronic and optical properties of carbon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M L [California Univ., Berkeley (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-05-01

    Carbon nitride was proposed as a superhard material and a structural prototype, {beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, was examined using several theoretical models. Some reports claiming experimental verifications have been made recently. The current status of the theory and experiment is reviewed, and a detailed discussion is presented of calculations of the electronic and optical properties of this material. These calculations predict that {beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} will have a minimum gap which is indirect at 6.4{+-}0.5 eV. A discussion of the possibility of carbon nitride nanotubes is also presented. (orig.)

  7. Thermal oxidation of III-V compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, O.R.; Evans, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal oxidation of two important III-V compound semiconductor materials, namely GaAs and InP, has been studied between 300 and 600 0 C. In-situ TEM, cross-sectional TEM (XTEM) and SIMS analyses were used to characterize the reaction products. The first technique allows us to access the reactions at the very moment they are occurring. XTEM provides a clearer picture of the distribution of phases in the oxidized samples. SIMS gives us information on the dopant redistribution after oxidation as well as enrichment of group V element at the oxide semiconductor interface. Based on those results, the reaction products were characterized and reaction mechanisms proposed

  8. Transferable tight binding model for strained group IV and III-V heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yaohua; Povolotskyi, Micheal; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy; Klimeck, Gerhard

    Modern semiconductor devices have reached critical device dimensions in the range of several nanometers. For reliable prediction of device performance, it is critical to have a numerical efficient model that are transferable to material interfaces. In this work, we present an empirical tight binding (ETB) model with transferable parameters for strained IV and III-V group semiconductors. The ETB model is numerically highly efficient as it make use of an orthogonal sp3d5s* basis set with nearest neighbor inter-atomic interactions. The ETB parameters are generated from HSE06 hybrid functional calculations. Band structures of strained group IV and III-V materials by ETB model are in good agreement with corresponding HSE06 calculations. Furthermore, the ETB model is applied to strained superlattices which consist of group IV and III-V elements. The ETB model turns out to be transferable to nano-scale hetero-structure. The ETB band structures agree with the corresponding HSE06 results in the whole Brillouin zone. The ETB band gaps of superlattices with common cations or common anions have discrepancies within 0.05eV.

  9. An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyasu, Yoshitaka; Kasu, Makoto; Makimoto, Toshiki

    2006-05-18

    Compact high-efficiency ultraviolet solid-state light sources--such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes--are of considerable technological interest as alternatives to large, toxic, low-efficiency gas lasers and mercury lamps. Microelectronic fabrication technologies and the environmental sciences both require light sources with shorter emission wavelengths: the former for improved resolution in photolithography and the latter for sensors that can detect minute hazardous particles. In addition, ultraviolet solid-state light sources are also attracting attention for potential applications in high-density optical data storage, biomedical research, water and air purification, and sterilization. Wide-bandgap materials, such as diamond and III-V nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlGaN and AlN; refs 3-10), are potential materials for ultraviolet LEDs and laser diodes, but suffer from difficulties in controlling electrical conduction. Here we report the successful control of both n-type and p-type doping in aluminium nitride (AlN), which has a very wide direct bandgap of 6 eV. This doping strategy allows us to develop an AlN PIN (p-type/intrinsic/n-type) homojunction LED with an emission wavelength of 210 nm, which is the shortest reported to date for any kind of LED. The emission is attributed to an exciton transition, and represents an important step towards achieving exciton-related light-emitting devices as well as replacing gas light sources with solid-state light sources.

  10. Liquid phase surface nitriding of Ti-6Al-4V pre-placed with chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahedi Nemani, Alireza, E-mail: alireza_vahedi@ut.ac.ir; Sohi, M. Heydarzadeh; Amadeh, A.A.; Ghaffari, Mahya

    2016-08-01

    In this study, liquid phase surface nitriding of Ti-6Al-4V was carried out by pre-placing of chromium powder on the substrate and subsequent Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) surface melting. The effect of the application of low and high heat inputs on the microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of the treated layers were studied. Surface alloying with chromium in a nitrogen containing atmosphere resulted in the formation of hard intermetallic compounds such as TiN, Cr{sub 2}N and TiCr{sub 2}. Moreover, the presence of beta stabilizer chromium together with the application of high heat input during surface treatment resulted in the presence of beta phase at room temperature. However, applying low heat input could not prevent transformation of beta to martensite. The hardness of the layers fabricated at high and low heat inputs were respectively 1050 and 1200 HV{sub 0.3} compared to average 280 HV{sub 0.3} for the as-received material. Liquid phase surface treatment of titanium at the aforementioned conditions improved the wear resistance. The lowest weight loss belonged to the specimen with the beta phase matrix. The formation of the fairly ductile bcc-β phase hindered crack nucleation during wear. The weight loss in this condition was 7 times lower than that of the base material. - Highlights: • Liquid phase surface nitriding of Ti-6Al-4V was carried out by TIG surface melting. • Cr powder was pre-placed on the surface as the beta stabilizer alloying element. • The treated layers were characterized by OM, SEM and X-ray diffraction pattern. • Hardness of the layers increased up to 3 times higher than that of the base alloy. • Liquid phase surface alloying improved the wear resistance.

  11. III-V/Si wafer bonding using transparent, conductive oxide interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamboli, Adele C., E-mail: Adele.Tamboli@nrel.gov; Hest, Maikel F. A. M. van; Steiner, Myles A.; Essig, Stephanie; Norman, Andrew G.; Bosco, Nick; Stradins, Paul [National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Pkwy, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Perl, Emmett E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9560 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    We present a method for low temperature plasma-activated direct wafer bonding of III-V materials to Si using a transparent, conductive indium zinc oxide interlayer. The transparent, conductive oxide (TCO) layer provides excellent optical transmission as well as electrical conduction, suggesting suitability for Si/III-V hybrid devices including Si-based tandem solar cells. For bonding temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 350 °C, Ohmic behavior is observed in the sample stacks, with specific contact resistivity below 1 Ω cm{sup 2} for samples bonded at 200 °C. Optical absorption measurements show minimal parasitic light absorption, which is limited by the III-V interlayers necessary for Ohmic contact formation to TCOs. These results are promising for Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P/Si tandem solar cells operating at 1 sun or low concentration conditions.

  12. Metal Nitrides for Plasmonic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, Gururaj V.; Schroeder, Jeremy; Guler, Urcan

    2012-01-01

    Metal nitrides as alternatives to metals such as gold could offer many advantages when used as plasmonic material. We show that transition metal nitrides can replace metals providing equally good optical performance for many plasmonic applications.......Metal nitrides as alternatives to metals such as gold could offer many advantages when used as plasmonic material. We show that transition metal nitrides can replace metals providing equally good optical performance for many plasmonic applications....

  13. Synthesis of nitrided MoO{sub 2} and its application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sukeun, E-mail: skyoon@kier.re.kr [New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyu-Nam; Jin, Chang Soo; Shin, Kyung-Hee [New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of nitrided molybdenum oxide by nitridation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superior cyclability for nitrided molybdenum oxide anodes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemical reaction behavior of nitrided molybdenum oxide with lithium. - Abstract: Nitrided MoO{sub 2} has been synthesized by hydrothermal processing followed by post-nitridation with NH{sub 3} and investigated as alternative anode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Characterization data reveal the presence of molybdenum nitride ({gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and {delta}-MoN) and molybdenum oxynitride (MoO{sub x}N{sub y}). The nitrided MoO{sub 2} exhibits a capacity of >420 mAh/g after 100 cycles and good rate capability. The improved electrochemical performance of the nitrided MoO{sub 2} compared to that of molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 2}) is attributed to high electrical conductivity provided by nitrogen doping/or substitution in the oxygen octahedral site of MoO{sub 2} structure.

  14. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiuming; Wen Shengping; Xiang Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1 M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by L-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3σ) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL -1 for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c = 1.0 ng mL -1 , n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results.

  15. Mechatronic systems and materials III

    CERN Document Server

    Gosiewski, Zdzislaw

    2009-01-01

    This very interesting volume is divided into 24 sections; each of which covers, in detail, one aspect of the subject-matter: I. Industrial robots; II. Microrobotics; III. Mobile robots; IV. Teleoperation, telerobotics, teleoperated semi-autonomous systems; V. Sensors and actuators in mechatronics; VI. Control of mechatronic systems; VII. Analysis of vibration and deformation; VIII. Optimization, optimal design; IX. Integrated diagnostics; X. Failure analysis; XI. Tribology in mechatronic systems; XII. Analysis of signals; XIII. Measurement techniques; XIV. Multifunctional and smart materials;

  16. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of Fe(III) and V(v)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elrahman, Azza Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Phenylflourone was synthesized with the objective of developing a method for determining Fe(III) and V(V) in the pressence of micelles using flow injectoin technique. Phenylflourone showed a wavelength of maximum absorption at 412 nm which was not affected by the presence of miccelles i.e. n-hexadodecylpyridinum bromide and sodium n-dodecylsulphate, but they have different effects on the absorbance of PHF. The example of PHF-Fe(III) and PHF-V(V) showed the wavelength of the maximum absorption at 4428 nm and 412 nm, respectively. Presence of micelles shifted the wavelength of the two complexes to a lower one. Generally the addition of micelles increased the absorbance of phenylflourone metal ions complexes except for PHF-V(V) with hexadodecylpyridinum bromide. With flow injection technique two approaches were practiced the use of micelle as a carrier or water as a carrier. Sodium n-dodecylsulphate increased the absorbance of the two complexes when it was used as a carrier or added to the metal ions using water as carrier. On the other hand, the use of n-hexadodecylpyridinum bromide as carrieer increased the absorbance of the complexes but it decreased the absorbance when it was used in conjunction with metal ions and water as a carrier. After establishing the optimum FI conditions for PHF-Fe(III) and PHF-V(V) complexes, the calibration curves were construction and produced semiliner response in the concentration range studied. Ti(IV) III, Mo(VI) showed a positive interference in PHF-Fe(III) and PHF-V(V) complexes, respectively.(Author)

  17. Point defects in dilute nitride III-N-As and III-N-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.M.; Buyanova, I.A.; Tu, C.W.; Yonezu, H.

    2006-01-01

    We provide a brief review of our recent results from optically detected magnetic resonance studies of grown-in non-radiative defects in two most important dilute nitride systems-Ga(In)NAs grown on GaAs substrates and Ga(Al,In)NP grown on Si and GaP substrates. These results have led to the identification of defect complexes in the alloys, involving intrinsic defects such as As Ga antisites and Ga i self-interstitials. They have also shed light on formation mechanisms of the defects and on their role in non-radiative carrier recombination that is harmful to the performance of potential optoelectronic and photonic devices based on these dilute nitrides

  18. Method for producing polycrystalline boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeevskii, V.P.; Bochko, A.V.; Dzhamarov, S.S.; Karpinos, D.M.; Karyuk, G.G.; Kolomiets, I.P.; Kurdyumov, A.V.; Pivovarov, M.S.; Frantsevich, I.N.; Yarosh, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    A mixture containing less than 50 percent of graphite-like boron nitride treated by a shock wave and highly defective wurtzite-like boron nitride obtained by a shock-wave method is compressed and heated at pressure and temperature values corresponding to the region of the phase diagram for boron nitride defined by the graphite-like compact modifications of boron nitride equilibrium line and the cubic wurtzite-like boron nitride equilibrium line. The resulting crystals of boron nitride exhibit a structure of wurtzite-like boron nitride or of both wurtzite-like and cubic boron nitride. The resulting material exhibits higher plasticity as compared with polycrystalline cubic boron nitride. Tools made of this compact polycrystalline material have a longer service life under impact loads in machining hardened steel and chilled iron. (U.S.)

  19. Antisites in III-V semiconductors: Density functional theory calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.

    2014-07-14

    Density functional based simulation, corrected for finite size effects, is used to investigate systematically the formation of antisite defects in III-V semiconductors (III=Al, Ga, and In and V=P, As, and Sb). Different charge states are modelled as a function of the Fermi level and under different growth conditions. The formation energies of group III antisites (III V q) decrease with increasing covalent radius of the group V atom though not group III radius, whereas group V antisites (V I I I q) show a consistent decrease in formation energies with increase in group III and group V covalent radii. In general, III V q defects dominate under III-rich conditions and V I I I q under V-rich conditions. Comparison with equivalent vacancy formation energy simulations shows that while antisite concentrations are always dominant under stoichiometric conditions, modest variation in growth or doping conditions can lead to a significantly higher concentration of vacancies. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  20. Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patibandla, Nag; Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of this program, Applied Materials, Inc., with generous support from the United States Department of Energy, developed a world-class three chamber III-Nitride epi cluster tool for low-cost, high volume GaN growth for the solid state lighting industry. One of the major achievements of the program was to design, build, and demonstrate the world’s largest wafer capacity HVPE chamber suitable for repeatable high volume III-Nitride template and device manufacturing. Applied Materials’ experience in developing deposition chambers for the silicon chip industry over many decades resulted in many orders of magnitude reductions in the price of transistors. That experience and understanding was used in developing this GaN epi deposition tool. The multi-chamber approach, which continues to be unique in the ability of the each chamber to deposit a section of the full device structure, unlike other cluster tools, allows for extreme flexibility in the manufacturing process. This robust architecture is suitable for not just the LED industry, but GaN power devices as well, both horizontal and vertical designs. The new HVPE technology developed allows GaN to be grown at a rate unheard of with MOCVD, up to 20x the typical MOCVD rates of 3{micro}m per hour, with bulk crystal quality better than the highest-quality commercial GaN films grown by MOCVD at a much cheaper overall cost. This is a unique development as the HVPE process has been known for decades, but never successfully commercially developed for high volume manufacturing. This research shows the potential of the first commercial-grade HVPE chamber, an elusive goal for III-V researchers and those wanting to capitalize on the promise of HVPE. Additionally, in the course of this program, Applied Materials built two MOCVD chambers, in addition to the HVPE chamber, and a robot that moves wafers between them. The MOCVD chambers demonstrated industry-leading wavelength yield for GaN based LED wafers and industry

  1. Reassembling Solid Materials by Femtosecond Laser Ablation: Case of Aluminum Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Matsuo, Yukari

    2013-06-01

    Through atomization and ionization, we could completely alter the composition of a nonconductive material, aluminum nitride, by femtosecond laser ablation. Preferential production of pure aluminum cluster cations Aln+ (n≤32) reflects not only their higher energetic stability compared with mixed clusters AlnNm+ but also completion of thermal relaxation in ablation plasma. Observation of metastable dissociation of Aln+ indicates that cluster cations have still enough internal energy for dissociation to occur, although the process is much slower than the cluster formation. Almost no cluster formation has been observed after nanosecond laser ablation of aluminum nitride, which highlights the distinct nature of ablation plasma produced by femtosecond laser ablation.

  2. Generic technique to grow III-V semiconductor nanowires in a closed glass vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline III-V semiconductor nanowires have great potential in fabrication of nanodevices for applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, and for studies of novel physical phenomena. Sophisticated epitaxy techniques with precisely controlled growth conditions are often used to prepare high quality III-V nanowires. The growth process and cost of these experiments are therefore dedicated and very high. Here, we report a simple but generic method to synthesize III-V nanowires with high crystal quality. The technique employs a closed evacuated tube vessel with a small tube carrier containing a solid source of materials and another small tube carrier containing a growth substrate inside. The growth of nanowires is achieved after heating the closed vessel in a furnace to a preset high temperature and then cooling it down naturally to room temperature. The technique has been employed to grow InAs, GaAs, and GaSb nanowires on Si/SiO2 substrates. The as-grown nanowires are analyzed by SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy and the results show that the nanowires are high quality zincblende single crystals. No particular condition needs to be adjusted and controlled in the experiments. This technique provides a convenient way of synthesis of III-V semiconductor nanowires with high material quality for a wide range of applications.

  3. Are Fe and Co implanted ZnO and III-nitride semiconductors magnetic?

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081284; Bharuth-Ram, Krish

    The chemical nature, lattice site locations and magnetic behaviour of Fe and/or Co ions implanted in nitrides (GaN, AlN, and InN) and in ZnO have been investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. Mössbauer data on nitride and $^{56}$Fe pre-implanted ZnO samples were obtained from emission Mössbauer spectroscopy (eMS) measurements at the ISOLDE facility, CERN, following the implantation of radioactive $^{57}$Mn$^{*}$ which $\\beta$$^{-}$decays to the 14.4 keV Mössbauer state of $^{57}$Fe. In addition, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) data were collected on ZnO single crystals co-implanted with $^{57}$Fe + $^{56}$Fe and $^{57}$Fe + $^{59}$Co ions in a box profile. Emission Mössbauer spectra obtained for GaN and AlN reveal magnetic structure in the ‘wings’ assigned to high spin Fe$^{3+}$ weakly coupled to the lattice showing spin-lattice relaxation effects. The observed spin-relaxation rate (τ$^{-1}$) closely follows a ${T}^{2}$ temperat...

  4. Cleavage mechanoluminescence in elemental and III-V semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, B.P.; Patel, R.P.; Gour, Anubha S.; Chandra, V.K.; Gupta, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper reports the theory of mechanoluminescence (ML) produced during cleavage of elemental and III-V semiconductors. It seems that the formation of crack-induced localized states is responsible for the ML excitation produced during the cleavage of elemental and III-V semiconductors. According to this mechanism, as the atoms are drawn away from each other in an advancing crack tip, the decreasing wave function overlap across the crack may result in localized states which is associated with increasing electron energy. If the energy of these localized states approach that of the conduction band, transition to the conduction band via tunnelling would be possible, creating minority carriers, and consequently the electron-hole recombination may give rise to mechanoluminescence. When an elemental or III-V semiconductor is cleaved, initially the ML intensity increases with time, attains a peak value I m at the time t m corresponding to completion of the cleavage of the semiconductor, and then it decreases following power law decay. Expressions are derived for the ML intensity I m corresponding to the peak of the ML intensity versus time curve and for the total ML intensity I T . It is shown that both I m and I T should increase directly with the area of the newly created surfaces of the crystals. From the measurements of the ML intensity, the velocity of crack propagation in material can be determined by using the relation v=H/t m

  5. Light propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals based on uniaxial polar materials: results on polaritonic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urrea, H. A.; Duque, C. A.; Pérez-Quintana, I. V.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.

    2017-03-01

    The dispersion relations of two-dimensional photonic crystals made of uniaxial polaritonic cylinders arranged in triangular lattice are calculated. The particular case of the transverse magnetic polarization is taken into account. Three different uniaxial materials showing transverse phonon-polariton excitations are considered: aluminum nitride, gallium nitride, and indium nitride. The study is carried out by means of the finite-difference time-domain technique for the solution of Maxwell equations, together with the method of the auxiliary differential equation. It is shown that changing the filling fraction can result in the modification of both the photonic and polaritonic bandgaps in the optical dispersion relations. Wider gaps appear for smaller filling fraction values, whereas a larger number of photonic bandgaps will occur within the frequency range considered when a larger filling fraction is used. The effect of including the distinct wurtzite III-V nitride semiconductors as core materials in the cylinders embedded in the air on the photonic properties is discussed as well, highlighting the effect of the dielectric anisotropy on the properties of the polaritonic part of the photonic spectrum.

  6. Effect of ion nitridation process on hardness and the corrosion resistance of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirjoadi; Lely Susita; Bambang Siswanto; Sudjatmoko

    2012-01-01

    Ion nitriding process has been performed on metal biomaterials to improve their mechanical properties of materials, particularly to increase hardness and corrosion resistance. This metallic biomaterials used for artificial bone or a prosthetic graft and used as devices of orthopedic biomaterials are usually of 316L SS metal-type and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The purpose of this study is to research the development and utilization of ion nitridation method in order to get iron and titanium nitride thin films on the metallic biomaterials for artificial bone that has wear resistance and corrosion resistance is better. Microhardness of the samples was measured using a microhardness tester, optimum hardness of SS 316L samples are about 582 VHN, this was obtained at the nitriding temperature of 500 °C, the nitriding time of 3 hours and the nitrogen gas pressure of 1.6 mbar, while optimum hardness of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is 764 VHN, this was obtained at the nitriding temperature of 500 °C, the nitriding time of 4 hours and the nitrogen gas pressure of 1.6 mbar. The hardness value of SS 316L sample and Ti-6Al-4V alloy increase to 143% and 153%, if compared with standard samples. The optimum corrosion resistance at temperature of 350 °C for SS 316L and Ti-6Al-4V are 260,12 and 110,49 μA/cm 2 or corrosion rate are 29,866 and 15,189 mpy, respectively. (author)

  7. Antisites in III-V semiconductors: Density functional theory calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.; Tahini, Hassan Ali; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Grimes, R. W.

    2014-01-01

    as a function of the Fermi level and under different growth conditions. The formation energies of group III antisites (III V q) decrease with increasing covalent radius of the group V atom though not group III radius, whereas group V antisites (V I I I

  8. X-ray diffraction analysis of cubic zincblende III-nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentrup, Martin; Lee, Lok Yi; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Kappers, Menno J; Massabuau, Fabien; Gupta, Priti; Oliver, Rachel A; Humphreys, Colin J; Wallis, David J

    2017-01-01

    Solving the green gap problem is a key challenge for the development of future LED-based light systems. A promising approach to achieve higher LED efficiencies in the green spectral region is the growth of III-nitrides in the cubic zincblende phase. However, the metastability of zincblende GaN along with the crystal growth process often lead to a phase mixture with the wurtzite phase, high mosaicity, high densities of extended defects and point defects, and strain, which can all impair the performance of light emitting devices. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the main characterization technique to analyze these device-relevant structural properties, as it is very cheap in comparison to other techniques and enables fast feedback times. In this review, we will describe and apply various XRD techniques to identify the phase purity in predominantly zincblende GaN thin films, to analyze their mosaicity, strain state, and wafer curvature. The different techniques will be illustrated on samples grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on pieces of 4″ SiC/Si wafers. We will discuss possible issues, which may arise during experimentation, and provide a critical view on the common theories. (topical review)

  9. III-V/Active-Silicon Integration for Low-Cost High-Performance Concentrator Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringel, Steven [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlin, John A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Grassman, Tyler [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-04-17

    This FPACE project was motivated by the need to establish the foundational pathway to achieve concentrator solar cell efficiencies greater than 50%. At such an efficiency, DOE modeling projected that a III-V CPV module cost of $0.50/W or better could be achieved. Therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate, develop and advance a III-V/Si mulitjunction (MJ) CPV technology that can simultaneously address the primary cost barrier for III-V MJ solar cells while enabling nearly ideal MJ bandgap profiles that can yield efficiencies in excess of 50% under concentrated sunlight. The proposed methodology was based on use of our recently developed GaAsP metamorphic graded buffer as a pathway to integrate unique GaAsP and Ga-rich GaInP middle and top junctions having bandgaps that are adjustable between 1.45 – 1.65 eV and 1.9 – 2.1 eV, respectively, with an underlying, 1.1 eV active Si subcell/substrate. With this design, the Si can be an active component sub-cell due to the semi-transparent nature of the GaAsP buffer with respect to Si as well as a low-cost alternative substrate that is amenable to scaling with existing Si foundry infrastructure, providing a reduction in materials cost and a low cost path to manufacturing at scale. By backside bonding of a SiGe, a path to exceed 50% efficiency is possible. Throughout the course of this effort, an expansive range of new understanding was achieved that has stimulated worldwide efforts in III-V/Si PV R&D that spanned materials development, metamorphic device optimization, and complete III-V/Si monolithic integration. Highlights include the demonstration of the first ideal GaP/Si interfaces grown by industry-standard MOCVD processes, the first high performance metamorphic tunnel junctions designed for III-V/Si integration, record performance of specific metamorphic sub-cell designs, the first fully integrated GaInP/GaAsP/Si double (1.7 eV/1.1 eV) and triple (1.95 eV/1.5 eV/1.1 eV) junction solar cells, the first

  10. Fatigue improvement in low temperature plasma nitrided Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farokhzadeh, K.; Edrisy, A., E-mail: edrisy@uwindsor.ca

    2015-01-03

    In this study a low temperature (600 °C) treatment was utilized to improve the fatigue performance of plasma nitrided Ti–6Al–4V alloy by optimization of microstructure. In order to study the fatigue properties, rotation bending tests were conducted, the S–N curves were constructed, and the results were compared with those obtained by an elevated temperature treatment (900 °C) as well as conventional gas/plasma nitriding treatments reported in literature. The plasma nitrided alloy at 600 °C showed an endurance limit of 552 MPa which was higher than those achieved by conventional nitriding treatments performed at 750–1100 °C. In contrast, plasma nitriding at 900 °C resulted in the reduction of fatigue life by at least two orders of magnitude compared to the 600 °C treatment, accompanied by a 13% reduction of tensile strength and a 78% reduction of ductility. The deterioration of mechanical properties after the elevated temperature treatment was attributed to the formation of a thick compound layer (∼6 µm) on the surface followed by an α-Case (∼20 µm) and phase transformation in the bulk microstructure from fully equiaxed to bimodal with coarse grains (∼5 times higher average grain size value). The microstructure developed at 600 °C consisted of a thin compound layer (<2 µm) and a deep nitrogen diffusion zone (∼45 µm) while the bulk microstructure was maintained with only 40% grain growth. The micromechanisms of fatigue failures were identified by examination of the fracture surfaces under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that fatigue failure in the plasma nitrided alloy initiated from the surface in the low cycle region (N≤10{sup 5} cycles) and propagated in a ductile manner leading to the final rupture. No failures were observed in the high cycle region (N>10{sup 5} cycles) and the nitrided alloy endured cyclic loading until the tests were stopped at 10{sup 7} cycles. The thin morphology of the compound layer in this

  11. Fatigue improvement in low temperature plasma nitrided Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farokhzadeh, K.; Edrisy, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study a low temperature (600 °C) treatment was utilized to improve the fatigue performance of plasma nitrided Ti–6Al–4V alloy by optimization of microstructure. In order to study the fatigue properties, rotation bending tests were conducted, the S–N curves were constructed, and the results were compared with those obtained by an elevated temperature treatment (900 °C) as well as conventional gas/plasma nitriding treatments reported in literature. The plasma nitrided alloy at 600 °C showed an endurance limit of 552 MPa which was higher than those achieved by conventional nitriding treatments performed at 750–1100 °C. In contrast, plasma nitriding at 900 °C resulted in the reduction of fatigue life by at least two orders of magnitude compared to the 600 °C treatment, accompanied by a 13% reduction of tensile strength and a 78% reduction of ductility. The deterioration of mechanical properties after the elevated temperature treatment was attributed to the formation of a thick compound layer (∼6 µm) on the surface followed by an α-Case (∼20 µm) and phase transformation in the bulk microstructure from fully equiaxed to bimodal with coarse grains (∼5 times higher average grain size value). The microstructure developed at 600 °C consisted of a thin compound layer (<2 µm) and a deep nitrogen diffusion zone (∼45 µm) while the bulk microstructure was maintained with only 40% grain growth. The micromechanisms of fatigue failures were identified by examination of the fracture surfaces under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that fatigue failure in the plasma nitrided alloy initiated from the surface in the low cycle region (N≤10 5 cycles) and propagated in a ductile manner leading to the final rupture. No failures were observed in the high cycle region (N>10 5 cycles) and the nitrided alloy endured cyclic loading until the tests were stopped at 10 7 cycles. The thin morphology of the compound layer in this study restricted

  12. An electron beam induced current study of gallium nitride and diamond materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, A.D.; Moore, D.J.; Scott, C.S.; Green, R.

    1995-01-01

    The continual need for microelectronic devices that operate under severe electronic and environmental conditions (high temperature, high frequency, high power, and radiation tolerance) has sustained research in wide bandgap semiconductor materials. The properties suggest these wide-bandgap semiconductor materials have tremendous potential for military and commercial applications. High frequency bipolar transistors and field effect transistors, diodes, and short wavelength optical devices have been proposed using these materials. Although research efforts involving the study of transport properties in Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Diamond have made significant advances, much work is still needed to improve the material quality so that the electrophysical behavior of device structures can be further understood and exploited. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements can provide a method of understanding the transport properties in Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Diamond. This technique basically consists of measuring the current or voltage transient response to the drift and diffusion of carriers created by a short-duration pulse of radiation. This method differs from other experimental techniques because it is based on a fast transient electron beam probe created from a high speed, laser pulsed photoemission system

  13. Reduction of Defects on Microstructure Aluminium Nitride Using High Temperature Annealing Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasta, Z.; Muhamad, P.; Kuwano, N.; Norfazrina, H. M. Y.; Unuh, M. H.

    2018-03-01

    Aluminium Nitride (AlN) is a ceramic 111-nitride material that is used widely as components in functional devices. Besides good thermal conductivity, it also has a high band gap in emitting light which is 6 eV. AlN thin film is grown on the sapphire substrate (0001). However, lattice mismatch between both materials has caused defects to exist along the microstructure of AlN thin films. The defects have affected the properties of Aluminium Nitride. Annealing heat treatment has been proved by the previous researcher to be the best method to improve the microstructure of Aluminium Nitride thin films. Hence, this method is applied at four different temperatures for two hour. The changes of Aluminium Nitride microstructures before and after annealing is observed using Transmission Electron Microscope. It is observed that inversion domains start to occur at temperature of 1500 °C. Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction pattern simulation has confirmed the defects as inversion domain. Therefore, this paper is about to extract the matters occurred during the process of producing high quality Aluminium Nitride thin films and the ways to overcome this problem.

  14. Direct immobilization and hybridization of DNA on group III nitride semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiaobin; Jindal, Vibhu; Shahedipour-Sandvik, Fatemeh; Bergkvist, Magnus [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany (SUNY), 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States); Cady, Nathaniel C. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany (SUNY), 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)], E-mail: ncady@uamail.albany.edu

    2009-03-15

    A key concern for group III-nitride high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) biosensors is the anchoring of specific capture molecules onto the gate surface. To this end, a direct immobilization strategy was developed to attach single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to AlGaN surfaces using simple printing techniques without the need for cross-linking agents or complex surface pre-functionalization procedures. Immobilized DNA molecules were stably attached to the AlGaN surfaces and were able to withstand a range of pH and ionic strength conditions. The biological activity of surface-immobilized probe DNA was also retained, as demonstrated by sequence-specific hybridization experiments. Probe hybridization with target ssDNA could be detected by PicoGreen fluorescent dye labeling with a minimum detection limit of 2 nM. These experiments demonstrate a simple and effective immobilization approach for attaching nucleic acids to AlGaN surfaces which can further be used for the development of HEMT-based DNA biosensors.

  15. Ion nitridation - physical and technological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbern, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Ion nitridation, is a technique which allows the formation of a controlled thickness of nitrides in the surface of the material, using this material as the cathode in a low pressure glow discharge, which presents many advantages over the conventional method. A brief review of the ion nitriding technique, the physical fenomena involved, and we discuss technological aspects of this method, are presented. (Author) [pt

  16. III-nitride based light emitting diodes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Morkoç, Hadis

    2013-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are already used in traffic signals, signage lighting, and automotive applications. However, its ultimate goal is to replace traditional illumination through LED lamps since LED lighting significantly reduces energy consumption and cuts down on carbon-dioxide emission. Despite dramatic advances in LED technologies (e.g., growth, doping and processing technologies), however, there remain critical issues for further improvements yet to be achieved for the realization of solid-state lighting. This book aims to provide the readers with some contemporary LED issues, which have not been comprehensively discussed in the published books and, on which the performance of LEDs is seriously dependent. For example, most importantly, there must be a breakthrough in the growth of high-quality nitride semiconductor epitaxial layers with a low density of dislocations, in particular, in the growth of Al-rich and and In-rich GaN-based semiconductors. The materials quality is directly dependent on th...

  17. Work Function Characterization of Potassium-Intercalated, Boron Nitride Doped Graphitic Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. McCarthy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on characterization techniques for electron emission from potassium-intercalated boron nitride-modified graphitic petals (GPs. Carbon-based materials offer potentially good performance in electron emission applications owing to high thermal stability and a wide range of nanostructures that increase emission current via field enhancement. Furthermore, potassium adsorption and intercalation of carbon-based nanoscale emitters decreases work functions from approximately 4.6 eV to as low as 2.0 eV. In this study, boron nitride modifications of GPs were performed. Hexagonal boron nitride is a planar structure akin to graphene and has demonstrated useful chemical and electrical properties when embedded in graphitic layers. Photoemission induced by simulated solar excitation was employed to characterize the emitter electron energy distributions, and changes in the electron emission characteristics with respect to temperature identified annealing temperature limits. After several heating cycles, a single stable emission peak with work function of 2.8 eV was present for the intercalated GP sample up to 1,000 K. Up to 600 K, the potassium-intercalated boron nitride modified sample exhibited improved retention of potassium in the form of multiple emission peaks (1.8, 2.5, and 3.3 eV resulting in a large net electron emission relative to the unmodified graphitic sample. However, upon further heating to 1,000 K, the unmodified GP sample demonstrated better stability and higher emission current than the boron nitride modified sample. Both samples deintercalated above 1,000 K.

  18. Frequency effects and properties of plasma deposited fluorinated silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Flamm, D.L.; Ibbotson, D.E.; Mucha, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of low-hydrogen, fluorinated plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride films grown using NF 3 /SiH 4 /N 2 feed mixtures in 200 kHz and 14 MHz discharges were compared. High-energy ion bombardment at 200 kHz is expected to enhance surface diffusion and chemical reconstruction. Compared to fluorinated silicon nitride deposited at 14 MHz under otherwise comparable conditions, the 200 kHz films had a lower Si--H bond concentration (approx. 21 cm -3 ), lower total hydrogen content (5--8 x 10 21 cm -3 ), better resistance to oxidation, lower compressive stress (-0.7 to -1.5 Gdyne/cm), and higher density (3.1 g/cm 3 ). The dielectric constant of better low-frequency Class I films was constant to 500 MHz, while that of high-frequency films fell up to 15% between 100 Hz and 10 MHz. The absorption edges of low-frequency PECVD fluorinated silicon nitride films were between 5.0 and 6.1 eV, which compare with 4.4 to 5.6 eV for the high-excitation frequency fluorinated material and 3 to 4 eV for conventional PECVD nitride. However high-frequency films may have fewer trap centers and a lower dielectric constant. 14 MHz p-SiN:F films grown with NH 3 as an auxiliary nitrogen source showed absorption edges similar to low-frequency material grown from NF 3 /SiH 4 /N 2 , but they have substantially more N--H bonding. The dielectric constant and absorption edge of these films were comparable to those of low-frequency p-SiN:F from NF 3 /SiH 4 /N 2

  19. A first principle study of band structure of III-nitride compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rashid [Centre for High Energy Physics University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)]. E-mail: rasofi@hotmail.com; Akbarzadeh, H. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, 841546 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fazal-e-Aleem [Centre for High Energy Physics University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2005-12-15

    The band structure of both phases, zinc-blende and wurtzite, of aluminum nitride, indium nitride and gallium nitride has been studied using computational methods. The study has been done using first principle full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). For the exchange correlation potential, generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and an alternative form of GGA proposed by Engel and Vosko (GGA-EV) have been used. Results obtained for band structure of these compounds have been compared with experimental results as well as other first principle computations. Our results show a significant improvement over other theoretical work and are closer to the experimental data.

  20. Nitride alloy layer formation of duplex stainless steel using nitriding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleque, M. A.; Lailatul, P. H.; Fathaen, A. A.; Norinsan, K.; Haider, J.

    2018-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) shows a good corrosion resistance as well as the mechanical properties. However, DSS performance decrease as it works under aggressive environment and at high temperature. At the mentioned environment, the DSS become susceptible to wear failure. Surface modification is the favourable technique to widen the application of duplex stainless steel and improve the wear resistance and its hardness properties. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to nitride alloy layer on the surface of duplex stainless steel by the nitriding process temperature of 400°C and 450°C at different time and ammonia composition using a horizontal tube furnace. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyzer are used to analyse the morphology, composition and the nitrided alloy layer for treated DSS. The micro hardnesss Vickers tester was used to measure hardness on cross-sectional area of nitrided DSS. After nitriding, it was observed that the hardness performance increased until 1100 Hv0.5kgf compared to substrate material of 250 Hv0.5kgf. The thickness layer of nitride alloy also increased from 5μm until 100μm due to diffusion of nitrogen on the surface of DSS. The x-ray diffraction results showed that the nitride layer consists of iron nitride, expanded austenite and chromium nitride. It can be concluded that nitride alloy layer can be produced via nitriding process using tube furnace with significant improvement of microstructural and hardness properties.

  1. High Kinetic Energy Penetrator Shielding and High Wear Resistance Materials Fabricated with Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTS) and BNNT Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Bryant, Robert George (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphites, or combinations, are incorporated into matrices of polymer, ceramic or metals. Fibers, yarns, and woven or nonwoven mats of BNNTs are used as toughening layers in penetration resistant materials to maximize energy absorption and/or high hardness layers to rebound or deform penetrators. They can be also used as reinforcing inclusions combining with other polymer matrices to create composite layers like typical reinforcing fibers such as Kevlar.RTM., Spectra.RTM., ceramics and metals. Enhanced wear resistance and usage time are achieved by adding boron nitride nanomaterials, increasing hardness and toughness. Such materials can be used in high temperature environments since the oxidation temperature of BNNTs exceeds 800.degree. C. in air. Boron nitride based composites are useful as strong structural materials for anti-micrometeorite layers for spacecraft and space suits, ultra strong tethers, protective gear, vehicles, helmets, shields and safety suits/helmets for industry.

  2. Isotope-beam modification of materials at eV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, C.; Radtke, C.; Stedile, F.C.; Baumvol, I.J.R.

    2001-01-01

    We developed a low energy ion beam deposition system for isotope-selective modification of materials. It consists of a conventional ion implanter (HVEE 500 kV) and an attachable deceleration system. 29 (N 2 ) + ion beams were used for the nitridation of Si(0 0 1) and the resulting 15 N retained doses and profiles were determined by narrow nuclear resonance profiling. 29 Si was deposited on amorphous carbon films on Si(0 0 1) and the doses evaluated by channeled α particle beams with detection of scattered α at grazing angles. 29 Si was also deposited on Si(0 0 1) and the resulting profiles determined by narrow nuclear resonance

  3. Plasma deposition of cubic boron nitride films from non-toxic material at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, M.Z.; Cameron, D.C.; Murphy, M.J.; Hashmi, M.S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Boron nitride has become the focus of a considerable amount of interest because of its properties which relate closely to those of carbon. In particular, the cubic nitride phase has extreme hardness and very high thermal conductivity similar to the properties of diamond. The conventional methods of synthesis use the highly toxic and inflammable gas diborane (B 2 H 6 ) as the reactant material. A study has been made of the deposition of thin films of boron nitride (BN) using non-toxic material by the plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition technique. The source material was borane-ammonia (BH 3 -NH 3 ) which is a crystalline solid at room temperature with a high vapour pressure. The BH 3 -NH 3 vapour was decomposed in a 13.56 MHz nitrogen plasma coupled either inductively or capacitively with the system. The composition of the films was assessed by measuring their IR absorption when deposited on silicon and KBr substrates. The hexagonal (graphitic) and cubic (diamond-like) allotropes can be distinguished by their characteristic absorption bands which occur at 1365 and 780 cm -1 (hexagonal) and 1070 cm -1 (cubic). We have deposited BN films consisting of a mixture of hexagonal and cubic phases; the relative content of the cubic phase was found to be directly dependent on r.f. power and substrate bias. (orig.)

  4. Magnetooptical investigations on ferromagnetic III-V-semiconductors; Magnetooptische Untersuchungen an ferromagnetischen III-V-Halbleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Andreas

    2009-07-23

    Magnetooptical Kerr effect (MOKE) and Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) have been used to investigate magnetic as well as bandstructure properties of diluted magnetic III-V-semiconductors containing Mn. In these ferromagnetic systems it has been found that the strength of the observed effects depends linearly on the magnetization of the samples with no influence of the external magnetic field. The magnetooptical effects allowed the recording of hysteresis loops of GaMnAs, GaMnSb, InMnAs and InMnSb samples for different temperatures and in the case of GaMnAs also for different alignments of the external magnetic field with respect to the easy axis of magnetization. The Stoner-Wohlfahrt-Model has been used to describe the resulting shapes of the loops yielding the magnetic anisotropy parameters of the samples. For magnetically saturated samples, spectra of MOKE and MCD have been recorded. Contrary to pure III-V-semiconductors, which exhibit lots of sharp resonances due to interband transitions between Landau levels, III-Mn-V-semi-conductors how only very few (or just one) considerably broad resonance(s). Their spectral position(s) do(es) neither depend upon the magnetic field as it would be the case for pure III-V-semiconductors nor the magnetization. Only the amplitude increases linearly with the magnetization. Utilizing a kp-theory it has been possible to describe the observed dependencies. Valence- and conduction-band are split into Landau levels by the external magnetic field and, in addition to the Zeeman-effect, the spin-levels are split by the exchange interaction between the localized electrons of the Mn ions and the free carriers which is proportional to the magnetization of the samples. This splitting is much bigger than the Landau level splitting. Due to an inhomogeneous distribution of the Mn ions and due to the high carrier density the Landau levels are strongly broadened and their structure is not observable. Owing to the high carrier-concentration in

  5. Removal of arsenic from water using manganese (III) oxide: Adsorption of As(III) and As(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeivelni, Kamel; Khodadoust, Amid P

    2016-01-01

    Removal of arsenic from water was evaluated with manganese (III) oxide (Mn2O3) as adsorbent. Adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto Mn2O3 was favorable according to the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equilibrium equations, while chemisorption of arsenic occurred according to the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Adsorption parameters from the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin equations showed a greater adsorption and removal of As(III) than As(V) by Mn2O3. Maximum removal of As(III) and As(V) occurred at pH 3-9 and at pH 2, respectively, while removal of As(V) in the pH range of 6-9 was 93% (pH 6) to 61% (pH 9) of the maximum removal. Zeta potential measurements for Mn2O3 in As(III) was likely converted to As(V) solutions indicated that As(III) was likely converted to As(V) on the Mn2O3 surface at pH 3-9. Overall, the effective Mn2O3 sorbent rapidly removed As(III) and As(V) from water in the pH range of 6-9 for natural waters.

  6. Nondestructive mapping of chemical composition and structural qualities of group III-nitride nanowires using submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, P.L., E-mail: plb2@njit.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gautier, S. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gmili, Y.El.; Moudakir, T. [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Sirenko, A.A. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kazimirov, A. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cai, Z.-H. [Advanced Photon Source, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Martin, J. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Goh, W.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Martinez, A.; Ramdane, A.; Le Gratiet, L. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR CNRS 20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Maloufi, N. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Application aux Matériaux UMR CNRS 7078 Ile du Saulcy 57045 METZ cedex 1 (France); Assouar, M.B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionisés et Applications, Nancy University, CNRS, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cédex (France); Ougazzaden, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-08-31

    Submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques have been developed and used to accurately and nondestructively map chemical composition and material quality of selectively grown group III-nitride nanowires. GaN, AlGaN, and InGaN multi-quantum-well nanowires have been selectively grown on lattice matched and mismatched substrates, and the challenges associated with obtaining and interpreting submicron beam XRD results are addressed and solved. Nanoscale cathodoluminescence is used to examine exciton behavior, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is used to verify chemical composition. Scanning transmission electron microscopy is later used to paint a more complete picture. The advantages of submicron beam XRD over other techniques are discussed in the context of this challenging material system. - Highlights: ► We used nano selective area growth to create nanowires of GaN, AlGaN and InGaN/GaN. ► We characterized them by synchrotron-based submicron beam X-ray diffraction (XRD). ► This technique accurately determined chemical and crystallographic properties. ► Challenges of XRD are addressed in the context of this challenging material system. ► Advantages of XRD over other characterization methods are discussed.

  7. Hot pressing of uranium nitride and mixed uranium plutonium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.Y.

    1975-01-01

    The hot pressing characteristics of uranium nitride and mixed uranium plutonium nitride were studied. The utilization of computer programs together with the experimental technique developed in the present study may serve as a useful purpose of prediction and fabrication of advanced reactor fuel and other high temperature ceramic materials for the future. The densification of nitrides follow closely with a plastic flow theory expressed as: d rho/ dt = A/T(t) (1-rho) [1/1-(1-rho)/sup 2/3/ + B1n (1-rho)] The coefficients, A and B, were obtained from experiment and computer curve fitting. (8 figures) (U.S.)

  8. Position-controlled epitaxial III-V nanowires on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roest, Aarnoud L; Verheijen, Marcel A; Wunnicke, Olaf; Serafin, Stacey; Wondergem, Harry; Bakkers, Erik P A M [Philips Research Laboratories, Professor Holstlaan 4, 5656 AA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-06-14

    We show the epitaxial integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires with silicon technology. The wires are grown by the VLS mechanism with laser ablation as well as metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The hetero-epitaxial growth of the III-V nanowires on silicon was confirmed with x-ray diffraction pole figures and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. We show preliminary results of two-terminal electrical measurements of III-V nanowires grown on silicon. E-beam lithography was used to predefine the position of the nanowires.

  9. Position-controlled epitaxial III-V nanowires on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, Aarnoud L; Verheijen, Marcel A; Wunnicke, Olaf; Serafin, Stacey; Wondergem, Harry; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2006-01-01

    We show the epitaxial integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires with silicon technology. The wires are grown by the VLS mechanism with laser ablation as well as metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The hetero-epitaxial growth of the III-V nanowires on silicon was confirmed with x-ray diffraction pole figures and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. We show preliminary results of two-terminal electrical measurements of III-V nanowires grown on silicon. E-beam lithography was used to predefine the position of the nanowires

  10. Rolling-element fatigue life of silicon nitride balls. [as compared to that of steel, ceramic, and cermet materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    The five-ball fatigue tester was used to evaluate silicon nitride as a rolling-element bearing material. Results indicate that hot-pressed silicon nitride running against steel may be expected to yield fatigue lives comparable to or greater than those of bearing quality steel running against steel at stress levels typical rolling-element bearing application. The fatigue life of hot-pressed silicon nitride is considerably greater than that of any ceramic or cermet tested. Computer analysis indicates that there is no improvement in the lives of 120-mm-bore angular--contact ball bearings of the same geometry operating at DN values from 2 to 4 million where hot-pressed silicon nitride balls are used in place of steel balls.

  11. The phonon-polariton spectrum of one-dimensional Rudin-Shapiro photonic superlattices with uniaxial polar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urrea, H. A.; Duque, C. A.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    The properties of the optical-phonon-associated polaritonic modes that appear under oblique light incidence in 1D superlattices made of photonic materials are studied. The investigated systems result from the periodic repetition of quasiregular Rudin-Shapiro (RS) multilayer units. It is assume that the structure consists of both passive non-dispersive layers of constant refraction index and active layers of uniaxial polar materials. In particular, we consider III-V wurtzite nitrides. The optical axis of these polaritonic materials is taken along the growth direction. Maxwell equations are solved using the transfer matrix technique for all admissible values of the incidence angle.

  12. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J. T., E-mail: jtleona01@gmail.com; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Megalini, L.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Lee, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-18

    We demonstrate a III-nitride nonpolar vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a photoelectrochemically (PEC) etched aperture. The PEC lateral undercut etch is used to selectively remove the multi-quantum well (MQW) region outside the aperture area, defined by an opaque metal mask. This PEC aperture (PECA) creates an air-gap in the passive area of the device, allowing one to achieve efficient electrical confinement within the aperture, while simultaneously achieving a large index contrast between core of the device (the MQW within the aperture) and the lateral cladding of the device (the air-gap formed by the PEC etch), leading to strong lateral confinement. Scanning electron microscopy and focused ion-beam analysis is used to investigate the precision of the PEC etch technique in defining the aperture. The fabricated single mode PECA VCSEL shows a threshold current density of ∼22 kA/cm{sup 2} (25 mA), with a peak output power of ∼180 μW, at an emission wavelength of 417 nm. The near-field emission profile shows a clearly defined single linearly polarized (LP) mode profile (LP{sub 12,1}), which is in contrast to the filamentary lasing that is often observed in III-nitride VCSELs. 2D mode profile simulations, carried out using COMSOL, give insight into the different mode profiles that one would expect to be displayed in such a device. The experimentally observed single mode operation is proposed to be predominantly a result of poor current spreading in the device. This non-uniform current spreading results in a higher injected current at the periphery of the aperture, which favors LP modes with high intensities near the edge of the aperture.

  13. Method of preparation of uranium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline Loetsch; Thomson, Robert Kenneth James

    2013-07-09

    Method for producing terminal uranium nitride complexes comprising providing a suitable starting material comprising uranium; oxidizing the starting material with a suitable oxidant to produce one or more uranium(IV)-azide complexes; and, sufficiently irradiating the uranium(IV)-azide complexes to produce the terminal uranium nitride complexes.

  14. Technics Research on Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride Cutting Tools Dry Turning Ti-6AL-4V Alloy Based on Orthogonal Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yunhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V components are the most widely used titanium alloy products not only in the aerospace industry, but also for bio-medical applications. The machine-ability of titanium alloys is impaired by their high temperature chemical reactivity, low thermal conductivity and low modulus of elasticity. Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride represents a substitute tool material for turning titanium alloys due to its high hardness, wear resistance, thermal stability and hot red hardness. For determination of suitable cutting parameters in dry turning Ti-6AL-4V alloy by Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tools, the samples, 300mm in length and 100mm in diameter, were dry machined in a lathe. The turning suitable parameters, such as cutting speed, feed rate and cut depth were determined according to workpieces surface roughness and tools flank wear based on orthogonal experimental design. The experiment showed that the cutting speed in the range of 160~180 m/min, the feed rate is 0.15 mm/rev and the depth of cut is 0.20mm, ideal workpiece surface roughness and little cutting tools flank wear can be obtained.

  15. Growth, structure and phase transitions of epitaxial nanowires of III-V semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glas, F; Patriarche, G; Harmand, J C

    2010-01-01

    We review and illustrate the impact of TEM on the study of nanowires of non-nitride III-V semiconductors, with particular emphasis on the understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of their formation assisted by nano-sized catalyst particles. Besides providing basic information about the morphology of the nanowires and their growth rate as a function of diameter, TEM offers insights into the peculiar crystalline structure that they adopt. We discuss the formation of the unusual wurtzite hexagonal crystalline phase and that of planar stacking defects in these nanowires and show that they are kinetically controlled. We also demonstrate the transformation of wurtzite into cubic sphalerite upon epitaxial burying of the nanowires. Nanowires are particularly interesting in that they allow the fabrication of precisely positioned quantum dots with well-defined geometries. In this respect, we discuss the formation of strained quantum-size inclusions in nanowires, their critical dimensions and the kinetic and thermodynamic factors governing the changes of the crystalline structure that sometimes occur around a hetero-interface.

  16. Substrate effects on the formation of flat Ag films on (110) surfaces of III-V compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, K.; Zhang, Z.; Ebert, P.; Shih, C.K.

    1999-01-01

    Ag films grown at 135 K on (110) surfaces of III-V compound semiconductors and annealed at room temperature are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. Ag films on Ga-V semiconductors are well ordered, atomically flat, and exhibit a specific critical thickness, which is a function of the substrate material. Films grown on In-V semiconductors are still rather flat, but significantly more disordered. The (111) oriented Ag films on III-arsenides and III-phosphides exhibit a clear twofold superstructure. Films on III-antimonides exhibit threefold low-energy electron diffraction images. The morphology of the Ag films can be explained on the basis of the electronic growth mechanism. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  17. High-performance III-V MOSFET with nano-stacked high-k gate dielectric and 3D fin-shaped structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Hung; Liao, Wen-Shiang; Yang, Hsin-Chia; Wang, Shea-Jue; Liaw, Yue-Gie; Wang, Hao; Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Mu-Chun

    2012-08-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) fin-shaped field-effect transistor structure based on III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) fabrication has been demonstrated using a submicron GaAs fin as the high-mobility channel. The fin-shaped channel has a thickness-to-width ratio (TFin/WFin) equal to 1. The nano-stacked high-k Al2O3 dielectric was adopted as a gate insulator in forming a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure to suppress gate leakage. The 3D III-V MOSFET exhibits outstanding gate controllability and shows a high Ion/Ioff ratio > 105 and a low subthreshold swing of 80 mV/decade. Compared to a conventional Schottky gate metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor or planar III-V MOSFETs, the III-V MOSFET in this work exhibits a significant performance improvement and is promising for future development of high-performance n-channel devices based on III-V materials.

  18. Structural materialization of stainless steel molds and dies by the low temperature high density plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a mold substrate material for injection molding and as a die for mold-stamping and direct stamping processes. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical elements at present. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness of 1400 Hv within its thickness of 40 μm without any formation of nitrides after 14.4 ks plasma nitriding at 693 K. This nitrogen solid-solution treated stainless steel had thermal resistivity even at the mold-stamping conditions up to 900 K.

  19. Niobium Nitride Nb4N5 as a New High-Performance Electrode Material for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Houlei; Zhu, Guilian; Liu, Xiangye; Liu, Fengxin; Xie, Yian; Yang, Chongyin; Lin, Tianquan; Gu, Hui; Huang, Fuqiang

    2015-12-01

    Supercapacitors suffer either from low capacitance for carbon or derivate electrodes or from poor electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability for metal oxide or conducting polymer electrodes. Transition metal nitrides possess fair electrical conductivity but superior chemical stability, which may be desirable candidates for supercapacitors. Herein, niobium nitride, Nb 4 N 5 , is explored to be an excellent capacitive material for the first time. An areal capacitance of 225.8 mF cm -2 , with a reasonable rate capability (60.8% retention from 0.5 to 10 mA cm -2 ) and cycling stability (70.9% retention after 2000 cycles), is achieved in Nb 4 N 5 nanochannels electrode with prominent electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity. Faradaic pseudocapacitance is confirmed by the mechanistic studies, deriving from the proton incorporation/chemisorption reaction owing to the copious +5 valence Nb ions in Nb 4 N 5 . Moreover, this Nb 4 N 5 nanochannels electrode with an ultrathin carbon coating exhibits nearly 100% capacitance retention after 2000 CV cycles, which is an excellent cycling stability for metal nitride materials. Thus, the Nb 4 N 5 nanochannels are qualified for a candidate for supercapacitors and other energy storage applications.

  20. Niobium Nitride Nb4N5 as a New High‐Performance Electrode Material for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Houlei; Zhu, Guilian; Liu, Xiangye; Liu, Fengxin; Xie, Yian; Yang, Chongyin; Lin, Tianquan; Gu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors suffer either from low capacitance for carbon or derivate electrodes or from poor electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability for metal oxide or conducting polymer electrodes. Transition metal nitrides possess fair electrical conductivity but superior chemical stability, which may be desirable candidates for supercapacitors. Herein, niobium nitride, Nb4N5, is explored to be an excellent capacitive material for the first time. An areal capacitance of 225.8 mF cm−2, with a reasonable rate capability (60.8% retention from 0.5 to 10 mA cm−2) and cycling stability (70.9% retention after 2000 cycles), is achieved in Nb4N5 nanochannels electrode with prominent electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity. Faradaic pseudocapacitance is confirmed by the mechanistic studies, deriving from the proton incorporation/chemisorption reaction owing to the copious +5 valence Nb ions in Nb4N5. Moreover, this Nb4N5 nanochannels electrode with an ultrathin carbon coating exhibits nearly 100% capacitance retention after 2000 CV cycles, which is an excellent cycling stability for metal nitride materials. Thus, the Nb4N5 nanochannels are qualified for a candidate for supercapacitors and other energy storage applications. PMID:27980920

  1. Electrochemical Solution Growth of Magnetic Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monson, Todd C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pearce, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic nitrides, if manufactured in bulk form, would provide designers of transformers and inductors with a new class of better performing and affordable soft magnetic materials. According to experimental results from thin films and/or theoretical calculations, magnetic nitrides would have magnetic moments well in excess of current state of the art soft magnets. Furthermore, magnetic nitrides would have higher resistivities than current transformer core materials and therefore not require the use of laminates of inactive material to limit eddy current losses. However, almost all of the magnetic nitrides have been elusive except in difficult to reproduce thin films or as inclusions in another material. Now, through its ability to reduce atmospheric nitrogen, the electrochemical solution growth (ESG) technique can bring highly sought after (and previously inaccessible) new magnetic nitrides into existence in bulk form. This method utilizes a molten salt as a solvent to solubilize metal cations and nitrogen ions produced electrochemically and form nitrogen compounds. Unlike other growth methods, the scalable ESG process can sustain high growth rates (~mm/hr) even under reasonable operating conditions (atmospheric pressure and 500 °C). Ultimately, this translates into a high throughput, low cost, manufacturing process. The ESG process has already been used successfully to grow high quality GaN. Below, the experimental results of an exploratory express LDRD project to access the viability of the ESG technique to grow magnetic nitrides will be presented.

  2. Position-controlled epitaxial III-V nanowires on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, A.L.; Verheijen, M.A.; Wunnicke, O.; Serafin, S.N.; Wondergem, H.J.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We show the epitaxial integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires with silicon technology. The wires are grown by the VLS mechanism with laser ablation as well as metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The hetero-epitaxial growth of the III-V nanowires on silicon was confirmed with x-ray diffraction

  3. First principles calculation of material properties of group IV elements and III-V compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Brad Dean

    This thesis presents first principles calculations on the properties of group IV elements and group III-V compounds. It includes investigations into what structure a material is likely to form in, and given that structure, what are its electronic, optical, and lattice dynamical properties as well as what are the properties of defects that might be introduced into the sample. The thesis is divided as follows: • Chapter 1 contains some of the conceptual foundations used in the present work. These involve the major approximations which allow us to approach the problem of systems with huge numbers of interacting electrons and atomic cores. • Then, in Chapter 2, we discuss one of the major limitations to the DFT formalism introduced in Chapter 1, namely its inability to predict the quasiparticle spectra of materials and in particular the band gap of a semiconductor. We introduce a Green's function approach to the electron self-energy Sigma known as the GW approximation and use it to compute the quasiparticle band structures of a number of group IV and III-V semiconductors. • In Chapter 3 we present a first-principles study of a number of high-pressure metastable phases of Si with tetrahedral bonding. The phases studied include all experimentally determined phases that result from decompression from the metallic beta-Sn phase, specifically the BC8 (Si-III), hexagonal diamond (Si-IV), and R8 (Si-XII). In addition to these, we also study the hypothetical ST12 structure found upon decompression from beta-Sn in germanium. • Our attention is then turned to the first principles calculations of optical properties in Chapter 4. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is then solved to obtain the optical spectrum of this material including electron-hole interactions. The calculated optical spectrum is compared with experimental data for other forms of silicon commonly used in photovoltaic devices, namely the cubic, polycrystalline, and amorphous forms. • In Chapter 5 we present

  4. Nano-structure and tribological properties of B+ and Ti+ co-implanted silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Noda, Katsutoshi; Yamauchi, Yukihiko

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride ceramics have been co-implanted with boron and titanium ions at a fluence of 2 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 and an energy of 200 keV. TEM results indicated that the boron and titanium-implanted layers were amorphized separately and titanium nitride nano-crystallites were formed in the titanium-implanted layer. XPS results indicated that the implantation profile varied a little depending on the ion implantation sequence of boron and titanium ions, with the boron implantation peak shifting to a shallower position when implanted after Ti + -implantation. Wear tests of these ion-implanted materials were carried out using a block-on-ring wear tester under non-lubricated conditions against commercially available silicon nitride materials. The specific wear rate was reduced by ion implantation and showed that the specific wear rate of Ti + -implanted sample was the lowest, followed by B + , Ti + co-implanted and B + -implanted samples

  5. Th(As(III)4As(V)4O18): a mixed-valent oxoarsenic(III)/arsenic(V) actinide compound obtained under extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Na; Klepov, Vladislav V; Kegler, Philip; Bosbach, Dirk; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Alekseev, Evgeny V

    2014-08-18

    A high-temperature/high-pressure method was employed to investigate phase formation in the Th(NO3)4·5H2O-As2O3-CsNO3 system. It was observed that an excess of arsenic(III) in starting system leads to the formation of Th(As(III)4As(V)4O18), which is representative of a rare class of mixed-valent arsenic(III)/arsenic(V) compounds. This compound was studied with X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopy methods. Crystallographic data show that Th(As(III)4As(V)4O18) is built from (As(III)4As(V)4O18)(4-) layers connected through Th atoms. The arsenic layers are found to be isoreticular to those in previously reported As2O3 and As3O5(OH), and the geometric differences between them are discussed. Bands in the Raman spectrum are assigned with respect to the presence of AsO3 and AsO4 groups.

  6. Mechanisms of thermally induced threshold voltage instability in GaN-based heterojunction transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shu; Liu, Shenghou; Liu, Cheng; Lu, Yunyou; Chen, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we attempt to reveal the underlying mechanisms of divergent V TH -thermal-stabilities in III-nitride metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT) and MOS-Channel-HEMT (MOSC-HEMT). In marked contrast to MOSC-HEMT featuring temperature-independent V TH , MIS-HEMT with the same high-quality gate-dielectric/III-nitride interface and similar interface trap distribution exhibits manifest thermally induced V TH shift. The temperature-dependent V TH of MIS-HEMT is attributed to the polarized III-nitride barrier layer, which spatially separates the critical gate-dielectric/III-nitride interface from the channel and allows “deeper” interface trap levels emerging above the Fermi level at pinch-off. This model is further experimentally validated by distinct V G -driven Fermi level movements at the critical interfaces in MIS-HEMT and MOSC-HEMT. The mechanisms of polarized III-nitride barrier layer in influencing V TH -thermal-stability provide guidelines for the optimization of insulated-gate III-nitride power switching devices

  7. Treatment of As(V) and As(III) by electrocoagulation using Al and Fe electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, W H; Hu, C Y; Chiang, M C

    2009-01-01

    A batch electrocoagulation (EC) process with bipolar electrode and potentiodynamic polarization tests with monopolar systems were investigated as methods to explore the effects of electrode materials and initial solution pH on the As(V) and As(III) removal. The results displayed that the system with Al electrode has higher reaction rate during the initial period from 0 to 25 minutes than that of Fe electrode for alkaline condition. The pH increased with the EC time because the As(V) and As(III) removal by either co-precipitation or adsorption resulted in that the OH positions in Al-hydroxide or Fe-hydroxide were substituted by As(V) and As(III). The pH in Fe electrode system elevate higher than that in Al electrode because the As(V) removal substitutes more OH position in Fe-hydroxide than that in Al-hydroxide. EC system with Fe electrode can successfully remove the As(III) but system with Al electrode cannot because As(III) can strongly bind to the surface of Fe-hydroxide with forming inner-sphere species but weakly adsorb to the Al-hydroxide surface with forming outer-sphere species. The acidic solution can destroy the deposited hydroxide passive film then allow the metallic ions liberate into the solution, therefore, the acidic initial solution can enhance the As(V) and As(III) removal. The over potential calculation and potentiodynamic polarization tests reveal that the Fe electrode systems possess higher over potential and pitting potential than that of Al electrode system due to the fast hydrolysis of and the occurrence of Fe-hydroxide passive film.

  8. Hybrid III-V/SOI Resonant Cavity Photodetector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Park, Gyeong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid III-V/SOI resonant cavity photo detector has been demonstrated, which comprises an InP grating reflectorand a Si grating reflector. It can selectively detects an incident light with 1.54-µm wavelength and TM polarization.......A hybrid III-V/SOI resonant cavity photo detector has been demonstrated, which comprises an InP grating reflectorand a Si grating reflector. It can selectively detects an incident light with 1.54-µm wavelength and TM polarization....

  9. Mesoporous coaxial titanium nitride-vanadium nitride fibers of core-shell structures for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinhong; Shang, Chaoqun; Gu, Lin; Dong, Shanmu; Chen, Xiao; Han, Pengxian; Li, Lanfeng; Yao, Jianhua; Liu, Zhihong; Xu, Hongxia; Zhu, Yuwei; Cui, Guanglei

    2011-08-01

    In this study, titanium nitride-vanadium nitride fibers of core-shell structures were prepared by the coaxial electrospinning, and subsequently annealed in the ammonia for supercapacitor applications. These core-shell (TiN-VN) fibers incorporated mesoporous structure into high electronic conducting transition nitride hybrids, which combined higher specific capacitance of VN and better rate capability of TiN. These hybrids exhibited higher specific capacitance (2 mV s(-1), 247.5 F g(-1)) and better rate capability (50 mV s(-1), 160.8 F g(-1)), which promise a good candidate for high-performance supercapacitors. It was also revealed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization that the minor capacitance fade originated from the surface oxidation of VN and TiN.

  10. New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; Patkar, M.P.; Young, M.P. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    This report describes to examine new solar cell desip approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program consists of two elements. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for M-III semiconductors. Substantial efficiency gains may be possible by employing light trapping techniques to confine the incident photons, as well as the photons emitted by radiative recombination. The thin-film approach is a promising route for achieving substantial performance improvements in the already high-efficiency, single-junction, III-V cell. The second element of the research involves exploring desip approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high-quality material. This work has applications to multiple-junction cells, for which the selection of a component cell often involves a compromise between optimum band pp and optimum material quality. It could also be a benefit manufacturing environment by making the cell's efficiency less dependent on materialquality.

  11. Surface decoration of amine-rich carbon nitride with iron nanoparticles for arsenite (As{sup III}) uptake: The evolution of the Fe-phases under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiou, Y., E-mail: yiannisgeorgiou@hotmail.com [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Mouzourakis, E., E-mail: emouzou@cc.uoi.gr [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Bourlinos, A.B., E-mail: bourlino@cc.uoi.gr [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, Palacky University in Olomouc, 77146 (Czech Republic); Zboril, R., E-mail: radek.zboril@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, Palacky University in Olomouc, 77146 (Czech Republic); Karakassides, M.A., E-mail: mkarakas@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Douvalis, A.P., E-mail: adouval@uoi.gr [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Bakas, Th., E-mail: tbakas@cc.uoi.gr [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Deligiannakis, Y., E-mail: ideligia@cc.uoi.gr [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Novel hybrid based on carbon nitride and iron nanoparticles (gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe). • gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe superior As{sup III} sorbent(76.5 mg g{sup −1}). • Surface complexation modeling of As{sup III} adsorption. • Dual mode EPR,monitoring of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} evolution. - Abstract: A novel hybrid material (gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe) consisting of amine-rich graphitic carbon nitride (gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}), decorated with reduced iron nanoparticles (rFe) is presented. XRD and TEM show that gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe bears aggregation-free Fe-nanoparticles (10 nm) uniformly dispersed over the gC{sub 3}N{sub 4} surface. In contrast, non-supported iron nanoparticles are strongly aggregated, with non-uniform size distribution (20–100 nm). {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, dual-mode electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetization measurements, allow a detailed mapping of the evolution of the Fe-phases after exposure to ambient O{sub 2}. The as-prepared gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe bears Fe{sup 2+} and Fe° phases, however only after long exposure to ambient O{sub 2}, a Fe-oxide layer is formed around the Fe° core. In this [Fe°/Fe-oxide] core-shell configuration, the gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe hybrid shows enhanced As{sup III} uptake capacity of 76.5 mg g{sup −1}, i.e., ca 90% higher than the unmodified carbonaceous support, and 300% higher than the non-supported Fe-nanoparticles. gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe is a superior As{sup III} sorbent i.e., compared to its single counterparts or vs. graphite/graphite oxide or activated carbon analogues (11–36 mg g{sup −1}). The present results demonstrate that the gC{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix is not simply a net that holds the particles, but rather an active component that determines particle formation dynamics and ultimately their redox profile, size and surface dispersion homogeneity.

  12. Amorphous Metal Tungsten Nitride and its Application for Micro and Nanoelectromechanical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this doctoral thesis is to develop, engineer and investigate an amorphous metal tungsten nitride (aWNx) and to study its functionality for applications focused on electromechanical system at the nano-scale. Charge transport based solid state device oriented complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics have reached a level where they are scaled down to nearly their fundamental limits regarding switching speed, off state power consumption and the on state power consumption due to the fundamental limitation of sub-threshold slope (SS) remains at 60 mV/dec. NEM switch theoretically and practically offers the steepest sub-threshold slope and practically has shown zero static power consumption due to their physical isolation originated from the nature of their mechanical operation. Fundamental challenges remain with NEM switches in context of their performance and reliability: (i) necessity of lower pull-in voltage comparable to CMOS technology; (ii) operation in ambient/air; (iii) increased ON current and decreased ON resistance; (iv) scaling of devices and improved mechanical and electrical contacts; and (v) high endurance. The “perfect” NEM switch should overcome all the above-mentioned challenges. Here, we show such a NEM switch fabricated with aWNx to show (i) sub-0.3-volt operation; (ii) operation in air and vacuum; (iii) ON current as high as 0.5 mA and ON resistance lower than 5 kΩ; (iv) improved mechanical contact; and the most importantly (v) continuous switching of 8 trillion cycles for more than 10 days with the highest switching speed is 30 nanosecond without hysteresis. In addition, tungsten nitride could be the modern life vine by fulfilling the demand of biodegradable material for sustainable life regime. Transient electronics is a form of biodegradable electronics as it is physically disappearing totally or partially after performing the required function. The fabricated aWNx suites this category very well, despite not

  13. Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Leen Ong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the emerging class of hybrid solar cells based on organic-semiconductor (Group IV, III-V, nanocomposites, which states separately from dye synthesized, polymer-metal oxides and organic-inorganic (Group II-VI nanocomposite photovoltaics. The structure of such hybrid cell comprises of an organic active material (p-type deposited by coating, printing or spraying technique on the surface of bulk or nanostructured semiconductor (n-type forming a heterojunction between the two materials. Organic components include various photosensitive monomers (e.g., phtalocyanines or porphyrines, conjugated polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Mechanisms of the charge separation at the interface and their transport are discussed. Also, perspectives on the future development of such hybrid cells and comparative analysis with other classes of photovoltaics of third generation are presented.

  14. Ultrabroadband Hybrid III-V/SOI Grating Reflector for On-chip Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Gyeong Cheol; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2016-01-01

    We report on a new type of III-V/SOI grating reflector with a broad stopband of 350 nm. This reflector has promising prospects for applications in high-speed III-V/SOI vertical cavity lasers with an improved heat dissipation capability.......We report on a new type of III-V/SOI grating reflector with a broad stopband of 350 nm. This reflector has promising prospects for applications in high-speed III-V/SOI vertical cavity lasers with an improved heat dissipation capability....

  15. Oxide-Free Bonding of III-V-Based Material on Silicon and Nano-Structuration of the Hybrid Waveguide for Advanced Optical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pantzas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxide-free bonding of III-V-based materials for integrated optics is demonstrated on both planar Silicon (Si surfaces and nanostructured ones, using Silicon on Isolator (SOI or Si substrates. The hybrid interface is characterized electrically and mechanically. A hybrid InP-on-SOI waveguide, including a bi-periodic nano structuration of the silicon guiding layer is demonstrated to provide wavelength selective transmission. Such an oxide-free interface associated with the nanostructured design of the guiding geometry has great potential for both electrical and optical operation of improved hybrid devices.

  16. Identification of the gallium vacancy-oxygen pair defect in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, N. T.; Hemmingsson, C. G.; Janzen, E.; Paskova, T.; Evans, K. R.; Usui, A.; Morishita, N.; Ohshima, T.; Isoya, J.; Monemar, B.

    2009-01-01

    Cation vacancies like V Ga , V Al and their complexes with oxygen are predicted to be abundant in III-nitrides and to play an important role in nonradiative recombination. Appearing in triple or double negatively charged states, they are not paramagnetic and have not so far been detected by magnetic resonance even under illumination. In this Brief Report, we demonstrate an efficient way to make cation vacancy defects in GaN detectable by electron paramagnetic resonance and present our identification of the V Ga O N pair in GaN which is the model material for the III-nitrides and their alloys.

  17. Spectroscopic characterization of III-V semiconductor nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Shanna Marie

    III-V semiconductor materials form a broad basis for optoelectronic applications, including the broad basis of the telecom industry as well as smaller markets for high-mobility transistors. In a somewhat analogous manner as the traditional silicon logic industry has so heavily depended upon process manufacturing development, optoelectronics often relies instead on materials innovations. This thesis focuses particularly on III-V semiconductor nanomaterials, detailed characterization of which is invaluable for translating the exhibited behavior into useful applications. Specifically, the original research described in these thesis chapters is an investigation of semiconductors at a fundamental materials level, because the nanostructures in which they appear crystallize in quite atypical forms for the given semiconductors. Rather than restricting the experimental approaches to any one particular technique, many different types of optical spectroscopies are developed and applied where relevant to elucidate the connection between the crystalline structure and exhibited properties. In the first chapters, for example, a wurtzite crystalline form of the prototypical zincblende III-V binary semiconductor, GaAs, is explored through polarization-dependent Raman spectroscopy and temperature-dependent photoluminescence, as well as second-harmonic generation (SHG). The altered symmetry properties of the wurtzite crystalline structure are particularly evident in the Raman and SHG polarization dependences, all within a bulk material realm. A rather different but deeply elegant aspect of crystalline symmetry in GaAs is explored in a separate study on zincblende GaAs samples quantum-confined in one direction, i.e. quantum well structures, whose quantization direction corresponds to the (110) direction. The (110) orientation modifies the low-temperature electron spin relaxation mechanisms available compared to the usual (001) samples, leading to altered spin coherence times explored

  18. Efficient n-type doping of zinc-blende III-V semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besteiro, Lucas V.; Tortajada, Luis; Souto, J.; Gallego, L. J.; Chelikowsky, James R.; Alemany, M. M. G.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that it is preferable to dope III-V semiconductor nanowires by n-type anion substitution as opposed to cation substitution. Specifically, we show the dopability of zinc-blende nanowires is more efficient when the dopants are placed at the anion site as quantified by formation energies and the stabilization of DX-like defect centers. The comparison with previous work on n - type III-V semiconductor nanocrystals also allows to determine the role of dimensionality and quantum confinement on doping characteristics of materials. Our results are based on first-principles calculations of InP nanowires by using the PARSEC code. Work supported by the Spanish MICINN (FIS2012-33126) and Xunta de Galicia (GPC2013-043) in conjunction with FEDER. JRC acknowledges support from DoE (DE-FG02-06ER46286 and DESC0008877). Computational support was provided in part by CESGA.

  19. Thermal crosstalk in arrays of III-N-based Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuc, Maciej; Sarzała, Robert P.; Nakwaski, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 3D comprehensive thermal-electrical self-consistent model of the continuous-wave (CW) operation of one-dimensional arrays of III-N-based laser diodes at room-temperature (RT). Their performance is mostly limited by thermal processes, in particular by thermal crosstalk between array emitters. Based on data collected from a range of secondary sources, the temperature dependence of the thermal and electrical conductivities of III-N materials used to manufacture nitride-based devices is shown to be a function of the thickness, aluminum mole fractions and Si- and Mg-doping levels of the nitride layers. The impact of substrate width and thickness on increasing the efficiency of heat-flux transport and reducing thermal crosstalk is investigated. As expected, the application of a top-mounted diamond heat spreader was found to have considerable influence on the thermal crosstalk between array emitters, enabling the RT CW operation of laser diode arrays with additional emitters

  20. Radio-frequency plasma nitriding and nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.; Chu, P.K.; Tang, B.Y.; Zeng, X.C.; Wang, X.F.; Chen, Y.B.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrogen ion implantation improves the wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloys by forming a hard TiN superficial passivation layer. However, the thickness of the layer formed by traditional ion implantation is typically 100-200 nm and may not be adequate for many industrial applications. We propose to use radio-frequency (RF) plasma nitriding and nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) to increase the layer thickness. By using a newly designed inductively coupled RF plasma source and applying a series of negative high voltage pulses to the Ti-6Al-4V samples. RF plasma nitriding and nitrogen PIII can be achieved. Our process yields a substantially thicker modified layer exhibiting more superior wear resistance characteristics, as demonstrated by data from micro-hardness testing, pin-on-disc wear testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The performance of our newly developed inductively coupled RF plasma source which is responsible for the success of the experiments is also described. (orig.)

  1. Surface passivation technology for III-V semiconductor nanoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Akazawa, Masamichi

    2008-01-01

    The present status and key issues of surface passivation technology for III-V surfaces are discussed in view of applications to emerging novel III-V nanoelectronics. First, necessities of passivation and currently available surface passivation technologies for GaAs, InGaAs and AlGaAs are reviewed. Then, the principle of the Si interface control layer (ICL)-based passivation scheme by the authors' group is introduced and its basic characterization is presented. Ths Si ICL is a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown ultrathin Si layer inserted between III-V semiconductor and passivation dielectric. Finally, applications of the Si ICL method to passivation of GaAs nanowires and GaAs nanowire transistors and to realization of pinning-free high-k dielectric/GaAs MOS gate stacks are presented

  2. Alloy Effects on the Gas Nitriding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M.; Sisson, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Alloy elements, such as Al, Cr, V, and Mo, have been used to improve the nitriding performance of steels. In the present work, plain carbon steel AISI 1045 and alloy steel AISI 4140 were selected to compare the nitriding effects of the alloying elements in AISI 4140. Fundamental analysis is carried out by using the "Lehrer-like" diagrams (alloy specific Lehrer diagram and nitriding potential versus nitrogen concentration diagram) and the compound layer growth model to simulate the gas nitriding process. With this method, the fundamental understanding for the alloy effect based on the thermodynamics and kinetics becomes possible. This new method paves the way for the development of new alloy for nitriding.

  3. Study of the transport phenomena in III-V materials by the Monte Carlo method: application to INAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouazza, B.; Amer, L.; Guen-Bouazza, A.; Sayeh, C.; Chabanne-Sari, N.E.; Gontrand, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.The microelectronic comprehension of the phenomena which describes the behavior of the carriers in semiconductor materials requires the knowledge of energy distribution function. This distribution function is obtained by the resolution of Boltzmann equation which is very hard to solve analytically. Other methods based on modeling are actually successfully used to solve this equation. This Monte Carlo method is among of the most methods used for studying electronics components operations. It consists to follow the evolution of electron packets in real space, where each electron subjected to the electric field present in material goes interact with the crystal lattice. It is therefore an iterative process made up from a whole coasting flights stopped by acoustics interactions, polar and non polar optics, piezoelectric, inter-valley, impurity, ionization and surface. By applying this method to the III-V material: InAs. We can describe the behavior of the carriers from dynamic and energetic point of view (variation speed according to the field). The simulation is applied, taking into account variation of the carriers according to time in the non stationary mode, and the effect of temperature, and measurements doping. Results obtained are shown to be comparable to those of the theory

  4. Formation of Mach angle profiles during wet etching of silica and silicon nitride materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghulinyan, M., E-mail: ghulinyan@fbk.eu [Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Bernard, M.; Bartali, R. [Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Deptartment of Physics, University of Trento, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Pucker, G. [Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo (Italy)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Photoresist adhesion induces the formation of complex etch profiles in dielectrics. • Hydrofluoric acid etching of silica glass and silicon nitride materials was studied. • The phenomenon has been modeled in analogy with sonic boom propagation. • The material etch rate and resist adhesion/erosion define the final profile. - Abstract: In integrated circuit technology peeling of masking photoresist films is a major drawback during the long-timed wet etching of materials. It causes an undesired film underetching, which is often accompanied by a formation of complex etch profiles. Here we report on a detailed study of wedge-shaped profile formation in a series of silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride materials during wet etching in a buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF) solution. The shape of etched profiles reflects the time-dependent adhesion properties of the photoresist to a particular material and can be perfectly circular, purely linear or a combination of both, separated by a knee feature. Starting from a formal analogy between the sonic boom propagation and the wet underetching process, we model the wedge formation mechanism analytically. This model predicts the final form of the profile as a function of time and fits the experimental data perfectly. We discuss how this knowledge can be extended to the design and the realization of optical components such as highly efficient etch-less vertical tapers for passive silicon photonics.

  5. Silicon photonics fiber-to-the-home transceiver array based on transfer-printing-based integration of III-V photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; De Groote, Andreas; Abbasi, Amin; Loi, Ruggero; O'Callaghan, James; Corbett, Brian; Trindade, António José; Bower, Christopher A; Roelkens, Gunther

    2017-06-26

    A 4-channel silicon photonics transceiver array for Point-to-Point (P2P) fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) optical networks at the central office (CO) side is demonstrated. A III-V O-band photodetector array was integrated onto the silicon photonic transmitter through transfer printing technology, showing a polarization-independent responsivity of 0.39 - 0.49 A/W in the O-band. The integrated PDs (30 × 40 μm 2 mesa) have a 3 dB bandwidth of 11.5 GHz at -3 V bias. Together with high-speed C-band silicon ring modulators whose bandwidth is up to 15 GHz, operation of the transceiver array at 10 Gbit/s is demonstrated. The use of transfer printing for the integration of the III-V photodetectors allows for an efficient use of III-V material and enables the scalable integration of III-V devices on silicon photonics wafers, thereby reducing their cost.

  6. Mechanisms of thermally induced threshold voltage instability in GaN-based heterojunction transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shu; Liu, Shenghou; Liu, Cheng; Lu, Yunyou; Chen, Kevin J., E-mail: eekjchen@ust.hk [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we attempt to reveal the underlying mechanisms of divergent V{sub TH}-thermal-stabilities in III-nitride metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT) and MOS-Channel-HEMT (MOSC-HEMT). In marked contrast to MOSC-HEMT featuring temperature-independent V{sub TH}, MIS-HEMT with the same high-quality gate-dielectric/III-nitride interface and similar interface trap distribution exhibits manifest thermally induced V{sub TH} shift. The temperature-dependent V{sub TH} of MIS-HEMT is attributed to the polarized III-nitride barrier layer, which spatially separates the critical gate-dielectric/III-nitride interface from the channel and allows “deeper” interface trap levels emerging above the Fermi level at pinch-off. This model is further experimentally validated by distinct V{sub G}-driven Fermi level movements at the critical interfaces in MIS-HEMT and MOSC-HEMT. The mechanisms of polarized III-nitride barrier layer in influencing V{sub TH}-thermal-stability provide guidelines for the optimization of insulated-gate III-nitride power switching devices.

  7. Effect of Projectile Materials on Foreign Object Damage of a Gas-Turbine Grade Silicon Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Racz, Zsolt; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Brewer, David N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2005-01-01

    Foreign object damage (FOD) behavior of AS800 silicon nitride was determined using four different projectile materials at ambient temperature. The target test specimens rigidly supported were impacted at their centers by spherical projectiles with a diameter of 1.59 mm. Four different types of projectiles were used including hardened steel balls, annealed steel balls, silicon nitride balls, and brass balls. Post-impact strength of each target specimen impacted was determined as a function of impact velocity to better understand the severity of local impact damage. The critical impact velocity where target specimens fail upon impact was highest with brass balls, lowest with ceramic ball, and intermediate with annealed and hardened steel balls. Degree of strength degradation upon impact followed the same order as in the critical impact velocity with respect to projectile materials. For steel balls, hardened projectiles yielded more significant impact damage than annealed counterparts. The most important material parameter affecting FOD was identified as hardness of projectiles and was correlated in terms of critical impact velocity, impact deformation, and impact load.

  8. III-nitride disk-in-nanowire 1.2 μm monolithic diode laser on (001)silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Hazari, Arnab

    2015-11-12

    III-nitride nanowirediodeheterostructures with multiple In0.85Ga0.15N disks and graded InGaN mode confining regions were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001)Si substrates. The aerial density of the 60 nm nanowires is ∼3 × 1010 cm−2. A radiative recombination lifetime of 1.84 ns in the disks is measured by time-resolved luminescence measurements. Edge-emitting nanowire lasers have been fabricated and characterized. Measured values of Jth, T0, and dg/dn in these devices are 1.24 kA/cm2, 242 K, and 5.6 × 10−17 cm2, respectively. The peak emission is observed at ∼1.2 μm.

  9. Anisotropic Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanomaterials - Synthesis and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han,W.Q.

    2008-08-01

    Boron nitride (BN) is a synthetic binary compound located between III and V group elements in the Periodic Table. However, its properties, in terms of polymorphism and mechanical characteristics, are rather close to those of carbon compared with other III-V compounds, such as gallium nitride. BN crystallizes into a layered or a tetrahedrally linked structure, like those of graphite and diamond, respectively, depending on the conditions of its preparation, especially the pressure applied. Such correspondence between BN and carbon readily can be understood from their isoelectronic structures [1, 2]. On the other hand, in contrast to graphite, layered BN is transparent and is an insulator. This material has attracted great interest because, similar to carbon, it exists in various polymorphic forms exhibiting very different properties; however, these forms do not correspond strictly to those of carbon. Crystallographically, BN is classified into four polymorphic forms: Hexagonal BN (h-BN) (Figure 1(b)); rhombohedral BN (r-BN); cubic BN (c-BN); and wurtzite BN (w-BN). BN does not occur in nature. In 1842, Balmain [3] obtained BN as a reaction product between molten boric oxide and potassium cyanide under atmospheric pressure. Thereafter, many methods for its synthesis were reported. h-BN and r-BN are formed under ambient pressure. c-BN is synthesized from h-BN under high pressure at high temperature while w-BN is prepared from h-BN under high pressure at room temperature [1]. Each BN layer consists of stacks of hexagonal plate-like units of boron and nitrogen atoms linked by SP{sup 2} hybridized orbits and held together mainly by Van der Waals force (Fig 1(b)). The hexagonal polymorph has two-layered repeating units: AA'AA'... that differ from those in graphite: ABAB... (Figure 1(a)). Within the layers of h-BN there is coincidence between the same phases of the hexagons, although the boron atoms and nitrogen atoms are alternatively located along the c

  10. III/V nano ridge structures for optical applications on patterned 300 mm silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunert, B.; Guo, W.; Mols, Y.; Pantouvaki, M.; Van Campenhout, J.; Langer, R.; Barla, K. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Tian, B.; Wang, Z.; Shi, Y.; Van Thourhout, D. [Photonics Research Group, Ghent University, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 15, 9052 Gent (Belgium)

    2016-08-29

    We report on an integration approach of III/V nano ridges on patterned silicon (Si) wafers by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Trenches of different widths (≤500 nm) were processed in a silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layer on top of a 300 mm (001) Si substrate. The MOVPE growth conditions were chosen in a way to guarantee an efficient defect trapping within narrow trenches and to form a box shaped ridge with increased III/V volume when growing out of the trench. Compressively strained InGaAs/GaAs multi-quantum wells with 19% indium were deposited on top of the fully relaxed GaAs ridges as an active material for optical applications. Transmission electron microcopy investigation shows that very flat quantum well (QW) interfaces were realized. A clear defect trapping inside the trenches is observed whereas the ridge material is free of threading dislocations with only a very low density of planar defects. Pronounced QW photoluminescence (PL) is detected from different ridge sizes at room temperature. The potential of these III/V nano ridges for laser integration on Si substrates is emphasized by the achieved ridge volume which could enable wave guidance and by the high crystal quality in line with the distinct PL.

  11. The mechanical design of hybrid graphene/boron nitride nanotransistors: Geometry and interface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einalipour Eshkalak, Kasra; Sadeghzadeh, Sadegh; Jalaly, Maisam

    2018-02-01

    From electronic point of view, graphene resembles a metal or semi-metal and boron nitride is a dielectric material (band gap = 5.9 eV). Hybridization of these two materials opens band gap of the graphene which has expansive applications in field-effect graphene transistors. In this paper, the effect of the interface structure on the mechanical properties of a hybrid graphene/boron nitride was studied. Young's modulus, fracture strain and tensile strength of the models were simulated. Three likely types (hexagonal, octagonal and decagonal) were found for the interface of hybrid sheet after relaxation. Although Csbnd B bonds at the interface were indicated to result in more promising electrical properties, nitrogen atoms are better choice for bonding to carbon for mechanical applications.

  12. Research progress of III-V laser bonding to Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Ren; Yan, Hou; Yanan, Liang

    2016-12-01

    The vigorous development of silicon photonics makes a silicon-based light source essential for optoelectronics' integration. Bonding of III-V/Si hybrid laser has developed rapidly in the last ten years. In the tireless efforts of researchers, we are privileged to see these bonding methods, such as direct bonding, medium adhesive bonding and low temperature eutectic bonding. They have been developed and applied to the research and fabrication of III-V/Si hybrid lasers. Some research groups have made remarkable progress. Tanabe Katsuaki of Tokyo University successfully implemented a silicon-based InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser with direct bonding method in 2012. They have bonded the InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser to the silicon substrate and the silicon ridge waveguide, respectively. The threshold current of the device is as low as 200 A/cm2. Stevan Stanković and Sui Shaoshuai successfully produced a variety of hybrid III-V/Si laser with the method of BCB bonding, respectively. BCB has high light transmittance and it can provide high bonding strength. Researchers of Tokyo University and Peking University have realized III-V/Si hybrid lasers with metal bonding method. We describe the progress in the fabrication of III-V/Si hybrid lasers with bonding methods by various research groups in recent years. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are presented. We also introduce the progress of the growth of III-V epitaxial layer on silicon substrate, which is also a promising method to realize silicon-based light source. I hope that readers can have a general understanding of this field from this article and we can attract more researchers to focus on the study in this field.

  13. Atomistic description of large nanostructures based on III-nitride semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Sanchez, Alejandro; Garcia-Cristobal, Alberto; Cantarero, Andres [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de la Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Terentjevs, Aleksandrs; Cicero, Giancarlo [Physics and Materials Science and Chemical Engineering Departments, Politecnico di Torino (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Semiconductor nanocolumns exhibiting a growth without dislocations and high crystalline quality are of great interest in nanotechnology applications. Specifically, InN-based nanocolumns are good candidates to develop multi-junction solar cells due to their small gap, 0.67 eV, and the possibility of alloying with other nitrides (as GaN and AlN) to cover the entire solar spectrum. A proper description of optical properties of the nanostructures described above can start with an atomistic treatment of the electronic structure in order to keep the essential geometry and symmetry of the objects. Unfortunately, the best description realized with ab initio electronic structure software is strongly limited by the nanocolumn diameter to a few nanometers. By using a combination of ab initio and empirical tight-binding methods, we can connect the quality of the first principles calculations (performed with the Espresso code), with the versatility of an empirical approach. Once we have an ab initio quality parameter set for the empirical tight-binding code, we can study larger nanostructures with this approach, reducing the computation time in orders of magnitude.

  14. David Adler Lectureship Award Talk: III-V Semiconductor Nanowires on Silicon for Future Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Heike

    Bottom-up grown nanowires are very attractive materials for direct integration of III-V semiconductors on silicon thus opening up new possibilities for the design and fabrication of nanoscale devices for electronic, optoelectronic as well as quantum information applications. Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy (TASE) allows the well-defined and monolithic integration of complex III-V nanostructures and devices on silicon. Achieving atomically abrupt heterointerfaces, high crystal quality and control of dimension down to 1D nanowires enabled the demonstration of FETs and tunnel devices based on In(Ga)As and GaSb. Furthermore, the strong influence of strain on nanowires as well as results on quantum transport studies of InAs nanowires with well-defined geometry will be presented.

  15. On the use of the plasma in III-V semiconductor processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G.; Capezzuto, P.; Losurdo, M. [C.N.R.-Centro di Studio per la Chimica dei Plasmi Dipartimento di Chimica-Universita di Bari via Orabona, 4-70126 Bari (Italy)

    1996-03-01

    The manufacture of usable devices based on III-V semiconductor materials is a complex process requiring epilayer growth, anisotropic etching, defect passivation, surface oxidation and substrate preparation processes. The combination of plasma based methods with metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) offers some real advantages: {ital in} {ital situ} production and preactivation of PH{sub 3} and sample preparation using H-atom. The detailed understanding and use of the plasma (using mass spectrometry, optical emission spectroscopy, laser reflectance interferometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry) as applied to InP material is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Synthesis of Uranium nitride powders using metal uranium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Joo; Oh, Jang Soo; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Keon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Uranium nitride (UN) is a potential fuel material for advanced nuclear reactors because of their high fuel density, high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, and considerable breeding capability in LWRs. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. The carbothermic reduction has an advantage in the production of fine powders. However it has many drawbacks such as an inevitable engagement of impurities, process burden, and difficulties in reusing of expensive N 15 gas. Manufacturing concerns issued in the carbothermic reduction process can be solved by changing the starting materials from oxide powder to metals. However, in nitriding process of metal, it is difficult to obtain fine nitride powders because metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate uranium nitride powders directly from uranium metal powders. We fabricated uranium metal spherical powder and flake using a centrifugal atomization method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating those metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. We investigated the phase and morphology evolutions of powders during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also a part of the present work

  17. The Importance Of Surface Topography For The Biological Properties Of Nitrided Diffusion Layers Produced On Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchoń T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion nitrided layers produced on titanium and its alloys are widely studied in terms of their application for cardiac and bone implants. The influence of the structure, the phase composition, topography and surface morphology on their biological properties is being investigated. The article presents the results of a study of the topography (nanotopography of the surface of TiN+Ti2N+αTi(N nitrided layers produced in low-temperature plasma on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and their influence on the adhesion of blood platelets and their aggregates. The TEM microstructure of the produced layers have been examined and it was demonstrated that the interaction between platelets and the surface of the titanium implants subjected to glow-discharge nitriding can be shaped via modification of the roughness parameters of the external layer of the TiN titanium nitride nanocrystalline zone.

  18. New Routes to Lanthanide and Actinide Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, D.P.; Jaques, B.J.; Osterberg, D.D. [Boise State University, 1910 University Dr., Boise, Idaho 83725-2075 (United States); Marx, B.M. [Concurrent Technologies Corporation, Johnstown, PA (United States); Callahan, P.G. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hamdy, A.S. [Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-06-15

    The future of nuclear energy in the U.S. and its expansion worldwide depends greatly on our ability to reduce the levels of high level waste to minimal levels, while maintaining proliferation resistance. Implicit in the so-called advanced fuel cycle is the need for higher levels of fuel burn-up and consequential use of complex nuclear fuels comprised of fissile materials such as Pu, Am, Np, and Cm. Advanced nitride fuels comprised ternary and quaternary mixtures of uranium and these actinides have been considered for applications in advanced power plants, but there remain many processing challenges as well as necessary qualification testing. In this presentation, the advantages and disadvantages of nitride fuels are discussed. Methods of synthesizing the raw materials and sintering of fuels are described including a discussion of novel, low cost routes to nitrides that have the potential for reducing the cost and footprint of a fuel processing plant. Phase pure nitrides were synthesized via four primary methods; reactive milling metal flakes in nitrogen at room temperature, directly nitriding metal flakes in a pure nitrogen atmosphere, hydriding metal flakes prior to nitridation, and carbo-thermically reducing the metal oxide and carbon mixture prior to nitridation. In the present study, the sintering of UN, DyN, and their solid solutions (U{sub x}, Dy{sub 1-x}) (x = 1 to 0.7) were also studied. (authors)

  19. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.; Cohen, D. A.; Yonkee, B. P.; Farrell, R. M.; Margalith, T.; Lee, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3nm quantum well width, 1nm barriers, a 5nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (∼16kA/cm2), a peak output power of ∼12μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  20. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2015-07-06

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3nm quantum well width, 1nm barriers, a 5nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (∼16kA/cm2), a peak output power of ∼12μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  1. Controlling the emission wavelength in group III-V semiconductor laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-12-29

    Methods are provided for modifying the emission wavelength of a semiconductor quantum well laser diode, e.g. by blue shifting the emission wavelength. The methods can be applied to a variety of semiconductor quantum well laser diodes, e.g. group III-V semiconductor quantum wells. The group III-V semiconductor can include AlSb, AlAs, Aln, AlP, BN, GaSb, GaAs, GaN, GaP, InSb, InAs, InN, and InP, and group III-V ternary semiconductors alloys such as AlxGai.xAs. The methods can results in a blue shifting of about 20 meV to 350 meV, which can be used for example to make group III-V semiconductor quantum well laser diodes with an emission that is orange or yellow. Methods of making semiconductor quantum well laser diodes and semiconductor quantum well laser diodes made therefrom are also provided.

  2. Simple process to fabricate nitride alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Oh, Jang-Soo; Kim, Jong Hun; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Uranium mono-nitride (UN) is considered as a fuel material [1] for accident-tolerant fuel to compensate for the loss of fissile fuel material caused by adopting a thickened cladding such as SiC composites. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. Among them, a direct nitriding process of metal is more attractive because it has advantages in the mass production of high-purity powders and the reusing of expensive 15 N 2 gas. However, since metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots, it has a drawback in the fabrication of fine powders. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a centrifugal atomisation technique to fabricate uranium and uranium alloy powders. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate nitride fuel powders directly from uranium metal alloy powders. Spherical powder and flake of uranium metal alloys were fabricated using a centrifugal atomisation method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating the metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. The phase and morphology evolutions of powders were investigated during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also part of the present work. KAERI has developed the centrifugal rotating disk atomisation process to fabricate spherical uranium metal alloy powders which are used as advanced fuel materials for research reactors. The rotating disk atomisation system involves the tasks of melting, atomising, and collecting. A nozzle in the bottom of melting crucible introduces melt at the center of a spinning disk. The centrifugal force carries the melt to the edge of the disk and throws the melt off the edge. Size and shape of droplets can be controlled by changing the nozzle size, the disk diameter and disk speed independently or simultaneously. By adjusting the processing parameters of the centrifugal atomiser, a spherical and flake shape

  3. Intragranular Chromium Nitride Precipitates in Duplex and Superduplex Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Torunn Hjulstad

    2012-01-01

    Intragranular chromium nitrides is a phenomenon with detrimental effects on material properties in superduplex stainless steels which have not received much attention. Precipitation of nitrides occurs when the ferritic phase becomes supersaturated with nitrogen and there is insufficient time during cooling for diffusion of nitrogen into austenite. Heat treatment was carried out at between 1060◦C and 1160◦C to study the materials susceptibility to nitride precipitation with...

  4. Development of III-V p-MOSFETs with high-kappa gate stack for future CMOS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaiah, Padmaja

    As the semiconductor industry approaches the limits of traditional silicon CMOS scaling, non-silicon materials and new device architectures are gradually being introduced to improve Si integrated circuit performance and continue transistor scaling. Recently, the replacement of SiO2 with a high-k material (HfO2) as gate dielectric has essentially removed one of the biggest advantages of Si as channel material. As a result, alternate high mobility materials are being considered to replace Si in the channel to achieve higher drive currents and switching speeds. III-V materials in particular have become of great interest as channel materials, owing to their superior electron transport properties. However, there are several critical challenges that need to be addressed before III-V based CMOS can replace Si CMOS technology. Some of these challenges include development of a high quality, thermally stable gate dielectric/III-V interface, and improvement in III-V p-channel hole mobility to complement the n-channel mobility, low source/drain resistance and integration onto Si substrate. In this thesis, we would be addressing the first two issues i.e. the development high performance III-V p-channels and obtaining high quality III-V/high-k interface. We start with using the device architecture of the already established InGaAs n-channels as a baseline to understand the effect of remote scattering from the high-k oxide and oxide/semiconductor interface on channel transport properties such as electron mobility and channel electron concentration. Temperature dependent Hall electron mobility measurements were performed to separate various scattering induced mobility limiting factors. Dependence of channel mobility on proximity of the channel to the oxide interface, oxide thickness, annealing conditions are discussed. The results from this work will be used in the design of the p-channel MOSFETs. Following this, InxGa1-xAs (x>0.53) is chosen as channel material for developing p

  5. Synthesis of functional boron or aluminium nitride materials for energy applications (production and storage of hydrogen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salameh, Chrystelle

    2014-01-01

    Porous inorganic materials are of great interest owing to their potential in energy applications. The general objective of the present thesis concerns the development of functional (carbon)nitrides for hydrogen generation and storage (material design, elaboration, properties and applications). The PDCs route, which offers a large number of opportunities in chemistry and ceramic sciences, has been applied to produce functional (carbon)nitrides materials. Firstly, we prepared porous binary systems such as AlN and BN by replicating the structure of CMK-3 and that of activated carbon. After pyrolysis and removal of the template, we demonstrated the feasibility of producing nitrides with tailored porosity. Moreover, by coupling the PDCs route with the aerogel technology, we succeeded in preparing polymer-derived AlN and BN aerogels. We assessed the potential of these porous AlN and BN materials in nano-confinement of two chemical hydrides, namely sodium alanate and ammonia borane, respectively. In both cases, the nano-confinement destabilized the network of the hydride and favored the release of H 2 at low temperature. Besides, in the case of nano-confined ammonia borane, no evolution of undesired gaseous by-products was observed, which means that pure hydrogen was produced in our conditions. Secondly, we prepared porous quaternary systems through the association of AlN/BN with Si-based ceramics. In particular, we investigated the preparation of SiAlCN with tailored porosity by using two approaches: the 'molecular building block' and 'single-source precursor' approaches. Concerning the former, we investigated the preparation of ordered meso-porous materials to be used as catalytic supports for hydrolysis of alkaline solution of sodium borohydride. We succeeded in generating high amounts of H 2 with attractive kinetics. Concerning the latter approach, the work was focused on the investigation of the chemistry of SiAlCN and SiBCN materials with a

  6. Fabrication of carbide and nitride pellets and the nitride irradiations Niloc 1 and Niloc 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, H.

    1991-01-01

    Besides the relatively well-known advanced LMFBR mixed carbide fuel an advanced mixed nitride is also an attractive candidate for the optimised fuel cycle of the European Fast Reactor, but the present knowledge about the nitride is still insufficient and should be raised to the level of the carbide. For such an optimised fuel cycle the following general conditions have been set up for the fuel: (i) the burnup of the optimised MN and MC should be at least 15 a/o or even beyond, at moderate linear ratings of less than 75 kW/m (ii) the fuel will be used in a He-bonding pin concept and (iii) as far as available an advanced economic pellet fabrication method should be employed. (iv) The fuel structure must contain 15 - 20% porosity in order to accomodate the fission product swelling at high burnup. This report gives a comprehensive description of fuel and pellet fabrication and characterization, irradiation, and post-irradiation examination. From the results important conclusions can be drawn about future work on nitrides

  7. Wear characteristics of TiO[sub 2] coating and silicon carbide alloyed layer on Ti-6Al-4V material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamis, M.B. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey))

    1992-08-14

    Wear properties of Ti-6Al-4V material (IMI-318) TiO[sub 2] coated and electron beam alloyed with silicon carbide were tested. Thickness of oxide coating, alloying conditions and properties of the alloyed layer such as hardness, layer thickness and microstructure are described. Wear tests were carried out on a general-purpose wear machine by using a disc-disc sample configuration under lubricated conditions. Counterface materials to oxide-coated and to surface-alloyed specimens were plasma-nitrided AISI 51100 and hardened AISI 4140 respectively. The resulting weight loss and wear resistance were monitored as a function of sliding distance and applied load. Although the electron beam alloying improved the wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V material, the oxide coatings on the material were not resistant to wear. (orig.).

  8. The prospect of uranium nitride (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN) for pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarifah, Ratna Dewi; Suud, Zaki

    2015-01-01

    Design study of small Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) core loaded with uranium nitride fuel (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN), Pa-231 as burnable poison, and Americium has been performed. Pa-231 known as actinide material, have large capture cross section and can be converted into fissile material that can be utilized to reduce excess reactivity. Americium is one of minor actinides with long half life. The objective of adding americium is to decrease nuclear spent fuel in the world. The neutronic analysis results show that mixed nitride fuel have k-inf greater than uranium nitride fuel. It is caused by the addition of Pu-239 in mixed nitride fuel. In fuel fraction analysis, for uranium nitride fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 45% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 45% moderator. In case of UN-PuN fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 30% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 60% coolant/ moderator. The addition of Pa-231 as burnable poison for UN fuel, enrichment U-235 5%, with Pa-231 1.6% has k-inf more than one and excess reactivity of 14.45%. And for mixed nitride fuel, the lowest value of reactivity swing is when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 8% with Pa-231 0.4%, the excess reactivity value 13,76%. The fuel pin analyze for the addition of Americium, the excess reactivity value is lower than before, because Americium absorb the neutron. For UN fuel, enrichment U-235 8%, Pa-231 1.6% and Am 0.5%, the excess reactivity is 4.86%. And for mixed nitride fuel, when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 13%, Pa-231 0.4% and Am 0.1%, the excess reactivity is 11.94%. For core configuration, it is better to use heterogeneous than homogeneous core configuration, because the radial power distribution is better

  9. The prospect of uranium nitride (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN) for pressurized water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifah, Ratna Dewi; Suud, Zaki

    2015-09-01

    Design study of small Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) core loaded with uranium nitride fuel (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN), Pa-231 as burnable poison, and Americium has been performed. Pa-231 known as actinide material, have large capture cross section and can be converted into fissile material that can be utilized to reduce excess reactivity. Americium is one of minor actinides with long half life. The objective of adding americium is to decrease nuclear spent fuel in the world. The neutronic analysis results show that mixed nitride fuel have k-inf greater than uranium nitride fuel. It is caused by the addition of Pu-239 in mixed nitride fuel. In fuel fraction analysis, for uranium nitride fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 45% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 45% moderator. In case of UN-PuN fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 30% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 60% coolant/ moderator. The addition of Pa-231 as burnable poison for UN fuel, enrichment U-235 5%, with Pa-231 1.6% has k-inf more than one and excess reactivity of 14.45%. And for mixed nitride fuel, the lowest value of reactivity swing is when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 8% with Pa-231 0.4%, the excess reactivity value 13,76%. The fuel pin analyze for the addition of Americium, the excess reactivity value is lower than before, because Americium absorb the neutron. For UN fuel, enrichment U-235 8%, Pa-231 1.6% and Am 0.5%, the excess reactivity is 4.86%. And for mixed nitride fuel, when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 13%, Pa-231 0.4% and Am 0.1%, the excess reactivity is 11.94%. For core configuration, it is better to use heterogeneous than homogeneous core configuration, because the radial power distribution is better.

  10. Capacitive performance of molybdenum nitride/titanium nitride nanotube array for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn; Tian, Fang

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA is fully converted from MoO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTA by one-step nitridation process. • MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA is used as feasible electrode material of high-performance supercapacitor. • MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA shows high capacitance, rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: Molybdenum nitride (MoN{sub x}) depositing on titanium nitride nanotube array (TiN NTA) was designed as MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA for supercapacitor electrode material. MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA was fabricated by electrodepositing molybdenum oxide onto titanium dioxide NTA and one-step nitridation treatment in ammonia. MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA involved top-surface layer of MoN{sub x} nanoparticles and underlying layer of TiN NTA, which contributed to electric double layer capacitance in aqueous lithium-ion electrolyte solution. The specific capacitance was increased from 69.05 mF cm{sup −2} for TiN NTA to 121.50 mF cm{sup −2} for MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA at 0.3 mA cm{sup −2}, presenting the improved capacitance performance. MoN{sub x} exhibited the capacitance of 174.83 F g{sup −1} at 1.5 A g{sup −1} and slightly declined to 109.13 F g{sup −1} at 30 A g{sup −1}, presenting high rate capability. MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA exhibited the capacitance retention ratio of 93.8% at 3.0 mA cm{sup −2} after 1000 cycles, presenting high cycling stability. MoN{sub x}/TiN NTA could act as a promising electrode material of supercapacitor.

  11. Study of III-V semiconductor band structure by synchrotron photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.; Cerrina, F.; Anderson, J.; Lapeyre, G.J.; Smith, R.J.; Hermanson, J.; Knapp, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Angle-resolved synchrotron photoemission studies of six III-V semiconductors have been carried out. For emission normal to the (110) plane of these materials, peaks in the experimental spectra were identified with the bands involved in the transitions, and the critical point energies X 3 , X 5 , and Σ 1 /sup min/, were determined. The data indicate that k perpendicular is conserved in the transitions. Comparison of the data with theoretical bands permits an evaluation of k perpendicular associated with the experimentally observed transition, and from this information the bands were plotted out

  12. Effect of Plasma Nitriding Process Conditions on Corrosion Resistance of 440B Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łępicka Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Martensitic stainless steels are used in a large number of various industrial applications, e.g. molds for plastic injections and glass moldings, automotive components, cutting tools, surgical and dental instruments. The improvement of their tribological and corrosion properties is a problem of high interest especially in medical applications, where patient safety becomes a priority. The paper covers findings from plasma nitrided AISI 440B (PN-EN or DIN X90CrMoV18 stainless steel corrosion resistance studies. Conventionally heat treated and plasma nitrided in N2:H2 reaction gas mixture (50:50, 65:35 and 80:20, respectively in two different temperature ranges (380 or 450°C specimens groups were examined. Microscopic observations and electrochemical corrosion tests were performed using a variety of analytical techniques. As obtained findings show, plasma nitriding of AISI 440B stainless steel, regardless of the process temperature, results in reduction of corrosion current density. Nevertheless, applying thermo-chemical process which requires exceeding temperature of about 400°C is not recommended due to increased risk of steel sensitization to intergranular and stress corrosion. According to the results, material ion nitrided in 450°C underwent leaching corrosion processes, which led to significant disproportion in chemical composition of the corroded and corrosion-free areas. The authors suggest further research into corrosion process of plasma nitrided materials and its degradation products.

  13. Sb{sup III} - Sb{sup V} Exchange Reaction in Hydrochloric: Acid Solutions; Echange Sb{sup III}-Sb{sup V} dans des Solutions d'Acide Chlorhydrique; Reaktsiya obmena Sb(III) - Sb(V) v rastvorakh khloristovodorodnoj kisloty; Intercambio Sb{sup III}-Sb{sup V} en Soluciones de HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambara, T.; Yamaguchi, K.; Yasuba, S. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka City (Japan)

    1965-10-15

    The exchange reaction of Sb{sup III} - Sb{sup V} in solutions of low HCl concentrations was studied using {sup 124}Sb as a tracer. The effects of HCl concentrations and chemical forms of antimony on the exchange rate were investigated. The HCl concentrations of the antimony solutions ((Sb{sup III}) =(Sb{sup V}) = 6.8 x 10{sup -4}M) were changed from 0.8 to 4.0M and the half-time for the exchange was measured by plotting log (1 - F) versus time t to calculate the exchange rate assuming the second-ordet reaction. It was found that the exchange rate was sharply increased with the increase of HCl concentrations (at 25 Degree-Sign C, from 0.8 to 2.0M) and at 2.0M HCl concentration the rate reached the maximum, from which the rate was decreased with the increase of HCl concentrations (at 25 Degree-Sign C, from 2.0 to 4.0M). Two sorts of Sb{sup V} species were used for our investigations, i.e. one was used directly after the dilution of 10M HCl Sb{sup V} solution with water and the other was used after 24 hours standing at room temperature from the dilution. (The Sb{sup III} species were also kept standing after preparation from 10M HCl Sb{sup III} solution.) In both cases the maximum rates were found to exist at 2.0M HCl concentration. The rate R{sub 1} for the former (directly after dilution) was 4.5 x 10{sup -6} mole litre{sup -1} min{sup -1} and the rate R{sub 2} for the latter (24 hours standing) was 1.2 x 10{sup -}{sub 6} mole litre. Also the activation energy for these cases was found to be 12.2 kcal/mole and 19.1 kcal/mole. By spectrophotometric studies, the Sb{sup V} species of the former type were found to be mainly consisting of SbCl{sup -}{sub 6} and the species of the latter type to be of SbCl{sub 4}(OH){sup -}{sub 2}, etc. Besides these facts the form of Sb{sup III} species was found to have no influence on the exchange rate. A much sharper increase of the exchange rate was observed when the HCl concentration of the antimony solution was fixed at 0.8M and

  14. Electro-optic and magneto-dielectric properties of multifunctional nitride and oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ambesh

    Materials that simultaneously exhibit different physical properties provide a rich area of research leading to the development of new devices. For example, materials having a strong coupling between charge and spin degrees of freedom are essential to realizing a new class of devices referred to generally as spintronics. However, these multifunctional systems pose new scientific challenges in understanding the origin and mechanisms for cross-control of different functionalities. The core of this Ph.D. dissertation deals with multifunctional nitride and oxide compound semiconductors as well as multiferroic magnetic oxide systems by investigating structural, optical, electrical, magnetic, magnetodielectric and magnetoelectric properties. Thin films of InN nitride compound semiconductors and closely related alloys have been investigated to understand the effects of intrinsic defects on the materials properties while considering possible applications of highly degenerate InN thin films. As grown rf sputtered InN films on c-axis (0001) sapphire exhibit highly degenerate n-type behaviour due to oxygen defects introduced during growth. The effect of oxygen in InN matrix has been further investigated by intentionally adding oxygen into the films. These studies confirm that oxygen is one of the main sources of donor electrons in degenerate InN. Above some critical concentration of oxygen, secondary phases of In 2O3 and In-O-N complexes were formed. It was also possible to tune the carrier concentration to produce changes in the plasmon frequency, which varied from 0.45 eV to 0.8 eV. This characteristic energy scale suggests that these highly degenerate InN thin films could be used for thermophotovoltaic cells, optical filters, and other IR electro-optic applications. To probe the magnetism in transition metal doped InN system, In 0.98Cr0.02N and In0.95Cr0.05N thin films were fabricated. Our results suggest that these films develop ferromagnetic order above room temperature

  15. Nitridation of vanadium by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Masato; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Kinomura, Atsushi; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1994-01-01

    The nitridation of vanadium by ion beam irradiation is studied by the ion implantation method and the dynamic mixing method. The nitrogen ion implantation was carried out into deposited V(110) films. Using both methods, three phases are formed, i.e. α-V, β-V 2 N, and δ-VN. Which phases are formed is related to the implantation dose or the arrival ratio. The orientation of the VN films produced by the dynamic ion beam mixing method is (100) and that of the VN films produced by the ion implantation method is (111). The nitridation of vanadium is also discussed in comparison with that of titanium and chromium. ((orig.))

  16. Thermodynamics of high-pressure ice polymorphs : ices III and V

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchijov, [No Value; Ayala, RB; Leon, GC; Nagornov, O

    Thermodynamic properties of high-pressure ice polymorphs, ices III and V, are studied theoretically. The results of TIP4P molecular dynamics simulations in the NPT ensemble are used to calculate the temperature dependence of the specific volume of ices III and V at pressures 0.25 and 0.5 GPa,

  17. Niobium nitride Josephson tunnel junctions with magnesium oxide barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, A.; Aoyagi, M.; Kosaka, S.; Shinoki, F.; Hayakawa, H.

    1985-01-01

    Niobium nitride-niobium nitride Josephson tunnel junctions have been fabricated using amorphous magnesium oxide (a-MgO) films as barriers. These junctions have excellent tunneling characteristics. For example, a large gap voltage (V/sub g/ = 5.1 mV), a large product of the maximum critical current and the normal tunneling resistance (I/sub c/R/sub n/ = 3.25 mV), and a small subgap leakage current (V/sub m/ = 45 mV, measured at 3 mV) have been obtained for a NbN/a-MgO/NbN junction. The critical current of this junction remains finite up to 14.5 K

  18. GaN growth on sapphire by MOCVD - Material for HEMT structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzegorczyk, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on growth and basic characterization of AlGaN/GaN based high electron mobility structures. In order to provide theoretical background for the presented research, the basic physical properties of III-V nitrides and the characteristics of the HEMT structures are discussed.

  19. III-nitride disk-in-nanowire 1.2 μm monolithic diode laser on (001)silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazari, Arnab; Aiello, Anthony; Bhattacharya, Pallab [Center for Photonics and Multiscale Nanomaterials, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Ng, Tien-Khee; Ooi, Boon S. [Division of Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-11-09

    III-nitride nanowire diode heterostructures with multiple In{sub 0.85}Ga{sub 0.15}N disks and graded InGaN mode confining regions were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001)Si substrates. The aerial density of the 60 nm nanowires is ∼3 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. A radiative recombination lifetime of 1.84 ns in the disks is measured by time-resolved luminescence measurements. Edge-emitting nanowire lasers have been fabricated and characterized. Measured values of J{sub th}, T{sub 0}, and dg/dn in these devices are 1.24 kA/cm{sup 2}, 242 K, and 5.6 × 10{sup −17} cm{sup 2}, respectively. The peak emission is observed at ∼1.2 μm.

  20. Methods for and products of processing nanostructure nitride, carbonitride and oxycarbonitride electrode power materials by utilizing sol gel technology for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhong; Wei, Oiang; Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    2001-01-01

    Metal nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder with high surface area (up to 150 m.sup.2 /g) is prepared by using sol-gel process. The metal organic precursor, alkoxides or amides, is synthesized firstly. The metal organic precursor is modified by using unhydrolyzable organic ligands or templates. A wet gel is formed then by hydrolysis and condensation process. The solvent in the wet gel is then be removed supercritically to form porous amorphous hydroxide. This porous hydroxide materials is sintered to 725.degree. C. under the ammonia flow and porous nitride powder is formed. The other way to obtain high surface area nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder is to pyrolyze polymerized templated metal amides aerogel in an inert atmosphere. The electrochemical capacitors are prepared by using sol-gel prepared nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder. Two methods are used to assemble the capacitors. Electrode is formed either by pressing the mixture of nitride powder and binder to a foil, or by depositing electrode coating onto metal current collector. The binder or coating is converted into a continuous network of electrode material after thermal treatment to provide enhanced energy and power density. Liquid electrolyte is soaked into porous electrode. The electrochemical capacitor assembly further has a porous separator layer between two electrodes/electrolyte and forming a unit cell.

  1. 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro [Dpto. de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones e IT, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicación, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Vázquez-Cabo, José [Dpto. de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones, Universidad de Vigo, ETSI Telecomunicación, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, Vigo (Spain); Sánchez-Arévalo, Francisco M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales (IIM), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70–360, Cd. Universitaria, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Martín-Ramos, Pablo [Dpto. de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones e IT, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicación, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados (Advanced Materials Laboratory) ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luis M. [Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados (Advanced Materials Laboratory) ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Dante, Roberto C., E-mail: rcdante@yahoo.com [Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados (Advanced Materials Laboratory) ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    The transition from a prevalent turbostratic arrangement with low planar interactions (2D) to an array of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets with stronger interplanar interactions (3D), occurring for samples treated above 650 °C, was detected by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The simulated 3D material made of stacks of shifted quasi planar sheets composed of zigzagged polymer ribbons, delivered a XRD simulated pattern in relatively good agreement with the experimental one. The 2D to 3D transition was also supported by the simulation of THz-TDS spectra obtained from quantum chemistry calculations, in which the same broad bands around 2 THz and 1.5 THz were found for 2D and 3D arrays, respectively. This transition was also in accordance with the tightening of the interplanar distance probably due to an interplanar π bond contribution, as evidenced also by a broad absorption around 2.6 eV in the UV–vis spectrum, which appeared in the sample treated at 650 °C, and increased in the sample treated at 700 °C. The band gap was calculated for 1D and 2D cases. The value of 3.374 eV for the 2D case is, within the model accuracy and precision, in a relative good agreement with the value of 3.055 eV obtained from the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: 2D lattice mode vibrations and structural changes correlated with the so called “2D to 3D transition”. - Highlights: • A 2D to 3D transition has been detected for polymeric carbon nitride. • THz-TDS allowed us to discover and detect the 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride. • We propose a structure for polymeric carbon nitride confirming it with THz-TDS.

  2. 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Vázquez-Cabo, José; Sánchez-Arévalo, Francisco M.; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luis M.; Dante, Roberto C.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from a prevalent turbostratic arrangement with low planar interactions (2D) to an array of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets with stronger interplanar interactions (3D), occurring for samples treated above 650 °C, was detected by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The simulated 3D material made of stacks of shifted quasi planar sheets composed of zigzagged polymer ribbons, delivered a XRD simulated pattern in relatively good agreement with the experimental one. The 2D to 3D transition was also supported by the simulation of THz-TDS spectra obtained from quantum chemistry calculations, in which the same broad bands around 2 THz and 1.5 THz were found for 2D and 3D arrays, respectively. This transition was also in accordance with the tightening of the interplanar distance probably due to an interplanar π bond contribution, as evidenced also by a broad absorption around 2.6 eV in the UV–vis spectrum, which appeared in the sample treated at 650 °C, and increased in the sample treated at 700 °C. The band gap was calculated for 1D and 2D cases. The value of 3.374 eV for the 2D case is, within the model accuracy and precision, in a relative good agreement with the value of 3.055 eV obtained from the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: 2D lattice mode vibrations and structural changes correlated with the so called “2D to 3D transition”. - Highlights: • A 2D to 3D transition has been detected for polymeric carbon nitride. • THz-TDS allowed us to discover and detect the 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride. • We propose a structure for polymeric carbon nitride confirming it with THz-TDS

  3. In situ self-sacrificed template synthesis of vanadium nitride/nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposites for electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Ling; Xu, Hong-Bin; Lou, Tai-Ping; Sui, Zhi-Tong; Zhang, Yi

    2018-03-15

    Vanadium nitride and graphene have been widely used as pseudo-capacitive and electric double-layer capacitor electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, respectively. However, the poor cycling stability of vanadium nitride and the low capacitance of graphene impeded their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrated an in situ self-sacrificed template method for the synthesis of vanadium nitride/nitrogen-doped graphene (VN/NGr) nanocomposites by the pyrolysis of a mixture of dicyandiamide, glucose, and NH 4 VO 3 . Vanadium nitride nanoparticles of the size in the range of 2 to 7 nm were uniformly embedded into the nitrogen-doped graphene skeleton. Furthermore, the VN/NGr nanocomposites with a high specific surface area and pore volume showed a high specific capacitance of 255 F g -1 at 10 mV s -1 , and an excellent cycling stability (94% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles). The excellent capacitive properties were ascribed to the excellent conductivity of nitrogen-doped graphene, high surface area, high pore volume, and the synergistic effect between vanadium nitride and nitrogen-doped graphene.

  4. Methods for enhancing P-type doping in III-V semiconductor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Stringfellow, Gerald; Zhu, Junyi

    2017-08-01

    Methods of doping a semiconductor film are provided. The methods comprise epitaxially growing the III-V semiconductor film in the presence of a dopant, a surfactant capable of acting as an electron reservoir, and hydrogen, under conditions that promote the formation of a III-V semiconductor film doped with the p-type dopant. In some embodiments of the methods, the epitaxial growth of the doped III-V semiconductor film is initiated at a first hydrogen partial pressure which is increased to a second hydrogen partial pressure during the epitaxial growth process.

  5. Nitride passivation of the interface between high-k dielectrics and SiGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardashti, Kasra [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0411 (United States); Hu, Kai-Ting [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0411 (United States); Tang, Kechao; McIntyre, Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Madisetti, Shailesh; Oktyabrsky, Serge [Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Siddiqui, Shariq; Sahu, Bhagawan [TD Research, GLOBALFOUNDRIES US, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Yoshida, Naomi; Kachian, Jessica; Dong, Lin [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States); Fruhberger, Bernd [California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0436 (United States); Kummel, Andrew C., E-mail: akummel@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    In-situ direct ammonia (NH{sub 3}) plasma nitridation has been used to passivate the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiGe interfaces with Si nitride and oxynitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the buried Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiGe interface shows that NH{sub 3} plasma pre-treatment should be performed at high temperatures (300 °C) to fully prevent Ge nitride and oxynitride formation at the interface and Ge out-diffusion into the oxide. C-V and I-V spectroscopy results show a lower density of interface traps and smaller gate leakage for samples with plasma nitridation at 300 °C.

  6. Simulation of the Nitriding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukovich, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation of the nitriding process makes it possible to solve many practical problems of process control, prediction of results, and development of new treatment modes and treated materials. The presented classification systematizes nitriding processes and processes based on nitriding, enables consideration of the theory and practice of an individual process in interrelation with other phenomena, outlines ways for intensification of various process variants, and gives grounds for development of recommendations for controlling the structure and properties of the obtained layers. The general rules for conducting the process and formation of phases in the layer and properties of the treated surfaces are used to create a prediction computational model based on analytical, numerical, and empirical approaches.

  7. Structure of metal-rich (001) surfaces of III-V compound semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumpf, C.; Smilgies, D.; Landemark, E.

    2001-01-01

    The atomic structure of the group-III-rich surface of III-V semiconductor compounds has been under intense debate for many years, yet none of the models agrees with the experimental data available. Here we present a model for the three-dimensional structure of the (001)-c(8x2) reconstruction on In......(8 x 2) reconstructions of III-V semiconductor surfaces contain the same essential building blocks....

  8. Engineering Strain for Improved III-Nitride Optoelectronic Device Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Broeck, Dennis Marnix

    Due to growing environmental and economic concerns, renewable energy generation and high-efficiency lighting are becoming even more important in the scientific community. III-Nitride devices have been essential in production of high-brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and are now entering the photovoltaic (PV) realm as the technology advances. InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well LEDs emitting in the blue/green region have emerged as promising candidates for next-generation lighting technologies. Due to the large lattice mismatch between InN and GaN, large electric fields exist within the quantum well layers and result in low rates of radiative recombination, especially for the green spectral region. This is commonly referred to as the "green gap" and results in poor external quantum efficiencies for light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. In order to mitigate the compressive stress of InGaN QWs, a novel growth technique is developed in order to grown thick, strain-relaxed In yGa1-yN templates for 0.08 structure, "semibulk" InGaN templates were achieved with vastly superior crystal and optical properties than bulk InGaN films. These semibulk InGaN templates were then utilized as new templates for multiple quantum well active layers, effectively reducing the compressive strain in the InGaN wells due to the larger lattice constant of the InGaN template with respect to a GaN template. A zero-stress balance method was used in order to realize a strain-balanced multiple quantum well structure, which again showed improved optical characteristics when compared to fully-strain active regions. The semibulk InGaN template was then implemented into "strain-compensated" LED structures, where light emission was achieved with very little leakage current. Discussion of these strain-compensated devices compared to conventional LEDs is detailed.

  9. Electrochemical properties of lanthanum nitride with calcium nitride additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesunova, R.P.; Fishman, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the electrochemical properties of lanthanum nitride with calcium nitride added. The lanthanum nitride was obtained by nitriding metallic lanthanum at 870 K in an ammonia stream. The product contained Cl, Pr, Nd, Sm, Fe, Ca, Cu, Mo, Mg, Al, Si, and Be. The calcium nitride was obtained by nitriding metallic calcium in a nitrogen stream. The conductivity on the LaN/C 3 N 2 system components are shown as a function of temperature. A table shows the solid solutions to be virtually electronic conductors and the lanthanum nitride a mixed conductor

  10. Polymer-Derived Boron Nitride: A Review on the Chemistry, Shaping and Ceramic Conversion of Borazine Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Samuel; Miele, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Boron nitride (BN) is a III-V compound which is the focus of important research since its discovery in the early 19th century. BN is electronic to carbon and thus, in the same way that carbon exists as graphite, BN exists in the hexagonal phase. The latter offers an unusual combination of properties that cannot be found in any other ceramics. However, these properties closely depend on the synthesis processes. This review states the recent developments in the preparation of BN through the che...

  11. Plasma nitriding - an eco friendly surface hardening process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Surface hardening is a process of heating the metal such that the surface gets only hardened. This process is adopted for many components like gears, cams, and crankshafts, which desire high hardness on the outer surface with a softer core to withstand the shocks. So, to attain such properties processes like carburising, nitriding, flame hardening and induction hardening are employed. Amongst these processes nitriding is the most commonly used process by many industries. In nitriding process the steel material is heated to a temperature of around 550 C and then exposed to atomic nitrogen. This atomic nitrogen reacts with iron and other alloying elements and forms nitrides, which are very hard in nature. By this process both wear resistance and hardness of the product can be increased. The atomic nitrogen required for this process can be obtained using ammonia gas (gas nitriding), cyanide based salt bath (liquid nitriding) and plasma medium (plasma nitriding). However, plasma nitriding has recently received considerable industrial interest owing to its characteristic of faster nitrogen penetration, short treatment time, low process temperature, minimal distortion, low energy use and easier control of layer formation compared with conventional techniques such as gas and liquid nitriding. This process can be used for all ferrous materials including stainless steels. Plasma nitriding is carried out using a gas mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gas at sub atmospheric pressures hence, making it eco-friendly in nature. Plasma nitriding allows modification of the surface layers and hardness profiles by changing the gas mixture and temperature. The wide applicable temperature range enables a multitude of applications, beyond the possibilities of gas or salt bath processes. This has led to numerous applications of this process in industries such as the manufacture of machine parts for plastics and food processing, packaging and tooling as well as pumps and hydraulic, machine

  12. III-V Ultra-Thin-Body InGaAs/InAs MOSFETs for Low Standby Power Logic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Ying

    As device scaling continues to sub-10-nm regime, III-V InGaAs/InAs metal- oxide-semiconductor ?eld-e?ect transistors (MOSFETs) are promising candidates for replacing Si-based MOSFETs for future very-large-scale integration (VLSI) logic applications. III-V InGaAs materials have low electron effective mass and high electron velocity, allowing higher on-state current at lower VDD and reducing the switching power consumption. However, III-V InGaAs materials have a narrower band gap and higher permittivity, leading to large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage or gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) at the drain end of the channel, and large subthreshold leakage due to worse electrostatic integrity. To utilize III-V MOSFETs in future logic circuits, III-V MOSFETs must have high on-state performance over Si MOSFETs as well as very low leakage current and low standby power consumption. In this dissertation, we will report InGaAs/InAs ultra-thin-body MOSFETs. Three techniques for reducing the leakage currents in InGaAs/InAs MOSFETs are reported as described below. 1) Wide band-gap barriers: We developed AlAs0.44Sb0.56 barriers lattice-match to InP by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and studied the electron transport in In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs 0.44Sb0.56 heterostructures. The InGaAs channel MOSFETs using AlAs0.44Sb0.56 bottom barriers or p-doped In0.52 Al0.48As barriers were demonstrated, showing significant suppression on the back barrier leakage. 2) Ultra-thin channels: We investigated the electron transport in InGaAs and InAs ultra-thin quantum wells and ultra-thin body MOSFETs (t ch ~ 2-4 nm). For high performance logic, InAs channels enable higher on-state current, while for low power logic, InGaAs channels allow lower BTBT leakage current. 3) Source/Drain engineering: We developed raised InGaAs and recessed InP source/drain spacers. The raised InGaAs source/drain spacers improve electrostatics, reducing subthreshold leakage, and smooth the electric field near drain, reducing

  13. Low Temperature Gaseous Nitriding of a Stainless Steel Containing Strong Nitride Formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    Low temperature thermochemical surface hardening of the precipitation hardening austenitic stainless steel A286 in solution treated state was investigated. A286 contains, besides high amounts of Cr, also substantial amounts of strong nitride formers as Ti, Al and V. It is shown that simultaneous...

  14. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using (oxy)nitride phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, R-J; Hirosaki, N; Sakuma, K; Kimura, N

    2008-01-01

    (Oxy)nitride phosphors have attracted great attention recently because they are promising luminescent materials for phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This paper reports the luminescent properties of (oxy)nitride phosphors in the system of M-Si-Al-O-N (M = Li, Ca or Sr), and optical properties of white LEDs using a GaN-based blue LED and (oxy)nitride phosphors. The phosphors show high conversion efficiency of blue light, suitable emission colours and small thermal quenching. The bichromatic white LEDs exhibit high luminous efficacy (∼55 lm W -1 ) and the multi-phosphor converted white LEDs show high colour rendering index (Ra 82-95). The results indicate that (oxy)nitride phosphors demonstrate their superior suitability to use as down-conversion luminescent materials in white LEDs

  15. The encapsulation of trimetallic nitride clusters in fullerene cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, H.C.; Stevenson, S.; Craft, J.; Cromer, F.; Duchamp, J.; Rice, G.; Glass, T.; Harich, K.; Fowler, P.W.; Heine, T.; Hajdu, E.; Bible, R.; Olmstead, M.M.; Maitra, K.; Fisher, A.J.; Balch, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Kratschmer-Huffman electric-arc generator typically produces endohedral metallofullerenes in low yields with a wide array of different products, but the introduction of nitrogen leads to a new family of encapsulates. A family of endohedral metallofullerenes A n B 3-n N at C 2n (n=0-3, x=34, 39, and 40) where A and B are Group III and rare-earth metals is formed by a trimetallic nitride template (TNT) process in relatively high yields. The archetypal representative of this new class is the stable endohedral metallofullerene, Sc 3 N at C 80 containing a triscandium nitride cluster encapsulated in an icosahedron (I h ), C 80 cage. The Sc 3 N at C 80 is formed in yields even exceeding empty-cage C 84 . Other prominent scandium TNT members are Sc 3 N at C 68 and Sc 3 N at C 78 . The former Sc 3 N at C 68 molecule represents an exception to the well known isolated pentagon rule (IPR). These new molecules were purified by chromatography with corresponding characterization by various spectroscopic approaches. In this paper we focus on the characterization and properties of this fascinating new class of materials

  16. Band Gap Engineering of Boron Nitride by Graphene and Its Application as Positive Electrode Material in Asymmetric Supercapacitor Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanjit; Jana, Milan; Khanra, Partha; Samanta, Pranab; Koo, Hyeyoung; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kuila, Tapas

    2015-07-08

    Nanostructured hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite is prepared by insertion of h-BN into the graphene oxide through hydrothermal reaction. Formation of the super lattice is confirmed by the existence of two separate UV-visible absorption edges corresponding to two different band gaps. The composite materials show enhanced electrical conductivity as compared to the bulk h-BN. A high specific capacitance of ∼824 F g(-1) is achieved at a current density of 4 A g(-1) for the composite in three-electrode electrochemical measurement. The potential window of the composite electrode lies in the range from -0.1 to 0.5 V in 6 M aqueous KOH electrolyte. The operating voltage is increased to 1.4 V in asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device where the thermally reduced graphene oxide is used as the negative electrode and the h-BN/RGO composite as the positive electrode. The ASC exhibits a specific capacitance of 145.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 6 A g(-1) and high energy density of 39.6 W h kg(-1) corresponding to a large power density of ∼4200 W kg(-1). Therefore, a facile hydrothermal route is demonstrated for the first time to utilize h-BN-based composite materials as energy storage electrode materials for supercapacitor applications.

  17. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-27

    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400–700 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  18. Prototype Design of Plasma-Nitriding Apparatus for Components of Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandriyana, B.; Tutun Nugraha; Silakhuddin

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus to carry-out plasma-nitriding surface treatment has been designed. The construction was planned as a prototype for a larger system at industrial scale. The design was based on a similar apparatus currently operating at the Accelerator Laboratory at the P3TM-BATAN, in Yogyakarta. The system consists of a main vacuum chamber from steel SS-304, 45 cm OD, 55 cm height and is equipped with a nitriding chamber in the inner part that also functions as a plasma container (Quartz, cylindrical, 38 cm OD, 40 cm height). The system utilized an anode-cathode pair to generate nitrogen plasma, as well as to accelerate and direct the positively-charged-plasma toward the surface of the material to be treated. The pressure inside the chamber is designed to be in the region of 10 -3 mb with a temperature between 350-590 o C. Pulsated DC high voltage can be set at 1-50 kV at a frequency between 100-1000 Hz and current 1- 50 mA. The safety and reliability features have been designed to obtain nitriding results that are in accordance with the required technical specification as well as economical constrain. It is hoped that this device can become a prototype for future development of an industrial scale plasma-nitriding apparatus. (author)

  19. The High Energy Materials Science Beamline (HEMS) at PETRA III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, Norbert; King, Andrew; Beckmann, Felix; Ruhnau, Hans-Ulrich; Kirchhof, Rene; Kiehn, Ruediger; Mueller, Martin; Schreyer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The HEMS Beamline at the German high-brilliance synchrotron radiation storage ring PETRA III is fully tunable between 30 and 250 keV and optimized for sub-micrometer focusing. Approximately 70 % of the beamtime will be dedicated to Materials Research. Fundamental research will encompass metallurgy, physics and chemistry with first experiments planned for the investigation of the relationship between macroscopic and micro-structural properties of polycrystalline materials, grain-grain-interactions, and the development of smart materials or processes. For this purpose a 3D-microsctructure-mapper has been designed. Applied research for manufacturing process optimization will benefit from high flux in combination with ultra-fast detector systems allowing complex and highly dynamic in-situ studies of micro-structural transformations, e.g. during welding processes. The beamline infrastructure allows accommodation of large and heavy user provided equipment. Experiments targeting the industrial user community will be based on well established techniques with standardized evaluation, allowing full service measurements, e.g. for tomography and texture determination. The beamline consists of a five meter in-vacuum undulator, a general optics hutch, an in-house test facility and three independent experimental hutches working alternately, plus additional set-up and storage space for long-term experiments. HEMS is under commissioning as one of the first beamlines running at PETRA III.

  20. Surface wet-ability modification of thin PECVD silicon nitride layers by 40 keV argon ion treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Picciotto, A.; Vanzetti, L.; Iacob, E.; Scolaro, C.

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of wet-ability of liquid drops have been performed on a 30 nm silicon nitride (Si3N4) film deposited by a PECVD reactor on a silicon wafer and implanted by 40 keV argon ions at different doses. Surface treatments by using Ar ion beams have been employed to modify the wet-ability. The chemical composition of the first Si3N4 monolayer was investigated by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The surface morphology was tested by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Results put in evidence the best implantation conditions for silicon nitride to increase or to reduce the wet-ability of the biological liquid. This permits to improve the biocompatibility and functionality of Si3N4. In particular experimental results show that argon ion bombardment increases the contact angle, enhances the oxygen content and increases the surface roughness.

  1. Novel superhard films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengjun; Chen Guanghua; Deng Jinxiang; Song Xuemei; Shao Lexi

    2001-01-01

    Superhard materials, defined as having a microhardness exceeding 40 GPa, have attracted extensive interest for decades. They are composed of compounds of group III, IV and/or V (carbides and nitrides) and elemental crystal (diamond). Except for diamond, all these materials can only be synthesized by artificial methods. Other interesting properties of these materials include their wide band gap, stability under high temperature and chemical inertness. Current research on these materials concentrates on diamond, cubic boron nitride (cBN), carbon nitride (C 3 N 4 , CN x ) boron carbonitride (BCN) and diamond-like carbon (DLC). A review is presented of the progress and future of these interesting materials, in connection with authors' recent studies on the synthesis and properties of wide band gap and superhard materials

  2. [The cytotoxicity of N48 NdFeB magnets coated with titanium-nitride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-Ming; Hou, Zhi-Ming; Chu, Ming

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of N48 NdFeB magnets coated with titanium-nitride on the growth and apoptosis of L929 mouse fibroblast cells, and to determine the material biocompatibility. The NdFeB magnets coated with titanium-nitride, bare NdFeB magnets and ordinary brackets were put into RPMI-1640 to prepare fusions. L929 mouse fibroblast cells were cultivated in the negative control liquid, positive control liquid, 100%, 50% and 25% sample fusions, respectively. The cell proliferation vitality was detected by MTT assay and the relative growth rate was calculated.Cell scatter diagrams of the negative control liquid, 100% titanium-nitride coated magnets fusion and bare magnets fusion were detected by flow cytometry Annexin V/PI double staining method. The ratios of normal cells, early apoptosis, advanced apoptosis and necrosis cells were calculated. The results were analyzed for paired t test using SPSS11.5 software package. The toxic levels of N48 NdFeB coated with titanium-nitride were ranked as 0-1. The toxic levels of bare magnets were ranked as 2. The cell scatter diagrams showed that there was no significant difference in living cell, early apoptosis and necrosis between magnets coated with titanium-nitride and control group. But there was significant difference between the bare magnets group and control group. The N48 NdFeB magnets coated with titanium-nitride have good biocompatibility.

  3. Anomalous piezoelectricity in two-dimensional graphene nitride nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelisko, Matthew; Hanlumyuang, Yuranan; Yang, Shubin; Liu, Yuanming; Lei, Chihou; Li, Jiangyu; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Sharma, Pradeep

    2014-06-27

    Piezoelectricity is a unique property of materials that permits the conversion of mechanical stimuli into electrical and vice versa. On the basis of crystal symmetry considerations, pristine carbon nitride (C3N4) in its various forms is non-piezoelectric. Here we find clear evidence via piezoresponse force microscopy and quantum mechanical calculations that both atomically thin and layered graphitic carbon nitride, or graphene nitride, nanosheets exhibit anomalous piezoelectricity. Insights from ab inito calculations indicate that the emergence of piezoelectricity in this material is due to the fact that a stable phase of graphene nitride nanosheet is riddled with regularly spaced triangular holes. These non-centrosymmetric pores, and the universal presence of flexoelectricity in all dielectrics, lead to the manifestation of the apparent and experimentally verified piezoelectric response. Quantitatively, an e11 piezoelectric coefficient of 0.758 C m(-2) is predicted for C3N4 superlattice, significantly larger than that of the commonly compared α-quartz.

  4. Relationship between type III-V radio and hard X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Type III-V radio bursts are found to be closely associated with impulsive hard X-ray bursts. Probably 0.1% to 1% of the fast electrons in the X-ray source region escape to heights >0.1 solar radii in the corona and excite the type III-V burst. (Auth.)

  5. Spin transport, magnetoresistance, and electrically detected magnetic resonance in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutch, Michael J. [Intercollege Program of Materials, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Lenahan, Patrick M. [Intercollege Program of Materials, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); King, Sean W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2016-08-08

    We report on a study of spin transport via electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) and near-zero field magnetoresistance (MR) in silicon nitride films. Silicon nitrides have long been important materials in solid state electronics. Although electronic transport in these materials is not well understood, electron paramagnetic resonance studies have identified a single dominating paramagnetic defect and have also provided physical and chemical descriptions of the defects, called K centers. Our EDMR and MR measurements clearly link the near-zero field MR response to the K centers and also indicate that K center energy levels are approximately 3.1 eV above the a-SiN:H valence band edge. In addition, our results suggest an approach for the study of defect mediated spin-transport in inorganic amorphous insulators via variable electric field and variable frequency EDMR and MR which may be widely applicable.

  6. Light-matter Interactions in Semiconductors and Metals: From Nitride Optoelectronics to Quantum Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Prineha

    This thesis puts forth a theory-directed approach coupled with spectroscopy aimed at the discovery and understanding of light-matter interactions in semiconductors and metals. The first part of the thesis presents the discovery and development of Zn-IV nitride materials. The commercial prominence in the optoelectronics industry of tunable semiconductor alloy materials based on nitride semiconductor devices, specifically InGaN, motivates the search for earth-abundant alternatives for use in efficient, high-quality optoelectronic devices. II-IV-N2 compounds, which are closely related to the wurtzite-structured III-N semiconductors, have similar electronic and optical properties to InGaN namely direct band gaps, high quantum efficiencies and large optical absorption coefficients. The choice of different group II and group IV elements provides chemical diversity that can be exploited to tune the structural and electronic properties through the series of alloys. The first theoretical and experimental investigation of the ZnSnxGe1--xN2 series as a replacement for III-nitrides is discussed here. The second half of the thesis shows ab-initio calculations for surface plasmons and plasmonic hot carrier dynamics. Surface plasmons, electromagnetic modes confined to the surface of a conductor-dielectric interface, have sparked renewed interest because of their quantum nature and their broad range of applications. The decay of surface plasmons is usually a detriment in the field of plasmonics, but the possibility to capture the energy normally lost to heat would open new opportunities in photon sensors, energy conversion devices and switching. A theoretical understanding of plasmon-driven hot carrier generation and relaxation dynamics in the ultrafast regime is presented here. Additionally calculations for plasmon-mediated upconversion as well as an energy-dependent transport model for these non-equilibrium carriers are shown. Finally, this thesis gives an outlook on the

  7. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs

  8. Cacotheline as an oxidimetric reagent. Determination of Sn(II), Cu(I), Ti(III), Fe(II), V(II) and V(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemani Murty, K.; Yedluri Rao, P.; Geddada Chalam, K.

    1982-01-01

    Sn(II), Ti(III), Cu(I),Fe(II), V(III) and V(II) can be titrated potentiometrically with cacotheline in 1-4 M hydrochloric acid, 0.5-2 M hydrochloric acid, 0.5-1.5 M sulphuric acid in presence of 4 ml of 10% EDTA solution in a total volume of 50 ml, 9-10 M phosphoric acid, 4-8 M acetic acid and 3-8 M acetic acid respectively. Cacotheline can be used for the assay of tin plate and solder. The cacotheline undergoes a 2-electron reduction reaction. A cacotheline solution (0.005 M) in 0.02 M hydrochloric acid is fairly stable for several months. The conditional redox potentials of cacotheline have been determined in sulphuric, phosphoric and acetic acid medium. (Author)

  9. Nitride coating enhances endothelialization on biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ion, Raluca [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91-95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Luculescu, Catalin [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Cimpean, Anisoara, E-mail: anisoara.cimpean@bio.unibuc.ro [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91-95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Marx, Philippe [AMF Company, Route de Quincy, 18120 Lury-sur-Arnon (France); Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Gloriant, Thierry [INSA Rennes, UMR CNRS 6226 ISCR, 20 Avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France)

    2016-05-01

    Surface nitriding was demonstrated to be an effective process for improving the biocompatibility of implantable devices. In this study, we investigated the benefits of nitriding the NiTi shape memory alloy for vascular stent applications. Results from cell experiments indicated that, compared to untreated NiTi, a superficial gas nitriding treatment enhanced the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), cell spreading and proliferation. This investigation provides data to demonstrate the possibility of improving the rate of endothelialization on NiTi by means of nitride coating. - Highlights: • Gas nitriding process of NiTi is competent to promote cell spreading. • Surface nitriding of NiTi is able to stimulate focal adhesion formation and cell proliferation. • Similar expression pattern of vWf and eNOS was exhibited by bare and nitrided NiTi. • Gas nitriding treatment of NiTi shows promise for better in vivo endothelialization.

  10. Vertical group III-V nanowires on si, heterostructures, flexible arrays and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Soci, Cesare; Bao, Xinyu; Wei, Wei; Jing, Yi; Sun, Ke

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method for direct heteroepitaxial growth of vertical III-V semiconductor nanowires on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is etched to substantially completely remove native oxide. It is promptly placed in a reaction chamber. The substrate is heated and maintained at a growth temperature. Group III-V precursors are flowed for a growth time. Preferred embodiment vertical Group III-V nanowires on silicon have a core-shell structure, which provides a radial homojunction or heterojunction. A doped nanowire core is surrounded by a shell with complementary doping. Such can provide high optical absorption due to the long optical path in the axial direction of the vertical nanowires, while reducing considerably the distance over which carriers must diffuse before being collected in the radial direction. Alloy composition can also be varied. Radial and axial homojunctions and heterojunctions can be realized. Embodiments provide for flexible Group III-V nanowire structures. An array of Group III-V nanowire structures is embedded in polymer. A fabrication method forms the vertical nanowires on a substrate, e.g., a silicon substrate. Preferably, the nanowires are formed by the preferred methods for fabrication of Group III-V nanowires on silicon. Devices can be formed with core/shell and core/multi-shell nanowires and the devices are released from the substrate upon which the nanowires were formed to create a flexible structure that includes an array of vertical nanowires embedded in polymer.

  11. II-VI/III-V Heterojunction Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunshor, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... in both. In the second part of the program we studied the growth and the optical evaluation of wide bandgap nitride heterostructures, an effort which included the first reporting of a GaN-based laser to be fabricated...

  12. Ion beam induces nitridation of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petravic, M.; Williams, J.S.; Conway, M.

    1998-01-01

    High dose ion bombardment of silicon with reactive species, such as oxygen and nitrogen, has attracted considerable interest due to possible applications of beam-induced chemical compounds with silicon. For example, high energy oxygen bombardment of Si is now routinely used to form buried oxide layers for device purposes, the so called SIMOX structures. On the other hand, Si nitrides, formed by low energy ( 100 keV) nitrogen beam bombardment of Si, are attractive as oxidation barriers or gate insulators, primarily due to the low diffusivity of many species in Si nitrides. However, little data exists on silicon nitride formation during bombardment and its angle dependence, in particular for N 2 + bombardment in the 10 keV range, which is of interest for analytical techniques such as SIMS. In SIMS, low energy oxygen ions are more commonly used as bombarding species, as oxygen provides stable ion yields and enhances the positive secondary ion yield. Therefore, a large body of data can be found in the literature on oxide formation during low energy oxygen bombardment. Nitrogen bombardment of Si may cause similar effects to oxygen bombardment, as nitrogen and oxygen have similar masses and ranges in Si, show similar sputtering effects and both have the ability to form chemical compounds with Si. In this work we explore this possibility in some detail. We compare oxide and nitride formation during oxygen and nitrogen ion bombardment of Si under similar conditions. Despite the expected similar behaviour, some large differences in compound formation were found. These differences are explained in terms of different atomic diffusivities in oxides and nitrides, film structural differences and thermodynamic properties. (author)

  13. Cavitation contributes substantially to tensile creep in silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke, W.E.; Wiederhorn, S.M.; Hockey, B.J.; Krause, R.F. Jr.; Long, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    During tensile creep of a hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitride, the volume fraction of cavities increases linearly with strain; these cavities produce nearly all of the measured strain. In contrast, compressive creep in the same stress and temperature range produces very little cavitation. A stress exponent that increases with stress (var-epsilon ∝ σ n , 2 < n < 7) characterizes the tensile creep response, while the compressive creep response exhibits a stress dependence of unity. Furthermore, under the same stress and temperature, the material creeps nearly 100 times faster in tension than in compression. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates that the cavities formed during tensile creep occur in pockets of residual crystalline silicate phase located at silicon nitride multigrain junctions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) from crept material quantifies the size distribution of cavities observed in TEM and demonstrates that cavity addition, rather than cavity growth, dominates the cavitation process. These observations are in accord with a model for creep based on the deformation of granular materials in which the microstructure must dilate for individual grains t slide past one another. During tensile creep the silicon nitride grains remain rigid; cavitation in the multigrain junctions allows the silicate to flow from cavities to surrounding silicate pockets, allowing the dilation of the microstructure and deformation of the material. Silicon nitride grain boundary sliding accommodates this expansion and leads to extension of the specimen. In compression, where cavitation is suppressed, deformation occurs by solution-reprecipitation of silicon nitride

  14. Stable boron nitride diamondoids as nanoscale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyta, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We predict the stability of diamondoids made up of boron and nitrogen instead of carbon atoms. The results are based on quantum-mechanical calculations within density functional theory (DFT) and show some very distinct features compared to the regular carbon-based diamondoids. These features are evaluated with respect to the energetics and electronic properties of the boron nitride diamondoids as compared to the respective properties of the carbon-based diamondoids. We find that BN-diamondoids are overall more stable than their respective C-diamondoid counterparts. The electronic band-gaps (E g ) of the former are overall lower than those for the latter nanostructures but do not show a very distinct trend with their size. Contrary to the lower C-diamondoids, the BN-diamondoids are semiconducting and show a depletion of charge on the nitrogen site. Their differences in the distribution of the molecular orbitals, compared to their carbon-based counterparts, offer additional bonding and functionalization possibilities. These tiny BN-based nanostructures could potentially be used as nanobuilding blocks complementing or substituting the C-diamondoids, based on the desired properties. An experimental realization of boron nitride diamondoids remains to show their feasibility. (paper)

  15. High temperature mechanical performance of a hot isostatically pressed silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, A.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Jenkins, M.G.; Lin, C.K.J. [and others

    1996-01-01

    Silicon nitride ceramics are an attractive material of choice for designers and manufacturers of advanced gas turbine engine components for many reasons. These materials typically have potentially high temperatures of usefulness (up to 1400{degrees}C), are chemically inert, have a relatively low specific gravity (important for inertial effects), and are good thermal conductors (i.e., resistant to thermal shock). In order for manufacturers to take advantage of these inherent properties of silicon nitride, the high-temperature mechanical performance of the material must first be characterized. The mechanical response of silicon nitride to static, dynamic, and cyclic conditions at elevated temperatures, along with reliable and representative data, is critical information that gas turbine engine designers and manufacturers require for the confident insertion of silicon nitride components into gas turbine engines. This final report describes the high-temperature mechanical characterization and analyses that were conducted on a candidate structural silicon nitride ceramic. The high-temperature strength, static fatigue (creep rupture), and dynamic and cyclic fatigue performance were characterized. The efforts put forth were part of Work Breakdown Structure Subelement 3.2.1, {open_quotes}Rotor Data Base Generation.{close_quotes} PY6 is comparable to other hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitrides currently being considered for advanced gas turbine engine applications.

  16. Origin of the low compressibility in hard nitride spinels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori-Sánchez, P.; Marqués, M.; Beltrán, A.

    2003-01-01

    A microscopic investigation of first-principles electron densities of gamma-A(3)N(4) (A:C,Si,Ge) spinels reveals a clear relationship between the compressibility and the chemical bonding of these materials. Three striking findings emanate from this analysis: (i) the chemical graph is governed...... by a network of highly directional strong bonds with covalent character in gamma-C3N4 and different degrees of ionic polarization in gamma-Si3N4 and gamma-Ge3N4, (ii) nitrogen is the lowest compressible atom controlling the trend in the bulk modulus of the solids, and (iii) the group-IV counterions show strong...... site dependent compressibilities enhancing the difficulty in the synthesis of the spinel phases of these nitrides....

  17. Material and device studies for the development of ultra-violet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) along polar, non-polar and semi-polar directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Ramya

    Over the past few years, significant effort was dedicated to the development of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for a variety of applications. Such applications include chemical and biological detection, water purification and solid-state lighting. III-Nitride LEDs based on multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown along the conventional [0001] (polar) direction suffer from the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE), due to the existence of strong electric fields that arise from spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization. Thus, there is strong motivation to develop MQW-based III-nitride LED structures grown along non-polar and semi-polar directions. The goal of this dissertation is to develop UV-LEDs along the [0001] polar and [11 2¯ 0] non-polar directions by the method of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). The polar and non-polar LEDs were grown on the C-plane and R-plane sapphire substrates respectively. This work is a combination of materials science studies related to the nucleation, growth and n- and p-type doping of III-nitride films on these two substrates, as well as device studies related to fabrication and characterization of UV-LEDs. It was observed that the crystallographic orientation of the III-nitride films grown on R-plane sapphire depends strongly on the kinetic conditions of growth of the Aluminum Nitride (AIN) buffer. Specifically, growth of the AIN buffer under group III-rich conditions leads to nitride films having the (11 2¯ 0) non polar planes parallel to the sapphire surface, while growth of the buffer under nitrogen rich conditions leads to nitride films with the (11 2¯ 6) semi-polar planes parallel to the sapphire surface. The electron concentration and mobility for the films grown along the polar, non-polar and semi-polar directions were investigated. P-type doping of Gallium Nitride (GaN) films grown on the nonpolar (11 2¯ 0) plane do not suffer from polarity inversion and thus the material was doped p-type with a hole concentration

  18. Semiclassical Calculation of Reaction Rate Constants for Homolytical Dissociations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.

    2002-01-01

    There is growing interest in extending organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) to III-V materials that exhibit large thermal decomposition at their optimum growth temperature, such as indium nitride. The group III nitrides are candidate materials for light-emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers operating into the blue and ultraviolet regions. To overcome decomposition of the deposited compound, the reaction must be conducted at high pressures, which causes problems of uniformity. Microgravity may provide the venue for maintaining conditions of laminar flow under high pressure. Since the selection of optimized parameters becomes crucial when performing experiments in microgravity, efforts are presently geared to the development of computational OMCVD models that will couple the reactor fluid dynamics with its chemical kinetics. In the present study, we developed a method to calculate reaction rate constants for the homolytic dissociation of III-V compounds for modeling OMCVD. The method is validated by comparing calculations with experimental reaction rate constants.

  19. First principles examination of electronic structure and optical features of 4H-GaN1-xPx polytype alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laref, A.; Hussain, Z.; Laref, S.; Yang, J. T.; Xiong, Y. C.; Luo, S. J.

    2018-04-01

    By using first-principles calculations, we compute the electronic band structures and typical aspects of the optical spectra of hexagonally structured GaN1-xPx alloys. Although a type III-V semiconductor, GaP commonly possesses a zinc-blende structure with an indirect band gap; as such, it may additionally form hexagonal polytypes under specific growth conditions. The electronic structures and optical properties are calculated by combining a non-nitride III-V semiconductor and a nitride III-V semiconductor, as GaP and GaN crystallizing in a 4H polytype, with the N composition ranging between x = 0-1. For all studied materials, the energy gap is found to be direct. The optical properties of the hexagonal materials may illustrate the strong polarization dependence owing to the crystalline anisotropy. This investigation for GaN1-xPx alloys is anticipated to supply paramount information for applications in the visible/ultraviolet spectral regions. At a specific concentration, x, these alloys would be exclusively appealing candidates for solar-cell applications.

  20. Rare-earth doped boron nitride nanotubes: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wellington Marcos; Sousa, Edesia Martins Barros de, E-mail: wellingtonmarcos@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Boron nitride is a heat and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen atoms with the chemical formula BN. This structure exists in various crystalline forms that are isoelectronic to a similarly structured carbon lattice. The hexagonal form (h-BN) corresponding to graphite is the most stable and soft among BN polymorph. However, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were first time synthesized in 1995 [1] and have a type of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure. Recently the BNNTs have attracted significant interest for scientific and technological applications due to their Wide bandgap. The Wide-bandgap semiconductors doped with rare-earth are considered as a new type of luminescent material, combining special Wide bandgap semiconducting properties with the rare-earth luminescence feature. BNNTs have a stable wide bandgap of 5.5 eV and super thermal and chemical stabilities, which make BNNTs an ideal nanosized luminescent material [2]. In this study, we report a simple and efficient route for the synthesis of BNNTs doped with samarium and europium. High quality BNNTs doped was produced via CVD technique using NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gases as source. Boron amorphous, catalyst and oxides rare-earth powder were used as precursor. Detailed studies involving energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were performed in order to characterize the BNNTs as grown. [1] Chopra, N. G.; Luyken, R. J. et al. Science, v. 269, p. 966-967, 1995. [2] Chen, H.; Chen, Y. et al. Adv. Matter. v. 19, p. 1845-1848, 2007. (author)

  1. Rare-earth doped boron nitride nanotubes: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Wellington Marcos; Sousa, Edesia Martins Barros de

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Boron nitride is a heat and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen atoms with the chemical formula BN. This structure exists in various crystalline forms that are isoelectronic to a similarly structured carbon lattice. The hexagonal form (h-BN) corresponding to graphite is the most stable and soft among BN polymorph. However, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were first time synthesized in 1995 [1] and have a type of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure. Recently the BNNTs have attracted significant interest for scientific and technological applications due to their Wide bandgap. The Wide-bandgap semiconductors doped with rare-earth are considered as a new type of luminescent material, combining special Wide bandgap semiconducting properties with the rare-earth luminescence feature. BNNTs have a stable wide bandgap of 5.5 eV and super thermal and chemical stabilities, which make BNNTs an ideal nanosized luminescent material [2]. In this study, we report a simple and efficient route for the synthesis of BNNTs doped with samarium and europium. High quality BNNTs doped was produced via CVD technique using NH 3 and N 2 gases as source. Boron amorphous, catalyst and oxides rare-earth powder were used as precursor. Detailed studies involving energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were performed in order to characterize the BNNTs as grown. [1] Chopra, N. G.; Luyken, R. J. et al. Science, v. 269, p. 966-967, 1995. [2] Chen, H.; Chen, Y. et al. Adv. Matter. v. 19, p. 1845-1848, 2007. (author)

  2. Epitaxially-grown Gallium Nitride on Gallium Oxide substrate for photon pair generation in visible and telecomm wavelengths

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.

    2016-08-11

    Gallium Nitride (GaN), along with other III-Nitrides, is attractive for optoelectronic and electronic applications due to its wide direct energy bandgap, as well as high thermal stability. GaN is transparent over a wide wavelength range from infra-red to the visible band, which makes it suitable for lasers and LEDs. It is also expected to be a suitable candidate for integrated nonlinear photonic circuits for a wide range of applications from all-optical signal processing to quantum computing and on-chip wavelength conversion. Despite its abundant use in commercial devices, there is still need for suitable substrate materials to reduce high densities of threading dislocations (TDs) and other structural defects like stacking faults, and grain boundaries. All these defects degrade the optical quality of the epi-grown GaN layer as they act as non-radiative recombination centers.

  3. Epitaxially-grown Gallium Nitride on Gallium Oxide substrate for photon pair generation in visible and telecomm wavelengths

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.; Dolgaleva, Ksenia; Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila; Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN), along with other III-Nitrides, is attractive for optoelectronic and electronic applications due to its wide direct energy bandgap, as well as high thermal stability. GaN is transparent over a wide wavelength range from infra-red to the visible band, which makes it suitable for lasers and LEDs. It is also expected to be a suitable candidate for integrated nonlinear photonic circuits for a wide range of applications from all-optical signal processing to quantum computing and on-chip wavelength conversion. Despite its abundant use in commercial devices, there is still need for suitable substrate materials to reduce high densities of threading dislocations (TDs) and other structural defects like stacking faults, and grain boundaries. All these defects degrade the optical quality of the epi-grown GaN layer as they act as non-radiative recombination centers.

  4. Active Control of Nitride Plasmonic Dispersion in the Far Infrared.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaner, Eric A.; Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Seng, William Francis; Bethke, Donald Thomas; Grine, Albert Dario,; Baca, Albert G.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate plasmonic structures in nitride-based materials for far-infrared (IR) applications. The two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the GaN/AlGaN material system, much like metal- dielectric structures, is a patternable plasmonic medium. However, it also permits for direct tunability via an applied voltage. While there have been proof-of-principle demonstrations of plasma excitations in nitride 2DEGs, exploration of the potential of this material system has thus far been limited. We recently demonstrated coherent phenomena such as the formation of plasmonic crystals, strong coupling of tunable crystal defects to a plasmonic crystal, and electromagnetically induced transparency in GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEGs at sub-THz frequencies. In this project, we explore whether these effects can be realized in nitride 2DEG materials above 1 THz and at temperatures exceeding 77 K.

  5. Single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Si, Ge, Sn) zinc nitrides as promising photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yujie; Luo, Gaixia; Meng, Lijuan; Zhang, Qinfang; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Haiyang; Wu, Xiuqiang; Kong, Fanjie; Wang, Baolin

    2018-05-30

    Searching for two-dimensional semiconductor materials that are suitable for visible-light photocatalytic water splitting provides a sustainable solution to deal with the future energy crisis and environmental problems. Herein, based on first-principles calculations, single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Si, Ge, Sn) zinc nitrides are proposed as efficient photocatalysts for water splitting. Stability analyses show that the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides exhibit energetic and dynamical stability. The electronic properties reveal that all of the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides are semiconductors. Interestingly, single-layer ZnSnN2 is a direct band gap semiconductor with a desirable band gap (1.74 eV), and the optical adsorption spectrum confirms its optical absorption in the visible light region. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) calculations show that the catalytic activity for single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Ge, Sn) is better than that of single-layer ZnSiN2. Furthermore, the band gaps and band edge positions for the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides can be effectively tuned by biaxial strain. Especially, single-layer ZnGeN2 can be effectively tuned to match better with the redox potentials of water and enhance the light absorption in the visible light region at a tensile strain of 5%, which is confirmed by the corresponding optical absorption spectrum. Our results provide guidance for experimental synthesis efforts and future searches for single-layer materials suitable for photocatalytic water splitting.

  6. Development of III-V/Si Multijunction Space Photovoltaics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High substrate costs, as well as weight, typically play a major role in the high costs of multijunction space solar cell production and deployment. III-V/Si...

  7. Some Temperature Effects on AISI-304 Nitriding in an Inductively Coupled RF Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.; Munoz-Castro, A. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Rosa-Vazquez, J. de la; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.

    2006-01-01

    Some recent results obtained from nitriding AISI 304 stainless steel samples, 1.2 cm in diameter and 0.5 cm thick are reported here in the case of an 85% hydrogen and 15% nitrogen mixture work gas. The process was carried out from 300 to 400 W for (13.56 MHz) inductively coupled plasma within a 60 cm long pyrex glass tube 3.5 cm in diameter where the samples were biased up to -300 V with respect to earth. The resulting hardness appears to be a function of the substrate temperature which varied from 200 deg. C at a 0 V bias to 550 deg. C at -300 V. The plasma density at 400 W reached 3x1010 cm-3 with a 4 eV electron temperature. Prior to nitriding, all the samples were polished with 0.05 μm diamond paste, leading to a 30 nm average roughness (Ra). After nitriding at -300 V, the Ra rose until ∼400 nm while hardness values of 1500 HV under 300 g loads were measured. X ray diffraction indicates that the extended phase amplitude (γN), Fe and Cr nitride depends on the substrate temperature

  8. Dense Plasma Focus-Based Nanofabrication of III-V Semiconductors: Unique Features and Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangla, Onkar; Roy, Savita; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2015-12-29

    The hot and dense plasma formed in modified dense plasma focus (DPF) device has been used worldwide for the nanofabrication of several materials. In this paper, we summarize the fabrication of III-V semiconductor nanostructures using the high fluence material ions produced by hot, dense and extremely non-equilibrium plasma generated in a modified DPF device. In addition, we present the recent results on the fabrication of porous nano-gallium arsenide (GaAs). The details of morphological, structural and optical properties of the fabricated nano-GaAs are provided. The effect of rapid thermal annealing on the above properties of porous nano-GaAs is studied. The study reveals that it is possible to tailor the size of pores with annealing temperature. The optical properties of these porous nano-GaAs also confirm the possibility to tailor the pore sizes upon annealing. Possible applications of the fabricated and subsequently annealed porous nano-GaAs in transmission-type photo-cathodes and visible optoelectronic devices are discussed. These results suggest that the modified DPF is an effective tool for nanofabrication of continuous and porous III-V semiconductor nanomaterials. Further opportunities for using the modified DPF device for the fabrication of novel nanostructures are discussed as well.

  9. Understanding the vapor-liquid-solid growth and composition of ternary III-V nanowires and nanowire heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    Based on the recent achievements in vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) synthesis, characterization and modeling of ternary III-V nanowires and axial heterostructures within such nanowires, we try to understand the major trends in their compositional evolution from a general theoretical perspective. Clearly, the VLS growth of ternary materials is much more complex than in standard vapor-solid epitaxy techniques, and even maintaining the necessary control over the composition of steady-state ternary nanowires is far from straightforward. On the other hand, VLS nanowires offer otherwise unattainable material combinations without introducing structural defects and hence are very promising for next-generation optoelectronic devices, in particular those integrated with a silicon electronic platform. In this review, we consider two main problems. First, we show how and by means of which parameters the steady-state composition of Au-catalyzed or self-catalyzed ternary III-V nanowires can be tuned to a desired value and why it is generally different from the vapor composition. Second, we present some experimental data and modeling results for the interfacial abruptness across axial nanowire heterostructures, both in Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed VLS growth methods. Refined modeling allows us to formulate some general growth recipes for suppressing the unwanted reservoir effect in the droplet and sharpening the nanowire heterojunctions. We consider and refine two approaches developed to date, namely the regular crystallization model for a liquid alloy with a critical size of only one III-V pair at high supersaturations or classical binary nucleation theory with a macroscopic critical nucleus at modest supersaturations.

  10. Compounds of type Ba/sub 2/Bsup(III)Ossup(V)O/sub 6/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiber, U; Kemmler-Sack, S [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie 2

    1981-07-01

    The black perovskites of type Ba/sub 2/Bsup(III)Ossup(V)O/sub 6/ crystallize cubic (Bsup(III) = Pr, Nd, Sm-Lu, Y) and rhombohedral (Bsup(III) = La) respectively; the cell volumina decrease linearily with (rsub(B)sup(III))/sup 3/. Intensity calculations on powder data for Ba/sub 2/YOsO/sub 6/ (space group Fm3m-Osub(h)/sup 5/) and Ba/sub 2/LaOsO/sub 6/ (space group R-3m-Dsub(3d)/sup 5/) gave the intensity related R'values of 4.6% and 5.0% respectively. The results of the vibrational spectroscopic investigations are reported in common with the bond orders, M-O distances and mean amplitudes and compared with the corresponding values of the series Ba/sub 2/Bsup(III)Irsup(V)O/sub 6/ and Ba/sub 2/Bsup(III)Rusup(V)O/sub 6/.

  11. As(III) and As(V) sorption on iron-modified non-pyrolyzed and pyrolyzed biomass from Petroselinum crispum (parsley).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cedillo, M J; Olguín, M T; Fall, C; Colin-Cruz, A

    2013-03-15

    The sorption of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions onto iron-modified Petroselinum crispum (PCFe) and iron-modified carbonaceous material from the pyrolysis of P. crispum (PCTTFe) was investigated. The modified sorbents were characterized with scanning electron microscopy. The sorbent elemental composition was determined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The principal functional groups from the sorbents were determined with FT-IR. The specific surfaces and points of zero charge (pzc) of the materials were also determined. As(III) and As(V) sorption onto the modified sorbents were performed in a batch system. After the sorption process, the As content in the liquid and solid phases was determined with atomic absorption and neutron activation analyses, respectively. After the arsenic sorption processes, the desorption of Fe from PCFe and PCTTFe was verified with atomic absorption spectrometry. The morphology of PC changed after iron modification. The specific area and pzc differed significantly between the iron-modified non-pyrolyzed and pyrolyzed P. crispum. The kinetics of the arsenite and arsenate sorption processes were described with a pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir-Freundlich model provided the isotherms with the best fit. Less than 0.02% of the Fe was desorbed from the PCFe and PCTTFe after the As(III) and As(V) sorption processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alkaline fuel cell with nitride membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shen-Huei; Pilaski, Moritz; Wartmann, Jens; Letzkus, Florian; Funke, Benedikt; Dura, Georg; Heinzel, Angelika

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate patterned nitride membranes with Si-MEMS-technology as a platform to build up new membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEA) for alkaline fuel cell applications. Two 6-inch wafer processes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were developed for the fabrication of separated nitride membranes with a nitride thickness up to 1 μm. The mechanical stability of the perforated nitride membrane has been adjusted in both processes either by embedding of subsequent ion implantation step or by optimizing the deposition process parameters. A nearly 100% yield of separated membranes of each deposition process was achieved with layer thickness from 150 nm to 1 μm and micro-channel pattern width of 1μm at a pitch of 3 μm. The process for membrane coating with electrolyte materials could be verified to build up MEA. Uniform membrane coating with channel filling was achieved after the optimization of speed controlled dip-coating method and the selection of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as electrolyte solvent. Finally, silver as conductive material was defined for printing a conductive layer onto the MEA by Ink-Technology. With the established IR-thermography setup, characterizations of MEAs in terms of catalytic conversion were performed successfully. The results of this work show promise for build up a platform on wafer-level for high throughput experiments.

  13. Final Report: Vapor Transport Deposition for Thin Film III-V Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, Shannon [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Greenaway, Ann [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Boucher, Jason [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Aloni, Shaul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Silicon, the dominant photovoltaic (PV) technology, is reaching its fundamental performance limits as a single absorber/junction technology. Higher efficiency devices are needed to reduce cost further because the balance of systems account for about two-thirds of the overall cost of the solar electricity. III-V semiconductors such as GaAs are used to make the highest-efficiency photovoltaic devices, but the costs of manufacture are much too high for non-concentrated terrestrial applications. The cost of III-V’s is driven by two factors: (1) metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), the dominant growth technology, employs expensive, toxic and pyrophoric gas-phase precursors, and (2) the growth substrates conventionally required for high-performance devices are monocrystalline III-V wafers. The primary goal of this project was to show that close-spaced vapor transport (CSVT), using water vapor as a transport agent, is a scalable deposition technology for growing low-cost epitaxial III-V photovoltaic devices. The secondary goal was to integrate those devices on Si substrates for high-efficiency tandem applications using interface nanopatterning to address the lattice mismatch. In the first task, we developed a CSVT process that used only safe solid-source powder precursors to grow epitaxial GaAs with controlled n and p doping and mobilities/lifetimes similar to that obtainable via MOCVD. Using photoelectrochemical characterization, we showed that the best material had near unity internal quantum efficiency for carrier collection and minority carrier diffusions lengths in of ~ 8 μm, suitable for PV devices with >25% efficiency. In the second task we developed the first pn junction photovoltaics using CSVT and showed unpassivated structures with open circuit photovoltages > 915 mV and internal quantum efficiencies >0.9. We also characterized morphological and electrical defects and identified routes to reduce those defects. In task three we grew epitaxial

  14. Interpreting Interfacial Structure in Cross-Sectional STM Images of III-V Semiconductor Heterostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nosho, B. Z; Barvosa-Carter, W; Yang, M. J; Bennett, B. R; Whitman, L. J

    2000-01-01

    ...) can be used for the study of III-V heterostructure interfaces. The interpretation of interfacial structure in XSTM images is impeded by the fact that only every other III or V plane as grown on the (001...

  15. The extraction behaviour of As(III) and As(V) in APDC-CCl4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ruiying; Zhu Xuping

    1997-01-01

    The extraction and back-extraction behaviour of As(III) and As(V) in APDC-CCl 4 system have been studied by using 76 As trace technique. As(III) can be extracted quantitatively by APDC-CCl 4 system at pH = 1-3. As(V) can be extracted after being reduced to As(III) by Na 2 S 2 O 3 . Water with high pH value can be used for back-extraction. The method can be applied in the separation of inorganic As(III) and As(V) in water quality inspection

  16. 77 FR 51825 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Nitrided Vanadium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on ferrovanadium and nitrided vanadium from Russia would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. \\1...

  17. Influence of V/III growth flux ratio on trap states in m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Hurni, C. A.; Speck, J. S.; Ringel, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) were utilized to investigate the behavior of deep states in m-plane, n-type GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH 3 -MBE) as a function of systematically varied V/III growth flux ratios. Levels were detected at E C - 0.14 eV, E C - 0.21 eV, E C - 0.26 eV, E C - 0.62 eV, E C - 0.67 eV, E C - 2.65 eV, and E C - 3.31 eV, with the concentrations of several traps exhibiting systematic dependencies on V/III ratio. The DLTS spectra are dominated by traps at E C - 0.14 eV and E C - 0.67 eV, whose concentrations decreased monotonically with increasing V/III ratio and decreasing oxygen impurity concentration, and by a trap at E C - 0.21 eV that revealed no dependence of its concentration on growth conditions, suggestive of different physical origins. Higher concentrations of deeper trap states detected by DLOS with activation energies of E C - 2.65 eV and E C - 3.31 eV in each sample did not display measureable sensitivity to the intentionally varied V/III ratio, necessitating further study on reducing these deep traps through growth optimization for maximizing material quality of NH 3 -MBE grown m-plane GaN.

  18. Preparation of Titanium nitride nanomaterials for electrode and application in energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Tang

    Full Text Available The Titanium nitride was made by the carbamide and titanic chloride precursors. XRD results indicate that the precursor ratio N:Ti 3:1 leads to higher crystallinity. SEM and EDX demonstrated that Ti and N elements were distributed uniformly with the ratio of 1:1. The TiN used as the electrode material for supercapacitor was also studied. The specific capacities were changed from 407 F.g−1 to 385 F.g−1, 364 F.g−1 and 312 F.g−1, when the current densities were changed from 1 A.g−1 to 2 A.g−1, 5 A.g−1 and 10 A.g−1, respectively. Chronopotentiometry tests showed high coulombic efficiency. Cycling performance of the TiN electrode was evaluated by CV at a scanning rate of 50 mV.s−1 for 20,000 cycles and there was about 9.8% loss. These results indicate that TiN is a promising electrode material for the supercapacitors. Keywords: Energy storage, Nanomaterials, Anode, Titanium nitride, Supercapacitors

  19. Fast optical in situ spectroscopy in III-V MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspari, C.

    2007-09-29

    This work describes the application of optical in situ measurement techniques (reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy, RAS, and spectroscopic ellipsometry, SE) to processes that are important for the growth of III-V semiconductors like GaAs, InP, InAs and GaP in metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Special emphasis is placed on the determination of the free carrier concentration (doping level) and the study of the thermal desorption properties of III-V oxides. A large part of this work is concerned with the development and the construction of a multichannel RAS setup that allows the recording of RAS spectra within fractions of a second. On the basis of benchmark measurements it was shown that the spectral resolution is sufficiently accurate for application in epitaxy. To demonstrate the recording of spectra with high temporal resolution, RAS monolayer oscillations during growth of GaAs were studied and it was shown that the surface changes periodically between a relatively smooth morphology with adsorbed methyl groups (type III) and a stepped, gallium-rich surface (type II). Furthermore the non-reversible process of growing InAs quantum dots on GaAs was studied. It was shown that the multichannel RAS is capable of detecting the 2D-3D transition as well as the following morphological change of the surface at high temporal resolution. For the measurement of the doping level, the relationship between the doping-induced internal electric field and the anisotropy of the sample was studied. To understand the effect of the so-called doping oscillations, a theoretical model was developed. For the investigation of the thermal desorption of the III-V oxides in MOVPE, a number of test series were realised. It was also found that the formation of the reconstructed surface is finished a considerable time after the SE transient indicates stable conditions (no further reduction of the oxide layer). The activation energy for oxide desorption from InAs, GaAs and InP was

  20. Optimization of the silicon subcell for III-V on silicon multijunction solar cells: Key differences with conventional silicon technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tabarés, Elisa; Martín, Diego; García, Iván; Lelièvre, Jean François; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio

    2012-10-01

    Dual-junction solar cells formed by a GaAsP or GaInP top cell and a silicon (Si) bottom cell seem to be attractive candidates to materialize the long sought-for integration of III-V materials on Si for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Such integration would offer a cost breakthrough for PV technology, unifying the low cost of Si and the efficiency potential of III-V multijunction solar cells. The optimization of the Si solar cells properties in flat-plate PV technology is well-known; nevertheless, it has been proven that the behavior of Si substrates is different when processed in an MOVPE reactor In this study, we analyze several factors influencing the bottom subcell performance, namely, 1) the emitter formation as a result of phosphorus diffusion; 2) the passivation quality provided by the GaP nucleation layer; and 3) the process impact on the bottom subcell PV properties.

  1. Polarization-induced hole doping in N-polar III-nitride LED grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Long

    2018-05-03

    Polarization-induced doping has been shown to be effective for wide-bandgap III-nitrides. In this work, we demonstrated a significantly enhanced hole concentration via linearly grading an N-polar AlxGa1-xN (x = 0–0.3) layer grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The hole concentration increased by ∼17 times compared to that of N-polar p-GaN at 300 K. The fitting results of temperature-dependent hole concentration indicated that the holes in the graded p-AlGaN layer comprised both polarization-induced and thermally activated ones. By optimizing the growth conditions, the hole concentration was further increased to 9.0 × 1017 cm−3 in the graded AlGaN layer. The N-polar blue-violet light-emitting device with the graded p-AlGaN shows stronger electroluminescence than the one with the conventional p-GaN. The study indicates the potential of the polarization doping technique in high-performance N-polar light-emitting devices.

  2. Polarization-induced hole doping in N-polar III-nitride LED grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Long; Zhang, Yuantao; Han, Xu; Deng, Gaoqiang; Li, Pengchong; Yu, Ye; Chen, Liang; Li, Xiaohang; Song, Junfeng

    2018-01-01

    Polarization-induced doping has been shown to be effective for wide-bandgap III-nitrides. In this work, we demonstrated a significantly enhanced hole concentration via linearly grading an N-polar AlxGa1-xN (x = 0–0.3) layer grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The hole concentration increased by ∼17 times compared to that of N-polar p-GaN at 300 K. The fitting results of temperature-dependent hole concentration indicated that the holes in the graded p-AlGaN layer comprised both polarization-induced and thermally activated ones. By optimizing the growth conditions, the hole concentration was further increased to 9.0 × 1017 cm−3 in the graded AlGaN layer. The N-polar blue-violet light-emitting device with the graded p-AlGaN shows stronger electroluminescence than the one with the conventional p-GaN. The study indicates the potential of the polarization doping technique in high-performance N-polar light-emitting devices.

  3. Atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion. V. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Volume 5 of the supplements on ''atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion'' to the journal ''Nuclear Fusion'' is devoted to a critical assessment of the physical and thermo-mechanical properties of presently considered candidate plasma-facing and structural materials for next-generation thermonuclear fusion devices. It contains 9 papers. The subjects are: (i) requirements and selection criteria for plasma-facing materials and components in the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) design; (ii) thermomechanical properties of Beryllium; (iii) material properties data for fusion reactor plasma-facing carbon-carbon composites; (iv) high-Z candidate plasma facing materials; (v) recommended property data for Molybdenum, Niobium and Vanadium alloys; (vi) copper alloys for high heat flux structure applications; (vii) erosion of plasma-facing materials during a tokamak disruption; (viii) runaway electron effects; and (ix) data bases for thermo-hydrodynamic coupling with coolants. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. Thorium coprecipitation method for spectrophotometric determination of arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamari, Yuzo; Yamamoto, Nobuki; Tsuji, Haruo; Kusaka, Yuzuru

    1989-01-01

    A new coprecipitation method for the spectrophotometry of arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) in groundwater has been developed. Arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) were coprecipitated with thorium (IV) hydroxide from 1000ml of groundwater at pH9. The precipitate was centrifuged and then dissolved with hydrochloric acid. Arsenic (III) was spectrophotometrically determined by the usual silver diethylditiocarbamate (Ag-DDTC) method after generating the arsenic to arsine with sodium tetrahydroborate under masking the thorium with EDTA-NaF at pH6. From another portion of the same groundwater, both arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) were determined by the Ag-DDTC method after reducing all the arsenic to arsine with sodium tetrahydroborate at pH less than 1 in the presence of the EDTA-NaF. The concentration of arsenic (V) was obtained by subtracting that of arsenic (III) from the total for arsenic. (author)

  5. Discrete Charge Storage Nonvolatile Memory Based on Si Nanocrystals with Nitridation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian-Gao, Zhang; Kun-Ji, Chen; Zhong-Hui, Fang; Xin-Ye, Qian; Guang-Yuan, Liu; Xiao-Fan, Jiang; Zhong-Yuan, Ma; Jun, Xu; Xin-Fan, Huang; Jian-Xin, Ji; Fei, He; Kuang-Bao, Song; Jun, Zhang; Hui, Wan; Rong-Hua, Wang

    2010-01-01

    A nonvolatile memory device with nitrided Si nanocrystals embedded in a Boating gate was fabricated. The uniform Si nanocrystals with high density (3 × 10 11 cm −2 ) were deposited on ultra-thin tunnel oxide layer (∼ 3 nm) and followed by a nitridation treatment in ammonia to form a thin silicon nitride layer on the surface of nanocrystals. A memory window of 2.4 V was obtained and it would be larger than 1.3 V after ten years from the extrapolated retention data. The results can be explained by the nitrogen passivation of the surface traps of Si nanocrystals, which slows the charge loss rate. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Morphologic and crystallographic studies on electrochemically formed chromium nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amezawa, Koji [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aramaki-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Goto, Takuya; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki; Hagiwara, Rika; Tomii, Yoichi [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Uchimoto, Yoshiharu [Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ito, Yasuhiko [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Faculty of Engineering, Doshisya University, Kyotanabe-shi, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2007-11-20

    Chromium nitride films were prepared by anodically oxidizing nitride ions at 0.4-1.5 V versus Li{sup +}/Li on chromium substrates in molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N systems at 723 K. A crystalline Cr{sub 2}N film was successfully prepared at 0.4-1.4 V, and was thicker at more positive electrolytic potential. At 1.5 V, a Cr-N film could be also obtained, but its growth rate was relatively low. The film prepared at 1.5 V consisted of two distinctive layers. The surface layer was amorphous Cr-N containing crystalline CrN particles, and the inner layer was crystalline CrN. It was considered the existence of the amorphous phase suppressed the film growth. (author)

  7. Significant improvement in the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes on molecularly modified Gallium Nitride surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Manjari; Naik, Tejas R.; Pathak, C. S.; Nagarajan, S.; Rao, V. Ramgopal; Singh, R.

    2018-04-01

    III-Nitride semiconductors face the issue of localized surface states, which causes fermi level pinning and large leakage current at the metal semiconductor interface, thereby degrading the device performance. In this work, we have demonstrated the use of a Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) of organic molecules to improve the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on n-type Gallium Nitride (n-GaN) epitaxial films. The electrical characteristics of diodes were improved by adsorption of SAM of hydroxyl-phenyl metallated porphyrin organic molecules (Zn-TPPOH) onto the surface of n-GaN. SAM-semiconductor bonding via native oxide on the n-GaN surface was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Surface morphology and surface electronic properties were characterized using atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Current-voltage characteristics of different metal (Cu, Ni) SBDs on bare n-GaN were compared with those of Cu/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN and Ni/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN SBDs. It was found that due to the molecular monolayer, the surface potential of n-GaN was decreased by ˜350 mV. This caused an increase in the Schottky barrier height of Cu and Ni SBDs from 1.13 eV to 1.38 eV and 1.07 eV to 1.22 eV, respectively. In addition to this, the reverse bias leakage current was reduced by 3-4 orders of magnitude for both Cu and Ni SBDs. Such a significant improvement in the electrical performance of the diodes can be very useful for better device functioning.

  8. Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, M. S.; Gao, Daqiang, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn; Yang, Dezheng; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Z. Y.; Xue, Desheng, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Yushen [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and College of Physics and Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Deng, Xiaohui [Department of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Zhang, G. P. [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstrate such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.

  9. Pressure dependence of elastic constants in zinc-blende III-N and their influence on the light emission in nitride heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepkowski, S.P.; Majewski, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the nonlinear elasticity effects for the case of III-N compounds. Particularly, we determined the pressure dependences of elastic constants, in zinc-blende InN, GaN, and AlN by performing ab initio calculations in the framework of plane-wave pseudopotential implementation of the density-functional theory. We found significant and almost linear increase in C 11 , C 12 with pressure for considered nitrides compounds. Much weaker dependences on pressure was observed for C 44 . We also discussed pressure dependences of two-dimensional Poisson's ratio and elastic anisotropy coefficient. Finally, we showed that the pressure dependence of elastic constants results in significant reduction of the pressure coefficient of the energy emission in cubic InGaN/GaN quantum well and essentially improves the agreement between experimental and theoretical values. (author)

  10. Final report. Fabrication of silicon carbide/silicon nitride nanocomposite materials and characterization of their performance; Herstellung von Siliciumcarbid/Siliciumnitrid-Nanocomposite-Werkstoffen und Charakterisierung ihrer Leistungsfaehigkeit. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerheide, R.; Woetting, G.; Schmitz, H.W.

    1998-07-01

    The presented activities were initiated by the well known publications of Niihara and Ishizaki. There, the strengthening and toughening of silicon nitride by nanoscaled silicon carbide particles are described. Both authors have used expensive powder production routes to achieve the optimum mechanical properties. However, for a commercial purpose these routes are not applicable due to their high cost and low reproducibility. The production route chosen by H.C. Starck together with CFI and the Fraunhofer-Institute is a powder synthesis based on the carbothermal reaction of silicon nitride as a low cost synthesis method. The investigations were performed for materials made from synthesis powders and other reference materials. The materials were densified with relatively high amounts of conventional sintering additives by gas pressure sintering. It is shown, that the postulated maxima of strength and fracture toughness behaviour at room temperature with maxima at about 5% to 25% nanoscaled SiC cannot be achieved. However, the mechanical high temperature material behaviour is as good as the behaviour of highly developed silicon nitride materials, which are produced by HIP or by consequent minimisation of the additive content with the well known difficulties to densify these materials. An overview will be given here on the powder production route and their specific problems, the mechanical properties, the microstructure and the possible effects of the microstructure, which result in an improvement of the creep resistance. (orig.)

  11. Long-wavelength III-V/silicon photonic integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelkens, G.C.; Kuyken, B.; Leo, F.; Hattasan, N.; Ryckeboer, E.M.P.; Muneeb, M.; Hu, C.L.; Malik, A.; Hens, Z.; Baets, R.G.F.; Shimura, Y.; Gencarelli, F.; Vincent, B.; Loo, van de R.; Verheyen, P.A.; Lepage, G.; Campenhout, van J.; Cerutti, L.; Rodriquez, J.B.; Tournie, E.; Chen, X; Nedeljkovic, G.; Mashanovich, G.; Liu, X.; Green, W.S.

    2013-01-01

    We review our work in the field of short-wave infrared and mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits for applications in spectroscopic sensing systems. Passive silicon waveguide circuits, GeSn photodetectors, the integration of III-V and IV-VI semiconductors on these circuits, and silicon nonlinear

  12. Graphene-Oxide-Assisted Synthesis of GaN Nanosheets as a New Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changlong; Yang, Mingzhi; Wang, Tailin; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2017-08-16

    As the most-studied III-nitride, theoretical researches have predicted the presence of gallium nitride (GaN) nanosheets (NSs). Herein, a facile synthesis approach is reported to prepare GaN NSs using graphene oxide (GO) as sacrificial template. As a new anode material of Li-ion battery (LIBs), GaN NSs anodes deliver the reversible discharge capacity above 600 mA h g -1 at 1.0 A g -1 after 1000 cycles, and excellent rate performance at current rates from 0.1 to 10 A g -1 . These results not only extend the family of 2D materials but also facilitate their use in energy storage and other applications.

  13. Friction and Wear of Unlubricated NiTiHf with Nitriding Surface Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2018-01-01

    The unlubricated friction and wear properties of the superelastic materials NiTi and NiTiHf, treated by either gas nitriding or plasma nitriding, have been investigated. Pin on disk testing of the studied materials was performed at sliding speeds from 0.01 to 1m/s at normal loads of 1, 5 or 10N. For all of the studied friction pairs (NiTiHf pins vs. NiTi and NiTiHf disks) over the given parameters, the steady-state coefficients of friction varied from 0.22 to 1.6. Pin wear factors ranged from approximately 1E-6 against the NiTiHf and plasma nitrided disks to approximately 1E-4 for the gas nitrided disks. The plasma nitrided disks provided wear protection in several cases and tended to wear by adhesion. The gas nitrided treatment generated the most pin wear but had essentially no disk wear except at the most severe of the studied conditions (1N load and 1m/s sliding speed). The results of this study are expected to provide guidance for design of components such as gears and fasteners.

  14. Mn doping of GaN layers grown by MOVPE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, P.; Šofer, Z.; Sedmidubský, D.; Jankovský, O.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Maryško, Miroslav; Václavů, M.; Mikulics, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2012), s. 122-126 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0621 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy * nitrides * magnetic materials * semiconducting III-V materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012

  15. New catalysts for coal processing: Metal carbides and nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ted Oyama; David F. Cox

    1999-12-03

    The subject of this research project was to investigate the catalytic properties of a new class of materials, transition metal carbides and nitrides, for treatment of coal liquid and petroleum feedstocks. The main objectives were: (1) preparation of catalysts in unsupported and supported form; (2) characterization of the materials; (3) evaluation of their catalytic properties in HDS and HDN; (4) measurement of the surface properties; and (5) observation of adsorbed species. All of the objectives were substantially carried out and the results will be described in detail below. The catalysts were transition metal carbides and nitrides spanning Groups 4--6 in the Periodic Table. They were chosen for study because initial work had shown they were promising materials for hydrotreating. The basic strategy was first to prepare the materials in unsupported form to identify the most promising catalyst, and then to synthesize a supported form of the material. Already work had been carried out on the synthesis of the Group VI compounds Mo{sub 2}C, Mo{sub 2}N, and WC, and new methods were developed for the Group V compounds VC and NbC. All the catalysts were then evaluated in a hydrotreating test at realistic conditions. It was found that the most active catalyst was Mo{sub 2}C, and further investigations of the material were carried out in supported form. A new technique was employed for the study of the bulk and surface properties of the catalysts, near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), that fingerprinted the electronic structure of the materials. Finally, two new research direction were explored. Bimetallic alloys formed between two transition metals were prepared, resulting in catalysts having even higher activity than Mo{sub 2}C. The performance of the catalysts in hydrodechloration was also investigated.

  16. Processing and properties of solid state nitrided stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennhard, C.A.P.

    1993-02-01

    The properties of austenitic steels and duplex-steels are significantly improved by nitrogen (N) addition. In the present investigation, new alloys were produced and characterized using the high solid N-solubility and diffusion alloying from the gas phase. Most suitable base materials are powder, wire or sheet because of the short diffusion distance. PM-materials were in-can nitrided or treated in a fluidized bed and compacted by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or hot extrusion. The impact toughness level of PM alloys at room temperature is about 120 to 200 J, compared to 250 to 300 J for steels with equal strength that are produced by ingot metallurgy (IM). The toughness can be improved by high temperature deformation such as forging, hot rolling or hot extrusion or by removing the oxide layer on the particle surface by hydrogen gas reduction. A duplex steel with 22 Cr, 5.6 Ni and 2.7 Mo was transformed to a fully austenitic steel with over 500 MPa yield strength by increasing the N content from 0.2 to 0.65 weight-percent. The expensive Ni can successfully be replaced by N. Nitrided wire material is the base material for cold deformed high-strength wire. The improved strain hardening rate of nitrogen alloyed steels helps to achieve ductile and corrosion resistant materials with strength up to 2200 MPa. Sheet materials were diffusion bonded in the HIP or compacted in a 5000 kN press immediately after in-can nitriding to form solid blocks. Nitrided powder, wire and sheet materials lead to near net shape products that cannot be produced by conventional ingot metallurgy or would require the expensive high-pressure metallurgy. (author) 67 figs., tabs., 70 refs

  17. The structure and function of supported molybdenum nitride and molybdenum carbide hydrotreating catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, Gregory Martin

    1997-11-01

    A series of gamma-Alsb2Osb3 supported molybdenum nitrides and carbides were prepared by the temperature programmed reaction of supported molybdates with ammonia and methane/hydrogen mixtures, respectively. In the first part of this research, the effects of synthesis heating rates and molybdenum loading on the catalytic properties of the materials were examined. A significant amount of excess carbon was deposited on the surface of the carbides during synthesis. The materials consisted of small particles which were very highly dispersed. Oxygen chemisorption indicated that the nitride particles may have been two-dimensional. The dispersion of the carbides, however, appeared to decrease as the loading increased. The catalysts were evaluated for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodesulfurization (HDS), and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The molybdenum loading had the largest effect on the activity of the materials. For the nitrides, the HDN and HDS activities were inverse functions of the loading. This suggested that the most active HDN and HDS sites were located at the perimeter of the two-dimensional particles. The HDN and HDS activities of the carbides followed the same trend as the oxygen uptake. This result suggested that oxygen titrated the active sites on the supported carbides. Selected catalysts were evaluated for methylcarbazole HDN, dibenzothiophene HDS, and dibenzofuran HDO. The activity and selectivity of the nitrides and carbides were competitive with a presulfided commercial catalyst. In the second part of this work, a series of supported nitrides and carbides were prepared using a wider range of loadings (5-30 wt% Mo). Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the temperature at which excess carbon was deposited on the carbides. By modifying the synthesis parameters, the deposition of excess carbon was effectively inhibited. The dispersions of the supported nitrides and carbides were constant and suggested that the materials consisted of two

  18. Subsurface dimerization in III-V semiconductor (001) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumpf, C.; Marks, L.D.; Ellis, D.

    2001-01-01

    We present the atomic structure of the c(8 X 2) reconstructions of InSb-, InAs-, and GaAs-(001) surfaces as determined by surface x-ray diffraction using direct methods. Contrary to common belief, group III dimers are not prominent on the surface, instead subsurface dimerization of group m atoms ...... takes place in the second bilayer, accompanied by a major rearrangement of the surface atoms above the dimers to form linear arrays. By varying the occupancies of four surface sites the (001)-c(8 X 2) reconstructions of III-V semiconductors can be described in a unified model....

  19. Waste conversion into high-value ceramics: Carbothermal nitridation synthesis of titanium nitride nanoparticles using automotive shredder waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyas, Mohannad; Pahlevani, Farshid; Maroufi, Samane; Liu, Zhao; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2017-03-01

    Environmental concern about automotive shredder residue (ASR) has increased in recent years due to its harmful content of heavy metals. Although several approaches of ASR management have been suggested, these approaches remain commercially unproven. This study presents an alternative approach for ASR management where advanced materials can be generated as a by-product. In this approach, titanium nitride (TiN) has been thermally synthesized by nitriding pressed mixture of automotive shredder residue (ASR) and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ). Interactions between TiO 2 and ASR at non-isothermal conditions were primarily investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry. Results indicated that TiO 2 influences and catalyses degradation reactions of ASR, and the temperature, at which reduction starts, was determined around 980 °C. The interaction between TiO 2 and ASR at isothermal conditions in the temperature range between 1200 and 1550 °C was also studied. The pressed mixture of both materials resulted in titanium nitride (TiN) ceramic at all given temperatures. Formation kinetics were extracted using several models for product layer diffusion-controlled solid-solid and solid-fluid reactions. The effect of reactants ratio and temperature on the degree of conversion and morphology was investigated. The effect of reactants ratio was found to have considerable effect on the morphology of the resulting material, while temperature had a lesser impact. Several unique structures of TiN (porous nanostructured, polycrystalline, micro-spherical and nano-sized structures) were obtained by simply tuning the ratio of TiO 2 to ASR, and a product with appreciable TiN content of around 85% was achieved after only one hour nitridation at 1550 °C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma-nitriding assisted micro-texturing into stainless steel molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-texturing has grown up to be one of the most promising procedures. This related application required for large-area, fine micro-texturing onto the stainless steel mold materials. A new method other than laser-machining, micro-milling or micro-EDM was awaited for further advancement of this micro-texturing. In the present paper, a plasma nitriding assisted micro-texturing was developed to make various kinds of micro-patterns onto the martensitic stainless steels. First, original patterns were printed onto the surface of substrate by using the ink-jet printer. Then, the masked substrate was subjected to high density plasma nitriding; the un-masked surfaces were nitrided to have higher hardness. This nitrided substrate was further treated by sand-blasting to selectively dig the soft, masked surfaces. Finally, the micro-patterned martensitic stainless steel substrate was fabricated as a mold to duplicate these micro-patterns onto the work materials. The spatial resolution and depth profile controllability of this plasma nitriding assisted micro-texturing was investigated for variety of initial micro-patterns. The original size and dimension of initial micro-patterns were precisely compared with the three dimensional geometry of micro-textures after blasting treatment. The plastic cover case for smart cellular phones was employed to demonstrate how useful this processing is in practice.

  1. Terminal uranium(V/VI) nitride activation of carbon dioxide and carbon disulfide. Factors governing diverse and well-defined cleavage and redox reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaves, Peter A.; Gardner, Benedict M.; Liddle, Stephen T.; Kefalidis, Christos E.; Maron, Laurent; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J.L.; Lewis, William

    2017-01-01

    The reactivity of terminal uranium(V/VI) nitrides with CE 2 (E=O, S) is presented. Well-defined C=E cleavage followed by zero-, one-, and two-electron redox events is observed. The uranium(V) nitride [U(Tren TIPS )(N)][K(B15C5) 2 ] (1, Tren TIPS =N(CH 2 CH 2 NSiiPr 3 ) 3 ; B15C5=benzo-15-crown-5) reacts with CO 2 to give [U(Tren TIPS )(O)(NCO)][K(B15C5) 2 ] (3), whereas the uranium(VI) nitride [U(Tren TIPS )(N)] (2) reacts with CO 2 to give isolable [U(Tren TIPS )(O)(NCO)] (4); complex 4 rapidly decomposes to known [U(Tren TIPS )(O)] (5) with concomitant formation of N 2 and CO proposed, with the latter trapped as a vanadocene adduct. In contrast, 1 reacts with CS 2 to give [U(Tren TIPS )(κ 2 -CS 3 )][K(B15C5) 2 ] (6), 2, and [K(B15C5) 2 ][NCS] (7), whereas 2 reacts with CS 2 to give [U(Tren TIPS )(NCS)] (8) and ''S'', with the latter trapped as Ph 3 PS. Calculated reaction profiles reveal outer-sphere reactivity for uranium(V) but inner-sphere mechanisms for uranium(VI); despite the wide divergence of products the initial activation of CE 2 follows mechanistically related pathways, providing insight into the factors of uranium oxidation state, chalcogen, and NCE groups that govern the subsequent divergent redox reactions that include common one-electron reactions and a less-common two-electron redox event. Caution, we suggest, is warranted when utilising CS 2 as a reactivity surrogate for CO 2 . (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Structure and hemocompatibility of nanocrystalline titanium nitride produced under glow-discharge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowińska, Agnieszka; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Tarnowski, Michał; Witkowska, Justyna; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2018-04-01

    Significant efforts are being made towards developing novel antithrombotic materials. The purpose of the presented study was to characterize two variants of nitrided surface layers produced on alloy Ti-6Al-4V in different areas of low-temperature plasma - at the plasma potential (TiNp) or at the cathode potential (TiNc). The layers were characterized in terms of their microstructure, surface topography and wettability, and platelet response to the environment of different pH. The produced layers were of the TiN + Ti2N + αTiN-type, but the layer produced at the plasma potential was thinner, smoother and had lower surface free energy compared with that produced at the cathode potential. Biological evaluation demonstrated more fibrinogen buildup, less platelet adhesion and aggregation, and fewer strongly activated platelets on the TiNp surface compared with those parameters on the TiNc surface and on the titanium alloy in its initial state. Interestingly, both surface types were significantly resistant to fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion in the environment of lower pH. In conclusion, the nitrided surface layer produced at the plasma potential is a promising material and this basic information is critical for further development of hemocompatible materials.

  3. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on the... mines, provided with an automatic signal device to give an alarm when the fan stops. The signal device...

  4. Influence of light waves on the thermoelectric power under large magnetic field in III-V, ternary and quaternary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatak, K.P. [Department of Electronic Science, The University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Post Graduate Department of Computer Science, St. Xavier' s College, 30 Park Street, Kolkata 700 016 (India); Pahari, S. [Department of Administration, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); De, D. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, West Bengal University of Technology, B. F. 142, Sector I, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Ghosh, S.; Mitra, M. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah 711 103 (India)

    2008-04-15

    We study theoretically the influence of light waves on the thermoelectric power under large magnetic field (TPM) for III-V, ternary and quaternary materials, whose unperturbed energy-band structures, are defined by the three-band model of Kane. The solution of the Boltzmann transport equation on the basis of this newly formulated electron dispersion law will introduce new physical ideas and experimental findings in the presence of external photoexcitation. It has been found by taking n-InAs, n-InSb, n-Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te and n-In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1-y} lattice matched to InP as examples that the TPM decreases with increase in electron concentration, and increases with increase in intensity and wavelength, respectively in various manners. The strong dependence of the TPM on both light intensity and wavelength reflects the direct signature of light waves that is in direct contrast as compared with the corresponding bulk specimens of the said materials in the absence of external photoexcitation. The rate of change is totally band-structure dependent and is significantly influenced by the presence of the different energy-band constants. The well-known result for the TPM for nondegenerate wide-gap materials in the absence of light waves has been obtained as a special case of the present analysis under certain limiting conditions and this compatibility is the indirect test of our generalized formalism. Besides, we have also suggested the experimental methods of determining the Einstein relation for the diffusivity:mobility ratio, the Debye screening length and the electronic contribution to the elastic constants for materials having arbitrary dispersion laws. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Rocksalt nitride metal/semiconductor superlattices: A new class of artificially structured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bivas; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.

    2018-06-01

    Artificially structured materials in the form of superlattice heterostructures enable the search for exotic new physics and novel device functionalities, and serve as tools to push the fundamentals of scientific and engineering knowledge. Semiconductor heterostructures are the most celebrated and widely studied artificially structured materials, having led to the development of quantum well lasers, quantum cascade lasers, measurements of the fractional quantum Hall effect, and numerous other scientific concepts and practical device technologies. However, combining metals with semiconductors at the atomic scale to develop metal/semiconductor superlattices and heterostructures has remained a profoundly difficult scientific and engineering challenge. Though the potential applications of metal/semiconductor heterostructures could range from energy conversion to photonic computing to high-temperature electronics, materials challenges primarily had severely limited progress in this pursuit until very recently. In this article, we detail the progress that has taken place over the last decade to overcome the materials engineering challenges to grow high quality epitaxial, nominally single crystalline metal/semiconductor superlattices based on transition metal nitrides (TMN). The epitaxial rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N metamaterials are the first pseudomorphic metal/semiconductor superlattices to the best of our knowledge, and their physical properties promise a new era in superlattice physics and device engineering.

  6. Stoichiometric carbon nitride synthesized by ion beam sputtering and post nitrogen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valizadeh, R.; Colligon, J.S.; Katardiev, I.V.; Faunce, C.A.; Donnelly, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Carbon nitride films have been deposited on Si (100) by ion beam sputtering a vitreous graphite target with nitrogen and argon ions with and without concurrent N2 ion bombardment at room temperature. The sputtering beam energy was 1000 eV and the assisted beam energy was 300 eV with ion / atom arrival ratio ranging from 0.5 to 5. The carbon nitride films were deposited both as single layer directly on silicon substrate and as multilayer between two layers of stoichiometric amorphous silicon nitride and polycrystalline titanium nitride. The deposited films were implanted ex-situ with 30 keV nitrogen ions with various doses ranging from 1E17 to 4E17 ions.cm -2 and 2 GeV xenon ion with a dose of 1E12 ions.cm -2 . The nitrogen concentration of the films was measured with Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) and Parallel Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (PEELS). The nitrogen concentration for as deposited sample was 34 at% and stoichiometric carbon nitride C 3 N 4 was achieved by post nitrogen implantation of the multi-layered films. Post bombardment of single layer carbon nitride films lead to reduction in the total nitrogen concentration. Carbon K edge structure obtained from PEELS analysis suggested that the amorphous C 3 N 4 matrix was predominantly sp 2 bonded. This was confirmed by Fourier Transforrn Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the single CN layer which showed the nitrogen was mostly bonded with carbon in nitrile (C≡N) and imine (C=N) groups. The microstructure of the film was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which indicated that the films were amorphous

  7. Mixing of III-V compound semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Ping.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, the methods as well as mechanisms of III-V compound superlattice mixing are discussed, with particular attention on the AlGaAs based superlattice system. Comparative studies of ion-induced mixing showed two distinct effects resulting from ion implantation followed by a thermal anneal; i.e. collisional mixing and impurity induced mixing. It was found that Ga and As ion induced mixing are mainly due to the collisional effect, where the extent of the mixing can be estimated theoretically, with the parameters of ion mass, incident energy and the implant dose. The impurity effect was dominant for Si, Ge, Be, Zn and Te. Quantitative studies of impurity induced mixing have been conducted on samples doped with Si or Te during the growth process. It was discovered that Si induced AlGaAs superlattice mixing yielded an activation energy of approximately 4 eV for the Al diffusion coefficient with a high power law dependence of the prefactor on the Si concentration. In the Te doped AlGaAs superlattice the Al diffusion coefficient exhibited an activation energy of ∼3.0 eV, with a prefactor approximately proportional to the Te concentration. These results are of importance in examining the current diffusion models. Zn and Si induced InP/InGaAs superlattice mixing are examined. It was found that Zn predominantly induces cation interdiffusion, while Si induces comparable cation and anion interdiffusion. In addition, widely dispersed Zn rich islands form with Zn residing in the InP layers in the form of Zn 3 P 2 . With unstrained starting material, the layer bandgap disparity increases due to mixing induced strain, while in the Si diffused sample the mixed region would be expected to exhibit bandgaps intermediate between those of the original layers. Semiconductor superlattice mixing shows technological potential for optoelectronic device fabrication

  8. Anomalous response of supported few-layer hexagonal boron nitride to DC electric fields: a confined water effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Camilla; Matos, Matheus; Mazzoni, Mário; Chacham, Hélio; Neves, Bernardo

    2013-03-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a two-dimensional compound from III-V family, with the atoms of boron and nitrogen arranged in a honeycomb lattice, similar to graphene. Unlike graphene though, h-BN is an insulator material, with a gap larger than 5 eV. Here, we use Electric Force Microscopy (EFM) to study the electrical response of mono and few-layers of h-BN to an electric field applied by the EFM tip. Our results show an anomalous behavior in the dielectric response for h-BN for different bias orientation: for a positive bias applied to the tip, h-BN layers respond with a larger dielectric constant than the dielectric constant of the silicon dioxide substrate; while for a negative bias, the h-BN dielectric constant is smaller than the dielectric constant of the substrate. Based on first-principles calculations, we showed that this anomalous response may be interpreted as a macroscopic consequence of confinement of a thin water layer between h-BN and substrate. These results were confirmed by sample annealing and also also by a comparative analysis with h-BN on a non-polar substrate. All the authors acknowledge financial support from CNPq, Fapemig, Rede Nacional de Pesquisa em Nanotubos de Carbono and INCT-Nano-Carbono.

  9. Determination of polarization fields in group III-nitride heterostructures by capacitance-voltage-measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychetsky, Monir, E-mail: monir.rychetsky@physik.tu-berlin.de; Avinc, Baran; Wernicke, Tim; Bellmann, Konrad; Sulmoni, Luca [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Koslow, Ingrid; Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, Veit; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Wild, Johannes; Zweck, Josef [Fakultät für Physik, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Witzigmann, Bernd [Computational Electronics and Photonics Group and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany)

    2016-03-07

    The polarization fields in wurtzite group III-nitrides strongly influence the optical properties of InAlGaN-based light emitters, e.g., the electron and hole wave function overlap in quantum wells. In this paper, we propose a new approach to determine these fields by capacitance-voltage measurements (CVM). Sheet charges generated by a change of the microscopic polarization at heterointerfaces influence the charge distribution in PIN junctions and therefore the depletion width and the capacitance. We show that it is possible to determine the strength and direction of the internal fields by comparing the depletion widths of two PIN junctions, one influenced by internal polarization fields and one without as a reference. For comparison, we conducted coupled Poisson/carrier transport simulations on the CVM of the polarization-influenced sample. We also demonstrate the feasibility and limits of the method by determining the fields in GaN/InGaN and GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures on (0001) c-plane grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and compare both evaluation methods. The method yields (−0.50 ± 0.07) MV/cm for In{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N/GaN, (0.90 ± 0.13) MV/cm for Al{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}N/GaN, and (2.0 ± 0.3) MV/cm for Al{sub 0.31}Ga{sub 0.69}N/GaN heterostructures.

  10. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  11. Microstructure and antibacterial properties of microwave plasma nitrided layers on biomedical stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Li-Hsiang; Chen, Shih-Chung; Wu, Ching-Zong; Hung, Jing-Ming; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Nitriding of AISI 303 austenitic stainless steel using microwave plasma system at various temperatures was conducted in the present study. The nitrided layers were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Vickers microhardness tester. The antibacterial properties of this nitrided layer were evaluated. During nitriding treatment between 350 deg. C and 550 deg. C, the phase transformation sequence on the nitrided layers of the alloys was found to be γ → (γ + γ N ) → (γ + α + CrN). The analytical results revealed that the surface hardness of AISI 303 stainless steel could be enhanced with the formation of γ N phase in nitriding process. Antibacterial test also demonstrated the nitrided layer processed the excellent antibacterial properties. The enhanced surface hardness and antibacterial properties make the nitrided AISI 303 austenitic stainless steel to be one of the essential materials in the biomedical applications.

  12. Development of Zinc Tin Nitride for Application as an Earth Abundant Photovoltaic Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, Angela N.

    In recent years, many new potential absorber materials based on earth-abundant and non-toxic elements have been predicted. These materials, often made in thin film form and known to absorb light 10-1000 times more e ciently than crystalline silicon, could lower module cost and enable broader solar deployment. One such material is zinc tin nitride (ZnSnN 2), a II-IV-nitride analog of the III-nitride materials, which was identified as a suitable solar absorber due to its direct bandgap, large absorption coefficient, and disorder-driven bandgap tunability. Despite these desirable properties, initial attempts at synthesis resulted in degenerate n-type carrier density. Computational work on the point defect formation energies for this material revealed three donor defects were likely the cause; specifically SnZn antisites, VN sites, and ON substitutions. Given this framework, a defect-driven hypothesis was proposed as a starting point for the present work: if each donor defect could be addressed by tuning deposition parameters, n-type degeneracy may be defeated. By using combinatorial co- sputtering to grow compositionally-graded thin film samples, n-type carrier density was reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to state-of-the-art. This reduction in carrier density was observed for zinc-rich samples, which supported the defect-driven hypothesis initially proposed. These results and their implications are the topic of Chapter 2. Further carrier density control in zinc-rich ZTN was achieved via hydrogen incorporation and post-growth annealing. This strategy was hypothesized to operate by passivating acceptor defects to avoid self-compensation, which were then activated by hydrogen drive- out upon annealing. Carrier density was reduced another order of magnitude using this technique, which is presented in Chapter 3. After defeating n-type degeneracy, a deeper understanding of the electronic structure was pursued. Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study electronic

  13. High-efficiency and low-loss gallium nitride dielectric metasurfaces for nanophotonics at visible wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emani, Naresh Kumar; Khaidarov, Egor; Paniagua-Domínguez, Ramón; Fu, Yuan Hsing; Valuckas, Vytautas; Lu, Shunpeng; Zhang, Xueliang; Tan, Swee Tiam; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I.

    2017-11-01

    The dielectric nanophotonics research community is currently exploring transparent material platforms (e.g., TiO2, Si3N4, and GaP) to realize compact high efficiency optical devices at visible wavelengths. Efficient visible-light operation is key to integrating atomic quantum systems for future quantum computing. Gallium nitride (GaN), a III-V semiconductor which is highly transparent at visible wavelengths, is a promising material choice for active, nonlinear, and quantum nanophotonic applications. Here, we present the design and experimental realization of high efficiency beam deflecting and polarization beam splitting metasurfaces consisting of GaN nanostructures etched on the GaN epitaxial substrate itself. We demonstrate a polarization insensitive beam deflecting metasurface with 64% and 90% absolute and relative efficiencies. Further, a polarization beam splitter with an extinction ratio of 8.6/1 (6.2/1) and a transmission of 73% (67%) for p-polarization (s-polarization) is implemented to demonstrate the broad functionality that can be realized on this platform. The metasurfaces in our work exhibit a broadband response in the blue wavelength range of 430-470 nm. This nanophotonic platform of GaN shows the way to off- and on-chip nonlinear and quantum photonic devices working efficiently at blue emission wavelengths common to many atomic quantum emitters such as Ca+ and Sr+ ions.

  14. The influence of nitrogen on the photoluminescence of metastable III-V nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantke, K.

    2005-01-01

    The work presented here mainly summarizes experimental and theoretical results enlightening the material-specific, optical properties of (GaIn)(NAs). The primarily used experiment is the time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The comparison of experiment and theory yields a simple exponential form for the density of localized states. Furthermore it can be confirmed that the typical energy scale of the localization is diminished by the annealing step as well as by the hydrogenation process. In a next step, the investigation of (GaIn)(NAs) epitactical layers, that were optimized for solar cell application, reveals astonishing features: The minority-carrier diffusion-length of the p-doped layers is found to be slightly higher than for the n-doped material implying that (GaIn)(NAs) solar cells with a p-on-n structure should be preferred in terms of higher quantum efficiency. A new effect found during the investigations is the optimization of the internal quantum efficiency of the (GaIn)(NAs) structures after irradiation with intensive laser light attributed to the laser-induced annealing of defects. The final paragraph concentrates on the successful comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence, photo-modulated reflection measurements and a microscopic many-body theory. A profound understanding of the type-I type-II transition in (GaIn)As/Ga(NAs) heterostructures is achieved resulting in material-specific information as e.g. the temperature-dependent bandgap energies, the band offsets in Ga(NAs)/GaAs and (GaIn)As/Ga(NAs) respectively, as well as the interaction potential VN dependent on the nitrogen content. Finally, the fundamental dependence on excitation density investigated in the experiment is theoretically quantified not only for the photoluminescence intensity and but for the lifetimes, too. (orig.)

  15. Wide bandgap collector III-V double heterojunction bipolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flitcroft, R.M.

    2000-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study and development of Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) designed for high voltage operation. The work concentrates on the use of wide bandgap III-V semiconductor materials as the collector material and their associated properties influencing breakdown, such as impact ionisation coefficients. The work deals with issues related to incorporating a wide bandgap collector into double heterojunction structures such as conduction band discontinuities at the base-collector junction and results are presented which detail, a number of methods designed to eliminate the effects of such discontinuities. In particular the use of AlGaAs as the base material has been successful in eliminating the conduction band spike at this interface. A method of electrically injecting electrons into the collector has been employed to investigate impact ionisation in GaAs, GaInP and AlInP which has used the intrinsic gain of the devices to extract impact ionisation coefficients over a range of electric fields beyond the scope of conventional optical injection techniques. This data has enabled the study of ''dead space'' effects in HBT collectors and have been used to develop an analytical model of impact ionisation which has been incorporated into an existing Ebers-Moll HBT simulator. This simulator has been shown to accurately reproduce current-voltage characteristics in both the devices used in this work and for external clients. (author)

  16. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  17. Molecular carbon nitride ion beams for enhanced corrosion resistance of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, A.; Kennedy, J.

    2017-10-01

    A novel approach is presented for molecular carbon nitride beams to coat stainless surfaces steel using conventional safe feeder gases and electrically conductive sputter targets for surface engineering with ion implantation technology. GNS Science's Penning type ion sources take advantage of the breaking up of ion species in the plasma to assemble novel combinations of ion species. To test this phenomenon for carbon nitride, mixtures of gases and sputter targets were used to probe for CN+ ions for simultaneous implantation into stainless steel. Results from mass analysed ion beams show that CN+ and a variety of other ion species such as CNH+ can be produced successfully. Preliminary measurements show that the corrosion resistance of stainless steel surfaces increased sharply when implanting CN+ at 30 keV compared to reference samples, which is interesting from an application point of view in which improved corrosion resistance, surface engineering and short processing time of stainless steel is required. The results are also interesting for novel research in carbon-based mesoporous materials for energy storage applications and as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost.

  18. Preparation of phosphorus targets using the compound phosphorus nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Komor, P.

    1987-01-01

    Commercially available phosphorus nitride (P 3 N 5 ) shows a high oxygen content. Nevertheless, this material is attractive for use as phosphorus targets in experiments where red phosphorus would disappear due to its high vapor pressure and where a metal partner in the phosphide must be excluded due to its high atomic number. Methods are described to produce phosphorus nitride targets by vacuum evaporation condensation. (orig.)

  19. Sequential and simultaneous adsorption of Sb(III) and Sb(V) on ferrihydrite: Implications for oxidation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pengfei; Pichler, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a naturally occurring element of growing environmental concern whose toxicity, adsorption behavior and other chemical properties are similar to that of arsenic (As). However, less is known about Sb compared to As. Individual and simultaneous adsorption experiments with Sb(III) and Sb(V) were conducted in batch mode with focus on the Sb speciation of the remaining liquid phase during individual Sb(III) adsorption experiments. The simultaneous adsorption and oxidation of Sb(III) was confirmed by the appearance of Sb(V) in the solution at varying Fe/Sb ratios (500, 100 and 8) and varying pH values (3.8, 7 and 9). This newly formed Sb(V) was subsequently removed from solution at a Fe/Sb ratio of 500 or at a pH of 3.8. However, more or less only Sb(V) was observed in the liquid phase at the end of the experiments at lower Fe/Sb ratios and higher pH, indicating that competition took place between the newly formed Sb(V) and Sb(III), and that Sb(III) outcompeted Sb(V). This was independently confirmed by simultaneous adsorption experiments of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in binary systems. Under such conditions, the presence of Sb(V) had no influence on the adsorption of Sb(III) while Sb(V) adsorption was significantly inhibited by Sb(III) over a wide pH range (4-10). Thus, in the presence of ferrihydrite and under redox conditions, which allow the presence of both Sb species, Sb(V) should be the dominant species in aquatic environments, since Sb(III) is adsorbed preferentially and at the same time oxidized to Sb(V). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Throughput Multiple Dies-to-Wafer Bonding Technology and III/V-on-Si Hybrid Lasers for Heterogeneous Integration of Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianshu eLuo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated optical light source on silicon is one of the key building blocks for optical interconnect technology. Great research efforts have been devoting worldwide to explore various approaches to integrate optical light source onto the silicon substrate. The achievements so far include the successful demonstration of III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers through III/V-gain material to silicon wafer bonding technology. However, for potential large-scale integration, leveraging on mature silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS fabrication technology and infrastructure, more effective bonding scheme with high bonding yield is in great demand considering manufacturing needs. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a high-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer (D2W bonding technology which is then applied for the demonstration of hybrid silicon lasers. By temporarily bonding III/V dies to a handle silicon wafer for simultaneous batch processing, it is expected to bond unlimited III/V dies to silicon device wafer with high yield. As proof-of-concept, more than 100 III/V dies bonding to 200 mm silicon wafer is demonstrated. The high performance of the bonding interface is examined with various characterization techniques. Repeatable demonstrations of 16-III/V-die bonding to pre-patterned 200 mm silicon wafers have been performed for various hybrid silicon lasers, in which device library including Fabry-Perot (FP laser, lateral-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB laser with side wall grating, and mode-locked laser (MLL. From these results, the presented multiple D2W bonding technology can be a key enabler towards the large-scale heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits (H-OEIC.

  1. The Advanced Aluminum Nitride Synthesis Methods and Its Applications: Patent Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Roman A; Elagin, Andrey A; Mayorova, Ekaterina S; Beketov, Askold R

    2016-01-01

    High purity nanosized aluminum nitride synthesis is a current issue for both industry and science. However, there is no up-to-date review considering the major issues and the technical solutions for different methods. This review aims to investigate the advanced methods of aluminum nitride synthesis and its development tendencies. Also the aluminum nitride application patents and prospects for development of the branch have been considered. The patent search on "aluminum nitride synthesis" has been carried out. The research activity has been analyzed. Special attention has been paid to the patenting geography and the leading researchers in aluminum nitride synthesis. Aluminum nitride synthesis methods have been divided into 6 main groups, the most studied approaches are carbothermal reduction (88 patents) and direct nitridation (107 patents). The current issues for each group have been analyzed; the main trends are purification of the final product and nanopowder synthesis. The leading researchers in aluminum nitride synthesis have represented 5 countries, namely: Japan, China, Russia, South Korea and USA. The main aluminum nitride application spheres are electronics (59,1 percent of applications) and new materials manufacturing (30,9 percent). The review deals with the state of the art data in nanosized aluminum nitride synthesis, the major issues and the technical solutions for different synthesis methods. It gives a full understanding of the development tendencies and of the current leaders in the sphere.

  2. Integration, gap formation, and sharpening of III-V heterostructure nanowires by selective etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesoe, C.; Mølhave, Kristian; Larsen, K. F.

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of heterostructure nanowires allows for the definition of narrow sections with specific semiconductor composition. The authors demonstrate how postgrowth engineering of III-V heterostructure nanowires using selective etching can form gaps, sharpening of tips, and thin sections...... lithography is used for deposition of catalyst particles on trench sidewalls and the lateral growth of III-V nanowires is achieved from such catalysts. The selectivity of a bromine-based etch on gallium arsenide segments in gallium phosphide nanowires is examined, using a hydrochloride etch to remove the III...

  3. Flexible Gallium Nitride for High-Performance, Strainable Radio-Frequency Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Nicholas R; Chabak, Kelson D; Heller, Eric R; Moore, Elizabeth A; Prusnick, Timothy A; Maruyama, Benji; Walker, Dennis E; Dorsey, Donald L; Paduano, Qing; Snure, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Flexible gallium nitride (GaN) thin films can enable future strainable and conformal devices for transmission of radio-frequency (RF) signals over large distances for more efficient wireless communication. For the first time, strainable high-frequency RF GaN devices are demonstrated, whose exceptional performance is enabled by epitaxial growth on 2D boron nitride for chemical-free transfer to a soft, flexible substrate. The AlGaN/GaN heterostructures transferred to flexible substrates are uniaxially strained up to 0.85% and reveal near state-of-the-art values for electrical performance, with electron mobility exceeding 2000 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and sheet carrier density above 1.07 × 10 13 cm -2 . The influence of strain on the RF performance of flexible GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) devices is evaluated, demonstrating cutoff frequencies and maximum oscillation frequencies greater than 42 and 74 GHz, respectively, at up to 0.43% strain, representing a significant advancement toward conformal, highly integrated electronic materials for RF applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Preparation and characterization of morph-genetic aluminum nitride/carbon composites from filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Xue Tao; Jin Zhihao; Qiao Guanjun

    2008-01-01

    Morph-genetic aluminum nitride/carbon composites with cablelike structure were prepared from filter paper template through the surface sol-gel process and carbothermal nitridation reaction. The resulting materials have a hierarchical structure originating from the morphology of cellulose paper. The aluminum nitride/carbon composites have the core-shell microstructure, the core is graphitic carbon, and the shell is aluminum nitride nanocoating formed by carbothermal nitridation reduction of alumina with the interfacial carbon in nitrogen atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the structural morphology and phase compositions of the final products

  5. The influence of growth temperature and input V/III ratio on the initial nucleation and material properties of InN on GaN by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H; Jiang, D S; Zhu, J J; Zhao, D G; Liu, Z S; Wang, Y T; Zhang, S M; Yang, H

    2009-01-01

    The effects of growth temperature and V/III ratio on the InN initial nucleation of islands on the GaN (0 0 0 1) surface were investigated. It is found that InN nuclei density increases with decreasing growth temperature between 375 and 525 °C. At lower growth temperatures, InN thin films take the form of small and closely packed islands with diameters of less than 100 nm, whereas at elevated temperatures the InN islands can grow larger and well separated, approaching an equilibrium hexagonal shape due to enhanced surface diffusion of adatoms. At a given growth temperature of 500 °C, a controllable density and size of separated InN islands can be achieved by adjusting the V/III ratio. The larger islands lead to fewer defects when they are coalesced. Comparatively, the electrical properties of the films grown under higher V/III ratio are improved

  6. A simple model for conduction band states of nitride-based double heteroestructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaggero-Sager, L M; Mora-Ramos, M E, E-mail: lgaggero@uaem.m [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    In this work we propose an analytical expression for the approximate modeling of the potential energy function describing conduction band bending in III-V nitride quantum wells. It is an alternative approach to the self-consistent Poisson-Schoedinger calculation. The model considers the influence of the many electron system and the built-in electric field inside the well. Hartree and exchange contributions are included along the lines of a local-density Thomas-Fermi-based theory. The effects due to the modulated doping in the barriers is also considered. We report the calculation of the energy spectrum as a function of several input parameters: alloy composition in the barriers, barrier doping concentration, and quantum well width. Our results could be of usefulness in the study of optoelectronic properties in this kind of systems.

  7. First results on nitriding aluminium alloys in a low-pressure RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewell, M.P.; Priest, J.M.; Collins, G.A.; Short, K.T.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Aluminium alloys are now well established as materials of choice for many commercial applications, especially where strength-to-weight ratio is a critical parameter. However, their more widespread use is inhibited by their low surface hardness. For steels, similar problems can be overcome by nitriding. The nitrogen-rich surface layer has high hardness and load-bearing capacity, and is very well bonded to the substrate. The development of a similar surface-treatment process for aluminium alloys is clearly a desirable goal. It is therefore not surprising that many research groups worldwide have attempted to nitride aluminium. Much of this work studied pure aluminium, a material of no interest for structural applications. Previous investigations into nitriding aluminium alloys' had indifferent results. However, they have served to identify the key issues, which are the importance of a pre-cleaning steps to remove the surface oxide, of impurity control during the nitriding and the desirability of using as low a process temperature as possible. In all of these areas, our process using a low-pressure RF plasma is likely to be competitive. In view of this, we have undertaken a comparative study of a range of commercially available aluminium alloys. All treatments were carried out in the hot-wall nitriding reactor at ANSTO. The samples consist of disks 25mm in diameter and ∼3mm thick which were polished and ultrasonically cleaned in alcohol prior to treatment. The samples were stored in air at all times except when in the nitriding reactor. In a series of treatments, the treatment time was varied in the range 1-16 h and the temperature in the range 350-500 deg C. All treatments were preceeded by a plasma cleaning step in a H 2 /50%Ar mixture for a duration of 1.5-2.0 h while the reactor reached processing temperature. The treatments all used pure N 2 at a pressure of 0.4Pa and a nitrogen flow rate of 12μmol s -1 , with 245W of rf power at 13.56MHz applied to

  8. Surface modification of austenitic steel by various glow-discharge nitriding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Borowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen intensive research on modifying glow-discharge nitriding processes. One of the most commonly used glow-discharge methods includes cathodic potential nitriding (conventional method, and active screen plasma nitriding. Each of these methods has a number of advantages. One very important, common feature of these techniques is full control of the microstructure, chemical and phase composition, thickness and the surface topography of the layers formed. Another advantage includes the possibility of nitriding such materials as: austenitic steels or nickel alloys, i.e. metallic materials which do not diffuse nitrogen as effectively as ferritic or martensitic steels. However, these methods have some disadvantages as well. In the case of conventional plasma nitriding, engineers have to deal with the edge effect, which makes it difficult to use this method for complexly shaped components. In turn, in the case of active screen plasma nitriding, the problem disappears. A uniform, smooth layer forms, but is thinner, softer and is not as resistant to friction compared to layers formed using the conventional method. Research is also underway to combine these methods, i.e. use an active screen in conventional plasma nitriding at cathodic potential. However, there is a lack of comprehensive data presenting a comparison between these three nitriding processes and the impact of pulsating current on the formation of the microstructure and functional properties of austenitic steel surfaces. The article presents a characterisation of nitrided layers produced on austenitic X2CrNiMo17-12-2 (AISI 316L stainless steel in the course of glow-discharge nitriding at cathodic potential, at plasma potential and at cathodic potential incorporating an active screen. All processes were carried out at 440 °C under DC glow-discharge conditions and in 100 kHz frequency pulsating current. The layers were examined in terms of their microstructure, phase and

  9. Design and Characterisation of III-V Semiconductor Nanowire Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Dhruv

    The development of small, power-efficient lasers underpins many of the technologies that we utilise today. Semiconductor nanowires are promising for miniaturising lasers to even smaller dimensions. III-V semiconductors, such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Indium Phosphide (InP), are the most widely used materials for optoelectronic devices and so the development of nanowire lasers based on these materials is expected to have technologically significant outcomes. This PhD dissertation presents a comprehensive study of the design of III-V semiconductor nanowire lasers, with bulk and quantum confined active regions. Based on the design, various III-V semiconductor nanowire lasers are demonstrated, namely, GaAs nanowire lasers, GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum well (MQW) nanowire lasers and InP nanowire lasers. These nanowire lasers are shown to operate at room temperature, have low thresholds, and lase from different transverse modes. The structural and optoelectronic quality of nanowire lasers are characterised via electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopic techniques. Lasing is characterised in all these devices by optical pumping. The lasing characteristics are analysed by rate equation modelling and the lasing mode(s) in these devices is characterised by threshold gain modelling, polarisation measurements and Fourier plane imaging. Firstly, GaAs nanowire lasers that operate at room temperature are demonstrated. This is achieved by determining the optimal nanowire diameter to reduce threshold gain and by passivating nanowires to improve their quantum efficiency (QE). High-quality surface passivated GaAs nanowires of suitable diameters are grown. The growth procedure is tailored to improve both QE and structural uniformity of nanowires. Room-temperature lasing is demonstrated from individual nanowires and lasing is characterised to be from TM01 mode by threshold gain modelling. To lower threshold even further, nanowire lasers with GaAs/AlGaAs coaxial multi

  10. Iron-based alloy and nitridation treatment for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Yang, Bing [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-09

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive component that can be used as a bipolar plate in a PEM fuel cell application is composed of an alloy substrate which has 10-30 wt. % Cr, 0.5 to 7 wt. % V, and base metal being Fe, and a continuous surface layer of chromium nitride and vanadium nitride essentially free of base metal. A oxide layer of chromium vanadium oxide can be disposed between the alloy substrate and the continuous surface nitride layer. A method to prepare the corrosion resistant electrically conductive component involves a two-step nitridization sequence by exposing the alloy to a oxygen containing gas at an elevated temperature, and subsequently exposing the alloy to an oxygen free nitrogen containing gas at an elevated temperature to yield a component where a continuous chromium nitride layer free of iron has formed at the surface.

  11. Development of White-Light Emitting Active Layers in Nitride Based Heterostructures for Phosphorless Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan Talbot; Kailash Mishra

    2007-12-31

    This report provides a summary of research activities carried out at the University of California, San Diego and Central Research of OSRAM SYLVANIA in Beverly, MA partially supported by a research contract from US Department of Energy, DE-FC26-04NT422274. The main objective of this project was to develop III-V nitrides activated by rare earth ions, RE{sup 3+}, which could eliminate the need for phosphors in nitride-based solid state light sources. The main idea was to convert electron-hole pairs injected into the active layer in a LED die to white light directly through transitions within the energy levels of the 4f{sup n}-manifold of RE{sup 3+}. We focused on the following materials: Eu{sup 3+}(red), Tb{sup 3+}(green), Er{sup 3+}(green), Dy{sup 3+}(yellow) and Tm{sup 3+}(blue) in AlN, GaN and alloys of AlN and GaN. Our strategy was to explore candidate materials in powder form first, and then study their behavior in thin films. Thin films of these materials were to be deposited on sapphire substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The photo- and cathode-luminescence measurements of these materials were used to investigate their suitability for white light generation. The project proceeded along this route with minor modifications needed to produce better materials and to expedite our progress towards the final goal. The project made the following accomplishments: (1) red emission from Eu{sup 3+}, green from Tb{sup 3+}, yellow from Dy{sup 3+} and blue from Tm{sup 3+} in AlN powders; (2) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} and green emission from Tb{sup 3+} in GaN powder; (3) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} in alloys of GaN and AlN; (4) green emission from Tb{sup 3+} in GaN thin films by PLD; (5) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} in GaN thin films deposited by MOVPE; (6) energy transfer from host to RE{sup 3+}; (7) energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} in AlN powders; (8) emission from AlN powder samples

  12. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  13. III-V nanoelectronics and related surface/interface issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    The conventional logic gate architecture is not suitable for high-density integration of quantum devices which are non-robust and extremely structure- and charge-sensitive. In this paper, our novel hexagonal binary-decision-diagram (BDD) quantum circuit approach for III-V nanoelectronics is reviewed and related critical surface/interface issues for high-density integration are discussed. First, the basic concept and actual implementation method of our approach are explained, giving examples of novel BDD quantum integrated circuits where nanowire networks are controlled by nanoscale Schottky wrap gates. For high-density integration, growth of embedded sub-10 nm III-V quantum wire networks by selective molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on patterned substrates is described, including effects of atomic hydrogen irradiation and kinetic control of wire width. The key processing issue lies in understanding and control of nanostructure surfaces/interfaces. Behavior of nanoscale Schottky gates, recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)/scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) studies of surface states, and successful removal of surface states by MBE-grown silicon interface control layer are discussed

  14. The Effect of Polymer Char on Nitridation Kinetics of Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Rickmond C.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of polymer char on nitridation kinetics of attrition milled silicon powder have been investigated from 1200 to 1350 C. Results indicate that at and above 1250 C, the silicon compacts containing 3.5 wt percent polymer char were fully converted to Si3N4 after 24 hr exposure in nitrogen. In contrast, the silicon compacts without polymer char could not be fully converted to Si3N4 at 1350 C under similar exposure conditions. At 1250 and 1350 C, the silicon compacts with polymer char showed faster nitridation kinetics than those without the polymer char. As the polymer char content is increased, the amount of SiC in the nitrided material is also increased. By adding small amounts (approx. 2.5 wt percent) of NiO, the silicon compacts containing polymer char can be completely nitrided at 1200 C. The probable mechanism for the accelerated nitridation of silicon containing polymer char is discussed.

  15. A Review of Ultrahigh Efficiency III-V Semiconductor Compound Solar Cells: Multijunction Tandem, Lower Dimensional, Photonic Up/Down Conversion and Plasmonic Nanometallic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Tanabe

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar cells are a promising renewable, carbon-free electric energy resource to address the fossil fuel shortage and global warming. Energy conversion efficiencies around 40% have been recently achieved in laboratories using III-V semiconductor compounds as photovoltaic materials. This article reviews the efforts and accomplishments made for higher efficiency III-V semiconductor compound solar cells, specifically with multijunction tandem, lower-dimensional, photonic up/down conversion, and plasmonic metallic structures. Technological strategies for further performance improvement from the most efficient (AlInGaP/(InGaAs/Ge triple-junction cells including the search for 1.0 eV bandgap semiconductors are discussed. Lower-dimensional systems such as quantum well and dot structures are being intensively studied to realize multiple exciton generation and multiple photon absorption to break the conventional efficiency limit. Implementation of plasmonic metallic nanostructures manipulating photonic energy flow directions to enhance sunlight absorption in thin photovoltaic semiconductor materials is also emerging.

  16. Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A. J.

    , aspects of low temperature surface hardening of stainless steels in a gaseous environment will be addressed. Here, the developed case consists of expanded austenite and/or expanded martensite, which essentially is a super saturated solid solution of nitrogen/carbon in austenite/martensite. The current......This contribution addresses the current understanding of gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Aspects of thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructure development in iron and heat treatable steel will be explained. In these materials the nitrided/ nitrocarburized case can be subdivided...

  17. Plasma assisted nitriding for micro-texturing onto martensitic stainless steels*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoh Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-texturing method has grown up to be one of the most promising procedures to form micro-lines, micro-dots and micro-grooves onto the mold-die materials and to duplicate these micro-patterns onto metallic or polymer sheets via stamping or injection molding. This related application requires for large-area, fine micro-texturing onto the martensitic stainless steel mold-die materials. A new method other than laser-machining, micro-milling or micro-EDM is awaited for further advancement of this micro-texturing. In the present paper, a new micro-texturing method is developed on the basis of the plasma assisted nitriding to transform the two-dimensionally designed micro-patterns to the three dimensional micro-textures in the martensitic stainless steels. First, original patterns are printed onto the surface of stainless steel molds by using the dispenser or the ink-jet printer. Then, the masked mold is subjected to high density plasma nitriding; the un-masked surfaces are nitrided to have higher hardness, 1400 Hv than the matrix hardness, 200 Hv of stainless steels. This nitrided mold is further treated by sand-blasting to selectively remove the soft, masked surfaces. Finally, the micro-patterned martensitic stainless steel mold is fabricated as a tool to duplicate these micro-patterns onto the plastic materials by the injection molding.

  18. Oxide-nitride-oxide dielectric stacks with Si nanoparticles obtained by low-energy ion beam synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou-Sougleridis, V; Dimitrakis, P; Vamvakas, V Em; Normand, P; Bonafos, C; Schamm, S; Mouti, A; Assayag, G Ben; Paillard, V

    2007-01-01

    Formation of a thin band of silicon nanoparticles within silicon nitride films by low-energy (1 keV) silicon ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing is demonstrated. Electrical characterization of metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors reveals that oxide/Si-nanoparticles-nitride/oxide dielectric stacks exhibit enhanced charge transfer characteristics between the substrate and the silicon nitride layer compared to dielectric stacks using unimplanted silicon nitride. Attractive results are obtained in terms of write/erase memory characteristics and data retention, indicating the large potential of the low-energy ion-beam-synthesis technique in SONOS memory technology

  19. Control of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium by hot trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Toshiharu; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Akihiro; Muroga, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium was controlled by the method of hot trapping. V-Ti alloy and chromium were used as nitrogen gettering materials. Chromium is known to form ternary nitride with lithium. Gettering experiments were conducted at 823 K for 0.8-2.2 Ms. Under high nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium, above 10 -2 mass%, nitrogen gettering effect of chromium was found to be larger than that of V-10at.% Ti alloy. Nitrogen gettering by chromium at 823 K reached a limit at about 6.5x10 -3 mass% of nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium. Instability of ternary nitride of chromium and lithium below this nitrogen concentration in liquid lithium was considered to be the reason for this limit. The composition of the ternary nitride that was formed in this study was considered to be Li 6 Cr(III) 3 N 5 . In addition, immersion experiments of yttrium with V-10at.% Ti alloy were performed. It was found that nitriding of yttrium in liquid lithium is controlled by nitrogen gettering effect of V-10at.% Ti alloy

  20. Orthorhombic BN: A novel superhard sp{sup 3} boron nitride allotrope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiguo [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Lu, Mingchun [Department of Aeronautical Engineering Professional Technology, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132102 (China); Zhu, Li; Zhu, Lili; Li, Yadan [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Zhang, Miao, E-mail: zhangmiaolmc@126.com [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Quan, E-mail: liquan777@jlu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Here, a novel superhard orthorhombic allotrope of boron nitride (O-BN) with the space group of Pbam has been predicted using first-principles calculations. Our results revealed that O-BN simultaneously posses incompressible with a high bulk modulus of 397.38 GPa, and superhard properties with a high Vickers hardness of 65 GPa. Further phonon calculations show O-BN structure is dynamically stable. Moreover, it is thermodynamics energetically more preferable than previous proposed BN allotropes and a transparent insulator with an indirect band gap of about 4.85 eV. Our researches represent a significant step toward the exploration of superhard materials.

  1. Formation and properties of chromium nitride coatings on martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendala, B.; Swadzba, L.; Hetmanczyk, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation of coatings obtained by ARC-PVD method on martensitic E1961 (13H12NWMFA) steel, which is used on compressor blades in the aircraft engines, were presented. The chemical composition of E1961 was given. The PVT-550 device was used for coating. The protective chromium nitride coatings were tested. The influence of ARC-PVD method parameters for example: bias, pressure and flow rate of reactive gases on the structure and properties of the CrN coatings in corrosion tests were investigated. Technical parameters of obtained CrN coatings were given. The phase analysis of chromium nitride coatings obtained with different technical parameters were tested. The results of phase analysis are given. The pitting corrosion resistance tests in 10% FeCl 3 solution was conducted. The corrosion rate for CrN coated samples were defined. It was found that 50 V and 100 V bias, about 0.5 and 0.7 Pa pressure and 140 sccm (standard cubic centimeter) flow rate of nitride during coating favour the CrN monophase structure while increasing bias to 150 V, decreasing the pressure to about 0.5 Pa and 0.3 Pa and increasing the flow rate of nitride to 160 - 180 sccm favour the CrN+Cr 2 N diphase structure. On the basis of corrosion investigations for CrN coatings obtained with different ARC-PVD parameters the best corrosion resistance in 10% FeCl 3 solution for CrN+Cr 2 N diphase structure was found. (author)

  2. Adsorption Characteristics of Different Adsorbents and Iron(III Salt for Removing As(V from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ćurko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the adsorption performance of three types of adsorbents for removal of As(V from water: Bayoxide® E33 (granular iron(III oxide, Titansorb® (granular titanium oxide and a suspension of precipitated iron(III hydroxide. Results of As(V adsorption stoichiometry of two commercial adsorbents and precipitated iron(III hydroxide in tap and demineralized water were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations, from which adsorption constants and adsorption capacity were calculated. The separation factor RL for the three adsorbents ranged from 0.04 to 0.61, indicating effective adsorption. Precipitated iron(III hydroxide had the greatest, while Titansorb had the lowest capacity to adsorb As(V. Comparison of adsorption from tap or demineralized water showed that Bayoxide and precipitated iron(III hydroxide had higher adsorption capacity in demineralized water, whereas Titansorb showed a slightly higher capacity in tap water. These results provide mechanistic insights into how commonly used adsorbents remove As(V from water.

  3. Ion nitriding of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, T.

    2002-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the investigation of the mechanism of aluminium nitriding by a technique that employs implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions and diffusional transport of atoms. The nitriding of aluminium is investigated, because this is a method for surface modification of aluminium and has a potential for application in a broad spectrum of fields such as automobile, marine, aviation, space technologies, etc. However, at present nitriding of aluminium does not find any large scale industrial application, due to problems in the formation of stoichiometric aluminium nitride layers with a sufficient thickness and good quality. For the purposes of this study, ion nitriding is chosen, as an ion beam method with the advantage of good and independent control over the process parameters, which thus can be related uniquely to the physical properties of the resulting layers. Moreover, ion nitriding has a close similarity to plasma nitriding and plasma immersion ion implantation, which are methods with a potential for industrial application. (orig.)

  4. Monte-Carlo simulation of crystallographical pore growth in III-V-semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisner, Malte; Carstensen, Juergen; Foell, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    The growth of crystallographical pores in III-V-semiconductors can be understood in the framework of a simple model, which is based on the assumption that the branching of pores is proportional to the current density at the pore tips. The stochastic nature of this model allows its implementation into a three-dimensional Monte-Carlo-simulation of pore growth. The simulation is able to reproduce the experimentally observed crysto pore structures in III-V-semiconductors in full quantitative detail. The different branching probabilities for different semiconductors, as well as doping levels, can be deduced from the specific passivation behavior of the semiconductor-electrolyte-interface at the pore tips.

  5. Structure and spectroscopic study of aqueous Fe(III)-As(V) complexes using UV-Vis, XAS and DFT-TDDFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Liyuan; Yang, Jinqin; Zhang, Ning; Wu, Pin-Jiun; Li, Qingzhu; Wang, Qingwei; Liu, Hui; Yi, Haibo

    2017-09-01

    Aqueous complexes between ferric (Fe(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) are indispensable for understanding the mobility of arsenic (As) in Fe(III)-As(V)-rich systems. In this study, aqueous Fe(III)-As(V) complexes, FeH 2 AsO 4 2+ and FeHAsO 4 + , were postulated based on the qualitative analysis of UV-Vis spectra in both Fe(III)-As(V)-HClO 4 and Fe(III)-As(V)-H 2 SO 4 systems. Subsequently, monodentate structures were evidenced by Fe K-edge EXAFS and modeled as [FeH 2 AsO 4 (H 2 O) 5 ] 2+ and [FeHAsO 4 (H 2 O) 5 ] + by DFT. The feature band at ∼280 nm was verified as electron excitation chiefly from Fe-As-bridged O atoms to d-orbital of Fe in [FeH 2 AsO 4 (H 2 O) 5 ] 2+ and [FeHAsO 4 (H 2 O) 5 ] + . The structural and spectral information of Fe(III)-As(V) complexes will enable future speciation analysis in Fe(III)-As(V)-rich system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Polymer-Derived Boron Nitride: A Review on the Chemistry, Shaping and Ceramic Conversion of Borazine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Samuel; Miele, Philippe

    2014-11-21

    Boron nitride (BN) is a III-V compound which is the focus of important research since its discovery in the early 19th century. BN is electronic to carbon and thus, in the same way that carbon exists as graphite, BN exists in the hexagonal phase. The latter offers an unusual combination of properties that cannot be found in any other ceramics. However, these properties closely depend on the synthesis processes. This review states the recent developments in the preparation of BN through the chemistry, shaping and ceramic conversion of borazine derivatives. This concept denoted as Polymer-Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route allows tailoring the chemistry of precursors to elaborate complex BN shapes which cannot be obtained by conventional process. The effect of the chemistry of the molecular precursors, i.e. , borazine and trichloroborazine, and their polymeric derivatives i.e. , polyborazylene and poly[tri(methylamino)borazine], in which the specific functional groups and structural motifs determine the shaping potential by conventional liquid-phase process and plastic-forming techniques is discussed. Nanotubes, nano-fibers, coatings, monoliths and fiber-reinforced matrix composites are especially described. This leads to materials which are of significant engineering interest.

  7. Polymer-Derived Boron Nitride: A Review on the Chemistry, Shaping and Ceramic Conversion of Borazine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bernard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Boron nitride (BN is a III-V compound which is the focus of important research since its discovery in the early 19th century. BN is electronic to carbon and thus, in the same way that carbon exists as graphite, BN exists in the hexagonal phase. The latter offers an unusual combination of properties that cannot be found in any other ceramics. However, these properties closely depend on the synthesis processes. This review states the recent developments in the preparation of BN through the chemistry, shaping and ceramic conversion of borazine derivatives. This concept denoted as Polymer-Derived Ceramics (PDCs route allows tailoring the chemistry of precursors to elaborate complex BN shapes which cannot be obtained by conventional process. The effect of the chemistry of the molecular precursors, i.e., borazine and trichloroborazine, and their polymeric derivatives i.e., polyborazylene and poly[tri(methylaminoborazine], in which the specific functional groups and structural motifs determine the shaping potential by conventional liquid-phase process and plastic-forming techniques is discussed. Nanotubes, nano-fibers, coatings, monoliths and fiber-reinforced matrix composites are especially described. This leads to materials which are of significant engineering interest.

  8. Strain-effect transistors: Theoretical study on the effects of external strain on III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervin, Shahab; Asadirad, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Kim, Seung-Hwan; Ravipati, Srikanth; Lee, Keon-Hwa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Bulashevich, Kirill [STR Group, Inc., Engels av. 27, P.O. Box 89, 194156, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ryou, Jae-Hyun, E-mail: jryou@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity at the University of Houston (TcSUH), University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    This paper presents strain-effect transistors (SETs) based on flexible III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) through theoretical calculations. We show that the electronic band structures of InAlGaN/GaN thin-film heterostructures on flexible substrates can be modified by external bending with a high degree of freedom using polarization properties of the polar semiconductor materials. Transfer characteristics of the HEMT devices, including threshold voltage and transconductance, are controlled by varied external strain. Equilibrium 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is enhanced with applied tensile strain by bending the flexible structure with the concave-side down (bend-down condition). 2DEG density is reduced and eventually depleted with increasing compressive strain in bend-up conditions. The operation mode of different HEMT structures changes from depletion- to enchantment-mode or vice versa depending on the type and magnitude of external strain. The results suggest that the operation modes and transfer characteristics of HEMTs can be engineered with an optimum external bending strain applied in the device structure, which is expected to be beneficial for both radio frequency and switching applications. In addition, we show that drain currents of transistors based on flexible InAlGaN/GaN can be modulated only by external strain without applying electric field in the gate. The channel conductivity modulation that is obtained by only external strain proposes an extended functional device, gate-free SETs, which can be used in electro-mechanical applications.

  9. The coupling of thermochemistry and phase diagrams for group III-V semiconductor systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.J.

    1998-07-21

    The project was directed at linking the thermochemical properties of III-V compound semiconductors systems with the reported phase diagrams. The solid-liquid phase equilibrium problem was formulated and three approaches to calculating the reduced standard state chemical potential were identified and values were calculated. In addition, thermochemical values for critical properties were measured using solid state electrochemical techniques. These values, along with the standard state chemical potentials and other available thermochemical and phase diagram data, were combined with a critical assessment of selected III-V systems. This work was culminated with a comprehensive assessment of all the III-V binary systems. A novel aspect of the experimental part of this project was the demonstration of the use of a liquid encapsulate to measure component activities by a solid state emf technique in liquid III-V systems that exhibit high vapor pressures at the measurement temperature.

  10. Preparation and certification of arsenate [As(V)] reference material, NMIJ CRM 7912-a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narushima, Izumi; Jimbo, Yasujiro; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Chiba, Koichi

    2010-05-01

    Arsenate [As(V)] solution reference material, National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) certified reference material (CRM) 7912-a, for speciation of arsenic species was developed and certified by NMIJ, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. High-purity As(2)O(3) reagent powder was dissolved in 0.8 M HNO(3) solution and As(III) was oxidized to As(V) with HNO(3) to prepare 100 mg kg(-1) of As(V) candidate CRM solution. The solution was bottled in 400 bottles (50 mL each). The concentration of As(V) was determined by four independent analytical techniques-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-according to As(V) calibration solutions, which were prepared from the arsenic standard of the Japan Calibration Service system and whose species was guaranteed to be As(V) by NMIJ. The uncertainties of all the measurements and preparation procedures were evaluated. The certified value of As(V) in the CRM is (99.53 +/- 1.67) mg kg(-1) (k = 2).

  11. Epitaxial III-V nanowires on silicon for vertical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Borgström, M.T.; Einden, Van Den W.; Weert, van M.H.M.; Helman, A.; Verheijen, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We show the epitaxial integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires with silicon technology. The wires are grown by the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism with laser ablation as well as metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The VLS growth enables the fabrication of complex axial and radial

  12. Silicon Nitride Photonic Integration Platforms for Visible, Near-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Gloria; Pastor, Daniel; Pérez, Daniel; Doménech, José David; Fernández, Juan; Baños, Rocío; Alemany, Rubén; Sánchez, Ana M.; Cirera, Josep M.; Mas, Roser

    2017-01-01

    Silicon nitride photonics is on the rise owing to the broadband nature of the material, allowing applications of biophotonics, tele/datacom, optical signal processing and sensing, from visible, through near to mid-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, a review of the state of the art of silicon nitride strip waveguide platforms is provided, alongside the experimental results on the development of a versatile 300 nm guiding film height silicon nitride platform. PMID:28895906

  13. Terminal uranium(V/VI) nitride activation of carbon dioxide and carbon disulfide. Factors governing diverse and well-defined cleavage and redox reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaves, Peter A.; Gardner, Benedict M.; Liddle, Stephen T. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kefalidis, Christos E.; Maron, Laurent [LPCNO, CNRS and INSA, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J.L. [School of Chemistry and Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Lewis, William [School of Chemistry, The University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-24

    The reactivity of terminal uranium(V/VI) nitrides with CE{sub 2} (E=O, S) is presented. Well-defined C=E cleavage followed by zero-, one-, and two-electron redox events is observed. The uranium(V) nitride [U(Tren{sup TIPS})(N)][K(B15C5){sub 2}] (1, Tren{sup TIPS}=N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NSiiPr{sub 3}){sub 3}; B15C5=benzo-15-crown-5) reacts with CO{sub 2} to give [U(Tren{sup TIPS})(O)(NCO)][K(B15C5){sub 2}] (3), whereas the uranium(VI) nitride [U(Tren{sup TIPS})(N)] (2) reacts with CO{sub 2} to give isolable [U(Tren{sup TIPS})(O)(NCO)] (4); complex 4 rapidly decomposes to known [U(Tren{sup TIPS})(O)] (5) with concomitant formation of N{sub 2} and CO proposed, with the latter trapped as a vanadocene adduct. In contrast, 1 reacts with CS{sub 2} to give [U(Tren{sup TIPS})(κ{sup 2}-CS{sub 3})][K(B15C5){sub 2}] (6), 2, and [K(B15C5){sub 2}][NCS] (7), whereas 2 reacts with CS{sub 2} to give [U(Tren{sup TIPS})(NCS)] (8) and ''S'', with the latter trapped as Ph{sub 3}PS. Calculated reaction profiles reveal outer-sphere reactivity for uranium(V) but inner-sphere mechanisms for uranium(VI); despite the wide divergence of products the initial activation of CE{sub 2} follows mechanistically related pathways, providing insight into the factors of uranium oxidation state, chalcogen, and NCE groups that govern the subsequent divergent redox reactions that include common one-electron reactions and a less-common two-electron redox event. Caution, we suggest, is warranted when utilising CS{sub 2} as a reactivity surrogate for CO{sub 2}. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Silicon-Based Integration of Groups III, IV, V Chemical Vapor Depositions in High-Quality Photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors with silicon (Si) technology is an interesting approach to utilize the advantages of both high-speed photonic and electronic properties. The work presented in this thesis is initiated by this major goal of merging III-V semiconductor technology with

  15. Thermodynamics, kinetics and process control of nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittemeijer, Eric J.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    1997-01-01

    As a prerequisite for the predictability of properties obtained by a nitriding treatment of iron based workpieces, the relation between the process parameters and the composition and structure of the surface layer produced must be known. At present, even the description of thermodynamic equilibrium...... of pure Fe-N phases has not been fully achieved. It is shown that taking into account the ordering of nitrogen in the epsilon and gamma' iron nitride phases leads to an improved understanding of the Fe-N phase diagram. Although consideration of thermodynamics indicates the state the system strives for...... for process control of gaseous nitriding by monitoring the partial pressure of oxygen in the furnace using a solid state electrolyte is provided. At the time the work was carried out the authors were in the Laboratory of Materials Science, Delft University of Technology, Rotterdamseweg 137, 2628 AL Delft...

  16. Optical and electronic properties of InGaAs and nitride quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, N.

    2006-06-15

    In the present thesis, the electronic and optical properties of such nanostructures have been investigated for the well established III-V and the new group-III nitride material system. The influence of Coulomb correlations on the optical spectra of InGaAs QDs are studied using a full configuration interaction approach. The resulting multi-exciton spectra for up to twelve excitons are investigated in detail. Characteristic features of the spectra are explained using simplified Hamiltonians that are derived taking into account the relative importance of various interaction contributions. Additionally, we study the electronic and optical properties of self-assembled InN/GaN quantum dots. The existence of an exactly degenerate p-shell is discussed in detail. Dipole and Coulomb matrix elements are calculated from these one-particle wave functions and serve as an input for configuration interaction calculations. We present multi-exciton emission spectra and investigate how Coulomb correlations and oscillator strengths are altered by the built-in electrostatic fields present in these structures. From our results, we predict vanishing exciton and biexciton ground state emission for small lens-shaped dots, which is explained by a careful analysis of the underlying symmetry group. To study the photoluminescence dynamics of an initially excited QD system, we employ a microscopic semiconductor theory. Carrier-carrier correlations beyond the Hartee-Fock level are included within a cluster expansion truncation scheme up to the singlet-doublet level. The influence of these correlations on the spectrum and the photoluminescence dynamics is investigated for the emission into free space as well as for QDs embedded in an optical microcavity. (orig.)

  17. Optical and electronic properties of InGaAs and nitride quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, N.

    2006-06-01

    In the present thesis, the electronic and optical properties of such nanostructures have been investigated for the well established III-V and the new group-III nitride material system. The influence of Coulomb correlations on the optical spectra of InGaAs QDs are studied using a full configuration interaction approach. The resulting multi-exciton spectra for up to twelve excitons are investigated in detail. Characteristic features of the spectra are explained using simplified Hamiltonians that are derived taking into account the relative importance of various interaction contributions. Additionally, we study the electronic and optical properties of self-assembled InN/GaN quantum dots. The existence of an exactly degenerate p-shell is discussed in detail. Dipole and Coulomb matrix elements are calculated from these one-particle wave functions and serve as an input for configuration interaction calculations. We present multi-exciton emission spectra and investigate how Coulomb correlations and oscillator strengths are altered by the built-in electrostatic fields present in these structures. From our results, we predict vanishing exciton and biexciton ground state emission for small lens-shaped dots, which is explained by a careful analysis of the underlying symmetry group. To study the photoluminescence dynamics of an initially excited QD system, we employ a microscopic semiconductor theory. Carrier-carrier correlations beyond the Hartee-Fock level are included within a cluster expansion truncation scheme up to the singlet-doublet level. The influence of these correlations on the spectrum and the photoluminescence dynamics is investigated for the emission into free space as well as for QDs embedded in an optical microcavity. (orig.)

  18. Boron nitride: A new photonic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubarov, M.; Pedersen, H.; Högberg, H.; Filippov, S.; Engelbrecht, J.A.A.; O'Connel, J.; Henry, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) layers were grown on sapphire substrate in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor. Characterization of these layers is reported in details. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used as a routine characterization tool to investigate the crystalline quality of the films and the identification of the phases is revealed using detailed pole figure measurements. Transmission electron microscopy reveals stacking of more than 40 atomic layers. Results from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements are compared with XRD data showing that FTIR is not phase sensitive when various phases of sp 2 -BN are investigated. XRD measurements show a significant improvement of the crystalline quality when adding silicon to the gas mixture during the growth; this is further confirmed by cathodoluminescence which shows a decrease of the defects related luminescence intensity.

  19. Boron nitride: A new photonic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubarov, M., E-mail: mihcu@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Pedersen, H., E-mail: henke@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Högberg, H., E-mail: hanho@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Filippov, S., E-mail: stafi@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.za [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); O' Connel, J., E-mail: jacques.oconnell@gmail.com [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Henry, A., E-mail: anne.henry@liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-04-15

    Rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) layers were grown on sapphire substrate in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor. Characterization of these layers is reported in details. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used as a routine characterization tool to investigate the crystalline quality of the films and the identification of the phases is revealed using detailed pole figure measurements. Transmission electron microscopy reveals stacking of more than 40 atomic layers. Results from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements are compared with XRD data showing that FTIR is not phase sensitive when various phases of sp{sup 2}-BN are investigated. XRD measurements show a significant improvement of the crystalline quality when adding silicon to the gas mixture during the growth; this is further confirmed by cathodoluminescence which shows a decrease of the defects related luminescence intensity.

  20. Thermal expansion of TRU nitride solid solutions as fuel materials for transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The lattice thermal expansion of the transuranium nitride solid solutions was measured to investigate the composition dependence. The single-phase solid solution samples of (Np 0.55 Am 0.45 )N, (Pu 0.59 Am 0.41 )N, (Np 0.21 Pu 0.52 Am 0.22 Cm 0.05 )N and (Pu 0.21 Am 0.18 Zr 0.61 )N were prepared by carbothermic nitridation of the respective transuranium dioxides and nitridation of Zr metal through hydride. The lattice parameters were measured by the high temperature X-ray diffraction method from room temperature up to 1478 K. The linear thermal expansion of each sample was determined as a function of temperature. The average thermal expansion coefficients over the temperature range of 293-1273 K for the solid solution samples were 10.1, 11.5, 10.8 and 8.8 x 10 -6 K -1 , respectively. Comparison of these values with those for the constituent nitrides showed that the average thermal expansion coefficients of the solid solution samples could be approximated by the linear mixture rule within the error of 2-3%.

  1. Variation of intrinsic magnetic parameters of single domain Co-N interstitial nitrides synthesized via hexa-ammine cobalt nitrate route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ningthoujam, R.S. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Panda, R.N., E-mail: rnp@bits-goa.ac.in [Chemistry Group, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Goa Campus, Zuari Nagar, Goa 403726 (India); Gajbhiye, N.S. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation of intrinsic magnetic parameters of Co-N. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis by hexa-ammine cobalt complex route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tuning of coercivity by variation of size. - Abstract: We report the variation of Curie temperature (T{sub c}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) of the single domain Co-N interstitial materials synthesized via nitridation of the hexa-ammine Cobalt(III) nitrate complex at 673 K. Co-N materials crystallize in the fcc cubic structure with unit cell parameter, a = 3.552 Angstrom-Sign . The X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks are broader indicating the materials to be nano-structured with crystallite sizes of 5-14 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm the nanocrystalline nature of the materials. TEM images show chain-like clusters indicating dipolar interactions between the particles. Magnetic studies focus on the existence of giant magnetic Co atoms in the Co-N lattice that are not influenced by the thermal relaxation. The values of the H{sub c} could be tuned with the dimension of the particles. The values of T{sub c} of the nitride materials are masked by the onset of the ferromagnetic to superparamagnetic transition at higher temperatures. Thermomagnetic studies show an increasing trend in the Curie temperature, T{sub c}, with decrease in particle dimension. This result has been explained qualitatively on the basis of ferromagnetic to superparamagnetic transition and finite size scaling effects.

  2. Synthesis and magnetic properties of PrFe11V1-xTix and their nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, S.L.; Wang, B.W.; Zhang, C.; Jin, X.M.; Zhang, S.Y.; Du, Y.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have succeeded in synthesizing PrFe 11 V 1-x Ti x (x=0.2 1) compound and their nitrides with the ThMn 12 -type structure. The phase formation and magnetic properties have been investigated by x-ray diffraction, differential thermometric analysis, and magnetic measurement. The stable temperature range of the 1-12 phase for PrFe 11 V 1-x Ti x alloys has been determined as a function of Ti content. PrFe 11 V compounds with the ThMn 12 -type structure do not exist and PrFe 11 Ti compounds with the TnMn 12 -type structure are obtained by annealing in a narrow temperature range between 1303 and 1383 K. Furthermore, 1-12 phase with the ThMn 12 -type structure can be obtained at lower temperature and wider temperature range with decreasing Ti content x (0.2≤x≤1). PrFe 11 V 1-x Ti x N y with x=0.2 1 has a T c of about 730 785 K, B a larger than 8 T and M s in the range 144 148 emu/g. These intrinsic magnetic properties are highly favorable for permanent magnet applications. As a preliminary, an intrinsic coercivity of 5.4 kOe is obtained for PrFe 11 V 0.5 Ti 0.5 N y at room temperature by using mechanical alloying technique. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Theory of ferromagnetic (III,Mn)V semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, J.; Mašek, Jan; Kučera, Jan; MacDonald, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2006), s. 809-859 ISSN 0034-6861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR GA202/05/0575 Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) GR/S81407/01; U.S. Department of Energy(US) DE-FG03-02ER45958; U.S. Office of Naval research(US) OMR-N000140610122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * (III,Mn)V compounds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 33.508, year: 2006

  4. Radiation Effects in III-V Nanowire Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    fabrication of an in-plane nanowire (NW) GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field- effect transistor (MOSFET) by focused -ion beam (FIB) etching and chemical...8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-94 Radiation Effects in III-V...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY

  5. Neuronal cells on GaN-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H.; Charpentier, M.; Mueller, M.; Garke, B.; Veit, P.; Hempel, T.; Diez, A.; Reiher, A.; Dadgar, A.; Christen, J.; Krost, A. [Inst. of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany); Voigt, T. [Inst. of Physiology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg (Germany); Deliano, M.; Ohl, F. [Leibniz Institute of Neurobiology, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Group-III-nitride-based devices can be used for recording electrical activities of cell signals using the main advantage of high chemical and physiological stability. However, for the application of these materials in neural tissue their biocompatibility should be proofed. We have investigated the interactions between group-III-semiconductors and (1) dissociated neuron networks of embryonic rat cerebral cortex, and (2) neurons within the primary auditory cortex of Mongolian gerbils (rodents). The neuron networks were cultured within more than two days on the surfaces of GaN, AlGaN, AlN and GaO/GaN layers and were analyzed using optical and electron microscopy. In addition, pieces of nitrides were implanted into the cortex of living gerbils and remained there for several months. The reactions of the ambient neuron tissue were investigated by histological methods. Furthermore, the impact of the neuron cell cultures on the substrate surfaces were analyzed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All investigations showed the stability and the non-toxic behavior of the pure GaN layers whereas the Al-containing layers were somewhat affected.

  6. Tribology of nitrided-coated steel-a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Santosh V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface engineering such as surface treatment, coating, and surface modification are employed to increase surface hardness, minimize adhesion, and hence, to reduce friction and improve resistance to wear. To have optimal tribological performance of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD hard coating to the substrate materials, pretreatment of the substrate materials is always advisable to avoid plastic deformation of the substrate, which may result in eventual coating failure. The surface treatment results in hardening of the substrate and increase in load support effect. Many approaches aim to improve the adhesion of the coatings onto the substrate and nitriding is the one of the best suitable options for the same. In addition to tribological properties, nitriding leads to improved corrosion resistance. Often corrosion resistance is better than that obtainable with other surface engineering processes such as hard-chrome and nickel plating. Ability of this layer to withstand thermal stresses gives stability which extends the surface life of tools and other components exposed to heat. Most importantly, the nitrogen picked-up by the diffusion layer increases the rotating-bending fatigue strength in components. The present article reviews mainly the tribological advancement of different nitrided-coated steels based on the types of coatings, structure, and the tribo-testing parameters, in recent years.

  7. Tribology of nitrided-coated steel-a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Santosh V.; Kudal, Hari N.

    2017-01-01

    Surface engineering such as surface treatment, coating, and surface modification are employed to increase surface hardness, minimize adhesion, and hence, to reduce friction and improve resistance to wear. To have optimal tribological performance of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) hard coating to the substrate materials, pretreatment of the substrate materials is always advisable to avoid plastic deformation of the substrate, which may result in eventual coating failure. The surface treatment results in hardening of the substrate and increase in load support effect. Many approaches aim to improve the adhesion of the coatings onto the substrate and nitriding is the one of the best suitable options for the same. In addition to tribological properties, nitriding leads to improved corrosion resistance. Often corrosion resistance is better than that obtainable with other surface engineering processes such as hard-chrome and nickel plating. Ability of this layer to withstand thermal stresses gives stability which extends the surface life of tools and other components exposed to heat. Most importantly, the nitrogen picked-up by the diffusion layer increases the rotating-bending fatigue strength in components. The present article reviews mainly the tribological advancement of different nitrided-coated steels based on the types of coatings, structure, and the tribo-testing parameters, in recent years.

  8. Adsorção de arsênio(V pela quitosana ferro - III reticulada Asorption of arsenic (V by crosslinked iron-III-chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathyane Fagundes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of As(V by a crosslinked iron(III-chitosan adsorbent was evaluated under various conditions. The adsorption capacity of CH-FeCL was around 54 mg/g of As(V. The kinetics of adsorption obeys a pseudo-first-order model with rate constants equal to 0.022, 0.028, and 0.033 min-1 at 15, 25 and 35 ºC respectively. Adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model, although they could be modeled also by the Langmuir-Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity, calculated with the Langmuir model, was 127 mg g-1 of As(V. The inhibition by competing anions is dependant on their kind and valence.

  9. Computational Materials Science | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational Materials Science Computational Materials Science An image of interconnecting, sphere science capabilities span many research fields and interests. Electronic, Optical, and Transport Properties of Photovoltaic Materials Material properties and defect physics of Si, CdTe, III-V, CIGS, CZTS

  10. Electronic properties of Mn-decorated silicene on hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Jones, Burton; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Singh, Nirpendra

    2013-01-01

    We study silicene on hexagonal boron nitride, using first-principles calculations. Since hexagonal boron nitride is semiconducting, the interaction with silicene is weaker than for metallic substrates. It therefore is possible to open a 50 meV band gap in the silicene. We further address the effect of Mn decoration by determining the onsite Hubbard interaction parameter, which turns out to differ significantly for decoration at the top and hollow sites. The induced magnetism in the system is analyzed in detail.

  11. Electronic properties of Mn-decorated silicene on hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-12-17

    We study silicene on hexagonal boron nitride, using first-principles calculations. Since hexagonal boron nitride is semiconducting, the interaction with silicene is weaker than for metallic substrates. It therefore is possible to open a 50 meV band gap in the silicene. We further address the effect of Mn decoration by determining the onsite Hubbard interaction parameter, which turns out to differ significantly for decoration at the top and hollow sites. The induced magnetism in the system is analyzed in detail.

  12. Nitride stabilized core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian Abraham; Sasaki, Kotaro; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2018-01-30

    Nitride stabilized metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. In one embodiment the metal nanoparticles have a continuous and nonporous noble metal shell with a nitride-stabilized non-noble metal core. The nitride-stabilized core provides a stabilizing effect under high oxidizing conditions suppressing the noble metal dissolution during potential cycling. The nitride stabilized nanoparticles may be fabricated by a process in which a core is coated with a shell layer that encapsulates the entire core. Introduction of nitrogen into the core by annealing produces metal nitride(s) that are less susceptible to dissolution during potential cycling under high oxidizing conditions.

  13. Thermal plasma synthesis of transition metal nitrides and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronsheim, P.; Christensen, A.N.; Mazza, A.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of arc plasma processing to high-temperature chemistry of Group V nitrides and Si and Ge alloys are studied. The transition metal nitrides 4f-VN, 4f-NbN, and 4f-TaN are directly synthesized in a dc argon-nitrogen plasma from powders of the metals. A large excess of N 2 is required to form stoichiometric 4f-VN, while the Nb and Ta can only be synthesized with a substoichiometric N content. In a dc argon plasma the alloys V 3 Si, VSi 2 , NbSi 2 , NbGe 2 , Cr 3 Si, and Mo 3 Si are obtained from powder mixtures of the corresponding elements. The compounds are identified by x-ray diffraction patterns and particle shape and size are studied by electron microscopy

  14. Titanium Matrix Composite Ti/TiN Produced by Diode Laser Gas Nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Lisiecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high power direct diode laser, emitting in the range of near infrared radiation at wavelength 808–940 nm, was applied to produce a titanium matrix composite on a surface layer of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by laser surface gas nitriding. The nitrided surface layers were produced as single stringer beads at different heat inputs, different scanning speeds, and different powers of laser beam. The influence of laser nitriding parameters on the quality, shape, and morphology of the surface layers was investigated. It was found that the nitrided surface layers consist of titanium nitride precipitations mainly in the form of dendrites embedded in the titanium alloy matrix. The titanium nitrides are produced as a result of the reaction between molten Ti and gaseous nitrogen. Solidification and subsequent growth of the TiN dendrites takes place to a large extent at the interface of the molten Ti and the nitrogen gas atmosphere. The direction of TiN dendrites growth is perpendicular to the surface of molten Ti. The roughness of the surface layers depends strongly on the heat input of laser nitriding and can be precisely controlled. In spite of high microhardness up to 2400 HV0.2, the surface layers are crack free.

  15. Synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride by reaction of melamine and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dante, Roberto C.; Martin-Ramos, Pablo; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Martin-Gil, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Graphitic carbon nitrides by CVD of melamine and uric acid on alumina. → The building blocks of carbon nitrides are heptazine nuclei. → Composite particles with alumina core and carbon nitride coating. - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitrides were synthesized starting from melamine and uric acid. Uric acid was chosen because it thermally decomposes, and reacts with melamine by condensation at temperatures in the range of 400-600 deg. C. The reagents were mixed with alumina and subsequently the samples were treated in an oven under nitrogen flux. Alumina favored the deposition of the graphitic carbon nitrides layers on the exposed surface. This method can be assimilated to an in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Infrared (IR) spectra, as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, are in accordance with the formation of a graphitic carbon nitride with a structure based on heptazine blocks. These carbon nitrides exhibit poor crystallinity and a nanometric texture, as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The thermal degradation of the graphitic carbon nitride occurs through cyano group formation, and involves the bridging tertiary nitrogen and the bonded carbon, which belongs to the heptazine ring, causing the ring opening and the consequent network destruction as inferred by connecting the IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. This seems to be an easy and promising route to synthesize graphitic carbon nitrides. Our final material is a composite made of an alumina core covered by carbon nitride layers.

  16. Actinide nitride ceramic transmutation fuels for the Futurix-FTA irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, St.; McClellan, K.; Stanek, Ch.; Maloy, St.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The transmutation of plutonium and other minor actinides is an important component of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is currently considering mono-nitrides as potential transmutation fuel material on account of the mutual solubility of actinide mono-nitrides as well as their desirable thermal characteristics. The feedstock is most commonly produced by a carbothermic reduction/nitridisation process, as it is for this programme. Fuel pellet fabrication is accomplished via a cold press/sinter approach. In order to allow for easier investigation of the synthesis and fabrication processes, surrogate material studies are used to compliment the actinide activities. Fuel compositions of particular interest denoted as low fertile (i.e. containing uranium) and non-fertile (i.e. not containing uranium) are (PuAmNp) 0.5 U 0.5 N and (PuAm) 0.42 Zr 0.58 N, respectively. The AFCI programme is investigating the validity of these fuel forms via Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and Phenix irradiations. Here, we report on the recent progress of actinide-nitride transmutation fuel development and production for the Futurix-FTA irradiation experiment. Furthermore, we highlight specific cases where the complimentary approach of surrogate studies and actinide development aid in the understanding complex material issues. In order to allow for easier investigation of the fundamental materials properties, surrogate materials have been used. The amount of surrogate in each compound was determined by comparing both molar concentration and lattice parameter mismatch via Vegard Law. Cerium was chosen to simultaneously substitute for Pu, Am and Np, while depleted U was chosen to substitute for enriched U. Another goal of this work was the optimisation of added graphite during carbothermic reduction in order to minimise the duration of the carbon removal step (i.e. heat treatment under H 2 containing gas). One proposed

  17. Low-temperature direct synthesis of mesoporous vanadium nitrides for electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-Min [Institute of NT-IT Fusion Technology, Ajou University, 206 Worldcup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 16499 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Gyoung Hwa [Department of Chemistry, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Banyeon 100, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Wook [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, 206 Worldcup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 16499 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Koo, E-mail: changkoo@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering and Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, 206 Worldcup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 16499 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Vanadium nitrides were directly synthesized by a one-step chemical precipitation method. • This method was carried out at a low temperature of 70 °C. • Vanadium nitrides had a specific capacitance of 598 F/g. • The equivalent series resistance of the vanadium nitride electrode was 1.42 Ω after 5000 cycles. - Abstract: Mesoporous vanadium nitrides are directly synthesized by a one-step chemical precipitation method at a low temperature (70 °C). Structural and morphological analyses reveal that vanadium nitride consist of long and slender nanowhiskers, and mesopores with diameters of 2–5 nm. Compositional analysis confirms the presence of vanadium in the VN structure, along with oxidized vanadium. The cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge tests indicate that the obtained material stores charges via a combination of electric double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance mechanisms. The vanadium nitride electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 598 F/g at a current density of 4 A/g. After 5000 charge-discharge cycles, the electrode has an equivalent series resistance of 1.42 Ω and retains 83% of its initial specific capacitance. This direct low-temperature synthesis of mesoporous vanadium nitrides is a simple and promising method to achieve high specific capacitance and low equivalent series resistance for electrochemical capacitor applications.

  18. Metal surface nitriding by laser induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, A. L.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Hermann, J.; Blondiaux, G.

    1996-10-01

    We study a nitriding technique of metals by means of laser induced plasma. The synthesized layers are composed of a nitrogen concentration gradient over several μm depth, and are expected to be useful for tribological applications with no adhesion problem. The nitriding method is tested on the synthesis of titanium nitride which is a well-known compound, obtained at present by many deposition and diffusion techniques. In the method of interest, a laser beam is focused on a titanium target in a nitrogen atmosphere, leading to the creation of a plasma over the metal surface. In order to understand the layer formation, it is necessary to characterize the plasma as well as the surface that it has been in contact with. Progressive nitrogen incorporation in the titanium lattice and TiN synthesis are studied by characterizing samples prepared with increasing laser shot number (100-4000). The role of the laser wavelength is also inspected by comparing layers obtained with two kinds of pulsed lasers: a transversal-excited-atmospheric-pressure-CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) and a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm). Simulations of the target temperature rise under laser irradiation are performed, which evidence differences in the initial laser/material interaction (material heated thickness, heating time duration, etc.) depending on the laser features (wavelength and pulse time duration). Results from plasma characterization also point out that the plasma composition and propagation mode depend on the laser wavelength. Correlation of these results with those obtained from layer analyses shows at first the important role played by the plasma in the nitrogen incorporation. Its presence is necessary and allows N2 dissociation and a better energy coupling with the target. Second, it appears that the nitrogen diffusion governs the nitriding process. The study of the metal nitriding efficiency, depending on the laser used, allows us to explain the differences observed in the layer features

  19. The influence of nitrogen on the photoluminescence of metastable III-V nitrides; Einflussvon Stickstoff auf die Photolumineszenz von metastabilen III-V-Nitriden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantke, K.

    2005-12-20

    The work presented here mainly summarizes experimental and theoretical results enlightening the material-specific, optical properties of (GaIn)(NAs). The primarily used experiment is the time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The comparison of experiment and theory yields a simple exponential form for the density of localized states. Furthermore it can be confirmed that the typical energy scale of the localization is diminished by the annealing step as well as by the hydrogenation process. In a next step, the investigation of (GaIn)(NAs) epitactical layers, that were optimized for solar cell application, reveals astonishing features: The minority-carrier diffusion-length of the p-doped layers is found to be slightly higher than for the n-doped material implying that (GaIn)(NAs) solar cells with a p-on-n structure should be preferred in terms of higher quantum efficiency. A new effect found during the investigations is the optimization of the internal quantum efficiency of the (GaIn)(NAs) structures after irradiation with intensive laser light attributed to the laser-induced annealing of defects. The final paragraph concentrates on the successful comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence, photo-modulated reflection measurements and a microscopic many-body theory. A profound understanding of the type-I type-II transition in (GaIn)As/Ga(NAs) heterostructures is achieved resulting in material-specific information as e.g. the temperature-dependent bandgap energies, the band offsets in Ga(NAs)/GaAs and (GaIn)As/Ga(NAs) respectively, as well as the interaction potential VN dependent on the nitrogen content. Finally, the fundamental dependence on excitation density investigated in the experiment is theoretically quantified not only for the photoluminescence intensity and but for the lifetimes, too. (orig.)

  20. Tribological Characteristic of Titanium Alloy Surface Layers Produced by Diode Laser Gas Nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the tribological properties of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V composite surface layers Ti/TiN were produced during laser surface gas nitriding by means of a novel high power direct diode laser with unique characteristics of the laser beam and a rectangular beam spot. Microstructure, surface topography and microhardness distribution across the surface layers were analyzed. Ball-on-disk tests were performed to evaluate and compare the wear and friction characteristics of surface layers nitrided at different process parameters, base metal of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and also the commercially pure titanium. Results showed that under dry sliding condition the commercially pure titanium samples have the highest coefficient of friction about 0.45, compared to 0.36 of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 0.1-0.13 in a case of the laser gas nitrided surface layers. The volume loss of Ti6Al4V samples under such conditions is twice lower than in a case of pure titanium. On the other hand the composite surface layer characterized by the highest wear resistance showed almost 21 times lower volume loss during the ball-on-disk test, compared to Ti6Al4V samples.

  1. Enhancing the Hardness of Sintered SS 17-4PH Using Nitriding Process for Bracket Orthodontic Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharno, B.; Supriadi, S.; Ayuningtyas, S. T.; Widjaya, T.; Baek, E. R.

    2018-01-01

    Brackets orthodontic create teeth movement by applying force from wire to bracket then transferred to teeth. However, emergence of friction between brackets and wires reduces load for teeth movement towards desired area. In order to overcome these problem, surface treatment like nitriding chosen as a process which could escalate efficiency of transferred force by improving material hardness since hard materials have low friction levels. This work investigated nitriding treatment to form nitride layer which affecting hardness of sintered SS 17-4PH. The nitride layers produced after nitriding process at various temperature i.e. 470°C, 500°C, 530°C with 8hr holding time under 50% NH3 atmosphere. Optical metallography was conducted to compare microstructure of base and surface metal while the increasing of surface hardness then observed using vickers microhardness tester. Hardened surface layer was obtained after gaseous nitriding process because of nitride layer that contains Fe4N, CrN and Fe-αN formed. Hardness layers can achieved value 1051 HV associated with varies thickness from 53 to 119 μm. The presence of a precipitation process occurring in conjunction with nitriding process can lead to a decrease in hardness due to nitrogen content diminishing in solid solution phase. This problem causes weakening of nitrogen expansion in martensite lattice.

  2. Tribological properties of plasma and pulse plasma nitrided AISI 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgornik, B.; Vizintin, J. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Center of Tribology and Tech. Diagnostics; Leskovsek, V. [Inst. of Metals and Technologies, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1998-10-10

    Plasma nitriding is usually used for ferrous materials to improve their surface properties. Knowledge of the properties of thin surface layers is essential for designing engineering components with optimal wear performance. In our study, we investigated the microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of plasma- and pulse plasma-nitrided AISI 4140 steel in comparison to hardened steel. The influence of nitriding case depth as well as the presence of a compound layer on its tribological behaviour was also examined. Plasma and pulse plasma nitriding were carried out using commercial nitriding processes. Nitrided samples were fully characterised, using metallographic, SEM microscopic, microhardness and profilometric techniques, before and after wear testing. Wear tests were performed on a pin-on-disc wear testing machine in which nitrided pins were mated to hardened ball bearing steel discs. The wear tests were carried out under dry conditions where hardened samples were used as a reference. The resulting wear loss as well as the coefficient of friction was monitored as a function of load and test time. Several microscopic techniques were used to analyse the worn surfaces and wear debris in order to determine the dominant friction and wear characteristics. Results showed improved tribological properties of AISI 4140 steel after plasma and pulse plasma nitriding compared to hardening. However, the compound layer should be removed from the surface by mechanical means or by decreasing the amount of nitrogen in the nitriding atmosphere, to avoid impairment of the tribological properties by fracture of the hard and brittle compound layer followed by the formation of hard abrasive particles. (orig.) 10 refs.

  3. Conducting metal oxide and metal nitride nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Subban, Chinmayee V.

    2017-12-26

    Conducting metal oxide and nitride nanoparticles that can be used in fuel cell applications. The metal oxide nanoparticles are comprised of for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten and combinations thereof. The metal nitride nanoparticles are comprised of, for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, zirconium, and combinations thereof. The nanoparticles can be sintered to provide conducting porous agglomerates of the nanoparticles which can be used as a catalyst support in fuel cell applications. Further, platinum nanoparticles, for example, can be deposited on the agglomerates to provide a material that can be used as both an anode and a cathode catalyst support in a fuel cell.

  4. Plasma nitriding of a precipitation hardening stainless steel to improve erosion and corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo, Amado; Bruhl, Sonia P.; Vaca, Laura S.; Charadia, Raul Charadia

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation hardening stainless steels are used as structural materials in the aircraft and the chemical industry because of their good combination of mechanical and corrosion properties. The aim of this work is to analyze the structural changes produced by plasma nitriding in the near surface of Thyroplast PH X Supra®, a PH stainless steel from ThyssenKrupp, and to study the effect of nitriding parameters in wear and corrosion resistance. Samples were first aged and then nitriding was carried out in an industrial facility at two temperatures, with two different nitrogen partial pressures in the gas mixture. After nitriding, samples were cut, polished, mounted in resin and etched with Vilella reagent to reveal the nitrided case. Nitrided structure was also analyzed with XRD. Erosion/Corrosion was tested against sea water and sand flux, and corrosion in a salt spray fog (ASTM B117). All nitrided samples presented high hardness. Samples nitrided at 390 deg C with different nitrogen partial pressure showed similar erosion resistance against water and sand flux. The erosion resistance of the nitrided samples at 500 deg C was the highest and XRD revealed nitrides. Corrosion resistance, on the contrary, was diminished; the samples suffered of general corrosion during the salt spray fog test. (author)

  5. STABILITY: AN INVESTIGATION OF AS(III)/AS(V) STABILITY IN IRON RICH DRINKING WATER MATRICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic in drinking water is predominantly inorganic arsenic. The two oxidation states of inorganic arsenic are As(III)(pKa=9.3) and As(V)(pKa2=6.9). The distribution of As(III) and AS(V) in a water is dependent on the redox potential of the water. The actual distribution can ...

  6. Technical Progress Report for "Optical and Electrical Properties of III-Nitrides and Related Materials"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hongxing

    2008-10-31

    Investigations have been conducted focused on the fundamental material properties of AIN and high AI-content AIGaN alloys and further developed MOCVD growth technologies for obtaining these materials with improved crystalline quality and conductivities.

  7. Preparation of uranium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.A.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing actinide-nitrides from massive actinide metal which is suitable for sintering into low density fuel shapes by partially hydriding the massive metal and simultaneously dehydriding and nitriding the dehydrided portion. The process is repeated until all of the massive metal is converted to a nitride

  8. 3D-atom probe analysis of Cr and Cu added nitriding steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, J.; Kawakami, K.; Sugiyama, M.; Kawasaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nitriding treatment is a very effective method for hardening the surface of steels and realizing improvement in wear-resistance. Although this technology has been performed for many years, the precipitation and hardening mechanisms are not completely clear. It was not easy to observe very fine precipitates which may be generated in nitriding steels. We performed a three-dimensional atom probe analysis of the nitriding steel plate in which two kinds of precipitates were generated. Hot-rolled steel plates, which mainly contained Cr 1.0wt.% and Cu 1.3wt.%, were nitrided by annealing (550-6000 o ) in a mainly NH 3 atmosphere. The material before the nitriding had a hardness of about 100 Hv. By the nitriding, the surface hardness increased to more than 700 Hv, and the inside hardness also increased to 200 Hv. The specimens were taken from 0.15 mm, 0.3 mm and 0.8 mm depth from the surface, which mostly correspond to the peak, the half and the inside hardness, respectively. In the specimen of 0.8 mm depth, prolate spheroidal Cu precipitates of more than 8 nm in diameter were observed. In the specimen of 0.3 mm depth, plate-shape nitride precipitates of 6-10 nm in diameter were observed in addition to the Cu precipitates. Each Cu precipitate made a pair with the nitride precipitate. In the 0.15 mm depth specimen, Cr nitride precipitates of high volume density in addition to the pairs consisting of a Cu precipitate and a Cr nitride precipitate were observed. The size of the nitride precipitate forming the pair was slightly larger than that of the single Cr nitride precipitates. Furthermore, the denuded zone where the nitride precipitate does not exist was observed around the pairs. From these results, it was concluded that three stages of precipitation arose as follows: By the heat treatment of nitriding processing, Cu precipitates were generated first. Then, Cr nitride nucleated at the surface of the Cu precipitates inhomogeneously, and surrounding solute Cr was

  9. Kinetic modelling of chlorination of nitrided ilmenite using MATLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar, E-mail: srsivakumar@usm.my; Kwok, Teong Chen, E-mail: ctck@live.com; Hamid, Sheikh Abdul Rezan Sheikh Abdul, E-mail: rezanshk@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    In the present study, chlorination of nitride ilmenite using 2{sup k} factorial design was investigated. The reduction experiments were carried out in a temperature range of 400°C to 500°C, chlorination duration from 1 hour to 3 hours and using different type of carbon reactant. Phases of raw materials and reduced samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ilmenite was reduced to TiO{sub x}C{sub y}N{sub z} through carbothermal and nitridation for further chlorination into titanium tetrachloride. The Design of Experiment analysis suggested that the types of carbon reactant contribute most influence to the extent of chlorination of nitride ilmenite. The extent of chlorination was highest at 500°C with 3 hours chlorination time and carbon nanotube as carbon reactant.

  10. Aspects of the practical application of titanium alloys after low temperature nitriding glow discharge in hydrogen- free -gas media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashovets, N.S.; Pastukh, I.M.; Voloshko, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface modification of titanium alloys were carried out by low-temperature nitriding in a glow discharge in hydrogen-free environment. • Research into the phase composition was performed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). • The above material shows the promise of the technology of low-temperature hydrogen-nitriding by glow discharge. This greatly expands the range of practical applications of titanium alloys. - Abstract: X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Electron Auger-spectroscopy investigation of phase transformation on the surface of the VT8 titanium alloy after a low temperature hydrogen-free nitriding in a glow discharge. Operational characteristics of titanium alloys defined physical-mechanical characteristics of the surface and their phase composition, which depend on the process parameters of nitriding. Surface modification of titanium alloys were carried out by low-temperature nitriding in a glow discharge in hydrogen-free environment. The main advantage of this method lies in the absence of hydrogen embrittlement and complete environmental safety process. Application of the glow discharge can not only speed up the process by the order of the diffusion surface saturation with nitrogen, but also significantly alters the kinetics of the process and quality of the nitrided layer, in particular its physio-mechanical properties and phase composition. For research purposes, the standards from an α + β alloy Ti-Al6-Cr2-Mo2,5 (VT8) were used. Research into the phase composition was performed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Stratified analysis by AES was conducted by etching the surface of the samples’ argon ion beam with diameters of 1.5 mm with an energy of 3000 eV and a current density of 400 mA/cm 2 . The above material shows the promise of the technology of low

  11. Aspects of the practical application of titanium alloys after low temperature nitriding glow discharge in hydrogen- free -gas media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashovets, N.S., E-mail: mashovets@rambler.ru [Khmelnickiy National University (Ukraine); Pastukh, I.M., E-mail: pastim@mail.ru [Khmelnickiy National University (Ukraine); Voloshko, S.M. [Khmelnickiy National University (Ukraine); National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” (Ukraine)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Surface modification of titanium alloys were carried out by low-temperature nitriding in a glow discharge in hydrogen-free environment. • Research into the phase composition was performed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). • The above material shows the promise of the technology of low-temperature hydrogen-nitriding by glow discharge. This greatly expands the range of practical applications of titanium alloys. - Abstract: X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Electron Auger-spectroscopy investigation of phase transformation on the surface of the VT8 titanium alloy after a low temperature hydrogen-free nitriding in a glow discharge. Operational characteristics of titanium alloys defined physical-mechanical characteristics of the surface and their phase composition, which depend on the process parameters of nitriding. Surface modification of titanium alloys were carried out by low-temperature nitriding in a glow discharge in hydrogen-free environment. The main advantage of this method lies in the absence of hydrogen embrittlement and complete environmental safety process. Application of the glow discharge can not only speed up the process by the order of the diffusion surface saturation with nitrogen, but also significantly alters the kinetics of the process and quality of the nitrided layer, in particular its physio-mechanical properties and phase composition. For research purposes, the standards from an α + β alloy Ti-Al6-Cr2-Mo2,5 (VT8) were used. Research into the phase composition was performed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Stratified analysis by AES was conducted by etching the surface of the samples’ argon ion beam with diameters of 1.5 mm with an energy of 3000 eV and a current density of 400 mA/cm{sup 2}. The above material shows the promise of the technology of low

  12. Hydrotreatment activities of supported molybdenum nitrides and carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolce, G.M.; Savage, P.E.; Thompson, L.T. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-05-01

    The growing need for alternative sources of transportation fuels encourages the development of new hydrotreatment catalysts. These catalysts must be active and more hydrogen efficient than the current commercial hydrotreatment catalysts. Molybdenum nitrides and carbides are attractive candidate materials possessing properties that are comparable or superior to those of commercial sulfide catalysts. This research investigated the catalytic properties of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported molybdenum nitrides and carbides. These catalysts were synthesized via temperature-programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides with ammonia or methane/hydrogen mixtures. Phase constituents and compositions were determined by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and neutral activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface properties of the catalysts. Specific activities of the molybdenum nitrides and carbides were competitive with those of a commercial sulfide catalyst for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodesulfurization (HDS), and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). For HDN and HDS, the catalytic activity on a molybdenum basis was a strong inverse function of the molybdenum loading. Product distributions of the HDN, HDO and HDS of a variety of heteroatom compounds indicated that several of the nitrides and carbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalyst. 35 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. An ultrahigh vacuum, low-energy ion-assisted deposition system for III-V semiconductor film growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, S.; Barnett, S. A.; Choi, C.-H.

    1989-06-01

    A novel ion-assisted deposition system is described in which the substrate and growing film can be bombarded with high current densities (greater than 1 mA/sq cm) of very low energy (10-200 eV) ions. The system design philosophy is similar to that used in III-V semiconductor molecular-beam epitaxy systems: the chamber is an all-metal ultrahigh vacuum system with liquid-nitrogen-cooled shrouds, Knudsen-cell evaporation sources, a sample insertion load-lock, and a 30-kV reflection high-energy electron diffraction system. III-V semiconductor film growth is achieved using evaporated group-V fluxes and group-III elemental fluxes sputtered from high-purity targets using ions extracted from a triode glow discharge. Using an In target and an As effusion cell, InAs deposition rates R of 2 microns/h have been obtained. Epitaxial growth of InAs was observed on both GaSb(100) and Si(100) substrates.

  14. Pressure induced phase transitions in transition metal nitrides: Ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Anurag; Chauhan, Mamta [Advanced Material Research Lab, Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior 474010 (India); Singh, R.K. [Department of Physics, ITM University, Gurgaon 122017 (India)

    2011-12-15

    We have analyzed the stability of transition metal nitrides (TMNs) XN (X = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) in their original rocksalt (B1) and hypothetical CsCl (B2) type phases under high compression. The ground state total energy calculation approach of the system has been used through the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) type parameterization as exchange correlation functional. In the whole series of nitrides taken into consideration, tantalum nitride is found to be the most stable. We have observed that under compression the original B1-type phase of these nitrides transforms to a B2-type phase. We have also discussed the computation of ground state properties, like the lattice constant (a), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}) and first order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (B'{sub 0}) of the TMNs and their host elements. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Plasma-enhanced growth, composition, and refractive index of silicon oxy-nitride films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    1995-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry and refractive index measurements have been carried out on silicon oxy-nitride produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Nitrous oxide and ammonia were added to a constant flow of 2% silane in nitrogen, to produce oxy-nitride films with atomic...... nitrogen concentrations between 2 and 10 at. %. A simple atomic valence model is found to describe both the measured atomic concentrations and published material compositions for silicon oxy-nitride produced by PECVD. A relation between the Si–N bond concentration and the refractive index is found......-product. A model, that combine the chemical net reaction and the stoichiometric rules, is found to agree with measured deposition rates for given material compositions. Effects of annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere has been investigated for the 400 °C– 1100 °C temperature range. It is observed that PECVD oxy...

  16. Process for the production of metal nitride sintered bodies and resultant silicon nitride and aluminum nitride sintered bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, S.; Omori, M.; Hayashi, J.; Kayano, H.; Hamano, M.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the manufacture of metal nitride sintered bodies, in particular, a process in which a mixture of metal nitrite powders is shaped and heated together with a binding agent is described. Of the metal nitrides Si3N4 and AIN were used especially frequently because of their excellent properties at high temperatures. The goal is to produce a process for metal nitride sintered bodies with high strength, high corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, thermal shock resistance, and avoidance of previously known faults.

  17. Polymer/boron nitride nanocomposite materials for superior thermal transport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei-Li; Wang, Ping; Cao, Li; Anderson, Ankoma; Meziani, Mohammed J; Farr, Andrew J; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2012-06-25

    Boron nitride nanosheets were dispersed in polymers to give composite films with excellent thermal transport performances approaching the record values found in polymer/graphene nanocomposites. Similarly high performance at lower BN loadings was achieved by aligning the nanosheets in poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix by simple mechanical stretching (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Design and Analysis of CMOS-Compatible III-V Compound Electron-Hole Bilayer Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor for Ultra-Low-Power Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Yoon; Seo, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Seong Min; Cho, Seongjae; Kang, In Man

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we design and analyze complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible III-V compound electron-hole bilayer (EHB) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) by using two-dimensional (2D) technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. A recently proposed EHB TFET exploits a bias-induced band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) across the electron-hole bilayer by an electric field from the top and bottom gates. This is in contrast to conventional planar p(+)-p(-)-n TFETs, which utilize BTBT across the source-to-channel junction. We applied III-V compound semiconductor materials to the EHB TFETs in order to enhance the current drivability and switching performance. Devices based on various compound semiconductor materials have been designed and analyzed in terms of their primary DC characteristics. In addition, the operational principles were validated by close examination of the electron concentrations and energy-band diagrams under various operation conditions. The simulation results of the optimally designed In0.533Ga0.47As EHB TFET show outstanding performance, with an on-state current (Ion) of 249.5 μA/μm, subthreshold swing (S) of 11.4 mV/dec, and threshold voltage (Vth) of 50 mV at VDS = 0.5 V. Based on the DC-optimized InGaAs EHB TFET, the CMOS inverter circuit was simulated in views of static and dynamic behaviors of the p-channel device with exchanges between top and bottom gates or between source and drain electrodes maintaining the device structure.

  19. Point defects in thorium nitride: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Daroca, D., E-mail: pdaroca@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Llois, A.M. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnología Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    Thorium and its compounds (carbides and nitrides) are being investigated as possible materials to be used as nuclear fuels for Generation-IV reactors. As a first step in the research of these materials under irradiation, we study the formation energies and stability of point defects in thorium nitride by means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory. We focus on vacancies, interstitials, Frenkel pairs and Schottky defects. We found that N and Th vacancies have almost the same formation energy and that the most energetically favorable defects of all studied in this work are N interstitials. These kind of results for ThN, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically.

  20. Point defects in thorium nitride: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Llois, A.M.; Mosca, H.O.

    2016-01-01

    Thorium and its compounds (carbides and nitrides) are being investigated as possible materials to be used as nuclear fuels for Generation-IV reactors. As a first step in the research of these materials under irradiation, we study the formation energies and stability of point defects in thorium nitride by means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory. We focus on vacancies, interstitials, Frenkel pairs and Schottky defects. We found that N and Th vacancies have almost the same formation energy and that the most energetically favorable defects of all studied in this work are N interstitials. These kind of results for ThN, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically.

  1. Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanostructures via Nitridation of Nanopatterned Titanium Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Kim, Jongbum

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures are obtained via nitridation of titanium dioxide. Nanoparticles acquired a cubic shape with sharper edges following the rock-salt crystalline structure of TiN. Lattice constant of the resulting TiN nanoparticles matched well with the tabulated data. Energy...

  2. Positron annihilation studies of defects in molecular beam epitaxy grown III-V layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umlor, M.T.; Keeble, D.J.; Cooke, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    A summary of recent positron annihilation experiments on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown III-V layers is Presented. Variable energy positron beam measurements on Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 As undoped and Si doped have been completed. Positron trapping at a open volume defect in Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 :Si for temperatures from 300 to 25 K in the dark was observed. The positron trap was lost after 1.3 eV illumination at 25K. These results indicate an open volume defect is associated with the local structure of the deep donor state of the DX center. Stability of MBE GaAs to thermal annealing war, investigated over the temperature range of 230 to 700 degrees C, Proximity wafer furnace anneals in flowing argon were used, Samples grown above 450 degrees C were shown to be stable but for sample below this temperature an anneal induced vacancy related defect was produced for anneals between 400 and 500 degrees C. The nature of the defect was shown to be different for material grown at 350 and 230 degrees C. Activation energies of 2.5 eV to 2.3 eV were obtained from isochronal anneal experiments for samples grown at 350 and 230 degrees C, respectively

  3. Duplex surface treatment of AISI 1045 steel via plasma nitriding of chromized layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, F.; Sohi, M. Heydarzadeh; Ghani, J. Rasizadeh

    2011-01-01

    In this work AISI 1045 steel were duplex treated via plasma nitriding of chromized layer. Samples were pack chromized by using a powder mixture consisting of ferrochromium, ammonium chloride and alumina at 1273 K for 5 h. The samples were then plasma-nitrided for 5 h at 803 K and 823 K, in a gas mixture of 75%N 2 + 25%H 2 . The treated specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Vickers micro-hardness test. The thickness of chromized layer before nitriding was about 8 μm and it was increased after plasma nitriding. According to XRD analysis, the chromized layer was composed of chromium and iron carbides. Plasma nitriding of chromized layer resulted in the formation of chromium and iron nitrides and carbides. The hardness of the duplex layers was significantly higher than the hardness of the base material or chromized layer. The main cause of the large improvement in surface hardness was due to the formation of Cr x N and Fe x N phases in the duplex treated layers. Increasing of nitriding temperature from 803 to 823 K enhanced the formation of CrN in the duplex treated layer and increased the thickness of the nitrided layer.

  4. The influence of plasma nitriding on the fatigue behavior of austenitic stainless steel types AISI 316 and AISI 304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varavallo, Rogerio; Manfrinato, Marcos Dorigao; Rossino, Luciana Sgarbi; Spinelli, Dirceu; Riofano, Rosamel Melita Munoz

    2010-01-01

    The plasma nitriding process has been used as an efficient method to optimize the surface properties of steel and alloy in order to increase their wear, fatigue and corrosion resistance. This paper reports on a study of the composition and influence of the nitrided layer on the high-cycle fatigue properties of the AISI 316 and 304 type austenitic stainless steels. Test specimens of AISI 316 and 304 steel were nitrided at 400 deg C for 6 hours under a pressure of 4.5 mbar, using a gas mixture of 80% volume of H 2 and 20% volume of N 2 . The rotary fatigue limit of both nitrided and non-nitrided steels was determined, and the effect of the treatment on the fatigue limit of the two steels was evaluated. The mechanical properties of the materials were evaluated based on tensile tests, and the nitrided layer was characterized by microhardness tests, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The resulting nitride layer showed high hardness and mechanical strength, increasing the fatigue limit of the nitrided material in comparison with the non-nitrided one. The fatigue limit of the 316 steel increased from 400 MPa to 510 MPa in response to nitriding, while that of the 304 steel increased from 380 MPa to 560 MPa. One of the contributing factors of this increase was the introduction of residual compressive stresses during the surface hardening process, which reduce the onset of crack formation underneath the nitride layer. (author)

  5. 30 CFR 57.22208 - Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines... fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Auxiliary fans, except fans used in shops and other areas... applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18, and be operated so that recirculation is minimized. Auxiliary fans...

  6. Pr4N2S3 and Pr4N2Se3: two non-isostructural praseodymium(iii) nitride chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissner, Falk; Schleid, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The non-isostructural nitride chalcogenides of praseodymium, Pr 4 N 2 S 3 and Pr 4 N 2 Se 3 , are formed by the reaction of the praseodymium metal with sodium azide (NaN 3 ), praseodymium trihalide (PrX 3 ; X = Cl, Br, I) and the respective chalcogen (sulfur or selenium) at 900 C in evacuated silica ampoules after seven days. Both crystallize monoclinically in space group C2/c (Pr 4 N 2 S 3 : a = 1788.57(9), b = 986.04(5), c = 1266.49(6) pm, β = 134.546(7) , Z = 8; Pr 4 N 2 Se 3 : a = 1311.76(7), b = 1017.03(5), c = 650.42(3) pm, β = 90.114(6) , Z = 4). The crystal structures of both compounds show a layered construction, dominated by N 3- -centred (Pr 3+ ) 4 tetrahedra which share a common edge first. Continuing linkage of the so resulting bitetrahedral [N 2 Pr 6 ] 12+ units via the non-connected vertices to layers according to [stack ∞ 2 ]{[N(Pr) 2/2 e (Pr') 2/2 v ] 3+ } forms different kinds of tetrahedral nets which can be described as layers consisting of ''four- and eight-rings'' for Pr 4 N 2 S 3 and as layers of ''six-rings'' for Pr 4 N 2 Se 3 . Whereas the crystal structure of Pr 4 N 2 S 3 exhibits four different Pr 3+ cations with coordination numbers of six (2 x) and seven (2 x) against N 3- and S 2- , the number of cations in the nitride selenide (Pr 4 N 2 Se 3 ) is reduced to half (Pr1 and Pr2) also having six- and sevenfold anionic coordination spheres. Further motifs for the connection of [NM 4 ] 9+ tetrahedra in crystal structures of nitride chalcogenides and halides of the rare-earth elements with ratios of N: M = 1: 2 are presented and discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  7. Metallurgical response of an AISI 4140 steel to different plasma nitriding gas mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adão Felipe Oliveira Skonieski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma nitriding is a surface modification process that uses glow discharge to diffuse nitrogen atoms into the metallic matrix of different materials. Among the many possible parameters of the process, the gas mixture composition plays an important role, as it impacts directly the formed layer's microstructure. In this work an AISI 4140 steel was plasma nitrided under five different gas compositions. The plasma nitriding samples were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, microhardness test, X-ray diffraction and GDOES. The results showed that there are significant microstructural and morphological differences on the formed layers depending on the quantity of nitrogen and methane added to the plasma nitriding atmosphere. Thicknesses of 10, 5 and 2.5 µm were obtained when the nitrogen content of the gas mixtures were varied. The possibility to obtain a compound layer formed mainly by γ'-Fe4N nitrides was also shown. For all studied plasma nitriding conditions, the presence of a compound layer was recognized as being the responsible to hinder the decarburization on the steel surface. The highest value of surface hardness - 1277HV - were measured in the sample which were nitrided with 3vol.% of CH4.

  8. Excellent enhancement of corrosion properties of Fe–9Al–30Mn–1.8C alloy in 3.5% NaCl and 10% HCl aqueous solutions using gas nitriding treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-Chang; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chao, Chuen-Guang; Liu, Tzeng-Feng, E-mail: Lewischen815@gmail.com

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • The FeAlMnC alloy was gas-nitrided to simultaneously achieve the aging effect. • Anti-corrosion components AlN, Fe{sub 3}N and Fe{sub 4}N were identified by using GIXRD method. • The present nitrided alloy showed a great improvement in corrosion resistance. • The nitrided sample showed an excellent coherence between nitrided layer and matrix. • The nitrided and then stretched sample maintained satisfactory corrosion behavior. - Abstract: The as-quenched Fe–9.0Al–30Mn–1.8C (in wt.%) alloy gas nitrided at 550 °C for 4 h show excellent corrosion resistance investigated in 3.5% NaCl and 10% HCl solutions. Owing to the high corrosion resistance components, the gas-nitrided layer consists mainly of AlN with a slight amount of Fe{sub 3}N and Fe{sub 4}N identified by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction technique. Therefore, the pitting potential and corrosion potential of the nitrided sample are +1860 mV and +30 mV, respectively. Surprisingly, it is worthy to be pointed out that the nitrided and then tensile-tested alloy reveals very shallow in fracture depth and the excellent lattice coherence is shown between the nitrided layer and the substrate. Moreover, due to the extremely high nitrogen concentration (about 17–18 wt.%) at stretched surface, the corrosion resistance of present gas-nitrided and then tensile-tested alloy is superior to those optimally gas-nitrided or plasma-nitrided high-strength alloy steels, as well as martensitic stainless steels. The nitrided and then stretched alloy still retains a satisfactory corrosion resistance (E{sub pit} = +890 mV; E{sub corr} = +10 mV). Furthermore, only nanoscale-size pits were observed on the corroded surface after being immersed in 10% HCl for 24 h.

  9. On the Nature of Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Candidates. I. DES1, Eridanus III, and Tucana V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Blair C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kim, Dongwon; Schirmer, Mischa

    2018-01-01

    We use deep Gemini/GMOS-S g, r photometry to study the three ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidates DES1, Eridanus III (Eri III), and Tucana V (Tuc V). Their total luminosities, M V (DES1) = ‑1.42 ± 0.50 and M V (Eri III) = ‑2.07 ± 0.50, and mean metallicities, [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-{2.38}-0.19+0.21 and [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-{2.40}-0.12+0.19, are consistent with them being ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, as they fall just outside the 1σ confidence band of the luminosity–metallicity relation for Milky Way satellite galaxies. However, their positions in the size–luminosity relation suggest that they are star clusters. Interestingly, DES1 and Eri III are at relatively large Galactocentric distances, with DES1 located at {D}{GC}=74+/- 4 {kpc} and Eri III at {D}{GC}=91+/- 4 {kpc}. In projection, both objects are in the tail of gaseous filaments trailing the Magellanic Clouds and have similar 3D separations from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC): {{Δ }}{D}{SMC,{DES}1}=31.7 kpc and {{Δ }}{D}{SMC,{Eri}{III}}=41.0 kpc, respectively. It is plausible that these stellar systems are metal-poor SMC satellites. Tuc V represents an interesting phenomenon in its own right. Our deep photometry at the nominal position of Tuc V reveals a low-level excess of stars at various locations across the GMOS field without a well-defined center. An SMC Northern Overdensity–like isochrone would be an adequate match to the Tuc V color–magnitude diagram, and the proximity to the SMC (12.°1 {{Δ }}{D}{SMC,{Tuc}{{V}}}=13 kpc) suggests that Tuc V is either a chance grouping of stars related to the SMC halo or a star cluster in an advanced stage of dissolution.

  10. Growth of Ag-seeded III-V Nanowires and TEM Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Anna Helmi Caroline

    appropriate, the density and the vertical yield were obtained. The crystal structures for the grown nanowires have been investigated with TEM.We have also performed additional growths to further understand exactly how the nanowire growth proceeds as well as to understand the limitations of using Ag as a seed......This thesis deals with growth and characterization of GaAs and InAs nanowires. Today Au nanoparticle-seeding together with self-catalyzing are the dominating techniques to grow III-V nanowires with molecular beam epitaxy. In this thesis we instead investigate the possibility to use Ag as seed...... particle for growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires. The aim with the experiments performed has been to conclude whether Ag can be used to nucleate and grow nanowires on III-V substrates with molecular beam epitaxy. To investigate this we have performed growths of GaAs nanowires on GaAs(111)B and GaAs(100...

  11. Dilute Nitrides For 4-And 6- Junction Space Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, S.; Stammler, E.; Ronsch, S.; Oliva, E.; Schachtner, M.; Siefer, G.; Bett, A. W.; Dimroth, F.

    2011-10-01

    According to simulations the efficiency of conventional, lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction space solar cells can be strongly increased by the incorporation of additional junctions. In this way the existing excess current of the Germanium bottom cell can be reduced and the voltage of the stack can be increased. In particular, the use of 1.0 eV materials like GaInNAs opens the door for solar cells with significantly improved conversion efficiency. We have investigated the material properties of GaInNAs grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and its impact on the quantum efficiency of solar cells. Furthermore we have developed a GaInNAs subcell with a bandgap energy of 1.0 eV and integrated it into a GaInP/GaInAs/GaInNAs/Ge 4-junction and a AlGaInP/GaInP/AlGaInAs/GaInAs/GaInNAs/Ge 6- junction space solar cell. The material quality of the dilute nitride junction limits the current density of these devices to 9.3 mA/cm2 (AM0). This is not sufficient for a 4-junction cell but may lead to current matched 6- junction devices in the future.

  12. Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) versus titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) materials as bone anchored implants - Is one truly better than the other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Furqan A; Trobos, Margarita; Thomsen, Peter; Palmquist, Anders

    2016-05-01

    Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) and titanium alloys (typically Ti6Al4V) display excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Although the chemical composition and topography are considered important, the mechanical properties of the material and the loading conditions in the host have, conventionally, influenced material selection for different clinical applications: predominantly Ti6Al4V in orthopaedics while cp-Ti in dentistry. This paper attempts to address three important questions: (i) To what extent do the surface properties differ when cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V materials are manufactured with the same processing technique?, (ii) Does bone tissue respond differently to the two materials, and (iii) Do bacteria responsible for causing biomaterial-associated infections respond differently to the two materials? It is concluded that: (i) Machined cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V exhibit similar surface morphology, topography, phase composition and chemistry, (ii) Under experimental conditions, cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V demonstrate similar osseointegration and biomechanical anchorage, and (iii) Experiments in vitro fail to disclose differences between cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V to harbour Staphylococcus epidermidis growth. No clinical comparative studies exist which could determine if long-term, clinical differences exist between the two types of bulk materials. It is debatable whether cp-Ti or Ti6Al4V exhibit superiority over the other, and further comparative studies, particularly in a clinical setting, are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Steric control of redox events in organo-uranium chemistry: synthesis and characterisation of U(V) oxo and nitrido complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoureas, Nikolaos; Kilpatrick, Alexander; Inman, Christopher; Cloke, Frederick Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and molecular structures of a U(V) neutral terminal oxo complex and a U(V) sodium uranium nitride contact ion pair are described. The synthesis of the former is achieved by the use of tBuNCO as a mild oxygen transfer reagent, whilst that of the latter is via the reduction of NaN3. Both mono-uranium complexes are stabilised by the presence of bulky silyl substituents on the ligand framework that facilitate a 2e- oxidation of a single U(III) centre. In contrast, when steric hindra...

  14. Intensity of adjuvant chemotherapy regimens and grade III-V toxicities among elderly stage III colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erning, F N; Razenberg, L G E M; Lemmens, V E P P; Creemers, G J; Pruijt, J F M; Maas, H A A M; Janssen-Heijnen, M L G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight in the use, intensity and toxicity of therapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) and capecitabine monotherapy (CapMono) among elderly stage III colon cancer patients treated in everyday clinical practice. Data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry were used. All stage III colon cancer patients aged ≥70 years diagnosed in the southeastern part between 2005 and 2012 and treated with CAPOX or CapMono were included. Differences in completion of all planned cycles, cumulative dosages and toxicity between both regimens were evaluated. One hundred ninety-three patients received CAPOX and 164 patients received CapMono; 33% (n = 63) of the patients receiving CAPOX completed all planned cycles of both agents, whereas 55% (n = 90) of the patients receiving CapMono completed all planned cycles (P characteristics, CapMono was associated with a lower odds of developing grade III-V toxicity than CAPOX (odds ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.89). For patients treated with CAPOX, the most common toxicities were gastrointestinal (29%), haematological (14%), neurological (11%) and other toxicity (13%). For patients treated with CapMono, dermatological (17%), gastrointestinal (13%) and other toxicity (11%) were the most common. CAPOX is associated with significantly more grade III-V toxicities than CapMono, which had a pronounced impact on the cumulative dosage received and completion of all planned cycles. In this light, CapMono seems preferable over CAPOX. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of As(III) and As(V) by Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry via On-line Reduction of As(V) by KI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1997-01-01

    A volume-based flow injection (FI) procedure is described for the determination and speciation of trace inorganic arsenic, As(III) and As(V), via hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) of As(III). The determination of total arsenic is obtained by on-line reduction of As(V) to As...

  16. Computational and experimental study of copper–gold nitride formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce-Cázares, I., E-mail: iponce@cnyn.unam.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3918, A. Postal 360, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Soto, G., E-mail: gerardo@cnyn.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Moreno-Armenta, Ma. Guadalupe, E-mail: moreno@cnyn.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); De la Cruz, W., E-mail: wencel@cnyn.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • The new Cu{sub 3}Au-nitride compound was successfully grown by the sputtering method. • This material is Cu{sub 3}Au{sub 0.5}N with cubic system (Pm3m space group), where the gold randomly occupies half of the 1a Wyckoff sites. • The material was a pseudo-gap conductor with conductance as good as a heavily-doped semiconductor at room temperature. - Abstract: This work investigates the formation of a Cu{sub 3}Au-nitride alloy using experimental and computational methods. For this purpose, we prepared a custom-made Cu–Au target and then hit it with argon ions in the presence of molecular nitrogen that produced a film on Corning glass. This film was analyzed using spectroscopic and diffraction techniques. The four-point-probe method and Tauc plots were applied to determine the electrical and optical properties of this thin film. Using first principle calculations a structural model was constructed that validated our observations. The crystalline system that we used was cubic (Pm3m space group) with half the sites filled with Au randomly. The composition was close to Cu{sub 3}Au{sub 0.5}N. In agreement with the electrical measurements and calculations, the Cu{sub 3}Au{sub 0.5}N band structure was highly affected by the Au incorporation since the electrical resistance and carrier density were in the 10{sup −3} Ω cm and 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} ranges, respectively, and the optical gap decreased 0.61 eV with respect to the Cu{sub 3}N. The material was a pseudo-gap conductor with conductance as good as a heavily-doped semiconductor at room temperature; this should give it great potential for use in the optoelectronics industry.

  17. Computational and experimental study of copper–gold nitride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce-Cázares, I.; Soto, G.; Moreno-Armenta, Ma. Guadalupe; De la Cruz, W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The new Cu 3 Au-nitride compound was successfully grown by the sputtering method. • This material is Cu 3 Au 0.5 N with cubic system (Pm3m space group), where the gold randomly occupies half of the 1a Wyckoff sites. • The material was a pseudo-gap conductor with conductance as good as a heavily-doped semiconductor at room temperature. - Abstract: This work investigates the formation of a Cu 3 Au-nitride alloy using experimental and computational methods. For this purpose, we prepared a custom-made Cu–Au target and then hit it with argon ions in the presence of molecular nitrogen that produced a film on Corning glass. This film was analyzed using spectroscopic and diffraction techniques. The four-point-probe method and Tauc plots were applied to determine the electrical and optical properties of this thin film. Using first principle calculations a structural model was constructed that validated our observations. The crystalline system that we used was cubic (Pm3m space group) with half the sites filled with Au randomly. The composition was close to Cu 3 Au 0.5 N. In agreement with the electrical measurements and calculations, the Cu 3 Au 0.5 N band structure was highly affected by the Au incorporation since the electrical resistance and carrier density were in the 10 −3 Ω cm and 10 22 cm −3 ranges, respectively, and the optical gap decreased 0.61 eV with respect to the Cu 3 N. The material was a pseudo-gap conductor with conductance as good as a heavily-doped semiconductor at room temperature; this should give it great potential for use in the optoelectronics industry

  18. Ion Implantation in III-V Compound Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    340 keV H + -0 Ga P  O UES-723-292 !:• (H o>ray *P-K X - rayO Ga-K X -ray iii! RBS * ..I -iO.. 0 10I to1. 01 • .0 -. I0 1 LI =i, O I 0 01 0.J 10...Identity by blo ," pume) Ion Implantation, GaAs, Hall effect, electrical resistivity, Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), channeling, Proton induced x -ray...Mebility (jH) upon Aiinealing Temperature (TA) for 1 X 101 /cm• Dose Samples of GaAs:Mg with Three Different Capping Methods 33 p 14 Dependence of Surface

  19. Silicon nitride gradient film as the underlayer of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon overcoat for magnetic recording slider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guigen, E-mail: wanggghit@yahoo.com [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Kuang Xuping; Zhang Huayu; Zhu Can [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Han Jiecai [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zuo Hongbo [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Ma Hongtao [SAE Technologies Development (Dongguan) Co., Ltd., Dongguan 523087 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ultra-thin carbon films with different silicon nitride (Si-N) film underlayers were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It highlighted the influences of Si-N underlayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon films with Si-N underlayers obtained by nitriding especially at the substrate bias of -150 V, can exhibit better corrosion protection properties - Abstract: There are higher technical requirements for protection overcoat of magnetic recording slider used in high-density storage fields for the future. In this study, silicon nitride (Si-N) composition-gradient films were firstly prepared by nitriding of silicon thin films pre-sputtered on silicon wafers and magnetic recording sliders, using microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source. The ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were then deposited on the Si-N films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Compared with amorphous carbon overcoats with conventional silicon underlayers, the overcoats with Si-N underlayers obtained by plasma nitriding especially at the substrate bias of -150 V, can provide better corrosion protection for high-density magnetic recording sliders.

  20. Silicon nitride gradient film as the underlayer of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon overcoat for magnetic recording slider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guigen; Kuang Xuping; Zhang Huayu; Zhu Can; Han Jiecai; Zuo Hongbo; Ma Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ultra-thin carbon films with different silicon nitride (Si-N) film underlayers were prepared. ► It highlighted the influences of Si-N underlayers. ► The carbon films with Si-N underlayers obtained by nitriding especially at the substrate bias of −150 V, can exhibit better corrosion protection properties - Abstract: There are higher technical requirements for protection overcoat of magnetic recording slider used in high-density storage fields for the future. In this study, silicon nitride (Si-N) composition-gradient films were firstly prepared by nitriding of silicon thin films pre-sputtered on silicon wafers and magnetic recording sliders, using microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source. The ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were then deposited on the Si-N films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Compared with amorphous carbon overcoats with conventional silicon underlayers, the overcoats with Si-N underlayers obtained by plasma nitriding especially at the substrate bias of −150 V, can provide better corrosion protection for high-density magnetic recording sliders.

  1. Damage initiation and evolution in silicon nitride under\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raga, R.; Khader, I.; Chlup, Zdeněk; Kailer, A.

    360-361, AUG (2016), s. 147-159 ISSN 0043-1648 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 263476 - ROLICER Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Silicon nitride * Rollingcontactfatigue * Subsurface damage Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2016

  2. Luminescence properties of Ce3+-activated alkaline earth silicon nitride M2Si5N8 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.Q.; With, de G.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The luminescence properties of Ce3+, Li+ or Na+ co-doped alkaline-earth silicon nitride M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) are reported. The solubility of Ce3+ and optical properties of M2-2xCexLixSi5N8 (x0.1) materials have been investigated as function of the cerium concentration by X-ray powder diffraction

  3. Studies on the removal of arsenic (III) from water by a novel hybrid material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Sandip; Padhi, T.; Patel, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The removal of As (III) is about 98% at pH 7 with the hybrid material (ZrO-EA). → The hybrid material exhibits specific surface area of 201.62 m 2 /g. → The adsorption of arsenic (III) from aqueous solution by the hybrid material is spontaneous. → The material could be easily regenerated with sodium hydroxide at pH 12. - Abstract: The present work provides a method for removal of the arsenic (III) from water. An ion-exchanger hybrid material zirconium (IV) oxide-ethanolamine (ZrO-EA) is synthesized and characterized which is subsequently used for the removal of selective arsenic (III) from water containing 10,50,100 mg/L of arsenic (III) solution. The probable practical application for arsenic removal from water by this material has also been studied. The various parameters affecting the removal process like initial concentration of As (III), adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature, ionic strength, and pH are investigated. From the data of results, it is indicated that, the adsorbent dose of 0.7 mg/L, contact time 50 min after which the adsorption process comes to equilibrium, temperature (25 ± 2), solution pH (5-7), which are the optimum conditions for adsorption. The typical adsorption isotherms are calculated to know the suitability of the process. The column studies showed 98% recovery of arsenic from water especially at low concentration of arsenic in water samples.

  4. Synthesis of electronically modified carbon nitride from a processable semiconductor, 3-aminotriazole-1,2,4 oligomer, via a topotactic-like phase transition

    OpenAIRE

    Savateev, A.; Pronkin, S.; Epping, J.; Willinger, M.; Antonietti, M.; Dontsova, D.

    2017-01-01

    The thermally induced topotactic transformation of organic polymeric semiconductors is achieved using similarity of the chemical structures of the two C,N,H-containing materials. Namely, the oligomer of 3-aminotriazole-1,2,4 (OATA) is transformed into an electronically modified graphitic carbon nitride (OATA-CN) upon heating at 550 °C. During the transition, the flat band potential of the organic semiconductor is only slightly shifted from -0.11 eV to -0.06 eV, while the optical band gap is s...

  5. Colloidal characterization of silicon nitride and silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feke, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    The colloidal behavior of aqueous ceramic slips strongly affects the forming and sintering behavior and the ultimate mechanical strength of the final ceramic product. The colloidal behavior of these materials, which is dominated by electrical interactions between the particles, is complex due to the strong interaction of the solids with the processing fluids. A surface titration methodology, modified to account for this interaction, was developed and used to provide fundamental insights into the interfacial chemistry of these systems. Various powder pretreatment strategies were explored to differentiate between true surface chemistry and artifacts due to exposure history. The colloidal behavior of both silicon nitride and carbide is dominated by silanol groups on the powder surfaces. However, the colloid chemistry of silicon nitride is apparently influenced by an additional amine group. With the proper powder treatments, silicon nitride and carbide powder can be made to appear colloidally equivalent. The impact of these results on processing control will be discussed.

  6. The Effect of Adjacent Materials on the Propagation of Phonon Polaritons in Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kris S; Trajanoski, Daniel; Ho, Kevin; Gilburd, Leonid; Maiti, Aniket; van der Velden, Luuk; de Beer, Sissi; Walker, Gilbert C

    2017-07-06

    In order to apply the ability of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) to confine energy in the form of hyperbolic phonon polariton (HPhP) modes in photonic-electronic devices, approaches to finely control and leverage the sensitivity of these propagating waves must be investigated. Here, we show that by surrounding hBN with materials of lower/higher dielectric responses, such as air and silicon, lower/higher surface momenta of HPhPs can be achieved. Furthermore, an alternative method for preparing thin hBN crystals with minimum contamination is presented, which provides opportunities to study the sensitivity of the damping mechanism of HPhPs on adsorbed materials. Infrared scanning near-field optical microscopy (IR-SNOM) results suggest that the reflections at the upper and lower hBN interfaces are primary causes of the damping of HPhPs, and that the damping coefficients of propagating waves are highly sensitive to adjacent layers, suggesting opportunities for sensor applications.

  7. High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Seth

    2012-09-12

    The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong

  8. Adsorption and desorption of Am(III) on calcareous soil and its parent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weijuan; Zhang Fuming; Tao Zuyi

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of Am(III) on a calcareous soil (sierozem) and its parent material (loess) were studied by batch technique. The molarities of the Am(III) aqueous solutions were less than 5 x 10 -9 mol/l. High adsorbability was found of Am(III) on the calcareous soil and its parent material. In order to decrease the adsorption and, hence, to investigate the adsorption characteristics properly, stable Eu 3+ as hold back carrier and analogue was added to the aqueous solution. The relative contributions of CaCO 3 , organic matter (OM) to the Am(III) adsorption on calcareous soil and its parent material were investigated. The adsorption and desorption isotherms of Am(III) on untreated soil and loess and the three kinds of treated soils and three kinds of treated loesses to remove CaCO 3 , OM and both CaCO 3 and OM were determined, respectively. It was found that all isotherms were linear, the average distribution coefficients (K d ) for the untreated soil and for the untreated loess were almost equal, while there was an obvious difference between the values of the average distribution coefficients (K d ) for the treated soil and the treated loess to remove CaCO 3 or OM. The adsorption-desorption hysteresis on the untreated and treated soils and loesses actually occurred and there was an obvious difference between the hysteresis coefficients on both the corresponding treated soil and loess. It can be concluded that the adsorbability of Am(III) on calcareous soil is similar to that on its parent material, and that the contributions of CaCO 3 and OM to the Am(III) adsorption by the untreated soil are different from those by the untreated parent material. (author)

  9. First principles calculations of interstitial and lamellar rhenium nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, G., E-mail: gerardo@cnyn.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico); Tiznado, H.; Reyes, A.; Cruz, W. de la [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible structures of rhenium nitride as a function of composition are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloying energy is favorable for rhenium nitride in lamellar arrangements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structures produced by magnetron sputtering are metastable variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structures produced by high-pressure high-temperature are stable configurations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lamellar structures are a new category of interstitial dissolutions. - Abstract: We report here a systematic first principles study of two classes of variable-composition rhenium nitride: i, interstitial rhenium nitride as a solid solution and ii, rhenium nitride in lamellar structures. The compounds in class i are cubic and hexagonal close-packed rhenium phases, with nitrogen in the octahedral and tetrahedral interstices of the metal, and they are formed without changes to the structure, except for slight distortions of the unit cells. In the compounds in class ii, by contrast, the nitrogen inclusion provokes stacking faults in the parent metal structure. These faults create trigonal-prismatic sites where the nitrogen residence is energetically favored. This second class of compounds produces lamellar structures, where the nitrogen lamellas are inserted among multiple rhenium layers. The Re{sub 3}N and Re{sub 2}N phases produced recently by high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis belong to this class. The ratio of the nitrogen layers to the rhenium layers is given by the composition. While the first principle calculations point to higher stability for the lamellar structures as opposed to the interstitial phases, the experimental evidence presented here demonstrates that the interstitial classes are synthesizable by plasma methods. We conclude that rhenium nitrides possess polymorphism and that the two-dimensional lamellar structures might represent an emerging class of materials

  10. First principles calculations of interstitial and lamellar rhenium nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, G.; Tiznado, H.; Reyes, A.; Cruz, W. de la

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possible structures of rhenium nitride as a function of composition are analyzed. ► The alloying energy is favorable for rhenium nitride in lamellar arrangements. ► The structures produced by magnetron sputtering are metastable variations. ► The structures produced by high-pressure high-temperature are stable configurations. ► The lamellar structures are a new category of interstitial dissolutions. - Abstract: We report here a systematic first principles study of two classes of variable-composition rhenium nitride: i, interstitial rhenium nitride as a solid solution and ii, rhenium nitride in lamellar structures. The compounds in class i are cubic and hexagonal close-packed rhenium phases, with nitrogen in the octahedral and tetrahedral interstices of the metal, and they are formed without changes to the structure, except for slight distortions of the unit cells. In the compounds in class ii, by contrast, the nitrogen inclusion provokes stacking faults in the parent metal structure. These faults create trigonal-prismatic sites where the nitrogen residence is energetically favored. This second class of compounds produces lamellar structures, where the nitrogen lamellas are inserted among multiple rhenium layers. The Re 3 N and Re 2 N phases produced recently by high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis belong to this class. The ratio of the nitrogen layers to the rhenium layers is given by the composition. While the first principle calculations point to higher stability for the lamellar structures as opposed to the interstitial phases, the experimental evidence presented here demonstrates that the interstitial classes are synthesizable by plasma methods. We conclude that rhenium nitrides possess polymorphism and that the two-dimensional lamellar structures might represent an emerging class of materials within binary nitride chemistry.

  11. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of silicon oxide and silicon nitride superlattices containing silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuleiko, D V; Ilin, A S

    2016-01-01

    Photoluminescence and electrical properties of superlattices with thin (1 to 5 nm) alternating silicon-rich silicon oxide or silicon-rich silicon nitride, and silicon oxide or silicon nitride layers containing silicon nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with subsequent annealing were investigated. The entirely silicon oxide based superlattices demonstrated photoluminescence peak shift due to quantum confinement effect. Electrical measurements showed the hysteresis effect in the vicinity of zero voltage due to structural features of the superlattices from SiOa 93 /Si 3 N 4 and SiN 0 . 8 /Si 3 N 4 layers. The entirely silicon nitride based samples demonstrated resistive switching effect, comprising an abrupt conductivity change at about 5 to 6 V with current-voltage characteristic hysteresis. The samples also demonstrated efficient photoluminescence with maximum at ∼1.4 eV, due to exiton recombination in silicon nanocrystals. (paper)

  12. Nitrogen ion induced nitridation of Si(111) surface: Energy and fluence dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); ISOM, Universidad Politecnia de Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Kumar, Mahesh [Physics and Energy Harvesting Group, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Nötzel, R. [ISOM, Universidad Politecnia de Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Shivaprasad, S.M., E-mail: smsprasad@jncasr.ac.in [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India)

    2014-06-01

    We present the surface modification of Si(111) into silicon nitride by exposure to energetic N{sub 2}{sup +} ions. In-situ UHV experiments have been performed to optimize the energy and fluence of the N{sub 2}{sup +} ions to form silicon nitride at room temperature (RT) and characterized in-situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We have used N{sub 2}{sup +} ion beams in the energy range of 0.2–5.0 keV of different fluence to induce surface reactions, which lead to the formation of Si{sub x}N{sub y} on the Si(111) surface. The XPS core level spectra of Si(2p) and N(1s) have been deconvoluted into different oxidation states to extract qualitative information, while survey scans have been used for quantifying of the silicon nitride formation, valence band spectra show that as the N{sub 2}{sup +} ion fluence increases, there is an increase in the band gap. The secondary electron emission spectra region of photoemission is used to evaluate the change in the work function during the nitridation process. The results show that surface nitridation initially increases rapidly with ion fluence and then saturates. - Highlights: • A systematic study for the formation of silicon nitride on Si(111). • Investigation of optimal energy and fluence for energetic N{sub 2}{sup +} ions. • Silicon nitride formation at room temperature on Si(111)

  13. Formation of gallium nitride templates and freestanding substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy for homoepitaxial growth of III-nitride devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Adrian Daniel

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a direct wide band gap semiconductor currently under heavy development worldwide due to interest in its applications in ultra-violet optoelectronics, power electronics, devices operating in harsh environments (high temperature or corrorsive), etc. While a number of devices have been demonstrated with this material and its related alloys, the unavailability of GaN substrates is seen as one of the current major bottlenecks to both material quality and device performance. This dissertation is concerned with the synthesis of high quality GaN substrates by the hydride vapor phase epitaxy method (HVPE). In this work, the flow of growth precursors in a home-built HVPE reactor was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equation and solved by finite element analysis to promote uniformity of GaN on 2'' sapphire substrates. Kinetics of growth was studied and various regimes of growth were identified to establish a methodology for HVPE GaN growth, independent of reactor geometry. GaN templates as well as bulk substrates were fabricated in this work. Realization of freestanding GaN substrates was achieved through discovery of a natural stress-induced method of separating bulk GaN from sapphire via mechanical failure of a low-temperature GaN buffer layer. Such a process eliminates the need for pre- or post-processing of sapphire substrates, as is currently the standard. Stress in GaN-on-sapphire is discussed, with the dominant contributor identified as thermal stress due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the two materials. This thermal stress is analyzed using Stoney's equation and conditions for crack-free growth of thick GaN substrates were identified. An etch-back process for planarizing GaN templates was also developed and successfully applied to rough GaN templates. The planarization of GaN has been mainly addressed by chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP) methods in the literature, with notable shortcomings including the inability to effectively

  14. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies associated with acute and chronic grade III and grade V acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gunnar; Millett, Peter J; Tahal, Dimitri S; Al Ibadi, Mireille; Lill, Helmut; Katthagen, Jan Christoph

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies with acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III and V. Patients who underwent arthroscopically-assisted stabilization of acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III or grade V between 01/2007 and 12/2015 were identified in the patient databases of two surgical centres. Gender, age at index surgery, grade of acromioclavicular joint injury (Rockwood III or Rockwood V), and duration between injury and index surgery (classified as acute or chronic) were of interest. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies were noted and their treatment was classified as debridement or reconstructive procedure. A total of 376 patients (336 male, 40 female) were included. Mean age at time of arthroscopic acromioclavicular joint reconstruction surgery was 42.1 ± 14.0 years. Overall, 201 patients (53%) had one or more concomitant glenohumeral pathologies. Lesions of the biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff were the most common. Forty-five patients (12.0%) had concomitant glenohumeral pathologies that required an additional repair. The remaining 156 patients (41.5%) received a debridement of their concomitant pathologies. Rockwood grade V compared to Rockwood grade III (p = 0.013; odds ratio 1.7), and chronic compared to acute injury were significantly associated with having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology (p = 0.019; odds ratio 1.7). The probability of having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology was also significantly associated with increasing age (p acromioclavicular joint injury of either grade III or V. Twenty-two percent of these patients with concomitant glenohumeral pathologies received an additional dedicated repair procedure. Although a significant difference in occurrence of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies was seen between Rockwood grades III and V, and between acute and chronic lesions, increasing age was identified as the most dominant predictor. Level IV, case series.

  15. Properties of minor actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The present status of the research on properties of minor actinide nitrides for the development of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle based on nitride fuel and pyrochemical reprocessing is described. Some thermal stabilities of Am-based nitrides such as AmN and (Am, Zr)N were mainly investigated. Stabilization effect of ZrN was cleary confirmed for the vaporization and hydrolytic behaviors. New experimental equipments for measuring thermal properties of minor actinide nitrides were also introduced. (author)

  16. Molybdenum Nitride Films: Crystal Structures, Synthesis, Mechanical, Electrical and Some Other Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Jauberteau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Among transition metal nitrides, molybdenum nitrides have been much less studied even though their mechanical properties as well as their electrical and catalytic properties make them very attractive for many applications. The δ-MoN phase of hexagonal structure is a potential candidate for an ultra-incompressible and hard material and can be compared with c-BN and diamond. The predicted superconducting temperature of the metastable MoN phase of NaCl-B1-type cubic structure is the highest of all refractory carbides and nitrides. The composition of molybdenum nitride films as well as the structures and properties depend on the parameters of the process used to deposit the films. They are also strongly correlated to the electronic structure and chemical bonding. An unusual mixture of metallic, covalent and ionic bonding is found in the stoichiometric compounds.

  17. Optimization and characterization of bulk hexagonal boron nitride single crystals grown by the nickel-chromium flux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Tim

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a wide bandgap III-V semiconductor that has seen new interest due to the development of other III-V LED devices and the advent of graphene and other 2-D materials. For device applications, high quality, low defect density materials are needed. Several applications for hBN crystals are being investigated, including as a neutron detector and interference-less infrared-absorbing material. Isotopically enriched crystals were utilized for enhanced propagation of phonon modes. These applications exploit the unique physical, electronic and nanophotonics applications for bulk hBN crystals. In this study, bulk hBN crystals were grown by the flux method using a molten Ni-Cr solvent at high temperatures (1500°C) and atmospheric pressures. The effects of growth parameters, source materials, and gas environment on the crystals size, morphology and purity were established and controlled, and the reliability of the process was greatly improved. Single-crystal domains exceeding 1mm in width and 200microm in thickness were produced and transferred to handle substrates for analysis. Grain size dependence with respect to dwell temperature, cooling rate and cooling temperature were analyzed and modeled using response surface morphology. Most significantly, crystal grain width was predicted to increase linearly with dwell temperature, with single-crystal domains exceeding 2mm in at 1700°C. Isotopically enriched 10B and 11B hBN crystal were produced using a Ni-Cr-B flux method, and their properties investigated. 10B concentration was evaluated using SIMS and correlated to the shift in the Raman peak of the E2g mode. Crystals with enrichment of 99% 10B and >99% 11B were achieved, with corresponding Raman shift peaks at 1392.0 cm-1 and 1356.6 cm-1, respectively. Peak FWHM also decreased as isotopic enrichment approached 100%, with widths as low as 3.5 cm-1 achieved, compared to 8.0 cm-1 for natural abundance samples. Defect selective etching was

  18. Second-harmonic generation in substoichiometric silicon nitride layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Emanuele; Capretti, Antonio; Miano, Giovanni; Dal Negro, Luca

    2013-03-01

    Harmonic generation in optical circuits offers the possibility to integrate wavelength converters, light amplifiers, lasers, and multiple optical signal processing devices with electronic components. Bulk silicon has a negligible second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility owing to its crystal centrosymmetry. Silicon nitride has its place in the microelectronic industry as an insulator and chemical barrier. In this work, we propose to take advantage of silicon excess in silicon nitride to increase the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) efficiency. Thin films have been grown by reactive magnetron sputtering and their nonlinear optical properties have been studied by femtosecond pumping over a wide range of excitation wavelengths, silicon nitride stoichiometry and thermal processes. We demonstrate SHG in the visible range (375 - 450 nm) using a tunable 150 fs Ti:sapphire laser, and we optimize the SH emission at a silicon excess of 46 at.% demonstrating a maximum SHG efficiency of 4x10-6 in optimized films. Polarization properties, generation efficiency, and the second order nonlinear optical susceptibility are measured for all the investigated samples and discussed in terms of an effective theoretical model. Our findings show that the large nonlinear optical response demonstrated in optimized Si-rich silicon nitride materials can be utilized for the engineering of nonlinear optical functions and devices on a Si chip.

  19. The mechanisms of detoxification of As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V) in the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja Munoz, L; Purchase, D; Jones, H; Raab, A; Urgast, D; Feldmann, J; Garelick, H

    2016-06-01

    The response of Chlorella vulgaris when challenged by As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was assessed through experiments on adsorption, efflux and speciation of arsenic (reduction, oxidation, methylation and chelation with glutathione/phytochelatin [GSH/PC]). Our study indicates that at high concentrations of phosphate (1.62mM of HPO4(2-)), upon exposure to As(V), cells are able to shift towards methylation of As(V) rather than PC formation. Treatment with As(V) caused a moderate decrease in intracellular pH and a strong increase in the concentration of free thiols (GSH). Passive surface adsorption was found to be negligible for living cells exposed to DMA and As(V). However, adsorption of As(III) was observed to be an active process in C. vulgaris, because it did not show saturation at any of the exposure periods. Chelation of As(III) with GS/PC and to a lesser extent hGS/hPC is a major detoxification mechanism employed by C. vulgaris cells when exposed to As(III). The increase of bound As-GS/PC complexes was found to be strongly related to an increase in concentration of As(III) in media. C. vulgaris cells did not produce any As-GS/PC complex when exposed to As(V). This may indicate that a reduction step is needed for As(V) complexation with GSH/PC. C. vulgaris cells formed DMAS(V)-GS upon exposure to DMA independent of the exposure period. As(III) triggers the formation of arsenic complexes with PC and homophytochelatins (hPC) and their compartmentalisation to vacuoles. A conceptual model was devised to explain the mechanisms involving ABCC1/2 transport. The potential of C. vulgaris to bio-remediate arsenic from water appeared to be highly selective and effective without the potential hazard of reducing As(V) to As(III), which is more toxic to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composite (CFCC) Program: Gaseous Nitridation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Suplinskas G. DiBona; W. Grant

    2001-10-29

    Textron has developed a mature process for the fabrication of continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) tubes for application in the aluminum processing and casting industry. The major milestones in this project are System Composition; Matrix Formulation; Preform Fabrication; Nitridation; Material Characterization; Component Evaluation

  1. Effect of calcium on adsorptive removal of As(III) and As(V) by iron oxide-based adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Uwamariya, V.; Petruševski, Branislav; Lens, Piet Nl L; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    for filter columns with IOCS and GFH, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto GFH follows a second-order reaction, with and without addition of calcium. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto IOCS follows a first-order reaction without

  2. Dilute nitride InNP quantum dots: Growth and photoluminescence mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Y. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Takabayashi, K.; Kamiya, I. [Quantum Interface Laboratory, Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Sukrittanon, S. [Material Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Pan, J. L.; Tu, C. W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Self-assembled dilute nitride InNP quantum dots (QDs) in GaP matrix grown under the Stranski-Krastanov mode by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The N-related localized states inside the InNP QDs provide a spatially direct recombination channel, in contrast to the spatially indirect channel through the strained In(N)P QDs/GaP interface states. The N incorporation into InP QDs therefore causes a blueshift and double-peak features in photoluminescence, which are not observed in other dilute nitride materials.

  3. Communication: Water on hexagonal boron nitride from diffusion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamdani, Yasmine S.; Ma, Ming; Michaelides, Angelos, E-mail: angelos.michaelides@ucl.ac.uk [Thomas Young Centre and London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17–19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Alfè, Dario [Thomas Young Centre and London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17–19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von [Institute of Physical Chemistry and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratories, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Despite a recent flurry of experimental and simulation studies, an accurate estimate of the interaction strength of water molecules with hexagonal boron nitride is lacking. Here, we report quantum Monte Carlo results for the adsorption of a water monomer on a periodic hexagonal boron nitride sheet, which yield a water monomer interaction energy of −84 ± 5 meV. We use the results to evaluate the performance of several widely used density functional theory (DFT) exchange correlation functionals and find that they all deviate substantially. Differences in interaction energies between different adsorption sites are however better reproduced by DFT.

  4. Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet electrode-based high-performance ionic actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan; Hu, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Jingjing; Chen, Xueli; Whoehling, Vincent; Plesse, Cédric; Nguyen, Giao T. M.; Vidal, Frédéric; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ionic actuators have attracted attention due to their remarkably large strain under low-voltage stimulation. Because actuation performance is mainly dominated by the electrochemical and electromechanical processes of the electrode layer, the electrode material and structure are crucial. Here, we report a graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet electrode-based ionic actuator that displays high electrochemical activity and electromechanical conversion abilities, including large specific capacitance (259.4 F g−1) with ionic liquid as the electrolyte, fast actuation response (0.5±0.03% in 300 ms), large electromechanical strain (0.93±0.03%) and high actuation stability (100,000 cycles) under 3 V. The key to the high performance lies in the hierarchical pore structure with dominant size actuation performance. PMID:26028354

  5. Erosion-corrosion resistance properties of 316L austenitic stainless steels after low-temperature liquid nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Jun; Fan, Hongyuan; Pan, Dong

    2018-05-01

    The low-temperature liquid nitriding of stainless steels can result in the formation of a surface zone of so-called expanded austenite (S-phase) by the dissolution of large amounts of nitrogen in the solid solution and formation of a precipitate-free layer supersaturated with high hardness. Erosion-corrosion measurements were performed on low-temperature nitrided and non-nitrided 316L stainless steels. The total erosion-corrosion, erosion-only, and corrosion-only wastages were measured directly. As expected, it was shown that low-temperature nitriding dramatically reduces the degree of erosion-corrosion in stainless steels, caused by the impingement of particles in a corrosive medium. The nitrided 316L stainless steels exhibited an improvement of almost 84% in the erosion-corrosion resistance compared to their non-nitrided counterparts. The erosion-only rates and synergistic levels showed a general decline after low-temperature nitriding. Low-temperature liquid nitriding can not only reduce the weight loss due to erosion but also significantly reduce the weight loss rate of interactions, so that the total loss of material decreased evidently. Therefore, 316L stainless steels displayed excellent erosion-corrosion behaviors as a consequence of their highly favorable corrosion resistances and superior wear properties.

  6. Low-temperature direct synthesis of mesoporous vanadium nitrides for electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Min; Jeong, Gyoung Hwa; Kim, Sang-Wook; Kim, Chang-Koo

    2017-04-01

    Mesoporous vanadium nitrides are directly synthesized by a one-step chemical precipitation method at a low temperature (70 °C). Structural and morphological analyses reveal that vanadium nitride consist of long and slender nanowhiskers, and mesopores with diameters of 2-5 nm. Compositional analysis confirms the presence of vanadium in the VN structure, along with oxidized vanadium. The cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge tests indicate that the obtained material stores charges via a combination of electric double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance mechanisms. The vanadium nitride electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 598 F/g at a current density of 4 A/g. After 5000 charge-discharge cycles, the electrode has an equivalent series resistance of 1.42 Ω and retains 83% of its initial specific capacitance. This direct low-temperature synthesis of mesoporous vanadium nitrides is a simple and promising method to achieve high specific capacitance and low equivalent series resistance for electrochemical capacitor applications.

  7. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of nitrided TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camps, Enrique; Escobar-Alarcon, L.; Camacho-Lopez, Marco Antonio; Casados, Dora A. Solis

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films have been applied in UV-light photocatalysis. Nevertheless visible-light photocatalytic activity would make this material more attractive for applications. In this work we present results on the modification of titanium oxide (anatase) sol-gel thin films, via a nitriding process using a microwave plasma source. After the treatment in the nitrogen plasma, the nitrogen content in the TiO 2 films varied in the range from 14 up to 28 at%. The titanium oxide films and the nitrided ones were characterized by XPS, micro-Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity tests were done using a Methylene Blue dye solution, and as catalyst TiO 2 and nitrided TiO 2 films. The irradiation of films was carried out with a lamp with emission in the visible (without UV). The results showed that the nitrided TiO 2 films had photocatalytic activity, while the unnitrided films did not.

  8. Effect of the stoichiometry of Si-rich silicon nitride thin films on their photoluminescence and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torchynska, T.V., E-mail: ttorch@esfm.ipn.mx [ESFM—Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Casas Espinola, J.L. [ESFM—Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Vergara Hernandez, E. [UPIITA—Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico DF 07320 (Mexico); Khomenkova, L., E-mail: khomen@ukr.net [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 45 Pr. Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Delachat, F.; Slaoui, A. [ICube, 23 rue du Loess, BP 20 CR, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-04-30

    Si-rich Silicon nitride films were grown on silicon substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The film stoichiometry was controlled via the variation of NH{sub 3}/SiH{sub 4} ratio from 0.45 up to 1.0. Thermal annealing at 1100 °C for 30 min in the nitrogen flow was applied to form the Si nanocrystals in the films that have been investigated by means of photoluminescence and Raman scattering methods, as well as transmission electron microscopy. Several emission bands have been detected with the peak positions at: 2.8–3.0 eV, 2.5–2.7 eV, 2.10–2.25 eV, and 1.75–1.98 eV. The temperature dependences of photoluminescence spectra were studied with the aim to confirm the types of optical transitions and the nature of light emitting defects in silicon nitride. The former three bands were assigned to the defects in silicon nitride, whereas the last one (1.75–1.98 eV) was attributed to the exciton recombination inside of Si nanocrystals. The photoluminescence mechanism is discussed. - Highlights: • Substoichiometric silicon nitride films were grown by PECVD technique. • The variation of the NH{sub 3}/SiH{sub 4} ratio controls excess Si content in the films. • Both Si nanocrystals and amorphous Si phase were observed in annealed films. • Temperature evolution of carrier recombination via Si nanocrystals and host defects.

  9. Removal of Sb(III and Sb(V by Ferric Chloride Coagulation: Implications of Fe Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Inam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and precipitation appear to be the most efficient and economical methods for the removal of antimony from aqueous solution. In this study, antimony removal from synthetic water and Fe solubility with ferric chloride (FC coagulation has been investigated. The effects of pH, FC dosage, initial antimony loading and mixed Sb(III, Sb(V proportions on Fe solubility and antimony removal were studied. The results showed that the Sb(III removal efficiency increased with the increase of solution pH particularly due to an increase in Fe precipitation. The Sb(V removal was influenced by the solution pH due to a change in Fe solubility. However, the Fe solubility was only impaired by the Sb(III species at optimum pH 7. The removal efficiencies of both Sb species were enhanced with an increase in FC dose. The quantitative analysis of the isotherm study revealed the strong adsorption potential of Sb(III on Fe precipitates as compared to Sb(V. Furthermore, the removal behavior of antimony was inhibited in mixed proportion with high Sb(V fraction. In conclusion, this study contributes to better understanding the fate of Sb species, their mobilities, and comparative removal behavior, with implications for Fe solubility using ferric chloride in different aqueous environments.

  10. Chamber with punches made from polycrystal cubic boron nitrides for Moessbauer study at high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitanov, E.V.; Yakovlev, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    The design of a high hydrostatic pressure chamber with polycrystallic boron nitride dies weakly absorbing gamma radiation with energies of more than 14 keV is described. The use of this material permits to investigate single- and polycrystal bodies using the Moessbauer effect when the geometry of the experiment remains unchanged and the hydrostatic pressure is up to 70 kbar. The basic units of the chamber are a teflon capsule placed in a container made of a pressed boron and epoxide resin mixture, electric inputs and a die of polycrystal cubic boron nitride. The pressure is transferred to the sample tested through a liquid (petrol or the 4 to 1 mixture of methanole and ethanole) which does not become solid at a pressure below 37 kbar. Basic dimensions of the chamber are given and the dependence of the pressure in the capsule on the force applied to the chamber is also presented

  11. Coherent-potential approximation for the lattice vibrations of mixed III-V crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, P.

    1984-01-01

    The coherent-potential approximation (CPA) is applied to the lattice dynamics of some III-V mixed crystals. The calculations are based on an eleven-parameter rigid-ion model (RIM 11). Explicit results are reported for the one-mode system In/sub 1-c/Ga/sub c/P and the two mixed-mode crystals In/sub 1-c/Ga/sub c/Sb and GaSb/sub 1-c/As/sub c/. Both, the reflectivity spectra and the composition dependence of vibrations at the GAMMA and X points are compared with existing experimental data. Force-constant changes are considered by the virtual-crystal approximation (VCA). The CPA theory is uniquely successful for III-V mixed-mode systems, which appear to switch from one-mode to two-mode behaviour. (author)

  12. Tight binding electronic band structure calculation of achiral boron nitride single wall nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Prapti; Sanyal, Sankar P

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report the Tight-Binding method, for the electronic structure calculations of achiral single wall Boron Nitride nanotubes. We have used the contribution of π electron only to define the electronic band structure for the solid. The Zone-folding method is used for the Brillouin Zone definition. Calculation of tight binding model parameters is done by fitting them to available experimental results of two-dimensional hexagonal monolayers of Boron Nitride. It has been found that all the boron nitride nanotubes (both zigzag and armchair) are constant gap semiconductors with a band gap of 5.27eV. All zigzag BNNTs are found to be direct gap semiconductors while all armchair nanotubes are indirect gap semiconductors. (author)