WorldWideScience

Sample records for iii base oils

  1. III: Use of biomarkers as Risk Indicators in Environmental Risk Assessment of oil based discharges offshore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanni, Steinar; Lyng, Emily; Pampanin, Daniela M

    2017-06-01

    Offshore oil and gas activities are required not to cause adverse environmental effects, and risk based management has been established to meet environmental standards. In some risk assessment schemes, Risk Indicators (RIs) are parameters to monitor the development of risk affecting factors. RIs have not yet been established in the Environmental Risk Assessment procedures for management of oil based discharges offshore. This paper evaluates the usefulness of biomarkers as RIs, based on their properties, existing laboratory biomarker data and assessment methods. Data shows several correlations between oil concentrations and biomarker responses, and assessment principles exist that qualify biomarkers for integration into risk procedures. Different ways that these existing biomarkers and methods can be applied as RIs in a probabilistic risk assessment system when linked with whole organism responses are discussed. This can be a useful approach to integrate biomarkers into probabilistic risk assessment related to oil based discharges, representing a potential supplement to information that biomarkers already provide about environmental impact and risk related to these kind of discharges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of Group II and III base oils by hybrid route using brazilian crude; Producao de oleos basicos lubrificantes dos grupos II e III pela rota hibrida ou mista a partir de petroleo brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Wlamir Soares; Fontes, Anita Eleonora Ferreira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a series of pilot plant tests made at PETROBRAS Research Centre, considering hydrotreatment and solvent dewaxing steps, to produce group II and group III lube base oils from Baiano Light crude feeds (Brazilian crude). RLAM Refinery has been using Baiano light crude to produce group I base oils by conventional route and in the pilot plant studies, two types of process scheme were tested. In the first one, an industrial run was performed at RLAM Refinery, including distillation, dewaxing and extraction and the light raffinate was used as a feed for a hydrotreatment pilot plant, followed by a distillation to remove the front ends. In the second scheme, another industrial run was performed, including distillation and dewaxing steps and the medium dewaxed oil was used as a charge for a hydrotreatment followed by distillation and dewaxing pilot plant tests. Products of excellent quality were obtained. Due to their high viscosity indexes (from 96 to 126), low contaminants levels (sulfur < 5 ppm and nitrogen < 5 ppm) and low aromatic content (CA < 2 %), the lube base oils produced are therefore classified as group II and group III. The main advantages of this route are related to the base oils quality improvements with low investment and more flexibility in terms of crude source. (author)

  3. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  4. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    OpenAIRE

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type t...

  5. Polyalhpaolefins and VHVI base oils - base oils for high performance lubricants; Polyalfaolefine und VHVI-Grundoele - Grundoele fuer hochwertige Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmus, M.; Nissfolk, F.; Kulmala, K. [Fortum Oil and Gas Oyj / Base Oils, Fortum (Finland)

    2002-01-01

    Next to polyalphaolefines (PAOs base oils of the API/ATIEL Group IV), VHVI base oils (belonging to API/ATIEL Group III) are being increasingly used in high-performance automotive and industrial lubricants. A comparative study of the properties of VHVI base oils and polyalphaolefins shows that high-quality VHVI base oils have comparable volatility, oxidation stability and viscosity indices to polyalphaolefins, whereas the most pronounced differences are viscometric properties in the low-temperature range. However, there are noticeable differences between different market-typical VHVI base oils, depending primarily on the manufacturing process. The differences in the physicochemical properties of PAOs and various VHVI base oils are attributable to differences in the typical molecular composition. This is illustrated by a compositional analysis of several VHVI base oils, in which the (iso)paraffin content and the content of different naphthenic and aromatic compounds is analyzed. The base oil influence on specific properties of formulated lubricants is discussed on the basis of several examples, and studies conducted with passenger car engine oils (PCMOs), heavy-duty engine oils (HDEOs) and gear oils are described in detail. As a result of extremely low CCS viscosities, PAOs are optimally suited for use in 0W-X PCMOs whereas 5W-X PCMOs meeting highest performance requirements can also be formulated with high-quality VHVI base oils. Emission measurements with HDEOs formulated with either SN mineral base oil or VHVI base oil demonstrated that the base oil type affects tailpipe particle emissions in the particle size range <5 {mu}m as replacement of SN mineral base oil with VHVI base oil resulted in lower particle emissions. Test stand measurements with gear oils formulated with either VHVI base oils or PAOs yielded comparable results in terms of power transfer ratio and oil temperature increase. (orig.)

  6. Oil shales of the Lothians, Part III, the chemistry of the oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuart, D R

    1912-01-01

    Tests were performed whereby fuller's earth and lycopodium spore dust were heated to retorting temperatures and the crude oil examined. Oil shale may be composed of the following: Vegetable matter that has been macerated and preserved by combining with salts, spores, and other such material that has been protected from decay, and a proportion of animal matter. Generally, oil shale may be considered as a torbanite that contains a large proportion of inorganic matter, or it may be a torbanite that has deteriorated with age. This supposition is based on the fact that oil yield decreases and the yield of ammonia increases with age.

  7. Oil shales of the Lothians. Part III. Chemistry of the oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuart, D R

    1912-01-01

    Tests were performed whereby fuller's earth and lycopodium spore dust were heated to retorting temperatures and the crude oil examined. Oil shale may be composed of the following: vegetable matter that has been macerated and preserved by combining with salts, spores, and other such material that has been protected from decay, and a proportion of animal matter. Generally, oil shale may be considered as a torbanite that contains a large proportion of inorganic matter, or it may be a torbanite that has deteriorated with age. This supposition is based on the fact that oil yield decreases and the yield of ammonia increases with age.

  8. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  9. The ongoing changes in the base oil industry and their potential impact on the lubricant industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Holm, Valentina [Nynas AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    During the last years the base oil industry has undergone significant changes, with the rapid growth of Group II and Group III paraffinic base oils and the corresponding decline of Group I supply. The announcements of future instalments show that the increase of Group II and III capacity is indeed a stable trend all over the world. Based on publicly available information, the Group II capacity is expected to grow by 8.6 million tpa, reaching over 22 million tpa, and Group III capacity is expected to double from current 4.1 million tpa up to 8.2 million tpa. As the demand is not expected to grow at the same pace as the increasing supply, it is likely that this new capacity will lead to an oversupply situation in the next five years. Because of their production disadvantages compared to Group II and III and a shrinking demand in automotive applications, it is likely that Group I plants will close down or will operate at reduced throughput to compensate for the new Group II and III capacity. A decline of Group I capacity in favour of Group II and III may pose problems in the formulation of those industrial lubricants where solvency and/or viscosity are needed, such as lubricating greases, metalworking fluids, and several process oils applications. Either alone or in combination with Group II or III oils, naphthenic oils can be used in the formulation of industrial lubricants, as solvency and viscosity poroviders. (orig.)

  10. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coe cient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using di erent vegetable oils as base oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grind-ing temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven veg-etable oil types. Results revealed that (1) castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(2) palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(3) MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil;(4) viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding tem-perature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils;(5) although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less vis-cous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature;(6) saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid;and (7) a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7%energy ratio coefficient

  11. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Benkai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy

  12. Oil-bearing plants of Zaire. III. Botanical families providing oils of relatively high unsaturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngiefu, C.K.; Paquot, C.; Vieux, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the seed oil composition of 16 species of Leguminosae (including Albizia lebbeck, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Delonix regia), 6 species of Euphorbiaceae (including Aleurites moluccana, Hevea brasiliensis and Jatropha curcas) and 1 species (Kigelia africana) of Bignoniaceae. The most interesting for food and industrial purposes appear to be Afzelia bella, Adenanthera pavonina and Pentaclethra macrophylla, in addition to A. moluccana and H. brasiliensis.

  13. Early-maturing soybean cropping system. III. Protein and oil contents and oil composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, M.V.; Steele, C.C.; Grabau, L.J.; MacKown, C.T.; Hildebrand, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Expanding production of early-maturing soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars in the southeastern USA has exposed such cultivars to a wide range of environmental conditions during seed-fill. Temperatures during this growth stage influence levels of specific fatty acids, particularly of the unsaturated fatty acids. Our objective was to evaluate the grain quality responses of early-maturing cultivars to the wide range of planting dates in the southeastern USA. Protein and oil contents along with fatty acid profiles were assessed for cultivars from Maturity Group (MG) 00 through IV using late April mid-May early June, and late June planting dates on a well-drained Maury silt loam (fine, mixed, mesic Typic Paleudalf) in 1990 through 1993. Across years and cultivars. delayed planting increased protein content and linolenic acid levels and reduced oil content and oleic acid levels but had little or no influence on palmitic stearic or linoleic acid levels. The higher seed-fill temperatures associated with early planting were strongly correlated with increased oil content and oleic acid levels and reduced linolenic acid levels. Increasing seed-fill temperatures were closely associated with reduced linolenic acid levels for all six cultivars. However, the oleic acid response to seed-temperatures strongly depended on cultivar maturity. Oleic acid levels of early-maturing cultivars were much more sensitive to seed-fill temperatures than were those of later maturing cultivars. While other effects of environment on grain quality characteristics may be relatively small perhaps the quality of new low linolenic acid cultivars could be amplified through culture under the warmer conditions the southeastern USA

  14. Analysis of Reasons for fluctuation in seal oil system on generator and countermeasures in Qinshan phase III project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Reasons for hydraulic differential fluctuations seal hydrogen oil on generator in Qinshan phase III project were analyzed, provide a basis for modifying Run method is to determine the causes and effects of seal oil flow changes and in the relationship between flow changes and hydraulic differential hydrogen oil changes according to reason Results were analyzed to adjust the running test, to verify the feasibility of running adjustment programs

  15. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible.

  16. Formation constants of Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Pr(III) and Nd(III) complexes of tridentate schiff base, 2-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene) amino] phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omprakash, K.L.; Chandra Pal, A.V.; Reddy, M.L.N.

    1982-01-01

    A new tridentate schiff base, 2- (1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene)amino phenol derived from benzimididazole-2-carbo-xaldehyde and 2-aminophenol has been synthesised and characterised by spectral and analytical data. Proton-ligand formation constants of the schiff base and metal-ligand formation constants of its complexes with Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Nd(III) and Pr(III) have been determined potentiometrically in 50% (v/v) aqueous dioxane at an ionic strength of 0.1M (NaClO 4 ) and at 25deg C using the Irving-Rossotti titration technique. The order of stability constants (logβ 2 ) is found to be Sm(III)>Dy(III)>Gd(III)>Pr(III)>Nd(III). (author)

  17. Formation constants of Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Pr(III) and Nd(III) complexes of tridentate schiff base, 2-((1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene) amino) phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omprakash, K L; Chandra Pal, A V; Reddy, M L.N. [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1982-03-01

    A new tridentate schiff base, 2- (1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene)amino phenol derived from benzimididazole-2-carbo-xaldehyde and 2-aminophenol has been synthesised and characterised by spectral and analytical data. Proton-ligand formation constants of the schiff base and metal-ligand formation constants of its complexes with Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Nd(III) and Pr(III) have been determined potentiometrically in 50% (v/v) aqueous dioxane at an ionic strength of 0.1M (NaClO/sub 4/) and at 25deg C using the Irving-Rossotti titration technique. The order of stability constants (log..beta../sub 2/) is found to be Sm(III)>Dy(III)>Gd(III)>Pr(III)>Nd(III).

  18. Wavelet-based prediction of oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Shahriar; Weinreich, Ilona; Reinarz, Dominik

    2005-01-01

    This paper illustrates an application of wavelets as a possible vehicle for investigating the issue of market efficiency in futures markets for oil. The paper provides a short introduction to the wavelets and a few interesting wavelet-based contributions in economics and finance are briefly reviewed. A wavelet-based prediction procedure is introduced and market data on crude oil is used to provide forecasts over different forecasting horizons. The results are compared with data from futures markets for oil and the relative performance of this procedure is used to investigate whether futures markets are efficiently priced

  19. Modeling oil production based on symbolic regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guangfei; Li, Xianneng; Wang, Jianliang; Lian, Lian; Ma, Tieju

    2015-01-01

    Numerous models have been proposed to forecast the future trends of oil production and almost all of them are based on some predefined assumptions with various uncertainties. In this study, we propose a novel data-driven approach that uses symbolic regression to model oil production. We validate our approach on both synthetic and real data, and the results prove that symbolic regression could effectively identify the true models beneath the oil production data and also make reliable predictions. Symbolic regression indicates that world oil production will peak in 2021, which broadly agrees with other techniques used by researchers. Our results also show that the rate of decline after the peak is almost half the rate of increase before the peak, and it takes nearly 12 years to drop 4% from the peak. These predictions are more optimistic than those in several other reports, and the smoother decline will provide the world, especially the developing countries, with more time to orchestrate mitigation plans. -- Highlights: •A data-driven approach has been shown to be effective at modeling the oil production. •The Hubbert model could be discovered automatically from data. •The peak of world oil production is predicted to appear in 2021. •The decline rate after peak is half of the increase rate before peak. •Oil production projected to decline 4% post-peak

  20. Computer based training for oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Large oil spills are infrequent occurrences, which poses a particular problem for training oil spill response staff and for maintaining a high level of response readiness. Conventional training methods involve table-top simulations to develop tactical and strategic response skills and boom-deployment exercises to maintain operational readiness. Both forms of training are quite effective, but they are very time-consuming to organize, are expensive to conduct, and tend to become repetitious. To provide a variety of response experiences, a computer-based system of oil spill response training has been developed which can supplement a table-top training program. Using a graphic interface, a realistic and challenging computerized oil spill response simulation has been produced. Integral to the system is a program editing tool which allows the teacher to develop a custom training exercise for the area of interest to the student. 1 ref

  1. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

    1992-04-01

    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

  2. From oil-based mud to water-based mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, C.

    1991-01-01

    Maersk Olie og Gas AS has used low toxic oil-based muds extensively since 1982 for drilling development wells and later in the development of horizontal well drilling techniques. However, in view of the strong drive towards a reduction in the amount of oil discharged to the North Sea from the oil industry, Maersk Olie og Gas AS initiated trials with new or improved types of water-based mud, first in deviated wells (1989) and then in horizontal wells (1990). The paper reviews Maersk Olie og Gas As experience with oil-based mud since the drilling of the first horizontal well in 1987, specifically with respect to cuttings washing equipment, oil retention on cuttings, and the procedure for monitoring of this parameter. It describes the circumstances leading to the decision to revert to water-based mud systems. Finally, it reviews the experience gained so far with the new improved types of water-based mud systems, mainly glycol and KCl/polymer mud systems. Comparison of operational data, such as rate of penetration, torque and drag, etc., is made between wells drilled with oil-based mud and water-based mud. The trials with the new improved types of water-based mud systems have been positive, i.e. horizontal wells can be drilled successfully with water-based mud. As a result, Maersk Olie og and Gas AS has decided to discontinue the use of low toxic oil-based muds in the Danish sector of the North Sea

  3. Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirste, Ronny; Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    We review recent advances of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT)-based electronic biosensors. We discuss properties and fabrication of III-nitride-based biosensors. Because of their superior biocompatibility and aqueous stability, GaN-based devices are ready to be implemented as next-generation biosensors. We review surface properties, cleaning, and passivation as well as different pathways toward functionalization, and critically analyze III-nitride-based biosensors demonstrated in the literature, including those detecting DNA, bacteria, cancer antibodies, and toxins. We also discuss the high potential of these biosensors for monitoring living cardiac, fibroblast, and nerve cells. Finally, we report on current developments of covalent chemical functionalization of III-nitride devices. Our review concludes with a short outlook on future challenges and projected implementation directions of GaN-based HEMT biosensors.

  4. UV curable palm oil based inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Hilmi Mahmood

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  5. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Based on Melon Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Melon oil and cow fat were extracted by standard methods and used in the formulation of SNEDDS based on either melon oil alone, or its admixture with cow fat by utilizing varying ratios of oil(s), surfactants and co-surfactants, with or without carbosil, a glidant. The formulations were encapsulated in hard gelatin ...

  6. HFRR investigation of biobased and petroleum based oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobased oils come in a wide range of chemical structures as do petroleum based oils. In addition, a distinct structural difference exists between these two broad categories of oils. Previous work has shown that, in spite of the structural differences, these two categories of oils display similar pr...

  7. China to Establish Strategic Oil Stockpile Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Based on the reports from China's State Development and Reform Committee, a new department of the State Council recently put into operation, the relevant departments have located a number of places as the country's strategic oil stockpile bases, such as Zhoushan and Zhenghai in Zhejiang Province, Huangdao in Shandong Province and Daya Bay in Guangdong Province. However, the plan still needs to be examined and approved by the State Council.

  8. Lanthanide(III) complexes with tridentate Schiff base ligand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The X-ray study reveals isotopic Nd/Sm binuclear structures were each metal ion is nine-coordinated in the same fashion. Both metal centers have distorted tricapped trigonal prism geometry, with the Schiff base acting as tridentate ligand. The DPPH· radical scavenging effects of the Schiff base ligand and its Ln(III) ...

  9. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  10. Analysis of filtration properties of locally sourced base oil for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the use of locally sourced oil like, groundnut oil, melon oil, vegetable oil, soya oil and palm oil as substitute for diesel oil in formulating oil base drilling fluids relative to filtration properties. The filtrate volumes of each of the oils were obtained for filtration control analysis. With increasing potash and ...

  11. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  12. Indium(III) complexes with some salicylidene aromatic Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.R.; Issa, I.M.; El-Gyar, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    In(III) complexes with salicylidene aromatic Schiff bases have been prepared. The nature of the complexes has been studied by microanalysis of the solid complexes, conductometric titration, uv and ir spectrophotometric measurements. The complexes are of the type 1 : 1 and 2 : 1 [Ligand : In(III)] depending upon the Schiff base. The tendency of the salicylidene Schiff base molecule towards complex formation with In(III) is found to depend largely on the strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bound established between the aldehydic OH group and C = N. Furthermore, it is concluded that these Schiff bases coordinate to In(III) as tri- or bidentate ligands depending upon the molecular structure of the Schiff base (not as monodentate ligand as previously described). The high molar absorbance of the 1 : 2 In(II) complex with salicylidene-o-hydroxyaniline I (17,800 mo1 -1 cm 2 ) can be applied for the micro determination of small amounts of Indium as low as 0.57 anti g/m1 solution. (author)

  13. Phosphorescent systems based on iridium(III) complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulbricht, C.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorescent iridium(III)-based complexes are experiencing a growing interest in a number of research fields. Aside from lighting and display technologies (i.e. OLEDs and LECs), they find use in various applications such as biolabeling, sensors, solar cells and water splitting. In particular, the

  14. Synthesis and characterization of a Schiff base Cobalt (III) complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schiff base molecule acts as tridentate ligand to form two five-membered chelate rings with the Co(III) ion. In the crystal structure three meridionally arranged nitrogen atoms from three azide ligands complete a distorted octahedral geometry around the metal center. The distortion from an ideal octahedron is evident from the ...

  15. Site Selection and Resource Allocation of Oil Spill Emergency Base for Offshore Oil Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunbin; Liu, Jingxian; Wei, Lei; Wu, Weihuang

    2018-02-01

    Based on the analysis of the historical data about oil spill accidents in the Bohai Sea, this paper discretizes oil spilled source into a limited number of spill points. According to the probability of oil spill risk, the demand for salvage forces at each oil spill point is evaluated. Aiming at the specific location of the rescue base around the Bohai Sea, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted to determine the total cost of disasters for each rescue base. Based on the relationship between the oil spill point and the rescue site, a multi-objective optimization location model for the oil spill rescue base in the Bohai Sea region is established. And the genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem, and determine the emergency rescue base optimization program and emergency resources allocation ratio.

  16. Drilling fluid base oil biodegradation potential of a soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus sp. isolated from oil-contaminated soil was grown in 1% drilling fluid base oil, HDF- 2000, as a sole source of carbon and energy. The organism has strong affinity for the substrate, growing at the rate of 0.16 h-1. It uses adherence and emulsification as mechanisms for oil uptake. In a nutrient-rich marine ...

  17. Effect of strong electrolytes on edible oils part III: viscosity of canola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the positive values of B-coefficient. Fluidity parameters were also evaluated and the change in these values with temperature and concentration of oil shows that the electrolytes behave as structure breaker. The energy of activation, latent heat of vaporization and molar volume of oil were also evaluated and discussed.

  18. Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes: Synthesis and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalino, AD; Salen, VA; Reyes, LQ

    2017-09-01

    In this study, polyurethanes based on castor oil and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) were synthesized with varying weight ratio of the castor oil and HMDI. The formation of urethane linkages was verified through the use of a fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The hydrophilicity of the films was evaluated through the use of a contact angle meter and it was found that the contact angle of all the films were below 90 degrees which confirms their hydrophilicity. The thermal stability of the PU films were studies through the use of a thermal gravimetric analyzer and found that all of the polyurethane films exhibited two weight loss events at elevated temperatures wherein the first weight loss event was observed to occur at 285°C to 384°C while the second weight loss event was observed at around 521°C to 551°C. The hardness, elastic modulus, and tensile elongation of the PU films were determined by using a universal testing machine (UTM) where it was found out that the hardness and the elastic modulus of the film is directly proportional with HMDI loading while the tensile elongation is inversely proportional to it. Lastly, it was known through the swelling studies of the PU films that it does not swell, this is due to the presence of unreacted triglycerides in the material, which prevents water from permeating to the films.

  19. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  20. Vegetable oil based liquid nanocomposite dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Chetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physically smaller dielectric materials would improve the optimisation of space for power systems. Development of nanotechnology provides an effective way to improve the performances of insulating oils used in power system applications. In this research study, we focused on the development of nanomodified vegetable oils to be used in power transformers. Higher conduction currents were observed in virgin linseed oil than in virgin castor oil. However, for both virgin linseed and virgin castor oil, the DC conduction current increased approximately linearly with the applied DC voltage. In nanomodified linseed oil, the characteristic curve showed two distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage and a saturation region (at slightly higher voltage. Conversely, in nanomodified castor oil, the characteristic curve showed three distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage, a saturation region (at intermediate applied voltage and an exponential growth region (at higher applied voltage. The nanomodified linseed oil exhibited a better dielectric performance than the nanomodified castor oil. Overall, the addition of nanodielectrics to vegetable oils decreased the dielectric performance of the vegetable oils. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the pre-breakdown phenomenon in liquid nanocomposite dielectrics.

  1. Analysis of polyethoxylated surfactants in microemulsion-oil-water systems III. Fractionation and partitioning of polyethoxylated alcohol surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, N.; Bravo, B.; Ysambertt, F.; Chavez, G.; Subero, N.; Salager, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Oligomer distribution of polyethoxylated alcohol and polyethoxylated nonylphenol surfactants is studied by normal and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A RP8 column is able to efficiently separate these surfactants according to their alkyl chain (lipophilic) group, while silica and amino columns separate them according to their polyether chain length (hydrophilic group). Polyethoxylated alcohol and polyethoxylated nonylphenol oligomers selectively partition between the microemulsion-oil-water phases of a Winsor III system. Partitioning of these oligomers was analyzed by HPLC with RI detection. The logarithm of the partition coefficient between the water and oil linearly increases with the number of ethylene oxide groups per molecule of oligomer. For a same ethoxylation degree, the partition coefficient of a polyethoxylated tridecanol is found to be higher than the one of the corresponding nonylphenol specie. On the other hand, a polyethoxylated nonylphenol exhibits a higher solubilization than the matching polyethoxylated alcohol

  2. Comparison of Effects of Soy Oil, Olive Oil, Mct-Lct Based Nutrition Solutions in Parenterally Fed Intensive Care Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurşen Gürsoy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare the changes in biochemical parameters and efficacy of nutrition by using parenteral nutrition solutions with different lipid content in critically ill patients. Material and Method: Fourty-five intensive care patients were randomized into three groups to receive either soy bean based (Group 1 or olive oil based (Group 2 or MCT/LCT based (Group 3 nutrition solutions. The calorie requirement was calculated using Schofield equation day. The levels of albumin, total protein, AST, ALT, LDH, GGT, ALP, glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, aPTT, PT, INR, CRP, transferin and prealbumin were measured on days 1, 7 and 14. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between groups according to glucose, liver function tests, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, aPTT, PT, INR levels. CRP and prealbumin were similar within-group and between-group comparisons. In groups II and III, CRP levels decreased while prealbumin levels were increasing. Conclusion: As a conclusion, no difference was found comparing the biochemical parameters and efficacy of nutrition, in ICU patients fed with soy oil, olive oil or MCT/LCT based parenteral nutrition solutions. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 52-8

  3. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume III contains supporting materials not included in Volumes I and II.

  4. Thermal crosstalk in arrays of III-N-based Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuc, Maciej; Sarzała, Robert P.; Nakwaski, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 3D comprehensive thermal-electrical self-consistent model of the continuous-wave (CW) operation of one-dimensional arrays of III-N-based laser diodes at room-temperature (RT). Their performance is mostly limited by thermal processes, in particular by thermal crosstalk between array emitters. Based on data collected from a range of secondary sources, the temperature dependence of the thermal and electrical conductivities of III-N materials used to manufacture nitride-based devices is shown to be a function of the thickness, aluminum mole fractions and Si- and Mg-doping levels of the nitride layers. The impact of substrate width and thickness on increasing the efficiency of heat-flux transport and reducing thermal crosstalk is investigated. As expected, the application of a top-mounted diamond heat spreader was found to have considerable influence on the thermal crosstalk between array emitters, enabling the RT CW operation of laser diode arrays with additional emitters

  5. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Shale-Oil Recovery (FERWG-III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on shale-oil recovery. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term prospects for shale-oil availability. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polyurethane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyurethane (PU) based on polyol, derived from castor oil has been synthesized and characterized for potential use as a base material for electrolytes. Transesterification process of castor oil formed a polyol with hydroxyl value of 190 mg KOH g–1 and molecular weight of 2786 g mol–1. The polyols together with 4 ...

  7. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-07-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gas related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, RandD and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.(au)

  8. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gasrelated firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, R&D and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.

  9. III-nitride based light emitting diodes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Morkoç, Hadis

    2017-01-01

    The revised edition of this important book presents updated and expanded coverage of light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on heteroepitaxial GaN on Si substrates, and includes new chapters on tunnel junction LEDs, green/yellow LEDs, and ultraviolet LEDs. Over the last two decades, significant progress has been made in the growth, doping and processing technologies of III-nitride based semiconductors, leading to considerable expectations for nitride semiconductors across a wide range of applications. LEDs are already used in traffic signals, signage lighting, and automotive applications, with the ultimate goal of the global replacement of traditional incandescent and fluorescent lamps, thus reducing energy consumption and cutting down on carbon-dioxide emission. However, some critical issues must be addressed to allow the further improvements required for the large-scale realization of solid-state lighting, and this book aims to provide the readers with details of some contemporary issues on which the performanc...

  10. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with bidentate and tetradentate Schiff base ligands containing indole ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra Kumar; Pandey, Om Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Complexes of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) with Schiff bases, prepared from isatin with aniline, 4-chloroaniline, 2- bromoaniline, 2-nitroaniline (Hl), ethylenediamine, o- phenylenediamine and 4-methyl-o-phenylenediamine (H 2 L') have been synthesised and their physico-chemical properties investigated using elemental analysis, molar conductivities, magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectral (visible, infrared and 1 H NMR) data. The Schiff bases HL bind in a bidentate manner while schiff bases H 2 L' bind in a tetradentate manner. The probable structures of the complexes are proposed. (author)

  11. Pontine and Thalamic Influences on Fluid Rewards: III. Anticipatory Contrast for Sucrose and Corn Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Norgren, Ralph; Grigson, Patricia S

    2011-01-01

    An anticipatory contrast effect (ACE) occurs when, across daily trials, an animal comes to respond less than normally to a first stimulus when it is followed shortly by a second, more preferred solution. Classically, ACE is studied using a low (L) concentration of saccharin or sucrose, followed by access to a higher (H) concentration of sucrose. Subjects in the control condition have two bouts of access to the weaker solution presented on the same schedule. The ACE is measured by the difference in intake of the first bout low solution between subjects in the low-low (L-L) vs. the low-high (L-H) conditions. Here we used this paradigm with sham feeding rats and determined that nutritional feedback was unnecessary for the development of ACE with two concentrations of sucrose or with two concentrations of corn oil. Next we showed that ibotenic acid lesions centered in the orosensory thalamus spared ACEs for both sucrose and corn oil. In contrast, lesions of the pontine parabrachial nuclei (PBN), the second central relay for taste in the rat, disrupted ACEs for both sucrose and corn oil. Although the sensory modalities needed for the oral detection of fats remain controversial, it appears that the PBN is involved in processing the comparison of disparate concentrations of sucrose and oil reward. PMID:21703289

  12. Whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prestes Lessa Fernandes Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to prepare whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil at different concentrations, and evaluate their properties and antimicrobial activity. Films were more flexible with increasing the concentration of oregano oil and water vapor permeability was higher in the films with oregano oil. Increasing the concentration of essential oil decreased the water solubility. The solubility of control film and film with 1.5% oregano oil was 20.2 and 14.0%, respectively. The addition of 1% of oregano oil improved the resistance of the films. The tensile strength for the control film was 66.0 MPa, while for the film with 1% of oregano oil was 108.7 MPa. Films containing 1.5% oregano oil showed higher antimicrobial activity. The zone of inhibition ranged from 0 to 1.7 cm. The results showed that the whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil has potential application as active packaging.

  13. A minimal SATA III Host Controller based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hailiang

    2018-03-01

    SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) is an advanced serial bus which has a outstanding performance in transmitting high speed real-time data applied in Personal Computers, Financial Industry, astronautics and aeronautics, etc. In this express, a minimal SATA III Host Controller based on Xilinx Kintex 7 serial FPGA is designed and implemented. Compared to the state-of-art, registers utilization are reduced 25.3% and LUTs utilization are reduced 65.9%. According to the experimental results, the controller works precisely and steady with the reading bandwidth of up to 536 MB per second and the writing bandwidth of up to 512 MB per second, both of which are close to the maximum bandwidth of the SSD(Solid State Disk) device. The host controller is very suitable for high speed data transmission and mass data storage.

  14. Evaluation of Palm Oil-Based Paracetamol Suppositories by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The suppository base was prepared by mixing hydrogenated palm oil and palm kernel ... DSC can be used to predict drug release in paracetamol suppository formulations. Keywords: Palm oil, Liquefaction time, Paracetamol, Suppositories, Thermal analysis. ..... Drug Evaluation & Research (CDER), Food and.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil based polyurethane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A series of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of castor oil based polyurethane/polyacrylo- nitrile (PU/PAN: 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80) were synthesized by condensation reaction of castor oil with methylene diisocyanate and acrylonitrile, employing benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and ethylene glycol ...

  16. Structure- and oil type-based efficacy of emulsion adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans; Schijns, Virgil E J C

    2006-06-29

    Oil-based emulsions are well-known immunopotentiators for inactivated, "killed" vaccines. We addressed the relationship between emulsion structure and levels of in vivo antibody formation to inactivated New Castle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) as antigens in 3-week-old chickens. The use of a polymeric emulsifier allowed for direct comparison of three types of emulsions, water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O-in-water (W/O/W), while maintaining an identical content of components for each vehicle. They were prepared with either non-metabolizable, mineral oil or metabolizable, Miglyol 840. In addition, we assessed the inherent release capacity of each emulsion variant in vitro. Remarkably, we noted that W/O-type emulsions induced the best immune responses, while they released no antigen during 3 weeks. In general, mineral oil vaccines showed superior efficacy compared to Miglyol 840-based vaccines.

  17. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  18. Friction Theory Prediction of Crude Oil Viscosity at Reservoir Conditions Based on Dead Oil Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros, Sergio; Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2003-01-01

    The general one-parameter friction theory (f-theory) models have been further extended to the prediction of the viscosity of real "live" reservoir fluids based on viscosity measurements of the "dead" oil and the compositional information of the live fluid. This work representation of the viscosity...... of real fluids is obtained by a simple one-parameter tuning of a linear equation derived from a general one-parameter f-theory model. Further, this is achieved using simple cubic equations of state (EOS), such as the Peng-Robinson (PR) EOS or the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) EOS, which are commonly used...... within the oil industry. In sake of completeness, this work also presents a simple characterization procedure which is based on compositional information of an oil sample. This procedure provides a method for characterizing an oil into a number of compound groups along with the critical constants...

  19. UV curable palm oil based ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  20. Systematic approach for synthesis of palm oil-based biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-11-01

    Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.

  1. Viscous Flow Behaviour of Karanja Oil Based Bio-lubricant Base Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh Chandra; Sachan, Sadhana; Trivedi, Rakesh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Karanja oil (KO) is widely used for synthesis of bio-fuel karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) due to its competitive price, good energy values and environmentally friendly combustion properties. Bio-lubricant is another value added product that can be synthesized from KO via chemical modification. In this work karanja oil trimethylolpropane ester (KOTMPE) bio-lubricant was synthesized and evaluated for its viscous flow behaviour. A comparison of viscous flow behaviours of natural KO and synthesized bio-fuel KOME and bio-lubricant KOTMPE was also made. The aim of this comparison was to validate the superiority of KOTMPE bio-lubricant over its precursors KO and KOME in terms of stable viscous flow at high temperature and high shear rate conditions usually encountered in engine operations and industrial processes. The free fatty acid (FFA) content of KO was 5.76%. KOME was synthesized from KO in a two-step, acid catalyzed esterification followed by base catalyzed transesterification, process at 65°C for 5 hours with oil-methanol ratio 1:6, catalysts H 2 SO 4 and KOH (1 and 1.25% w/w KO, respectively). In the final step, KOTMPE was prepared from KOME via transesterification with trimethylolpropane (TMP) at 150°C for 3 hours with KOME-TMP ratio 4:1 and H 2 SO 4 (2% w/w KOME) as catalyst. The viscosity versus temperature studies were made at 0-80°C temperatures in shear rate ranges of 10-1000 s -1 using a Discovery Hybrid Rheometer, model HR-3 (TA instruments, USA). The study found that viscosities of all three samples decreased with increase in temperature, though KOTMPE was able to maintain a good enough viscosity at elevated temperatures due to chemical modifications in its molecular structure. The viscosity index (VI) value for KOTMPE was 206.72. The study confirmed that the synthesized bio-lubricant KOTMPE can be used at high temperatures as a good lubricant, though some additives may be required to improve properties other than viscosity.

  2. CIM5 Phase III base process development results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated Demonstration Runs for the Am/Cm vitrification process were initiated in the Coupled 5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5) on 11/30/98 and completed on 12/9/98. Four successful runs at 60 wt% lanthanide loading were completed which met or exceeded all established criteria. The operating parameters used in these runs established the base conditions for the 5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5) process and were summarized in the 5-inch CIM design basis, SRT-AMC-99-OO01. (1) In subsequent tests, a total of fourteen CIM5 runs were performed using various power inputs, ramp rates and target temperatures to define the preferred processing conditions (2) Process stability and process flexibility were the key criteria used in assessing the results for each run. A preferred set of operating parameters was defined for the CIM5 batch process and these conditions were used to generate a pre-programmed, automatic processing cycle that was used for the last six CIM.5 runs (3) These operational tests were successfully completed in the January-February time frame and were summarized in SRT-AMC-99-00584. The recommended set of operating conditions defined in Runs No.1 through No.14 was used as the starting point for further pilot system runs to determine the robustness of the process, evaluate a bubbler, and investigate off-normal conditions. CIM5 Phase III Runs No.15 through No.60 were conducted utilizing the pre-programmed, automatic processing cycle to investigate system performance. This report summarizes the results of these tests and provides a recommendation for the base process as well as a processing modification for minimizing volume expansions if americium and/or curium are subject to a thermal reduction reaction like cerium. This document summarizes the results of the base process development tests conducted in the Am/Cm Pilot Facility located in Building 672-T

  3. Luminescent amine sensor based on europium(III) chelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrochenkova, Nataliya V; Mirochnik, Anatolii G; Emelina, Tatyana B; Sergeev, Alexander A; Leonov, Andrei A; Voznesenskii, Sergey S

    2018-07-05

    The effect of methylamine vapor on luminescence of Eu(III) tris-benzoylacetonate (I) immobilized in thin-layer chromatography plates has been investigated. It has been revealed that interaction of I with analyte vapor results in increase of the intensity of Eu(III) luminescence. The mechanism of the effect of methylamine vapors on intensification of the Eu(III) luminescence has been suggested using the data of IR spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculations. The mechanism of luminescence sensitization consists in bonding of an analyte molecule with a water molecule into the coordination sphere of Eu(III). As a result, the bond of a water molecule with the luminescence centre weakens, rigid structural fragment including europium ion, water and methylamine molecules forms. The presence of such fragment must naturally promote decrease of influence of OH-vibrations on luminescence of the complex I. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Operational Satellite-based Surface Oil Analyses (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, D.; Warren, C.

    2010-12-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon spill, NOAA imagery analysts in the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) issued more than 300 near-real-time satellite-based oil spill analyses. These analyses were used by the oil spill response community for planning, issuing surface oil trajectories and tasking assets (e.g., oil containment booms, skimmers, overflights). SAB analysts used both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and high resolution visible/near IR multispectral satellite imagery as well as a variety of ancillary datasets. Satellite imagery used included ENVISAT ASAR (ESA), TerraSAR-X (DLR), Cosmo-Skymed (ASI), ALOS (JAXA), Radarsat (MDA), ENVISAT MERIS (ESA), SPOT (SPOT Image Corp.), Aster (NASA), MODIS (NASA), and AVHRR (NOAA). Ancillary datasets included ocean current information, wind information, location of natural oil seeps and a variety of in situ oil observations. The analyses were available as jpegs, pdfs, shapefiles and through Google, KML files and also available on a variety of websites including Geoplatform and ERMA. From the very first analysis issued just 5 hours after the rig sank through the final analysis issued in August, the complete archive is still publicly available on the NOAA/NESDIS website http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/MPS/deepwater.html SAB personnel also served as the Deepwater Horizon International Disaster Charter Project Manager (at the official request of the USGS). The Project Manager’s primary responsibility was to acquire and oversee the processing and dissemination of satellite data generously donated by numerous private companies and nations in support of the oil spill response including some of the imagery described above. SAB has begun to address a number of goals that will improve our routine oil spill response as well as help assure that we are ready for the next spill of national significance. We hope to (1) secure a steady, abundant and timely stream of suitable satellite imagery even in the absence of large-scale emergencies such as

  5. Mixed Field Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, A.

    2006-01-01

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanatee (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of accumulated doses (0.0-3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing field of the SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of COPU, unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tests. Increased bond formation resulting from radiation-induced crosslinking was confirmed by favorable increases in mechanical properties and by solid-state 13 C -NMR and FTIR spectra

  6. Cr(III), Fe(III) and Co(III) complexes of tetradentate (ONNO) Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization, properties and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskioğlu, Eren; Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Çete, Servet; Hamurcu, Fatma; Erk, Birgül

    2008-08-01

    A series of metal complexes were synthesized from equimolar amounts of Schiff bases: 1,4-bis[3-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldimine)propyl]piperazine (bappnaf) and 1,8-bis[3-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldimine)- p-menthane (damnaf) with metal chlorides. All of synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (UV-vis, IR, 1H- 13C NMR, LC-MS) and thermal (TGA-DTA) methods, magnetic and conductance measurements. Schiff base complexes supposed in tetragonal geometry have the general formula [M(bappnaf or damnaf)]Cl· nH 2O, where M = Cr(III), Co(III) and n = 2, 3. But also Fe(III) complexes have octahedral geometry by the coordination of two water molecules and the formula is [Fe(bappnaf or damnaf)(H 2O) 2]Cl. The changes in the selected vibration bands in FT-IR indicate that Schiff bases behave as (ONNO) tetradentate ligands and coordinate to metal ions from two phenolic oxygen atoms and two azomethine nitrogen atoms. Conductance measurements suggest 1:1 electrolytic nature of the metal complexes. The synthesized compounds except bappnaf ligand have the antimicrobial activity against the bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 11230), Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 1501), Bacillus magaterium (RSKK 5117), Bacillus subtilis (RSKK 244), Bacillus cereus (RSKK 863) and the fungi: Candida albicans (ATCC 10239). These results have been considerably interest in piperazine derivatives due to their significant applications in antimicrobial studies.

  7. Water Pollution, and Treatments Part III: Biodegradation of Oil in Refineries Waste Water and Oils Adsorbed in Agricultural Wastes by Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Emary, M.M.; Ali, N.A.; Naguib, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the biological degradation of oil hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds of Marine Balayim crude oil and its refined products by selected indigenous Cyanobacteria strains. The oils used were Marine Balayim crude oil, skimmed oil and some refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, fuel oil and petroleum coke. The selected organisms in the current study are the Blue-Green Algae Cyanobacteria, Oscillatoria limentica. This organism was collected from the hyper saline environment of the solar lake in Taba, Sinai, Egypt. The results obtained revealed that the utilization of such strains can be used for the bioremediation of oily waste water.

  8. Base Oils Biodegradability Prediction with Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Trabelsi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply various data mining techniques including continuous numeric and discrete classification prediction models of base oils biodegradability, with emphasis on improving prediction accuracy. The results show that highly biodegradable oils can be better predicted through numeric models. In contrast, classification models did not uncover a similar dichotomy. With the exception of Memory Based Reasoning and Decision Trees, tested classification techniques achieved high classification prediction. However, the technique of Decision Trees helped uncover the most significant predictors. A simple classification rule derived based on this predictor resulted in good classification accuracy. The application of this rule enables efficient classification of base oils into either low or high biodegradability classes with high accuracy. For the latter, a higher precision biodegradability prediction can be obtained using continuous modeling techniques.

  9. Magnetorheological fluid based on thixotropic PTFE-oil organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hansong; Yan, Hua; Hu, Zhide; Yang, Jianjian; Niu, Fanghao

    2018-04-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micropowders were employed in this work to fabricate PTFE-oil organogel, then carbonyl iron particles were dispersed in this thixotropic organogel to prepare magnetorheological fluids without any other additives. By performing a comparative investigation of MRFs' performances, enhanced magnetorheological response, suspension stability and tribological performance were obtained contrast to pure silicon oil based MRFs. The experimental results revealed a changeable viscosity of organogel, considerable increases in thixotropy also can be observed with the increase of PTFE content. Sedimentation tests demonstrated a much better suspension stability of MRFs based on organogel, suggesting that the internal network microstructures formed by hydrogen bonds between PTFE microparticles and oil molecular chains are likely to impose the gaps among magnetic particles thus hinder the particle aggregation and sedimentation. Moreover, a critical PTFE volume fraction about 4.7 vol% was recognized in this study, lower content organogels tended to display enhanced yield stresses contrast to pure silicon oil based MRFs while high content organogels showed slightly lower ones. It may suggest a compromise between nonmagnetic particle adsorption and the reinforcement effect of network microstructures. The adsorption is likely to decrease the saturation magnetization of carbonyl iron particles and to hinder the formation of field-induced chains, however, the reinforcement effect tends to strengthen these magnetic chains. Besides, the tribological tests confirmed the lubricant effects of PTFE-oil organogel by acquiring rather sharp decreases in friction coefficients of organogel based MRFs especially in the presence of magnetic field.

  10. Studies of Some Lanthanide(III Nitrate Complexes of Schiff Base Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Arora Mukesh Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies of 16 new lanthanide(III nitrate complexes of Schiff base ligands are discussed. Schiff bases were obtained by the condensation of 2–methyl–4–N,N–bis–2' –cyanoethyl aminobenzaldehyde with aniline and 3 different substituted anilines. Lanthanide(III nitrates, viz. gadolinium(III nitrate, lanthanum(III nitrate, samarium(III nitrate and cerium(III nitrate were chosen to synthesize new complexes. The complexes were characterized on the basis of physicochemical studies viz. elemental analysis, spectral, viz. IR and electronic spectral and magnetic studies. TGA studies of some of the representative complexes were also done. Some of the representative complexes were also screened for the anti microbial studies.

  11. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, A.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2006-01-01

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing 13 C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  12. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortley, A.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: aba.mortley@rmc.ca

    2006-07-01

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing {sup 13}C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  13. Synthesis and DNA interaction of a Sm(III) complex of a Schiff base ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interaction between the Sm(III) complex of an ionic Schiff base [HL]-, derived from vanillin and L-tryptophan, and herring sperm DNA at physiological pH (7.40) has been studied by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and viscosity methods. The binding ratios nSm(III) : nK[HL] = 1:1 and nSm(III)L: nDNA =5:1 were confirmed ...

  14. 78 FR 73555 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Programmatic and Phase III Early Restoration Plan and Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS). The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS considers programmatic... programmatic restoration alternatives. The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS evaluates these restoration alternatives... the Framework Agreement. The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS also evaluates the environmental consequences of...

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of La (III) with sulphamethoxazole based hydroxy triazene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manwani, Sapana; Chauhan, R.S.; Goswami, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3-hydroxy-3-p-chlorophenyll-1-(4-amino-N-(5-methyl-1,2-oxazole-3- yl) benzenesulphonamide-methane) triazene has been synthesized by coupling of hydroxylamine obtained by reduction of nitro compound with diazonium salt obtained from sulphamethoxazole taking hydroxylamine in excess at temperature between 0-5°C. Chemical structure of the synthesized compound was confirmed by IR, 1 H NMR, MASS and by elemental analysis. The complex of the reagent with La (III) has been studied. 3-hydroxy-3-p-chlorophenyll-1-(4-amino-N-(5-methyl-1,2-oxazole-3-yl) benzenesulphonamide-methane) triazene has been used for spectrophotometric determination of lanthanum (III) at 392 nm, keeping the pH between 8.5 to 8.9

  16. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Vegetable based oil - RV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RV. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  17. Samarium (III Selective Membrane Sensor Based on Tin (IV Boratophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S. K. Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A number of Sm (III selective membranes of varying compositions using tin (IV boratophosphate as electroactive material were prepared. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and epoxy resin were used as binding materials. Membrane having composition of 40% exchanger and 60% epoxy resin exhibited best performance. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range of 1x10-5M to 1x10-1 M of samarium ions with a Super-Nernstian slope of 40 mV/decade. It has a fast response time of less than 10 seconds and can be used for at least six months without any considerable divergence in potentials. The proposed sensor revealed good selectivities with respect to alkali, alkaline earth, some transition and rare earth metal ions and can be used in the pH range of 4.0-10.0. It was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Sm (III ions against EDTA. Effect of internal solution was studied and the electrode was successfully used in non-aqueous media, too.

  18. Design of Oil Viscosity Sensor Based on Plastic Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Muhammad; Arifin, A.

    2018-03-01

    A research of plastic optical fiber based sensors have been studied for measurement of oil viscosity. This sensor was made with straight configuration, U configuration, and gamma configuration have two types, there are optical fiber sensor with cladding and without cladding. Viscosity sensor was made, dipped into an oil sample with a concentration of viscosity percentage about 270 mPa.s - 350 mPa.s. The light from the LED propagated into the optical fiber, then it was received by the photodetector converted to output power. When plastic optical fiber dipped into an oil sample, viscosity of oil affect increase of refractive index on optical fiber resulting in a bigger loss of power so the light intensity will be smaller, consequences the measured output power will be smaller. Sensitivity and resolution viscosity sensor without cladding peel showed the best result rather than viscosity sensor with cladding peel. The best result in the measurement showed in gamma configuration with 3 cm length of cladding peel and the diameter of bending 0,25 cm is the range 103,090 nWatt, sensitivity 1,289 nWatt/mPa.s, and resolution 0,776 mPa.s. This method is effectively and efficiently used as an oil viscosity sensor with high sensitivity and resolution.

  19. OSIS: A PC-based oil spill information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, M.V.; Tyler, A.; Wiltshire, M.

    1993-01-01

    Warren Spring Laboratory and BMT Ceemaid Ltd. are cooperating to produce an Oil Spill Information System (OSIS) that will have worldwide application. OSIS is based on EUROSPILL, a spill simulation model originally developed under programs sponsored by the European Commission and the Marine Pollution Control Unit of the United Kingdom government's Department of Transport. OSIS is implemented in the Microsoft Windows 3.x graphical environment on a personal computer. A variety of options enables the user to input information on continuous or instantaneous spills of different types of oil under variable environmental conditions, to simulate the fate of oil and the trajectory of a spill. Model results are presented in the forms of maps, charts, graphs, and tables, displayed in multiple windows on a color monitor. Color hard copy can be produced, and OSIS can be linked to other Windows software packages, providing the opportunity to create a suite of spill incident management tools

  20. Preparation and physicochemical of microemulsion based on macadamia nut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xinghao; Chen, Hong; Du, Liqing

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the preparation, optimization and characteristic of nanostructured lipid carriers(NLCs) based on macadamia nut oil. NLC with various macadamia nut oil content were successfully prepared by an optimized microfluidization method using stearic acid as solid lipid and pluronic F68 as surfactant. As a result, NLC with particle size about 286nm were obtained, and the polydispersity index(PI) of all developed NLC were below 0.2 which indicate a narrow size distribution. Furthermore, the encapsulation efficiency and loading capability were investigated as well. Physical stability of NLC demonstrated that particles of system were stable at room temperature and low temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) investigation show that the inner structure and recrystallinity of lipid matrix within NLC were greatly influenced by the content of macadamia nut oil.

  1. Potential aluminium(III)- and gallium(III)-selective optical sensors based on porphyrazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslinski, Tomasz; Tykarska, Ewa; Kryjewski, Michal; Osmalek, Tomasz; Sobiak, Stanislaw; Gdaniec, Maria; Dutkiewicz, Zbigniew; Mielcarek, Jadwiga

    2011-01-01

    Porphyrazines possessing non-coordinating alkyl (propyl) and aralkyl (4-tert-butylphenyl) groups in the periphery were studied as optical sensors for a set of mono-, di- and trivalent cations. Investigated porphyrazines in the UV-Vis monitored titrations revealed significant responses towards aluminium and gallium cations, unlike other metal ions studied. Additionally, porphyrazine possessing 4-tert-butylphenyl peripheral substituents showed sensor property towards ruthenium cation and was chosen for further investigation. The presence of isosbestic points in absorption spectra for its titration with aluminium, gallium and ruthenium cations, accompanied by a linear Benesi-Hildebrand plot, proved complex formation. The continuous variation method was used to determine binding stoichiometry in 1:1 porphyrazine-metal ratio. X-Ray studies and density functional theory calculations were employed to investigate octa(4-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrazine structure. The results helped to explain the observed selectivity towards certain ions. Interaction between ion and porphyrazine meso nitrogen in a Lewis acid-Lewis base manner is proposed.

  2. Photocytotoxicity and DNA photocleavage activity of La(III) and Gd(III) complexes of phenanthroline bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Akhtar; Saha, Sounik; Chakravarty, Akhil R.; Majumdar, Ritankar; Dighe, Rajan R.

    2011-01-01

    Lanthanide(III) complexes (La(B)(acac) 3 ) (1-3) and (Gd(B)(acac) 3 ) (4-6), where B is a N,N-donor phenanthroline base, viz., 1,10-phenanthroline (phen in 1, 4), dipyrido(3,2-d:2',3'-f)quinoxaline (dpq in 2, 5) and dipyrido(3,2-a:2',3'-c)phena-zine (dppz in 3, 6), have been prepared and characterized. The Gd(III) complexes 4 - 6 are structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The complexes display GdO 6 N 2 coordination with the ligands showing bidentate chelating mode of bonding. The complexes are non-electrolytic in aqueous DMF and exhibit ligand-centered absorption bands in the UV region. The dppz complexes show a band at 380 nm in DMF. The La(III) complexes are diamagnetic. The Gd(III) complexes are paramagnetic with magnetic moment that corresponds to seven unpaired electrons. The complexes are avid binders to calf thymus DNA giving K b values in the range of 4.7 x 10 4 - 6.1 x 10 5 M -1 with a relative binding order: 3, 6 (dppz) > 2, 5 (dpq) > 1, 4 (phen). The binding data suggest DNA surface and/or groove binding nature of the complexes. The dpq and dppz complexes efficiently cleave SC DNA to its nicked circular form in UV-A light of 365 nm via formation of both singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) and hydroxyl radical (HO · ) species. The dppz complexes 3 and 6 exhibit significant PDT effect in HeLa cervical cancer cells giving respective IC 50 value of 460(±50) and 530(±30) nM in UV-A light of 365 nm, and are essentially non-toxic in dark with an IC 50 value of >100 μM. The dppz ligand alone is cytotoxic in dark and UV-A light. A significant decrease in the dark toxicity of the dppz base is observed on binding to the Ln(Ill) ion while retaining its photocytotoxicity. (author)

  3. Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

  4. Offshore disposal of oil-based drilling fluid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malachosky, E.; Shannon, B.E.; Jackson, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Offshore drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico may use oil-based drilling fluids to mitigate drilling problems. The result is the generation of a significant quantity of oily cuttings and mud. The transportation of this waste for onshore disposal is a concern from a standpoint of both personnel safety and potential environmental impact. A process for preparing a slurry of this waste and the subsequent disposal of the slurry through annular pumping has been put into use by ARCO Oil and Gas Company. The disposal technique has been approved by the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The slurried waste is displaced down a casing annulus into a permeable zone at a depth below the surface casing setting depth. The annular disposal includes all cuttings and waste oil mud generated during drilling with oil-based fluids. This disposal technique negates the need for cuttings storage on the platform, transportation to shore, and the environmental effects of onshore surface disposal. The paper describes the environmental and safety concerns with onshore disposal, the benefits of annular disposal, and the equipment and process used for the preparation and pumping of the slurry

  5. Observation-based input and dissipation version of WAVEWATCH III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Stefan; Babanin, Alexander; Rogers, Erick; Young, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Measurements collected at Lake George, Australia, resulted in new insights on the processes of wind wave interaction and white-capping dissipation and consequently new parameterisations of these source terms. The new nonlinear wind input source term accounts for dependence of the growth increment on wave steepness, for airflow separation which leads to a relative reduction of the growth under extreme wind conditions, and for negative growth rate under adverse winds. The new wave breaking and whitecapping dissipation source function features two separate terms: the inherent breaking term and a cumulative dissipation term due to influences of longer waves on wave breaking of shorter waves. Another novel feature of this dissipation is the threshold in terms of spectral density: below this threshold breaking stops and whitecapping becomes zero. In such conditions dissipation due to wave interaction with water turbulence takes over, which regime is particularly relevant for decaying seas and for swell. This paper describes these source terms implemented in WAVEWATCH III and evaluates the performance against existing source terms in duration-limited simulations and against buoy measurements for windsea-dominated conditions. Results show agreement by means of growth curves and integral parameters in the simulations and hindcast. The paper also introduces wave breaking probability as model output, along with standard wind-wave metrics.

  6. Kinetics of acid base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M P

    2010-10-01

    Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstock for biodiesel production in India. Limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high free fatty acids containing oil. The present study reports the results of kinetic study of two-step acid base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at an optimum temperature of 65 °C and 50 °C for esterification and transesterification respectively under the optimum methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H₂SO₄ and NaOH. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The results indicate that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min⁻¹ and 0.008 min⁻¹ respectively. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oil inventories should be based on margins, supply reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waguespack, K.; Cantor, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    US oil inventories have plummeted to their lowest recorded levels this year, leading industry observers to conclude that refiners have adopted new just-in-time (JIT) inventory policies. Total crude oil inventories are about 300 million bbl -- 8% below the 10-year average. Distillate inventories posted similar declines this year because of unusually cold winter temperatures and refiners' reluctance to build sufficient stocks in the autumn months. Gasoline stocks are 20% below the 10-year average at 200 million bbl, despite forecasts of record-high gasoline demand this summer. The sudden drop in crude and product inventories this year is widely considered a sign that refiners have implemented JIT, signaling a permanent shift to reduced stocks. The authors submit that the shift towards reduced oil inventories is not related to a concerted adoption of JIT by US refiners, and that oil inventory management decisions should instead be based on refining margins and supply reliability. The paper discusses the JIT revolution and the optimal-inventory model

  8. Process for hydroprocessing heavy oils utilizing sepiolite-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auden, C.A.; Yan, T.-Y.

    1986-04-15

    A process is described for demetallizing and desulfurizing a hydrocarbon oil comprising contacting the hydrocarbon oil in the presence of hydrogen and a sepiolite-based catalyst composition under conditions of pressure and temperature sufficient to effect demetallization and desulfurization. The sepiolite-based catalyst composition has been prepared by first contacting the sepiolite with an aqueous solution of a first metal salt, then contacting the resultant metal ion-exchanged sepiolite with an aqueous solution of a compound of a second metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium, and finally contacting the resultant metal-exchanged sepiolite product with an aqueous solution of a magnesium compound, thereby effecting a magnesium ion-exchange with the metal-exchanged sepiolite product and neutralizing acid sites on the sepiolite product.

  9. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Harekrishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications.Mesua ferreaL. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96–99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

  10. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

    2009-04-25

    The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 degrees C of melting point, and 111 degrees C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

  11. Study of fuel properties of rubber seed oil based biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Junaid; Yusup, Suzana; Bokhari, Awais; Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This article presents the comparative studies of the fuel properties of rubber seed oil based biodiesel. • The design expert has been adopted for the optimization of the process variables. • The FTIR, cold flow properties and oxidation stability are the findings of present study. • All the fuel properties met the standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. • Present study reveals that rubber seed oil as a non-edible source potentially contributes for esters production. - Abstract: The scarcity of the fossil fuel, environmental pollution and food crisis are the world’s major issues in current era. Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel fuel, environment friendly and biodegradable and is produced from either edible or non-edible oils. In this study, a non-edible rubber seed oil (RSO) with high free fatty acid (FFA) content of 45% were used for the production of biodiesel. The process comprises of two steps. The first step is the acid esterification to reduce the FFA value and the second step is the base transesterification. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used for parametric optimization of the two stage processes i.e. acid esterification and base transesterification. The yield of biodiesel was analyzed using gas chromatography. The FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) spectrum was also determined to confirm the conversion of fatty acid to methyl esters. The fuel properties were analyzed according to the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 and were compared with the previous finding of researchers. All analyzed properties fulfilled the biodiesel standard criteria

  12. Comparative studies of praseodymium(III) selective sensors based on newly synthesized Schiff's bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinod K.; Goyal, Rajendra N.; Pal, Manoj K.; Sharma, Ram A.

    2009-01-01

    Praseodymium ion selective polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane sensors, based on two new Schiff's bases 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-diylidenebis(azan-1-ylidene)diphenol (M 1 ) and N,N'-bis(pyridoxylideneiminato) ethylene (M 2 ) have been developed and studied. The sensor having membrane composition of PVC: o-NPOE: ionophore (M 1 ): NaTPB (w/w; mg) of 150: 300: 8: 5 showed best performances in comparison to M 2 based membranes. The sensor based on (M 1 ) exhibits the working concentration range 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -2 M with a detection limit of 5.0 x 10 -9 M and a Nernstian slope 20.0 ± 0.3 mV decade -1 of activity. It exhibited a quick response time as <8 s and its potential responses were pH independent across the range of 3.5-8.5.The influence of the membrane composition and possible interfering ions have also been investigated on the response properties of the electrode. The sensor has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 15% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol or acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 3 months. The selectivity coefficients determined by using fixed interference method (FIM) indicate high selectivity for praseodymium(III) ions over wide variety of other cations. To asses its analytical applicability the prepared sensor was successfully applied for determination of praseodymium(III) in spiked water samples.

  13. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  14. Study of physical and tribology properties of soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoaps, which was synthesized from polymeric epoxdized soybean oil, was investigated. Greases were prepared using a mixture of lithium soap and triethanolammonium polysoap. Grease properties investigated were: hardness, using cone penetration procedure (AS...

  15. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali; Bramer, Eddy A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two

  16. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  17. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition-based biosensor for aluminum(III) chronoamperometric determination in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero-Quirós, Miriam; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Alonso-Lomillo, Maria Asunción; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2014-05-07

    A novel amperometric biosensor for the determination of Al(III) based on the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase has been developed. The immobilization of the enzyme was performed on screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles. The oxidation signal of acetylthiocholine iodide enzyme substrate was affected by the presence of Al(III) ions leading to a decrease in the amperometric current. The developed system has a detection limit of 2.1 ± 0.1 μM for Al(III). The reproducibility of the method is 8.1% (n = 4). Main interferences include Mo(VI), W(VI) and Hg(II) ions. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of Al(III) in spiked tap water . The analysis of a certified standard reference material was also carried out. Both results agree with the certified values considering the respective associated uncertainties.

  18. A new ion imprinted polymer based on Ru(III)-thiobarbituric acid complex for solid phase extraction of ruthenium(III) prior to its determination by ETAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambrzycka, Elżbieta; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata

    2014-01-01

    A new ruthenium ion imprinted polymer was prepared from the Ru(III) 2-thiobarbituric acid complex (the template), methacrylic acid or acrylamide (the functional monomers), and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (the cross-linking agent) using 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile as the radical initiator. The ion imprinted polymer was characterized and used as a selective sorbent for the solid phase extraction of Ru(III) ions. The effects of type of functional monomer, sample volume, solution pH and flow rate on the extraction efficiency were studied in the dynamic mode. Ru(III) ion was quantitatively retained on the sorbents in the pH range from 3.5 to 10, and can be eluted with 4 mol L−1 aqueous ammonia. The affinity of Ru(III) for the ion imprinted polymer based on the acrylamide monomer is weaker than that for the polymer based on the methacrylic acid monomer, which therefore was used in interference studies and in analytical applications. Following extraction of Ru(III) ions with the imprint and their subsequent elution from the polymer with aqueous ammonia, Ru(III) was detected by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with a detection limit of 0.21 ng mL −1 . The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of Ru(III) in water, waste, road dust and platinum ore (CRM SARM 76) with a reproducibility (expressed as RSD) below 6.4 %. (author)

  19. Designing a suitable alternative to oil-based mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgate, M.; Irwin, G.; Cousins, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on wireline logging problems which have plagued the reservoir section of development wells in Welton oil field in the East Midlands area of England. And resulting incomplete or poor-quality logging data spurred a look at ways of improving hole conditions. Oil-based muds often are seen as the ideal solution, but they are expensive. Their use also commits the operator to additional costs from safeguarding personnel and limiting environmental impact. Such expense was initiated to develop a cheaper, more environmentally friendly, water-based alternative. A wide-ranging review was carried out to determine the most cost-effective options to obtain reservoir information. This included an examination of lithology, casing design, bit selection, hydraulics, logging requirements and techniques, and development of a suitable water-based mud. This holistic approach was seen as the most effective method of avoiding use of oil-based mud. After successful experimentation, a water-based mud was used in subsequent wells at Welton. A high-salt mud system and the drilling principles discussed here produced significant improvement in hole conditions. Application of a holistic approach led to many operational improvements. For instance, the casing shoe was deepened to case off the most troublesome zone in the local Edlington formation. There also was a better awareness of alternative logging techniques, the commercial factors that influenced their use and their operational and technical limitations. Logging problems were reduced but not eliminated. Where there were problems, application of improved techniques minimized their impact. Last, but not least, there was an unexpected spin-off in that the bit chosen to reduce hole erosion also reduced the time taken to drill the section

  20. Effects of a fish oil-based emulsion on rat hepatoma cell invasion in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Akifumi; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Miura, Yutaka; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2007-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition containing a lipid emulsion is often employed after surgical tumor resection. This study investigated the effects of a fish oil-based infusion on rat hepatoma cell invasion. Rat ascites hepatoma cell line AH109A was precultured with a fish oil-based or safflower oil-based emulsion for 48 h. Changes in membranous fatty acid composition were evaluated by gas chromatography. The invasiveness of hepatoma cells was assessed by coculturing with mesentery-derived mesothelial cells. To examine ex vivo effects of the fish oil-based infusion on hepatoma invasion, sera were prepared from rats infused with fish oil- or safflower oil-based emulsion and the effects of these sera were assessed. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition of invasion by the fish oil-based emulsion, the effects of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and PGE(3) on invasion were examined. Pretreatment with the fish oil-based emulsion reduced invasiveness without affecting growth compared with the safflower oil-based emulsion. Pretreatment with the sera from rats infused with the fish oil-based emulsion also reduced invasiveness compared with the sera from rats infused with the safflower oil-based emulsion. The addition of PGE(2) eliminated the inhibitory effect of the fish oil-based emulsion, and the addition of PGE(3) reduced the invasiveness of hepatoma cells pretreated with the safflower oil-based emulsion. These results suggest that the fish oil-based emulsion may have anti-invasive effects. Changes in the membranous fatty acid composition and consequent changes in the prostaglandins produced may be involved in this inhibitory effect.

  1. III-nitride based light emitting diodes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Morkoç, Hadis

    2013-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are already used in traffic signals, signage lighting, and automotive applications. However, its ultimate goal is to replace traditional illumination through LED lamps since LED lighting significantly reduces energy consumption and cuts down on carbon-dioxide emission. Despite dramatic advances in LED technologies (e.g., growth, doping and processing technologies), however, there remain critical issues for further improvements yet to be achieved for the realization of solid-state lighting. This book aims to provide the readers with some contemporary LED issues, which have not been comprehensively discussed in the published books and, on which the performance of LEDs is seriously dependent. For example, most importantly, there must be a breakthrough in the growth of high-quality nitride semiconductor epitaxial layers with a low density of dislocations, in particular, in the growth of Al-rich and and In-rich GaN-based semiconductors. The materials quality is directly dependent on th...

  2. The new challenges for oil-based sovereign wealth funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire; Boulanger, Quentin

    2015-02-01

    Sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) are often presented as an effective instrument for managing hydrocarbon rents, reducing the impact of the volatility of oil or gas revenues on the economy, separating expenditure from income, and promoting a more transparent management of the rent. The asset allocation strategy has become more complex with the rapid rise in oil prices between 2007 and 2014, and the substantial financial reserves accumulated in hydrocarbon-producing countries, switching from an approach of wealth management to an approach of investment and financial optimisation. Hence, these funds have become major players on the international financial and industrial scene. Moreover, with the discovery of new hydrocarbon resources in recent years, particularly in Africa, the strategies of new funds appear to be moving towards a new goal of local economic development. But the unforeseen collapse of crude oil prices in recent months poses a new risk for some SWFs based on hydrocarbon revenues, which has to come to the aid of their economies and focus on their main principle of macro-economic stabilisation. (author)

  3. Hydrotreatment of bio-oil over Ni-based catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Inexpensive non-sulfided Ni-based catalysts were evaluated for hydrotreatments using phenol as model compound. HZSM-5, a zeolite with different ratio of Si/Al and γ-Al(2)O(3) were impregnated with Ni(NO(3))(2) · 6H(2)O and calcined at 450 °C. Conversion rates and product distribution for treatment of phenol at 160-240 °C in the presence of catalysts with nickel loads of 6, 10, 14 and 17 wt.% were determined. Phenol conversion was highest (91.8%) at 240 °C in the presence of HZSM-5(Si/Al = 38) loaded with 10% Ni. When hydrotreatment was carried out with bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis of pine sawdust under the optimal conditions determined for phenol, the pH of bio-oil increased from 2.27 to 4.07, and the hydrogen content increased from 6.28 to 7.01 wt.%. The decrease in acidity is desirable for the use of upgraded bio-oil. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Establishing structure-property correlations and classification of base oils using statistical techniques and artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, G.S.; Sastry, M.I.S.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Sarpal, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes various classification techniques like cluster analysis, principal component (PC)/factor analysis to classify different types of base stocks. The API classification of base oils (Group I-III) has been compared to a more detailed NMR derived chemical compositional and molecular structural parameters based classification in order to point out the similarities of the base oils in the same group and the differences between the oils placed in different groups. The detailed compositional parameters have been generated using 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods. Further, oxidation stability, measured in terms of rotating bomb oxidation test (RBOT) life, of non-conventional base stocks and their blends with conventional base stocks, has been quantitatively correlated with their 1 H NMR and elemental (sulphur and nitrogen) data with the help of multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) techniques. The MLR based model developed using NMR and elemental data showed a high correlation between the 'measured' and 'estimated' RBOT values for both training (R=0.859) and validation (R=0.880) data sets. The ANN based model, developed using fewer number of input variables (only 1 H NMR data) also showed high correlation between the 'measured' and 'estimated' RBOT values for training (R=0.881), validation (R=0.860) and test (R=0.955) data sets

  5. Characterization of oil based nanofluid for quench medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiswara, E. P.; Harjanto, S.; Putra, W. N.; Ramahdita, G.; Yahya, S. S.; Kresnodrianto

    2018-01-01

    The choice of quench medium depends on the hardenability of the metal alloy, the thickness of the component, and the geometry of the component. Some of these will determine the cooling rate required to obtain the desired microstructure and material properties. Improper quench media will cause the material to become brittle, suffers from geometric distortion, or having a high undesirable residual stresses in the components. In heat treatment industries, oil and water are frequently used as the quench media. Recently, nanofluid as a quench medium has also been studied using several different fluids as the solvent. Examples of frequently used solvents include polymers, vegetable oils, and mineral oil. In this research, laboratory-grade carbon powder were used as nanoparticle. Oil was used as the fluid base in this research as the main observation focus. To obtain nanoscale carbon particles, planetary ball mill was used to ground laboratory grade carbon powder to decrease the particle size. This method was used to lower the cost for nanoparticle synthesis. Milling speed and duration were set at 500 rpm and 15 hours. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) measurement were carried out to determine the particle size, material identification, particle morphology, and surface change of samples. The carbon nanoparticle content in nanofluid quench mediums for this research were varied at 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4, and 0.5 % volume. Furthermore, these mediums were used to quench JIS S45C or AISI 1045 carbon steel samples which annealed at 1000°C. Hardness testing and metallography observation were then conducted to further examine the effect of different quench medium in steel samples.

  6. A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for ATP detection based on exonuclease III-assisted signal amplification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ting; Shu, Huawei; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2015-03-03

    A target-induced structure-switching electrochemical aptasensor for sensitive detection of ATP was successfully constructed which was based on exonuclease III-catalyzed target recycling for signal amplification. With the existence of ATP, methylene blue (MB) labeled hairpin DNA formed G-quadruplex with ATP, which led to conformational changes of the hairpin DNA and created catalytic cleavage sites for exonuclease III (Exo III). Then the structure-switching DNA hybridized with capture DNA which made MB close to electrode surface. Meanwhile, Exo III selectively digested aptamer from its 3'-end, thus G-quadruplex structure was destroyed and ATP was released for target recycling. The Exo III-assisted target recycling amplified electrochemical signal significantly. Fluorescence experiment was performed to confirm the structure-switching process of the hairpin DNA. In fluorescence experiment, AuNPs-aptamer conjugates were synthesized, AuNPs quenched fluorescence of MB, the target-induced structure-switching made Exo III digested aptamer, which restored fluorescence. Under optimized conditions, the proposed aptasensor showed a linear range of 0.1-20 nM with a detection limit of 34 pM. In addition, the proposed aptasensor had good stability and selectivity, offered promising choice for the detection of other small molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optical encoder based on a nondiffractive beam III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutenberg, Ariel; Perez-Quintian, Fernando

    2009-09-20

    In two preceding works (Appl. Opt.47, 2201-2206, 2008APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.002201; Appl. Opt.48, 414-424, 2009APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.48.000414) we introduced the design of an optical encoder based on a nondiffractive beam and studied the dependence of its performance on its parameters (e.g., grating pitch, photodetector size). In those works we proposed different optimization criteria and concluded that the proposed design provides an output sinusoidal signal with high contrast and very low harmonic distortion, while having remarkable tolerance to variations in its parameters and to mechanical perturbations. In this work we (1) study how to improve the system performance by means of selecting appropriate photodetector geometry, (2) study the system performance for different nondiffractive beam geometries, and (3) quantify the output signal tolerance to vertical and lateral misalignment between the centers of the nondiffractive beam and the photodetector. As a consequence, we obtain new sets of optimal parameters that significantly improve the system performance and enhance its tolerance to mechanical perturbations and fabrication errors.

  8. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  9. Green waste cooking oil-based rigid polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderus, N. F.; Tahir, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    Polyurethane is a versatile polymer traditionally prepared using petroleum-based raw material. Petroleum, however, is a non-renewable material and polyurethane produced was found to be non-biodegradable. In quest for a more environmentally friendly alternative, wastecooking oil, a highly abundant domestic waste with easily derivatized structure, is a viable candidate to replace petroleum. In this study,an investigation to determine physical and chemical properties of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam from waste cooking oil (WCO) was carried out. WCO was first adsorbed by using coconut husk activated carbon adsorbent prior to be used for polyol synthesis. The purified WCO was then used to synthesize polyol via transesterification reaction to yield alcohol groups in the WCO chains structure. Finally, the WCO-based polyol was used to prepare rigid PU foam. The optimum formulation for PU formation was found to be 90 polyol: 60 glycerol: 54 water: 40 diethanolamine: 23 diisocyanate. The rigid PU foam has density of 208.4 kg/m3 with maximum compressive strength and capability to receive load at 0.03 MPa and 0.09 kN, respectively. WCO-based PU can potentially be used to replace petroleum-based PU as house construction materials such as insulation panels.

  10. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  11. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the

  12. Comparative risk assessment of spill response options for a deepwater oil well blowout: Part III. Stakeholder engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ann Hayward; Scholz, Debra; McPeek, Melinda; French-McCay, Deborah; Rowe, Jill; Bock, Michael; Robinson, Hilary; Wenning, Richard

    2018-05-25

    This paper describes oil spill stakeholder engagement in a recent comparative risk assessment (CRA) project that examined the tradeoffs associated with a hypothetical offshore well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, with a specific focus on subsea dispersant injection (SSDI) at the wellhead. SSDI is a new technology deployed during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill response. Oil spill stakeholders include decision makers, who will consider whether to integrate SSDI into future tradeoff decisions. This CRA considered the tradeoffs associated with three sets of response strategies: (1) no intervention; (2) mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, and surface dispersants; and, (3) SSDI in addition to responses in (2). For context, the paper begins with a historical review of U.S. policy and engagement with oil spill stakeholders regarding dispersants. Stakeholder activities throughout the project involved decision-maker representatives and their advisors to inform the approach and consider CRA utility in future oil spill preparedness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The potential use of Khaya senegalensis oil as base in paracetamol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of the oil from Khaya senegalensis seed as a suppository base was investigated. Some physicochemical properties of the oil like the physical appearance, saponification value, iodine value, acid value and refractive index were evaluated. The oil was used to prepare paracetamol suppositories either as the ...

  14. Ni-Based Catalysts for the Hydrotreatment of Fast Pyrolysis Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyanti, A. R.; Bykova, M. V.; Khromova, S. A.; Yin, W.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Heeres, Hero

    Catalytic hydrotreatment is an attractive technology to convert fast pyrolysis oil to stabilized oil products for co processing in conventional crude oil refinery units. We report here the use of novel bimetallic NiCu- and NiPd-based (Picula) catalysts characterized by a high Ni content (29-58 wt %)

  15. Dietary avocado oil supplementation attenuates the alterations induced by type I diabetes and oxidative stress in electron transfer at the complex II-complex III segment of the electron transport chain in rat kidney mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Sámano-García, Carlos Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Pérez-Hernández, Ismael H; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Impaired complex III activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria have been identified as key events leading to renal damage during diabetes. Due to its high content of oleic acid and antioxidants, we aimed to test whether avocado oil may attenuate the alterations in electron transfer at complex III induced by diabetes by a mechanism related with increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. 90 days of avocado oil administration prevented the impairment in succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in kidney mitochondria. This was associated with a protection against decreased electron transfer through high potential chain in complex III related to cytochromes c + c1 loss. During Fe(2+)-induced oxidative stress, avocado oil improved the activities of complexes II and III and enhanced the protection conferred by a lipophilic antioxidant against damage by Fe(2+). Avocado oil also decreased ROS generation in Fe(2+)-damaged mitochondria. Alterations in the ratio of C20:4/C18:2 fatty acids were observed in mitochondria from diabetic animals that not were corrected by avocado oil treatment, which yielded lower peroxidizability indexes only in diabetic mitochondria although avocado oil caused an augment in the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, a protective effect of avocado oil against lipid peroxidation was observed consistently only in control mitochondria. Since the beneficial effects of avocado oil in diabetic mitochondria were not related to increased resistance to lipid peroxidation, these effects were discussed in terms of the antioxidant activity of both C18:1 and the carotenoids reported to be contained in avocado oil.

  16. 2-(2′-Pyridyl)-4,6-diphenylphosphinine versus 2-(2′-Pyridyl)-4,6-diphenylpyridine: Synthesis, Characterization, and Reactivity of Cationic RhIII and IrIII Complexes Based on Aromatic Phosphorus Heterocycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Krom, I.; Broeckx, L.E.E.; Lutz, M.; Müller, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The bidentate P,N hybrid ligand 1 allows access for the first time to novel cationic phosphinine-based RhIII and IrIII complexes, broadening significantly the scope of low-coordinate aromatic phosphorus heterocycles for potential applications. The coordination chemistry of 1 towards RhIII and IrIII

  17. Acid base catalyzed transesterification kinetics of waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P.; Rajvanshi, Shalini [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2011-01-15

    The present study reports the results of kinetics study of acid base catalyzed two step transesterification process of waste cooking oil, carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 C and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process respectively under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1%(w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The optimum temperature was determined based on the yield of ME at different temperature. Simply, the optimum concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH was determined with respect to ME Yield. The results indicated that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order rate reaction with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min{sup -1} and 0.0078 min{sup -1} respectively showing that the former is a slower process than the later. The maximum yield of 21.50% of ME during esterification and 90.6% from transesterification of pretreated WCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind which deals with simplified kinetics of two step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried under the above optimum conditions and took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME with least amount of activation energy. Also various parameters related to experiments are optimized with respect to ME yield. (author)

  18. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  19. Thin-plate spline analysis of the cranial base in subjects with Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; McNamara, J A; Lozanoff, S

    1997-08-01

    The role of the cranial base in the emergence of Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. This study determines deformations that contribute to a Class III cranial base morphology, employing thin-plate spline analysis on lateral cephalographs. A total of 73 children of European-American descent aged between 5 and 11 years of age with Class III malocclusion were compared with an equivalent group of subjects with a normal, untreated, Class I molar occlusion. The cephalographs were traced, checked and subdivided into seven age- and sex-matched groups. Thirteen points on the cranial base were identified and digitized. The datasets were scaled to an equivalent size, and statistical analysis indicated significant differences between average Class I and Class III cranial base morphologies for each group. Thin-plate spline analysis indicated that both affine (uniform) and non-affine transformations contribute toward the total spline for each average cranial base morphology at each age group analysed. For non-affine transformations, Partial warps 10, 8 and 7 had high magnitudes, indicating large-scale deformations affecting Bolton point, basion, pterygo-maxillare, Ricketts' point and articulare. In contrast, high eigenvalues associated with Partial warps 1-3, indicating localized shape changes, were found at tuberculum sellae, sella, and the frontonasomaxillary suture. It is concluded that large spatial-scale deformations affect the occipital complex of the cranial base and sphenoidal region, in combination with localized distortions at the frontonasal suture. These deformations may contribute to reduced orthocephalization or deficient flattening of the cranial base antero-posteriorly that, in turn, leads to the formation of a Class III malocclusion.

  20. Gas inflow in oil base fluids; Influxo de gas em fluidos a base de oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, Welmar [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Fluidos de Perfuracao; Boas, Mario Barbosa V [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1990-12-31

    One of the major problems related to the use of oil base fluids is the dissolution of the natural gas in the fluid. This paper attempts initially at making a bibliographical review of all that was written on the subject of drilling fluids up to now. It also mentions some theoretical aspects regarding the process of gas dissolution in diesel oils, in order to produce an understanding of how the dissolution mechanism is processed. For a same increase in measured volume on the surface, the amount of gas incorporated into the fluid is significantly larger if the gas is dissolved in the oil phase than if it is emulsified in the fluid, as occurs when the fluid is water base. A rig team used to working with water-base fluids may be surprised with the fact that an increase of 20 bbl of fluid on the surface of a 5000 m well can mean the incorporation of about 1800 m{sup 3} of gas, if the fluid is oil-base and all the gas is in solution instead of the incorporation of 900 m{sup 3} if the fluid is water base. This paper has the goal of warning drilling engineers and technicians about this problem, as well as presenting charts and equations that allow for a more realistic evaluation of the amount of gas incorporated into oil fluids. (author) 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. An empirical nexus between oil price collapse and economic growth in Sub-Saharan African oil based economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEJI Sunday Anderu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study, is to empirically investigate the nexus between oil price collapse and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa oil based economies, specifically from Angola, Nigeria and Sudan between January, 2010 and December, 2015, through panel random effects model (REM: Economic growth rate (GDPR and independent variables: Oil price (OPR, Exchange rate (EXR, Industrial Output (IND and Terms of Trade (TOT. REM result showed that there is negative link between oil price collapse and the economic growth in the case of Angola, Nigeria and Sudan, which confirmed the nexus between oil price collapse and economic growth. Post estimation tests such as Hausman and Breusch and Pagan Lagrange Multiplier Test were adopted to empirically show the consistency and efficiency of the model. Interestingly, the two key variables (GDPR and OPR disclose how unprecedented oil price fall disrupts economic growth of the selected economies. Meanwhile, poor institutional quality in the oil sector coupled with poor fiscal measure among others, further expose these economies to unprecedented external shocks that was characterized by skyrocket exchange rate, hence destabilize growth within the period under review. Therefore, the need for a robust fiscal measure is pertinent in order to sustain economic growth

  2. A Solid-Contact Indium(III) Sensor based on a Thiosulfinate Ionophore Derived from Omeprazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Mohammad Nooredeen; Hend Samy Amer [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    A novel solid-contact indium(III)-selective sensor based on bis-(1H-benzimidazole-5-methoxy-2-[(4-methoxy-3, 5-dimethyl-1-pyridinyl) 2-methyl]) thiosulfinate, known as an omeprazole dimer (OD) and a neutral ionophore, was constructed, and its performance characteristics were evaluated. The sensor was prepared by applying a membrane cocktail containing the ionophore to a graphite rod pre-coated with polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) conducting polymer as the ion-to-electron transducer. The membrane contained 3.6% OD, 2.3% oleic acid (OA) and 62% dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as the solvent mediator in PVC and produced a good potentiometric response to indium(III) ions with a Nernstian slope of 19.09 mV/decade. The constructed sensor possessed a linear concentration range from 3 Χ 10{sup -7} to 1 Χ 10{sup -2} M and a lower detection limit (LDL) of 1 Χ 10{sup -7} M indium(III) over a pH range of 4.0-7.0. It also displayed a fast response time and good selectivity for indium(III) over several other ions. The sensor can be used for longer than three months without any considerable divergence in potential. The sensor was utilized for direct and flow injection potentiometric (FIP) determination of indium(III) in alloys. The parameters that control the flow injection method were optimized. Indium(III) was quantitatively recovered, and the results agreed with those obtained using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, as confirmed by the f and t values. The sensor was also utilized as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of fluoride in the presence of chloride, bromide, iodide and thiocyanate ions using indium(III) nitrate as the titrant.

  3. Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…

  4. Homogeneous electrochemical aptamer-based ATP assay with signal amplification by exonuclease III assisted target recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shufeng; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Chengxin; Lin, Ying; Li, Feng

    2013-03-21

    A novel and homogeneous electrochemical aptamer-based adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay was demonstrated with signal amplification by exonuclease III-assisted target recycling. A superior detection limit of 1 nM toward ATP with an excellent selectivity could be achieved.

  5. Coordination polymers of some lanthanide(III) nitrate with schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, D.K.; Shukla, B.K.; Shukla, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Schiff bases derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and salicylaldehyde with o-dianisidine, p-phenylene diamine and benzidine and their lanthanide(III) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental, I.R., thermal, magnetic and D.R.S. studies. (author). 7 refs

  6. Investigation of Emerging Materials for Optoelectronic Devices Based on III-Nitrides

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila

    2018-01-01

    performance due to dislocation defects, remains an obstacle to their further improvement. In this dissertation, I present a significant enhancement of III-nitride devices based on emerging materials. A promising substrate, (-201)-oriented β-Ga2O3 with unique

  7. Characterization of Novel Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiah Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil-based polyurethane as a renewable resource polymer has been synthesized for application as a host in polymer electrolyte for electrochemical devices. The polyurethane was added with LiI and NaI in different wt% to form a film of polymer electrolytes. The films were characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and transference number measurement. The highest conductivity of 1.42 × 10−6 S cm−1 was achieved with the addition of 30 wt% LiI and 4.28 × 10−7 S·cm−1 upon addition of 30 wt% NaI at room temperature. The temperature dependence conductivity plot indicated that both systems obeyed Arrhenius law. The activation energy for the PU-LiI and PU-NaI systems were 0.13 and 0.22 eV. Glass transition temperature of the synthesized polyurethane decreased from −15.8 °C to ~ −26 to −28 °C upon salts addition. These characterizations exhibited the castor oil-based polyurethane polymer electrolytes have potential to be used as alternative membrane for electrochemical devices.

  8. 40 CFR 446.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash paint subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash paint subcategory. 446.10 Section 446.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash... production of oil-base paint where the tank cleaning is performed using solvents. When a plant is subject to...

  9. Round table discussion on used oil recycling and re-refined base oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The re-refining of use d engine oils into marketable fuels and lubricants has received xxx recent attention inlight of proposed Federal legislation mandating collection and recycling of used oils. In this paper the current technologies employed to process used oils into new fuseless and lubricants will be outlined and the performance features of these products compared to virgin materials. Attention will be focused on the environmental and health-related issues of used oil recycling with some emphasis on how processing influences the chemical composition of recycled products

  10. Solvent extraction of base oil from used lubricant oil: a study on the performance of zeolite adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Lee Ping; Rosli Mohd Yunus; Adnan Ripin

    2001-01-01

    Solvent extraction is known as one of the potential techniques for recycling used lubricant oil. The recovered oil is identical to the virgin oil, but the oil maintains its darkish color and some odor. This paper is to study the performance of zeolite in removing color and odor. A part from the study, factorial design analysis indicated that the concentration of zeolite exerts to be the most influenced on the adsorption process in which the increase of zeolite concentration resulted in an average increase of 2.22% adsorption response. The number of contact stage appeared to be the second most influential effects, which brought an average increase of 1.38% adsorption response. Further more, it was found that the interaction between the concentration of zeolite and the number of contact stage was the most significant of all interactions under study, at 2.71%. Thus, the additions of 10 g zeolite in 50 ml base oil of 3 rd stage color removal produces the best color removal from the recovered base oil. (Author)

  11. Microfluidic acoustophoretic force based low-concentration oil separation and detection from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Liu, Zhongzheng; Kim, Sungman; Koo, Chiwan; Cho, Younghak; Jang, Dong-Young; Kim, Yong-Joe; Han, Arum

    2014-03-07

    Detecting and quantifying extremely low concentrations of oil from the environment have broad applications in oil spill monitoring in ocean and coastal areas as well as in oil leakage monitoring on land. Currently available methods for low-concentration oil detection are bulky or costly with limited sensitivities. Thus they are difficult to be used as portable and field-deployable detectors in the case of oil spills or for monitoring the long-term effects of dispersed oil on marine and coastal ecosystems. Here, we present a low-concentration oil droplet trapping and detection microfluidic system based on the acoustophoresis phenomenon where oil droplets in water having a negative acoustic contrast factor move towards acoustic pressure anti-nodes. By trapping oil droplets from water samples flowing through a microfluidic channel, even very low concentrations of oil droplets can be concentrated to a detectable level for further analyses, which is a significant improvement over currently available oil detection systems. Oil droplets in water were successfully trapped and accumulated in a circular acoustophoretic trapping chamber of the microfluidic device and detected using a custom-built compact fluorescent detector based on the natural fluorescence of the trapped crude oil droplets. After the on-line detection, crude oil droplets released from the trapping chamber were successfully separated into a collection outlet by acoustophoretic force for further off-chip analyses. The developed microfluidic system provides a new way of trapping, detecting, and separating low-concentration crude oil from environmental water samples and holds promise as a low-cost field-deployable oil detector with extremely high sensitivity. The microfluidic system and operation principle are expected to be utilized in a wide range of applications where separating, concentrating, and detecting small particles having a negative acoustic contrast factor are required.

  12. Laboratory based degradation of light crude oil by aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... This spilled oil produces destructive effect on the environment. For example, when ... growth was separated from the oil using gas chromatography. The hydrocarbon that dissolved in carbon tetrachloride ... Gasoline and gas oil were also degraded (Figure 1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. The authors wish to ...

  13. Base catalyzed transesterification of sunflower oil biodiesel | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, sunflower oil was investigated for biodiesel production. Sunflower is one of the leading oil seed crop, cultivated for the production of oil in the world. It has also been considered as an important crop for biodiesel production. Seeds for biodiesel production were procured from local farmers of Attock and ...

  14. Imperata cylindrica sp as Novel Silica-Based Heterogeneous Catalysts for Transesterification of Palm Oil Mill Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaini, Zainab; Shahrom, Farra Diana; Jamil, Nurfarahen; Wahi, Rafeah; Ahmad, Zainal Abiddin

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel from palm oil mill sludge (POMS) was prepared in the presence of novel silica-based heterogeneous catalysts derived from Imperata cylindrica sp. Imperatacid and Imperatabase are two types of heterogeneous catalysts derived from Imperata cylindrica sp and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and pore size measurement. Imperatacid has particle size of 43.1-83.9 µm while Imperatabase in the range of 89-193 µm. Imperatacid was conveniently applied in esterification step to afford > 90 wt% oil in 1:3 (oil/methanol) and 10 wt% catalyst, followed by transesterification with 1 wt% Imperatabase and 1:1 (oil/methanol) for 1 h at 65°C to afford 80% biodiesel with higher percentage of methyl palmitate (48.97%) and methyl oleate (34.14%) compare to conventional homogeneous catalyst. Reusability of the catalyst up to three times afforded biodiesel ranging from 78-80% w/w. The biodiesel was demonstrated onto alternative diesel engine (Megatech(®)-Mark III) and showed proportional increased of torque (ɽ) to biodiesel loading.

  15. NCSMEMO, an IBM PC program using dBASE III to cross-reference letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klave, D.L.; Rogers, C.A.

    1985-08-01

    NCSMEMO is a database management system consisting of six command files written in Ashton-Tate's dBASE III programming language. NCSMEMO provides a method of cross-referencing Nuclear Criticality Safety Memoranda to facilitate locating information based on keywords and provides an abstract of each memo. The primary benefit of NCSMEMO is its ability to quickly search through abstracts of over 470 memos and locate those which apply to specific keywords. NCSMEMO is menu driven for ease of use

  16. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  17. Lipid oxidation in base algae oil and water-in-algae oil emulsion: Impact of natural antioxidants and emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingcan; Rao, Jiajia; Ding, Yangping; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The impact of natural hydrophilic antioxidants, metal chelators, and hydrophilic antioxidant/metal chelator mixture on the oxidative stability of base algae oil and water-in-algae oil emulsion was investigated. The results showed that green tea extract and ascorbic acid had greatest protective effect against algae oil oxidation and generated four day lag phase, whereas rosmarinic acid, grape seed extract, grape seed extract polymer, deferoxamine (DFO), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) had no significant protective effect. Besides, there was no synergistic effect observed between natural antioxidants and ascorbic acid. The emulsifiers are critical to the physicochemical stability of water-in-algae oil emulsions. Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) promoted the oxidation of emulsion. Conversely, the protective effect on algae oil oxidation was appreciated when defatted soybean lecithin (PC 75) or defatted lyso-lecithin (Lyso-PC) was added. The role of hydrophilic antioxidants in emulsion was similar to that in algae oil except EDTA which demonstrated strong antioxidative effect in emulsion. The results could provide information to build up stable food products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increase oil recovery of heavy oil in combustion tube using a new catalyst based nickel ionic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Garnica, M.A.; Hernandez-Perez, J.R.; Cabrera-Reves, M.C.; Schacht-Hernandez, P. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Mamora, D.D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    An ionic liquid-based nickel catalyst was used in conjunction with a combustion tube as an in situ process for heavy oil. The experimental system was comprised of a fluid injection system; a combustion tube; a fluid production system; a gas chromatograph; and a data recording system. Injected nitrogen and air was controlled by a mass flow controller. Nitrogen was used to pressurize the combustion tube and flush the system. Air was injected at a rate of 3 L per minute throughout the combustion run. Liquids leaving the combustion tube passed through a 2-stage separation process. Gases passing through the condenser were kept at low temperatures. Fractions of produced gas were analyzed by the chromatograph. Data loggers were used to obtain data at 30 second intervals. Two combustion experiments were conducted to obtain production times, temperature profiles, and the quality of the oil produced by the catalyst. Combustion tests were conducted with and without the catalyst. An analysis of the experimental data showed that use of the nickel catalyst resulted in increases in oil production as well as higher combustion efficiencies. Use of the catalyst also resulted in a faster combustion front and accelerated oil production. It was concluded that the produced oil contained fewer impurities than oil produced during the control experiment. 23 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Encapsulation of Polymethoxyflavones in Citrus Oil Emulsion-Based Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Zhao, Chengying; Chen, Jingjing; Tian, Guifang; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang; Zheng, Jinkai

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to elucidate the effects of citrus oil type on polymethoxyflavone (PMF) solubility and on the physicochemical properties of PMF-loaded emulsion-based delivery systems. Citrus oils were extracted from mandarin, orange, sweet orange, and bergamot. The major constituents were determined by GC/MS: sweet orange oil (97.4% d-limonene); mandarin oil (72.4% d-limonene); orange oil (67.2% d-limonene); and bergamot oil (34.6% linalyl acetate and 25.3% d-limonene). PMF-loaded emulsions were fabricated using 10% oil phase (containing 0.1% w/v nobiletin or tangeretin) and 90% aqueous phase (containing 1% w/v Tween 80) using high-pressure homogenization. Delivery systems prepared using mandarin oil had the largest mean droplet diameters (386 or 400 nm), followed by orange oil (338 or 390 nm), bergamot oil (129 or 133 nm), and sweet orange oil (122 or 126 nm) for nobiletin- or tangeretin-loaded emulsions, respectively. The optical clarity of the emulsions increased with decreasing droplet size due to reduced light scattering. The viscosities of the emulsions (with or without PMFs) were similar (1.3 to 1.4 mPa·s), despite appreciable differences in oil phase viscosity. The loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of the emulsions depended on carrier oil type, with bergamot oil giving the highest loading capacity. In summary, differences in the composition and physical characteristics of citrus oils led to PMF-loaded emulsions with different encapsulation and physicochemical characteristics. These results will facilitate the rational design of emulsion-based delivery systems for encapsulation of PMFs and other nutraceuticals in functional foods and beverages.

  20. Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarel, V.; Nouaille, F.; Rooses, A.; Lambertin, D., E-mail: david.lambertin@cea.fr; Poulesquen, A.; Frizon, F.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Formulation with 20 vol.% of oil in a geopolymer have been successful tested. • Oil waste is encapsulated as oil droplets in metakaolin-based geopolymer. • Oil/geopolymer composite present good mechanical performance. • Carbon lixiviation of oil/geopolymer composite is very low. - Abstract: The solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin based geopolymer was studied in the present work. The process consists of obtaining a stabilised emulsion of oil in a water-glass solution and then adding metakaolin to engage the setting of a geopolymer block with an oil emulsion stabilised in the material. Geopolymer/oil composites have been made with various oil fraction (7, 14 and 20 vol.%). The rigidity and the good mechanical properties have been demonstrated with compressive strength tests. Leaching tests evidenced the release of oil from the composite material is very limited whereas the constitutive components of the geopolymer (Na, Si and OH{sup −}) are involved into diffusion process.

  1. The Improvement of Screening the Significant Factors of Oil Blends as Bio lubricant Base Stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Hajarul Ashikin Shamsuddin; Rozaini Abdullah; Zainab Hamzah; Siti Jamilah Hanim Mohd Yusof

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation bio lubricant base stock was developed by blending of waste cooking oil (WCO) with Jatropha curcas oil (JCO). The objective of this research is to evaluate significant factors contributing to the production of oil blends for bio lubricant application. The significant factors used in this study were oil ratio (WCO:JCO), agitation times (min) and agitation speed (rpm). The blended oil bio based lubricant was used to determine the saponification, acid, peroxide and iodine values. The experimental design used in this study was the 2 level-factorial design. In this experiment, it was found that the effect of oil ratio and interaction of oil ratio and agitation speed gave the most significant effect in oil blends as bio lubricant base stock. The highest ratio of oil blend 80 %:20 % WCO:JCO, with low agitation speed of 300 rpm and low agitation time of 30 minutes gave the optimum results. The acid, saponification, peroxide and iodine values obtained were 0.517±0.08 mg KOH/ g, 126.23±1.62 mg/ g, 7.5±2.0 m eq/ kg and 50.42±2.85 mg/ g respectively. A higher ratio of waste cooking oil blends was found to be favourable as bio lubricant base stock. (author)

  2. Finding the multipath propagation of multivariable crude oil prices using a wavelet-based network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoliang; An, Haizhong; Sun, Xiaoqi; Huang, Xuan; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-04-01

    The globalization and regionalization of crude oil trade inevitably give rise to the difference of crude oil prices. The understanding of the pattern of the crude oil prices' mutual propagation is essential for analyzing the development of global oil trade. Previous research has focused mainly on the fuzzy long- or short-term one-to-one propagation of bivariate oil prices, generally ignoring various patterns of periodical multivariate propagation. This study presents a wavelet-based network approach to help uncover the multipath propagation of multivariable crude oil prices in a joint time-frequency period. The weekly oil spot prices of the OPEC member states from June 1999 to March 2011 are adopted as the sample data. First, we used wavelet analysis to find different subseries based on an optimal decomposing scale to describe the periodical feature of the original oil price time series. Second, a complex network model was constructed based on an optimal threshold selection to describe the structural feature of multivariable oil prices. Third, Bayesian network analysis (BNA) was conducted to find the probability causal relationship based on periodical structural features to describe the various patterns of periodical multivariable propagation. Finally, the significance of the leading and intermediary oil prices is discussed. These findings are beneficial for the implementation of periodical target-oriented pricing policies and investment strategies.

  3. 75 FR 76727 - Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2201-000] Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. Molecular performance of commercial MTG variety oil palm based on RAPD markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, L. A. P.; Setyo, I. E.; Basyuni, M.; Bayu, E. S.; Setiado, H.; Reynaldi, N. F.; Laia, H.; Puteri, S. A. K.; Arifiyanto, D.; Syahputra, I.

    2018-02-01

    The oil palm, an economically important tree in Indonesia, has been one of the world’s major sources of edible oil and a significant precursor of biodiesel fuel. This research is conducted by taking individual tree sample of commercial MTG variety germplasm oil palm one years old. The purpose of this research is to analyse molecular performance of some oil palm MTG variety based on RAPD markers. In this experiment, the DNA profile diversity was assessed using markers of oil palm’s random RAPD markers (OPD-20, SB-19, OPM-01 and OPO-11). A total of 15 trees commercial MTG oil palm variety were used for analysis. The results of the experiment indicated out of 4 RAPD markers (OPD-20, SB-19, OPM-01 and OPO-11) showed polymorphic of PCR product. These preliminary results demonstrated RAPD marker can be used to evaluate genetic relatedness among trees of commercial MTG variety oil palm and detecting either genetic variants or mislabelled.

  5. Stability Proxies for Water-in-Oil Emulsions and Implications in Aqueous-based Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Moradi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have proposed that mobility control mechanisms can positively contribute to oil recovery in the case of emulsions generated in Enhanced-Oil Recovery (EOR operations. Chemical EOR techniques that use alkaline components or/and surfactants are known to produce undesirable emulsions that create operational problems and are difficult to break. Other water-based methods have been less studied in this sense. EOR processes such as polymer flooding and LoSalTM injection require adjustments of water chemistry, mainly by lowering the ionic strength of the solution or by decreasing hardness. The decreased ionic strength of EOR solutions can give rise to more stable water-in-oil emulsions, which are speculated to improve mobility ratio between the injectant and the displaced oil. The first step toward understanding the connection between the emulsions and EOR mechanisms is to show that EOR conditions, such as salinity and hardness requirements, among others, are conducive to stabilizing emulsions. In order to do this, adequate stability proxies are required. This paper reviews commonly used emulsion stability proxies and explains the advantages and disadvantage of methods reviewed. This paper also reviews aqueous-based EOR processes with focus on heavy oil to contextualize in-situ emulsion stabilization conditions. This context sets the basis for comparison of emulsion stability proxies.

  6. Novel polymer anchored Cr(III) Schiff base complexes: Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Canan; Nartop, Dilek

    2012-09-01

    New polymer-bound Schiff bases and Cr(III) complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of 4-benzyloxybenzaldehyde, polymer-bound with 2-aminophenol, 2-amino-4-chlorophenol and 2-amino-4-methylphenol. The structure of polymeric-Schiff bases and their Cr(III) complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic measurements, IR, UV-Vis, TG-DTA and 1H-NMR. All these compounds have also been investigated for antibacterial activity by the well-diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus (RSKK-07035), Shigella dysenteria type 10 (RSKK 1036), Listeria monocytogenes 4b(ATCC 19115, Escherichia coli (ATCC 1230), Salmonella typhi H (NCTC 901.8394), Staphylococcus epidermis (ATCC 12228), Brucella abortus (RSKK-03026), Micrococcs luteus (ATCC 93419, Bacillus cereus sp., Pseudomonas putida sp. and for antifungal activity against Candida albicans (Y-1200-NIH).

  7. A 32-channel 840Msps TDC based on Altera Cyclone III FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, D.N.; Kasyanenko, P.V.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Shamov, A.G.; Talyshev, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present a newly developed TDC (Time-to-Digital Converter) board in the VME-32 standard. The 32-channel TDC board is based on a single FPGA Altera Cyclone III chip. The main parameters of the TDC are as follows: a resolution of 1.19 ns, a dead time of 4.76 ns, and a maximal time interval of 19 504 ns.

  8. A holmium(III)-based single-molecule magnet with pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, Takashi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Nara Women' s University (Japan)

    2017-09-11

    The right environment: The remarkable properties of a recently reported holmium(III)-based single-ion magnet have been ascribed to the hyperfine interactions with the half-integer nuclear spin in combination with the pentagonal-bipyramidal coordination environment. These results provide insight into the complicated magnetic properties of nanosized magnetic materials. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. A physically-based constitutive model for SA508-III steel: Modeling and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Dingqian [National Die & Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Rd., Shanghai 200030 (China); Chen, Fei, E-mail: feechn@gmail.com [National Die & Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Rd., Shanghai 200030 (China); Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Cui, Zhenshan, E-mail: cuizs@sjtu.edu.cn [National Die & Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Rd., Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-05-14

    Due to its good toughness and high weldability, SA508-III steel has been widely used in the components manufacturing of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and steam generators (SG). In this study, the hot deformation behaviors of SA508-III steel are investigated by isothermal hot compression tests with forming temperature of (950–1250)°C and strain rate of (0.001–0.1)s{sup −1}, and the corresponding flow stress curves are obtained. According to the experimental results, quantitative analysis of work hardening and dynamic softening behaviors is presented. The critical stress and critical strain for initiation of dynamic recrystallization are calculated by setting the second derivative of the third order polynomial. Based on the classical stress–dislocation relation and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of SA508-III steel. Comparisons between the predicted and measured flow stress indicate that the established physically-based constitutive model can accurately characterize the hot deformations for the steel. Furthermore, a successful numerical simulation of the industrial upsetting process is carried out by implementing the developed constitutive model into a commercial software, which evidences that the physically-based constitutive model is practical and promising to promote industrial forging process for nuclear components.

  10. A physically-based constitutive model for SA508-III steel: Modeling and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Dingqian; Chen, Fei; Cui, Zhenshan

    2015-01-01

    Due to its good toughness and high weldability, SA508-III steel has been widely used in the components manufacturing of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and steam generators (SG). In this study, the hot deformation behaviors of SA508-III steel are investigated by isothermal hot compression tests with forming temperature of (950–1250)°C and strain rate of (0.001–0.1)s −1 , and the corresponding flow stress curves are obtained. According to the experimental results, quantitative analysis of work hardening and dynamic softening behaviors is presented. The critical stress and critical strain for initiation of dynamic recrystallization are calculated by setting the second derivative of the third order polynomial. Based on the classical stress–dislocation relation and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of SA508-III steel. Comparisons between the predicted and measured flow stress indicate that the established physically-based constitutive model can accurately characterize the hot deformations for the steel. Furthermore, a successful numerical simulation of the industrial upsetting process is carried out by implementing the developed constitutive model into a commercial software, which evidences that the physically-based constitutive model is practical and promising to promote industrial forging process for nuclear components

  11. Gradient-based methods for production optimization of oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwartadi, Eka

    2012-07-01

    Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis. The emphasis has been on numerical optimization algorithms, tested on case examples using simple hypothetical oil reservoirs. Gradientbased optimization, which utilizes adjoint-based gradient computation, is used to solve the optimization problems. The first contribution of this thesis is to address output constraint problems. These kinds of constraints are natural in production optimization. Limiting total water production and water cut at producer wells are examples of such constraints. To maintain the feasibility of an optimization solution, a Lagrangian barrier method is proposed to handle the output constraints. This method incorporates the output constraints into the objective function, thus avoiding additional computations for the constraints gradient (Jacobian) which may be detrimental to the efficiency of the adjoint method. The second contribution is the study of the use of second-order adjoint-gradient information for production optimization. In order to speedup convergence rate in the optimization, one usually uses quasi-Newton approaches such as BFGS and SR1 methods. These methods compute an approximation of the inverse of the Hessian matrix given the first-order gradient from the adjoint method. The methods may not give significant speedup if the Hessian is ill-conditioned. We have developed and implemented the Hessian matrix computation using the adjoint method. Due to high computational cost of the Newton method itself, we instead compute the Hessian-timesvector product which is used in a conjugate gradient algorithm. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis is on surrogate optimization for water flooding in the presence of the output constraints. Two kinds of model order reduction techniques are applied to build surrogate models. These are proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM

  12. Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M.

    2011-01-01

    The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

  13. Physicochemical properties of peanut oil-based diacylglycerol and their derived oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhao; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Liu, Daolin; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Qiangzhong

    2015-10-01

    High purity peanut oil-based diacylglycerol (PO-DAG) (94.95 wt%) was prepared via enzymatic glycerolysis from peanut oil (PO). The resulting dominance of DAGs was proven to greatly influence the properties of corresponding fresh or frozen-thawed emulsions. Stable fresh oil-in-water emulsions were produced using either PO-DAG or PO, with stability enhanced by increased concentrations of Na-CN. The lower equilibrium interfacial tension along with greater negative ζ-potential of PO revealed that Na-CN was preferentially adsorbed to the PO interface. Adding 0.05 mol/L NaCl to the PO emulsions minimized depletion flocculation caused by the unadsorbed Na-CN, but further NaCl addition increased oil droplet size and concomitant coalescence. For the PO-DAG emulsions, adding 0.2 mol/L NaCl did not significantly (p>0.05) affect their ζ-potential but adding 0.05 or 0.1 mol/L NaCl lowered ζ-potential, although NaCl at these concentrations increased oil droplet size and coalescence. Freezing-thawing process considerably weakened the stability of PO-DAG emulsions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thiophene-based rhodamine as selectivef luorescence probe for Fe(III) and Al(III) in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun-Peng; Chen, Ju-Peng; Zhang, Si-Jie; Lei, Yang; Zhong, Hua; Chen, Shaojin; Zhou, Xin-Hong; Hu, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The thiophene-modified rhodamine 6G (GYJ) has been synthesized as a novel chemosensor. The sensor has sufficiently high selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of Fe 3+ and Al 3+ ions (M 3+ ) by fluorescence and ultraviolet spectroscopy with a strong ability for anti-interference performance. The binding ratio of M 3+ -GYJ complex was determined to be 2:1 according to the Job's plot. The binding constants for Fe 3+ and Al 3+ were calculated to be 3.91 × 10 8 and 5.26 × 10 8  M -2 , respectively. All these unique features made it particularly favorable for cellular imaging applications. The obvious fluorescence microscopy experiments demonstrated that the probes could contribute to the detection of Fe 3+ and Al 3+ in related cells and biological organs with satisfying resolution. Graphical abstract GYJ has high selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of Fe(III) and Al(III) with the binding ratio of 2:1.

  15. Functional palm oil-based margarine by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    Palm stearin, palm kernel and fish oils were blended to a various composition ratios and enzymatically interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM lipase (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor. The ratio of the oils ranged from 60-90%, 10-40% and 0-10% respectively. The enzyme was a...

  16. Use of Oil-Based Mud Cutting Waste in Cement Clinker Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Saif Al-Dhamri, H; Black, L

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based Mud (OBM) cutting waste is generated during the process of oil well drilling. The drilled rocks are removed from deep within the drilled well and pumped to the surface. The portion removed , known at "cutting", is a mixture of rocks, mud, water and oil. Most drilling companies store this waste in open yards with no specific treatment solution. The environmental regulations in Oman specify that storage should involve isolation, to prevent penetration of the contamination to the surfa...

  17. A Novel Sensor for Monitoring of Iron(III) Ions Based on Porphyrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlascici, Dana; Fagadar-Cosma, Eugenia; Popa, Iuliana; Chiriac, Vlad; Gil-Agusti, Mayte

    2012-01-01

    Three A3B porphyrins with mixed carboxy-, phenoxy-, pyridyl-, and dimethoxy-substituent functionalization on the meso-phenyl groups were obtained by multicomponent synthesis, fully characterized and used as ionophores for preparing PVC-based membrane sensors selective to iron(III). The membranes have an ionophore:PVC:plasticizer composition ratio of 1:33:66. Sodium tetraphenylborate was used as additive (20 mol% relative to ionophore). The performance characteristics (linear concentration range, slope and selectivity) of the sensors were investigated. The best results were obtained for the membrane based on 5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-phenoxyphenyl)-porphyrin plasticized with bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate, in a linear range from 1 × 10−7–1 × 10−1 M with a slope of 21.6 mV/decade. The electrode showed high selectivity with respect to alkaline and heavy metal ions and a response time of 20 s. The influence of pH on the sensor response was studied. The sensor was used for a period of six weeks and the utility has been tested for the quantitative determination of Fe(III) in recovered solutions from spent lithium ion batteries and for the quantitative determination of Fe(III) in tap water samples. PMID:22969395

  18. A novel sensor for monitoring of iron(III) ions based on porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlascici, Dana; Fagadar-Cosma, Eugenia; Popa, Iuliana; Chiriac, Vlad; Gil-Agusti, Mayte

    2012-01-01

    Three A(3)B porphyrins with mixed carboxy-, phenoxy-, pyridyl-, and dimethoxy-substituent functionalization on the meso-phenyl groups were obtained by multicomponent synthesis, fully characterized and used as ionophores for preparing PVC-based membrane sensors selective to iron(III). The membranes have an ionophore:PVC:plasticizer composition ratio of 1:33:66. Sodium tetraphenylborate was used as additive (20 mol% relative to ionophore). The performance characteristics (linear concentration range, slope and selectivity) of the sensors were investigated. The best results were obtained for the membrane based on 5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-phenoxyphenyl)-porphyrin plasticized with bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate, in a linear range from 1 × 10(-7)-1 × 10(-1) M with a slope of 21.6 mV/decade. The electrode showed high selectivity with respect to alkaline and heavy metal ions and a response time of 20 s. The influence of pH on the sensor response was studied. The sensor was used for a period of six weeks and the utility has been tested for the quantitative determination of Fe(III) in recovered solutions from spent lithium ion batteries and for the quantitative determination of Fe(III) in tap water samples.

  19. Oil base fluids without tensoactive additives; Fluidos a base de oleo sem tensoativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Jose Carlos V; Aragao, Atila Fernando L [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos Norte e Nordeste

    1990-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to define an ideal oil base fluid composition without tensoactive additives, since these may cause damage to producing formation during drilling or well completion. We investigated the rheological, filtrating and phase separation properties of the systems composed of diesel oil, organophilic clay and a polar agent (water or ethyl alcohol). In order to to that, we used the 286 Baroid digital rotating viscometer, filtrating cells standardized according to the American Petroleum Institute (AP) for temperatures of 25 deg C to 149 deg C and pressures of 6,89 x 10{sup 5} Pa (100 psig) to 3,44 x 10{sup 6} (500 psig), and the setting method, according to the determinations of respectively rheological, filtrating and phase separation parameters. Results proved that the composition: diesel oil-94% v/v, Na Cl saturated solution - 6% v/v and bentone - 17,1 to 22,8 kg/m{sup 3} (6 to 8 lb/bbl), is ideal to meet the properties required for drilling and well completion operations for low densities, that is 0,84% to 1,02 (6,9 to 8,5 ib/gal). In order to obtain densities in the interval of 1,02 to 1,14 (8,5 to 9,5 ib/gal) the system should be condensed with calcite (Ca CO{sub 3}) and the base fluid composition should be : diesel oil-94 to 98% v/v, Na Cl saturated solution - 2 to 6% v/v and bentone 17,1 to 22,8 kg/m{sup 3} (6 to 8 ib/bbl). The average cost per barrel for the systems studied here is of the same order of conventional oil base fluids (with tensoactive additives). (author) 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Oil base fluids without tensoactive additives; Fluidos a base de oleo sem tensoativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Jose Carlos V.; Aragao, Atila Fernando L. [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos Norte e Nordeste

    1989-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to define an ideal oil base fluid composition without tensoactive additives, since these may cause damage to producing formation during drilling or well completion. We investigated the rheological, filtrating and phase separation properties of the systems composed of diesel oil, organophilic clay and a polar agent (water or ethyl alcohol). In order to to that, we used the 286 Baroid digital rotating viscometer, filtrating cells standardized according to the American Petroleum Institute (AP) for temperatures of 25 deg C to 149 deg C and pressures of 6,89 x 10{sup 5} Pa (100 psig) to 3,44 x 10{sup 6} (500 psig), and the setting method, according to the determinations of respectively rheological, filtrating and phase separation parameters. Results proved that the composition: diesel oil-94% v/v, Na Cl saturated solution - 6% v/v and bentone - 17,1 to 22,8 kg/m{sup 3} (6 to 8 lb/bbl), is ideal to meet the properties required for drilling and well completion operations for low densities, that is 0,84% to 1,02 (6,9 to 8,5 ib/gal). In order to obtain densities in the interval of 1,02 to 1,14 (8,5 to 9,5 ib/gal) the system should be condensed with calcite (Ca CO{sub 3}) and the base fluid composition should be : diesel oil-94 to 98% v/v, Na Cl saturated solution - 2 to 6% v/v and bentone 17,1 to 22,8 kg/m{sup 3} (6 to 8 ib/bbl). The average cost per barrel for the systems studied here is of the same order of conventional oil base fluids (with tensoactive additives). (author) 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Biodiesel Production from Spent Fish Frying Oil Through Acid-Base Catalyzed Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahman B. Fadhil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuels were prepared from a special type of frying oil namely spent fish frying oil through two step transesterification viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The oil was pre-treated with (1.0 wt% HCl and methanol to reduce free fatty acids content of the oil. Then, conditions of the base catalyzed step such as base concentration, reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time were optimized. The study raveled that, 0.50% KOH w/w of oil; a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio; a reaction temperature of 60°C and a duration of 1h were the optimal conditions because they resulted in high biodiesel yield. Fuel properties of the products were assessed and found better than those of the parent oil. Furthermore, they met the specified limits according to the ASTM standards. Thin layer chromatography was used as a simple technique to monitor the transesterification of the oil. Blending of the optimal biodiesel sample with petro diesel using specified volume percentages was done as well. The results indicated that biodiesel had slight effect on the values of the assessed properties.

  2. Thermoplastic shape-memory polyurethanes based on natural oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saralegi, Ainara; Eceiza, Arantxa; Corcuera, Maria Angeles; Johan Foster, E; Weder, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    A new family of segmented thermoplastic polyurethanes with thermally activated shape-memory properties was synthesized and characterized. Polyols derived from castor oil with different molecular weights but similar chemical structures and a corn-sugar-based chain extender (propanediol) were used as starting materials in order to maximize the content of carbon from renewable resources in the new materials. The composition was systematically varied to establish a structure–property map and identify compositions with desirable shape-memory properties. The thermal characterization of the new polyurethanes revealed a microphase separated structure, where both the soft (by convention the high molecular weight diol) and the hard phases were highly crystalline. Cyclic thermo-mechanical tensile tests showed that these polymers are excellent candidates for use as thermally activated shape-memory polymers, in which the crystalline soft segments promote high shape fixity values (close to 100%) and the hard segment crystallites ensure high shape recovery values (80–100%, depending on the hard segment content). The high proportion of components from renewable resources used in the polyurethane formulation leads to the synthesis of bio-based polyurethanes with shape-memory properties. (paper)

  3. Impact of operating variables on re-refining of vehicle waste oil to base-oil by acid-clay process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Panhwar, M.I.; Kazi, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    A large volume of waste oil is generated each year as the number of vehicles in the country is increasing every day. This used lubricant oil constitutes a serious pollution problem. It easily be converted as a resource depending on the manners of utilization and management. This paper compares various end uses of waste oil and develops technology by which basic properties of the base oil can be regained. An experimental setup (Experimental rig) of acid-clay method was used to regain waste oil collected and number of experiments were conducted by varying different process variables. The impacts of the operating variables on the quality of re-refined oil are also discussed. The recovery of re-refined base oil was found in between 44-49%. (author)

  4. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hasmiza Harun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB. Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB. A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA. To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  5. Dual resonant frequencies effects on an induction-based oil palm fruit sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Mohd Sidek, Roslina; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-11-19

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  6. Crude oil price analysis and forecasting based on variational mode decomposition and independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Jianwei; Bao, Yanling; Ye, Jimin

    2017-10-01

    As one of the most vital energy resources in the world, crude oil plays a significant role in international economic market. The fluctuation of crude oil price has attracted academic and commercial attention. There exist many methods in forecasting the trend of crude oil price. However, traditional models failed in predicting accurately. Based on this, a hybrid method will be proposed in this paper, which combines variational mode decomposition (VMD), independent component analysis (ICA) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), called VMD-ICA-ARIMA. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence factors of crude oil price and predict the future crude oil price. Major steps can be concluded as follows: Firstly, applying the VMD model on the original signal (crude oil price), the modes function can be decomposed adaptively. Secondly, independent components are separated by the ICA, and how the independent components affect the crude oil price is analyzed. Finally, forecasting the price of crude oil price by the ARIMA model, the forecasting trend demonstrates that crude oil price declines periodically. Comparing with benchmark ARIMA and EEMD-ICA-ARIMA, VMD-ICA-ARIMA can forecast the crude oil price more accurately.

  7. Experimental Study of Enhancing Oil Recovery with Weak Base Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Na2CO3 was used together with surfactant and polymer to form the Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer (ASP flooding system. Interfacial tension (IFT and emulsification of Dagang oil and chemical solutions were studied in the paper. The experiment results show that the ASP system can form super-low interfacial tension with crude oil and emulsified phase. The stability of the emulsion is enhanced by the Na2CO3, surfactant, and the soap generated at oil/water contact. Six core flooding experiments are conducted in order to investigate the influence of Na2CO3 concentration on oil recovery. The results show the maximum oil recovery can be obtained with 0.3 wt% surfactant, 0.6 wt% Na2CO3, and 2000 mg/L polymer. In a heterogeneous reservoir, the ASP flooding could not enhance the oil recovery by reducing IFT until it reaches the critical viscosity, which indicates expanding the sweep volume is the premise for reducing IFT to enhance oil recovery. Reducing or removing the alkali from ASP system to achieve high viscosity will reduce oil recovery because of the declination of oil displacement efficiency. Weak base ASP alkali can ensure that the whole system with sufficient viscosity can start the medium and low permeability layers and enhance oil recovery even if the IFT only reaches 10−2 mN/m.

  8. Adsorption Removal of Glycidyl Esters from Palm Oil and Oil Model Solution by Using Acid-Washed Oil Palm Wood-Based Activated Carbon: Kinetic and Mechanism Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Wang, Xuede; Han, Lipeng

    2017-11-08

    Acid-washed oil palm wood-based activated carbon (OPAC) has been investigated for its potential application as a promising adsorbent in the removal of glycidyl esters (GEs) from both palm oil and oil model (hexadecane) solution. It was observed that the removal rate of GEs in palm oil was up to >95%, which was significantly higher than other adsorbents used in this study. In batch adsorption system, the adsorption efficiency and performance of acid-washed OPAC were evaluated as a function of several experimental parameters such as contact time, initial glycidyl palmitate (PGE) concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were used to describe the adsorption equilibrium isotherm, and the equilibrium data were fitted best by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of acid-washed OPAC was found to be 36.23 mg/g by using the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption of PGE on acid-washed OPAC was an endothermic and physical process in nature. The experimental data were fitted by using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that the kinetic of PGE adsorption onto acid-washed OPAC followed well the pseudo-second-order model for various initial PGE concentrations and the adsorption process was controlled by both film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion. The desorption test indicated the removal of GEs from palm oil was attributed to not only the adsorption of GEs on acid-washed OPAC, but also the degradation of GEs adsorbed at activated sites with acidic character. Furthermore, no significant difference between before and after PGE adsorption in oil quality was observed.

  9. Palm oil based polymer materials obtained by ROMP: study by low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Henrique; Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Lima-Neto, Benedito S.

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to study and develop new materials synthesized from sustainable sources, several polymers were prepared using in its monomeric composition, different amounts of NPO (Norbornenyl Palm Oil) monomer. This monomer was developed based on a vegetable oil rather produced in northern Brazil, the Palm Oil. Since this oil have a low content of unsaturation, its use in developing new monomer for ROMP (Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization) is not exploited. In this regard, polymeric materials were obtained using the NOP and both the reaction process and the resulting products were analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the time domain (TD-NMR) at low magnetic field. (author)

  10. Gasoline from biomass through refinery-friendly carbohydrate-based bio-oil produced by ketalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Nuno; da Silva, Alessandra V; de Souza, Matheus O; da Costa, Bruna M C; Gomes, Elisa S; Silva, Thiago C; Barros, Thalita G; Gonçalves, Maria L A; Caramão, Elina B; dos Santos, Luciana R M; Almeida, Marlon B B; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A; Lam, Yiu L; Carvalho, Nakédia M F; Miranda, Leandro S M; Pereira, Marcelo M

    2014-06-01

    The introduction of biomass-derived compounds as an alternative feed into the refinery structure that already exists can potentially converge energy uses with ecological sustainability. Herein, we present an approach to produce a bio-oil based on carbohydrate-derived isopropylidene ketals obtained by reaction with acetone under acidic conditions directly from second-generation biomass. The obtained bio-oil showed a greater chemical inertness and miscibility with gasoil than typical bio-oil from fast pyrolysis. Catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over zeolites (USY and Beta) yielded gasoline with a high octane number. Moreover, the co-processing of gasoil and bio-oil improved the gasoline yield and quality compared to pure gasoil and also reduced the amount of oxygenated compounds and coke compared with pure bio-oil, which demonstrates a synergistic effect. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Fiber Optic Long Period Grating Based Sensor for Coconut Oil Adulteration Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Libish

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the development and demonstration of a Long-Period Grating (LPG based optical fiber sensor for determining the adulteration of coconut oil by palm oil. The fundamental principle of detection is the sensitive dependence of the resonance peaks of LPG on the changes of the refractive index of the environmental medium around the cladding surface of the grating. Refractive index sensing with LPGs employs light coupling between core and cladding modes in the grating section. The transmittance spectra of a long period grating element immersed in different mixtures of coconut oil and palm oil were recorded. Results show that resonance wavelengths and transmission intensities varied as a function of the adulteration level of coconut oil. Detection limit of adulteration was found to be 2 % for coconut oil–palm oil binary mixture.

  12. [Identification of spill oil species based on low concentration synchronous fluorescence spectra and RBF neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian-qian; Wang, Chun-yan; Shi, Xiao-feng; Li, Wen-dong; Luan, Xiao-ning; Hou, Shi-lin; Zhang, Jin-liang; Zheng, Rong-er

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a new method was developed to differentiate the spill oil samples. The synchronous fluorescence spectra in the lower nonlinear concentration range of 10(-2) - 10(-1) g x L(-1) were collected to get training data base. Radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN) was used to identify the samples sets, along with principal component analysis (PCA) as the feature extraction method. The recognition rate of the closely-related oil source samples is 92%. All the results demonstrated that the proposed method could identify the crude oil samples effectively by just one synchronous spectrum of the spill oil sample. The method was supposed to be very suitable to the real-time spill oil identification, and can also be easily applied to the oil logging and the analysis of other multi-PAHs or multi-fluorescent mixtures.

  13. Portable detection system of vegetable oils based on laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao

    2015-11-01

    Food safety, especially edible oils, has attracted more and more attention recently. Many methods and instruments have emerged to detect the edible oils, which include oils classification and adulteration. It is well known than the adulteration is based on classification. Then, in this paper, a portable detection system, based on laser induced fluorescence, is proposed and designed to classify the various edible oils, including (olive, rapeseed, walnut, peanut, linseed, sunflower, corn oils). 532 nm laser modules are used in this equipment. Then, all the components are assembled into a module (100*100*25mm). A total of 700 sets of fluorescence data (100 sets of each type oil) are collected. In order to classify different edible oils, principle components analysis and support vector machine have been employed in the data analysis. The training set consisted of 560 sets of data (80 sets of each oil) and the test set consisted of 140 sets of data (20 sets of each oil). The recognition rate is up to 99%, which demonstrates the reliability of this potable system. With nonintrusive and no sample preparation characteristic, the potable system can be effectively applied for food detection.

  14. Uranyl(VI) and lanthanum(III) complexes with functionalized macrocyclic and macroacyclic Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiari, A.; Brianese, N.; Tamburini, S.; Vigato, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Acyclic Schiff bases have been prepared by [2 + 1] condensation of 2,6-diformyl-4-chlorophenol and H 2 NCH 2 [CH 2 XCH 2 ] n CH 2 NH 2 (n =3D 0 H 2 -I; X =3D NH, S, O n =3D 1 H 2 -II...H 2 -IV; X =3D 0 n =3D 2 H 2 -V; X =3D 0 n =3D 3 H 2 -VI). The related uranlyl(VI) and lanthanum (III) complexes have bee synthesized by reaction by reaction of the preformed ligands with the appropriate salt or by the template procedure, in the presence of base. No base was employed in the preparation of lanthanum (III) complexes, La(H 2 -II)(NO 3 ) 3 , La(H 2 -IV)(NO 3 ) 3 where the Schiff bases coordinate as neutral chelate ligands. These acyclic complexes have been used for further condensation, and symmetric and asymmetric cyclic complexes have been obtained by their reaction with the polyamines H 2 NCH 2 [CH 2 XCH 2 ]nCH 2 NH 2 or with 4,4'-diaminodibenzo -18-crown-6. By reaction with 4-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 or 2-amino-methyl-15-crown-5, the same acyclic complexes give rise to functionalized complexes bearing crown-ether moieties. Analogously, the acyclic ligand H 3 -IXX, prepared by condensation of 2,6 diformyl-4-chlorophenol and tris(aminoethyl)amine, forms mono and homodinuclear lanthanum (III) complexes, which may undergo further condensation when reacted with primary functionalized amines. (authors). 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 schemes, 1 tab

  15. Mechanical and thermal properties of sisal fiber-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakare, I.O.; Okieimen, F.E.; Pavithran, C.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Brahmakumar, M.

    2010-01-01

    The development of high-performance composite materials from locally sourced and renewable materials was investigated. Rubber seed oil polyurethane resin synthesized using rubber seed monoglyceride derived from glycerolysis of the oil was used as matrix in the composite samples. Rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composite reinforced with unidirectional sisal fibers were prepared and characterized. Results showed that the properties of unidirectional fiber-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composites gave good thermal and mechanical properties. Also, the values of tensile strengths and flexural moduli of the polyurethane composites were more than tenfold and about twofold higher than un-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane. The improved thermal stability and the scanning electron micrographs of the fracture surface of the composites were attributed to good fiber-matrix interaction. These results indicate that high-performance 'all natural products' composite materials can be developed from resources that are readily available locally.

  16. SCOR based key success factors in cooking oil supply chain buyers perspective in Padang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahara, Fatimah; Hadiguna, Rika Ampuh

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain of cooking oil is a network of companies from palm oil as raw material to retailers which work to create the value and deliver products into the end consumers. This paper is aimed to study key success factors based on consumer's perspective as the last stage in the supply chain. Consumers who are examined in this study are restaurants management or owners. Restaurant is the biggest consumption of cooking oil. The factors is studied based on Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) version 10.0. Factors used are formulated based on the third-level metrics of SCOR Model. Factors are analyzed using factors analysis. This study found factors which become key success factors in managing supply chain of cooking oil encompass reliability, responsiveness and agility. Key success factors can be applied by governments as policy making and cooking oil companies as formulation of the distribution strategies.

  17. Study of methane solubility in oil base used in oil base drilling fluid; Estudo da solubilidade de metano em base oleo utilizada em fluido de perfuracao base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carolina Teixeira da; Mariolani, Jose Ricardo Lenzi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Lomba, Rosana Fatima Teixeira; Bonet, Euclides Jose

    2004-07-01

    During drilling a well, it is necessary to prevent and control high pressurized zones because while drilling on those zones, could occur a kick if the formation pressure were higher then downhole pressure, allowing the entering of undesirables fluids from the formation to the wellbore. If the well is not controlled this kick could became a blowout, generating damages to the environment, to the equipment and the human life. When drilling using oil-based mud, the concern related to the well control would be higher due the gas solubility in the mud, which could make it hard to detect the kick, especially in deep and ultra deep waters. In this work we have studied the interaction between methane and organic liquids used in drilling fluids, and the measurement and analysis of the thermodynamic properties of those gas liquid mixtures. There have been measured parameters like the oil formation volume factor (FVF{sub o}), bubble pressure, solubility (Rs) and the density of the saturated liquid in function of methane mole fraction and temperature. The results have shown that the gas solubility, at downhole conditions and during kick circulation, is a factor very important to the safety during well drilling in deep and ultra deep waters. (author)

  18. Effect of polysoap on physical and tribology properties of soybean oil-based grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate the evolution of soybean oil based grease containing polysoaps made from polymeric epoxdized soybean oil. With this aim, lubricating greases were prepared from a mixed soap comprising lithium soap and triethanol ammonium polysoap synthesized from so...

  19. Synthesis of fatty monoester lubricant base oil catalyzed by Fe-Zn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Chem. Sci. Vol. 126, No. 4, July 2014, pp. 997–1003. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Synthesis of fatty ... environmental pollution which the conventional min- eral oil-based ... fication of a fatty acid or transesterification of veg- etable oil with a ...

  20. Sublethal Toxic effects of spent Oil Based Drilling Mud and Cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sublethal toxic effects of spent oil based drilling mud collected from an abandoned oil drilling site in Mpanak, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were assessed in the earthworm Aporrectodea longa. The test annelid was exposed to sub-lethal Concentration of 0ppm SPP; 62,500ppm SPP; 125, 000ppm SPP; 250,000ppm SPP and ...

  1. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post

  2. Single Shooting and ESDIRK Methods for adjoint-based optimization of an oil reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Völcker, Carsten; Frydendall, Jan

    2012-01-01

    the injections and oil production such that ow is uniform in a given geological structure. Even in the case of conventional water ooding, feedback based optimal control technologies may enable higher oil recovery than with conventional operational strategies. The optimal control problems that must be solved...

  3. Climate Based Predictability of Oil Palm Tree Yield in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettli, Pascal; Behera, Swadhin K; Yamagata, Toshio

    2018-02-02

    The influence of local conditions and remote climate modes on the interannual variability of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) total yields in Malaysia and two major regions (Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah/Sarawak) is explored. On a country scale, the state of sea-surface temperatures (SST) in the tropical Pacific Ocean during the previous boreal winter is found to influence the regional climate. When El Niño occurs in the Pacific Ocean, rainfall in Malaysia reduces but air temperature increases, generating a high level of water stress for palm trees. As a result, the yearly production of FFB becomes lower than that of a normal year since the water stress during the boreal spring has an important impact on the total annual yields of FFB. Conversely, La Niña sets favorable conditions for palm trees to produce more FFB by reducing chances of water stress risk. The region of the Leeuwin current also seems to play a secondary role through the Ningaloo Niño/ Niña in the interannual variability of FFB yields. Based on these findings, a linear model is constructed and its ability to reproduce the interannual signal is assessed. This model has shown some skills in predicting the total FFB yield.

  4. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Based on Melon Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2011; 10 (3): 299-307 ... membrane (the major pathway for absorption of drugs) ... [7,8] and a more reproducible plasma level - ... Proximate analysis ..... ionic surfactant-vegetable oil mixture.

  5. Experimental Comparison of the Behavior between Base Oil and Grease Starvation Based on Inlet Film Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kostal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the experimental study of an elastohydrodynamic contact under conditions of insufficient lubricant supply. Starvation level of this type of the contact may be experimentally determined based on the position of the meniscus, but this way can't determine all levels of starvation. Consequent development in the field of tribology achieved theoretical model that can determine all levels of starvation by dependency on the thickness of the lubricant film entering the contact, but it is difficult for experimental verification. The main goal of this work is an experimental study and description of the behavior of the elastohydrodynamic contact with controlled thickness of the lubricant film at the contact input. Contact was lubricated by the base oil and the grease and compared. Results were surprising because the only differences between oil and grease were observed for more viscous lubricants at thicker film layer entering to the contact.

  6. Biological and Clinical Aspects of an Olive Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs have been an integral component of parenteral nutrition for more than 50 years. Numerous formulations are available and are based on vegetable (soybean, olive, coconut and animal (fish oils. Therefore, each of these formulations has a unique fatty acid composition that offers both benefits and limitations. As clinical experience and our understanding of the effects of fatty acids on various physiological processes has grown, there is evidence to suggest that some ILEs may have benefits compared with others. Current evidence suggests that olive oil-based ILE may preserve immune, hepatobiliary, and endothelial cell function, and may reduce lipid peroxidation and plasma lipid levels. There is good evidence from a large randomized controlled study to support a benefit of olive oil-based ILE over soybean oil-based ILE on reducing infections in critically ill patients. At present there is limited evidence to demonstrate a benefit of olive oil-based ILE over other ILEs on glucose metabolism, and few data exist to demonstrate a benefit on clinical outcomes such as hospital or intensive care unit stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or mortality. We review the current research and clinical evidence supporting the potential positive biological and clinical aspects of olive oil-based ILE and conclude that olive oil-based ILE is well tolerated and provides effective nutritional support to various PN-requiring patient populations. Olive oil-based ILE appears to support the innate immune system, is associated with fewer infections, induces less lipid peroxidation, and is not associated with increased hepatobiliary or lipid disturbances. These data would suggest that olive oil-based ILE is a valuable option in various PN-requiring patient populations.

  7. Base substitutions at scissile bond sites are sufficient to alter RNA-binding and cleavage activity of RNase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsub; Sim, Se-Hoon; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Younghoon; Lee, Kangseok

    2011-02-01

    RNase III, a double-stranded RNA-specific endoribonuclease, degrades bdm mRNA via cleavage at specific sites. To better understand the mechanism of cleavage site selection by RNase III, we performed a genetic screen for sequences containing mutations at the bdm RNA cleavage sites that resulted in altered mRNA stability using a transcriptional bdm'-'cat fusion construct. While most of the isolated mutants showed the increased bdm'-'cat mRNA stability that resulted from the inability of RNase III to cleave the mutated sequences, one mutant sequence (wt-L) displayed in vivo RNA stability similar to that of the wild-type sequence. In vivo and in vitro analyses of the wt-L RNA substrate showed that it was cut only once on the RNA strand to the 5'-terminus by RNase III, while the binding constant of RNase III to this mutant substrate was moderately increased. A base substitution at the uncleaved RNase III cleavage site in wt-L mutant RNA found in another mutant lowered the RNA-binding affinity by 11-fold and abolished the hydrolysis of scissile bonds by RNase III. Our results show that base substitutions at sites forming the scissile bonds are sufficient to alter RNA cleavage as well as the binding activity of RNase III. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultracompact electro-optic phase modulator based on III-V-on-silicon microdisk resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, J; Kumar, R; Sales, S; Ramos, F; Morthier, G; Mechet, P; Spuesens, T; Van Thourhout, D; Olivier, N; Fédéli, J-M; Capmany, J

    2012-06-15

    A novel ultracompact electro-optic phase modulator based on a single 9 μm-diameter III-V microdisk resonator heterogeneously integrated on and coupled to a nanophotonic waveguide is presented. Modulation is enabled by effective index modification through carrier injection. Proof-of-concept implementation involving binary phase shift keying modulation format is assembled. A power imbalance of ∼0.6  dB between both symbols and a modulation rate up to 1.8 Gbps are demonstrated without using any special driving technique.

  9. Prospects of implementation of "Basel III" international standards for domestic banks based on international experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha Oksana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the main requirements of the "Basel III" new standards in the context of banks capital regulation and identifies prospects for implementation of domestic banks based on analysis of international experience. The urgency of the problem is formulated in the need to restore the stability of the banking system of Ukraine with the new standards, which purpose is to increase the stability of banks and to protect the rights of financial services consumers. The main threats faced by the banking systems of developed countries and possible for the Ukrainian financial system were determined. The ways of achieving maximum benefits of new banking reform introduction were proposed.

  10. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  11. Agent-based Decision Support System for the Third Generation Distributed Dynamic Decision-making (DDD-III) Simulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meirina, Candra; Ruan, Sui; Yu, Feili; Zhu, Liang; Pattipati, Krishna R; Kleinman, David L

    2004-01-01

    ...) based on the third-generation distributed dynamic decision-making (DDD-III) simulator and contingency theory to increase the organizational cognitive capacity and to facilitate the processes of adaptation...

  12. Identification of molecular performance from oil palm clones based on SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Lollie Agustina P.; Basyuni, M.; Bayu, Eva S.; Arvita, D.; Arifiyanto, D.; Syahputra, I.

    2018-03-01

    In Indonesia, the oil palms are an important economic crop, producing food and raw materials for the food, confectionary, cosmetics and oleo-chemical industrial demands of oil palm products. Clonal oil palm offers the potential for greater productivity because it is possible to establish uniform tree stands comprising identical copies (clones) of a limited number of highly productive oil palms. Unfortunately, tissue culture sometimes accentuates the expression of detects in oil palm, particularly when embryogenesis is induced in particullar callus for prolonged periods. This research is conducted by taking individual tree sample of clone germplasm two years old. The purpose of this research is to molecular performance analysis of some oil palm clones based on SSR markers. A total of 30 trees oil palm clones were used for analysis. In this experiment, the DNA profile diversity was assessed using five loci of oil palm’s specific SSR markers. The results of the experiment indicated out of 3 SSR markers (FR-0779, FR-3663 and FR-0782) showed monomorphic of PCR product and 2 SSR markers (FR-0783 and FR- 3745) showed polymorphic of PCR product. There are 10 total number of PCR product. These preliminary results demonstrated SSR marker can be used to evaluate genetic relatedness among trees of oil palm clones.

  13. A new approach for crude oil price prediction based on stream learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is the world's leading fuel, and its prices have a big impact on the global environment, economy as well as oil exploration and exploitation activities. Oil price forecasts are very useful to industries, governments and individuals. Although many methods have been developed for predicting oil prices, it remains one of the most challenging forecasting problems due to the high volatility of oil prices. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for crude oil price prediction based on a new machine learning paradigm called stream learning. The main advantage of our stream learning approach is that the prediction model can capture the changing pattern of oil prices since the model is continuously updated whenever new oil price data are available, with very small constant overhead. To evaluate the forecasting ability of our stream learning model, we compare it with three other popular oil price prediction models. The experiment results show that our stream learning model achieves the highest accuracy in terms of both mean squared prediction error and directional accuracy ratio over a variety of forecast time horizons.

  14. Oil Spill Detection along the Gulf of Mexico Coastline based on Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, M. D.; Filippi, A. M.; Guneralp, I.

    2013-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico between April and July 2010 demonstrated the importance of synoptic oil-spill monitoring in coastal environments via remote-sensing methods. This study focuses on terrestrial oil-spill detection and thickness estimation based on hyperspectral images acquired along the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico. We use AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) imaging spectrometer data collected over Bay Jimmy and Wilkinson Bay within Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA during September 2010. We also employ field-based observations of the degree of oil accumulation along the coastline, as well as in situ measurements from the literature. As part of our proposed spectroscopic approach, we operate on atmospherically- and geometrically-corrected hyperspectral AVIRIS data to extract image-derived endmembers via Minimum Noise Fraction transform, Pixel Purity Index-generation, and n-dimensional visualization. Extracted endmembers are then used as input to endmember-mapping algorithms to yield fractional-abundance images and crisp classification images. We also employ Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) for oil detection and mapping in order to enable the number and types of endmembers to vary on a per-pixel basis, in contast to simple Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). MESMA thus better allows accounting for spectral variabiltiy of oil (e.g., due to varying oil thicknesses, states of degradation, and the presence of different oil types, etc.) and other materials, including soils and salt marsh vegetation of varying types, which may or may not be affected by the oil spill. A decision-tree approach is also utilized for comparison. Classification results do indicate that MESMA provides advantageous capabilities for mapping several oil-thickness classes for affected vegetation and soils along the Gulf of Mexico coastline, relative to the conventional approaches tested. Oil thickness-mapping results from MESMA

  15. Spectral, Electrochemical, Fluorescence, Kinetic and Anti-microbial Studies of Acyclic Schiff-base Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraj, A.; Prabu, R.; Suresh, R.; Narayanan, V.; Sangeetha Kumari, R.; Kaviyarasan, V.

    2012-01-01

    A new series of acyclic mononuclear gadolinium(III) complexes have been prepared by Schiff-base condensation derived from 5-methylsalicylaldehyde, diethylenetriamine, tris(2-aminoethyl) amine, triethylenetetramine, N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylene diamine, N,N-bis(aminopropyl) piperazine, and gadolinium nitrate. All the complexes were characterized by elemental and spectral analyses. Electronic spectra of the complexes show azomethine (CH=N) within the range of 410-420 nm. The fluorescence efficiency of Gd(III) ion in the cavity was completely quenched by the higher chain length ligands. Electrochemical studies of the complexes show irreversible one electron reduction process around -2.15 to -1.60 V. The reduction potential of gadolinium(III) complexes shifts towards anodic directions respectively upon increasing the chain length. The catalytic activity of the gadolinium(III) complexes on the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate was determined. All gadolinium(III) complexes were screened for antibacterial activity

  16. Spectral, Electrochemical, Fluorescence, Kinetic and Anti-microbial Studies of Acyclic Schiff-base Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraj, A.; Prabu, R.; Suresh, R.; Narayanan, V.; Sangeetha Kumari, R.; Kaviyarasan, V. [Univ. of Madras, Madras (India)

    2012-11-15

    A new series of acyclic mononuclear gadolinium(III) complexes have been prepared by Schiff-base condensation derived from 5-methylsalicylaldehyde, diethylenetriamine, tris(2-aminoethyl) amine, triethylenetetramine, N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylene diamine, N,N-bis(aminopropyl) piperazine, and gadolinium nitrate. All the complexes were characterized by elemental and spectral analyses. Electronic spectra of the complexes show azomethine (CH=N) within the range of 410-420 nm. The fluorescence efficiency of Gd(III) ion in the cavity was completely quenched by the higher chain length ligands. Electrochemical studies of the complexes show irreversible one electron reduction process around -2.15 to -1.60 V. The reduction potential of gadolinium(III) complexes shifts towards anodic directions respectively upon increasing the chain length. The catalytic activity of the gadolinium(III) complexes on the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate was determined. All gadolinium(III) complexes were screened for antibacterial activity.

  17. Efficacy of pretreating oil palm fronds with an acid-base mixture catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Park, Yong-Cheol; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2017-07-01

    Oil palm fronds are abundant but recalcitrant to chemical pretreatment. Herein, an acid-base mixture was applied as a catalyst to efficiently pretreat oil palm fronds. Optimized conditions for the pretreatment were a 0.1M acidic acid-base mixture and 3min ramping to 190°C and 12min holding. The oil palm fronds pretreated and washed with the acid-base mixture exhibited an enzymatic digestibility of 85% by 15 FPU Accellerase 1000/g glucan after 72h hydrolysis, which was significantly higher than the enzymatic digestibilities obtained by acid or alkali pretreatment alone. This could be attributed to the synergistic actions of the acid and base, producing an 87% glucose recovery with 100% and 40.3% removal of xylan and lignin, respectively, from the solids. Therefore, an acid-base mixture can be a feasible catalyst to deconstruct oil palm fronds for sugar production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of geochemical data obtained using four brine sampling methods at the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test CO2 injection site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher; Thordsen, James J.; Manning, Michael A.; Cook, Paul J.; Trautz, Robert C.; Thomas, Burt; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a characterization well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, as part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Anthropogenic Test, which is an integrated carbon capture and storage project. In this study, formation water and gas samples were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using gas lift, electric submersible pump, U-tube, and a downhole vacuum sampler (VS) and subjected to both field and laboratory analyses. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, dissolved sulfide concentration, alkalinity, and pH; laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements, dissolved carbon, volatile fatty acids, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na–Ca–Cl-type brine with a salinity of about 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids. Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity. There was little gas in samples, and gas composition results were strongly influenced by sampling methods. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the VS and U-tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  19. Integration of cloud-based storage in BES III computing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Hernandez, F; Deng, Z

    2014-01-01

    We present an on-going work that aims to evaluate the suitability of cloud-based storage as a supplement to the Lustre file system for storing experimental data for the BES III physics experiment and as a backend for storing files belonging to individual members of the collaboration. In particular, we discuss our findings regarding the support of cloud-based storage in the software stack of the experiment. We report on our development work that improves the support of CERN' s ROOT data analysis framework and allows efficient remote access to data through several cloud storage protocols. We also present our efforts providing the experiment with efficient command line tools for navigating and interacting with cloud storage-based data repositories both from interactive sessions and grid jobs.

  20. Investigation of Emerging Materials for Optoelectronic Devices Based on III-Nitrides

    KAUST Repository

    Muhammed, Mufasila Mumthaz

    2018-03-11

    III-nitride direct bandgap semiconductors have attracted significant research interest due to their outstanding potential for modern optoelectronic and electronic applications. However, the high cost of III-nitride devices, along with low performance due to dislocation defects, remains an obstacle to their further improvement. In this dissertation, I present a significant enhancement of III-nitride devices based on emerging materials. A promising substrate, (-201)-oriented β-Ga2O3 with unique properties that combine high transparency and conductivity, is used for the first time in the development of high-quality vertical III-nitride devices, which can be cost-effective for large-scale production. In addition, hybridizing GaN with emerging materials, mainly perovskite, is shown to extend the functionality of III-nitride applications. As a part of this investigation, high-performance and high-responsivity fast perovskite/GaN-based UV-visible broadband photodetectors were developed. State-of-the-art GaN epilayers grown on (-201)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using AlN and GaN buffer layers are discussed, and their high optical quality without using growth enhancement techniques is demonstrated. In particular, a low lattice mismatch (⁓4.7%) between GaN and the substrate results in a low density of dislocations ~4.8Å~107 cm−2. To demonstrates the effect of (-201)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate on the quality of III-nitride alloys, high-quality ternary alloy InxGa1−xN film is studied, followed by the growth of high quality InxGa1−xN/GaN single and multiple quantum wells (QWs). The optical characterization and carrier dynamics by photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL measurements were subsequently performed. Lastly, to investigate the performance of a vertical emitting device based on InGaN/GaN multiple QWs grown on (-201)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate, high-efficiency vertical-injection emitting device is developed and extensively investigated. The conductive nature of

  1. A Review on Properties, Opportunities, and Challenges of Transformer Oil-Based Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafiq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral oil or synthetic oil in conjunction with paper is mainly being applied as dielectric medium in many of the high voltage apparatus. However, the advent of high voltage levels such high voltage alternating current (HVAC and high voltage direct current (HVDC has prompted researchers to direct their focus onto an insulation system which can bear the rising high voltage levels. The modern insulating liquid material development is guided by various factors such as high electrical insulation requirements and other safety and economic considerations. Therefore transformer manufacturer companies have to design transformers with these new specific requirements. The transformer oil-based nanofluids with improved dielectric and thermal properties have the potential to replace mineral oil base products in the market place. They are favorable because they function more superior than mineral oil and they contribute definite insulating and thermal gains. This paper reviews recent status of nanofluids use as transformer oils. The nanofluids used as transformer oils are presented and their advantages are described in comparison with mineral oil. The multiple experimental works carried out by different researchers are described, providing an overview of the current research conducted on nanofluids. In addition scope and challenges being confronted in this area of research are clearly presented.

  2. Fast Photo-detection in Phototransistors based on Group III-VI Layered Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasanna; Ghosh, Sujoy; Wasala, Milinda; Lei, Sidong; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel; Talapatra, Saikat

    Response time of a photo detector is one of the crucial aspect of photo-detection. Recently it has been shown that direct band gap of few layered group III-VI materials helps in increased absorption of light thereby enhancing the photo responsive properties of these materials. Ternary system of Copper Indium Selenide has been extensively used in optoelectronics industry and it is expected that 2D layered structure of Copper Indium Selenide will be a key component of future optoelectronics devices based on 2D materials. Here we report fast photo detection in few layers of Copper Indium Selenide (CuIn7Se11) phototransistor. Few-layers of CuIn7Se11 flakes were exfoliated from crystals grown using chemical vapor transport technique. Our photo response characterization indicates responsivity of 104 mA/W with external quantum efficiency exceeding 103. We have found response time of few μs which is one of the fastest response among photodetectors based on 2D materials. We also found specific detectivity of 1012 Jones which is an order higher than conventional photodetectors. A comparison between response times of various layered group III-VI materials will be presented and discussed. This work is supported by the U.S. Army Research Office through a MURI Grant # W911NF-11-1-0362.

  3. Photocured thiol-ene based optical fluorescence sensor for determination of gold(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çubuk, Soner, E-mail: sonercubuk@marmara.edu.tr; Kahraman, Memet Vezir; Yetimoğlu, Ece Kök; Kenan, Sibel

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Photopolymerized fluorescence sensor for Au(III) analysis has been developed. •Preparation of polymeric sensor is simple and quick. •Fluorescence sensor used for analysis of Au(III) in real samples. -- Abstract: This study describes the preparation and the characterization of a new thiol-ene based polymeric fluorescence sensor by photo initiated polymerization of trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate), 2-hydroxyethylacrylate, and 2,4,6-triallyloxy-1,3,5-triazine which are used as monomers and also a photo initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone) for its usage as optical sensor for gold ions. The thiol-ene based polymeric membrane sensor was characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The response characteristics of the sensors including dynamic range, pH effect, response time, and the effect of foreign ions were investigated. Fluorescence spectra showed that the excitation/emission maxima of the membrane were at 379/425 nm, respectively.

  4. Photocured thiol-ene based optical fluorescence sensor for determination of gold(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çubuk, Soner; Kahraman, Memet Vezir; Yetimoğlu, Ece Kök; Kenan, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Photopolymerized fluorescence sensor for Au(III) analysis has been developed. •Preparation of polymeric sensor is simple and quick. •Fluorescence sensor used for analysis of Au(III) in real samples. -- Abstract: This study describes the preparation and the characterization of a new thiol-ene based polymeric fluorescence sensor by photo initiated polymerization of trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate), 2-hydroxyethylacrylate, and 2,4,6-triallyloxy-1,3,5-triazine which are used as monomers and also a photo initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone) for its usage as optical sensor for gold ions. The thiol-ene based polymeric membrane sensor was characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The response characteristics of the sensors including dynamic range, pH effect, response time, and the effect of foreign ions were investigated. Fluorescence spectra showed that the excitation/emission maxima of the membrane were at 379/425 nm, respectively

  5. Photochemistry of Fe(Iii)-Carboxylates in Polysaccharide-Based Materials with Tunable Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Giuseppe E.

    We present the formulation and study of light-responsive materials based on carboxylate-containing polysaccharides. The functional groups in these natural polymers allow for strong interactions with transition metal ions such as Fe(III). The known photochemistry of hydroxycarboxylic acids in natural waters inspired us in exploring the visible light induced photochemistry of the carboxylates in these polysaccharides when coordinated to Fe(III) ions. Described in this dissertation are the design and characterization of the Fe(III)-polysaccharide materials, specifically the mechanistic aspects of the photochemistry and the effects that these reactions have on the structure of the polymer materials. We present a study of the quantitative photochemistry of different polysaccharide systems, where the presence of uronic acids was important for the photoreaction to take place. Alginate (Alg), pectate (Pec), hyaluronic acid (Hya), xanthan gum (Xan), and a polysaccharide extracted from the Noni fruit (NoniPs), were among the natural uronic acid-containing polysaccharide (UCPS) systems we analyzed. Potato starch, lacking of uronate groups, did not present any photochemistry in the presence of Fe(III); however, we were able to induce a photochemical response in this polysaccharide upon chemical manipulation of its functional groups. Important structure-function relationships were drawn from this study. The uronate moiety present in these polysaccharides is then envisioned as a tool to induce response to light in a variety of materials. Following this approach, we report the formulation of materials for controlled drug release, able to encapsulate and release different drug models only upon illumination with visible light. Furthermore, hybrid hydrogels were prepared from UPCS and non-responsive polymers. Different properties of these materials could be tuned by controlling the irradiation time, intensity and location. These hybrid gels were evaluated as scaffolds for tissue

  6. Reduction of CO{sub 2} emission and oil dependency with biomass-based polygeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Jonas M; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology and Environmental Science, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    We compare different options for the use of lignocellulosic biomass to reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, focusing on polygeneration of biomass-based motor fuels and electricity, and discuss methodological issues related to such comparisons. The use of biomass can significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, but there is a trade-off between the reductions in CO{sub 2} emission and oil use. Bioelectricity from stand-alone plants replacing coal-based electricity reduced CO{sub 2} emission by 99 kg per GJ biomass input but gave no oil use reduction. Stand-alone produced methanol replacing diesel reduced the CO{sub 2} emission with 38 kg and the oil use with 0.67 GJ per GJ biomass, indicating that a potential CO{sub 2} emission reduction of 90 kg is lost per GJ oil reduced. CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reduction for alternatives co-producing fuel and electricity fall between the stand-alone alternatives. Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles using bioelectricity reduced CO{sub 2} emission by 75-88 kg and oil use by 0.99-1.2 GJ, per GJ biomass input. Biomass can also reduce CO{sub 2} emission and/or oil use more efficiently if fossil-fuel-fired boilers or electric heating is replaced by district heating from biomass-based combined heat and power generation. This is also true if electricity or motor fuel is produced from black liquor gasification in pulp mills or if wood is used instead of concrete in building construction. Biomass gasification is an important technology to achieve large reductions, irrespective of whether CO{sub 2} emission or oil use reduction is prioritised. (author)

  7. A MODIS-Based Robust Satellite Technique (RST for Timely Detection of Oil Spilled Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodosio Lacava

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural crude-oil seepages, together with the oil released into seawater as a consequence of oil exploration/production/transportation activities, and operational discharges from tankers (i.e., oil dumped during cleaning actions represent the main sources of sea oil pollution. Satellite remote sensing can be a useful tool for the management of such types of marine hazards, namely oil spills, mainly owing to the synoptic view and the good trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution, depending on the specific platform/sensor system used. In this paper, an innovative satellite-based technique for oil spill detection, based on the general robust satellite technique (RST approach, is presented. It exploits the multi-temporal analysis of data acquired in the visible channels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board the Aqua satellite in order to automatically and quickly detect the presence of oil spills on the sea surface, with an attempt to minimize “false detections” caused by spurious effects associated with, for instance, cloud edges, sun/satellite geometries, sea currents, etc. The oil spill event that occurred in June 2007 off the south coast of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea has been considered as a test case. The resulting data, the reliability of which has been evaluated by both carrying out a confutation analysis and comparing them with those provided by the application of another independent MODIS-based method, showcase the potential of RST in identifying the presence of oil with a high level of accuracy.

  8. Computer-based guidelines for concrete pavements : HIPERPAV III : user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This user manual provides guidance on how to use the new High PERformance PAVing (HIPERPAV) III software program for the analysis of early-age Portland cement concrete pavement (PCCP) behavior. HIPERPAV III includes several improvements over prev...

  9. Using optical remote sensing model to estimate oil slick thickness based on satellite image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y C; Tian, Q J; Lyu, C G; Fu, W X; Han, W C

    2014-01-01

    An optical remote sensing model has been established based on two-beam interference theory to estimate marine oil slick thickness. Extinction coefficient and normalized reflectance of oil are two important parts in this model. Extinction coefficient is an important inherent optical property and will not vary with the background reflectance changed. Normalized reflectance can be used to eliminate the background differences between in situ measured spectra and remotely sensing image. Therefore, marine oil slick thickness and area can be estimated and mapped based on optical remotely sensing image and extinction coefficient

  10. Do oil shocks predict economic policy uncertainty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mobeen Ur

    2018-05-01

    Oil price fluctuations have influential role in global economic policies for developed as well as emerging countries. I investigate the role of international oil prices disintegrated into structural (i) oil supply shock, (ii) aggregate demand shock and (iii) oil market specific demand shocks, based on the work of Kilian (2009) using structural VAR framework on economic policies uncertainty of sampled markets. Economic policy uncertainty, due to its non-linear behavior is modeled in a regime switching framework with disintegrated structural oil shocks. Our results highlight that Indian, Spain and Japanese economic policy uncertainty responds to the global oil price shocks, however aggregate demand shocks fail to induce any change. Oil specific demand shocks are significant only for China and India in high volatility state.

  11. The Rebirth of Waste Cooking Oil to Novel Bio-based Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Cai, Bang-Xin; Xu, Wen-Jie; Gang, Hong-Ze; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is a kind of non-edible oil with enormous quantities and its unreasonable dispose may generate negative impact on human life and environment. However, WCO is certainly a renewable feedstock of bio-based materials. To get the rebirth of WCO, we have established a facile and high-yield method to convert WCO to bio-based zwitterionic surfactants with excellent surface and interfacial properties. The interfacial tension between crude oil and water could reach ultra-low value as 0.0016 mN m-1 at a low dosage as 0.100 g L-1 of this bio-based surfactant without the aid of extra alkali, which shows a strong interfacial activity and the great potential application in many industrial fields, in particular, the application in enhanced oil recovery in oilfields in place of petroleum-based surfactants.

  12. The effects of oil palm leaf meal-based diets on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... diets on the growth performance and haematological indices of red Sokoto goats. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... indices of Red Sokoto goats placed on oil palm leaf meal (OPLM)-wheat offal based diet.

  13. Reactivity of tris(acetylacetonato) iron(III) with tridentate [ONO] donor Schiff base as an access to newer mixed-ligand iron(III) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Chira R.; Goswami, Pankaj; Pramanik, Harun A. R.; Paul, Pradip C.; Mondal, Paritosh

    2011-05-01

    Two new mixed-ligand iron(III) complexes, [Fe(L n)(acac)(C 2H 5OH)] incorporating coordinated ethanol from the reaction solvent were accessed from the reaction of [Fe(acac) 3] with [ONO] donor dibasic tridentate unsymmetrical Schiff base ligands derived from condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-napthaldehyde with 2-aminophenol (H 2L 1) or 2-aminobenzoic acid (H 2L 2). The thermal study (TGA-DTA) provided evidence for weakly bound ethanol which is readily substituted by neutral N-donor molecule imidazole, benzimidazole or pyridine to produce an array of newer complexes, [Fe(L n)(acac)X] ( n = 1, 2; X = Im, Bim, Py). The compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, UV-vis, solution electrical conductivity, FAB mass, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements ( μeff ˜ 5.8 B.M.) are consistent with spin-free octahedral iron(III) complexes. Cyclic voltammetry of ethanol complexes revealed a quasi-reversible one electron redox response (Δ Ep > 100 mV) for the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple. Low half wave redox potential ( E1/2) values suggested easy redox susceptibility. The ground state geometries of the ethanol and imidazole complexes have been ascertained to be distorted octahedral by density functional theory using DMol3 program at BLYP/DNP level.

  14. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatment of the pyrolysis vapors. The in-situ catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in an entrained flow reactor system using a premixed feedstock of Na2CO3 and biomass and post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in a downstream fixed bed reactor of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3. Results have shown that both Na2CO3 and Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 can be used for the production of a high quality bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake. The catalytic bio-oil had very low oxygen content, water content as low as 1wt.%, a neutral pH, and a high calorific value upto 41.8MJ/kg. The bio-oil consisted of high value chemical compounds mainly hydrocarbons and undesired compounds in the bio-oil were either completely removed or considerably reduced. Increasing the triglycerides content (vegetable oil) in the wood enhanced the formation of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil. Post treatment of the pyrolysis vapor over a fixed bed of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 produced superior quality bio-oil compared to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis with Na2CO3. This high quality bio-oil may be used as a precursor in a fractionating process for the production of alternative fuels. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Vegetable oil and fat viscosity forecast models based on iodine number and saponification number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, G.; Riva, G.; Foppa Pedretti, E.; Duca, D.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetable oil and fats can be considered as an important renewable source for the energy production. There are many applications where these biofuels are used directly in engines. However, the use of pure vegetable oils causes some problems as consequence of its chemical and physical characteristic. Viscosity is one of the most important parameters affecting several physical and mechanical processes of the operation of the engine. The determination of this parameter at different tis important to determine the behavior of the vegetable oil and fats. In this work we investigated the effects of two analytical chemical parameters (iodine number and saponification number) and forecasting models have been proposed. -- Highlights: ► Vegetable oil and fat viscosity is predicted by mathematical model based on saponification number and iodine number. ► Unsaturated vegetable oils with small size molecules of fatty acids have a lower viscosity values. ► The models proposed show an average error lower than 12%

  16. Research on crude oil storage and transportation based on optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuhua

    2018-04-01

    At present, the optimization theory and method have been widely used in the optimization scheduling and optimal operation scheme of complex production systems. Based on C++Builder 6 program development platform, the theoretical research results are implemented by computer. The simulation and intelligent decision system of crude oil storage and transportation inventory scheduling are designed. The system includes modules of project management, data management, graphics processing, simulation of oil depot operation scheme. It can realize the optimization of the scheduling scheme of crude oil storage and transportation system. A multi-point temperature measuring system for monitoring the temperature field of floating roof oil storage tank is developed. The results show that by optimizing operating parameters such as tank operating mode and temperature, the total transportation scheduling costs of the storage and transportation system can be reduced by 9.1%. Therefore, this method can realize safe and stable operation of crude oil storage and transportation system.

  17. PVC-membrane potentiometric sensors based on a recently synthesized Schiff base for Fe(III ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yousef Ebrahimipur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A potentiometric iron sensor based on the use 3-(2-diethylamino-ethylimino-1,3-dihydro-indol-2-one (DEDIO as an ionophore in poly(vinyl chloride (PVC matrix, is reported. The plasticized membrane sensor exhibits a Nernstian response for Fe(III ions over a wide concentration range (2.0 × 10-6 - 5.0 × 10-2 M with a super Nernstian slope of 26(plus or minus 1 mV per decade. It has a fast response time of less than 12 s and can be used for ten weeks without any considerable divergences in its potentials the electrode can be used in the pH range 4.5-8.0. The proposed sensor shows fairly good discriminating ability towards Fe(III ion in comparison with a large number of alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor was used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Fe(III ions vs. EDTA.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i1.7

  18. Anatomy of an Oil-Based Welfare State: Rent Distribution in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    El-Katiri, Laura; Fattouh, Bassam; Segal, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Oil wealth has transformed Kuwait within decades from a modest, trade-based desert emirate into a modern city-state. It has also created a relatively egalitarian economy based on an extensive distributive system that provides Kuwaiti citizens with essential services including free healthcare, education and social security. Therefore, the most important fact about Kuwait’s oil wealth is that it has been successfully used to benefit its citizens. This feat has been achieved through a broad dist...

  19. Bioremediation of oil-based drill cuttings by a halophilic consortium isolated from oil-contaminated saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Somee, Maryam; Shavandi, Mahmoud; Dastgheib, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali

    2018-05-01

    Oil-based drill cuttings are hazardous wastes containing complex hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and brine. Their remediation is a crucial step before release to the environment. In this work, we enriched a halophilic consortium, from oil-polluted saline soil, which is capable of degrading diesel as the main pollutant of oil-based drill cuttings. The degradation ability of the consortium was evaluated in microcosms using two different diluting agents (fine sand and biologically active soil). During the bioremediation process, the bacterial community dynamics of the microcosms was surveyed using PCR amplification of a fragment of 16S rRNA gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The diesel degradation rates were monitored by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) measurement and the total count of heterotrophic and diesel-degrading bacteria. After 3 months, the microcosm containing fine sand and drill cuttings with the ratio of 1:1 (initial TPH of 36,000 mg/kg) showed the highest TPH removal (40%) and its dominant bacterial isolates belonged to the genera Dietzia, Arthrobacter , and Halomonas . DGGE results also confirmed the role of these genera in drill cuttings remediation. DGGE analysis of the bacterial diversity showed that Propionibacterium, Salinimicrobium, Marinobacter , and Dietzia are dominant in active soil microcosm; whereas Bacillus, Salinibacillus , and Marinobacter are abundant in sand microcosm. Our results suggest that the bioaugmentation strategy would be more successful if the diluting agent does not contain a complex microbial community.

  20. Performance of the mineral blended ester oil-based drilling fluid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, A.R.; Kamis, A.; Foo, K.S. [University Teknologi (Malaysia)

    2001-06-01

    A study was conducted in which the properties of ester oil-based drilling fluid systems were examined using a blended mixture of ester and synthetic mineral oil. Biodegradable invert emulsion ester-based fluids are preferred over mineral oil-based drilling fluids for environmental reasons, but they tend to cause alkaline hydrolysis resulting in solidification of the drilling fluid systems. The drilling fluid examined here consisted of Malaysian palm oil ester derivatives (methyl laureate ester or isopropyl laureate ester) blended with commercially available synthetic mineral oil. This mineral oil was added to reduce the problem of alkaline hydrolysis. This mixture, however, was found to be unstable and could not solve the problem at high temperature. The isopropyl laureate and mineral oil blended system was more stable towards the hydrolysis process up to 250 degrees F. In order to enhance the performance of an invert emulsion drilling fluid system, it was recommended that brine water content of the fluid system be lowered. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Oil supply between OPEC and non-OPEC based on game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuwen; Yi, Jiexin; Yan, Wei; Yang, Xinshe; Zhang, Song; Gao, Yifan; Wang, Xi

    2014-10-01

    The competing strategies between OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) and non-OPEC producers make the oil supply market a complex system, and thus, it is very difficult to model and to make predictions. In this paper, we combine the macro-model based on game theory and micro-model to propose a new approach for forecasting oil supply. We take into account the microscopic behaviour in the clearing market and also use the game relationships to adjust oil supplies in our approach. For the supply model, we analyse and consider the different behaviour of non-OPEC and OPEC producers. According to our analysis, limiting the oil supply, and thus maintaining oil price, is the best strategy for OPEC in the low-price scenario, while the rising supply is the best strategy in the high-price scenario. No matter what the oil price is, the dominant strategy for non-OPEC producers is to increase their oil supply. In the high-price scenario, OPEC will try to deplete non-OPEC's share in the oil supply market, which is to OPEC's advantage.

  2. Why fish oil fails: a comprehensive 21st century lipids-based physiologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, B S

    2014-01-01

    The medical community suffered three significant fish oil failures/setbacks in 2013. Claims that fish oil's EPA/DHA would stop the progression of heart disease were crushed when The Risk and Prevention Study Collaborative Group (Italy) released a conclusive negative finding regarding fish oil for those patients with high risk factors but no previous myocardial infarction. Fish oil failed in all measures of CVD prevention-both primary and secondary. Another major 2013 setback occurred when fish oil's DHA was shown to significantly increase prostate cancer in men, in particular, high-grade prostate cancer, in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) analysis by Brasky et al. Another monumental failure occurred in 2013 whereby fish oil's EPA/DHA failed to improve macular degeneration. In 2010, fish oil's EPA/DHA failed to help Alzheimer's victims, even those with low DHA levels. These are by no means isolated failures. The promise of fish oil and its so-called active ingredients EPA / DHA fails time and time again in clinical trials. This lipids-based physiologic review will explain precisely why there should have never been expectation for success. This review will focus on underpublicized lipid science with a focus on physiology.

  3. Characterisation of Rapeseed Oil Based Resins Using Infrared and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydroxylated chemical structure was crosslinked using methylene-pphenyl diisocyanate to produce a thermoset rapeseed oil resin. The cross linking process was monitored in situ using the Attenuated Total Internal Reflectance Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy and the thermogravimetric analysis techniques.

  4. Terrain reconstruction based on descent images for the Chang’e III landing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xinchao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method that combined image matching and shape from shading for terrain reconstruction was proposed to solve the lack of terrain in the landing area of Chang'e III. First, the reflection equation was established based on the Lommel– Seeliger reflection model. After edge extraction, the gradients of points on the edge were solved. The normal vectors of adjacent points were obtained using the smoothness constraint. Furthermore, the gradients of residual points in the image were determined through evolution. The inadequacy of the reflection equation was eliminated by considering the gradient as the constraint of the reflection equation. The normal vector of each point could be obtained by solving the reflection equation. The terrain without coordinate information was reconstructed by iterating the vector field. After using scaleinvariant feature transform to extract matching points in the descent images, the terrain was converted to a lander centroid coordinate system. Experiments were carried out with MATLAB-simulated images, laboratory images, and descent images of Chang'e III. Results show that the proposed method performs better than the classical SFS algorithm. The new method can provide reference for other deep space exploration activities.

  5. Gadolinium(III) ion selective sensor using a new synthesized Schiff's base as a sensing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali; Mohammadhosseini, Majid; Haji-Mohammadrezazadeh, Saeed; Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Meghdadi, Soraia; Davoodnia, Abolghasem

    2012-01-01

    According to a solution study which showed a selective complexation between N,N′-bis(methylsalicylidene)-2-aminobenzylamine (MSAB) and gadolinium ions, MSAB was used as a sensing element in construction of a gadolinium(III) ion selective electrode. Acetophenon (AP) was used as solvent mediator and sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) as an anion excluder. The electrode showed a good selectivity towards Gd(III) ions over a wide variety of cations tested. The constructed sensor displayed a Nernstian behavior (19.7 ± 0.3 mV/decade) in the concentration range of 1.0 × 10 −6 to 1.0 × 10 −2 mol L −1 with detection limit of 5.0 × 10 −7 mol L −1 and a short response time ( 3+ –PVC membrane sensor based on an ion carrier as sensing material is introduced. ► This technique is very simple and it's not necessary to use sophisticated equipment. ► This sensor shows good selectivity against other metal ions.

  6. Effect of heptadentate (N{sub 4}O{sub 3}) tripodal Schiff base ligand and its yttrium(III) complex on the luminescence and extraction of tris({beta}-diketonato)europium(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)], E-mail: yhasegaw@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp; Saitou, S.; Nagaoka, D.; Yajima, H. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Kanesato, M. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2008-02-28

    In order to learn the effect of a Schiff base and the complex of Y{sup III} on the extraction of Eu{sup III} with {beta}-diketones and on the luminescence of the extracted species, the extraction of Eu{sup III} with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) and/or these Schiff bases, tris(5-t-butyl)salicylidenaminoethyl amine (H{sub 3}L{sup 1}), and its Y{sup III} complex ([YL{sup 1}]) prepared, into CHCl{sub 3} was examined. Further, the luminescence and excited spectra of CHCl{sub 3} phases extracted Eu{sup III} complexes and the solutions containing tris({beta}-diketonato)Eu{sup III} and/or the Schiff bases were measured. On the measurement of the luminescence spectra, tris(pivaloyltrifluoroacetonato)Eu{sup III} (Eu(pta){sub 3}) as well as Eu(tta){sub 3} was used. Synergistic effect with Htta and these Schiff bases was observed. However, proper effect of Y{sup III} was not observed. The luminescence intensity of Eu(tta){sub 3} at 613 nm decreased with increasing concentration of H{sub 3}L{sup 1} or [YL{sup 1}], whereas that of Eu(pta){sub 3} increased with increasing concentration of the ligands, but no difference between both Schiff bases was observed, because of picking up of Y{sup III} from [YL{sup 1}] with the interaction between [YL{sup 1}] and water.

  7. Determination of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability indicators using fuzzy inference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkeman, Y.; Rizkyanti, R. A.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    Development of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy faces an international challenge regarding to sustainability issue, indicated by the establishment of standards on sustainable bioenergy. Currently, Indonesia has sustainability standards limited to palm-oil cultivation, while other standards are lacking appropriateness for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability regarding to real condition in Indonesia. Thus, Indonesia requires sustainability indicators for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy to gain recognition and easiness in marketing it. Determination of sustainability indicators was accomplished through three stages, which were preliminary analysis, indicator assessment (using fuzzy inference system), and system validation. Global Bioenergy partnership (GBEP) was used as the standard for the assessment because of its general for use, internationally accepted, and it contained balanced proportion between environment, economic, and social aspects. Result showed that the number of sustainability indicators using FIS method are 21 indicators. The system developed has an accuracy of 85%.

  8. Towards An Intelligent Model-Based Decision Support System For An Integrated Oil Company (EGPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorshid, M.; Hassan, H.; Abdel Latife, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Decision Support System (DSS) is an interactive, flexible and adaptable computer-based support system specially developed for supporting the solution of unstructured management problems [31] DSS has become widespread for oil industry domain in recent years. The computer-based DSS, which were developed and implemented in oil industry, are used to address the complex short-term planning and operational issues associated with downstream industry. Most of these applications concentrate on the data-centered tools, while the model-centered applications of DSS are still very limited up till now [20]. This study develops an Intelligent Model-Based DSS for an integrated oil company, to help policy makers and petroleum planner in improving the effectiveness of the strategic planning in oil sector. This domain basically imposes semi-structured or unstructured decisions and involves a very complex modeling process

  9. Highly monodisperse M III-based soc -MOFs (M = in and Ga) with cubic and truncated cubic morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin

    2012-08-15

    In this work, we carry out an investigation on shape-controlled growth of In III- and Ga III-based square-octahedral metal-organic frameworks (soc-MOFs). In particular, controllable crystal morphological evolution from simple cubes to complex octadecahedra has been achieved, and resultant highly uniform crystal building blocks promise new research opportunities for preparation of self-assembled MOF materials and related applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Highly monodisperse M III-based soc -MOFs (M = in and Ga) with cubic and truncated cubic morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin; Cairns, Amy; Liu, Yunling; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Zeng, Huachun; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we carry out an investigation on shape-controlled growth of In III- and Ga III-based square-octahedral metal-organic frameworks (soc-MOFs). In particular, controllable crystal morphological evolution from simple cubes to complex octadecahedra has been achieved, and resultant highly uniform crystal building blocks promise new research opportunities for preparation of self-assembled MOF materials and related applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink...-base ink where the tank washing system uses solvents. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations...

  12. The effects of oil shocks on government expenditures and government revenues nexus in Iran (as a developing oil-export based economy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic relationship between government revenues and government expenditures in Iran as a developing oil export based economy. Moreover, I want to know how government expenditures and revenues respond to oil price (revenue) shocks. I

  13. Palm oil based biofuel using blended crude palm oil/medium fuel oil: physical and thermal properties studies. Paper no. IGEC-1-015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuah, T.G.; Zakiah, M.; Wan Hasamuddin, W.H.; Hj. Ahmad, H.; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.; Robiah, Y.; Choong, T.S.Y.; Yip, Y.F.

    2005-01-01

    Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is renewable bio-based resource. It is an attractive alternative fuel which provides the potential to reduce emission problems. CPO is an example of biofuels that can be blended with petroleum distillates as a fuel in mobile engines and industrial processes to help offset the increasing energy demand. This paper highlights the results of blended Crude Palm Oil (CPO)/Medium Fuel Oil (MFO) as an alternative environmentally friendly boiler's fuel. Heating values of the blend fuels have been measured using an oxygen bomb calorimeter. Combustion performance of a blend containing 50% CPO in MFO fuel was examined using a commercial boiler. The blend burned satisfactorily without major modification to the appliance and fuel delivery system. SO 2 emissions were 51.67% lower than MFO, H 2 S decreased about 55.61% while NO x were 18.67% reduced. Results indicate potential reductions of SO 2 , H 2 S and NO x , and greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum distillates can be replaced with this blend. (author)

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, DNA Interaction, and Antitumor Activities of La (III) Complex with Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Kaempferol and Diethylenetriamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Jin-Sheng; Yang, Xin-Bin

    2014-01-01

    A novel La (III) complex, [LaL(H2O)3]NO3 ·3H2O, with Schiff base ligand L derived from kaempferol and diethylenetriamine, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, and molar conductance measurements. The fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, and viscosity measurements and gel electrophoresis experiments indicated that the ligand L and La (III) complex could bind to CT-DNA presumably via intercalative mode and the La (III) complex showed a stronger ability to bind and cleave DNA than the ligand L alone. The binding constants (K b ) were evaluated from fluorescence data and the values ranged from 0.454 to 0.659 × 10(5) L mol(-1) and 1.71 to 17.3 × 10(5) L mol(-1) for the ligand L and La (III) complex, respectively, in the temperature range of 298-310 K. It was also found that the fluorescence quenching mechanism of EB-DNA by ligand L and La (III) complex was a static quenching process. In comparison to free ligand L, La (III) complex exhibited enhanced cytotoxic activities against tested tumor cell lines HL-60 and HepG-2, which may correlate with the enhanced DNA binding and cleaving abilities of the La (III) complex.

  15. Characterization of corn starch-based edible film incorporated with nutmeg oil nanoemulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, Y.; Irwanda, L. P.; Haryani, S.; Safriani, N.

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to formulate corn starch-based edible films by varying concentrations of nutmeg oil nanoemulsion and glycerol. Furthermore, the resulted edible film was characterized by its mechanical properties and antibacterial activity. The edible films were made using corn starch, nutmeg oil nanoemulsion, and glycerol. Concentrations of nutmeg oil nanoemulsion were 1%, 2%, and 3%, and glycerol were 10%, 20%, and 30%. Results indicated that the increase of nutmeg oil nanoemulsion concentration could increase the film thickness. However, the nutmeg oil had no effect on the film tensile strength and elongation. Glycerol had no effect on the film tensile strength. The best treatment of the corn starch-based film was obtained by adding 1% of nutmeg oil and 30% of glycerol, yielding a tensile strength of 18.73 Kgf/mm2, elongation of 69.44% and thickness of 0.0840. The addition of 1% nutmeg oil nanoemulsion has been able to inhibit the growth of two types of the bacteria tested (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli).

  16. Technological change of the energy innovation system: From oil-based to bio-based energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wonglimpiyarat, Jarunee

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the structural developments and the direction of technological change of the energy innovation system, based on the studies of Kuhn's model of scientific change and Schumpeter's model of technological change. The paper uses the case study of Thai government agencies for understanding the way governments can facilitate technological innovation. The analyses are based on a pre-foresight exercise to examine the potential of the bio-based energy and investigate a set of development policies necessary for the direction of energy system development. The results have shown that bio-based energy is seen as the next new wave for future businesses and one of the solutions to the problem of high oil prices to improve the world's economic security and sustainable development. (author)

  17. Study on the engine oil's wear based on the flash point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, R.; Iorga-Simăn, V.; Trică, A.; Clenci, A.

    2016-08-01

    Increasing energy performance of internal combustion engines is largely influenced by frictional forces that arise between moving parts. Thus, in this respect, the nature and quality of the engine oil used is an important factor. Equally important is the effect of various engine injection strategies upon the oil quality. In other words, it's of utmost importance to maintain the quality of engine oil during engine's operation. Oil dilution is one of the most common causes that lead to its wear, creating lubrication problems. Moreover, at low temperatures operating conditions, the oil dilution with diesel fuel produces wax. When starting the engine, this may lead to lubrication deficiencies and even oil starvation with negative consequences on the engine mechanism parts wear (piston, rings and cylinders) but also crankcase bearings wear.Engine oil dilution with diesel fuel have several causes: wear of rings and/or injectors, late post-injection strategy for the sake of particulate filter regeneration, etc.This paper presents a study on the degree of deterioration of engine oils as a result of dilution with diesel fuel. The analysed oils used for this study were taken from various models of engines equipped with diesel particulate filter. The assessment is based on the determination of oil flash point and dilution degree using the apparatus Eraflash produced by Eralytics, Austria. Eraflash measurement is directly under the latest and safest standards ASTM D6450 & D7094), which are in excellent correlation with ASTM D93 Pensky - Martens ASTM D56 TAG methods; it uses the Continuous Closed Cup method for finding the Flash Point (CCCFP).

  18. Multivariate EMD-Based Modeling and Forecasting of Crude Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijian He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical studies reveal evidence of the co-existence of heterogeneous data characteristics distinguishable by time scale in the movement crude oil prices. In this paper we propose a new multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD-based model to take advantage of these heterogeneous characteristics of the price movement and model them in the crude oil markets. Empirical studies in benchmark crude oil markets confirm that more diverse heterogeneous data characteristics can be revealed and modeled in the projected time delayed domain. The proposed model demonstrates the superior performance compared to the benchmark models.

  19. Analysis of dangerous area of single berth oil tanker operations based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lina; Zhu, Faxin; Lu, Jinshu; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Hailin

    2018-04-01

    Based on the single process in the liquid cargo tanker berths in the state as the research object, we analyzed the single berth oil tanker in the process of VOCs diffusion theory, built network model of VOCs diffusion with Gambit preprocessor, set up the simulation boundary conditions and simulated the five detection point sources in specific factors under the influence of VOCs concentration change with time by using Fluent software. We analyzed the dangerous area of single berth oil tanker operations through the diffusion of VOCs, so as to ensure the safe operation of oil tanker.

  20. Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oil by Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Erhong Duan; Dishun Zhao; Yanan Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30%) were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL)/V(Oil) /V(H2O2) = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 °C, the time 30 min. The ...

  1. RELIABILITY MODELING BASED ON INCOMPLETE DATA: OIL PUMP APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed HAFAIFA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The reliability analysis for industrial maintenance is now increasingly demanded by the industrialists in the world. Indeed, the modern manufacturing facilities are equipped by data acquisition and monitoring system, these systems generates a large volume of data. These data can be used to infer future decisions affecting the health facilities. These data can be used to infer future decisions affecting the state of the exploited equipment. However, in most practical cases the data used in reliability modelling are incomplete or not reliable. In this context, to analyze the reliability of an oil pump, this work proposes to examine and treat the incomplete, incorrect or aberrant data to the reliability modeling of an oil pump. The objective of this paper is to propose a suitable methodology for replacing the incomplete data using a regression method.

  2. An extended model for ultrasonic-based enhanced oil recovery with experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Mohammed; Meribout, Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    This paper suggests a new ultrasonic-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) model for application in oil field reservoirs. The model is modular and consists of an acoustic module and a heat transfer module, where the heat distribution is updated when the temperature rise exceeds 1 °C. The model also considers the main EOR parameters which includes both the geophysical (i.e., porosity, permeability, temperature rise, and fluid viscosity) and acoustical (e.g., acoustic penetration and pressure distribution in various fluids and mediums) properties of the wells. Extended experiments were performed using powerful ultrasonic waves which were applied for different kind of oils & oil saturated core samples. The corresponding results showed a good matching with those obtained from simulations, validating the suggested model to some extent. Hence, a good recovery rate of around 88.2% of original oil in place (OOIP) was obtained after 30 min of continuous generation of ultrasonic waves. This leads to consider the ultrasonic-based EOR as another tangible solution for EOR. This claim is supported further by considering several injection wells where the simulation results indicate that with four (4) injection wells; the recovery rate may increase up-to 96.7% of OOIP. This leads to claim the high potential of ultrasonic-based EOR as compared to the conventional methods. Following this study, the paper also proposes a large scale ultrasonic-based EOR hardware system for installation in oil fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A rhodium(III)-based inhibitor of autotaxin with antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tian-Shu; Wang, Wanhe; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Liang, Jia-Xin; Ko, Chung-Nga; Lu, Jin-Jian; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2017-02-01

    Cancer of the skin is by far the most common of all cancers. Melanoma accounts for only about 1% of skin cancers but causes a large majority of skin cancer deaths. Autotaxin (ATX), also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2), regulates physiological and pathological functions of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and is thus an important therapeutic target. We synthesized ten metal-based complexes and a novel cyclometalated rhodium(III) complex 1 was identified as an ATX enzymatic inhibitor using multiple methods, including ATX enzymatic assay, thermal shift assay, western immunoblotting and so on. Protein thermal shift assays showed that 1 increased the melting temperature (T m ) of ATX by 3.5°C. 1 also reduced ATX-LPA mediated downstream survival signal pathway proteins such as ERK and AKT, and inhibited the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). 1 also exhibited strong anti-proliferative activity against A2058 melanoma cells (IC 50 =0.58μM). Structure-activity relationship indicated that both the rhodium(III) center and the auxiliary ligands of complex 1 are important for bioactivity. 1 represents a promising scaffold for the development of small-molecule ATX inhibitors for anti-tumor applications. To our knowledge, complex 1 is the first metal-based ATX inhibitor reported to date. Rhodium complexes will have the increased attention in therapeutic and bioanalytical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, A. H., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my, E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com; Dasan, Y. K., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my, E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred.

  5. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, A. H.; Dasan, Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred

  6. A comprehensive probabilistic analysis model of oil pipelines network based on Bayesian network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Qin, T. X.; Jiang, B.; Huang, C.

    2018-02-01

    Oil pipelines network is one of the most important facilities of energy transportation. But oil pipelines network accident may result in serious disasters. Some analysis models for these accidents have been established mainly based on three methods, including event-tree, accident simulation and Bayesian network. Among these methods, Bayesian network is suitable for probabilistic analysis. But not all the important influencing factors are considered and the deployment rule of the factors has not been established. This paper proposed a probabilistic analysis model of oil pipelines network based on Bayesian network. Most of the important influencing factors, including the key environment condition and emergency response are considered in this model. Moreover, the paper also introduces a deployment rule for these factors. The model can be used in probabilistic analysis and sensitive analysis of oil pipelines network accident.

  7. Kinetics of Chlorella protothecoides microalgal oil using base catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to continuous diminishing of fossil fuel resources and emission of greenhouse gases, the search for alternative fuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol has become inevitable. Biodiesel, also known as fatty acid methyl or ethyl ester, has emerged as a substitute for diesel because of similar fuel properties. Presently, biodiesel is produced from edible, non-edible and microalgal oil. Chlorella protothecoides (lipid content 14.6–57.8% is being investigated as the potential microalgae species owing to high oil content, less land area required for cultivation and faster growth rate. The present investigation shows the results of the kinetics of transesterification of C. protothecoides microalgal oil carried out at optimum conditions of catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, molar ratio and reaction time. The percentage of methyl ester yield is the only parameter chosen to carry out the optimum parameter and the kinetics of transesterification. The reaction rate constant was to be 0.0618 min−1. Furthermore, microalgal biodiesel is characterized for physico-chemical properties that are found to meet American (ASTM D6751 and Indian (IS 15607 standards, especially in cold flow properties and stability of conventional biodiesel.

  8. Edible antimicrobial films based on microencapsulated lemongrass oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos C, Rubén O; Alberti R, Francesca V; Matiacevich, Silvia B

    2016-01-01

    Edible films and coatings have been proposed as viable alternatives for the preservation of fresh food such as fruit, meat, fish and cheese. They can be designed to contain natural antioxidants, vitamins and antimicrobials in order to extend shelf life of the product keeping the natural sensorial properties. Essential oils have been targeted as potential active principles for edible films and coatings given their well-recognized antioxidant, antimicrobial and sensory properties. In the present work, lemongrass oil (LMO) microcapsules were prepared by the emulsification-separation method using sodium caseinate as wall material. Microcapsules had an average size of 22 μm and contained over 51 % oil in their nucleus. The release kinetics of the LMO components was studied for both, microcapsules and microcapsule containing films. Experimental data for the controlled release of LMO components showed good correlation with Peppas and Weibull models. The effect of the alginate matrix on the release parameters of the mathematical models could be detected by the modification of the b constant of the Weibull equation which changed from 0.167 for the microcapsules to 0.351 for the films. Films containing LMO at concentrations of 1250, 2500 and 5000 ppm were able to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Listeria monocytogenes ISP 65-08 in liquid cultures. A possible future application of these films for shelf life extension of fresh food is discussed.

  9. Detection of Adulterated Vegetable Oils Containing Waste Cooking Oils Based on the Contents and Ratios of Cholesterol, β-Sitosterol, and Campesterol by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haixiang; Wang, Yongli; Xu, Xiuli; Ren, Heling; Li, Li; Xiang, Li; Zhong, Weike

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate authentication method for the detection of adulterated vegetable oils that contain waste cooking oil (WCO) was developed. This method is based on the determination of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol in vegetable oils and WCO by GC/MS without any derivatization. A total of 148 samples involving 12 types of vegetable oil and WCO were analyzed. According to the results, the contents and ratios of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol were found to be criteria for detecting vegetable oils adulterated with WCO. This method could accurately detect adulterated vegetable oils containing 5% refined WCO. The developed method has been successfully applied to multilaboratory analysis of 81 oil samples. Seventy-five samples were analyzed correctly, and only six adulterated samples could not be detected. This method could not yet be used for detection of vegetable oils adulterated with WCO that are used for frying non-animal foods. It provides a quick method for detecting adulterated edible vegetable oils containing WCO.

  10. Synthesis of colloids based on gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E. C. da; Silva, M. G. A. da; Meneghetti, S. M. P.; Machado, G.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Hickmann, J. M.; Meneghetti, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    New colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles (AuNP), using castor oil as a nontoxic organic dispersant agent, were prepared via three different methods. In all three cases, tetrachloroauric(III) acid was employed as the gold source. The colloids were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The AuNP produced by the three methods were quasispherical in shape, however with different average sizes. The individual characteristics of the nanoparticles presented in each colloidal system were also confirmed by observation of absorption maxima at different wavelengths of visible light. Each method of synthesis leads to colloids with different grades of stability with respect to particle agglomeration.

  11. Aptamer based fluorescent cocaine assay based on the use of graphene oxide and exonuclease III-assisted signal amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yulin; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Sun, Zhongyue; Tang, Lina; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The article reports an aptamer based assay for cocaine by employing graphene oxide and exonuclease III-assisted signal amplification. It is based on the following scheme and experimental steps: (1) Exo III can digest dsDNA with blunt or recessed 3-terminus, but it has limited activity to ssDNA or dsDNA with protruding 3-terminus; (2) GO can absorb the FAM-labeled ssDNA probe and quench the fluorescence of probe, while the affinity between FAM-labeled mononucleotide and GO is negligible; (3) Cocaine aptamer can be split into two flexible ssDNA pieces (Probe 1 and Probe 2) without significant perturbation of cocaine-binding abilities; (4) The triple complex consisting of Probe 1, Probe 2 and cocaine can be digested by Exo III with the similar efficiency as normal dsDNA. Cocaine aptamer is split into two flexible ssDNA pieces (Probe 2 and 3′-FAM-labeled Probe 1). Cocaine can mediate the cocaine aptamer fragments forming a triplex. The triple complex has unique characteristic with 3′-FAM-labeled blunt end at the Probe 1 and 3′-overhang end at Probe 2. If exonuclease III is added, it will catalyze the stepwise removal of fluorescein (FAM) labeled mononucleotides from the 3-hydroxy termini of the special triplex complex, resulting in liberation of cocaine. The cocaine released in this step can produce a new cleavage cycle, thereby leading to target recycling. Through such a cyclic bound-hydrolysis process, small amounts of cocaine can induce the cleavage of a large number of FAM-labeled probe 1. The cleaved FAM-labeled mononucleotides are not adsorbed on the surface of graphene oxide (GO), so a strong fluorescence signal enhancement is observed as the cocaine triggers enzymatic digestion. Under optimized conditions, the assay allows cocaine to be detected in the 1 to 500 nM concentration range with a detection limit of 0.1 nM. The method was applied to the determination of cocaine in spiked human plasma, with recoveries ranging from 92.0 to 111.8 % and RSD of <12

  12. Generation of shrimp waste-based dispersant for oil spill response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kedong; Zhang, Baiyu; Song, Xing; Liu, Bo; Jing, Liang; Chen, Bing

    2018-04-01

    In this study, shrimp waste was enzymatically hydrolyzed to generate a green dispersant and the product was tested for crude oil dispersion in seawater. The hydrolysis process was first optimized based on the dispersant effectiveness (DE) of the product. The functional properties of the product were identified including stability, critical micelle concentration, and emulsification activity. Water was confirmed as a good solvent for dispersant generation when compared with three chemical solvents. The effects of salinity, mixing energy, and temperature on the dispersion of the Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil were examined. Microtox acute toxicity test was also conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the produced dispersant. In addition, DE of the product on three different types of crude oil, including ANS crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBC), and Arabian Light crude oil (ALC) was compared with that of the Corexit 9500, respectively. The research output could lead to a promising green solution to the oil spill problem and might result in many other environmental applications.

  13. Chemical and physical characterisation of biomass-based pyrolysis oils. Literature view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    Biomass-based pyrolysis oils are complex mixtures of mainly organic compounds and water. The determination of their physical and chemical properties and chemical composition is a challenge for researchers. Characterisation of biomass pyrolysis oils has been studied at many universities in North America and Europe in the 1980s and 1990s. The existing literature on the analytical methods used for these oils is reviewed in this report. For characterising the chemical composition, the bio-oils have first been mainly fractionated into different classes. Solvent extraction and adsorption chromatography are the most general methods used. In adsorption chromatography, the oils have been fractionated into different hydrocarbon and polar fractions. The fractions obtained have been analysed with various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique is the analytical method most widely used and well adaptable for the fractions. For high-molecular-mass and highly polar compounds liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques as well as infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR) spectroscopies are more suitable due to the low volatility of pyrolysis oils. For whole pyrolysis oils, LC techniques, primarily size exclusion chromatography and FT-IR and FT-NMR spectroscopies have proved to be useful methods

  14. Chemical and physical characterisation of biomass-based pyrolysis oils. Literature view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    Biomass-based pyrolysis oils are complex mixtures of mainly organic compounds and water. The determination of their physical and chemical properties and chemical composition is a challenge for researchers. Characterisation of biomass pyrolysis oils has been studied at many universities in North America and Europe in the 1980s and 1990s. The existing literature on the analytical methods used for these oils is reviewed in this report. For characterising the chemical composition, the bio-oils have first been mainly fractionated into different classes. Solvent extraction and adsorption chromatography are the most general methods used. In adsorption chromatography, the oils have been fractionated into different hydrocarbon and polar fractions. The fractions obtained have been analysed with various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique is the analytical method most widely used and well adaptable for the fractions. For high-molecular-mass and highly polar compounds liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques as well as infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR) spectroscopies are more suitable due to the low volatility of pyrolysis oils. For whole pyrolysis oils, LC techniques, primarily size exclusion chromatography and FT-IR and FT-NMR spectroscopies have proved to be useful methods

  15. Oil leakage detection for electric power equipment based on ultraviolet fluorescence effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jian-hui; Xu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-dong; Huang, Lan-tao

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a method to detect the oil leakage of high voltage power equipment based on ultraviolet fluorescence effect. The method exploits the principle that the insulating oil has the fluorescent effect under the irradiation of specific ultraviolet light. The emission spectrum of insulating oil under excitation light with different wavelengths is measured and analyzed first. On this basis, a portable oil leakage detective device for high voltage power equipment is designed and developed with a selected 365 nm ultraviolet as the excitation light and the low light level camera as the fluorescence image collector. Then, the feasibility of the proposed method and device in different conditions is experimentally verified in the laboratory environment. Finally, the developed oil leakage detective device is applied to 500 kV Xiamen substation and Quanzhou substation. And the results show that the device can detect the oil leakage of high voltage electrical equipment quickly and conveniently even under the condition of a slight oil leakage especially in the low light environment.

  16. Forecasting crude oil price with an EMD-based neural network ensemble learning paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lean; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, Kin Keung

    2008-01-01

    In this study, an empirical mode decomposition (EMD) based neural network ensemble learning paradigm is proposed for world crude oil spot price forecasting. For this purpose, the original crude oil spot price series were first decomposed into a finite, and often small, number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then a three-layer feed-forward neural network (FNN) model was used to model each of the extracted IMFs, so that the tendencies of these IMFs could be accurately predicted. Finally, the prediction results of all IMFs are combined with an adaptive linear neural network (ALNN), to formulate an ensemble output for the original crude oil price series. For verification and testing, two main crude oil price series, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price and Brent crude oil spot price, are used to test the effectiveness of the proposed EMD-based neural network ensemble learning methodology. Empirical results obtained demonstrate attractiveness of the proposed EMD-based neural network ensemble learning paradigm. (author)

  17. Base of the skull morphology and Class III malocclusion in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maciel Tinano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the morphological differences in the base of the skull of individuals with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion in comparison to control groups with Class I and Class III malocclusion. METHODS: A total of 89 individuals (males and females aged between 5 and 27 years old (Class I, n = 32; Class III, n = 29; and Class III individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate, n = 28 attending PUC-MG Dental Center and Cleft Lip/Palate Care Center of Baleia Hospital and PUC-MG (CENTRARE were selected. Linear and angular measurements of the base of the skull, maxilla and mandible were performed and assessed by a single calibrated examiner by means of cephalometric radiographs. Statistical analysis involved ANCOVA and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: No significant differences with regard to the base of the skull were found between the control group (Class I and individuals with cleft lip and palate (P > 0.017. The cleft lip/palate group differed from the Class III group only with regard to CI.Sp.Ba (P = 0.015. Individuals with cleft lip and palate had a significantly shorter maxillary length (Co-A in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001. No significant differences were found in the mandible (Co-Gn of the control group and individuals with cleft lip and palate (P = 1.000. CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that there are no significant differences in the base of the skull of individuals Class I or Class III and individuals with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion.

  18. Ecological effects of low toxicity oil-based mud drilling in the Beatrice oilfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, J M; Hartley, J P; Tibbetts, P J.C.

    1984-12-01

    To investigate the effects of drilling discharges on the seabed fauna, surveys were carried out in the Beatrice oilfield after drilling 13 wells with water-based muds, and then after one and five further wells had been drilled using low toxicity oil-based muds. Localized benthic effects were found after the water-based mud drilling. After the use of oil-based muds, the nature of the effects was different, although there was little increase in the area involved. Possible reasons for this are discussed and burial and organic enrichment are suggested as the major influences. It is concluded that the use of low toxicity oil-based mud at Beatrice has resulted in only limited benthic effects, suggesting that the use of these muds is environmentally acceptable.

  19. Synthesis, spectral characterization and in vitro antifungal activity of Lanthanum(III) and Praseodymium(III) complexes with Schiff bases derived from 5-substituted-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazoles and isatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shweta; Tripathi, Priti; Pandey, Om P.; Sengupta, Soumitra K.

    2013-01-01

    The new lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes of the general formula (LnCl(L)(H 2 O) 2 ) (Ln = La III or Pr III ; H 2 L = Schiff bases derived from 3-substituted-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazoles and isatin) have been prepared. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight by FAB-mass, thermogravimetry, electrical conductance, magnetic moment and spectral (electronic, infrared, far-infrared, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) data. The ligands and all prepared complexes were assayed for antifungal (Aspergillus niger and Helminthosporium oryzae) activities. The activities have been correlated with the structures of the complexes. (author)

  20. Red polymer light-emitting devices based on an oxadiazole-functionalized europium(III) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Yafei; Li, Chun; Huang, Ying; Dang, Dongfeng; Zhu, Meixiang; Zhu, Weiguo; Cao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    A novel tris(dibenzoylmethanato)[5-(2-(4-tert-butylbenzenyl)-5-benzenyl-1,3, 4-oxadiazole-4′)-1,10-phenanthroline]europium(III) [Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen)] containing an electron-transporting oxadiazole-functionalized phenanthroline ligand was synthesized and characterized. Its UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL), as well as the electroluminescence (EL) in polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs) were investigated. The double-layer PLEDs with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/PVK (40 nm)/PFO:PBD (30%):Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen) (1–8 wt %) (80 nm)/Ba (4 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. Saturated red Eu 3+ ion emission, based on the 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition, is centered at a wavelength of 614 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The highest external quantum efficiency (QE ext ) of 1.26% at current density of 1.65 mA cm −2 , with a maximum brightness of 568 cd m −2 at 137.8 mA cm −2 was achieved from the device at 1 wt % dopant concentration. - Highlights: • An oxadiazole-functionalized europium(III) complex of Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen) was presented. • The optophysical properties of Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen) were investigated. • Saturated red emission was observed in the PLEDs. • An external quantum efficiency of 1.26% was obtained in these devices

  1. Cytogenotoxic effects of two potential anticancer Ruthenium(III Schiff Bases complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Eminovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of cancer has been subject of great interest. Researchers are continuously searching for new medicines. In this sense, ruthenium complexes have big potential. Some evidences suggest that ruthenium compounds possess anticancer activities. We synthesized two recently published ruthenium(III complexes with bidentate O,N and tridentate O,O,N Schiff bases derived from 5-substituted salicylaldehyde and aminophenol or anilineare. These compounds showed affinity for binding to the DNA molecule, however, insufficient data are available regarding their possible toxic effects on biological systems.Methods: In the present study we evaluated genotoxic, cytotoxic, and cytostatic effects of Na[RuCl2(L12] and Na[Ru(L22], using the Allium cepa assay.Results: Different toxic effects were observed depending on the substance, tested concentration, and endpoint measured. In general, the tested compounds significantly lowered the root growth and mitotic index values as compared to the control group. Additionally, a wide range of abnormal mitotic stages, both clastogenic and non-clastogenic were observed in the treated cells. Na[RuCl2(L12] significantly increased the frequency of sticky metaphases, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, impaired chromosome segregation, as well as number of apoptotic and necrotic cells over the controls. In contrast, Na[Ru(L22] did not show significant evidence of genotoxicity with regard to chromosome aberrations and micronuclei, however, significant differences were detected in the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells when the highest concentration was applied.Conclusions: In this study we demonstrated antiproliferative effects of Na[RuCl2(L12] and Na[Ru(L22]. At clinical level, these results could be interesting for further studies on anticancer potential of the ruthenium(III complexes using animal models.

  2. Technological Advancement in Tower-Based Canopy Reflectance Monitoring: The AMSPEC-III System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortini, Riccardo; Hilker, Thomas; Coops, Nicholas C; Nesic, Zoran

    2015-12-19

    Understanding plant photosynthesis, or Gross Primary Production (GPP), is a crucial aspect of quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle. Remote sensing approaches, in particular multi-angular spectroscopy, have proven successful for studying relationships between canopy-reflectance and plant-physiology processes, thus providing a mechanism to scale up. However, many different instrumentation designs exist and few cross-comparisons have been undertaken. This paper discusses the design evolution of the Automated Multiangular SPectro-radiometer for Estimation of Canopy reflectance (AMSPEC) series of instruments. Specifically, we assess the performance of the PP-Systems Unispec-DC and Ocean Optics JAZ-COMBO spectro-radiometers installed on an updated, tower-based AMSPEC-III system. We demonstrate the interoperability of these spectro-radiometers, and the results obtained suggest that JAZ-COMBO can successfully be used to substitute more expensive measurement units for detecting and investigating photosynthesis and canopy spectra. We demonstrate close correlations between JAZ-COMBO and Unispec-DC measured canopy radiance (0.75 ≤ R² ≤ 0.85) and solar irradiance (0.95 ≤ R² ≤ 0.96) over a three month time span. We also demonstrate close agreement between the bi-directional distribution functions obtained from each instrument. We conclude that cost effective alternatives may allow a network of AMSPEC-III systems to simultaneously monitor various vegetation types in different ecosystems. This will allow to scale and improve our understanding of the interactions between vegetation physiology and spectral characteristics, calibrate broad-scale observations to stand-level measurements, and ultimately lead to improved understanding of changing vegetation spectral features from satellite.

  3. Pt-based Bi-metallic Monolith Catalysts for Partial Upgrading of Microalgae Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Adeniyi [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States); Manganaro, James [Anasyn LLC, Princeton, NJ (United States); Goodall, Brian [Valicor Renewables LLC, Dexter, MI (United States); Farrauto, Robert [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-03-24

    Valicor’s proprietary wet extraction process in conjunction with thermochemical pre-treatment was performed on algal biomass from two different algae strains, Nannochloropsis Salina (N.S.) and Chlorella to produce algae oils. Polar lipids such as phospholipids were hydrolyzed, and metals and metalloids, known catalyst poisons, were separated into the aqueous phase, creating an attractive “pre-refined” oil for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) upgrading by Stevens. Oil content and oil extraction efficiency of approximately 30 and 90% respectively were achieved. At Stevens, we formulated a Pt-based bi-metallic catalyst which was demonstrated to be effective in the hydro-treating of the algae oils to produce ‘green’ diesel. The bi-metallic catalyst was wash-coated on a monolith, and in conjunction with a high throughput high pressure (pilot plant) reactor system, was used in hydrotreating algae oils from N.S. and Chlorella. Mixtures of these algae oils and refinery light atmospheric gas oil (LAGO) supplied by our petroleum refiner partner, Marathon Petroleum Corporation, were co-processed in the pilot plant reactor system using the Pt-based bi-metallic monolith catalyst. A 26 wt% N.S. algae oil/74 wt % LAGO mixture hydrotreated in the reactor system was subjected to the ASTM D975 Diesel Fuel Specification Test and it met all the important requirements, including a cetane index of 50.5. An elemental oxygen analysis performed by an independent and reputable lab reported an oxygen content of trace to none found. The successful co-processing of a mixture of algae oil and LAGO will enable integration of algae oil as a refinery feedstock which is one of the goals of DOE-BETO. We have presented experimental data that show that our precious metal-based catalysts consume less hydrogen than the conventional hydrotreating catalyst NiMo Precious metal catalysts favor the hydrodecarbonylation/hydrodecarboxylation route of HDO over the dehydration route preferred by base metal

  4. Comparative Study of Breakdown Voltage of Mineral, Synthetic and Natural Oils and Based Mineral Oil Mixtures under AC and DC Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Beroual

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a comparative study of AC and DC breakdown voltages of based mineral oil mixtures with natural and synthetic esters mainly used in high voltage power transformers. The goal was to analyze the performances of oil mixtures from the dielectric withstand point of view and to predict the behavior of transformers originally filled with mineral oil and re-filled with synthetic or natural ester oils when emptied for maintenance. The study concerns mixtures based on 20%, 50%, and 80% of natural and synthetic ester oils. AC breakdown voltages were measured using a sphere-sphere electrode system according to IEC 60156 specifications; the same specification was adopted for DC measurements since there is no standard specifications for this voltage waveform. A statistical analysis of the mean values, standard deviations, and histograms of breakdown voltage data was carried out. The Normal and Weibull distribution functions were used to analyze the experimental data and the best function that the data followed was used to estimate the breakdown voltage with risk of 1%, 10%, and 50% probability. It was shown that whatever the applied voltage waveforms, ester oils always have a significantly higher breakdown voltage than mineral oil. The addition of only 20% of natural or synthetic ester oil was sufficient to considerably increase the breakdown voltage of mineral oil. The dielectric strength of such a mixture is much higher than that of mineral oil alone and can reach that of ester oils. From the point of view of dielectric strength, the mixtures constitute an option for improving the performance of mineral oil. Thus, re-filling of transformers containing up to 20% mineral oil residues with ester oils, does not present any problem; it is even advantageous when considering only the breakdown voltage. Under AC, the mixtures with natural ester always follow the behavior of vegetable oil alone. With the exception of the 20% mixture of natural

  5. Oil uptake by plant-based sorbents and its biodegradation by their naturally associated microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, Narjes; Ali, Nedaa; Khanafer, Majida; Radwan, Samir S.

    2017-01-01

    The plant waste-products, wheat straw, corn-cobs and sugarcane bagasse took up respectively, 190, 110 and 250% of their own weights crude oil. The same materials harbored respectively, 3.6 × 10 5 , 8.5 × 10 3 and 2.3 × 10 6  g −1  cells of hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, as determined by a culture-dependent method. The molecular, culture-independent analysis revealed that the three materials were associated with microbial communities comprising genera known for their hydrocarbonoclastic activity. In bench-scale experiments, inoculating oily media with samples of the individual waste products led to the biodegradation of 34.0–44.9% of the available oil after 8 months. Also plant-product samples, which had been used as oil sorbents lost 24.3–47.7% of their oil via their associated microorganisms, when kept moist for 8 months. In this way, it is easy to see that those waste products are capable of remediating spilled oil physically, and that their associated microbial communities can degrade it biologically. - Highlights: • Wheat straw, corn-cobs and sugarcane bagasse take up large amounts of oil. • The three materials harbor hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. • Inoculating oily liquid media with the three materials separately led to biodegradation of oil. - Plant-based oil sorbents harbor microorganisms with hydrocarbon-utilization potential which makes such natural materials valuable tools for bioremediation of oil spilled in the environment.

  6. The effect of oil revenues instability on the oil-based and labor-exporting economies: The case of the Arab region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abbasi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The changes in the trend of the oil-export earnings in the oil-based economics not only affected the growth of the domestic economics not only affected the growth of the domestic economies but influenced the economic activities in the neighboring labor-exporting economies. This study investigates and tests the hypothesis that uncertainty associated with fluctuations in oil-export earnings affect adversely the economic growth in the oil-based economies of the Middle East. In addition, it seeks to examine the hypothesis that the impact of such fluctuations has been transmitted to the neighboring labor-exporting economies, during the period 1970-1986. Results show that oil-export instability does indeed create a wave of fluctuations in the domestic economic activity of the oil-based economies through the negative effect on investment, government spending, and domestic output. For the labor-exporting economies, results suggest that the flow of workers' remittances have had a positive impact on investment and income growth. Results also indicate that the rate of economic growth in the oil-based economies sets a broad limit on the range of feasible growth in the labor-exporting economies

  7. Towards SERS based applications in food analytics: Lipophilic sensor layers for the detection of Sudan III in food matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Martin; Patze, Sophie [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bocklitz, Thomas [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Weber, Karina [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Cialla-May, Dana, E-mail: dana.cialla-may@uni-jena.de [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Popp, Jürgen [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • A lipophilic sensor layer was applied to enzymatically grown SERS substrates. • Sudan III molecules could be detected in presence of water-insoluble competitors. • The carcinogenic food dye Sudan III was detected in a relevant concentration range. • Multivariate statistics allows quantitative measurements of Sudan III. • Sudan III contaminations were successfully detected out of spiked paprika powder. - Abstract: Food safety is a topic of great importance for our society which places high demands on analytical methods. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) meets the requirements for a rapid, sensitive and specific detection technique. The fact that metallic colloids, one of the most often used SERS substrates, are usually prepared in aqueous solution makes the detection of water-insoluble substances challenging. In this paper we present a SERS based approach for the detection of water-insoluble molecules by applying a hydrophobic surface modification onto the surface of enzymatic generated silver nanoparticles. By this approach the detection of the illegal water-insoluble food dyes, such as Sudan III in presence of riboflavin, as water-soluble competitor, is possible. Moreover, we demonstrate the usability of this kind of SERS substrates for determination of Sudan III out of spiked paprika extracts.

  8. Towards SERS based applications in food analytics: Lipophilic sensor layers for the detection of Sudan III in food matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Martin; Patze, Sophie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A lipophilic sensor layer was applied to enzymatically grown SERS substrates. • Sudan III molecules could be detected in presence of water-insoluble competitors. • The carcinogenic food dye Sudan III was detected in a relevant concentration range. • Multivariate statistics allows quantitative measurements of Sudan III. • Sudan III contaminations were successfully detected out of spiked paprika powder. - Abstract: Food safety is a topic of great importance for our society which places high demands on analytical methods. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) meets the requirements for a rapid, sensitive and specific detection technique. The fact that metallic colloids, one of the most often used SERS substrates, are usually prepared in aqueous solution makes the detection of water-insoluble substances challenging. In this paper we present a SERS based approach for the detection of water-insoluble molecules by applying a hydrophobic surface modification onto the surface of enzymatic generated silver nanoparticles. By this approach the detection of the illegal water-insoluble food dyes, such as Sudan III in presence of riboflavin, as water-soluble competitor, is possible. Moreover, we demonstrate the usability of this kind of SERS substrates for determination of Sudan III out of spiked paprika extracts

  9. Modification of Optical Properties of Seawater Exposed to Oil Contaminants Based on Excitation-Emission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baszanowska, E.; Otremba, Z.

    2015-10-01

    The optical behaviour of seawater exposed to a residual amount of oil pollution is presented and a comparison of the fluorescence spectra of oil dissolved in both n-hexane and seawater is discussed based on excitation-emission spectra. Crude oil extracted from the southern part of the Baltic Sea was used to characterise petroleum properties after contact with seawater. The wavelength-independent fluorescence maximum for natural seawater and seawater artificially polluted with oil were determined. Moreover, the specific excitation-emission peaks for natural seawater and polluted water were analysed to identify the natural organic matter composition. It was found that fluorescence spectra identification is a promising method to detect even an extremely low concentration of petroleum residues directly in the seawater. In addition, alien substances disturbing the fluorescence signatures of natural organic substances in a marine environment is also discussed.

  10. Millet and corn oil in sorghum-based diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Rodrigues Bueno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of millet and corn oil additions to sorghum-based diets on the performance, carcass yields and prime cuts (i.e., wings, breasts, thighs and drumsticks and the relative weights of edible offal (i.e., gizzard, heart, and liver of broiler chickens. A total of 684 Hubbard Flex chickens, including 342 broilers of each sex, were housed. The design was completely randomized, and the following diets were supplied: A sorghum and soybean meal + soybean oil (control; B sorghum and soybean meal + corn oil; and C sorghum and soybean meal + millet and soybean oil. Six replicates with 38 birds each (19 males and 19 females were evaluated regarding each experimental diet. At 14, 21, 35 and 42 days of age, the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability of the chickens were evaluated. At 42 days, the live weight, carcass yield, prime cuts and relative weight of the edible offal were measured. The dietary inclusion of either millet or corn oil did not affect any of the parameters. In conclusion, additions of millet and corn oil to sorghum-based diets of broilers do not compromise poultry performance.

  11. Influence of Base Oil Polarity on the Transient Shear Flow of Biodegradable Lubricating Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fiedler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to elucidate the physical mechanisms influencing the transient flow behavior of lubricating greases based on biogenic oleochemicals from a polarity point of view. This includes the mutually interacting influence of base oil polarity and thickening agents on the rheologically-measured mechanical structural degradation in transient shear flow. Due to the high temperature dependence of Keesom forces in the background of polar-active bond mechanisms, the analysis of the transient flow response as a function of temperature allows to attribute the observed influences to differences in base oil polarity. In general, clay-thickened greases show a greater tendency to be rheologically influenced by base oil polarities than soap-thickened lubricating greases.

  12. Study on Biodegradation of Palm Oil-based UV-Curable Films in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Siti Farhana Fathy; Mohamad Norahiman Abdurahman; Anis Asmi Azman; Nur Amira Hamidi; Mek Zah Salleh; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh

    2014-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (UV)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia's Dengkil complex which is near the BTS building at block 42. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based UV-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the film morphology and the film weight loss which are analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based UV-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels. (author)

  13. Novel Luminescent Probe Based on a Terbium(III) Complex for Hemoglobin Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, A. V.; Leonenko, I. I.; Aleksandrova, D. I.; Scrypynets, Yu. V.; Antonovich, V. P.; Ukrainets, I. V.

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the spectral luminescent properties of Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes with a number of novel derivatives of oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid amides (L1-L5 ). We have observed quenching of the luminescence of 1:1 Tb(III)-L1-5 complexes by hemoglobin (Hb), which is explained by resonance energy transfer of electronic excitation from the donor (Tb(III)-L1-5 ) to the acceptor (Hb). Using the novel luminescent probe Tb(III)-L1, we have developed a method for determining Hb in human blood. The calibration Stern-Volmer plot is linear in the Hb concentration range 0.6-36.0 μg/mL, detection limit 0.2 μg/mL (3·10-9 mol/L).

  14. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats.Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations.The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  16. Study of Dielectric Breakdown Performance of Transformer Oil Based Magnetic Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Lv

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on the transformer oil-based nanofluids (NFs has been raised expeditiously over the past decade. Although, there is discrepancy in the stated results and inadequate understanding of the mechanisms of improvement of dielectric nanofluids, these nanofluids have emerged as a potential substitute of mineral oils as insulating and heat removal fluids for high voltage equipment. The transformer oil (TO based magnetic fluids (ferrofluids may be regarded as the posterity insulation fluids as they propose inspiring unique prospectus to improve dielectric breakdown strength, as well as heat transfer efficiency, as compared to pure transformer oils. In this work, transformer oil-based magnetic nanofluids (MNFs are prepared by dispersal of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs into mineral oil as base oil, with various NPs loading from 5 to 80% w/v. The lightning impulse breakdown voltages (BDV measurement was conducted in accordance with IEC 60897 by using needle to sphere electrodes geometry. The test results showed that dispersion of magnetic NPs may improve the insulation strength of MO. With the increment of NPs concentrations, the positive lightning impulse (LI breakdown strength of TO is first raised, up to the highest value at 40% loading, and then tends to decrease at higher concentrations. The outcomes of negative LI breakdown showed that BDV of MNFs, with numerous loadings, were inferior to the breakdown strength of pure MO. The 40% concentration of nanoparticles (optimum concentration was selected, and positive and negative LI breakdown strength was also further studied at different sizes (10 nm, 20 nm, 30 nm and 40 nm of NPs and different electrode gap distances. Augmentation in the BDV of the ferrofluids (FFs is primarily because of dielectric and magnetic features of Fe3O4 nanoaprticles, which act as electron scavengers and decrease the rate of free electrons produced in the ionization process. Research challenges and technical difficulties

  17. Construction of Polynuclear Lanthanide (Ln = Dy(III), Tb(III), and Nd(III)) Cage Complexes Using Pyridine-Pyrazole-Based Ligands: Versatile Molecular Topologies and SMM Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Sukhen; Sen Bishwas, Mousumi; Pramanik, Bhaskar; Khanra, Sumit; Fromm, Katharina M; Poddar, Pankaj; Mondal, Raju

    2015-09-08

    Employment of two different pyridyl-pyrazolyl-based ligands afforded three octanuclear lanthanide(III) (Ln = Dy, Tb) cage compounds and one hexanuclear neodymium(III) coordination cage, exhibiting versatile molecular architectures including a butterfly core. Relatively less common semirigid pyridyl-pyrazolyl-based asymmetric ligand systems show an interesting trend of forming polynuclear lanthanide cage complexes with different coordination environments around the metal centers. It is noteworthy here that construction of lanthanide complex itself is a challenging task in a ligand system as soft N-donor rich as pyridyl-pyrazol. We report herein some lanthanide complexes using ligand containing only one or two O-donors compare to five N-coordinating sites. The resultant multinuclear lanthanide complexes show interesting magnetic and spectroscopic features originating from different spatial arrangements of the metal ions. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements of the two dysprosium complexes display frequency- and temperature-dependent out-of-phase signals in zero and 0.5 T direct current field, a typical characteristic feature of single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior, indicating different energy reversal barriers due to different molecular topologies. Another aspect of this work is the occurrence of the not-so-common SMM behavior of the terbium complex, further confirmed by ac susceptibility measurement.

  18. Highly porous oil sorbent based on hollow fibers as the interceptor for oil on static and running water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Ting [College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cao, Shengbin [College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai 201306 (China); Xu, Guangbiao, E-mail: guangbiao_xu@dhu.edu.cn [College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Highly porous sorbent was made up of kapok and PET fibers. • The sorbent was prepared by air-laying-bonding method. • The sorbent showed much higher oil sorption capacity than 100% loose kapok fibers. • The sorbent showed high intercepting efficiency to oils on water. • The runing of water significantly accelerated the oil leakage. - Abstract: Highly porous fibrous assembly made by kapok and hollow PET fibers was prepared by the air-laying-bonding method, and used as the interceptor for oils on static and running water. SEM showed that the vast majority of kapok and PET fibers in the assembly was intact and retained their hollow lumens, with the assembly's porosity high to 98.03%. Oil sorption tests exhibited that kapok/PET assembly could absorb 63.00 g/g of vegetable oil and 58.50 g/g of used motor oil, with high oil retention after 24 h dripping. In static condition of oil interception, the two oils started to leak at around 20 min for 10-mm thick kapok/PET wall. The time for that was prolonged with increasing the thickness of kapok/PET wall. After oil breakthrough, continuous oil leaking took place. The typical leakage was divided into three stages in which oils leaked separately in sharply increased rate, reduced rate and finally gently. In running condition, oils leaked in markedly quicker way than that in static condition, with initial leakage of oils shortened to less 6 min when the water ran at 60.35 ml/s. The leakage of oils was considerably accelerated with increasing running rates.

  19. Highly porous oil sorbent based on hollow fibers as the interceptor for oil on static and running water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Ting; Cao, Shengbin; Xu, Guangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly porous sorbent was made up of kapok and PET fibers. • The sorbent was prepared by air-laying-bonding method. • The sorbent showed much higher oil sorption capacity than 100% loose kapok fibers. • The sorbent showed high intercepting efficiency to oils on water. • The runing of water significantly accelerated the oil leakage. - Abstract: Highly porous fibrous assembly made by kapok and hollow PET fibers was prepared by the air-laying-bonding method, and used as the interceptor for oils on static and running water. SEM showed that the vast majority of kapok and PET fibers in the assembly was intact and retained their hollow lumens, with the assembly's porosity high to 98.03%. Oil sorption tests exhibited that kapok/PET assembly could absorb 63.00 g/g of vegetable oil and 58.50 g/g of used motor oil, with high oil retention after 24 h dripping. In static condition of oil interception, the two oils started to leak at around 20 min for 10-mm thick kapok/PET wall. The time for that was prolonged with increasing the thickness of kapok/PET wall. After oil breakthrough, continuous oil leaking took place. The typical leakage was divided into three stages in which oils leaked separately in sharply increased rate, reduced rate and finally gently. In running condition, oils leaked in markedly quicker way than that in static condition, with initial leakage of oils shortened to less 6 min when the water ran at 60.35 ml/s. The leakage of oils was considerably accelerated with increasing running rates.

  20. Early warning model based on correlated networks in global crude oil markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia-Wei; Xie, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Applying network tools on predicting and warning the systemic risks provides a novel avenue to manage risks in financial markets. Here, we construct a series of global crude oil correlated networks based on the historical 57 oil prices covering a period from 1993 to 2012. Two systemic risk indicators are constructed based on the density and modularity of correlated networks. The local maximums of the risk indicators are found to have the ability to predict the trends of oil prices. In our sample periods, the indicator based on the network density sends five signals and the indicator based on the modularity index sends four signals. The four signals sent by both indicators are able to warn the drop of future oil prices and the signal only sent by the network density is followed by a huge rise of oil prices. Our results deepen the application of network measures on building early warning models of systemic risks and can be applied to predict the trends of future prices in financial markets.

  1. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajau, Rida; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman; Salih, Ashraf Mohammed; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Azman, Anis Asmi; Hamidi, Nur Amira

    2016-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia’s Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels

  2. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajau, Rida; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman; Salih, Ashraf Mohammed; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Azman, Anis Asmi; Hamidi, Nur Amira

    2016-01-01

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia's Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  3. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida, E-mail: rida@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Salleh, Mek Zah, E-mail: mekzah@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik, E-mail: nik-ghazali@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman, E-mail: iman5031@yahoo.com [Division of Radiation Processing Technology, Malaysia Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Salih, Ashraf Mohammed, E-mail: ashraf.msalih@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Processing, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, 1111 Sudan (Sudan); Fathy, Siti Farhana, E-mail: farhana811@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience (IBS), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Azman, Anis Asmi, E-mail: anisasmi18@gmail.com; Hamidi, Nur Amira, E-mail: amirahamidi93@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia’s Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  4. Different magnesium release profiles from W/O/W emulsions based on crystallized oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzi, Sameh; Essafi, Wafa

    2018-01-01

    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions based on crystallized oils were prepared and the release kinetics of magnesium ions from the internal to the external aqueous phase was investigated at T=4°C, for different crystallized lipophilic matrices. All the emulsions were formulated using the same surface-active species, namely polyglycerol polyricinoleate (oil-soluble) and sodium caseinate (water-soluble). The external aqueous phase was a lactose or glucose solution at approximately the same osmotic pressure as that of the inner droplets, in order to avoid osmotic water transfer phenomena. We investigated two types of crystallized lipophilic systems: one based on blends of cocoa butter and miglyol oil, exploring a solid fat content from 0 to 90% and the other system based on milk fat fractions for which the solid fat content varies between 54 and 86%. For double emulsions based on cocoa butter/miglyol oil, the rate of magnesium release was gradually lowered by increasing the % of fat crystals i.e. cocoa butter, in agreement with a diffusion/permeation mechanism. However for double emulsions based on milk fat fractions, the rate of magnesium release was independent of the % of fat crystals and remains the one at t=0. This difference in diffusion patterns, although the solid content is of the same order, suggests a different distribution of fat crystals within the double globules: a continuous fat network acting as a physical barrier for the diffusion of magnesium for double emulsions based on cocoa butter/miglyol oil and double globule/water interfacial distribution for milk fat fractions based double emulsions, through the formation of a crystalline shell allowing an effective protection of the double globules against diffusion of magnesium to the external aqueous phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental aspect of oil and water-based drilling muds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-03-19

    Mar 19, 2010 ... both oil based and water-based drilling wastes collected from the same depth were analyzed for metals. (iron, copper ... include well cuttings, drilling muds, formation water, cement slurry ..... in the drill wastes (2.38 mg/kg) (Figure 3d). The water .... Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety.

  6. The potential applications in heavy oil EOR with the nanoparticle and surfactant stabilized solvent-based emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The main challenges in developing the heavy oil reservoirs in the Alaska North Slope (ANS) include technical challenges regarding thermal recovery; sand control and disposal; high asphaltene content; and low in-situ permeability. A chemical enhanced oil recovery method may be possible for these reservoirs. Solvent based emulsion flooding provides mobility control; oil viscosity reduction; and in-situ emulsification of heavy oil. This study evaluated the potential application of nano-particle-stabilized solvent based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in the ANS. The optimized micro-emulsion composition was determined using laboratory tests such as phase behaviour scanning, rheology studies and interfacial tension measurements. The optimized nano-emulsions were used in core flooding experiments to verify the recovery efficiency. The study revealed that the potential use of this kind of emulsion flooding is a promising enhanced oil recovery process for some heavy oil reservoirs in Alaska, Canada and Venezuela. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  7. Interaction between vegetable oil based plasticizer molecules and polyvinyl chloride, and their plasticization effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Agus; Triwulandari, Evi; Jiang, Pingping

    2017-01-01

    Plasticizer molecules are low molecular weight compounds that are widely used in polymer industries especially in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin. As an additive in PVC resin, the important role of plasticizer molecules is to improve the flexibility and processability of PVC by lowering the glass transition temperature (Tg). However, the commercial plasticizer like di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is known to cause liver cancer, at least in laboratory rats. DEHP can leach out from PVC into blood, certain drug solutions and fatty foods, which has been detected in the bloodstream of patients undergoing transfusion. Vegetable oil based plasticizers have some attractive properties such as non-toxic, bio-degradable, good heat and light stability, renewable resources, and environmentally friendly. Here we discussed the main results and development of vegetable oil based plasticizer, and especially palm oil based plasticizer. The interaction between plasticizer and polymer was discussed from the properties of the plasticized polymeric material.

  8. Characteristic of natural rubber latex-methyl metha-crylate copolymer in mineral lubricant base oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meri Suhartini; Rahmawati

    2010-01-01

    Natural rubber latex-methyl methacrylate copolymer was diluted in xylene, then diluted in four types of lubricant base oil with concentrations of 0.25%, 1%, 5%, and 10%. The mixed solutions were analyzed to obtain kinematics viscosity, viscosity index, density, ash content, metal content, flash point, shear stability and total alkali number. The viscosity index of sample, increased by adding the copolymer solution. The results showed that lubricant base oil of High Viscosity index (HVI) 60 and mixed HVI 60: HVI 650 gave optimum viscosity index. The higher concentration of polymer added into base lubricant oil, the higher viscosity index obtained. The shear stability test showed that the kinematics viscosity of sample decreased 6.5% after 60 minutes of treatment test. (author)

  9. CAViaR-based forecast for oil price risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Dashan; Yu, Baimin; Fabozzi, Frank J.; Fukushima, Masao

    2009-01-01

    As a benchmark for measuring market risk, value-at-risk (VaR) reduces the risk associated with any kind of asset to just a number (amount in terms of a currency), which can be well understood by regulators, board members, and other interested parties. This paper employs a new VaR approach due to Engle and Manganelli [Engle, R.F., Manganelli, S., 2004. CAViaR: Conditional Autoregressive Value at Risk by Regression Quantiles. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 22, 367-381] to forecasting oil price risk. In doing so, we provide two original contributions by introducing a new exponentially weighted moving average CAViaR model and developing a mixed data regression model for multi-period VaR prediction. (author)

  10. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Used to Fabricate Phenolic Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Hou, Xiaopeng; Wang, Wenliang; Chang, Jianmin

    2017-06-18

    In this study, bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was used as the raw material to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF) resin-a desirable resin for fabricating phenolic-based material. During the synthesis process, paraformaldehyde was used to achieve the requirement of high solid content and low viscosity. The properties of BPF resins were tested. Results indicated that BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20% had good performance on oxygen index and bending strength, indicating that adding bio-oil could modify the fire resistance and brittleness of PF resin. The thermal curing behavior and heat resistance of BPF resins were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Results showed that adding bio-oil had an impact on curing characteristics and thermal degradation process of PF resin, but the influence was insignificant when the addition was relatively low. The chemical structure and surface characteristics of BPF resins were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis demonstrated that adding bio-oil in the amount of 20% was able to improve the crosslinking degree and form more hydrocarbon chains in PF resin.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Used to Fabricate Phenolic Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was used as the raw material to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF resin—a desirable resin for fabricating phenolic-based material. During the synthesis process, paraformaldehyde was used to achieve the requirement of high solid content and low viscosity. The properties of BPF resins were tested. Results indicated that BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20% had good performance on oxygen index and bending strength, indicating that adding bio-oil could modify the fire resistance and brittleness of PF resin. The thermal curing behavior and heat resistance of BPF resins were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Results showed that adding bio-oil had an impact on curing characteristics and thermal degradation process of PF resin, but the influence was insignificant when the addition was relatively low. The chemical structure and surface characteristics of BPF resins were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analysis demonstrated that adding bio-oil in the amount of 20% was able to improve the crosslinking degree and form more hydrocarbon chains in PF resin.

  13. Forecasting Crude Oil Price Using EEMD and RVM with Adaptive PSO-Based Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiyong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil, as one of the most important energy sources in the world, plays a crucial role in global economic events. An accurate prediction for crude oil price is an interesting and challenging task for enterprises, governments, investors, and researchers. To cope with this issue, in this paper, we proposed a method integrating ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD, adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO, and relevance vector machine (RVM—namely, EEMD-APSO-RVM—to predict crude oil price based on the “decomposition and ensemble” framework. Specifically, the raw time series of crude oil price were firstly decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs and one residue by EEMD. Then, RVM with combined kernels was applied to predict target value for the residue and each IMF individually. To improve the prediction performance of each component, an extended particle swarm optimization (PSO was utilized to simultaneously optimize the weights and parameters of single kernels for the combined kernel of RVM. Finally, simple addition was used to aggregate all the predicted results of components into an ensemble result as the final result. Extensive experiments were conducted on the crude oil spot price of the West Texas Intermediate (WTI to illustrate and evaluate the proposed method. The experimental results are superior to those by several state-of-the-art benchmark methods in terms of root mean squared error (RMSE, mean absolute percent error (MAPE, and directional statistic (Dstat, showing that the proposed EEMD-APSO-RVM is promising for forecasting crude oil price.

  14. Effect of the use of waste vegetable oil based biodiesel on the landscape in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereczky Akos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-based fuels are now widely known as environmentally unfriendly because of non-renewable supplies and its contribution to environmental pollution. The challenge, therefore is to ensure appropriate energy supplies at minimum cost. There is an increasing energy demand in the world and nowadays it can be fulfilled only on the basis of fossil fuels. Therefore, it is necessary to evolve a renewable energy source with lower environmental impact. One alternative solution can be oils of plant origin, like vegetable oils and non-edible oils. With waste vegetable oil methyl ester, biofuel dependency can be decreased. Therefore, the aim of this research paper is to analyze the economic and environmental effect of waste vegetable oil methyl ester compared to fossil fuels. In some cases only the age of vehicles could raise burdens to biofuel utilization in road vehicles. Transport and energy policy – on a large scale – can play an important role in fuel consumption. Author is aware that waste vegetable oil methyl ester can play only a limited role in biofuel substitution.

  15. LARGE OIL SPILL CLASSIFICATION USING SAR IMAGES BASED ON SPATIAL HISTOGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Schvartzman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the different types of marine pollution, oil spill is a major threat to the sea ecosystems. Remote sensing is used in oil spill response. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is an active microwave sensor that operates under all weather conditions and provides information about the surface roughness and covers large areas at a high spatial resolution. SAR is widely used to identify and track pollutants in the sea, which may be due to a secondary effect of a large natural disaster or by a man-made one . The detection of oil spill in SAR imagery relies on the decrease of the backscattering from the sea surface, due to the increased viscosity, resulting in a dark formation that contrasts with the brightness of the surrounding area. Most of the use of SAR images for oil spill detection is done by visual interpretation. Trained interpreters scan the image, and mark areas of low backscatter and where shape is a-symmetrical. It is very difficult to apply this method for a wide area. In contrast to visual interpretation, automatic detection algorithms were suggested and are mainly based on scanning dark formations, extracting features, and applying big data analysis. We propose a new algorithm that applies a nonlinear spatial filter that detects dark formations and is not susceptible to noises, such as internal or speckle. The advantages of this algorithm are both in run time and the results retrieved. The algorithm was tested in genesimulations as well as on COSMO-SkyMed images, detecting the Deep Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (occurred on 20/4/2010. The simulation results show that even in a noisy environment, oil spill is detected. Applying the algorithm to the Deep Horizon oil spill, the algorithm classified the oil spill better than focusing on dark formation algorithm. Furthermore, the results were validated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA data.

  16. Large Oil Spill Classification Using SAR Images Based on Spatial Histogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartzman, I.; Havivi, S.; Maman, S.; Rotman, S. R.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    Among the different types of marine pollution, oil spill is a major threat to the sea ecosystems. Remote sensing is used in oil spill response. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an active microwave sensor that operates under all weather conditions and provides information about the surface roughness and covers large areas at a high spatial resolution. SAR is widely used to identify and track pollutants in the sea, which may be due to a secondary effect of a large natural disaster or by a man-made one . The detection of oil spill in SAR imagery relies on the decrease of the backscattering from the sea surface, due to the increased viscosity, resulting in a dark formation that contrasts with the brightness of the surrounding area. Most of the use of SAR images for oil spill detection is done by visual interpretation. Trained interpreters scan the image, and mark areas of low backscatter and where shape is a-symmetrical. It is very difficult to apply this method for a wide area. In contrast to visual interpretation, automatic detection algorithms were suggested and are mainly based on scanning dark formations, extracting features, and applying big data analysis. We propose a new algorithm that applies a nonlinear spatial filter that detects dark formations and is not susceptible to noises, such as internal or speckle. The advantages of this algorithm are both in run time and the results retrieved. The algorithm was tested in genesimulations as well as on COSMO-SkyMed images, detecting the Deep Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (occurred on 20/4/2010). The simulation results show that even in a noisy environment, oil spill is detected. Applying the algorithm to the Deep Horizon oil spill, the algorithm classified the oil spill better than focusing on dark formation algorithm. Furthermore, the results were validated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data.

  17. Enzymatic incorporation of caffeoyl into castor oil to prepare the novel castor oil-based caffeoyl structured lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shangde; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Sha

    2017-05-10

    In this work, a novel castor oil-based caffeoyl structured lipids was successfully prepared by the enzymatic transesterification using castor oil (CO) as caffeoyl acceptor. During the structured lipids preparation, two competitive reactions, the hydrolysis of CO to form hydrophilic caffeoyl glycerols (CG)+dicaffeoyl glycerols (DCG) and the transesterification of CO with ethyl caffeate (EC) to form lipophilic caffeoyl mono- and di-acylglycerols (CMAG and CDAG), were found. Reaction progress was monitored using HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC-UV. The effects of by-product ethanol removal and reaction variables on the transesterification and reaction selectivity were evaluated. Results showed that, the activation energies for the transesterification and for the selective formations of CMAG+CDAG and CG+DCG were 57.60kJ/mol, 58.86kJ/mol, and 60.53kJ/mol, respectively. Under the optimal reaction conditions (enzyme load 23%, 90°C, 1:3 molar ratio of EC to CO, and 46.5h), EC conversion and the yield of CMAG+CDAG were 93.68±2.52% and 78.11±1.35%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Unstructured grids and an element based conservative approach for a black-oil reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Regis Lopes; Fernandes, Bruno Ramon Batista [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Araujo, Andre Luiz de Souza [Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara - IFCE, Fortaleza (Brazil). Industry Department], e-mail: andre@ifce.edu.br; Marcondes, Francisco [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science], e-mail: marcondes@ufc.br

    2010-07-01

    Unstructured meshes presented one upgrade in modeling the main important features of the reservoir such as discrete fractures, faults, and irregular boundaries. From several methodologies available, the Element based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM), in conjunction with unstructured meshes, is one methodology that deserves large attention. In this approach, the reservoir, for 2D domains, is discretized using a mixed two-dimensional mesh using quadrilateral and triangle elements. After the initial step of discretization, each element is divided into sub-elements and the mass balance for each component is developed for each sub-element. The equations for each control-volume using a cell vertex construction are formulated through the contribution of different neighboured elements. This paper presents an investigation of an element-based approach using the black-oil model based on pressure and global mass fractions. In this approach, even when all gas phase is dissolved in oil phase the global mass fraction of gas will be different from zero. Therefore, no additional numerical procedure is necessary in order to treat the gas phase appear/disappearance. In this paper the above mentioned approach is applied to multiphase flows involving oil, gas, and water. The mass balance equations in terms of global mass fraction of oil, gas and water are discretized through the EbFVM and linearized by the Newton's method. The results are presented in terms of volumetric rates of oil, gas, and water and phase saturations. (author)

  19. The effect of nanoparticle surfactant polarization on trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian, E-mail: lijian@cqu.edu.cn; Du, Bin; Wang, Feipeng; Yao, Wei; Yao, Shuhan

    2016-02-05

    Nanoparticles can generate charge carrier trapping and reduce the velocity of streamer development in insulating oils ultimately leading to an enhancement of the breakdown voltage of insulating oils. Vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids with three sizes of monodispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared and their trapping depths were measured by thermally stimulated method (TSC). It is found that the nanoparticle surfactant polarization can significantly influence the trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids. A nanoparticle polarization model considering surfactant polarization was proposed to calculate the trapping depth of the nanofluids at different nanoparticle sizes and surfactant thicknesses. The results show the calculated values of the model are in a fairly good agreement with the experimental values. - Highlights: • Three different sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} vegetable-oil based nanofluids was successfully prepared. • The trapping depth of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofluids was investigated. • A new model considering surfactant polarization was proposed to calculate the trapping depth of the nanofluids.

  20. Caleosin-based nanoscale oil bodies for targeted delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Chung-Jen; Lin, Li-Jen; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale artificial oil bodies (NOBs) could be assembled from plant oil, phospholipids (PLs), and oleosin (Ole) as previously reported. NOBs have a lipid-based structure that contains a central oil space enclosed by a monolayer of Ole-bound PLs. As an oil structural protein, Ole functions to maintain the integrity of NOBs. Like Ole, caleosin (Cal) is a plant oil-associated protein. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of NOBs assembled by Cal for targeted delivery of drugs. Cal was first fused with anti-HER2/neu affibody (ZH2), and the resulting fusion gene (Cal–ZH2) was then expressed in Escherichia coli. Consequently, NOBs assembled with the fusion protein were selectively internalized by HER2/neu-positive tumor cells. The internalization efficiency could reach as high as 90%. Furthermore, a hydrophobic anticancer drug, Camptothecin (CPT), was encapsulated into Cal-based NOBs. These CPT-loaded NOBs had a size around 200 nm and were resistant to hemolysis. Release of CPT from NOBs at the non-permissive condition followed a sustained and prolonged profile. After administration of the CPT formulation, Cal–ZH2-displayed NOBs exhibited a strong antitumor activity toward HER2/neu-positive cells both in vitro and in vivo. The result indicates the potential of Cal-based NOBs for targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

  1. Identification of carbonate reservoirs based on well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukhalikov, Ya.N; Serebrennikov, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiment on carbonate reservoir identification according to well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds is described. Pulse neutron-neutron logging (PNNL) was widely used at the territory of Pripyat' hole to solve the task. To evaluate volumetric clayiness of carbonate rocks the dependence of gamma-logging, that is data of gamma-logging against clayey rocks built for every hollow, is used. Quantitative estimation of clayiness of dense and clayey carbonate rocks-non-reservoirs is carried out on the basis of the data of neutron-gamma and acoustic logging. Porosity coefficient and lithological characteristic of rocks are also determined according to the data of acoustic and neutron gamma-logging

  2. ppt level detection of samarium(III) with a coated graphite sensor based on an antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Rezapour, Morteza; Pourjavid, Mohammad Reza; Haghgoo, Soheila

    2004-07-01

    N-[2-[4-[[[(Cyclohexylamino)carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]-5-methyl pyrazine carboxamide (glipizid) was explored as an electro-active material for preparing a polymeric membrane-based sensor selective to samarium ions. The membrane incorporated 30% poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), 53% benzyl acetate (BA), 11% glipizid and 6% sodium tetraphenyl borate. When coated on the surface of a graphite electrode, it exhibits Nernstian responses in the concentration range of 1.0 x 10(-5) to 1.0 x 10(-10) M, with a detection limit of 8.0 x 10(-11)M samarium. The electrode shows high selectivity towards samarium over several cations (alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions), and specially lanthanide ions. The proposed sensor has a very short response time (pH range for at least ten weeks. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Sm(III) ions with an EDTA solution, and for determination of samarium in binary and ternary mixtures.

  3. Concerning the Deactivation of Cobalt(III)-Based Porphyrin and Salen Catalysts in Epoxide/CO 2 Copolymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Wei

    2015-02-05

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Functioning as active catalysts for propylene oxide (PO) and carbon dioxide copolymerization, cobalt(III)-based salen and porphyrin complexes have drawn great attention owing to their readily modifiable nature and promising catalytic behavior, such as high selectivity for the copolymer formation and good regioselectivity with respect to the polymer microstructure. Both cobalt(III)-salen and porphyrin catalysts have been found to undergo reduction reactions to their corresponding catalytically inactive cobalt(II) species in the presence of propylene oxide, as evidenced by UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopies and X-ray crystallography (for cobalt(II)-salen). Further investigations on a TPPCoCl (TPP=tetraphenylporphyrin) and NaOMe system reveal that such a catalyst reduction is attributed to the presence of alkoxide anions. Kinetic studies of the redox reaction of TPPCoCl with NaOMe suggests a pseudo-first order in cobalt(III)-porphyrin. The addition of a co-catalyst, namely bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium chloride (PPNCl), into the reaction system of cobalt(III)-salen/porphyrin and PO shows no direct stabilizing effect. However, the results of PO/CO2 copolymerization by cobalt(III)-salen/porphyrin with PPNCl suggest a suppressed catalyst reduction. This phenomenon is explained by a rapid transformation of the alkoxide into the carbonate chain end in the course of the polymer formation, greatly shortening the lifetime of the autoreducible PO-ring-opening intermediates, cobalt(III)-salen/porphyrin alkoxides. CO2 saves: The deactivation of cobalt(III)-porphyrin and salen catalysts in propylene oxide/carbon dioxide copolymerization is systematically investigated, revealing a proposed mechanism for the catalyst reduction (see scheme).

  4. Concerning the Deactivation of Cobalt(III)-Based Porphyrin and Salen Catalysts in Epoxide/CO 2 Copolymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Wei; Salmeia, Khalifah A.; Vagin, Sergei I.; Rieger, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Functioning as active catalysts for propylene oxide (PO) and carbon dioxide copolymerization, cobalt(III)-based salen and porphyrin complexes have drawn great attention owing to their readily modifiable nature and promising catalytic behavior, such as high selectivity for the copolymer formation and good regioselectivity with respect to the polymer microstructure. Both cobalt(III)-salen and porphyrin catalysts have been found to undergo reduction reactions to their corresponding catalytically inactive cobalt(II) species in the presence of propylene oxide, as evidenced by UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopies and X-ray crystallography (for cobalt(II)-salen). Further investigations on a TPPCoCl (TPP=tetraphenylporphyrin) and NaOMe system reveal that such a catalyst reduction is attributed to the presence of alkoxide anions. Kinetic studies of the redox reaction of TPPCoCl with NaOMe suggests a pseudo-first order in cobalt(III)-porphyrin. The addition of a co-catalyst, namely bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium chloride (PPNCl), into the reaction system of cobalt(III)-salen/porphyrin and PO shows no direct stabilizing effect. However, the results of PO/CO2 copolymerization by cobalt(III)-salen/porphyrin with PPNCl suggest a suppressed catalyst reduction. This phenomenon is explained by a rapid transformation of the alkoxide into the carbonate chain end in the course of the polymer formation, greatly shortening the lifetime of the autoreducible PO-ring-opening intermediates, cobalt(III)-salen/porphyrin alkoxides. CO2 saves: The deactivation of cobalt(III)-porphyrin and salen catalysts in propylene oxide/carbon dioxide copolymerization is systematically investigated, revealing a proposed mechanism for the catalyst reduction (see scheme).

  5. Determination of sulfur compounds in hydrotreated transformer base oil by potentiometric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Qiu; Sheng, Han; Cheng, Xingguo; Ren, Tianhui

    2005-06-01

    A method was developed to analyze the distribution of sulfur compounds in model sulfur compounds by potentiometric titration, and applied to analyze hydrotreated transformer base oil. Model thioethers were oxidized to corresponding sulfoxides by tetrabutylammonium periodate and sodium metaperiodate, respectively, and the sulfoxides were titrated by perchloric acid titrant in acetic anhydride. The contents of aliphatic thioethers and total thioethers were then determined from that of sulfoxides in solution. The method was applied to determine the organic sulfur compounds in hydrotreated transformer base oil.

  6. Origin of SMM behaviour in an asymmetric Er(III) Schiff base complex: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Chinmoy; Upadhyay, Apoorva; Vaidya, Shefali; Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Shanmugam, Maheswaran

    2015-04-11

    An asymmetric erbium(III) Schiff base complex [Er(HL)2(NO3)3] was synthesized which shows SMM behaviour with an Ueff of 5.2 K. Dipolar interaction in 1 significantly reduced upon dilution which increases the barrier height to 51.5 K. Ab initio calculations were performed to shed light on the mechanism of magnetization relaxation.

  7. Quality of life in patients with different constipation subtypes based on the Rome III criteria

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Ruiz-López; E. Coss-Adame

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation are highly prevalent and affect the quality of life of those who suffer from them. Aims: To evaluate quality of life in patients with functional constipation and irritable bowel disease in accordance with the Rome III criteria, using the PAC-QOL and SF-36 questionnaires. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires. The PAC-QOL, SF-36, and Rome III co...

  8. Enantiomeric separation of iridium (III) complexes using HPLC chiral stationary phases based on amylose derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Eun; Seo, Na Hyeon; Hyun, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Cyclometalated iridium (III) complexes formed with three identical cyclometalating (C-N) ligands (homoleptic) or formed with two cyclometalating (C-N) ligands and one ancillary (LX) ligand (heteroleptic) have been known as highly phosphorescent materials and, thus, they have been utilized as efficient phosphorescent dopants in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) 1–3 or as effective phosphorescent chemosensors. 4–7 Cylometalated iridium (III) complexes are chiral compounds consisting of lambda (Λ, left-handed) and delta (Δ, right-handed) isomers. Racemic cyclometa- lated iridium (III) complexes emit light with no net polarization, but optically active cyclometalated iridium (III) complexes emit circularly polarized light. 8,9 Circularly polarized light can be used in various fields including highly efficient three dimensional electronic devices, photo nic devices for optical data storage, biological assays, and others. 8,9 In order to obtain optically active cylometalated iridium (III) complexes and to determine the enantiomeric composition of optically active cylometalated iridium (III) complexes, liquid chromatogr aphic enantiomer separation method on chiral stationary phases (CSPs) has been used. For example, Okamoto and coworkers first reported the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) direct enantiomeric separation of two homoleptic cylometalated iridium (III) complexes on immobilized amylose tris(3,5- dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralpak IA), coated cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralc el OD), and coated cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) (Chiralce l OJ). 10 Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was also used by Bernhard and coworkers for the enantiomeric separation of cylometalated iridium (III) complexes on coated amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralpak AD-H). 8 However, the general use of the HPLC method for the direct enantiomeric separation of homoleptic

  9. Enantiomeric separation of iridium (III) complexes using HPLC chiral stationary phases based on amylose derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Eun; Seo, Na Hyeon; Hyun, Myung Ho [Dept. of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Cyclometalated iridium (III) complexes formed with three identical cyclometalating (C-N) ligands (homoleptic) or formed with two cyclometalating (C-N) ligands and one ancillary (LX) ligand (heteroleptic) have been known as highly phosphorescent materials and, thus, they have been utilized as efficient phosphorescent dopants in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) 1–3 or as effective phosphorescent chemosensors. 4–7 Cylometalated iridium (III) complexes are chiral compounds consisting of lambda (Λ, left-handed) and delta (Δ, right-handed) isomers. Racemic cyclometa- lated iridium (III) complexes emit light with no net polarization, but optically active cyclometalated iridium (III) complexes emit circularly polarized light. 8,9 Circularly polarized light can be used in various fields including highly efficient three dimensional electronic devices, photo nic devices for optical data storage, biological assays, and others. 8,9 In order to obtain optically active cylometalated iridium (III) complexes and to determine the enantiomeric composition of optically active cylometalated iridium (III) complexes, liquid chromatogr aphic enantiomer separation method on chiral stationary phases (CSPs) has been used. For example, Okamoto and coworkers first reported the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) direct enantiomeric separation of two homoleptic cylometalated iridium (III) complexes on immobilized amylose tris(3,5- dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralpak IA), coated cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralc el OD), and coated cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) (Chiralce l OJ). 10 Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was also used by Bernhard and coworkers for the enantiomeric separation of cylometalated iridium (III) complexes on coated amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralpak AD-H). 8 However, the general use of the HPLC method for the direct enantiomeric separation of homoleptic.

  10. Exercise-based transportation reduces oil dependence, carbon emissions and obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, P.A.T.

    2005-09-15

    Societal dependence on oil leads to increasingly negative social consequences throughout the world, including climate change, air pollution, political and economic instability, and habitat degradation. Reliance on the automobile for transportation also contributes to a sedentary lifestyle, an obesity epidemic and poor health. These problems are particularly pronounced in the USA, which currently consumes c. 27% of global oil production and produces c. 25% of global carbon emissions, and where c. 65% of adults are overweight or obese. Other countries throughout the world that replicate or hope to replicate the automobile-based lifestyle of the USA face similar problems now or in the near future. This paper develops and applies calculations relating the distances that could be travelled through recommended daily walking or cycling with weight loss, oil consumption and carbon emissions. These straightforward calculations demonstrate that widespread substitution of driving with distances travelled during recommended daily exercise could reduce the USA's oil consumption by up to 38%. This saving far exceeds the amount of oil recoverable from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, suggesting that exercise can reduce foreign oil dependence and provide an alternative to oil extraction from environmentally sensitive habitat. At the same time, an average individual who substitutes this amount of exercise for transportation would burn respectively c. 12.2 and 26.0 kg of fat per year for walking and cycling. This is sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without dangerous or draconian diet plans. Furthermore, a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of c. 35% is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. As a result, exercise-based transportation may constitute a favourable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently being implemented in the USA and may

  11. Kernel based machine learning algorithm for the efficient prediction of type III polyketide synthase family of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika V

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Type III Polyketide synthases (PKS are family of proteins considered to have significant role in the biosynthesis of various polyketides in plants, fungi and bacteria. As these proteins show positive effects to human health, more researches are going on regarding this particular protein. Developing a tool to identify the probability of sequence, being a type III polyketide synthase will minimize the time consumption and manpower efforts. In this approach, we have designed and implemented PKSIIIpred, a high performance prediction server for type III PKS where the classifier is Support Vector Machine (SVM. Based on the limited training dataset, the tool efficiently predicts the type III PKS superfamily of proteins with high sensitivity and specificity. PKSIIIpred is available at http://type3pks.in/prediction/. We expect that this tool may serve as a useful resource for type III PKS researchers. Currently work is being progressed for further betterment of prediction accuracy by including more sequence features in the training dataset.

  12. Biotechnological Perspectives of Pyrolysis Oil for a Bio-Based Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Stefanie; Moss, Karin; Henkel, Marius; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2017-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an important feedstock for a potential future bio-based economy. Owing to its compact structure, suitable decomposition technologies will be necessary to make it accessible for biotechnological conversion. While chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis are currently established methods, a promising alternative is provided by fast pyrolysis. The main resulting product thereof, referred to as pyrolysis oil, is an energy-rich and easily transportable liquid. Many of the identified constituents of pyrolysis oil, however, have previously been reported to display adverse effects on microbial growth. In this Opinion we discuss relevant biological, biotechnological, and technological challenges that need to be addressed to establish pyrolysis oil as a reliable microbial feedstock for a bio-based economy of the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Highly selective thiocyanate optochemical sensor based on manganese(III)-salophen ionophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Haleem, Fatehy M., E-mail: fatehy@sci.cu.edu.eg; Rizk, Mahmoud S.

    2017-06-01

    We report on the development of optochemical sensor based on Mn(III)-salophen ionophore. The sensor was prepared by embedding the ionophore in a plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) impregnated with the chromoionophore ETH7075. Optical response to thiocyanate occurred due to thiocyanate extraction into the polymer via formation of strong complex with the ionophore and simultaneous protonation of the indicator dye yielding the optical response at 545 nm. The developed optochemical sensor exhibited high selectivity for thiocyanate over other anions including the most lipophilic species such as salicylate and perchlorate. For instance, the optical selectivity coefficients, logK{sub SCN,anion}{sup opt}, were as follow: ClO{sub 4}{sup −} = − 5.8; Sal{sup −} = − 4.0; NO{sub 3}{sup −} ˂ − 6. Further, the thiocyanate optical selectivity obtained using the present optochemical sensor was greatly enhanced in comparison with that obtained using an anion-exchanger based sensor. Also, the optimized optochemical sensor exhibited micro-molar detection limit with 2 min response time at pH 4.5 using acetate buffer. The reversibility of the optimized sensor was poor due to strong ligation of the thiocyanate to the central Metal ion, log K = 14.1, which can be overcome by soaking the optode in sodium hydroxide followed by soaking in buffer solution. The developed sensor was utilized successfully for the determination of thiocyanate in human saliva and in spiked saliva samples. - Highlights: • Preparation of different optodes using different compositions • Mechanism depends on co-extraction of thiocyanate and protons to membrane. • Sensor showed excellent selectivity. • Sensor could be applied for thiocyanate determination in real saliva.

  14. Effective cancer vaccine platform based on attenuated salmonella and a type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Hegazy, Wael A H; Guo, Linjie; Gao, Xiuhua; Courtney, Amy N; Kurbanov, Suhrab; Liu, Daofeng; Tian, Gengwen; Manuel, Edwin R; Diamond, Don J; Hensel, Michael; Metelitsa, Leonid S

    2014-11-01

    Vaccines explored for cancer therapy have been based generally on injectable vector systems used to control foreign infectious pathogens, to which the immune system evolved to respond naturally. However, these vectors may not be effective at presenting tumor-associated antigens (TAA) to the immune system in a manner that is sufficient to engender antitumor responses. We addressed this issue with a novel orally administered Salmonella-based vector that exploits a type III secretion system to deliver selected TAA in the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells in situ. A systematic comparison of candidate genes from the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) locus was conducted in the vaccine design, using model antigens and a codon-optimized form of the human TAA survivin (coSVN), an oncoprotein that is overexpressed in most human cancers. In a screen of 20 SPI2 promoter:effector combinations, a PsifB::sseJ combination exhibited maximal potency for antigen translocation into the APC cytosol, presentation to CD8 T cells, and murine immunogenicity. In the CT26 mouse model of colon carcinoma, therapeutic vaccination with a lead PsifB::sseJ-coSVN construct (p8032) produced CXCR3-dependent infiltration of tumors by CD8 T cells, reversed the CD8:Treg ratio at the tumor site, and triggered potent antitumor activity. Vaccine immunogenicity and antitumor potency were enhanced by coadministration of the natural killer T-cell ligand 7DW8-5, which heightened the production of IL12 and IFNγ. Furthermore, combined treatment with p8032 and 7DW8-5 resulted in complete tumor regression in A20 lymphoma-bearing mice, where protective memory was demonstrated. Taken together, our results demonstrate how antigen delivery using an oral Salmonella vector can provide an effective platform for the development of cancer vaccines. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Highly selective thiocyanate optochemical sensor based on manganese(III)-salophen ionophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Haleem, Fatehy M.; Rizk, Mahmoud S.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the development of optochemical sensor based on Mn(III)-salophen ionophore. The sensor was prepared by embedding the ionophore in a plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) impregnated with the chromoionophore ETH7075. Optical response to thiocyanate occurred due to thiocyanate extraction into the polymer via formation of strong complex with the ionophore and simultaneous protonation of the indicator dye yielding the optical response at 545 nm. The developed optochemical sensor exhibited high selectivity for thiocyanate over other anions including the most lipophilic species such as salicylate and perchlorate. For instance, the optical selectivity coefficients, logK SCN,anion opt , were as follow: ClO 4 − = − 5.8; Sal − = − 4.0; NO 3 − ˂ − 6. Further, the thiocyanate optical selectivity obtained using the present optochemical sensor was greatly enhanced in comparison with that obtained using an anion-exchanger based sensor. Also, the optimized optochemical sensor exhibited micro-molar detection limit with 2 min response time at pH 4.5 using acetate buffer. The reversibility of the optimized sensor was poor due to strong ligation of the thiocyanate to the central Metal ion, log K = 14.1, which can be overcome by soaking the optode in sodium hydroxide followed by soaking in buffer solution. The developed sensor was utilized successfully for the determination of thiocyanate in human saliva and in spiked saliva samples. - Highlights: • Preparation of different optodes using different compositions • Mechanism depends on co-extraction of thiocyanate and protons to membrane. • Sensor showed excellent selectivity. • Sensor could be applied for thiocyanate determination in real saliva.

  16. Reclamation from palm oil mill effluent using an integrated zero discharge membrane-based process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research emphasizes eloquently on membrane technology for treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME as it is the Malaysia’s largest and most important agro based industry. Findings established significant quality improvement with an efficient recovery of water from palm oil mill via innovative membrane application. Conventional bio-methods, whilst adhering to the Department of Environment’s (DOE discharge regulations, produces brownish liquid which pales in comparison to the crystal clear water obtained through membrane treatment. The pre-treatment process consists of coagulation-flocculation using green environmental coagulant bases such as Moringa oleifera (MO seeds. The ultrafiltration polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF and thin film composite (TFC reverse osmosis were vital for the membrane processes. The system gave 99% suspended solids reduction in suspended solid and 78% of water present was successfully recovered. This technology guarantees water recovery with drinking water quality; meeting the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standard or could be recycled into the plant with sludge utilization for palm oil estates, thus enabling the concept of zero discharge to be executed in the industries. In addition, green and healthy antioxidants such as oil and beta-carotene can be recovered from POME further demonstrate. Silica gel showed better performance in separation of carotenes from oil at temperature 40°C using adsorption chromatography with 1154.55 ppm. The attractiveness of this technology, enabling the utilization of reuse of agricultural waste into potentially value added products.

  17. A new approach for crude oil price analysis based on empirical mode decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xun; Wang, Shou-Yang; Lai, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of understanding the underlying characteristics of international crude oil price movements attracts much attention from academic researchers and business practitioners. Due to the intrinsic complexity of the oil market, however, most of them fail to produce consistently good results. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), recently proposed by Huang et al., appears to be a novel data analysis method for nonlinear and non-stationary time series. By decomposing a time series into a small number of independent and concretely implicational intrinsic modes based on scale separation, EMD explains the generation of time series data from a novel perspective. Ensemble EMD (EEMD) is a substantial improvement of EMD which can better separate the scales naturally by adding white noise series to the original time series and then treating the ensemble averages as the true intrinsic modes. In this paper, we extend EEMD to crude oil price analysis. First, three crude oil price series with different time ranges and frequencies are decomposed into several independent intrinsic modes, from high to low frequency. Second, the intrinsic modes are composed into a fluctuating process, a slowly varying part and a trend based on fine-to-coarse reconstruction. The economic meanings of the three components are identified as short term fluctuations caused by normal supply-demand disequilibrium or some other market activities, the effect of a shock of a significant event, and a long term trend. Finally, the EEMD is shown to be a vital technique for crude oil price analysis. (author)

  18. Insight into the dielectric response of transformer oil-based nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Dong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The oil-based nanofluids with greater dielectric strength have attracted much attention as a crucial insulating materials in high-voltage oil-immersed power equipment. In fact, the different microstructures of the transformer oil-based nanofluids (TNFs would result in different dielectric properties. In this work, the broadband dielectric spectroscopy measurement was used to establish the linkage between the electric double layer (EDL and dielectric response properties of TNFs which was performed at 298K temperature and with frequency range from 10-2Hz∼106Hz. The modified Havriliak-Negami (HN model function was used to analyze the measured results. The results demonstrate that both the real and imaginary parts of dielectric spectra of two kinds of oil are composed of the conductivity and polarization process. Compared with pure oil, two polarization process could be observed for the TNFs, explained by the EDL structure reasonably. The introduction of the EDL structure provides an idea to account for the insulating strength improvement of TNFs for the first time.

  19. A fluorescent biosensing platform based on the polydopamine nanospheres intergrating with Exonuclease III-assisted target recycling amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Weibing; Wang, Xi; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiang; Li, Hui; Xu, Danke

    2015-09-15

    Rapid, cost-effective, sensitive and specific analysis of biomolecules is important in the modern healthcare system. Here, a fluorescent biosensing platform based on the polydopamine nanospheres (PDANS) intergrating with Exonuclease III (Exo III) was developed. Due to the interaction between the ssDNA and the PDANS, the fluorescence of 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labelled in the probe would been quenched by PDANS through FRET. While, in the present of the target DNA, the probe DNA would hybridize with the target DNA to form the double-strand DNA complex. Thus, Exo III could catalyze the stepwise removal of mononucleotides from 3'-terminus in the probe DNA, releasing the target DNA. As the FAM was released from the probe DNA, the fluorescence would no longer been quenched, led to the signal on. As one target DNA molecule could undergo a number of cycles to trigger the degradation of abundant probe DNA, Exo III-assisted target recycling would led to the amplification of the signal. The detection limit for DNA was 5 pM, which was 20 times lower than that without Exo III. And the assay time was largely shortened due to the faster signal recovery kinetics. What is more, this target recycling strategy was also applied to conduct an aptamer-based biosensing platform. The fluorescence intensity was also enhanced for the assay of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). For the Exo III-assisted target recycling amplification, DNA and ATP were fast detected with high sensitivity and selectivity. This work provides opportunities to develop simple, rapid, economical, and sensitive biosensing platforms for biomedical diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of species Piper based on morphological and leaf essential oils characters in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURNOMO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of Piper species were used for traditional medicines and condiments. The leaf essential oil (terpenoid of those Piper species usually were used as a main component in traditional medicine. The taxonomycal study was aimed to determined Piper species relationships based on morphological and leaf essential oils characters. The plants were obtained by exploring this province, and samples were collected for identification and leaf essential oils isolation purposes. Species identification were carried out based on identification key (Backer and Bakhuizen v.d. Brink, 1965; Heyne, 1987; Shaorong, 1982. The isolation of leaf essential oils was carried out using Stahl destillation method, and their composition were interpreted with liquid gas chromatography, using caryophyllene and -pinene as a standard of essential oils component. Dendrogram, which showed phenetic relationships among those species, were obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis method. Results of the research showed that there were 8 species found as cultivated plants in Yogyakarta, which were P. miniatum Bl., P. betle L., P. recurvum Bl., P. aduncum L., P. nigrum L., P. cubeba L.f., P. retrofractum Vahl., and P. sarmentosum Roxb. Ex Hunter. Relationship between species of Piper based on morphological character showed that P. aduncum and P. sarmentosum at the same cluster on 69.2% similarity level, and 40.4% similarity level to the other clusters. Relationsips between species of Piper based on leaf essential oils character resulted the difference cluster among the species, P. retrofractum separated from the other species at 45.5% similarity level, P. aduncum and P. cubeba indicated the higest similarity level (81.5%.

  1. Three-dimensional Virtual Simulation of Oil Spill of Yangtze River in Chongqing Area Based on Emergency Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuzhe; Huang, Liwen

    the river of Yangtze River in Chongqing area is continuous curved. Hydrology and channel situation is complex, and the transportation is busy. With the increasing of shipments of hazardous chemicals year by year, oil spill accident risk is rising. So establishment of three-dimensional virtual simulation of oil spill and its application in decision-making has become an urgent task. This paper detailed the process of three-dimensional virtual simulation of oil spill and established a system of three-dimensional virtual Simulation of oil spill of Yangtze River in Chongqing area by establishing an oil spill model of the Chongqing area based on oil particles model, and the system has been used in emergency decision to provide assistance for the oil spill response.

  2. A Simple Small Size and Low Cost Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance for Selective Detection of Fe(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Cennamo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, small size, and low cost sensor based on a Deferoxamine Self Assembled Monolayer (DFO-SAM and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR transduction, in connection with a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF, has been developed for the selective detection of Fe(III. DFO-SAM sensors based on appropriate electrochemical techniques can be frequently found in the scientific literature. In this work, we present the first example of a DFO-SAM sensor based on SPR in an optical fiber. The SPR sensing platform was realized by removing the cladding of a plastic optical fiber along half the circumference, spin coating a buffer of Microposit S1813 photoresist on the exposed core, and finally sputtering a thin gold film. The hydroxamate siderophore deferoxamine (DFO, having high binding affinity for Fe(III, is then used in its immobilized form, as self-assembled monolayer on the gold layer surface of the POF sensor. The results showed that the DFO-SAM-POF-sensor was able to sense the formation of the Fe(III/DFO complex in the range of concentrations between 1 μm and 50 μm with a linearity range from 0 to 30 μm of Fe(III. The selectivity of the sensor was also proved by interference tests.

  3. A simple small size and low cost sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for selective detection of Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Alberti, Giancarla; Pesavento, Maria; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Quattrini, Federico; Biesuz, Raffaela; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-03-07

    A simple, small size, and low cost sensor based on a Deferoxamine Self Assembled Monolayer (DFO-SAM) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) transduction, in connection with a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF), has been developed for the selective detection of Fe(III). DFO-SAM sensors based on appropriate electrochemical techniques can be frequently found in the scientific literature. In this work, we present the first example of a DFO-SAM sensor based on SPR in an optical fiber. The SPR sensing platform was realized by removing the cladding of a plastic optical fiber along half the circumference, spin coating a buffer of Microposit S1813 photoresist on the exposed core, and finally sputtering a thin gold film. The hydroxamate siderophore deferoxamine (DFO), having high binding affinity for Fe(III), is then used in its immobilized form, as self-assembled monolayer on the gold layer surface of the POF sensor. The results showed that the DFO-SAM-POF-sensor was able to sense the formation of the Fe(III)/DFO complex in the range of concentrations between 1 μm and 50 μm with a linearity range from 0 to 30 μm of Fe(III). The selectivity of the sensor was also proved by interference tests.

  4. Synthesis of soybean oil-based thiol oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jennifer F; Fernando, Shashi; Weerasinghe, Dimuthu; Chen, Zhigang; Webster, Dean C

    2011-08-22

    Industrial grade soybean oil (SBO) and thiols were reacted to generate thiol-functionalized oligomers via a thermal, free radical initiated thiol-ene reaction between the SBO double bond moieties and the thiol functional groups. The effect of the reaction conditions, including thiol concentration, catalyst loading level, reaction time, and atmosphere, on the molecular weight and the conversion to the resultant soy-thiols were examined in a combinatorial high-throughput fashion using parallel synthesis, combinatorial FTIR, and rapid gel permeation chromatography (GPC). High thiol functionality and concentration, high thermal free radical catalyst concentration, long reaction time, and the use of a nitrogen reaction atmosphere were found to favor fast consumption of the SBO, and produced high molecular weight products. The thiol conversion during the reaction was inversely affected by a high thiol concentration, but was favored by a long reaction time and an air reaction atmosphere. These experimental observations were explained by the initial low affinity of the SBO and thiol, and the improved affinity between the generated soy-thiol oligomers and unreacted SBO during the reaction. The synthesized soy-thiol oligomers can be used for renewable thiol-ene UV curable materials and high molecular solids and thiourethane thermal cure materials. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Holistic oil field value management: using system dynamics for 'intermediate level' and 'value-based' modelling in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corben, D.; Stevenson, R.; Wolstenholme, E.F.

    1999-01-01

    System dynamics has been seen primarily as a strategic tool, most effectively used at the highest level of strategy to identify robust policy interventions under a wide range of scenarios. However, an alternative, complementary and powerful role is emerging. This is at an 'intermediate level' in organisations to coordinate and integrate policies across the value chain. It is at this level where business value, as defined by the discounted value of future free cash flow, is both created and destroyed. This paper introduces the need for 'intermediate-level' and 'value-based' modelling and emphasises the natural role of system dynamics in supporting a methodology to fulfil the need. It describes the development of an approach and its application in the oil industry to coordinate the response of people and tools within operational, financial and commercial functions across the value chain to address a variety of problems and issues. (author)

  6. Simultaneous Oxidation and Sequestration of As(III) from Water by Using Redox Polymer-Based Fe(III) Oxide Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Wu, Mengfei; Dong, Hao; Li, Hongchao; Pan, Bingcai

    2017-06-06

    Water decontamination from As(III) is an urgent but still challenging task. Herein, we fabricated a bifunctional nanocomposite HFO@PS-Cl for highly efficient removal of As(III), with active chlorine covalently binding spherical polystyrene host for in situ oxidation of As(III) to As(V), and Fe(III) hydroxide (HFO) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded inside for specific As(V) removal. HFO@PS-Cl could work effectively in a wide pH range (5-9), and other substances like sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate, silicate, and humic acid exert insignificant effect on As(III) removal. As(III) sequestration is realized via two pathways, that is, oxidation to As(V) by the active chlorine followed by specific As(V) adsorption onto HFO NPs, and As(III) adsorption onto HFO NPs followed by oxidation to As(V). The exhausted HFO@PS-Cl could be refreshed for cyclic runs with insignificant capacity loss by the combined regeneration strategy, that is, alkaline solution to rinse the adsorbed As(V) and NaClO solution to renew the host oxidation capability. In addition, fixed-bed experiments demonstrated that the HFO@PS-Cl column could generate >1760 bed volume (BV) effluent from a synthetic As(III)-containing groundwater to meet the drinking water standard (nanocomposites, HFO@PS-N and HFO@D201 could only generate 450 and 600 BV effluents under otherwise identical conditions.

  7. Alternative castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive used in the production of plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Moura Dias

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Plywood is normally produced with urea-formaldehyde and/or phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. However, the former is considerably toxic and environmentally damaging, while the latter is expensive, thus motivating the search for alternative raw materials in plywood production. The castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive developed at the São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, is an environmentally friendly vegetal oil-based polymer that is harmless to humans. The wood species Eucalyptus grandis offers favorable properties for plywood the manufacture. The study reported on here involved the use of castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive to produce plywood with Eucalyptus grandis layers. The plywood's performance was evaluated based on the results of physical and mechanical tests recommended by the Brazilian code, ABNT. Tests results showed higher values than those reported in the literature and recommended by the ABNT, indicating that the castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive is a promising glue for the manufacture of plywood.

  8. Molecular and supramolecular speciations of solvent extraction systems based on malonamide and/or dialkyl-phosphoric acids for An(III)/Ln(III); Speciations moleculaire et supramoleculaire de systemes d'extraction liquide-liquide a base de malonamide et/ou d'acides dialkylphosphoriques pour la separation An(III)/Ln(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannaz, B

    2006-06-15

    The solvent extraction system used in the DIAMEX-SANEX process, developed for the actinide(III)/lanthanide(III) separation, is based on the use of mixtures of the malonamide DMDOHEMA and a dialkyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP or HDHP), in hydrogenated tetra-propylene. The complexity of these systems urges on a novel approach to improve the conventional methods (thermodynamics, solvent extraction) which hardly explain the macroscopic behaviors observed (3. phase, over-stoichiometry). This approach combines studies on both supramolecular (VPO, SANS, SAXS) and molecular (liquid-liquid extraction, ESI-MS, IR, EXAFS) speciations of single extractant systems (DMDOHEMA or HDHP in in n-dodecane) and their mixture. In spite of safety constraints due to the handling of radio-material, they were used in the studies as much as possible, like for SAXS measurements on americium-containing samples, a worldwide first-time. In each of the investigated systems, actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) are extracted to the organic phase in polar cores of reversed micelles, the inner and outer-sphere compositions of which are proposed. Thus, the 4f and 5f cations are extracted by reversed micelles such as [(DMDOHEMA){sub 2}M(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sub inn} (DMDOHEMA){sub x}(HNO{sub 3}){sub z}(H{sub 2}O){sub w}]{sub out} and M(DHP){sub 3}(HDHP){sub y-3}(H{sub 2}O){sub w} with y = 3 to 6, for the single extractant systems. In the case of the two extractants system, the less concentrated one acts like a co-surfactant regarding the mixed aggregate formation [(DMDOHEMA){sub 2}M(NO{sub 3}){sub 3-v}(DHP){sub v}]{sub inn} [(DMDOFIEMA){sub x}(HDHP){sub y}(HNO{sub 3})z(H{sub 2}O){sub w}]{sub out}. (author)

  9. [Study of Determination of Oil Mixture Components Content Based on Quasi-Monte Carlo Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-tian; Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-fei; Chen, Meng-han; Wang, Shi-tao

    2015-05-01

    Gasoline, kerosene, diesel is processed by crude oil with different distillation range. The boiling range of gasoline is 35 ~205 °C. The boiling range of kerosene is 140~250 °C. And the boiling range of diesel is 180~370 °C. At the same time, the carbon chain length of differentmineral oil is different. The carbon chain-length of gasoline is within the scope of C7 to C11. The carbon chain length of kerosene is within the scope of C12 to C15. And the carbon chain length of diesel is within the scope of C15 to C18. The recognition and quantitative measurement of three kinds of mineral oil is based on different fluorescence spectrum formed in their different carbon number distribution characteristics. Mineral oil pollution occurs frequently, so monitoring mineral oil content in the ocean is very important. A new method of components content determination of spectra overlapping mineral oil mixture is proposed, with calculation of characteristic peak power integrationof three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum by using Quasi-Monte Carlo Method, combined with optimal algorithm solving optimum number of characteristic peak and range of integral region, solving nonlinear equations by using BFGS(a rank to two update method named after its inventor surname first letter, Boyden, Fletcher, Goldfarb and Shanno) method. Peak power accumulation of determined points in selected area is sensitive to small changes of fluorescence spectral line, so the measurement of small changes of component content is sensitive. At the same time, compared with the single point measurement, measurement sensitivity is improved by the decrease influence of random error due to the selection of points. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and fluorescence contour spectra of single mineral oil and the mixture are measured by taking kerosene, diesel and gasoline as research objects, with a single mineral oil regarded whole, not considered each mineral oil components. Six characteristic peaks are

  10. Multiple spectroscopic studies of the structural conformational changes of human serum albumin—Essential oil based nanoemulsions conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekar, Gajalakshmi; Sugumar, Saranya; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Nanoemulsions have numerous biomedical applications. For the first time, we have investigated the effects of orange and eucalyptus essential oil based nanoemulsions towards the structural aspect of human serum albumin (HSA). Quenching effect of nanoemulsion against the intrinsic fluorescence potential of tryptophan and tyrosine residues were evidenced from the fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Static quenching mechanism was found to lead the binding of HSA–nanoemulsion systems. Synchronous and three dimensional spectroscopic studies have revealed the possible changes to the aromatic environment of HSA by the nanoemulsion. UV–Visible spectroscopic studies have confirmed the existence of the ground state complex formation between HSA and the surface of nanoemulsions by exhibiting the hyper-chromic effect in a concentration dependant manner. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the slight alteration in the Amide I, II and III bands of HSA after interaction. FT-Raman spectroscopy showed the decrease in the Raman intensity of the aromatic amino acid residues and shift in the amide bands of HSA upon binding with the nanoemulsion. Dichoric band obtained from the far UV-CD spectra at 208 and 222 nm of HSA showed the corresponding decrease in the alpha-helical contents upon interaction with nanoemulsions. Near UV-CD spectra also showed the prominent changes in the aromatic positions of the amino acid residues of HSA on binding with nanoemulsions. The above study has extrapolated the side effect analysis of the nanoemulsions in pharmaceutical applications in vitro in reference to their interaction with serum proteins. - Highlights: • Orange and eucalyptus oil based nanoemulsions were formulated and characterized. • UV–Visible spectroscopy confirmed the ground state complex formation. • Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the molecular conformational changes. • FTIR spectroscopy deep-rooted the alteration in the amide bands of HSA. • FT-Raman spectroscopy established

  11. Multiple spectroscopic studies of the structural conformational changes of human serum albumin—Essential oil based nanoemulsions conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekar, Gajalakshmi; Sugumar, Saranya; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan, E-mail: nchandra40@hotmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Nanoemulsions have numerous biomedical applications. For the first time, we have investigated the effects of orange and eucalyptus essential oil based nanoemulsions towards the structural aspect of human serum albumin (HSA). Quenching effect of nanoemulsion against the intrinsic fluorescence potential of tryptophan and tyrosine residues were evidenced from the fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Static quenching mechanism was found to lead the binding of HSA–nanoemulsion systems. Synchronous and three dimensional spectroscopic studies have revealed the possible changes to the aromatic environment of HSA by the nanoemulsion. UV–Visible spectroscopic studies have confirmed the existence of the ground state complex formation between HSA and the surface of nanoemulsions by exhibiting the hyper-chromic effect in a concentration dependant manner. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the slight alteration in the Amide I, II and III bands of HSA after interaction. FT-Raman spectroscopy showed the decrease in the Raman intensity of the aromatic amino acid residues and shift in the amide bands of HSA upon binding with the nanoemulsion. Dichoric band obtained from the far UV-CD spectra at 208 and 222 nm of HSA showed the corresponding decrease in the alpha-helical contents upon interaction with nanoemulsions. Near UV-CD spectra also showed the prominent changes in the aromatic positions of the amino acid residues of HSA on binding with nanoemulsions. The above study has extrapolated the side effect analysis of the nanoemulsions in pharmaceutical applications in vitro in reference to their interaction with serum proteins. - Highlights: • Orange and eucalyptus oil based nanoemulsions were formulated and characterized. • UV–Visible spectroscopy confirmed the ground state complex formation. • Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the molecular conformational changes. • FTIR spectroscopy deep-rooted the alteration in the amide bands of HSA. • FT-Raman spectroscopy established

  12. A data base for thermodynamic modeling of +III actinide solubility in concentrated Na-Cl-SO4-CO3-PO4 electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, C.F.; Crafts, C.C.; Dhooge, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    The literature contains thermodynamic parameters for describing the chemical behavior of the following: Am(III) in dilute NaHCO 3 media; Nd(III) in dilute to concentrated Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 media; Pu(III) in dilute to concentrated NaCl media; Nd(III)/Am(III) in dilute to concentrated Na 2 SO 4 media; and Am(III) in NaH 2 PO 4 media. We have combined this information into a thermodynamic data base for the general +III actinide, An(III), using the analogy for chemical behavior of f-elements in the same oxidation state. This internally consistent data base is based on equilibrium thermodynamics and the specific ion interaction activity coefficient formalism of Pitzer. This data base forms the basis for the prediction of potential Am(III) and Pu(III) dissolved concentrations in the concentrated natural brines associated with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico, USA

  13. Cerium(III-Selective Membrane Electrode Based on Dibenzo-24-crown-8 as a Neutral Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheel K. Mittal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium(III-selective membrane electrodes have been prepared using dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8 as an electroactive material. A membrane having a composition: DB24C8 (4.5%, plasticizer (NPOE, 62.5% and PVC (33% gives the best performance. It works well over a wide Ce(III ion-concentration range of 1x10-5 M to 1x10-1 M with a Nernstian slope of 19.0 mV/decade and a detection limit of 3x10-5 M. It has a fast response time of 20 seconds and has an average lifetime of four months. The internal solution concentration does not have a significant effect on the response of the electrode except for a change in intercept of the calibration curves. The working pH range for Ce(III solutions (1x10-2 M and 1x10-3 M is 3.5-8.0. The proposed sensor shows a good selectivity for cerium(III with respect to alkali, alkaline earth, some transition and rare earth metal ions that are normally present along with cerium in its ores. The proposed sensor was investigated in partially non-aqueous media using acetone, methanol and DMSO mixtures with water. The electrode was further used as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of Ce(III solution against oxalic acid solution.

  14. Prognostic classification of Hodgkin disease in pathologic stage III, based on anatomic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desser, R.K.; Golomb, H.M.; Ultmann, J.E.; Ferguson, D.J.; Moran, E.M.; Griem, M.L.; Vardiman, J.; Miller, B.; Oetzel, N.; Sweet, D.

    1977-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with pathologic stage III Hodgkin's disease were studied in an effort to determine whether location of involved abdominal nodes influenced survival. Treatment consisted of total nodal radiotherapy with or without subsequent combination chemotherapy. The initial radiation field was the ''extended mantle,'' which included supradiaphragmatic nodes, the splenic hilar area, and paraaortic nodes to the level of L2-L4. Subsequently, lower paraaortic and iliac regions were treated (''lower inverted Y''). Patients with disease limited to the spleen and/or splenic, celiac, or portal nodes (''anatomic substage'' III/sub 1/) had a more favorable 5-yr survival than did patients with involvement of paraaortic, iliac, or mesenteric nodes (''anatomic substage'' III/sub 2/) : 93% versus 57%, respectively (p < 0.05). The addition of combination chemotherapy to total nodal irradiation was associated with improved survival of patients in stage III/sub 2/, but not of those in stage III/sub 1/.

  15. Development of radiation curable surface coating based on soybean oil. part I. preparation and characterization of acrylated oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.S.; Said, H.M.; Moussa, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    An epoxy acrylate was synthesized from epoxidized soybean oil (ESOL) by using acrylic acid monomer. Triethyl amine (TEA) and hydroquinone were used as catalyst and inhibitor respectively. The epoxidized soybean oil acrylate (ESOLA) is done by introducing acrylic acid into oxirane groups of the epoxidized oil (ESOL). This reaction was confirmed by analytical data in terms of oxirane oxygen content, acid value, viscosity and spectroscopically analysis

  16. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation prediction based on HRV analysis and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, K H; Khalil-Hani, M; Malarvili, M B

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method that able to predict the paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The method uses shorter heart rate variability (HRV) signals when compared to existing methods, and achieves good prediction accuracy. PAF is a common cardiac arrhythmia that increases the health risk of a patient, and the development of an accurate predictor of the onset of PAF is clinical important because it increases the possibility to electrically stabilize and prevent the onset of atrial arrhythmias with different pacing techniques. We propose a multi-objective optimization algorithm based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm III for optimizing the baseline PAF prediction system, that consists of the stages of pre-processing, HRV feature extraction, and support vector machine (SVM) model. The pre-processing stage comprises of heart rate correction, interpolation, and signal detrending. After that, time-domain, frequency-domain, non-linear HRV features are extracted from the pre-processed data in feature extraction stage. Then, these features are used as input to the SVM for predicting the PAF event. The proposed optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameters and settings of various HRV feature extraction algorithms, select the best feature subsets, and tune the SVM parameters simultaneously for maximum prediction performance. The proposed method achieves an accuracy rate of 87.7%, which significantly outperforms most of the previous works. This accuracy rate is achieved even with the HRV signal length being reduced from the typical 30 min to just 5 min (a reduction of 83%). Furthermore, another significant result is the sensitivity rate, which is considered more important that other performance metrics in this paper, can be improved with the trade-off of lower specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pathophysiology of functional heartburn based on Rome III criteria in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yasuhiro; Funaki, Yasushi; Izawa, Shinya; Iida, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Yoshiharu; Adachi, Kazunori; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Sasaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Kunio

    2015-04-28

    To investigate the pathophysiology of functional heartburn (FH) in Japanese patients. A total of 111 patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease underwent intraesophageal pressure testing and 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (24MII-pH) testing. The patients also completed several questionnaires while they were receiving the PPI treatment, including the questionnaire for the diagnosis of reflux disease (QUEST), the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (FSSG), the gastrointestinal symptoms rating scale (GSRS), SF-36, and the Cornell Medical Index (CMI). The subjects were classified into FH and endoscopy-negative reflux disease (ENRD) groups based on the Rome III criteria. Thirty-three patients with esophageal motility disorder were excluded from this study, while 22 patients with abnormal esophageal acid exposure time (pH-POS) and 34 with hypersensitive esophagus (HE) were included in the ENRD group. The FH group included 22 patients with no reflux involvement. Sex, age, and body mass index did not differ significantly between the groups. The mean SF-36 values were < 50 (normal) for all scales in these groups, with no significant differences. The GSRS scores in these groups were not different and showed overlap with other gastrointestinal symptoms. The QUEST and the FSSG scores did not differ significantly between the groups. Neuroticism was diagnosed using the CMI questionnaire in 17 of the 78 included subjects within the pH-POS (n = 4), HE (n = 8), and FH (n = 5) groups, with no significant differences. Clinical characteristics of the FH and PPI-refractory ENRD groups were similar. Therefore, esophageal function should be examined via manometry and 24MII-pH testing to differentiate between them.

  18. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  19. A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junicke, Henrik; Hart, Jonathan R.; Kisko, Jennifer; Glebov, Oleg; Kirsch, Ilan R.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2003-01-01

    A rhodium(III) complex, rac-[Rh(bpy)2phzi]3+ (bpy, 2,2′-bipyridine; phzi, benzo[a]phenazine-5,6-quinone diimine) has been designed as a sterically demanding intercalator targeted to destabilized mismatched sites in double-helical DNA. The complex is readily synthesized by condensation of the phenazine quinone with the corresponding diammine complex. Upon photoactivation, the complex promotes direct strand scission at single-base mismatch sites within the DNA duplex. As with the parent mismatch-specific reagent, [Rh(bpy)2(chrysi)]3+ [chrysene-5,6-quinone diimine (chrysi)], mismatch selectivity depends on the helix destabilization associated with mispairing. Unlike the parent chrysi complex, the phzi analogue binds and cleaves with high affinity and efficiency. The specific binding constants for CA, CC, and CT mismatches within a 31-mer oligonucleotide duplex are 0.3, 1, and 6 × 107 M−1, respectively; site-specific photocleavage is evident at nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, the specificity, defined as the ratio in binding affinities for mispaired vs. well paired sites, is maintained. The increase in affinity is attributed to greater stability in the mismatched site associated with stacking by the heterocyclic aromatic ligand. The high-affinity complex is also applied in the differential cleavage of DNA obtained from cell lines deficient in mismatch repair vs. those proficient in mismatch repair. Agreement is found between photocleavage by the mismatch-specific probes and deficiency in mismatch repair. This mismatch-specific targeting, therefore, offers a potential strategy for new chemotherapeutic design. PMID:12610209

  20. Catalytic reduction of hexaminecobalt(III) by pitch-based spherical activated carbon (PBSAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu; Mao, Yan-Peng; Zhu, Hai-Song; Cheng, Jing-Yi; Long, Xiang-Li; Yuan, Wei-Kang [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-07-15

    The wet ammonia (NH{sub 3}) desulfurization process can be retrofitted to remove nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) simultaneously by adding soluble cobalt(II) salt into the aqueous ammonia solution. Activated carbon is used as a catalyst to regenerate hexaminecobalt(II), Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 2+}, so that NO removal efficiency can be maintained at a high level for a long time. In this study, the catalytic performance of pitch-based spherical activated carbon (PBSAC) in the simultaneous removal of NO and SO{sub 2} with this wet ammonia scrubbing process has been studied systematically. Experiments have been performed in a batch stirred cell to test the catalytic characteristics of PBSAC in the catalytic reduction of hexaminecobalt(III), Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+}. The experimental results show that PBSAC is a much better catalyst in the catalytic reduction of Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} than palm shell activated carbon (PSAC). The Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} reduction reaction rate increases with PBSAC when the PBSAC dose is below 7.5 g/L. The Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} reduction rate increases with its initial concentration. Best Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} conversion is gained at a pH range of 2.0-6.0. A high temperature is favorable to such reaction. The intrinsic activation energy of 51.00 kJ/mol for the Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} reduction catalyzed by PBSAC has been obtained. The experiments manifest that the simultaneous elimination of NO and SO{sub 2} by the hexaminecobalt solution coupled with catalytic regeneration of hexaminecobalt(II) can maintain a NO removal efficiency of 90% for a long time. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Advanced Oil Spill Detection Algorithms For Satellite Based Maritime Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, Andrea; Azevedo, Rui; Sapage, Tania; Carmo, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    During the last years, the increasing pollution occurrence and the alarming deterioration of the environmental health conditions of the sea, lead to the need of global monitoring capabilities, namely for marine environment management in terms of oil spill detection and indication of the suspected polluter. The sensitivity of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to the different phenomena on the sea, especially for oil spill and vessel detection, makes it a key instrument for global pollution monitoring. The SAR performances in maritime pollution monitoring are being operationally explored by a set of service providers on behalf of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), which has launched in 2007 the CleanSeaNet (CSN) project - a pan-European satellite based oil monitoring service. EDISOFT, which is from the beginning a service provider for CSN, is continuously investing in R&D activities that will ultimately lead to better algorithms and better performance on oil spill detection from SAR imagery. This strategy is being pursued through EDISOFT participation in the FP7 EC Sea-U project and in the Automatic Oil Spill Detection (AOSD) ESA project. The Sea-U project has the aim to improve the current state of oil spill detection algorithms, through the informative content maximization obtained with data fusion, the exploitation of different type of data/ sensors and the development of advanced image processing, segmentation and classification techniques. The AOSD project is closely related to the operational segment, because it is focused on the automation of the oil spill detection processing chain, integrating auxiliary data, like wind information, together with image and geometry analysis techniques. The synergy between these different objectives (R&D versus operational) allowed EDISOFT to develop oil spill detection software, that combines the operational automatic aspect, obtained through dedicated integration of the processing chain in the existing open source NEST

  2. Potential reduction of carbon emissions from Crude Palm Oil production based on energy and carbon balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patthanaissaranukool, Withida; Polprasert, Chongchin; Englande, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy and carbon equivalence from CPO production based on a CBM. ► Energy spent and produced via carbon movement from palm oil mill was determined. ► Scenarios were formulated to evaluate the potential reduction of carbon emission. ► Utilization of biomass from palm oil mill shows the high potential of C-reduction. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate energy and carbon equivalences (CE) associated with palm oil milling and to evaluate sustainability alternatives for energy consumption. Appropriate ways to reduce carbon emissions were also evaluated. A field survey was carried out to quantify the input and output of energy and materials following the conceptual framework of a carbon-balanced model (CBM), which exclude other non-CO 2 greenhouse gases. Survey results indicate that the electrical energy consumption for daily mill start-up averaged 18.7 ± 5.4 kWh/ton Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFBs). This energy is equivalent to 114.4 ± 33.2 kWh/ton Crude Palm Oil (CPO) which was found to be offset by that generated in the mills using palm fiber as a solid fuel. Currently, organic residues contained in the wastewater are anaerobically converted to methane. The methane is used as fuel to generate electricity and sold to an outside grid network at a generation rate of 8.1 ± 2.1 kWh/ton FFB. Based on the CBM approach, carbon emissions observed from the use of fossil energy in palm oil milling were very small; however, total carbon emission from oil palm plantation and palm oil milling were found to be 12.3 kg CE/ton FFB, resulting in the net carbon reduction in CPO production of 2.8 kg CE/ton FFB or 53.7 kg CE/ha-y. Overall, the sum of C-reduction was found 1.2 times greater than that of C-emission. This figure can be increased up to 5.5, if all biomass by-products are used as fuel to generate electricity only. The full potential for carbon reduction from palm oil milling is estimated at 0.94 kW of electric power for every hectare of

  3. Is There an Optimal Strategic Oil Reserve for Each Country? A Study Based on the Game Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Junan; Cong, Ronggang

    2014-01-01

    -cooperative game theory. It also analyzes the establishment of strategic oil reserve among different countries based on the coalition game theory and presents the core solution for it. The results show that based on a certain constraint mechanism, it is feasible for different countries to establish their own...... suitable strategic oil reserves in theory and practice....

  4. Application of game theory in decision making strategy: Does gas fuel industry need to kill oil based fuel industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Abdul Luky Shofi'ul; Prabandari, Dyah Lusiana; Hakim, Muhammad Lintang Islami

    2017-03-01

    Even though conversion of oil based fuel (Bahan Bakar Minyak) into gas fuel (Bahan Bakar Gas) for transportation (both land and sea) is one of the priority programs of the government of Indonesia, rules that have been established merely basic rules of gas fuel usage license for transportation, without discussing position of gas fuel related to oil based fuel in detail. This paper focus on possible strategic behavior of the key players in the oil-gas fuel conversion game, who will be impacted by the position of gas fuel as complement or substitution of oil based fuel. These players include industry of oil based fuel, industry of gas fuel, and the government. Modeling is made based on two different conditions: government plays a passive role and government plays an active role in legislating additional rules that may benefit industry of gas fuel. Results obtained under a passive government is that industry of oil based fuel need to accommodate the presence of industry of gas fuel, and industry of gas fuel does not kill/ eliminate the oil based fuel, or gas fuel serves as a complement. While in an active government, the industry of oil based fuel need to increase its negotiation spending in the first phase so that the additional rule that benefitting industry of gas fuel would not be legislated, while industry of gas fuel chooses to indifferent; however, in the last stage, gas fuel turned to be competitive or choose its role to be substitution.

  5. Changes in the Characteristics of Water-in-Oil-based High Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the Characteristics of Water-in-Oil-based High Internal Phase Emulsion Containing Moringa Leaves Extract at Various Storage Conditions. ... Conclusion: Moringa HIPE showed stability and can be guided exclusively to protect skin against ultraviolet radiation-mediated oxidative damage. Keywords: Moringa ...

  6. Investor preferences for oil spot and futures based on mean-variance and stochastic dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Lean (Hooi Hooi); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines investor preferences for oil spot and futures based on mean-variance (MV) and stochastic dominance (SD). The mean-variance criterion cannot distinct the preferences of spot and market whereas SD tests leads to the conclusion that spot dominates futures in the downside

  7. Characterization of a Soybean Oil-based Biosurfactant and Evaluation of its Ability to Form Microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper characterizes the physio-chemical properties of the soybean oil (SBO)-based polymeric surfactant, Palozengs R-004 (hereafter referred to as R-004). The surface activity of R-004 is comparable to the reported activities of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms and higher than some of ...

  8. LABORATORY SCALE EVALUATION OF HYDRA-TONE GRAFF-OFF™ COCONUT OIL BASED DEGREASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical and economic assessment evaluated the effectiveness of a biodegradable, coconut oil-based degreaser called Graff-Off™. In immersion (cold) cleaning and rinse tests, Graff-Off™ was compared to a conventional chlorinated solvent 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) and to an ...

  9. Derivatization of castor oil based estolide esters: Preparation of epoxides and cyclic carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estolides that are based on castor oil and oleic acid are versatile starting points for the production of industrial fluids with new properties. A variety of unsaturated estolides were derivatized by epoxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The epoxidized estolides were further modified using supercritic...

  10. Using the transformer oil-based nanofluid for cooling of power distribution transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq Ismael Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Thermal behavior of electrical distribution transformer has been numerically studied with the effect of surrounding air temperature. 250 KVA distribution transformer is chosen as a study model and studied in temperature range cover the weather conditions of hot places. Transformer oil-based nanofluids were used as a cooling medium instead of pure transformer oil. Four types of solid particles (Cu, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiC) were used to compose nanofluids with volume fractions (1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and ...

  11. Oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads and the influence of different vegetables in shrimp and tuna salads were evaluated. Moreover, the lipid oxidation in the presence of 1% oregano, rosemary, or thyme in fish oil-enriched tuna salad was assessed. The results obtain......-oxidative effect of shrimp. The effect of ingredients in tuna salads was inconclusive, possibly due to a high content of volatiles in the vegetables themselves. However, the addition of spices increased the oxidative stability of tuna salad (oregano>rosemary>thyme)....

  12. Computer-Based Monitoring and Remote Controlling for Oil Well Pumps Using Scada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Tjiptadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to change manually the monitoring and controlling of oil well pumps into a computer-based system using SCADA (Supervisory and Data Acquisition system. To design the protection system which consists of controller unit and display system, RTU (Remote Terminal Unit and MTU (Master Terminal Unit are used. The research results in a controller unit which is able to communicate to personal computer using RS-232 C and an alarm system to protect oil pump motors by detecting sensors installed at the pumps. 

  13. Radiographic cephalometry assessment of the linear and angular parameters on cranial base in children with skeletal class III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zdenka M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In malocclusion of skeletal class III, mandible is located in front of maxilla in sagital plain, which is manifested by a lower value of the sagital inter-jaw angle than in skeletal class I, where the jaw sagital relation is normal. Apart from the deformities on mandible and/or maxilla, in skeletal class III deformities are also frequent on the cranial base. The aim of this research was to find the differences in the parameter values on the cranial base among the children with skeletal class III and the children with skeletal class I in the period of mixed dentition. Methods. After clinical examination and orthopan-tomography, profile radiography of the head was analyzed in 60 examinees, aged from 6−12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1 - the children with skeletal class III; group 2 - the children with skeletal class I. Both linear and angular parameters on the cranial base were measured, as well as the angles of maxillary and mandible prognatism and the angle of sagital inter-jaw relation. The level of difference in the parameter values between the groups was estimated and the degree of correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in each of the two groups was established. Results. A significant difference between the groups was found only in the average values of the angles of maxillary prognatism and sagital interjaw relation. In the group 1, the main angle of the cranial base was in a significant correlation with the angles of sagital positions of the jaws, while in the group 2, such significance was not found. Conclusion. There were no significant differences in the parameter values on the cranial base between the groups. There was a significant correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in the group 1 only. .

  14. Evaluation for Bearing Wear States Based on Online Oil Multi-Parameters Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As bearings are critical components of a mechanical system, it is important to characterize their wear states and evaluate health conditions. In this paper, a novel approach for analyzing the relationship between online oil multi-parameter monitoring samples and bearing wear states has been proposed based on an improved gray k-means clustering model (G-KCM. First, an online monitoring system with multiple sensors for bearings is established, obtaining oil multi-parameter data and vibration signals for bearings through the whole lifetime. Secondly, a gray correlation degree distance matrix is generated using a gray correlation model (GCM to express the relationship of oil monitoring samples at different times and then a KCM is applied to cluster the matrix. Analysis and experimental results show that there is an obvious correspondence that state changing coincides basically in time between the lubricants’ multi-parameters and the bearings’ wear states. It also has shown that online oil samples with multi-parameters have early wear failure prediction ability for bearings superior to vibration signals. It is expected to realize online oil monitoring and evaluation for bearing health condition and to provide a novel approach for early identification of bearing-related failure modes.

  15. Associating Polymer Networks Based on Cyclodextrin Inclusion Compounds for Heavy Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates an approach to improve the enhanced heavy oil recovery performance of hydrophobic associating polymer. A polymeric system based on water-soluble hydrophobic associating polymer (WSHAP and cyclodextrin (CD polymer was proposed in this work. Addition of CD polymer to WSHAP forms interpolymer bridges by inclusion of CD groups with hydrophobic tails, and thereby the network structure is strengthened. The proposed system offers good viscoelasticity, pronounced shear thinning, and interesting viscosity-temperature relations. Sand pack tests indicated that the proposed system can build high resistance factor during the propagation in porous media, and its moderate adsorption phenomenon was represented by the thickness of the adsorbed layer. The relationship between effective viscosity and oil recovery increment indicated that the proposed system can significantly reduce the residual oil saturation due to the “piston-like” propagation. The overall oil recovery was raised by 5.7 and 24.5% of the original oil in place compared with WSHAP and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM, respectively.

  16. Evaluation for Bearing Wear States Based on Online Oil Multi-Parameters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Feng

    2018-01-01

    As bearings are critical components of a mechanical system, it is important to characterize their wear states and evaluate health conditions. In this paper, a novel approach for analyzing the relationship between online oil multi-parameter monitoring samples and bearing wear states has been proposed based on an improved gray k-means clustering model (G-KCM). First, an online monitoring system with multiple sensors for bearings is established, obtaining oil multi-parameter data and vibration signals for bearings through the whole lifetime. Secondly, a gray correlation degree distance matrix is generated using a gray correlation model (GCM) to express the relationship of oil monitoring samples at different times and then a KCM is applied to cluster the matrix. Analysis and experimental results show that there is an obvious correspondence that state changing coincides basically in time between the lubricants’ multi-parameters and the bearings’ wear states. It also has shown that online oil samples with multi-parameters have early wear failure prediction ability for bearings superior to vibration signals. It is expected to realize online oil monitoring and evaluation for bearing health condition and to provide a novel approach for early identification of bearing-related failure modes. PMID:29621175

  17. Using thermal analysis techniques for identifying the flash point temperatures of some lubricant and base oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksam Abdelkhalik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The flash point (FP temperatures of some lubricant and base oils were measured according to ASTM D92 and ASTM D93. In addition, the thermal stability of the oils was studied using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA under nitrogen atmosphere. The DSC results showed that the FP temperatures, for each oil, were found during the first decomposition step and the temperature at the peak of the first decomposition step was usually higher than FP temperatures. The TGA results indicated that the temperature at which 17.5% weigh loss take placed (T17.5% was nearly identical with the FP temperature (±10 °C that was measured according to ASTM D92. The deviation percentage between FP and T17.5% was in the range from −0.8% to 3.6%. Keywords: Flash point, TGA, DSC

  18. Synthesis of methyl esters from waste cooking oil using construction waste material as solid base catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, K; Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2013-01-01

    The current research investigates synthesis of methyl esters by transesterification of waste cooking oil in a heterogeneous system, using barium meliorated construction site waste marble as solid base catalyst. The pretreated catalyst was calcined at 830 °C for 4h prior to its activity test to obtained solid oxide characterized by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, BET surface area and pore size measurement. It was found that the as prepared catalyst has large pores which contributed to its high activity in transesterification reaction. The methyl ester yield of 88% was obtained when the methanol/oil molar ratio was 9:1, reaction temperature at 65 °C, reaction time 3h and catalyst/oil mass ratio of 3.0 wt.%. The catalyst can be reused over three cycles, offer low operating conditions, reduce energy consumption and waste generation in the production of biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative desulfurization of fuel oil by pyridinium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dishun; Wang, Yanan; Duan, Erhong

    2009-10-28

    In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30%) were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL)/V(Oil) /V(H(2)O(2)) = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 degrees C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration.

  20. Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oil by Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhong Duan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30% were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL/V(Oil /V(H2O2 = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 °C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration.

  1. High Performance Affinity Chromatography of Antithrombin III Based on Monodisperse Poly (glycidyl methacrylate) Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for the separation of antithrombin III with high performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) was described. A novel monodisperse,non-porous,cross-linked poly (glycidyl methacrylate) beads (PGMA) were used as the affinity support. With the water-soluble carbodiimide,heparin was linked covalently to amino-PGMA-beads,which was prepared by amination of PGMA. The adsorbent obtained exhibits high binding activity to antithrombin III (ATIII),good resolution and excellent mechanical properties and can be used under high flow rate.

  2. Growth and characterisation of group-III nitride-based nanowires for devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijers, R J

    2007-08-30

    One of the main goals of this thesis was to get more insight into the mechanisms driving the growth of nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The influence of the group-III and group-V flux as well as the substrate temperature T{sub sub} has been studied leading to the conclusion that the III-V ratio determines the growth mode. Ga desorption limits the temperature range to grow GaN nanowires and dissociation of InN is the limiting factor for InN nanowire growth. A reduction of the surface diffusivity on polar surfaces under N-rich conditions explains the anisotropic growth. Growth kinetics of the nanowires show that there are two important contributions to the growth. The first is growth by direct impingement and its contribution is independent of the nanowire diameter. The second contribution comes from atoms, which absorb on the substrate or wire sidewalls and diffuse along the sidewalls to the top of the wire, which acts as an effective sink for the adatoms due to a reduced surface mobility on the polar top of the wires. This diffusion channel, which is enhanced at higher T{sub sub}, becomes more significant for smaller wire diameters, because its contribution scales like 1/d. Experiments with an interruption of the growth and sharp interfaces in TEM images of heterostructures show that the suggestion in literature of a droplet-mediated PA-MBE nitride growth has to be discarded. Despite a thin amorphous silicon nitride wetting layer on the substrate surface, both GaN and InN nanowires grow in the wurtzite structure and epitaxially in a one-to-one relation to the Si(111) substrate surface. There is no evidence for cubic phases. TEM images and optical studies display a high crystalline and optical quality of GaN and InN nanowires. The substrate induces some strain in the bottom part of the nanowires, especially in InN due to the lower T{sub sub} than for GaN, which is released without the formation of dislocations. Only some stacking

  3. Impact of carbon nanotubes based nanofluid on oil recovery efficiency using core flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hassan; Baig, Mirza Khurram; Yahya, Noorhana; Khodapanah, Leila; Sabet, Maziyar; Demiral, Birol M. R.; Burda, Marek

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of carbon nanotubes based nanofluid on interfacial tension and oil recovery efficiency. Practically multi-walled carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized using chemical vapour deposition technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction and Field Emission Scanning Electron microscope in order to understand its structure, shape, and morphology. Nanofluids are one of the interesting new agents for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that can change the reservoir rock-fluid properties in terms of interfacial tension and wettability. In this work, different concentration of carbon nanotubes based fluids were prepared and the effect of each concentration on surface tension was determined using pendant drop method. After specifying the optimum concentration of carbon nanotubes based nanofluid, core flooding experiment was conducted by two pore volume of brine and two pore volume of nanofluid and then oil recovery factor was calculated. The results show that carbon nanotubes can bring in additional recovery factor of 18.57% in the glass bead sample. It has been observed that nanofluid with high surface tension value gives higher recovery. It was found that the optimum value of concentration is 0.3 wt% at which maximum surface tension of 33.46 mN/m and oil recovery factor of 18.57% was observed. This improvement in recovery factor can be recognized due to interfacial tension reduction and wettability alteration.

  4. The diagnose of oil palm disease using Naive Bayes Method based on Expert System Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nababan, Marlince; Laia, Yonata; Sitanggang, Delima; Sihombing, Oloan; Indra, Evta; Siregar, Saut; Purba, Windania; Mancur, Roy

    2018-04-01

    Expert system is dealt with system that used computer-based human intelligence to overcome particular problem which is commonly conducted by an expert. Frequent problem faced by the farmers of oil palm is the difficulty in defining the type of plant disease. As a result, the delay treatment of plant disease brings out the declining of farm products. An application system is needed to deal with the obstacles and diagnosing the type of oil palm plant disease. The researcher designed an intelligence-based application with input-output plan which is able to diagnose the type of oil palm plant disease by applying naive bayes method. Based on the research result by conducting bayes method with recognized symptom, diagnose of oil palm plant disease could be accomplished. The data of symptoms found are leaves turned yellow 0.4, dead leaves 0.4, black and brown color among the veins of leaves 0.5, young and old fruit with whole space 0.4, and decay of bunches is 0.3. The roots are tender in the amount of 0.5, and damage on sheath is 0.3. Through the chosen symptoms as mentioned above, the value of bayes is 80% with the type of disease is rotten bunch.

  5. Base catalyzed transesterification of acid treated vegetable oil blend for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar Ali [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Tronoh, Perak 31750 (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Biodiesel can be produced from low cost non-edible oils and fats. However, most of these sources are of high free fatty acid content which requires two stage transesterification to reduce the acid value and produce biodiesel. The acid treatment step is usually followed by base transesterification since the latter can yield higher conversions of methyl esters at shorter reaction time when compared with acid catalyzed reaction. In the current study, base transesterification in the second stage of biodiesel synthesis is studied for a blend of crude palm/crude rubber seed oil that had been characterized and treated with acid esterification. Optimum conditions for the reaction were established and effect of each variable was investigated. The base catalyzed transesterification favored a temperature of 55 C with methanol/oil molar ratio of 8/1 and potassium hydroxide at 2% (ww{sup -1}) (oil basis). The conversion of methyl esters exceeded 98% after 5 h and the product quality was verified to match that for biodiesel with international standards. (author)

  6. [Study on essential oil separation from Forsythia suspensa oil-bearing water body based on vapor permeation membrane separation technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Pan, Yong-Lan; Li, Bo; Fu, Ting-Ming; Yao, Wei-Wei; Liu, Hong-Bo; Pan, Lin-Mei

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of vapor permeation membrane technology in separating essential oil from oil-water extract by taking the Forsythia suspensa as an example. The polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinylidene fluoride (PDMS/PVDF) composite flat membrane and a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) flat membrane was collected as the membrane material respectively. Two kinds of membrane osmotic liquids were collected by self-made vapor permeation device. The yield of essential oil separated and enriched from two kinds of membrane materials was calculated, and the microscopic changes of membrane materials were analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to compare and analyze the differences in chemical compositions of essential oil between traditional steam distillation, PVDF membrane enriched method and PDMS/PVDF membrane enriched method. The results showed that the yield of essential oil enriched by PVDF membrane was significantly higher than that of PDMS/PVDF membrane, and the GC-MS spectrum showed that the content of main compositions was higher than that of PDMS/PVDF membrane; The GC-MS spectra showed that the components of essential oil enriched by PVDF membrane were basically the same as those obtained by traditional steam distillation. The above results showed that vapor permeation membrane separation technology shall be feasible for the separation of Forsythia essential oil-bearing water body, and PVDF membrane was more suitable for separation and enrichment of Forsythia essential oil than PDMS/PVDF membrane. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Regulatory activity based risk model identifies survival of stage II and III colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Dong, Chuanpeng; Wang, Xing; Hou, Guojun; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Huilin; Zhan, Xiaohui; Liu, Lei

    2017-11-17

    Clinical and pathological indicators are inadequate for prognosis of stage II and III colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In this study, we utilized the activity of regulatory factors, univariate Cox regression and random forest for variable selection and developed a multivariate Cox model to predict the overall survival of Stage II/III colorectal carcinoma in GSE39582 datasets (469 samples). Patients in low-risk group showed a significant longer overall survival and recurrence-free survival time than those in high-risk group. This finding was further validated in five other independent datasets (GSE14333, GSE17536, GSE17537, GSE33113, and GSE37892). Besides, associations between clinicopathological information and risk score were analyzed. A nomogram including risk score was plotted to facilitate the utilization of risk score. The risk score model is also demonstrated to be effective on predicting both overall and recurrence-free survival of chemotherapy received patients. After performing Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) between high and low risk groups, we found that several cell-cell interaction KEGG pathways were identified. Funnel plot results showed that there was no publication bias in these datasets. In summary, by utilizing the regulatory activity in stage II and III colorectal carcinoma, the risk score successfully predicts the survival of 1021 stage II/III CRC patients in six independent datasets.

  8. Modeling Oil Exploration and Production: Resource-Constrained and Agent-Based Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, Kristofer

    2010-05-01

    Energy is essential to the functioning of society, and oil is the single largest commercial energy source. Some analysts have concluded that the peak in oil production is soon about to happen on the global scale, while others disagree. Such incompatible views can persist because the issue of 'peak oil' cuts through the established scientific disciplines. The question is: what characterizes the modeling approaches that are available today, and how can they be further developed to improve a trans-disciplinary understanding of oil depletion? The objective of this thesis is to present long-term scenarios of oil production (Paper I) using a resource-constrained model; and an agent-based model of the oil exploration process (Paper II). It is also an objective to assess the strengths, limitations, and future development potentials of resource-constrained modeling, analytical economic modeling, and agent-based modeling. Resource-constrained models are only suitable when the time frame is measured in decades, but they can give a rough indication of which production scenarios are reasonable given the size of the resource. However, the models are comprehensible, transparent and the only feasible long-term forecasting tools at present. It is certainly possible to distinguish between reasonable scenarios, based on historically observed parameter values, and unreasonable scenarios with parameter values obtained through flawed analogy. The economic subfield of optimal depletion theory is founded on the notion of rational economic agents, and there is a causal relation between decisions made at the micro-level and the macro-result. In terms of future improvements, however, the analytical form considerably restricts the versatility of the approach. Agent-based modeling makes it feasible to combine economically motivated agents with a physical environment. An example relating to oil exploration is given in Paper II, where it is shown that the exploratory activities of individual

  9. Analytical investigations of the earthquake resistance of the support base of an oil-gas platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glagovskii, V. B.; Kassirova, N. A.; Turchina, O. A.; Finagenov, O. M.; Tsirukhin, N. A. [JSC ' VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva' (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    In designing stationary oil-gas recovery platforms on the continental shelf, the need arises to compute the estimated strength of their support base during seismic events. This paper is devoted to this estimation. The paper examines a structure consisting of the superstructure of an oil-gas platform and its gravity-type base. It is possible to install earthquake-insulating supports between them. Calculations performed for the design earthquake indicated that the design of the gravity base can resist a seismic effect without special additional measures. During the maximum design earthquake, moreover, significant stresses may develop in the zone of base where the columns are connected to the upper slab of the caisson. In that case, the earthquake insulation considered for the top of the platform becomes critical.

  10. Analytical investigations of the earthquake resistance of the support base of an oil-gas platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagovskii, V. B.; Kassirova, N. A.; Turchina, O. A.; Finagenov, O. M.; Tsirukhin, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    In designing stationary oil-gas recovery platforms on the continental shelf, the need arises to compute the estimated strength of their support base during seismic events. This paper is devoted to this estimation. The paper examines a structure consisting of the superstructure of an oil-gas platform and its gravity-type base. It is possible to install earthquake-insulating supports between them. Calculations performed for the design earthquake indicated that the design of the gravity base can resist a seismic effect without special additional measures. During the maximum design earthquake, moreover, significant stresses may develop in the zone of base where the columns are connected to the upper slab of the caisson. In that case, the earthquake insulation considered for the top of the platform becomes critical.

  11. Base oils and methods for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Nicholas; Fisher, Karl; Tirmizi, Shakeel

    2018-01-09

    Provided herein are isoparaffins derived from hydrocarbon terpenes such as myrcene, ocimene and farnesene, and methods for making the same. In certain variations, the isoparaffins have utility as lubricant base stocks.

  12. Titanium (III) cation selective electrode based on synthesized tris(2pyridyl) methylamine ionophore and its application in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayi, Majid; Karazhian, Reza; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Narimani, Leila; Sany, Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Alias, Yatimah

    2014-04-01

    The introduction of low detection limit ion selective electrodes (ISEs) may well pave the way for the determination of trace targets of cationic compounds. This research focuses on the detection of titanium (III) cation using a new PVC-membrane sensor based on synthesized tris(2pyridyl) methylamine (tpm) ionophore. The application and validation of the proposed sensor was done using potentiometric titration, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The membrane sensor exhibited a Nernstian response to the titanium (III) cation over a concentration range of 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-2 M and pH range from 1-2.5. The Nernstian slope, the lower of detection (LOD), and the response time (t95%) of the proposed sensor were 29.17 +/- 0.24 mV/dec, 7.9 × 10-7 M, and 20 s, respectively. The direct determination of 4-39 μg/ml of titanium (III) standard solution showed an average recovery of 94.60 and a mean relative standard deviation of 1.8 at 100.0 μg/ml. Finally, the utilization of the electrodes as end-point indicators for potentiometric titration with EDTA solutions for titanium (III) sensor was successfully carried out.

  13. Silicon, germanium, and III-V-based tunneling devices for low-power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua T.

    While the scaling of transistor dimensions has kept pace with Moore's Law, the voltages applied to these devices have not scaled in tandem, giving rise to ever-increasing power/heating challenges in state-of-the-art integrated circuits. A primary reason for this scaling mismatch is due to the thermal limit---the 60 mV minimum required at room temperature to change the current through the device by one order of magnitude. This voltage scaling limitation is inherent in devices that rely on the mechanism of thermal emission of charge carriers over a gate-controlled barrier to transition between the ON- and OFF-states, such as in the case of conventional CMOS-based technologies. To overcome this voltage scaling barrier, several steep-slope device concepts have been pursued that have experimentally demonstrated sub-60-mV/decade operation since 2004, including the tunneling-field effect transistor (TFET), impact ionization metal-oxide-semiconductor (IMOS), suspended-gate FET (SG-FET), and ferroelectric FET (Fe-FET). These reports have excited strong efforts within the semiconductor research community toward the realization of a low-power device that will support continued scaling efforts, while alleviating the heating issues prevalent in modern computer chips. Literature is replete with claims of sub-60-mV/decade operation, but often with neglect to other voltage scaling factors that offset this result. Ideally, a low-power device should be able to attain sub-60-mV/decade inverse subthreshold slopes (S) employing low supply and gate voltages with a foreseeable path toward integration. This dissertation describes the experimental development and realization of CMOS-compatible processes to enhance tunneling efficiency in Si and Si/Ge nanowire (NW) TFETs for improved average S (S avg) and ON-currents (ION), and a novel, III-V-based tunneling device alternative is also proposed. After reviewing reported efforts on the TFET, IMOS, and SG-FET, the TFET is highlighted as the

  14. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Minnick, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Murray, Kyle [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mattson, Earl [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  15. The Galeta Oil Spill. III. Chronic Reoiling, Long-term Toxicity of Hydrocarbon Residues and Effects on Epibiota in the Mangrove Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Sally C.; Garrity, Stephen D.; Burns, Kathryn A.

    1994-04-01

    In April 1986, 75 000-100 000 barrels of medium-weight crude oil (˜ 10 000-13 500 metric tons) spilled into Bahía las Minas, a large mangrove-lined bay on the Caribbean coast of Panamá. Between 1986 and 1991, biological and chemical effects of this spill were studied. The epibiota of fringing mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle L.) were examined in three habitats: (1) the shoreward margins of reef flats that fronted the open sea, (2) the edges of channels and lagoons, and (3) the banks of streams and man-made cuts that drained interior mangroves or uplands into lagoons. Chemical analyses of bivalves collected from submerged prop roots (oysters and false mussels) and records of slicks and tarry deposits on artificial roots documented chronic reoiling. Each habitat was repeatedly oiled between 1986 and 1991, with petroleum residues identified as the oil spilled in 1986. There was a decline in the release of tarry oils recorded as slicks and on roots over time, but not in tissue burdens of hydrocarbons in bivalves. This suggested that the processes that released these different types of oil residues were at least partially independent and that toxic hydrocarbons were likely to be released from sediments over the long term. The submerged prop roots of fringing mangroves in each habitat had a characteristic epibiota. On the open coast, roots were covered with a diverse assemblage of sessile invertebrates and algae. In channels, the most abundant species on roots was the edible oyster Crassostrea virginica ( rhizophorae morph). In streams, the false mussel Mytilopsis sallei covered the most space on roots. Cover of sessile invertebrates was significantly reduced at oiled compared with unoiled sites on the open coast for 4 years after oiling, while oysters and false mussels were reduced in cover at oiled sites in channels and streams through at least 1991, when observations ended. False mussels transplanted from an unoiled stream to oiled and unoiled streams were

  16. Experimental Investigation of the Use of Waste Mineral Oils as a Fuel with Organic-Based Mn Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Özdalyan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat values of waste mineral oils are equal to the heat value of the fuel oil. However, heat value alone is not sufficient for the use of waste minerals oils as fuel. However, the critical physical properties of fuels such as density and viscosity need to be adapted to the system in order to be used. In this study, the engine oils used in the first 10,000 km of the vehicles were used as waste mineral oil. An organic-based Mn additive was synthesized to improve the properties of the waste mineral oil. It was observed that mixing the Mn additive with the waste mineral oil at different doses (4, 8, 12, and 16 ppm improves the viscosity of the waste oil and the flash point. The resulting fuel was evaluated for emission using different loads in a 5 kW capacity generator to compare the fuel with standard diesel fuel and to determine the effect of Mn addition. In the experimental study, it was observed that the emission characteristics of the fuel obtained from waste mineral oil were worse than diesel fuel, but some improvement was observed with Mn addition. As a result, we found that the use of waste mineral oils in engines in fuel standards was not appropriate, but may be improved with additives.

  17. Innovation on Street Food Products (Instant Porridge and Cookies Based on Fortified Patin Fish Protein Concentrate with Red Palm Oil and Encaptulated Oil Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Dewita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookiesfrom Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patinfish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil usingspray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s resultswas fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measureyield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for thebest treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulatedyield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%.Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oilwas 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under fiveyear children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximate analysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%,fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookiesowned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.Keywords : Encaptulated fish, street food, patin fish protein concentrate, palm oil

  18. Innovation on Street Food Products (Instant Porridge and Cookies Based on Fortified Patin Fish Protein Concentrate with Red Palm Oil and Encaptulated Oil Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookies from Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patin fish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil using spray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2 and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s results was fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measure yield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for the best treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulated yield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%. Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oil was 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was 18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under five year children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximateanalysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%, fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookies owned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.

  19. Inert and stable erbium(III)-cored complexes based on metalloporphyrins bearing aryl-ether dendron for optical amplification: synthesis and emission enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Buem; Kim, Yong Hee; Nah, Min Kook; Kim, Hwan Kyu

    2005-01-01

    We have developed novel inert and stable erbium (Er)(III)-cored complexes based on metalloporphyrins for optical amplification. The functionalized metalloporphyrin ligands have been designed and synthesized to provide enough coordination sites for the formation of inert and stable 9-coordinated Er(III)-cored complexes. Er 3+ ions were encapsulated by the metalloporphyrin ligands, such as Zn(II)- and Pt(II)-porphyrins. The near-infrared (IR) emission intensity of Er 3+ ion is much stronger in the Er(III)-cored complex based on Pt(II)-porphyrin than Er(III)-cored complex based on Zn(II)-porphyrin. Furthermore, we have incorporated a G2-aryl-ether functionalized dendron into the Er(III)-cored complex, yielding an Er(III)-cored dendrimer complex bearing the Pt(II)-porphyrin. The Er(III)-cored dendrimer complex shows the stronger near-IR emission intensity than the corresponding complex based on Pt(II)-porphyrin by seven times in solid state. The lifetimes of the emission band of Pt(II)-porphyrin ligands in the visible region were found to be 30 and 40 μs for the Er(III)-cored complex and the Er(III)-cored dendrimer complex based on Pt(II)-porphyrin in deoxygenated THF solution samples, respectively. Also, in both cases, the sensitized luminescence intensity is increased in deoxygenated solution. Therefore, it indicates that the energy transfer from the metalloporphyrins to Er 3+ ions takes places through the triplet state. In this paper, the synthesis and photophysical properties of novel Er(III)-cored complexes based on metalloporphyrins and Er(III)-cored dendrimer complex based on metalloporphyrin will be discussed

  20. Using Thermodynamics to Predict the Outcomes of Nitrate-Based Oil Reservoir Souring Control Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dolfing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Souring is the undesirable production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in oil reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Souring is a common problem during secondary oil recovery via water flooding, especially when seawater with its high sulfate concentration is introduced. Nitrate injection into these oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring by stimulating nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB. Two conceptually different mechanisms for NRB-facilitated souring control have been proposed: nitrate-sulfate competition for electron donors (oil-derived organics or H2 and nitrate driven sulfide oxidation. Thermodynamics can facilitate predictions about which nitrate-driven mechanism is most likely to occur in different scenarios. From a thermodynamic perspective the question “Which reaction yields more energy, nitrate driven oxidation of sulfide or nitrate driven oxidation of organic compounds?” can be rephrased as: “Is acetate driven sulfate reduction to sulfide exergonic or endergonic?” Our analysis indicates that under conditions encountered in oil fields, sulfate driven oxidation of acetate (or other SRB organic electron donors is always more favorable than sulfide oxidation to sulfate. That predicts that organotrophic NRB that oxidize acetate would outcompete lithotrophic NRB that oxidize sulfide. However, sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur is different. At low acetate HS− oxidation is more favorable than acetate oxidation. Incomplete oxidation of sulfide to S0 is likely to occur when nitrate levels are low, and is favored by low temperatures; conditions that can be encountered at oil field above-ground facilities where intermediate sulfur compounds like S0 may cause corrosion. These findings have implications for reservoir management strategies and for assessing the success and progress of nitrate-based souring control strategies and the attendant risks of corrosion associated with souring and nitrate injection.

  1. Bio-Based Nano Composites from Plant Oil and Nano Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jue; Hong, Chang K.; Wool, Richard P.

    2003-03-01

    We explored the combination of nanoclay with new chemically functionalized, amphiphilic, plant oil resins to form bio-based nanocomposites with improved physical and mechanical properties. These can be used in many new applications, including the development of self-healing nanocomposites through controlled reversible exfoliation/intercalation, and self-assembled nano-structures. Several chemically modified triglyceride monomers of varying polarity, combined with styrene (ca 30include acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) and soybean oil pentaerythritol glyceride maleates (SOPERMA), containing either hydroxyl group or acid functionality or both. The clay used is a natural montmorillonite modified with methyl tallow bis-2-hydroxyethyl quaternary ammonium chloride, which has hydroxyl groups. Both XRD and TEM showed a completely exfoliated structure at 3 wtwhen the clay content is above 5 wtconsidered a mix of intercalated and partially exfoliated structure. The controlled polarity of the monomer has a major effect on the reversible dispersion of clay in the polymer matrix. The bio-based nanocomposites showed a significant increase in flexural modulus and strength. Supported by EPA and DoE

  2. Waste to Want: Polymer nanocomposites using nanoclays extracted from Oil based drilling mud waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adegbotolu, Urenna V; Njuguna, James; Pollard, Pat; Yates, Kyari

    2014-01-01

    Due to the European Union (EU) waste frame work directive (WFD), legislations have been endorsed in EU member states such as UK for the Recycling of wastes with a vision to prevent and reduce landfilling of waste. Spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) is a waste from the Oil and Gas industry with great potentials for recycling after appropriate clean-up and treatment processes. This research is the novel application of nanoclays extracted from spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) clean-up as nanofiller in the manufacture of nanocomposite materials. Research and initial experiments have been undertaken which investigate the suitability of Polyamide 6 (PA6) as potential polymer of interest. SEM and EDAX were used to ascertain morphological and elemental characteristics of the nanofiller. ICPOES has been used to ascertain the metal concentration of the untreated nanofiller to be treated (by oil and heavy metal extraction) before the production of nanocomposite materials. The challenges faced and future works are also discussed

  3. Synthesis and properties of radiation modified thermally cured castor oil based polyurethanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortley, Aba [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, P.O. Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)], E-mail: aba.mortley@rmc.ca; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, P.O. Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were exposed to doses up to 3.0 MGy produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. A four-fold increase in modulus and tensile strength values from 0.930 to 4.365 MPa and 0.149 to 0.747 MPa, respectively, suggests improved physico-mechanical properties resulting from radiation. The changing areas of the carbonyl and the NH absorbance peaks and the disappearance of the isocyanate peak in the FTIR spectra as radiation progressed, indicates increased hydrogen bonding and intermolecular crosslinking, which is in agreement with the mechanical tests. Unchanging {sup 13}C solid state NMR spectra imply limited sample degradation with increasing radiation.

  4. Prediction of Dissolved Gas Concentrations in Transformer Oil Based on the KPCA-FFOA-GRNN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of analyzing the dissolved gas in transformer oil is to determine the transformer’s operating status and is an important basis for fault diagnosis. Accurate prediction of the concentration of dissolved gas in oil can provide an important reference for the evaluation of the state of the transformer. A combined predicting model is proposed based on kernel principal component analysis (KPCA and a generalized regression neural network (GRNN using an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (FFOA to select the smooth factor. Firstly, based on the idea of using the dissolved gas ratio of oil to diagnose the transformer fault, gas concentration ratios are also used as characteristic parameters. Secondly, the main parameters are selected from the feature parameters using the KPCA method, and the GRNN is then used to predict the gas concentration in the transformer oil. In the training process of the network, the FFOA is used to select the smooth factor of the neural network. Through a concrete example, it is shown that the method proposed in this paper has better data fitting ability and more accurate prediction ability compared with the support vector machine (SVM and gray model (GM methods.

  5. Development of carbohydrate-based nano-microstructures loaded with fish oil by using electrohydrodynamic processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The encapsulation of fish oil in carbohydrate-based nanomicrostructures obtained by electrohydrodynamic processing was investigated. Solutions of pullulan 200 kDa (15 wt%) and dextran 70 kDa (25 wt%) presented appropriate properties (viscosity, surface tension and conductivity) to allow the forma......The encapsulation of fish oil in carbohydrate-based nanomicrostructures obtained by electrohydrodynamic processing was investigated. Solutions of pullulan 200 kDa (15 wt%) and dextran 70 kDa (25 wt%) presented appropriate properties (viscosity, surface tension and conductivity) to allow...... the formation of nano-microfibers and nano-microcapsules, respectively. Although dextran 70 kDa exhibited antioxidant properties in solution, their capsules produced at lab and pilot-plant scales showed a low oxidative stability both with emulsified and neat oil. Phase separation of solution and opened capsules...... indicated a poor interaction between dextran and fish oil, which suggested that further optimization of the electrospraying solution is necessary. On the contrary, pullulan solutions were optimized to work even at pilot-plant scale. In this case, in spite of the prooxidant effect of pullulan in solution...

  6. Evaluation of castor oil-based polyurethane membranes in rat bone-marrow cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerejo, Sofia de Amorim; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Lima Neto, João Ferreira de; Voorwald, Fabiana Azevedo; Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz Landim e

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate three methods to isolate rats MSCs and to analyze the potential of a castor oil polyurethane base membrane as a scaffold for MSCs. Four male Wistar rats, aged 20-30 days were used. Bone marrow aspirates from femur and tibia were harvested using DMEM high glucose and heparin. The cell culture was performed in three different ways: direct culture and two types of density gradients. After 15 days, was made the 1st passage and analyzed cell viability with markers Hoerscht 33342 and propidium iodide. The MSCs were characterized by surface markers with the aid of flow cytometry. After this, three types of castor oil polyurethane membranes associated with the MSCs were kept on the 6-well plate for 5 days and were analyzed by optical microscopy to confirm cell aggregation and growth. Separation procedures 1 and 2 allowed adequate isolation of MSCs and favored cell growth with the passage being carried out at 70% confluence after 15 days in culture. The cells could not be isolated using procedure 3. When the 3 castor oil polyurethane membrane types were compared it was possible to observe that the growth of MSCs was around 80% in membrane type 3, 20% in type 2, and 10% in type 1. Both Ficoll-Hypaque densities allow isolation of rat MSCs, and especially castor oil-based membrane type 3 may be used as a scaffold for MSCs.

  7. Synthesis and properties of radiation modified thermally cured castor oil based polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, Aba; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2007-01-01

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were exposed to doses up to 3.0 MGy produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. A four-fold increase in modulus and tensile strength values from 0.930 to 4.365 MPa and 0.149 to 0.747 MPa, respectively, suggests improved physico-mechanical properties resulting from radiation. The changing areas of the carbonyl and the NH absorbance peaks and the disappearance of the isocyanate peak in the FTIR spectra as radiation progressed, indicates increased hydrogen bonding and intermolecular crosslinking, which is in agreement with the mechanical tests. Unchanging 13 C solid state NMR spectra imply limited sample degradation with increasing radiation

  8. Catalytic activity of calcium-based mixed metal oxides nanocatalysts in transesterification reaction of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Noraakinah; Ismail, Kamariah Noor; Hamid, Ku Halim Ku; Hadi, Abdul

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, biodiesel has become the forefront development as an alternative diesel fuel derived from biological sources such as oils of plant and fats. Presently, the conventional transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel gives rise to some technological problem. In this sense, heterogeneous nanocatalysts of calcium-based mixed metal oxides were synthesized through sol-gel method. It was found that significant increase of biodiesel yield, 91.75 % was obtained catalyzed by CaO-NbO2 from palm oil compared to pure CaO of 53.99 % under transesterification conditions (methanol/oil ratio 10:1, reaction time 3 h, catalyst concentration 4 wt%, reaction temperature 60 °C, and mixing speed of 600 rpm). The phase structure and crystallinity as well as the texture properties of the prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the textural properties were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. Sol-gel method has been known as versatile method in controlling the structural and chemical properties of the catalyst. Calcium-based mixed oxide synthesized from sol-gel method was found to exist as smaller crystallite size with high surface area.

  9. Qatar's economy transition from oil based economy to gas based economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, G.R.N.

    1993-01-01

    The historical aspects of petroleum industry development in Qatar are reviewed. Evaluation of Qatar's oil and natural gas reserves and production capacities is outlined. Trends of petroleum, petrochemical and gas industry further development are discussed. (V.G.)

  10. The sedimentary regime around northern Sylt, South-eastern North Sea, based on shallow seismic (sparker and Chirp III) information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldreel, Lars Ole; Kuijpers, Antoon; Madsen, Emil B

    2010-01-01

    on a workstation. Interpretation of the data reveals bedforms, with their internal structures representative of the “present sedimentation regime”. In addition, the sparker data show 2-3 well-defined deeper regional reflectors and pronounced erosion channels at greater subbottom depth. Using various bedform....... The sparker seismic and Chirp III data show that the processes responsible for the bedforms have been persistent throughout the Holocene. Based on the study, a model for the current and sedimentation regime is proposed....

  11. The Auto control System Based on InTouch Configuration software for High-gravity Oil Railway Tank Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides automatic design for high-gravity oil railway tank feeding system of some refinery uses distributive control system. The system adopts the automatic system of Modicon TSX Quantum or PLC as monitor and control level and uses a PC-based plat form as principal computer running on the Microsoft Windows2000. An automatic control system is developed in the environment of InTouch configuration software. This system implements automatic high-gravity oil tank feeding with pump controlling function. And it combines automatic oil feeding controlling, pump controlling and tank monitoring function to implement the automation of oil feeding with rations and automatic control.

  12. Population density of oil palm pollinator weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus based on seasonal effect and age of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2016-11-01

    The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, poil palm stands had significantly different population density than that of a 8-year old oil palm stand. The information of this study should be useful as a baseline data to investigate why there is such a wide range of weevils per ha or spikelet. Further study should also be done to relate the number pollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.

  13. Two-stage preparation of magnetic sorbent based on exfoliated graphite with ferrite phases for sorption of oil and liquid hydrocarbons from the water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Julia A.; Ivanov, Andrei V.; Maksimova, Natalia V.; Pokholok, Konstantin V.; Vasiliev, Alexander V.; Malakho, Artem P.; Avdeev, Victor V.

    2018-05-01

    Due to the macropore structure and the hydrophobic properties, exfoliated graphite (EG) is considered as a perspective sorbent for oil and liquid hydrocarbons from the water surface. However, there is the problem of EG collection from the water surface. One of the solutions is the modification of EG by a magnetic compound and the collection of EG with sorbed oil using the magnetic field. In this work, the method of the two-stage preparation of exfoliated graphite with ferrite phases is proposed. This method includes the impregnation of expandable graphite in the mixed solution of iron (III) chloride and cobalt (II) or nickel (II) nitrate in the first stage and the thermal exfoliation of impregnated expandable graphite with the formation of exfoliated graphite containing cobalt and nickel ferrites in the second stage. Such two-stage method makes it possible to obtain the sorbent based on EG modified by ferrimagnetic phases with high sorption capacity toward oil (up to 45-51 g/g) and high saturation magnetization (up to 42 emu/g). On the other hand, this method allows to produce the magnetic sorbent in a short period of time (up to 10 s) during which the thermal exfoliation is carried out in the air atmosphere.

  14. Optimization of a new polymeric chromium (III) membrane electrode based on methyl violet by using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Sayed Yahya; Hamidi, Akram sadat; Asanjarani, Neda; Zolgharnein, Javad

    2010-06-15

    Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken designs were applied as experimental design strategies to screen and optimize the influence of membrane ingredients on the electrode performance. A new poly(vinyl chloride) membrane sensor for Cr(III) based on methyl violet as an ionophore was planned. The major variables to find a model for achieving the best Nernstian slope as response were: PVC, plasticizers, methyl violet, KpClTPB, pH, conditioning time and internal solution concentration. Plackett-Burman design was used to screen the main factors and Box-Behnken response surface was led to find a model for optimizing the response. The optimized membrane electrode shows a Nernstian slope for chromium (III) ions over a wide linear range from 1.99x10(-6) to 3.16x10(-2)molL(-1) and a slope of 19.5+/-0.1mVdecade(-1) of activity. It would be successfully applied in the pH range from 3.5 to 6.5 with detection limit of 1.77x10(-6)molL(-1) (0.092mgL(-1)). The response time of the sensor is about 8s and the membrane can be used for more than 6 weeks without any deviation. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for six replicate the measurements of 1.0x10(-4) and 1.0x10(-3)molL(-1) of Cr(III) were 3.2 and 3%, respectively. The electrode revealed comparatively good selectivity with respect to many cations including alkali earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The electrode was successfully used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of Cr(III) with EDTA and was also applied to the direct determination chromium (III) content of spiked water and soil samples.

  15. Effect of calcium on adsorptive removal of As(III) and As(V) by iron oxide-based adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Uwamariya, V.

    2014-06-25

    The effects of calcium on the equilibrium adsorption capacity of As(III) and As(V) onto iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) were investigated through batch experiments, rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCT) and kinetics modelling. Batch experiments showed that at calcium concentrations≤20 mg/L, high As(III) and As(V) removal efficiencies by IOCS and GFH are achieved at pH 6. An increase of the calcium concentration to 40 and 80 mg/L reversed this trend, giving higher removal efficiencies at higher pH (8). The adsorption capacities of IOCS and GFH at an equilibrium arsenic concentration of 10 g/L were found to be between 2.0 and 3.1 mg/g for synthetic water without calcium and between 2.8 and 5.3 mg/g when 80 mg/L of calcium was present at the studied pH values. After 10 hours of filter run in RSSCT, approximately 1000 empty bed volumes, the ratios of C/Co for As(V) were 26% and 18% for calcium-free model water; and only 1% and 0.2% after addition of 80 mg/L of Ca for filter columns with IOCS and GFH, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto GFH follows a second-order reaction, with and without addition of calcium. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto IOCS follows a first-order reaction without calcium addition, and moves to the second-reaction-order kinetics when calcium is added. Based on the intraparticle diffusion model, the main controlling mechanism for As(III) adsorption is intraparticle diffusion, while surface diffusion contributes greatly to the adsorption of As(V).

  16. Performance evaluation of vegetable-based oils in drilling austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    breaking were recorded for each bore, and tool wear was measured at constant intervals. A commercial mineral-based oil was taken as reference product, and five vegetable-based cutting fluids at different levels of additivation were tested. All measured parameters were in agreement, confirming......The efficiency of six cutting oils was evaluated in drilling AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel using conventional HSS-Co tools by measurements of tool life, tool wear, cutting forces and chip formation. Seven tools were tested with each fluid to catastrophic failure. Cutting forces and chip...... to tool life testing. All vegetable-based fluids performed better than the reference product. The best performance was obtained with a cutting fluid yielding 177% increases in tool life and 7% reduction in thrust force. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Dependence and risk assessment for oil prices and exchange rate portfolios: A wavelet based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Chaker; Jammazi, Rania

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we propose a wavelet-based approach to accommodate the stylized facts and complex structure of financial data, caused by frequent and abrupt changes of markets and noises. Specifically, we show how the combination of both continuous and discrete wavelet transforms with traditional financial models helps improve portfolio's market risk assessment. In the empirical stage, three wavelet-based models (wavelet-EGARCH with dynamic conditional correlations, wavelet-copula, and wavelet-extreme value) are considered and applied to crude oil price and US dollar exchange rate data. Our findings show that the wavelet-based approach provides an effective and powerful tool for detecting extreme moments and improving the accuracy of VaR and Expected Shortfall estimates of oil-exchange rate portfolios after noise is removed from the original data.

  18. Techno-economic performance analysis of bio-oil based Fischer-Tropsch and CHP synthesis platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Kok Siew; Sadhukhan, Jhuma

    2011-01-01

    The techno-economic potential of the UK poplar wood and imported oil palm empty fruit bunch derived bio-oil integrated gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (BOIG-FT) systems for the generation of transportation fuels and combined heat and power (CHP) was investigated. The bio-oil was represented in terms of main chemical constituents, i.e. acetic acid, acetol and guaiacol. The compositional model of bio-oil was validated based on its performance through a gasification process. Given the availability of large scale gasification and FT technologies and logistic constraints in transporting biomass in large quantities, distributed bio-oil generations using biomass pyrolysis and centralised bio-oil processing in BOIG-FT system are technically more feasible. Heat integration heuristics and composite curve analysis were employed for once-through and full conversion configurations, and for a range of economies of scale, 1 MW, 675 MW and 1350 MW LHV of bio-oil. The economic competitiveness increases with increasing scale. A cost of production of FT liquids of 78.7 Euro/MWh was obtained based on 80.12 Euro/MWh of electricity, 75 Euro/t of bio-oil and 116.3 million Euro/y of annualised capital cost. -- Highlights: → Biomass to liquid process and gas to liquid process synthesis. → Biorefinery economic analysis. → Pyrolysis oil to biofuel. → Gasification and Fischer-Tropsch. → Process integration, pinch analysis and energy efficiency.

  19. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough

  20. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Nurulhuda Mohd Yunus; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidized palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) for example EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80 %) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70 %), where the different is around 10-15 %. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50 % at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newton's (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photo initiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glossiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photo initiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough. (author)

  1. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat [Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  2. Rheology of oleogels based on sorbitan and glyceryl monostearates and vegetable oils for lubricating applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Oleogels based on sorbitan and glyceryl monostearates and different types of vegetable oils, potentially applicable as biodegradable alternatives to traditional lubricating greases, have been studied. In particular, the rheological behavior, by means of small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS measurements, and some lubrication performance-related properties (mechanical stability and tribological response have been evaluated in this work. SAOS response and mechanical stability of these oleogels are significantly influenced by the type and concentration of the organogelator and the vegetable oil used in the formulations. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS generally produces stronger gels than sorbitan monostearate (SMS. The use of low-viscosity oils, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, yields gels with significantly higher values of the linear viscoelastic functions than oleogels prepared with high-viscosity oils, i.e. castor oil. The rheological behavior of SMS-based oleogels also depends on the cooling rate applied during the gelification process. On the other hand, the oleogels studied present low values of the friction coefficient obtained in a tribological contact, although only some GMS/castor oil-based oleogels exhibit a suitable mechanical stability.

    En el presente trabajo se han estudiado diferentes oleogeles, basados en monoestearatos de sorbitano y glicerilo y aceites vegetales, que podrían ser potencialmente empleados como alternativas biodegradables a las grasas lubricantes tradicionales. En concreto, se ha evaluado su comportamiento reológico, a través de ensayos en cizalla oscilatoria, y algunas propiedades relacionadas con su rendimiento en la lubricación, tales como su estabilidad mecánica y comportamiento tribológico. La respuesta reológica y la estabilidad mecánica de los oleogeles estudiados están significativamente influenciadas por el tipo y la concentración del agente gelificante y por el aceite vegetal empleado. As

  3. Synthesis and Application of Jatropha Oil based Polyurethane as Paint Coating Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Alim Mas’ud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of renewable sources in the preparation of various industrial materials has been revitalized in response to environmental concerns. Natural oils are considered to be the most important genre of renewable sources. Jatropha curcas oil (JPO based polyol is an alternative material that may possibly replace petrochemical-based polyol for polyurethane coating material. Polyurethane was synthesized by reacting JPO-based polyol with isocyanate. To produce JPO-based polyol, JPO was first epoxidized to form epoxidized J. curcas oil (EJP, subsequently it was converted to polyol by the opening ring reaction with acrylic acid (AA using triethylamine (TEA as a catalyst. The JPO-based polyurethane film resulting from this study is compared with polyurethane film from commercial polyol for gloss, hardness, and adhesion quality. The result showed that the source of polyol has an influence on gloss, hardness, and adhesion of polyurethane film, but the differences with using isocyanate has less influence. Using visual observation, polyurethane film produced from L.OHV polyol, H.OHV polyol and commercial polyol have similar quality.

  4. Method for obtaining a varnish with a base of mineral oil obtained by distillation of bituminous schists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchionni, A

    1945-07-24

    A method for obtaining a varnish is described characterized by the fact that the following ingredients are being used; mineral oil from the distillation of bituminous schists in the proportions already cited in the description, diluted with benzene or turpentine, with admixture of coloring matter. Varnish with a base of mineral oil from the distillation of bituminous schists is obtained.

  5. Investigating the effect of artists’ paint formulation on degradation rates of TiO2‑based oil paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, B.A.; van den Berg, K. J.; Smout, M.; Dekker, N; Kooyman, P.J.; Dik, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of artists’ paint formulation on degradation rates of TiO2-based oil paints. Titanium white oil paint exists in a multitude of different recipes, and the effect of the formulation on photocatalytic binder
    degradation kinetics is unknown. These formulations

  6. Environmental implications of release of oil-based drilling fluids and oily cuttings into waters of the Canadian northwest Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchard, W.W.; Doe, K.G.; Mahon, S.D.; Moores, R.B.; Osborne, J.M.; Parker, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1982, the Environmental Protection Service became aware that companies conducting petroleum exploration in the waters of eastern Canada would request permission to use and discharge oil-based drilling fluids and/or drill cuttings contaminated with oil-based drilling fluids. It was determined from an evaluation of North Sea data that aspects of the toxicity of oil-based drilling fluids should be evaluated using techniques applicable to Canadian marine conditions. Although it is unlikely that permission will be granted to dispose of whole oil-based muds into the ocean, whole mud formulations were tested as a close approximation to the mixture which would adhere to discharged drilling cuttings. Test organisms were exposed to whole muds as an approximation of the worst possible exposure regime. Static bioassays (96-hour) were conducted using threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In general, high pH and the inclusion of certain emulsifiers seemed to contribute greatly to the lethality of the whole muds. Diesel oil-based muds were more acutely toxic than those formulated with alternate base oils which were virtually non-acutely toxic. Acute, sublethal and long-term studies were also conducted only on drill cuttings contaminated with alternate base oil muds. These more closely reflect proposed discharge strategies. Although 96-hour exposures resulted in no mortality, longer-term exposures (four to thirty-two days) resulted in significant behavioural changes and/or mortality to Macoma balthica, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, larval Homarus americanus and Nephthys caeca. The results suggest that use of alternate oil-based drilling fluids will have an effect on the marine environment intermediate between water-based muds and diesel oil-based muds. 73 refs., 6 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Manganese(III Porphyrin-based Potentiometric Sensors for Diclofenac Assay in Pharmaceutical Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Fagadar-Cosma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two manganese(III porphyrins: manganese(III tetraphenylporphyrin chloride and manganese(III-tetrakis(3-hydroxyphenylporphyrin chloride were tested as ionophores for the construction of new diclofenac−selective electrodes. The electroactive material was incorporated either in PVC or a sol−gel matrix. The effect of different plasticizers and additives (anionic and cationic on the potentiometric response was studied. The best results were obtained for the PVC membrane plasticized with dioctylphtalate and having sodium tetraphenylborate as a lipophilic anionic additive incorporated. The sensor response was linear in the concentration range 3 × 10−6 – 1 × 10−2 M with a slope of −59.7 mV/dec diclofenac, a detection limit of 1.5 × 10−6 M and very good selectivity coefficients. It was used for the determination of diclofenac in pharmaceutical preparations, by direct potentiometry. The results were compared with those obtained by the HPLC reference method and a good agreement was found between the two methods.

  8. Lagrangian-based Backtracking of Oil Spill Dynamics from SAR Images: Application to Montara Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautama, Budhi Gunadharma; Mercier, Gregoire; Fablet, Ronan; Longepe, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    Within the framework of INDESO project (Infrastructure Development Space Oceanography), we address the issue of oilspill and aim at developing an operational SAR- based system for monitoring this issue in Indonesian waters from space. In this work, we focus on the backtrack- ing of an oilspill detected from SAR observations. As a case-study, we consider one large oil spill event that happened in Indonesian waters in 2009, referred to as the Montara oilspill. On 21 August 2009, the Montara Wellhead Platform had an uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons from one of the platform wells. It was estimated that 400 barrels (or approximately 64 tonnes) of crude oil were being lost per day. The uncontrolled release continued until 3 November 2009 and response operations continued until 3 December 2009. In this work, we develop a Langragian analysis and associated numerical inversion tools with a view to further analyzing the oil spread due to the Montara Wellhead Platform. Our model relies on a 2D Lagrangian transport model developed by CLS (Collecte Localisation Satellite). Our model involves four main parameters : the weights of wind- related and current-related advection, the origin and the duration of the oil leakage. Given SAR oilspill detections, we propose a numerical inversion of the parameters of the Lagrangian model, so that the simulated drift match the SAR observations of the oil spill. We demonstrate the relevance of the proposed model and numerical scheme for the Montara oilspill and further discuss their operational interest for the space-based oilspill backtracking and forecasting.

  9. Development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems with olive vegetable oil for cutaneous application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Arandas Monteiro e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Liquid-Crystalline Systems represent active compounds delivery systems that may be able to overcome the physical barrier of the skin, especially represented by the stratum corneum. To obtain these systems, aqueous and oily components are used with surfactants. Of the different association structures in such systems, the liquid-crystalline offer numerous advantages to a topical product. This manuscript presents the development of liquid-crystalline systems consisting, in which the oil component is olive oil, its rheological characterizations, and the location of liquid crystals in its phase map. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated using J-774 mouse macrophages as the cellular model. A phase diagram to mix three components with different proportions was constructed. Two liquid crystalline areas were found with olive oil in different regions in the ternary diagram with two nonionic surfactants, called SLC1 (S1 and SLC2 (S2. These systems showed lamellar liquid crystals that remained stable during the entire analysis time. The systems were also characterized rheologically with pseudoplastic behavior without thixotropy. The texture and bioadhesion assays showed that formulations were similar statistically (p < 0.05, indicating that the increased amount of water in S2 did not interfere with the bioadhesive properties of the systems. In vitro cytotoxic assays showed that formulations did not present cytotoxicity. Olive oil-based systems may be a promising platform for skin delivery of drugs.

  10. TUNG OIL BASED MONOMER FOR THERMOSETTING POLYMERS: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND COPOLYMERIZATION WITH STYRENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengguo Liu,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A tung oil (TO based monomer for rigid thermosetting polymer was synthesized, characterized, and copolymerized with styrene in this study. Tung oil was alcoholyzed with pentaerythritol (PER to get tung oil pentaerythritol alcoholysis products (TOPER, and the optimized conditions were explored according to the yields of TOPER analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The resulting alcoholysis products were maleinated to form tung oil maleate half ester (TOPERMA, and the reaction conditions were determined by monitoring the reaction extents of TOPER and maleic anhydride (MA with 1HNMR spectroscopy. The TO alcoholysis and maleinization reaction products were characterized by IR, 1HNMR, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS techniques. At last, the TOPERMA mixture was cured with styrene (St, and the initiator tert-butyl peroxy benzoate (TPB. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was employed to characterize the curing process. Mechanical properties of the cured TOPERMA/St resin further confirmed the best procedure for the maleinization reaction. The loading of TO reached about 30% weight of the resulting thermosetting polymer. This promising material from renewable resources can be a potential substitution for petroleum products when used as sheet molding compounds.

  11. Mississippi mud pie: cleaning up a large land-based oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitello, C.

    2001-01-01

    Clean-up of one of the largest land-based oil spills in the history of the United States near Collins, Mississippi, which occurred in December 1999, is described. The oil spill resulted from a corroded pipeline and had been leaking for several days before it was noticed. By the time the first responders arrived the oil had travelled more than five kilometres to the Leaf River, and 24 kilometers downstream. Oil Gator, a patented material that accelerates the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, was used to remediate most of the soil onsite. The product is of low toxicity; it is not harmful to humans, animals or plant life, nor is it WHMIS or OSHA regulated. It was applied with a Samsung Track hoe with a Rhom rake attachment, a mini bobcat hoe and rototillers. The absorbent was effective and very little vegetation had to be removed except for certain trees that were soaked to the root. The cleanup effort cost about $17 million, used 30 truckloads of sorbent product, ten truckloads less than was initially estimated. After some 18 months the Collins site is now covered by two-foot tall grass. Regular third party monitoring is continuing. photos

  12. Mississippi mud pie: cleaning up a large land-based oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitello, C.

    2001-07-01

    Clean-up of one of the largest land-based oil spills in the history of the United States near Collins, Mississippi, which occurred in December 1999, is described. The oil spill resulted from a corroded pipeline and had been leaking for several days before it was noticed. By the time the first responders arrived the oil had travelled more than five kilometres to the Leaf River, and 24 kilometers downstream. Oil Gator, a patented material that accelerates the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, was used to remediate most of the soil onsite. The product is of low toxicity; it is not harmful to humans, animals or plant life, nor is it WHMIS or OSHA regulated. It was applied with a Samsung Track hoe with a Rhom rake attachment, a mini bobcat hoe and rototillers. The absorbent was effective and very little vegetation had to be removed except for certain trees that were soaked to the root. The cleanup effort cost about $17 million, used 30 truckloads of sorbent product, ten truckloads less than was initially estimated. After some 18 months the Collins site is now covered by two-foot tall grass. Regular third party monitoring is continuing. photos.

  13. Determination of trace elements in some Nigerian vegetable based oils by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, A.L.; Jonah, S.A.; Umar, I.

    2001-01-01

    The concentrations of some essential micronutrient elements leading to short-lived activation products in four Nigerian vegetable based oils (palm oil, palm kernel oil, sheabutter and groundnut oil) have been determined by neutron activation analysis using a small research reactor. One sample of each material was analysed and presented as an introduction for further investigations. Results indicate that the concentration range of the elements are 19.4-44.0 μg/g for Al; 30.0-81.0 μg/g for Ca; 11.9-60.4 μg/g for Cl; 1.43-5.96 μg/g for Cu; 7.3-28.1 μg/g for Mg; 0.47-1.69 μg/g for Mn; 17.5-72.8 μg/g for Na and 0.04-0.07 μg/g for V. The experimental procedure is suitable for routine determination of micronutrient element in foods for control and monitoring purposes. (author)

  14. A neural network detection model of spilled oil based on the texture analysis of SAR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jubai; Zhu, Lisong

    2006-01-01

    A Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) Model is investigated for the detection of spilled oil based on the texture analysis of SAR imagery. In this paper, to take the advantage of the abundant texture information of SAR imagery, the texture features are extracted by both wavelet transform and the Gray Level Co-occurrence matrix. The RBFNN Model is fed with a vector of these texture features. The RBFNN Model is trained and tested by the sample data set of the feature vectors. Finally, a SAR image is classified by this model. The classification results of a spilled oil SAR image show that the classification accuracy for oil spill is 86.2 by the RBFNN Model using both wavelet texture and gray texture, while the classification accuracy for oil spill is 78.0 by same RBFNN Model using only wavelet texture as the input of this RBFNN model. The model using both wavelet transform and the Gray Level Co-occurrence matrix is more effective than that only using wavelet texture. Furthermore, it keeps the complicated proximity and has a good performance of classification.

  15. Frequency spectrum method-based stress analysis for oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Wu

    Full Text Available When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline.

  16. Frequency spectrum method-based stress analysis for oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline.

  17. From disposal at sea to distribution of oil-based cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.T.C.; Laan, L.V.D.

    1994-01-01

    The environmental impact of cutting discharges has led to a significant change in the way oilbased mud has been used at the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). The industry has converted from direct disposal of oilbased cuttings to a zero oil disposal at sea by transfer of cuttings to land. Moreover, distillation of cuttings has resulted in a closed-loop application of the base oil. This method has been developed as a standard operation even before the zero oil disposal limit became effective in 1993. Although the well costs have increased with 2.5% as a result of the new requirement, the extra costs amount to only a small fraction of the extra well costs if only waterbased mud would be allowed. Both industry and environment benefit and it has resulted in an increased use of oilbased mud since 1991 at the DCS. Further scope for reduction of environmental impact related to waste disposal is limited. The remaining concerns are related to the prevention of oil spills

  18. The Effect of Reactives Diluents to the Physical Properties of Acrylated Palm Oil Based Polyurethane Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onn Munirah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of polyurethane with hydroxyl access in a molecule leads to a new alternative of low toxicity green product. Palm oil is one of the major commodities in Malaysia. The potential of palm oil to be used as coatings raw material such as alkyd is limited due to low unsaturated side on fatty acid chains. To overcome this limitation, palm oil was modified through transesterification process to produce polyol. Acrylated isocyanate (urethane oligomer was then grafted onto polyol to produce polyurethane with vinylic ends. The polyurethane was formulated with different cross-linkers (reactive diluents and cured under UV radiation. The effect of three different diluents; monoacrylate, diacrylate and triacrylate on the properties of cured polymer were studied in this research. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, Hydroxyl Value Titration, Gel Content, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC were used for characterization. Physical testing performed were Pencil Hardness and Pull-Off Adhesion test. Novel palm oil-based polyurethane coatings have been found to have good properties with mono acrylate functionality.

  19. Why Fish Oil Fails: A Comprehensive 21st Century Lipids-Based Physiologic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Peskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical community suffered three significant fish oil failures/setbacks in 2013. Claims that fish oil’s EPA/DHA would stop the progression of heart disease were crushed when The Risk and Prevention Study Collaborative Group (Italy released a conclusive negative finding regarding fish oil for those patients with high risk factors but no previous myocardial infarction. Fish oil failed in all measures of CVD prevention—both primary and secondary. Another major 2013 setback occurred when fish oil’s DHA was shown to significantly increase prostate cancer in men, in particular, high-grade prostate cancer, in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT analysis by Brasky et al. Another monumental failure occurred in 2013 whereby fish oil’s EPA/DHA failed to improve macular degeneration. In 2010, fish oil’s EPA/DHA failed to help Alzheimer’s victims, even those with low DHA levels. These are by no means isolated failures. The promise of fish oil and its so-called active ingredients EPA / DHA fails time and time again in clinical trials. This lipids-based physiologic review will explain precisely why there should have never been expectation for success. This review will focus on underpublicized lipid science with a focus on physiology.

  20. Oil-based compositions as saliva substitutes: A pilot study to investigate in-mouth retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Sara M; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2016-03-30

    This pilot study aimed to compare the in-mouth retention of an oil-based saliva substitute (emulsion, consisting of rice bran oil, soy lecithin and water) with water and a 1% w/v methylcellulose suspension (polymer) in healthy volunteers. Each formulation was tagged with 1 mmol/L lithium and participants (n=30) rinsed their mouth with one randomly assigned formulation (emulsion, polymer or water) for 30s, before expectorating into a cup. Concentration of lithium expectorated was measured and amount of each formulation remaining in the mouth was estimated. Patient acceptability was investigated using questionnaires, and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine the presence of oil in expectorated samples. Immediately after rinsing, taste was rated lower in the emulsion group compared to the polymer or water groups (p>0.05), although variability was high. Mean retention was highest in the emulsion group, with a difference of 8.34 ± 2.71% (p=0.003) and 4.57 ± 2.71% (p=0.06) compared with the water and polymer groups, respectively. FTIR confirmed the presence of oil in all expectorated emulsion samples. The emulsion was not inferior to the polymer in terms of retention immediately after rinsing. The next step is to conduct larger clinical studies over longer time periods in participants with salivary hypofunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrically driven hybrid Si/III-V Fabry-Pérot lasers based on adiabatic mode transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bakir, B; Descos, A; Olivier, N; Bordel, D; Grosse, P; Augendre, E; Fulbert, L; Fedeli, J M

    2011-05-23

    We report the first demonstration of an electrically driven hybrid silicon/III-V laser based on adiabatic mode transformers. The hybrid structure is formed by two vertically superimposed waveguides separated by a 100-nm-thick SiO2 layer. The top waveguide, fabricated in an InP/InGaAsP-based heterostructure, serves to provide optical gain. The bottom Si-waveguides system, which supports all optical functions, is constituted by two tapered rib-waveguides (mode transformers), two distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and a surface-grating coupler. The supermodes of this hybrid structure are controlled by an appropriate design of the tapers located at the edges of the gain region. In the middle part of the device almost all the field resides in the III-V waveguide so that the optical mode experiences maximal gain, while in regions near the III-V facets, mode transformers ensure an efficient transfer of the power flow towards Si-waveguides. The investigated device operates under quasi-continuous wave regime. The room temperature threshold current is 100 mA, the side-mode suppression ratio is as high as 20 dB, and the fiber-coupled output power is ~7 mW.

  2. Self-assembly of Terbium(III)-based metal-organic complexes with two-photon absorbing active

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Shao, Nanqi; Sun, Xianshun; Zhang, Guocui; Li, Shengli; Zhou, Hongping; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid complexes based on D-π-A type dyes p-aminostyryl-pyridinum and Terbium(III) complex anion (1, 2) have been synthesized by ionic exchange reaction. Meanwhile two different alkyl-substituted amino groups were used as electron donors in organic dyes cations. The synthesized complexes were characterized by element analysis. In addition, the structural features of them were systematic studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Their linear properties have been systematically investigated by absorption spectra and fluorescence, the results show that the energy transfer takes place from the trans-4-[4‧-(N,N-diethylamino)styryl]-N-methyl pyridinium (2‧) cation to Tb(III). In addition, complex 2 exhibit a large two-photon absorption coefficient β: 0.044 cm/GW at 710 nm.

  3. Oil palm biomass-based adsorbents for the removal of water pollutants--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tanweer; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ghazali, Arniza; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-07-01

    This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based activated carbons, have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that oil palm-based adsorbent, among the low-cost adsorbents mentioned, is the most promising adsorbent for removing water pollutants. Further, these bioadsorbents can be chemically modified for better efficiency and can undergo multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at an industrial scale. It is evident from a literature survey of more than 100 recent papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants. The conclusion is been drawn from the reviewed literature, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  4. Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Cristiane Inácio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of wooden panels renders this market segment increasingly competitive. MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, in particular, is widely employed for a variety of applications, including civil construction, furniture, and packaging. This paper discusses a study of MDF produced from alternative raw materials, i.e., Eucalyptus fibers and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the MDF's modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in static bending tests, its swelling, water absorption, moisture and density. The results of the physical and mechanical characterization of this laboratory-produced MDF are discussed and compared with the Euro MDF Board standard. MDF produced with eucalyptus fiber and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin presents results very satisfactory.

  5. Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

  6. Improving the cooling performance of electrical distribution transformer using transformer oilBased MEPCM suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq Ismael Hasan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the electrical distribution transformer has been studied numerically and the effect of outside temperature on its cooling performance has been investigated. The temperature range studied covers the hot climate regions. 250 KVA distribution transformer is chosen as a study model. A novel cooling fluid is proposed to improve the cooling performance of this transformer, transformer oil-based microencapsulated phase change materials suspension is used with volume concentration (5–25...

  7. Microcapsules Filled with a Palm Oil-Based Alkyd as Healing Agent for Epoxy Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Nurshafiza Shahabudin; Rosiyah Yahya; Seng Neon Gan

    2016-01-01

    One of the approaches to prolong the service lifespan of polymeric material is the development of self-healing ability by means of embedded microcapsules containing a healing agent. In this work, poly(melamine-urea-formaldehyde) (PMUF) microcapsules containing a palm oil-based alkyd were produced by polymerization of melamine resin, urea and formaldehyde that encapsulated droplets of the suspended alkyd particles. A series of spherical and free-flowing microcapsules were obtained. The chemica...

  8. Comparison of theories of anisotropy in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Drga, Jozef; Kopčanský, Peter; Závišová, Vlasta; Timko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The external magnetic field in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids leads to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and formation of clusters. These aggregations are the result of the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles occurs. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids has also very important influence on the structural changes because the mechanism of thermal motion acts against the cluster creation. The acoustic spectroscopy ...

  9. Community-Based Health and Exposure Study around Urban Oil Developments in South Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Shamasunder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilfield-adjacent communities often report symptoms such as headaches and/or asthma. Yet, little data exists on health experiences and exposures in urban environments with oil and gas development. In partnership with Promotoras de Salud (community health workers, we gathered household surveys nearby two oil production sites in Los Angeles. We tested the capacity of low-cost sensors for localized exposure estimates. Bilingual surveys of 205 randomly sampled residences were collected within two 1500 ft. buffer areas (West Adams and University Park surrounding oil development sites. We used a one-sample proportion test, comparing overall rates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS of Service Planning Area 6 (SPA6 and Los Angeles County for variables of interest such as asthma. Field calibrated low-cost sensors recorded methane emissions. Physician diagnosed asthma rates were reported to be higher within both buffers than in SPA6 or LA County. Asthma prevalence in West Adams but not University Park was significantly higher than in Los Angeles County. Respondents with diagnosed asthma reported rates of emergency room visits in the previous 12 months similar to SPA6. 45% of respondents were unaware of oil development; 63% of residents would not know how to contact local regulatory authorities. Residents often seek information about their health and site-related activities. Low-cost sensors may be useful in highlighting differences between sites or recording larger emission events and can provide localized data alongside resident-reported symptoms. Regulatory officials should help clarify information to the community on methods for reporting health symptoms. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR partnership supports efforts to answer community questions as residents seek a safety buffer between sensitive land uses and active oil development.

  10. Assessing the experimental investigation of milk thistle oil for biodiesel production using base catalyzed transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Kifayat; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sofia; Qiu, Fengxian

    2015-01-01

    In the present research work, non edible oil source milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaert) plant was investigated for biodiesel production. The extracted crude oil was 26.14% of the total seed dry weight. The free fatty acid content of oil was reduced from 0.56 mg KOH/g to 0.06 mg KOH/g by esterification before the synthesis of biodiesel. The highest conversion percentage of biodiesel was achieved 89.51% and 87.42% using solid base catalyst sodium hydroxide (0.75%) and potassium hydroxide (1.0%), respectively. The protocol for experiment was adjusted as follow: temperature (60 °C); time of reaction (2 h), steering (600 rpm) and the oil molar ratio was fixed 1:6. Qualitatively, the prepared biodiesel was quantified by GC chromatography, 13 C & 1 H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), AAS and FT-IR spectroscopy. The fuel properties of biodiesel were tested and compared with ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. - Highlights: • Biodiesel production from non edible seeds of milk thistle species. • High percentage of oil extraction (26.14%) and biodiesel yield (92%). • Reduction in FFA contents via esterification 0.56 mg KOH/g – 0.06 mg KOH/g. • Quantification analysis of biodiesel using GC, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, FT-IR and AAS. • Fuel properties comparison with ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards

  11. The transmission of fluctuant patterns of the forex burden based on international crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiangyun; An, Haizhong; Fang, Wei; Li, Huajiao

    2014-01-01

    For a country that imports crude oil, the forex burden is always fluctuant due to the fluctuation of international crude oil prices and exchange rates over time. The gap discovered between international crude oil prices and the crude oil price based on exchange rates may indicate the fluctuation of the forex burden. There exist different fluctuant patterns in the fluctuation process of the forex burden in different periods. Hence, we proposed an approach combining econometrics and complex network theory to explore the transmission mechanism of these fluctuant patterns. In this study, we defined the forex burden and the fluctuant patterns by normalization, sliding windows of data and econometric models. And then we set the fluctuant patterns as nodes and the transformation between patterns as edges; in this way, the transmission complex network is constructed. The results show that different major fluctuant patterns with different probabilities appear in different scales. The fluctuant patterns transferred into each other conveniently. And the transmission medium can help to identify the transitional periods in the process of the transmission. The contribution of this study to the energy policy decision-making is that the formulations of related policies under different period lengths require different reference standards. - Highlights: • Small “gap” between crude oil price and exchange rate can make great forex fluctuation. • We defined the fluctuant patterns of forex burden through data sliding windows. • We constructed the transmission network models of fluctuant patterns of forex burden. • The transitional periods can be identified by media capabilities of fluctuant patterns. • Energy policies making for different lengths of period should reference different scales standards

  12. The transmission of fluctuant patterns of the forex burden based on international crude oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiangyun [School of Humanities and Economic Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Carrying Capacity Assessment for Resource and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources (Chinese Academy of Land and Resource Economics, China University of Geosciences Beijing), Beijing 100083 (China); Lab of Resources and Environmental Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); An, Haizhong [School of Humanities and Economic Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Carrying Capacity Assessment for Resource and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources (Chinese Academy of Land and Resource Economics, China University of Geosciences Beijing), Beijing 100083 (China); Lab of Resources and Environmental Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Fang, Wei [School of Humanities and Economic Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Carrying Capacity Assessment for Resource and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources (Chinese Academy of Land and Resource Economics, China University of Geosciences Beijing), Beijing 100083 (China); Lab of Resources and Environmental Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Huajiao [School of Humanities and Economic Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Carrying Capacity Assessment for Resource and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources (Chinese Academy of Land and Resource Economics, China University of Geosciences Beijing), Beijing 100083 (China); Lab of Resources and Environmental Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); others, and

    2014-08-14

    For a country that imports crude oil, the forex burden is always fluctuant due to the fluctuation of international crude oil prices and exchange rates over time. The gap discovered between international crude oil prices and the crude oil price based on exchange rates may indicate the fluctuation of the forex burden. There exist different fluctuant patterns in the fluctuation process of the forex burden in different periods. Hence, we proposed an approach combining econometrics and complex network theory to explore the transmission mechanism of these fluctuant patterns. In this study, we defined the forex burden and the fluctuant patterns by normalization, sliding windows of data and econometric models. And then we set the fluctuant patterns as nodes and the transformation between patterns as edges; in this way, the transmission complex network is constructed. The results show that different major fluctuant patterns with different probabilities appear in different scales. The fluctuant patterns transferred into each other conveniently. And the transmission medium can help to identify the transitional periods in the process of the transmission. The contribution of this study to the energy policy decision-making is that the formulations of related policies under different period lengths require different reference standards. - Highlights: • Small “gap” between crude oil price and exchange rate can make great forex fluctuation. • We defined the fluctuant patterns of forex burden through data sliding windows. • We constructed the transmission network models of fluctuant patterns of forex burden. • The transitional periods can be identified by media capabilities of fluctuant patterns. • Energy policies making for different lengths of period should reference different scales standards.

  13. Arts and Crafts Classes in Years I–III, Based on Methods Featuring Pupils’ Practical Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Piwowarska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The issue to be analysed here concerns teachers’ planning of arts and crafts classes in Years I–III, with specific reference to methods featuring pupils’ practical activities. A theoretical part briefly presents the concepts involved in teaching a subject that was initially defined as drawing, then as arts and crafts education, and finally as arts and crafts classes. It points out the factors that influence the process of stimulating pupils’ artistic activities. The technique used in the cour...

  14. Restoration of Circum-Arctic Upper Jurassic source rock paleolatitude based on crude oil geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Ramos, L.S.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Scotese, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Tectonic geochemical paleolatitude (TGP) models were developed to predict the paleolatitude of petroleum source rock from the geochemical composition of crude oil. The results validate studies designed to reconstruct ancient source rock depositional environments using oil chemistry and tectonic reconstruction of paleogeography from coordinates of the present day collection site. TGP models can also be used to corroborate tectonic paleolatitude in cases where the predicted paleogeography conflicts with the depositional setting predicted by the oil chemistry, or to predict paleolatitude when the present day collection locality is far removed from the source rock, as might occur due to long distance subsurface migration or transport of tarballs by ocean currents. Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were measured for 496 crude oil samples inferred to originate from Upper Jurassic source rock in West Siberia, the North Sea and offshore Labrador. First, a unique, multi-tiered chemometric (multivariate statistics) decision tree was used to classify these samples into seven oil families and infer the type of organic matter, lithology and depositional environment of each organofacies of source rock [Peters, K.E., Ramos, L.S., Zumberge, J.E., Valin, Z.C., Scotese, C.R., Gautier, D.L., 2007. Circum-Arctic petroleum systems identified using decision-tree chemometrics. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 91, 877-913]. Second, present day geographic locations for each sample were used to restore the tectonic paleolatitude of the source rock during Late Jurassic time (???150 Ma). Third, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to construct linear TGP models that relate tectonic and geochemical paleolatitude, where the latter is based on 19 source-related biomarker and isotope ratios for each oil family. The TGP models were calibrated using 70% of the samples in each family and the remaining 30% of samples were used for model validation. Positive

  15. Comparison between computed tomography with oral oil-based contrast and laparotomy for gastric cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, S. F.; Garcia-Vila, J. H.; Cervera, J.; Gomez, R.; Piqueras, R. M.; Perona, I.; Escrig, J.; Salvador, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    To compare the utility of conventional computed tomography (CT) with oral oil-based contrast with that of laparotomy in the preoperative staging of gastric cancer. We prospectively studied 41 patients diagnosed as having gastric adenocarcinoma according to the results of endoscopy and biopsy. Applying the TNM classification for gastric cancer staging, we compared the findings in CT associated with oral oil-based contrast and intraoperative staging with definitive postoperative pathological staging. Definitive pathological studies demonstrated that there were 7 stage T1-T2 lesions, 26 stage T3 and 8 stage T4. The assessment of lymph node involvement showed that 10 patients presented stage N0 and 31 stage N1-N3. Ten patients had metastases. The diagnostic reliability for tumor staging according to CT was 56% versus 80% for laparotomy. In the determination of nodal involvement CT had a diagnostic yield of 71% versus 6% for laparotomy. Metastatic disease was correctly diagnosed by CT in 83% of cases versus 88% by laparotomy. There were no statistically significant differences between CT with oral oil-based contrast and laparotomy for the staging of nodal involvement and metastases. However, the CT diagnosis was significantly more reliable than laparotomy for the determination of tumor infiltration. (Author) 21 refs

  16. Structure of nanoparticles in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids, anisotropy of acoustic attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The anisotropy of acoustic attenuation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the external magnetic field was studied to discover the structure of nanoparticles. When a magnetic field is increased, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles leads to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and following clusters formation. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids and the concentration of nanoparticles also have very important influence on the structural changes. The measurement of the dependence of the acoustic attenuation on the angle between the magnetic field direction and acoustic wave vector (anisotropy) can give the useful information about the structure of magnetic nanoparticles formations. In the present, the results of anisotropy measurements of the transformer oil-based magnetic fluids are described and using appropriate theory the basic parameters of clusters are calculated. On the basis of the performed calculations, the proportion of the acoustic wave energy used for excitation of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom was also established. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles formation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids was investigated. • The anisotropy acoustic spectroscopy as the method of investigation was used. • The external conditions on the structure of magnetic fluids were studied. • The structure parameters using suitable theoretical model were determined

  17. Bio-Based Polyols from Seed Oils for Water-Blown Rigid Polyurethane Foam Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweena Ekkaphan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of water-blown rigid polyurethane (RPUR foams using bio-based polyols from sesame seed oil and pumpkin seed oil has been reported. Polyols synthesis involved two steps, namely, hydroxylation and alcoholysis reaction. FTIR, NMR, and ESI-MS were used to monitor the process of the synthesized polyols and their physicochemical properties were determined. The resulting polyols have OH number in the range of 340–351 mg KOH/g. RPUR foams blown with water were produced from the reaction of biopolyols with commercial polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI. The proper PUR formulations can be manipulated to produce the desired material applications. These seed oil-based RPUR foams exhibited relatively high compressive strength (237.7–240.2 kPa with the density in the range of 40–45 kg/m3. Additionally, the cell foam morphology investigated by scanning electron microscope indicated that their cellular structure presented mostly polygonal closed cells. The experimental results demonstrate that these bio-based polyols can be used as an alternative starting material for RPUR production.

  18. Ivermectin disposition kinetics after subcutaneous and intramuscular administration of an oil-based formulation to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, A; Virkel, G; Pis, A; Imperiale, F; Sanchez, S; Alvarez, L; Kujanek, R; Lanusse, C

    1999-10-01

    Slight differences in formulation may change the plasma kinetics and ecto-endoparasiticide activity of endectocide compounds. This work reports on the disposition kinetics and plasma availability of ivermectin (IVM) after subcutaneous (SC) and intramuscular (IM) administration as an oil-based formulation to cattle. Parasite-free Aberdeen Angus calves (n = 24; 240-280 kg) were divided into three groups (n = 8) and treated (200 microg/kg) with either an IVM oil-based pharmaceutical preparation (IVM-TEST formulation) (Bayer Argentina S.A.) given by subcutaneous (Group A) and intramuscular (Group B) injections or the IVM-CONTROL (non-aqueous formulation) (Ivomec, MSD Agvet) subcutaneously administered (Group C). Blood samples were taken over 35 days post-treatment and the recovered plasma was extracted and analyzed by HPLC using fluorescence detection. IVM was detected in plasma between 12 h and 35 days post-administration of IVM-TEST (SC and IM injections) and IVM-CONTROL formulations. Prolonged IVM absorption half-life (p oil-based formulation examined in this trial, compared to the standard preparation, may positively impact on its strategic use in cattle.

  19. Structure of nanoparticles in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids, anisotropy of acoustic attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef, E-mail: kudelcik@fyzika.uniza.sk [Department of Physics, University of Žilina, Univerzitná 1, 010 01 Žilina (Slovakia); Bury, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Žilina, Univerzitná 1, 010 01 Žilina (Slovakia); Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan [Department of Magnetism, IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)

    2015-08-15

    The anisotropy of acoustic attenuation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the external magnetic field was studied to discover the structure of nanoparticles. When a magnetic field is increased, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles leads to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and following clusters formation. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids and the concentration of nanoparticles also have very important influence on the structural changes. The measurement of the dependence of the acoustic attenuation on the angle between the magnetic field direction and acoustic wave vector (anisotropy) can give the useful information about the structure of magnetic nanoparticles formations. In the present, the results of anisotropy measurements of the transformer oil-based magnetic fluids are described and using appropriate theory the basic parameters of clusters are calculated. On the basis of the performed calculations, the proportion of the acoustic wave energy used for excitation of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom was also established. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles formation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids was investigated. • The anisotropy acoustic spectroscopy as the method of investigation was used. • The external conditions on the structure of magnetic fluids were studied. • The structure parameters using suitable theoretical model were determined.

  20. Model study on transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel with methanol using solid base catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejun; Piao, Xianglan; Wang, Yujun; Zhu, Shenlin

    2010-03-25

    Modeling of the transesterification of vegetable oils to biodiesel using a solid base as a catalyst is very important because the mutual solubilities of oil and methanol will increase with the increasing biodiesel yield. The heterogeneous liquid-liquid-solid reaction system would become a liquid-solid system when the biodiesel reaches a certain content. In this work, we adopted a two-film theory and a steady state approximation assumption, then established a heterogeneous liquid-liquid-solid model in the first stage. After the diffusion coefficients on the liquid-liquid interface and the liquid-solid interface were calculated on the basis of the properties of the system, the theoretical value of biodiesel productivity changing with time was obtained. The predicted values were very near the experimental data, which indicated that the proposed models were suitable for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel when solid bases were used as catalysts. Meanwhile, the model indicated that the transesterification reaction was controlled by both mass transfer and reaction. The total resistance will decrease with the increase in biodiesel yield in the liquid-liquid-solid stage. The solid base catalyst exhibited an activation energy range of 9-20 kcal/mol, which was consistent with the reported activation energy range of homogeneous catalysts.

  1. Effect of thyme oil-alginate-based coating on quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarengaowa; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Aili; Xiu, Zhilong; Feng, Ke

    2018-04-01

    Food preservation is critical for keeping fresh-cut products fresh, nutritious, safe, attractive and available for consumers. To improve the safety and quality of fresh-cut fruits, 15 essential oils (EOs) were screened to test the antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella typhimurium (ST), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC O157:H7). The effect of alginate-based edible coating (EC) incorporating different concentrations thyme oil on fresh-cut 'Red Fuji' apples was investigated. Results showed that thyme oil, cinnamon oil and oregano oil were more effective in inhibiting the microbes than other EOs. The result showed that the combined usage of 0.5 µL mL -1 thyme oil incorporated with alginate-based EC could significantly inhibit the microbial growth, respiration, weight loss, firmness and browning of fresh-cut 'Red Fuji' apples. The edible coating and natural additives like thyme oil could be used to preserve the quality of fresh-cut fruits. It revealed that EC incorporated with 0.5 µL mL -1 thyme oil can be a safe preservative for fresh-cut apples. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A Cd(II)-based metal-organic framework as a luminance sensor to nitrobenzene and Tb(III) ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiang-Long; Gui, Di; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Li, Rui; Han, Hong-Liang; Li, Xia; Li, Pei-Zhou

    2016-04-28

    A Cd(II)-based metal-organic framework, [Cd2(DPDC)2(BTB)]∞ (Cd-MOF, DPDC = 2,2'-diphenyldicarboxylate and BTB = 1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butane) was successfully constructed via a hydrothermal reaction. Structural analysis shows that the synthesized Cd-MOF is a three-dimensional (3D) architecture crystallized in the hexagonal system with a chiral space group P61. Powder X-ray diffraction experiments and thermogravimetric analysis reveal that the constructed Cd-MOF has a high chemical and thermal stability. A study of additional mechanical properties indicates that it exhibits a moderate stiffness with the average values of Young's modulus (E) and H as 11.3(2) and 0.9(7) GPa, respectively. The luminescence properties of the Cd-MOF were further studied. The result shows that it could be an effective sensor to the organic nitrobenzene molecule via a strong quenching effect, and also to the inorganic Tb(III) ion by a strong green emission effect. Moreover, when loading bimetal ions (Eu(III) and Tb(III) into the Cd-MOF/methanol suspension, tunable visible luminescence can also be achieved by carefully adjusting the excitation wavelengths.

  3. Colorimetric sensing of oxalate based on its inhibitory effect on the reaction of Fe (III) with curcumin nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourreza, Nahid; Lotfizadeh, Neda; Golmohammadi, Hamed

    2018-03-01

    In this research, a new colorimetric method for the determination of oxalate using curcumin nanoparticles (CURNs) in the presence Fe (III) is introduced. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of oxalate ion on the reaction of (CURNs) with Fe (III) in acidic media. This reaction was monitored by measuring the increase in absorbance of CURNs-Fe3 + complex in the presence of oxalate ion at 427 nm. The effect of different parameters such as the pH of the sample solution, concentration of Fe (III), concentration of CURNs and the reaction time was examined and optimized. Under optimum experimental conditions, the absorption intensity was linear with the concentration of oxalate in the range of 0.15 to 1.70 μg mL- 1. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.077 μg mL- 1 and the relative standard deviations (RSD) for 8 replicate measurements of 0.40 and 1.05 μg mL- 1 of oxalate were 4.20% and 2.74%, respectively. The developed method was successfully employed to the determination of oxalate in water, food and urine samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Synthesis, characteristics and luminescent properties of a new Tb(III) ternary complex applied in near UV-based LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Naiqun; Li, Liping; Yang, Yamin; Zhang, Aiqin; Jia, Husheng; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2015-11-01

    A novel Tb(III) ternary complex, Tb(p-BBA)3UA, was synthesized with 4-benzoylbenzoic acid (p-BBA) as primary ligand and undecylenic acid (UA) as reactive ligand. Tb(III) complex exhibits high thermal stability and wide and strong excitation bands from 310 nm to 400 nm when monitored at 543 nm, which matches well with the 365 nm UV chip. The complex displays Tb(III) characteristic peaks at 488, 543, 584 and 619 nm under the excitation of 365 nm UV-light. The intramolecular energy transfer process was also discussed. Meanwhile, the complex has longer fluorescence lifetime (1.317 ms) and higher quantum yield (44.8%). When used in LED with 365 nm UV chip (power efficiency is 17.3 lm/W), the complex still maintained its qualified luminescent performance. All the results indicate that Tb(p-BBA)3UA can be applied as a green component for fabrication of near UV-based white LED.

  5. Peptide array-based screening of human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides derived from fibronectin type III domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okochi, Mina; Nomura, Shigeyuki; Kaga, Chiaki; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides were screened based on the amino acid sequence of fibronectin type III domain 8-11 (FN-III 8-11 ) using a peptide array synthesized by the Fmoc-chemistry. Using hexameric peptide library of FN-III 8-11 scan, we identified the ALNGR (Ala-Leu-Asn-Gly-Arg) peptide that induced cell adhesion as well as RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide. After incubation for 2 h, approximately 68% of inoculated cells adhere to the ALNGR peptide disk. Adhesion inhibition assay with integrin antibodies showed that the ALNGR peptide interacts with integrin β1 but not with αvβ3, indicating that the receptors for ALNGR are different from RGDS. Additionally, the ALNGR peptide expressed cell specificities for adhesion: cell adhesion was promoted for fibroblasts but not for keratinocytes or endotherial cells. The ALNGR peptide induced cell adhesion and promoted cell proliferation without changing its property. It is therefore useful for the construction of functional biomaterials

  6. Computing distance distributions from dipolar evolution data with overtones: RIDME spectroscopy with Gd(iii)-based spin labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Katharina; Mertens, Valerie; Qi, Mian; Nalepa, Anna I; Godt, Adelheid; Savitsky, Anton; Jeschke, Gunnar; Yulikov, Maxim

    2017-07-21

    Extraction of distance distributions between high-spin paramagnetic centers from relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) data is affected by the presence of overtones of dipolar frequencies. As previously proposed, we account for these overtones by using a modified kernel function in Tikhonov regularization analysis. This paper analyzes the performance of such an approach on a series of model compounds with the Gd(iii)-PyMTA complex serving as paramagnetic high-spin label. We describe the calibration of the overtone coefficients for the RIDME kernel, demonstrate the accuracy of distance distributions obtained with this approach, and show that for our series of Gd-rulers RIDME technique provides more accurate distance distributions than Gd(iii)-Gd(iii) double electron-electron resonance (DEER). The analysis of RIDME data including harmonic overtones can be performed using the MATLAB-based program OvertoneAnalysis, which is available as open-source software from the web page of ETH Zurich. This approach opens a perspective for the routine use of the RIDME technique with high-spin labels in structural biology and structural studies of other soft matter.

  7. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of Bi(III based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of phenylfluorone by hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOFIJA M. RANČIĆ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A new reaction was suggested and a new kinetic method was elaborated for determination of Bi(III in solution, based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of phenyl-fluorone (PF by hydrogen peroxide in ammonia buffer. By application of spectrophotometric technique, a limit of quantification (LQ of 128 ng cm-3 was reached, and the limit of detection (LD of 37 ng cm-3 was obtained, where LQ was defined as the ratio signal:noise = 10:1 and LD was defined as signal 3:1 against the blank. The RSD value was found to be in the range 2.8–4.8 % for the investigated concentration range of Bi(III. The influence of some ions upon the reaction rate was tested. The method was confirmed by determining Bi(III in a stomach ulcer drug (“Bicit HP”, Hemofarm A.D.. The obtained results were compared to those obtained by AAS and good agreement of results was obtained.

  8. Dense Plasma Focus-Based Nanofabrication of III-V Semiconductors: Unique Features and Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangla, Onkar; Roy, Savita; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2015-12-29

    The hot and dense plasma formed in modified dense plasma focus (DPF) device has been used worldwide for the nanofabrication of several materials. In this paper, we summarize the fabrication of III-V semiconductor nanostructures using the high fluence material ions produced by hot, dense and extremely non-equilibrium plasma generated in a modified DPF device. In addition, we present the recent results on the fabrication of porous nano-gallium arsenide (GaAs). The details of morphological, structural and optical properties of the fabricated nano-GaAs are provided. The effect of rapid thermal annealing on the above properties of porous nano-GaAs is studied. The study reveals that it is possible to tailor the size of pores with annealing temperature. The optical properties of these porous nano-GaAs also confirm the possibility to tailor the pore sizes upon annealing. Possible applications of the fabricated and subsequently annealed porous nano-GaAs in transmission-type photo-cathodes and visible optoelectronic devices are discussed. These results suggest that the modified DPF is an effective tool for nanofabrication of continuous and porous III-V semiconductor nanomaterials. Further opportunities for using the modified DPF device for the fabrication of novel nanostructures are discussed as well.

  9. Modeling of cobalt-based catalyst use during CSS for low-temperature heavy oil upgrading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyrov, R.; Sitnov, S.; Gareev, B.; Batalin, G.

    2018-05-01

    One of the methods, which is actively used on deposits of heavy oils of the Upper Kungurian (Ufimian) sandstones of the Republic of Tatarstan, is cyclic steam simulation (CSS). This method consists of 3 stages: injection, soaking, and production. Steam is injected into a well at a temperature of 300 to 340° C for a period of weeks to months. Then, the well is allowed to sit for days to weeks to allow heat to soak into the formation. Finally, the hot oil is pumped out of the well for a period of weeks or months. Once the production rate falls off, the well is put through another cycle. The injection of the catalyst solution before the injection of steam opens the possibility for upgrading the heavy oil in the process of aquathermolysis directly in the reservoir. In this paper, the possibility of using a catalyst precursor based on cobalt for upgrading the hydrocarbons of this field in the process of their extraction is represented. SARA analysis on oil saturated sandstones shows an increase in the proportion of saturated hydrocarbons by 11.1% due to the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the content of resins and asphaltenes are remained practically unchanged. A new method for estimating the adsorption of a catalyst based on taking into account the change in the concentration of the base metal before and after simulation of catalyst injection in the thermobaric conditions of the reservoir is proposed. During the study of catalyst adsorption in the rock, when simulating the CSS process, it is found that almost 28% of the cobalt, which is the main element of the catalyst precursor, is retained in the rock.

  10. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  11. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, solid state d.c. electrical conductivity and biological studies of some lanthanide(III chloride complexes with a heterocyclic Schiff base ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with 2-amino-3-carboxyethyl-4,5-dimethylthiophene in 1:1 molar ratio, yielded a potentially tridentate Schiff base viz. 2-[N-(2′-hydroxy-1-naphthylideneamino]-3-carboxyethyl-4,5-dimethylthiophene (HNAT. This ligand formed complexes with lanthanum(III, cerium(III, praseodymium(III, neodymium(III, samarium(III, europium(III and gadolinium(III chloride under well defined conditions. These complexes were characterized through elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment measurements, IR, UV–Vis, FAB mass and 1H NMR spectral studies. Analytical data showed that all the metal complexes exhibited 1:1 metal–ligand ratio. Molar conductance values adequately confirmed the non-electrolytic nature of the metal complexes. The proton NMR spectral observations supplement the IR spectral assignments. The spectral data revealed that the ligand acted as neutral tridentate, coordinating to the metal ion through azomethine nitrogen, ester carbonyl and naphtholate oxygen without deprotonation. The ligand and its lanthanum(III chloride complex were subjected to XRD studies. The lanthanum(III chloride complex has undergone a facile transesterification reaction. The solid state d.c. electrical conductivity of some selected complexes were measured as a function of temperature, indicating the semiconducting nature of the metal complexes. The antimicrobial activities were examined by disk diffusion method against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species.

  13. An analysis of macroeconomic fluctuations for a small open oil-based economy: The case of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.

    The increasing fluctuations in the oil prices through the last decades have been transferred to the oil exporting countries. Thus, many oil exporting countries experienced significant changes in the economic activity due to changes in the oil markets. In light of this, oil exporting countries have attempted to implement a policy that would stabilize the fluctuations in the oil markets recognizing the adverse effects of such behavior on oil exporting countries, as well as oil importing countries. Saudi Arabia, as the largest oil-exporting country and a member of OPEC, takes the role of oil-markets stabilizer by behaving as the swing producer. This role has caused the global economic fluctuations to transfer into the domestic economy. In addition, Saudi Arabian government has adopted a fixed exchange rate currency regime. Although it has contributed to domestic price stabilizations, this policy has also exposed the country to global economic disturbances. The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate these aspects for Saudi Arabia. First, the effects of shocks originated in the international markets on the Saudi Arabian economy. Second, how the fixed exchange rate regimes influences the domestic macroeconomic variables. Third, to what extent the oil sector contributes to the non-oil domestic fluctuations. Finally, how the findings from the study can be explained by economic theory. In pursuing this, there are four economic theories that are considered to explain the causes of business cycles. These theories are Classical Theory, Keynesian Theory, Monetarist Theory, and the Real Business Cycles. In addition, a theoretical model is derived that is suitable for an oil-based economy. The model follows the set up of McCallum and Nelson (1999). Then, the empirical models of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) and Error Correction Model (ECM) are implemented with three different specifications: Choleski Decomposition, Block Exogeneity and long-run Cointegration

  14. Highly selective single-use fluoride ion optical sensor based on aluminum(III)-salen complex in thin polymeric film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, Ibrahim H.A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    A highly selective optical sensor for fluoride ion based on the use of an aluminum(III)-salen complex as an ionophore within a thin polymeric film is described. The sensor is prepared by embedding the aluminum(III)-salen ionophore and a suitable lipophilic pH-sensitive indicator (ETH-7075) in a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) film. Optical response to fluoride occurs due to fluoride extraction into the polymer via formation of a strong complex with the aluminum(III)-salen species. Co-extraction of protons occurs simultaneously, with protonation of the indicator dye yielding the optical response at 529 nm. Films prepared using dioctylsebacate (DOS) are shown to exhibit better response (e.g., linear range, detection limit, and optical signal stability) compared to those prepared using ortho-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE). Films formulated with aluminum(III)-salen and ETH-7075 indicator in 2 DOS:1 PVC, exhibit a significantly enhanced selectivity for fluoride over a wide range of lipophilic anions including salicylate, perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate. The optimized films exhibit a sub-micromolar detection limit, using glycine-phosphate buffer, pH 3.00, as the test sample. The response times of the fluoride optical sensing films are in the range of 1-10 min depending on the fluoride ion concentration in the sample. The sensor exhibits very poor reversibility owing to a high co-extraction constant (log K = 8.5 ± 0.4), indicating that it can best be employed as a single-use transduction device. The utility of the aluminum(III)-salen based fluoride sensitive films as single-use sensors is demonstrated by casting polymeric films on the bottom of standard polypropylene microtiter plate wells (96 wells/plate). The modified microtiter plate optode format sensors exhibit response characteristics comparable to the classical optode films cast on quartz slides. The modified microtiter is utilized for the analysis of fluoride in diluted anti-cavity fluoride rinse

  15. Oil palm fresh fruit bunch ripeness classification based on rule- based expert system of ROI image processing technique results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfatni, M S M; Shariff, A R M; Marhaban, M H; Shafie, S B; Saaed, O M B; Abdullah, M Z; BAmiruddin, M D

    2014-01-01

    There is a processing need for a fast, easy and accurate classification system for oil palm fruit ripeness. Such a system will be invaluable to farmers and plantation managers who need to sell their oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) for the mill as this will avoid disputes. In this paper,a new approach was developed under the name of expert rules-based systembased on the image processing techniques results of thethree different oil palm FFB region of interests (ROIs), namely; ROI1 (300x300 pixels), ROI2 (50x50 pixels) and ROI3 (100x100 pixels). The results show that the best rule-based ROIs for statistical colour feature extraction with k-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifier at 94% were chosen as well as the ROIs that indicated results higher than the rule-based outcome, such as the ROIs of statistical colour feature extraction with artificial neural network (ANN) classifier at 94%, were selected for further FFB ripeness inspection system

  16. Modeling spreading of oil slicks based on random walk methods and Voronoi diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgut, İsmail; Reed, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a methodology for representation of a surface oil slick using a Voronoi diagram updated at each time step. The Voronoi cells scale the Gaussian random walk procedure representing the spreading process by individual particle stepping. The step length of stochastically moving particles is based on a theoretical model of the spreading process, establishing a relationship between the step length of diffusive spreading and the thickness of the slick at the particle locations. The Voronoi tessellation provides the areal extent of the slick particles and in turn the thicknesses of the slick and the diffusive-type spreading length for all particles. The algorithm successfully simulates the spreading process and results show very good agreement with the analytical solution. Moreover, the results are robust for a wide range of values for computational time step and total number of particles. - Highlights: • A methodology for representation of a surface oil slick using a Voronoi diagram • An algorithm simulating the spreading of oil slick with the Voronoi diagram representation • The algorithm employs the Gaussian random walk method through individual particle stepping. • The diffusive spreading is based on a theoretical model of the spreading process. • Algorithm is computationally robust and successfully reproduces analytical solutions to the spreading process.

  17. The case for using vessel-based systems to apply oil-spill dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.

    1998-01-01

    Most emergency plans for dealing with marine oil spills include the use of chemical dispersants. This paper presents a comparison between the capabilities of aircraft-based dispersant application systems and vessel-based systems. The comparison was presented in terms of the logistics of treating offshore spills. Vessel-based systems have certain advantages in terms of their availability and cost. They have better spray control and accuracy and can dose thick slicks in one pass. However, this advantage is lost if the dispersant payload on the vessel is relatively small and the spill is located very far from the base of operations. Under certain conditions, vessel-based dispersant application systems can treat spills as quickly as aircraft-based systems. Most marine spills tend to occur in restricted waters near ports where dispersant stockpiles could be stored for ready use by vessels in the area. Development of a modern vessel-based, fire-monitor system for applying chemical dispersant onto marine oil spills was one of the recommendations emerging from the study. 32 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  18. The nexus between geopolitical uncertainty and crude oil markets: An entropy-based wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Gazi Salah; Bekiros, Stelios; Ahmed, Ali

    2018-04-01

    The global financial crisis and the subsequent geopolitical turbulence in energy markets have brought increased attention to the proper statistical modeling especially of the crude oil markets. In particular, we utilize a time-frequency decomposition approach based on wavelet analysis to explore the inherent dynamics and the casual interrelationships between various types of geopolitical, economic and financial uncertainty indices and oil markets. Via the introduction of a mixed discrete-continuous multiresolution analysis, we employ the entropic criterion for the selection of the optimal decomposition level of a MODWT as well as the continuous-time coherency and phase measures for the detection of business cycle (a)synchronization. Overall, a strong heterogeneity in the revealed interrelationships is detected over time and across scales.

  19. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ian F; Kay, Katrina; Burgess, Nazma A; Brunton, Elizabeth R

    2011-01-01

    This was a randomized, assessor-blind, controlled comparison of a soya oil- based medical device shampoo with a medicinal permethrin lotion in an alcohol vehicle for treatment of head louse infestation to generate data suitable for a regulatory submission to achieve reimbursable status for the shampoo product. We treated 91 children and adults, divided between two sites, on two occasions 9 days apart. Participants washed their hair and towel-dried it before treatment. The shampoo was used twice for 30 minutes each time. The lotion was used for 30 minutes followed by rinsing. Assessments were made by dry detection combing on days 2, 9, 11, and 14 after the first treatment. According to present knowledge, this combing technique does not influence the overall head louse populations or outcome of treatment. The soya oil shampoo was significantly (P shampoo was more effective than the permethrin lotion, more cosmetically acceptable, and less irritant.

  20. Efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents for oil removal from engine washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilharduci, Viviane Vasques da Silva; Martelli, Patrícia Benedini; Gorgulho, Honória de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents in the sorption of oil from engine washing wastewater. The sorbents were obtained from sugarcane bagasse in the natural form (SB-N) and modified with either acetic anhydride (SB-Acet) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SB-APTS). The results showed that the sorption capacity of these materials decreased in the following order: SB-APTS > SB-N > SB-Acet. The superior oil sorption capacity observed for SB-APTS was attributed to the polar amino end groups in the silane structure, which acted to increase the hydrophilic character of the fibers. However, all the sorbents obtained in this study were able to clean a real sample of wastewater from engine washing, leading to significant reductions in suspended matter, sediment, anionic surfactants, and turbidity.

  1. Automation Architecture based on Cyber Physical Systems for Flexible Manufacturing within Oil&Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo V García

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that in the next few years most of the technologies involved in the so-called Industry 4.0 will have a deep impact on manufacturing companies, including those related to Oil & Gas exploration and production. Low cost automation promotes reference architectures and development approaches aiming at increasing the flexibility and efficiency of production operations in industrial plants. In this sense, OPC UA, in addition to allowing companies to join the Industry 4.0 initiative, provides local and remote access to plant information, enabling a recognized mechanism for both, horizontal and vertical integration in a reliable, safe and efficient way. The contribution of this article is an open architecture for vertical integration based on cyber-physical production systems, configured under IEC 61499 and using OPC UA, suitable to achieve flexible manufacturing within Oil & Gas industry.

  2. Dielectric properties of transformer paper impregnated by mineral oil based magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timko, M; Marton, K; Tomco, L; Kopcansky, P; Koneracka, M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of combined magnetic and electric field on permittivity of transformer paper used in power transformers was observed. Transformer paper was impregnated by pure transformer oil ITO 100 and magnetic fluids based on transformer oil ITO 100 with different concentrations of magnetite nanoparticles. The measurements were carried out with help of high precision capacitance bridge. The electric intensity between circular planar electrodes was in the region of weak electric field (E > 10 6 V/m). The increase of electric permittivity of transformer paper impregnated by magnetic fluid opposite pure transformer paper was observed. The experiments showed that permittivity of insulator system consisting of pure transformer paper and impregnated transformer paper naturally depends on number of paper layers. The magnetodielectric effect was found to be dependent on magnetite nanoparticles concentration in magnetic fluids.

  3. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism...... give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP......, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748...

  4. [Preparation of Oenothera biennis Oil Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Based on Microemulsion Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Lin-mei; Jin, Yong; Cui, Yan-lin; Yin, Shou-yu

    2015-06-01

    To study the preparation of Oenothera biennis oil solid lipid nanoparticles and its quality evaluation. The solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by microemulsion technique. The optimum condition was performed based on the orthogonal design to examine the entrapment efficiency, the mean diameter of the particles and so on. The optimal preparation of Oenothera biennis oil solid lipid nanoparticles was as follows: Oenothera biennis dosage 300 mg, glycerol monostearate-Oenothera biennis (2: 3), Oenothera biennis -RH/40/PEG-400 (1: 2), RH-40/PEG-400 (1: 2). The resulting nanoparticles average encapsulation efficiency was (89.89 ± 0.71)%, the average particle size was 44.43 ± 0.08 nm, and the Zeta potential was 64.72 ± 1.24 mV. The preparation process is simple, stable and feasible.

  5. Biodegradation of marine oil spill residues using aboriginal bacterial consortium based on Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Liu, Xing; Guo, Jie; Lv, Yingchun; Li, Yuanwei

    2018-09-15

    Bioremediation, mainly by indigenous bacteria, has been regarded as an effective way to deal with the petroleum pollution after an oil spill accident. The biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms co-incubated from sediments collected from the Penglai 19-3 oil platform, Bohai Sea, China, was examined. The relative susceptibility of the isomers of alkylnaphthalenes, alkylphenanthrenes and alkyldibenzothiophene to biodegradation was also discussed. The results showed that the relative degradation values of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) are 43.56% and 51.29% for sediments with untreated microcosms (S-BR1) and surfactant-treated microcosms (S-BR2), respectively. TPH biodegradation results showed an obvious decrease in saturates (biodegradation rate: 67.85-77.29%) and a slight decrease in aromatics (biodegradation rate: 47.13-57.21%), while no significant difference of resins and asphaltenes was detected. The biodegradation efficiency of alkylnaphthalenes, alkylphenanthrenes and alkyldibenzothiophene for S-BR1 and S-BR2 samples reaches 1.28-84.43% and 42.56-86.67%, respectively. The efficiency of crude oil degradation in sediment with surfactant-treated microcosms cultures added Tween 20, was higher than that in sediment with untreated microcosms. The biodegradation and selective depletion is not only controlled by thermodynamics but also related to the stereochemical structure of individual isomer compounds. Information on the biodegradation of oil spill residues by the bacterial community revealed in this study will be useful in developing strategies for bioremediation of crude oil dispersed in the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanofluid of graphene-based amphiphilic Janus nanosheets for tertiary or enhanced oil recovery: High performance at low concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Jingyi; Cao, Feng; Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiaogang; Willson, Richard C; Yang, Zhaozhong; Chu, Ching-Wu; Ren, Zhifeng

    2016-07-12

    The current simple nanofluid flooding method for tertiary or enhanced oil recovery is inefficient, especially when used with low nanoparticle concentration. We have designed and produced a nanofluid of graphene-based amphiphilic nanosheets that is very effective at low concentration. Our nanosheets spontaneously approached the oil-water interface and reduced the interfacial tension in a saline environment (4 wt % NaCl and 1 wt % CaCl2), regardless of the solid surface wettability. A climbing film appeared and grew at moderate hydrodynamic condition to encapsulate the oil phase. With strong hydrodynamic power input, a solid-like interfacial film formed and was able to return to its original form even after being seriously disturbed. The film rapidly separated oil and water phases for slug-like oil displacement. The unique behavior of our nanosheet nanofluid tripled the best performance of conventional nanofluid flooding methods under similar conditions.

  7. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma A Burgess

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ian F Burgess1, Katrina Kay1,2, Nazma A Burgess1, Elizabeth R Brunton11Medical Entomology Centre, Insect Research and Development Limited, Cambridge, 2Leeds Primary Care Trust, Leeds, UKBackground: This was a randomized, assessor-blind, controlled comparison of a soya oil-based medical device shampoo with a medicinal permethrin lotion in an alcohol vehicle for treatment of head louse infestation to generate data suitable for a regulatory submission to achieve reimbursable status for the shampoo product.Methods: We treated 91 children and adults, divided between two sites, on two occasions 9 days apart. Participants washed their hair and towel-dried it before treatment. The shampoo was used twice for 30 minutes each time. The lotion was used for 30 minutes followed by rinsing. Assessments were made by dry detection combing on days 2, 9, 11, and 14 after the first treatment. According to present knowledge, this combing technique does not influence the overall head louse populations or outcome of treatment.Results: The soya oil shampoo was significantly (P < 0.01 more effective than the lotion for both intention to treat (62.2% versus 34.8% successful treatment and per-protocol (74.3% versus 36.8% success groups. Post-treatment assessments showed the necessity for repeat treatment, but that a 9-day interval was too long because if eggs hatched after the first treatment, the lice could grow old enough to lay eggs before the second treatment.Conclusion: The soya oil-based shampoo was more effective than the permethrin lotion, more cosmetically acceptable, and less irritant.Keywords: pediculosis, medical device, medicinal product, insecticide, vegetable oil

  8. A lithology identification method for continental shale oil reservoir based on BP neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Luo; Fuqiang, Lai; Zheng, Dong; Weixu, Xia

    2018-06-01

    The Dongying Depression and Jiyang Depression of the Bohai Bay Basin consist of continental sedimentary facies with a variable sedimentary environment and the shale layer system has a variety of lithologies and strong heterogeneity. It is difficult to accurately identify the lithologies with traditional lithology identification methods. The back propagation (BP) neural network was used to predict the lithology of continental shale oil reservoirs. Based on the rock slice identification, x-ray diffraction bulk rock mineral analysis, scanning electron microscope analysis, and the data of well logging and logging, the lithology was divided with carbonate, clay and felsic as end-member minerals. According to the core-electrical relationship, the frequency histogram was then used to calculate the logging response range of each lithology. The lithology-sensitive curves selected from 23 logging curves (GR, AC, CNL, DEN, etc) were chosen as the input variables. Finally, the BP neural network training model was established to predict the lithology. The lithology in the study area can be divided into four types: mudstone, lime mudstone, lime oil-mudstone, and lime argillaceous oil-shale. The logging responses of lithology were complicated and characterized by the low values of four indicators and medium values of two indicators. By comparing the number of hidden nodes and the number of training times, we found that the number of 15 hidden nodes and 1000 times of training yielded the best training results. The optimal neural network training model was established based on the above results. The lithology prediction results of BP neural network of well XX-1 showed that the accuracy rate was over 80%, indicating that the method was suitable for lithology identification of continental shale stratigraphy. The study provided the basis for the reservoir quality and oily evaluation of continental shale reservoirs and was of great significance to shale oil and gas exploration.

  9. Local sustained delivery of bupivacaine HCl from a new castor oil-based nanoemulsion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Heni; Arvin, Yang Aryani; Asyarie, Sukmadjaja; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Tjandrawinata, Raymond Rubianto; Storm, Gert

    2018-06-01

    Bupivacaine HCl (1-butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide hydrochloride), an amide local anesthetic compound, is a local anesthetic drug utilized for intraoperative local anesthesia, post-operative analgesia and in the treatment of chronic pain. However, its utility is limited by the relative short duration of analgesia after local administration (approximately 9 h after direct injection) and risk for side effects. This work is aimed to develop a nanoemulsion of bupivacaine HCl with sustained local anesthetics release kinetics for improved pain management, by exhibiting extended analgesic action and providing reduced peak levels in the circulation to minimize side effects. Herein, biodegradable oils were evaluated for use in nanoemulsions to enable sustained release kinetics of bupivacaine HCl. Only with castor oil, a clear and stable nanoemulsion was obtained without the occurrence of phase separation over a period of 3 months. High loading of bupivacaine HCl into the castor oil-based nanoemulsion system was achieved with about 98% entrapment efficiency and the resulting formulation showed high stability under stress conditions (accelerated stability test) regarding changes in visual appearance, drug content, and droplet size. We show herein that the in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles as well as pharmacodynamic outcome (pain relief test) after subcutaneous administration in rats correlate well and clearly demonstrate the prolonged release and extended duration of activity of our novel nanoformulation. In addition, the lower C max value achieved in the blood compartment suggests the possibility that the risk for systemic side effects is reduced. We conclude that castor oil-based nanomulsion represents an attractive pain treatment possibility to achieve prolonged local action of bupivacaine HCl.

  10. Using environmental chemistry technologies for the removal of arsenic from drinking water, and fat and oil based phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterlin, William R.

    The first four chapters of this dissertation involve the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Various forms of a macroporous char prepared by partial gasification of subbituminous coal were studied for removal of arsenic(V) and arsenic(III) from water. In increasing order of effectiveness for arsenic(V) removal were untreated char water containing 500 micrograms/L of arsenic to levels below 10 micrograms/L. The capacity of the solid to remove arsenic was significantly diminished in water containing 4 mg/L of phosphate. An electrical current passed over 4 g of iron(III) oxide char in a column enabled removal of arsenic(III) from 14,000 mL of 500 micrograms/L arsenic(III) to below 10 micrograms/liter and at significantly higher flow rates than could be employed without electrolysis. The fifth chapter in this dissertation focused on the retention of organics onto a char/concrete pellet. A mixture of naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, biphenyl, toluene, tetrachloroethane, and chlorobenzene were impregnated into a loose granular char, a char/concrete pellet and a sand/concrete pellet. The results showed that the char/concrete pellet had significant advantages over the other forms. Chapters 6--9 focus on phase change materials (PCMs). These PCMs are made from fats and oils. PCMs are perhaps the only proven method that can provide near 100% thermal energy storage. In chapter 7 a novel HPLC method was developed that could provide quantification and qualification of the resulting products formed after PCM synthesis. In chapter 8 thermal cycling studies were conducted on the fat and oil based PCMs. These thermal cycle demonstrated that these PCMs were capable of going through a multitude of freeze and melt processes with little to no degradation if the appropriate preservative is used. Finally in chapter 9 the PCM is incorporated into a simulated 100 th scale house. A traditional freon based evaporator is used to freeze the PCM at night during electrical-off-peak hours

  11. Synthetic structural and biochemical studies of coordination compounds of Bismuth (III) with Schiff bases of sulpha drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shahina; Gupta, M.K.; Varshney, S; Varshney, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    The reactions of Bismuth trichloride with Schiff's bases derived from sulpha drugs in 1:1 molar ratio leads to the formation of a new series of coordination compound of Bismuth (III). Their structures have been confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis, ultraviolet, infrared and multinuclear magnetic resonance (1H 13C) spectral studies. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands and their coordination compound have been screened in vitro against the organism Escherichia coli, Stuplhylococus crureus, Prouteus mirabilis, Bacillus thuren giensis, penicilliurn cf.vsogenum, Aspergillns raiger and Fusarium Oxysporum. (author)

  12. Rheology of oleo gels based on sorbitan and glyceryl mono stearates and vegetable oils for lubricating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Franco, J. M.; Delgado, M. A.; Valencia, C.; Gallegos, C.

    2011-07-01

    Oleo gels based on sorbitan and glyceryl mono stearates and different types of vegetable oils, potentially applicable as biodegradable alternatives to traditional lubricating greases, have been studied. In particular, the rheological behavior, by means of small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements, and some lubrication performance-related properties (mechanical stability and tribological response) have been evaluated in this work. SAOS response and mechanical stability of these oleo gels are significantly influenced by the type and concentration of the organogelator and the vegetable oil used in the formulations. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) generally produces stronger gels than sorbitan monostearate (SMS). The use of low-viscosity oils, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, yields gels with significantly higher values of the linear viscoelastic functions than oleo gels prepared with high-viscosity oils, i.e. castor oil. The rheological behavior of SMS-based oleo gels also depends on the cooling rate applied during the gelification process. On the other hand, the oleo gels studied present low values of the friction coefficient obtained in a tribological contact, although only some GMS/castor oil-based oleo gels exhibit a suitable mechanical stability. (Author) 28 refs.

  13. Modeling North Sea oil-based mud cuttings discharges to assess environmental loading: An E ampersand P forum study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandsma, M.G.; McKelvie, S.

    1994-01-01

    Oil concentrations in the water column and benthic sediments caused by the discharge of oily cuttings were predicted at four North Sea sites using a computer model. The cuttings were drilled with oil based mud and were treated to reduce oil content prior to discharge. The predictions allowed the results of biological experiments to be related to field conditions in a multi-disciplinary research project. The goal of the project was to determine what amount of oil remaining on the cuttings is environmentally acceptable. Model results suggested that treatment reduced maximum and average oil concentrations in benthic sediments by more than 93%. Frequently, the maximum concentration was reduced below the 1,000 ppm identified in the biological experiments as the sediment oil concentration above which significant effects on biological communities may be observed. Reductions of oil concentrations in the cuttings were accompanied by reduced particle sizes and settling velocities. This resulted in increased dispersion at the seabed and caused water column oil concentrations to increase. The increased water column concentrations were still several orders of magnitude below toxic levels

  14. Preparation and evaluation of some benzimidazole derivatives as antioxidants for local base oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Basta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Some benzimidazole derivatives, 2(1-H benzo(dimidazole-2-y1thio N-butyl acetamide Ia, 2(I-H benzo(dimidazole-2-ylthio N-octylacetamid Ib and 2(I-H benzo(dimidazole-2-yl thio N-dodecylactamide Ic were prepared and studied as antioxidants for base stock. The structure of these compounds was elucidated by elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The inhibition efficiency of the prepared compounds was determined by studying the oxidation stability of the local base oil via the change in total acid number (TAN, viscosity and infrared (IR spectroscopy.

  15. Microwave Synthesis and Characterization of Waste Soybean Oil-Based Gemini Imidazolinium Surfactants with Carbonate Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Divya Bajpai; Mishra, Anuradha

    Gemini surfactants are presently gaining attention due to their unusual self-assembling characteristics and incomparable interfacial activity. Current research work involves the cost-effective microwave (MW) synthesis of waste soybean oil-based gemini imidazolinium surfactants (GIS) having a carbonate linkage in its spacer moiety. Structural characterizations of the materials have been done using FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Using indigenous and natural material as base and MW as energy source for synthesizing the GIS with easily degradable chemical moiety make them to be labeled as green surfactants.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, photoluminescence and cytotoxic properties of novel luminescent Eu(III)complexes based on chromone Schiff base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, M.; El-Shafiy, Hoda F.; Mashaly, Mahmoud M.; Eid, Mohamed F.; Nabeel, A. I.; Fouad, R.

    2018-06-01

    Three novel Eu(III) phosphor complexes, [Eu(HL)(OH2)2(C2H5OH)](NO3)2 (1), [Eu(HL)(Bpy)(NO3)2(EtOH)] (2) and [Eu(HL)(Phen)(NO3)2(H2O)] (3) (HL = (11E)-2-hydroxy-N/-((4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide; Bpy = 2,2/-bibyridyl and Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were prepared. Elemental, thermal, FT-IR and XRD methods were used to characterize their structural configuration. The HL behaves as a monoanionic tridentate ligand. The XRD analysis shows that the ligand and its Eu3+complexes are in nano domain. From fluorescence spectroscopy, all the prepared complexes are highly luminescent, having an impressive visual emission under UV excitation. The H2L and its Eu3+nano-complexes (1-3) were tested for their in vitro cytotoxicity against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell line (EAC). The Eu(III) nano-complexes (1-3) effectively inhibited EAC growth with IC50 value of 25 μM. The high antitumor activity of the Eu(III) nano-complexes (1-3) were attributed to its chemical structure, and nano size properties.

  17. The use of long range identification and tracking (LRIT) for modelling the risk of ship-based oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Andrew [Canadian Coast Guard (Canada)], email: andrew.szeto@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Pelot, Ronald [Dalhousie University (Canada)], email: ronald.pelot@dal.ca

    2011-07-01

    Accidents involving oil tankers have caused many and sometimes very large oil spills. Such spills to marine areas have a significant impact on environmental quality affecting all aspects of marine ecosystems. Based on valid shipping traffic data as a very important factor that must be considered in modeling the risk of ship-based oil spills, this paper shows the importance of use of the long-range identification and tracking (LRIT) system and looks at how it can be implemented to better assess ship-based oil pollution. The system is a new, accurate and reliable world-wide vessel tracking system with a range of data extended out to 1000 nm from Canadian shores and currently tracks up to about 900 vessels a day in real-time. It is believed that traffic data and effective monitoring can assist with search planning for detection of mystery spills, better resource deployment for spill mitigation, and improving information for research and management.

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of cork based oil sorbent and cow manure or sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavaleiro, A.J.; Neves, T.M.; Guedes, A.P.; Alves, M.M.; Pinto, P.; Silva, S.P.; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Cork, a material with great economic, social and environmental importance in Portugal, is also a good oil sorbent that can be used in the remediation of oil spills. The oil-impregnated cork can be easily removed, but requires further treatment. In the case of vegetable oil spills, anaerobic

  19. A Population-Based Comparative Effectiveness Study of Radiation Therapy Techniques in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jeremy P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Murphy, James D. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Science, University of California– San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, California (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Concerns have been raised about the potential for worse treatment outcomes because of dosimetric inaccuracies related to tumor motion and increased toxicity caused by the spread of low-dose radiation to normal tissues in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We therefore performed a population-based comparative effectiveness analysis of IMRT, conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional radiation therapy (2D-RT) in stage III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database to identify a cohort of patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC from 2002 to 2009 treated with IMRT, 3D-CRT, or 2D-RT. Using Cox regression and propensity score matching, we compared survival and toxicities of these treatments. Results: The proportion of patients treated with IMRT increased from 2% in 2002 to 25% in 2009, and the use of 2D-RT decreased from 32% to 3%. In univariate analysis, IMRT was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, P=.02) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR 0.89, P=.02). After controlling for confounders, IMRT was associated with similar OS (HR 0.94, P=.23) and CSS (HR 0.94, P=.28) compared with 3D-CRT. Both techniques had superior OS compared with 2D-RT. IMRT was associated with similar toxicity risks on multivariate analysis compared with 3D-CRT. Propensity score matched model results were similar to those from adjusted models. Conclusions: In this population-based analysis, IMRT for stage III NSCLC was associated with similar OS and CSS and maintained similar toxicity risks compared with 3D-CRT.

  20. Improving the cooling performance of electrical distribution transformer using transformer oilBased MEPCM suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Ismael Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the electrical distribution transformer has been studied numerically and the effect of outside temperature on its cooling performance has been investigated. The temperature range studied covers the hot climate regions. 250 KVA distribution transformer is chosen as a study model. A novel cooling fluid is proposed to improve the cooling performance of this transformer, transformer oil-based microencapsulated phase change materials suspension is used with volume concentration (5–25% as a cooling fluid instead of pure transformer oil. Paraffin wax is used as a phase change material to make the suspension, in addition to the ability of heat absorption due to melting, the paraffin wax considered as a good electrical insulator. Results obtained show that, using of MEPCM suspension instead of pure transformer oil lead to improve the cooling performance of transformer by reducing its temperature and as a consequence increasing its protection against the breakdown. The melting fraction increased with increasing outside temperature up to certain temperature after which the melting fraction reach maximum constant value (MF = 1 which indicate that, the choosing of PCM depend on the environment in which the transformer is used.

  1. Evaluating the safety of phytosterols removed perilla seed oil-based lipid emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhua; Ren, Tianyang; Lu, De; Guo, Haiyan; Li, Wanqiu; Huang, Chenglong; He, Haibing; Liu, Dongchun; Tang, Xing

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the potential toxicity of perilla seed oil-based lipid emulsion (POLE) caused by phytosterols and confirm the efficacy of the technique for removing phytosterols from perilla seed oil, and evaluate the safety of a low phytosterol POLE in a long-term tolerance study in dogs. A comparison between a soybean oil lipid emulsion (Intralipid group A) and POLE with high (group B) versus low (group C) levels of phytosterols was made with regard to their effects on the general condition, hematological and biochemical parameters, urinalysis and histopathological changes in nine dogs receiving daily infusions for four weeks at dosage levels of 6, 6, 9 g fat /kg. Dogs in group A and group C remained in good condition and gained weight during the infusion period and no diarrhea or gastrointestinal bleeding occurred. Only a moderate degree of anemia was observed, the biochemical parameters changed only slightly and returned to normal after treatment had ceased. However, the dogs in group B exhibited significant symptoms of 'fat overload syndrome'. Vomiting, diarrhoea and blood in the faeces were observed. Moreover, triglyceridemia, cholesteremia, and dark urine as well as microscopic signs of liver and gastrointestinal tract damage and generalized jaundice were clearly seen. Phytosterols promote 'fat overload syndrome' in long-term tolerance studies of POLE in dogs by producing cholestatic liver injury and interfering with fat metabolism. And the toxicity of POLE was reduced by removing phytosterols.

  2. Mineral content prediction for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs based on logging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maojin, Tan; Youlong, Zou; Guoyue

    2012-09-01

    Coal bed methane and shale oil &gas are both important unconventional oil and gas resources, whose reservoirs are typical non-linear with complex and various mineral components, and the logging data interpretation model are difficult to establish for calculate the mineral contents, and the empirical formula cannot be constructed due to various mineral. The radial basis function (RBF) network analysis is a new method developed in recent years; the technique can generate smooth continuous function of several variables to approximate the unknown forward model. Firstly, the basic principles of the RBF is discussed including net construct and base function, and the network training is given in detail the adjacent clustering algorithm specific process. Multi-mineral content for coal bed methane and shale oil &gas, using the RBF interpolation method to achieve a number of well logging data to predict the mineral component contents; then, for coal-bed methane reservoir parameters prediction, the RBF method is used to realized some mineral contents calculation such as ash, volatile matter, carbon content, which achieves a mapping from various logging data to multimineral. To shale gas reservoirs, the RBF method can be used to predict the clay content, quartz content, feldspar content, carbonate content and pyrite content. Various tests in coalbed and gas shale show the method is effective and applicable for mineral component contents prediction

  3. Numerical investigation of complex flooding schemes for surfactant polymer based enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Daripa, Prabir

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant-polymer flooding is a widely used method of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in which an array of complex fluids containing suitable and varying amounts of surfactant or polymer or both mixed with water is injected into the reservoir. This is an example of multiphase, multicomponent and multiphysics porous media flow which is characterized by the spontaneous formation of complex viscous fingering patterns and is modeled by a system of strongly coupled nonlinear partial differential equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Here we propose and discuss a modern, hybrid method based on a combination of a discontinuous, multiscale finite element formulation and the method of characteristics to accurately solve the system. Several types of flooding schemes and rheological properties of the injected fluids are used to numerically study the effectiveness of various injection policies in minimizing the viscous fingering and maximizing oil recovery. Numerical simulations are also performed to investigate the effect of various other physical and model parameters such as heterogeneity, relative permeability and residual saturation on the quantities of interest like cumulative oil recovery, sweep efficiency, fingering intensity to name a few. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  4. Emulsion Polymerization of Tung Oil-Based Latexes with Asolectin as a Biorenewable Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Johns

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based vesicles, with potential application in drug delivery and/or catalyst encapsulation, have been prepared by the free radical emulsion co-polymerization of tung oil, divinylbenzene (DVB, n-butyl methacrylate (BMA, and asolectin in a xylene/water mixture. The free radical polymerization was initiated by di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP at 100 °C in a convection oven. Molecular weights of approximately 11,000 Da were measured by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (Maldi-TOF for tung oil-asolectin copolymers, verifying that significant polymerization occurs under the cure conditions employed. The cure of the co-monomer mixture employed in this work was monitored by Dielectric Analysis (DEA, while changes in the Raman spectrum of all co-monomers before and after the cure, along with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis, have been used to verify the need of a post-cure step and completion of the polymerization reaction. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM images of the emulsion after polymerization indicate that vesicles were formed, and vesicle size distribution of samples prepared with different amounts of tung oil were determined using a Zetasizer.

  5. A New Emulsion Liquid Membrane Based on a Palm Oil for the Extraction of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Björkegren

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraction efficiency of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI, from water has been investigated using a vegetable oil based emulsion liquid membrane (ELM technique. The main purpose of this study was to create a novel ELM formulation by choosing a more environmentally friendly and non-toxic diluent such as palm oil. The membrane phase so formulated includes the mobile carrier tri-n-octylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC, to facilitate the metal transport, and the hydrophilic surfactant Tween 80 to facilitate the dispersion of the ELM phase in the aqueous solution. Span 80 is used as surfactant and butanol as co-surfactant. Our results demonstrate that this novel ELM formulation, using the vegetable palm oil as diluent, is useful for the removal of hexavalent chromium with an efficiency of over 99% and is thus competitive with the already existing, yet less environmentally friendly, ELM formulations. This result was achieved with an optimal concentration of 0.1 M NaOH as stripping agent and an external phase pH of 0.5. Different water qualities have also been investigated showing that the type of water (deionized, distilled, or tap water does not significantly influence the extraction rate.

  6. Deacidification of palm oil using betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrina, Ida; Nasikin, Mohammad; Krisanti, Elsa; Mulia, Kamarza

    2018-02-01

    In the palm oil industry, the deacidification process is performed by steam stripping which causes the loss of most of palm oil's natural antioxidants due to high temperature. The liquid-liquid extraction process which is carried out at low temperature is preferable in order to preserve these compounds. The use of hydrated ethanol can reduce the losses of antioxidants, but the ability of this solvent to extract free fatty acids also decreases. Betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have extensive potential for this process. The selectivity of these NADES was determined to select a preferable solvent. The betaine monohydrate-glycerol NADES in a molar ratio of 1:8 was determined to be the preferred solvent with the highest selectivity. This solvent has an efficiency of palmitic acid extraction of 34.14%, and the amount of antioxidants can be preserved in the refined palm oil up to 99%. The compounds are stable during extraction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Day-Ahead Crude Oil Price Forecasting Using a Novel Morphological Component Analysis Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a typical nonlinear and dynamic system, the crude oil price movement is difficult to predict and its accurate forecasting remains the subject of intense research activity. Recent empirical evidence suggests that the multiscale data characteristics in the price movement are another important stylized fact. The incorporation of mixture of data characteristics in the time scale domain during the modelling process can lead to significant performance improvement. This paper proposes a novel morphological component analysis based hybrid methodology for modeling the multiscale heterogeneous characteristics of the price movement in the crude oil markets. Empirical studies in two representative benchmark crude oil markets reveal the existence of multiscale heterogeneous microdata structure. The significant performance improvement of the proposed algorithm incorporating the heterogeneous data characteristics, against benchmark random walk, ARMA, and SVR models, is also attributed to the innovative methodology proposed to incorporate this important stylized fact during the modelling process. Meanwhile, work in this paper offers additional insights into the heterogeneous market microstructure with economic viable interpretations.

  8. Structure and viscosity of a transformer oil-based ferrofluid under an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajnak, M., E-mail: rajnak@saske.sk [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice (Slovakia); Timko, M.; Kopcansky, P.; Paulovicova, K. [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Tothova, J.; Kurimsky, J.; Dolnik, B.; Cimbala, R. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice (Slovakia); Avdeev, M.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Moscow region, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Petrenko, V.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Moscow region, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Feoktystov, A. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    Various structural changes of ferrofluids have been intensively studied under external magnetic fields. In this work we present an experimental evidence of similar changes induced by an electric field. In the context of the electric field effect on ferrofluids structure, we studied a simple ferrofluid consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and dispersed in transformer oil. The structural changes have been observed both on macroscopic and microscopic scale. We also demonstrate a remarkable impact of the electric field on the ferrofluid viscosity in relation to the reported structural changes. It was found that the electric field induced viscosity changes are analogous to the magnetoviscous effect. These changes and the electroviscous effect are believed to stem from the dielectric permittivity contrast between the iron oxide nanoparticles and transformer oil, giving rise to the effective electric polarization of the nanoparticles. It is highlighted that this electrorheological effect should be considered in studies of ferrofluids for high voltage engineering applications, as it can have impact on the thermomagnetic convection or the dielectric breakdown performance. - Highlights: • An experimental evidence of the electric field induced structural changes in a ferrofluid is presented. • An electroviscous effect in the transformer oil-based ferrofluid is shown. • The dielectric contrast between the particles and the carrier fluid is the key factor. • The potential impact on the thermomagnetic convection of ferrofluids in power transformers is highlighted.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of a novel bio-based resin from maleated soybean oil polyols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. T.; Yang, L. T.; Zhang, H.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a novel bio-based resin was prepared by the radical copolymerization of maleated soybean oil polyols (MSBOP) and styrene (ST). Structure of the product was studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and the result was found to be consistent with that of theoretical structure. Swelling experiments indicated that the crosslinking degree increased with the increase of hydroxyl value. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) revealed that glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer increased with increasing hydroxyl values, and that its thermal stability showed a good correlation with the hydroxyl value. The tensile strength and impact strength were significantly affected by the hydroxyl value of soybean oil polyols. With increasing hydroxyl value, the tensile strength presented an increasing trend, while the impact strength showed a decreasing one. Moreover, the property of the polymer from elastomer to plastic character also depended on the functionality of the hydroxyl value of soybean oil polyols.

  10. Development of Bio-Based Paint by using Methyl Esters from Palm Oil for Corrosion Inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohibah Musa; Miradatul Najwa Muhd Rodhi; Najmiddin Yaakob; Ku Halim Ku Hamid; Juferi Idris

    2013-01-01

    Paint is used as a means of protection to prevent surfaces from being corroded over time. This research is focused on the development of a Bio-based paint made from palm oil methyl ester (POME) which originated from crude palm oil (CPO). New formulation paint has been developed to protect the pipeline from corrosion thus reducing the cost of the operation. Bio-based paint is made up of four components which are solvent, binder, additives, and pigment. The solvent in the bio-based paint is POME. The additives used are wetting and dispersing agent. The pigment used in the bio-based paint is TiO 2 . The formulation was developed by using a constant amount of additives and binder but varying the amount of POME at 10 ml, 15 ml, 20 ml, 25 ml and 30 ml with addition of water. The Standard Testing Methods for measuring the corrosion rate (ASTM G5-94(2011)) was carried out for each sample. In conclusion, it is proven that in the making of bio-based paint formulation for better corrosion inhibitor; the best amount of binder, additives and de-foam that should be used is 20 ml, 10 ml and 10 ml, respectively. (author)

  11. Spectroscopic studies on two mono nuclear iron (III) complexes derived from a schiff base and an azodye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mini, S., E-mail: sadasivan.v@gmail.com; Sadasivan, V., E-mail: sadasivan.v@gmail.com [University College, M G Road, Palayam, Thiruvananthapuram 695 034 Kerala (India); Meena, S. S., E-mail: ssingh@barc.gov.in; Bhatt, Pramod, E-mail: ssingh@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Two new mono nuclear Fe(III) complexes of an azodye (ANSN) and a Schiff base (FAHP) are reported. The azodye is prepared by coupling diazotized 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulphonicacid with 2-naphthol and the Schiff base is prepared by condensing 2-amino-3-hydroxy pyridine with furfural. The complexes were synthesized by the reaction of FeCl{sub 3}Ðœ‡2H{sub 2}O with respective ligands. They were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral studies like IR, NMR, Electronic and M.ssbauer. Magnetic susceptibility and Molar conductance of complexes at room temperature were studied. Based on the spectroscopic evidences and other analytical data the complexes are formulated as[Fe(ANSN)Cl(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] and [Fe(FAHP)Cl{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].

  12. Spectroscopic studies on two mono nuclear iron (III) complexes derived from a schiff base and an azodye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mini, S.; Sadasivan, V.; Meena, S. S.; Bhatt, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Two new mono nuclear Fe(III) complexes of an azodye (ANSN) and a Schiff base (FAHP) are reported. The azodye is prepared by coupling diazotized 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulphonicacid with 2-naphthol and the Schiff base is prepared by condensing 2-amino-3-hydroxy pyridine with furfural. The complexes were synthesized by the reaction of FeCl 3 Ðœ‡2H 2 O with respective ligands. They were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral studies like IR, NMR, Electronic and M.ssbauer. Magnetic susceptibility and Molar conductance of complexes at room temperature were studied. Based on the spectroscopic evidences and other analytical data the complexes are formulated as[Fe(ANSN)Cl(H 2 O) 2 ] and [Fe(FAHP)Cl 2 (H 2 O) 2

  13. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of oil-based drilling cuttings in shale gas developing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuan; Li, Tong; Xu, Tengtun; Zeng, Yunmin; Song, Xue

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the thermal behavior of waste oil-based drilling cuttings (from shale gas fields in Chongqing) was examined at different heating rates ranging from 5 to 15 °C min-1 in inert atmosphere using a sync analyzer of thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Four methods were used to analyze the distributions and variations of kinetics parameter (active energy (E) and frequency gene (A)): Coats-Redfern and other three iso-conversion rate methods (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Vyazovkin and Friedman). The experimental results indicated that the process consists of three steps, i.e., water evaporation, volatilization of light oil component and heavy oil cracking. TG curves moved toward higher temperature zone caused by thermal hysteresis with the increase of temperature rising rate. For volatilization of lightweight components, the E calculated by three iso-conversion rate methods changed a little with conversion, and had almost the same results as the CR method (14.39˜20.08 kJ.mol-1). For reactions of heavy oil cracking with mixed mechanism, corresponding E rose gradually with the increase of reaction time. The CR method shows nonlinear trends and the reaction models and kinetic parameters cannot be extracted from CR curves. The results by three iso-conversion methods showed that apparent activation energy was given as 155.74˜561.10 kJ.mol-1, 141.06˜524.96 kJ.mol-1 and 74.37˜605.10 kJ.mol-1, respectively.

  14. Relationship of oil seep in Kudat Peninsula with surrounding rocks based on geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzati Azman, Nurul; Nur Fathiyah Jamaludin, Siti

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the relation of oil seepage at Sikuati area with the structural and petroleum system of Kudat Peninsula. The abundance of highly carbonaceous rocks with presence of lamination in the Sikuati Member outcrop at Kudat Peninsula may give an idea on the presence of oil seepage in this area. A detailed geochemical analysis of source rock sample and oil seepage from Sikuati area was carried out for their characterization and correlation. Hydrocarbon propectivity of Sikuati Member source rock is poor to good with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) value of 0.11% to 1.48%. and also categorized as immature to early mature oil window with Vitrinite Reflectance (VRo) value of 0.43% to 0.50 %Ro. Based on biomarker distribution, from Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, source rock sample shows Pr/Ph, CPI and WI of 2.22 to 2.68, 2.17 to 2.19 and 2.46 to 2.74 respectively indicates the source rock is immature and coming from terrestrial environment. The source rock might be rich in carbonaceous material organic matter resulting from planktonic/bacterial activity which occurs at fluvial to fluvio-deltaic environment. Overall, the source rock from outcrop level of Kudat Peninsula is moderately prolific in term of prospectivity and maturity. However, as go far deeper beneath the surface, we can expect more activity of mature source rock that generate and expulse hydrocarbon from the subsurface then migrating through deep-seated fault beneath the Sikuati area.

  15. Maximization of wave motion within a hydrocarbon reservoir for wave-based enhanced oil recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C.

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We discuss a systematic methodology for investigating the feasibility of mobilizing oil droplets trapped within the pore space of a target reservoir region by optimally directing wave energy to the region of interest. The motivation stems from field and laboratory observations, which have provided sufficient evidence suggesting that wave-based reservoir stimulation could lead to economically viable oil recovery.Using controlled active surface wave sources, we first describe the mathematical framework necessary for identifying optimal wave source signals that can maximize a desired motion metric (kinetic energy, particle acceleration, etc.) at the target region of interest. We use the apparatus of partial-differential-equation (PDE)-constrained optimization to formulate the associated inverse-source problem, and deploy state-of-the-art numerical wave simulation tools to resolve numerically the associated discrete inverse problem.Numerical experiments with a synthetic subsurface model featuring a shallow reservoir show that the optimizer converges to wave source signals capable of maximizing the motion within the reservoir. The spectra of the wave sources are dominated by the amplification frequencies of the formation. We also show that wave energy could be focused within the target reservoir area, while simultaneously minimizing the disturbance to neighboring formations - a concept that can also be exploited in fracking operations.Lastly, we compare the results of our numerical experiments conducted at the reservoir scale, with results obtained from semi-analytical studies at the granular level, to conclude that, in the case of shallow targets, the optimized wave sources are likely to mobilize trapped oil droplets, and thus enhance oil recovery.

  16. Synthesis of palm oil fatty acid and trimethylolpropane based ester for biolubricant base stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Nurazira Mohd; Derawi, Darfizzi; Salimon, Jumat

    2018-04-01

    RBD palm oil become one of the interesting renewable resources in biolubricant application. However, palm oil cannot be used directly as lubricant due to some performance limitations such as thermal and oxidative stability. This drawback can be overcome by chemical modification through esterification with polyhydric alcohol such as trimethylolpropane (TMP). The synthesis of ester was carried out via esterification of palm oil fatty acid (POFA) with TMP in the presence of 2% sulphuric acid as catalyst at 150 °C for 5 hours. Gas Chromatography equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) was used to determine the percentage composition of POTMP ester. The structure confirmation of POTMP ester was proven by Fourier Transformation Infra-Red (FTIR), proton and carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) spectroscopy analysis. The result showed that POTMP ester has successfully synthesized with 97.7% composition of triesters (TE), proved by GC chromatogram. Presence of ester group also evidenced by 1H NMR at 2.27-2.30 ppm and 13C NMR at 173.52-173.54 ppm. The percentage yield of POTMP ester produced was 82% and exist in liquid form at room temperature.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils: A literature-based database on contact allergens used for safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C

    2016-10-01

    The risks related to the use of essential oils are difficult to ascertain at present, due in part to the large number of different oils available on the market, making it difficult for the risk assessor. Essential oils may contain skin allergens in significant amounts, and could thus pose a risk to the consumer. The aim of our study was to collect as much qualitative and quantitative data as possible on allergens present in essential oils. 11 types of essential oils, with 25 respective subspecies, were taken into account based on a previous survey. Based on the literature, 517 dosages were recorded from 112 publications, providing precious information for probabilistic exposure assessment purposes. 22 substances recognized as established allergens were found in the essential oils we included. Of these, 11 are also found in cosmetics as fragrance components. These results are of major importance regarding co-exposure to fragrance allergens. Moreover, this could lead to regulatory measures for essential oils in the future, as it is the case for cosmetic products, in order to better protect consumers against skin allergy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Computation-based virtual screening for designing novel antimalarial drugs by targeting falcipain-III: a structure-based drug designing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Durg Vijay; Misra, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Cysteine proteases (falcipains), a papain-family of enzymes of Plasmodium falciparum, are responsible for haemoglobin degradation and thus necessary for its survival during asexual life cycle phase inside the human red blood cells while remaining non-functional for the human body. Therefore, these can act as potential targets for designing antimalarial drugs. The P. falciparum cysteine proteases, falcipain-II and falcipain- III are the enzymes which initiate the haemoglobin degradation, therefore, have been selected as targets. In the present study, we have designed new leupeptin analogues and subjected to virtual screening using Glide at the active site cavity of falcipain-II and falcipain-III to select the best docked analogues on the basis of Glide score and also compare with the result of AutoDock. The proposed analogues can be synthesized and tested in vivo as future potent antimalarial drugs. Protein falcipain-II and falcipain-III together with bounds inhibitors epoxysuccinate E64 (E64) and leupeptin respectively were retrieved from protein data bank (PDB) and latter leupeptin was used as lead molecule to design new analogues by using Ligbuilder software and refined the molecules on the basis of Lipinski rule of five and fitness score parameters. All the designed leupeptin analogues were screened via docking simulation at the active site cavity of falcipain-II and falcipain-III by using Glide software and AutoDock. The 104 new leupeptin-based antimalarial ligands were designed using structure-based drug designing approach with the help of Ligbuilder and subjected for virtual screening via docking simulation method against falcipain-II and falcipain-III receptor proteins. The Glide docking results suggest that the ligands namely result_037 shows good binding and other two, result_044 and result_042 show nearly similar binding than naturally occurring PDB bound ligand E64 against falcipain-II and in case of falcipain-III, 15 designed leupeptin analogues having

  19. Synthesis, structures and urease inhibitory activity of cobalt(III) complexes with Schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Changling; Wang, Cunfang; Yan, Kai; Zhao, Kedong; Sheng, Guihua; Qu, Dan; Niu, Fang; Zhu, Hailiang; You, Zhonglu

    2016-01-15

    A series of new cobalt(III) complexes were prepared. They are [CoL(1)(py)3]·NO3 (1), [CoL(2)(bipy)(N3)]·CH3OH (2), [CoL(3)(HL(3))(N3)]·NO3 (3), and [CoL(4)(MeOH)(N3)] (4), where L(1), L(2), L(3) and L(4) are the deprotonated form of N'-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)-3-methylbenzohydrazide, N'-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-3-hydroxylbenzohydrazide, 2-[(2-dimethylaminoethylimino)methyl]-4-methylphenol, and N,N'-bis(5-methylsalicylidene)-o-phenylenediamine, respectively, py is pyridine, and bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine. The complexes were characterized by infrared and UV-Vis spectra, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Co atoms in the complexes are in octahedral coordination. Complexes 1 and 4 show effective urease inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 4.27 and 0.35 μmol L(-1), respectively. Complex 2 has medium activity against urease, with IC50 value of 68.7 μmol L(-1). While complex 3 has no activity against urease. Molecular docking study of the complexes with Helicobacter pylori urease was performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.