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Sample records for iia upper atmosphere

  1. Climate of the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jacobi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In the frame of the European COST 296 project (Mitigation of Ionospheric Effects on Radio Systems, MIERS

    investigations of the climate of the upper atmosphere have been carried out during the last four years to obtain

    new information on the upper atmosphere. Mainly its ionospheric part has been analysed as the ionosphere

    most essential for the propagation of radio waves. Due to collaboration between different European partners

    many new results have been derived in the fields of long-term trends of different ionospheric and related atmospheric

    parameters, the investigations of different types of atmospheric waves and their impact on the ionosphere,

    the variability of the ionosphere, and the investigation of some space weather effects on the ionosphere.


  2. Report from upper atmospheric science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carignan, G.R.; Roble, R.G.; Mende, S.B.; Nagy, A.F.; Hudson, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the understanding of the thermosphere resulted from the analysis of data accrued through the Atmosphere Explorer satellites, the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite, and observations from rockets, balloons, and ground based instruments. However, new questions were posed by the data that have not yet been answered. The mesosphere and lower thermosphere have been less thoroughly studied because of the difficulty of accessibility on a global scale, and many rather fundamental characteristics of these regions are not well understood. A wide variety of measurement platforms can be used to implement various parts of a measurement strategy, but the major thrusts of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program would require Explorer-class missions. A remote sensing mission to explore the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and one and two Explorer-type spacecraft to enable a mission into the thermosphere itself would provide the essential components of a productive program of exploration of this important region of the upper atomsphere. Theoretical mission options are explored

  3. Climate of the upper atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bremer, J.; Laštovička, Jan; Mikhailov, A. V.; Altadill, D.; Pal, B.; Burešová, Dalia; Franceschi de, G.; Jacobi, C.; Kouris, S. S.; Perrone, L.; Turunen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3/4 (2009), s. 273-299 ISSN 1593-5213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * trends * atmospheric waves * ionospheric variability * incoherent radar * space weather Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2009

  4. Global Change in the Upper Atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Akmaev, R. A.; Beig, G.; Bremer, J.; Emmert, J. T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 314, č. 5803 (2006), s. 1253-1254 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Global change * Upper Atmosphere * Ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 30.028, year: 2006

  5. Climate Change in the Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; Liu, H.; Marsh, D. R.; McInerney, J. M.; Qian, L.; Vitt, F.

    2016-12-01

    The terrestrial upper atmosphere is cooling and contracting in response to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. This effect, the opposite of troposheric behavior, is primarily due to infrared radiative cooling by heterogeneous molecules, particularly carbon dioxide, as predicted by Roble and Dickinson in 1989. Upper atmosphere global change has been observed in several ways, most definitively by changes in thermospheric density inferred from satellite drag measurements, or, more controversially, in the possible increase of polar mesospheric clouds. When the TIMED mission launched in 2001, climate change was on its agenda, but surreptitiously, because trends were not expected to be observable during a supposed two-year mission. Now, 15 years later, TIMED has become a pathfinder for climate analysis, particularly through carbon dioxide emissions measured by the SABER instrument. New complexities have emerged, however: the possibility that the carbon dioxide mixing ratio near the mesopause is increasing faster with increasing altitude, and the possibility that solar ultraviolet and geomagnetic activity are exhibiting a decreasing trend over the past one-to-three solar cycles. We have conducted simulations of anthropogenic change in the upper atmosphere using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model - eXtended (WACCM-X), a component of the NCAR Community Earth System Model. The atmospheric response was evaluated using carbon dioxide, methane, and CFC lower boundary conditions from the late 1900's and early 2000's. The results show that the thermosphere should cool at a rate of several degrees per decade under present rates of change, largely driven by the effect of carbon dioxide cooling on thermospheric scale heights. Changes in middle atmosphere temperature, methane, and ozone, have much smaller effects on the thermosphere. Thermospheric cooling causes the ionosphere to also contract to lower altitude, but with small changes induced in NmF2. Whole

  6. Orographic Disturbances of Upper Atmosphere Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefov, N. N.; Pertsev, N. N.

    1984-01-01

    There are some increases of the temperature of the hydroxyl emission (delta T approximately 20 K, z approximately 90 km) and of the intensity of the 63000 oxygen emission (delta I/I approximately 20 per cent, z approximately 250 km) for the lee of the mountains at distances about 150 km in the case of the latitudinal direction of the wind (U approximately 10 m/s) at the 3000 m level. Airflow motions over mountains may be one of the possible processes of generation of wave disturbances penetrating into the upper atmospheres (HINES, 1974; LINDZEN, 1971). The purpose here is to study the penetration of orographic disturbances into upper atmosphere. Airplane measurements of emission variations of hydroxyl and atomic oxygen 6300 A near the Northern Ural mountains were made. Several nocturnal flights were carried out in March, 1980 and January to February, 1981 at heights about 3000 m along 64 deg northern latitude in the Ural region. Spectrographs SP-48 with electronic image converters registration for OH ((9,4) and (5,1) bands - 7700 to 8100 A) and OI (6300 A) emissions were used. The zenith region was observed, and exposure time was 2 minutes. This corresponds to averaging of the emission intensities along the airplane trace over a distance of 10 km. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric temperature variations at the flight altitude were made.

  7. VUV photochemistry simulation of planetary upper atmosphere using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Nathalie; Giuliani, Alexandre; Correia, Jean Jacques; Cernogora, Guy

    2013-07-01

    The coupling of a gas reactor, named APSIS, with a vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility, for a photochemistry study of gas mixtures, is reported. The reactor may be irradiated windowless with gas pressures up to hundreds of millibar, and thus allows the effect of energetic photons below 100 nm wavelength to be studied on possibly dense media. This set-up is perfectly suited to atmospheric photochemistry investigations, as illustrated by a preliminary report of a simulation of the upper atmospheric photochemistry of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. Titan's atmosphere is mainly composed of molecular nitrogen and methane. Solar VUV irradiation with wavelengths no longer than 100 nm on the top of the atmosphere enables the dissociation and ionization of nitrogen, involving a nitrogen chemistry specific to nitrogen-rich upper atmospheres.

  8. Impact of terrestrial weather on the upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Akmaev, R. A.; Wu, F.; Anghel, A.; Maruyama, N.; Anderson, D. N.; Codrescu, M. V.; Iredell, M.; Moorthi, S.; Juang, H.-M.; Hou, Y.-T.; Millward, G.

    2008-05-01

    A whole atmosphere model has been developed to demonstrate the impact of terrestrial weather on the upper atmosphere. The dynamical core is based on the NWS Global Forecast System model, which has been extended to cover altitudes from the ground to 600 km. The model includes the physical processes responsible for the stochastic nature of the lower atmosphere, which is a source of variability for the upper atmosphere. The upper levels include diffusive separation, wind induced transport of major species, and uses specific enthalpy as the dependent variable, to accommodate composition dependent gas constants and specific heats. A one-year model simulation reveals planetary waves explicitly up to 100 km altitude. At higher altitude, multi-day periodicities in the dynamics appear as a modulation of tidal amplitudes, particularly the migrating semi-diurnal tide in the lower thermosphere dynamo region. The penetration of planetary wave periodicities from tropospheric weather into the upper atmosphere can explain terrestrial weather sources of variability in the thermospheric and ionospheric.

  9. Large Abundances of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Moriconi, M. L.; D'Aversa, E.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 micron in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al.We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 micron. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) × 10(exp 4) particles / cubic cm. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is approx 430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 sq. nm; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  10. Cupid's Arrow: An Innovative Nanosat to Sample Venus' Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienstock, Bernie; Darrach, Murray; Madzunkov, Stojan; Sotin, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In NASA's Discovery 2014 AO, the opportunity to propose a Technology Demonstration Opportunity (TDO) to enhance the primary mission was specified. For the Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography, and Spectroscopy (VERITAS) mission, we elected to include the Cupid's Arrow nanosat TDO to sample and measure the abundances of noble gases and their isotopic ratios in Venus's upper atmosphere below the homopause. This paper will provide a basic overview of the VERITAS mission, with a focus on the Cupid's Arrow concept including a description of the mission, spacecraft design, and JPL's quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (QITMS) instrument specifications and design. In previous planetary entry probe mission designs, particularly at Venus, engineers w ere focused on entry and descent. A landed probe was also proposed for the New Frontiers SAGE mission. For Cupid's Arrow, the nanosat is designed to skim through the upper atmosphere, just below the homopause, in order to sample the atmosphere, perform the analysis, and then exit the atmosphere to transmit its data to the orbiting VERITAS spacecraft. Cupid's Arrow is a compelling addition to the VERITAS geology mission. A key missing link in our understanding of Venus' evolution is the noble gas abundances and their isotopic ratios. Not since Pioneer Venus have these measurements been made in the Venus atmosphere and never in the upper atmosphere, just below the homopause, to the degree of accuracy that will be accomplished by VERITAS' Cupid's Arrow nanosat.Such measurements were ranked as the number 1 investigation of the number 1 objective of the goal "Atmospheric Formation, Evolution, and Climate History ".

  11. Upper atmosphere density from the motion of the ANS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnal, L.

    1983-01-01

    The ANS satellite (the First Netherlands Astronomical Satellite, 1974 70 A) was launched on August 30, 1974, into a sun-synchronous orbit, whereby the orbital plane was perpendicular to the direction to the sun. It is noted that the orbital sun synchronization required a highly inclined retro-grade orbit, i = 98 deg. The satellite was a rectangular prism having two solar panels oriented with their planes perpendicular to the solar rays. This special orbit and orientation gave rise to peculiar perturbations; these have been analyzed, in particular with respect to the changes in the inclination (Wakker et al., 1981; Sehnal, 1981, 1982). In addition, the determination of the upper atmosphere densities was used in computing the satellite drag coefficient Sehnal, 1982). The data employed were those derived at the European Space Operation Center. The values obtained for the densities of the upper atmosphere are analyzed and compared with the values given in several recently proposed models.

  12. Trends in the Neutral and Ionized Upper Atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Solomon, S.C.; Qian, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 168, 1-4 (2012), s. 113-145 ISSN 0038-6308 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Global change * Long-term trends * Ionosphere * Upper atmosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 5.519, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/d4015w2q031q5048/fulltext.pdf

  13. Trends in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere: Recent progress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 6 (2013), s. 3924-3935 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/1792; GA MŠk LD12070 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Long-term trends * upper atmosphere * ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50341/abstract

  14. Energy Dissipation in the Upper Atmospheres of TRAPPIST-1 Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ofer; Glocer, Alex; Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Bell, Jared M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a method to quantify the upper limit of the energy transmitted from the intense stellar wind to the upper atmospheres of three of the TRAPPIST-1 planets (e, f, and g). We use a formalism that treats the system as two electromagnetic regions, where the efficiency of the energy transmission between one region (the stellar wind at the planetary orbits) to the other (the planetary ionospheres) depends on the relation between the conductances and impedances of the two regions. Since the energy flux of the stellar wind is very high at these planetary orbits, we find that for the case of high transmission efficiency (when the conductances and impedances are close in magnitude), the energy dissipation in the upper planetary atmospheres is also very large. On average, the Ohmic energy can reach 0.5–1 W m‑2, about 1% of the stellar irradiance and 5–15 times the EUV irradiance. Here, using constant values for the ionospheric conductance, we demonstrate that the stellar wind energy could potentially drive large atmospheric heating in terrestrial planets, as well as in hot Jupiters. More detailed calculations are needed to assess the ionospheric conductance and to determine more accurately the amount of heating the stellar wind can drive in close-orbit planets.

  15. Penetration of internal gravity waveguide modes into the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko G.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes internal gravity waveguide modes, using dissipative solutions above the source. We compare such a description with an accurate approach and a WKB approximation for dissipationless equations. For waveguide disturbances, dispersion relations calculated by any method are shown to be close to each other and to be in good agreement with observed characteristics of traveling ionospheric disturbances. Unlike other methods, dissipative solutions above the source allow us to adequately describe the spatial structure of disturbances in the upper atmosphere.

  16. Upper atmosphere research: Reaction rate and optical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, L. J.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Nava, D. F.; Payne, W. A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to provide photochemical, kinetic, and spectroscopic information necessary for photochemical models of the Earth's upper atmosphere and to examine reactions or reactants not presently in the models to either confirm the correctness of their exclusion or provide evidence to justify future inclusion in the models. New initiatives are being taken in technique development (many of them laser based) and in the application of established techniques to address gaps in the photochemical/kinetic data base, as well as to provide increasingly reliable information.

  17. Formation of nitrogenated organic aerosols in the Titan upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Hiroshi; Smith, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Many aspects of the nitrogen fixation process by photochemistry in the Titan atmosphere are not fully understood. The recent Cassini mission revealed organic aerosol formation in the upper atmosphere of Titan. It is not clear, however, how much and by what mechanism nitrogen is incorporated in Titan’s organic aerosols. Using tunable synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source, we demonstrate the first evidence of nitrogenated organic aerosol production by extreme ultraviolet–vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of a N2/CH4 gas mixture. The ultrahigh-mass-resolution study with laser desorption ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry of N2/CH4 photolytic solid products at 60 and 82.5 nm indicates the predominance of highly nitrogenated compounds. The distinct nitrogen incorporations at the elemental abundances of H2C2N and HCN, respectively, are suggestive of important roles of H2C2N/HCCN and HCN/CN in their formation. The efficient formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons is observed in the gas phase without abundant nitrogenated neutrals at 60 nm, and this is confirmed by separately using 13C and 15N isotopically labeled initial gas mixtures. These observations strongly suggest a heterogeneous incorporation mechanism via short lived nitrogenated reactive species, such as HCCN radical, for nitrogenated organic aerosol formation, and imply that substantial amounts of nitrogen is fixed as organic macromolecular aerosols in Titan’s atmosphere. PMID:20616074

  18. Nonlinear coseismic infrasound waves in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chum, J.; Liu, J. Y.; Cabrera, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Vertical motion of the ground surface caused by seismic waves generates acoustic waves that propagate nearly vertically upward because of supersonic speed of seismic waves. As the air density decreases with height, the amplitude of acoustic waves increases to conserve the energy flux. If the initial perturbation is large enough (larger than 10 mm/s) and the period of waves is long (>10 s), then the amplitude reaches significant values in the upper atmosphere (e.g. oscillation velocities of the air particles become comparable with sound speed) and the nonlinear phenomena start to play an important role before the wave is dissipated. The nonlinear phenomena lead to changes of spectral content of the wave packet. The energy is transferred to lower frequencies, which can cause the formation of roughly bipolar N-shaped pulse in the vicinity of the epicenters (up to distance about 1000-1500 km) of strong, M>7, earthquakes. The nonlinear propagation is studied on the basis of numerical solution of continuity, momentum and heat equations in 1D (along vertical axis) for viscous compressible atmosphere. Boundary conditions on the ground are determined by real measurements of the vertical motion of the ground surface. The results of numerical simulations are in a good agreement with atmospheric fluctuations observed by continuous Doppler sounding at heights of about 200 km and epicenter distance around 800 km. In addition, the expected fluctuations of GSP-TEC are calculated.

  19. The SWAP Upper Atmosphere Expansion Benchmark: Updates and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric expansion during extreme events refers to the response of the upper atmosphere to an injection of energy from solar or magnetospheric sources, and the subsequent increase in temperature. The resulting thermal expansion causes neutral density to increase at low-Earth orbit altitudes, which poses two distinct risks to operational spacecraft. The first is the direct effect of enhanced drag on the spacecraft, changing its orbit, increasing the uncertainty of its position, and reducing the orbital lifetime. The second is the indirect effect on the ability to monitor the trajectories of debris for collision avoidance. Three different energy injection scenarios are considered: 1) An increase in solar UV and EUV radiation for a number of days; 2) An extreme enhancement in the solar X-rays and EUV radiation associated with a flare; and 3) An extreme CME driving a geomagnetic storm. The first scenario is reasonably well defined and can be addressed based on predictions from empirical models. The second can be estimated by extrapolating from an observed response. The third scenario is more complex and requires simulations of physical models. The question is, if an 1859 Carrington-level CME hit Earth, how might the thermosphere respond? A physical model simulation predicts neutral atmosphere horizontal winds exceeding 2000 m/s, modulating in-track apparent density, vertical winds exceeding 150 m/s, neutral temperature exceeding 4000 K, and large increases in neutral density. The "top" of the thermosphere, the exobase, which is normally around 600 km would rise to well above 1000 km, creating significant satellite drag to much higher altitudes. The neutral density in low-Earth orbit would be expected to exceed the response to the Bastille or Halloween-like storm by a factor of five. In addition, electrodynamic transport of plasma could also raise the total density experienced by spacecraft at the higher altitudes. Several studies would need to be conducted to

  20. Hydrocarbon photochemistry in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, G. R.; Allen, M.; Yung, Y. L.

    1996-01-01

    The hydrocarbon photochemistry in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter is investigated using a one-dimensional, photochemical-diffusive, and diurnally averaged model. The important chemical cycles and pathways among the major species are outlined and a standard model for the North Equatorial Belt region is examined in detail. It is found that several traditionally dominant chemical pathways among the C and C2 species are replaced in importance by cycles involving C-C4 species. The pressure and altitude profiles of mixing ratios for several observable hydrocarbon species are compared with available ultraviolet- and infrared-derived abundances. The results of sensitivity studies on the standard model with respect to variations in eddy diffusion profile, solar flux, atomic hydrogen influx, latitude, temperature, and important chemical reaction rates are presented. Measured and calculated airglow emissions of He at 584 angstroms and H at 1216 angstroms are also used to provide some constraints on the range of model parameters. The relevance of the model results to the upcoming Galileo mission is briefly discussed. The model is subject to considerable improvement; there is a great need for laboratory measurements of basic reaction rates and photodissociation quantum yields, even for such simple species as methylacetylene and allene. Until such laboratory measurements exist there will be considerable uncertainty in the understanding of the C3 and higher hydrocarbons in the atmospheres of the jovian planets.

  1. New Upper Limits on Numerous Lunar Atmosphere Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason C.; Stern, S. A.; Retherford, K.; Tsang, C. C. C.

    2012-10-01

    In September 2009, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) entered a polar orbit around the Moon. The sensitive Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument on LRO has observed the permanently shadowed regions (Gladstone et al. 2012), measured the composition of the material excavated by the LCROSS impact (Gladstone et al. 2010) and detected and measured variations of He in the Lunar atmosphere (Stern et al., 2012, Feldman et al., 2012). The LAMP instrument is typically oriented to view the surface. There are periods during the orbit when the surface is in darkness, but space below LRO is in sunlight. These “twilight” observations occur twice per orbit, about 11-12 times per day. In a typical orbit, the duration in twilight is about 600 seconds and the observations are concentrated around the north and south poles of the moon (>80° latitude). These periods are longest around solstices, reaching over 3600 seconds per orbit and examine all latitudes. The total integration time for these LAMP nadir observations in twilight is about 9×106 seconds over the lifetime of the mission. We bin these observations by the height of the lunar shadow (shadow height) and the altitude of the spacecraft. From September 2009 to December 2010, the altitude rage during this period was between 30 and 80 km. After December 2010, the orbit of LRO was changed to make it more elliptical, reaching a maximum of nearly 200 km. Using these data, we determine the upper limits for 30 neutrals (e.g., H, O, Ne), ions (e.g., O+) and molecules (e.g., H2) that were either detected in the LCROSS plume (Gladstone et al., 2010), suggested by the mass spectrometer LACE (Hoffman & Hodges, 1975) or predicted previously (Flynn & Stern, 1996). We will present these upper limits, compare to previous values where appropriate and discuss their significance.

  2. Operational support for Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) attitude sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Garber, A.; Lambertson, M.; Raina, P.; Underwood, S.; Woodruff, C.

    1994-05-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has several sensors that can provide observations for attitude determination: star trackers, Sun sensors (gimbaled as well as fixed), magnetometers, Earth sensors, and gyroscopes. The accuracy of these observations is important for mission success. Analysts on the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) UARS Attitude task monitor these data to evaluate the performance of the sensors taking corrective action when appropriate. Monitoring activities range from examining the data during real-time passes to constructing long-term trend plots. Increasing residuals (differences) between the observed and expected quantities is a prime indicator of sensor problems. Residual increases may be due to alignment shifts and/or degradation in sensor output. Residuals from star tracker data revealed and anomalous behavior that contributes to attitude errors. Compensating for this behavior has significantly reduced the attitude errors. This paper discusses the methods used by the FDF UARS attitude task for maintenance of the attitude sensors, including short- and long-term monitoring, trend analysis, and calibration methods, and presents the results obtained through corrective action.

  3. Solar cycle variation of the upper atmosphere temperature of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantsch, M.H.; Bauer, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Neutral gas temperatures inferred from topside plasma scale heights of electron density distributions obtained from observations by US and USSR Mars missions imply a much higher dependence of solar activity (expressed by the 10.7 cm radio flux F 10.7 ) than that found for Venus. This dependence, however, does not appear to be consistent with the observed solar cycle dependence of ionospheric peak plasma densities. The reason for this discrepancy seems to lie in the fact, that photochemical equilibrium applies only to altitudes below 170 km, whereas topside scale heights are usually derived for a much greater altitude range and thus may be modified by transport and other processes. If scale heights are obtained by matching a Chapman-layer to plasma density profiles near the ionosphere peak, the derived neutral temperatures show a much weaker dependence on F 10.7 , in fact one essentially the same as for Venus. Thus, the response of the upper atmosphere for Mars, at least near the ionospheric peak, appears to be virtually identical to that of Venus

  4. Non-LTE models of Titan's upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelle, Roger V.

    1991-01-01

    Models for the thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere, between 0.1 mbar and 0.01 nbar are presented. The calculations include non-LTE heating/cooling in the rotation-vibration bands of CH4, C2H2, and C2H6, absorption of solar IR radiation in the near-IR bands of CH4 and subsequent cascading to the nu-4 band of CH4, absorption of solar EUV and UV radiation, thermal conduction and cooling by HCN rotational lines. Unlike earlier models, the calculated exospheric temperature agrees well with observations, because of the importance of HCN cooling. The calculations predict a well-developed mesopause with a temperature of 135-140 K at an altitude of approximately 600 km and pressure of about 0.1 microbar. The mesopause is at a higher pressure than predicted by earlier calculations because non-LTE radiative transfer in the rotation-vibration bands of CH4, C2H2, and C2H6 is treated in an accurate manner. The accuracy of the LTE approximation for source functions and heating rates is discussed.

  5. Microbes in the upper atmosphere and unique opportunities for astrobiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J

    2013-10-01

    Microbial taxa from every major biological lineage have been detected in Earth's upper atmosphere. The goal of this review is to communicate (1) relevant astrobiology questions that can be addressed with upper atmosphere microbiology studies and (2) available sampling methods for collecting microbes at extreme altitudes. Precipitation, mountain stations, airplanes, balloons, rockets, and satellites are all feasible routes for conducting aerobiology research. However, more efficient air samplers are needed, and contamination is also a pervasive problem in the field. Measuring microbial signatures without false positives in the upper atmosphere might contribute to sterilization and bioburden reduction methods for proposed astrobiology missions. Intriguingly, environmental conditions in the upper atmosphere resemble the surface conditions of Mars (extreme cold, hypobaria, desiccation, and irradiation). Whether terrestrial microbes are active in the upper atmosphere is an area of intense research interest. If, in fact, microbial metabolism, growth, or replication is achievable independent of Earth's surface, then the search for habitable zones on other worlds should be broadened to include atmospheres (e.g., the high-altitude clouds of Venus). Furthermore, viable cells in the heavily irradiated upper atmosphere of Earth could help identify microbial genes or enzymes that bestow radiation resistance. Compelling astrobiology questions on the origin of life (if the atmosphere synthesized organic aerosols), evolution (if airborne transport influenced microbial mutation rates and speciation), and panspermia (outbound or inbound) are also testable in Earth's upper atmosphere.

  6. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1997-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology development, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the upper troposphere and stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our chemical and physical understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Research Division in the Office of Earth Science at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort have also been provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper troposphere and the stratosphere and their control on the distribution of atmospheric chemical species such as ozone; assess possible perturbations to the composition of the atmosphere caused by human activities and natural phenomena (with a specific emphasis on trace gas geographical distributions, sources, and sinks and the role of trace gases in defining the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere); understand the processes affecting the distributions of radiatively active species in the atmosphere, and the importance of chemical-radiative-dynamical feedbacks on the meteorology and climatology of the stratosphere and troposphere; and understand ozone production, loss, and recovery in an atmosphere with increasing abundances of greenhouse gases. The current report is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported

  7. NACP MCI: Tower Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations, Upper Midwest Region, USA, 2007-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides high precision and high accuracy atmospheric CO2 data from seven instrumented communication towers located in the U.S. Upper Midwest. The...

  8. Potential Vorticity based parameterization for specification of Upper troposphere/lower stratosphere ozone in atmospheric models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Potential Vorticity based parameterization for specification of Upper troposphere/lower stratosphere ozone in atmospheric models - the data set consists of 3D O3...

  9. Long-term trends in the ionosphere and upper atmosphere parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bremer, J.; Alfonsi, L.; Pal, B.; Laštovička, Jan; Mikhailov, A. V.; Rogers, N.

    47 /suppl./, 2/3 (2004), s. 1009-1029 ISSN 1593-5213. [Final Meeting COST271 Action. Effects of the upper atmosphere on terrestrial and Earth-space communications (EACOS). Abingdon, 26.08.2004-27.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 271.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : long-term trends * ionosphere * upper atmosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.413, year: 2004

  10. Observation and Modeling of Tsunami-Generated Gravity Waves in the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-08

    Observation and modeling of tsunami-generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... perturbations caused by the GWs) as a function of space and time at the altitudes z=200-300 km. These perturbations will then be given to Dr. Makela to...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Observation and modeling of tsunami-generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere Sharon

  11. Upper-Atmospheric Space and Earth Weather Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The USEWX project is seeking to monitor, record, and distribute atmospheric measurements of the radiation environment by installing a variety of dosimeters and other...

  12. Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laštovička

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the upper atmosphere, greenhouse gases produce a cooling effect, instead of a warming effect. Increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce substantial changes in the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere, including a thermal contraction of these layers. In this article we construct for the first time a pattern of the observed long-term global change in the upper atmosphere, based on trend studies of various parameters. The picture we obtain is qualitative, and contains several gaps and a few discrepancies, but the overall pattern of observed long-term changes throughout the upper atmosphere is consistent with model predictions of the effect of greenhouse gas increases. Together with the large body of lower atmospheric trend research, our synthesis indicates that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are affecting the atmosphere at nearly all altitudes between ground and space.

  13. Parachute systems for the atmospheric reentry of launcher upper stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DOBRESCU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Parachute systems can be used to control the reentry trajectory of launcher upper stages, in order to lower the risks to the population or facilitate the retrieval of the stage. Several types of parachutes deployed at subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic speeds are analyzed, modeled as single and multistage systems. The performance of deceleration parachutes depends on their drag area and deployment conditions, while gliding parachutes are configured to achieve stable flight with a high glide ratio. Gliding parachutes can be autonomously guided to a low risk landing area. Sizing the canopy is shown to be an effective method to reduce parachute sensitivity to wind. The reentry trajectory of a launcher upper stage is simulated for each parachute system configuration and the results are compared to the nominal reentry case.

  14. Mars Atmospheric History Derived from Upper-Atmospheric Structure of 38Ar/36Ar Measured From MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce; Slipski, Marek; Benna, Mehdi; Mahaffy, Paul; Elrod, Meredith K.; Yelle, Roger; Stone, Shane; Alsaeed, Noora

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the structure of the Martian upper atmosphere made from MAVEN observations allow us to derive homopause and exobase altitudes in the Mars upper atmosphere and to determine the isotopic fractionation that occurs between them. Fractionation in the ratio of 38Ar/36Ar occurs between the homopause and exobase due to diffusive separation. This fractionation, combined with measurements of the bulk atmospheric ratio, is used to determine the total amount of argon lost to space by pick-up-ion sputtering. Our analysis is based on Rayleigh distillation, modified by replenishment of gas to the atmosphere by outgassing, impact, and crustal weathering. Approximately 80 % of the 36Ar that was ever in the atmosphere has been removed through time. This high value requires that a major fraction of Mars atmospheric gas has been lost to space. It points strongly to loss to space as having been the dominant mechanism driving the transition in Martian climate from an early, warm, wet environment to today's cold, dry, thin atmosphere.

  15. Gamma ray flashes add to mystery of upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric electricity research has come a long way since Benjamin Franklin's kite-flying days. But what researchers have been learning lately about above-thunderstorm electricity has wrought a whole new era of mysteries.For a start, last summer a Colorado meteorologist sparked interest in a terrestrial phenomenon that the community first observed more than 100 years ago: optical flashes that occur above thunderstorms—at least 30 km above Earth. Walter Lyons with the Ft. Collins-based Mission Research Corporation, demonstrated that such flashes are not anomalies, as conventional scientific wisdom had held. He filmed hundreds of flashes during a 2-week period.

  16. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS): Ten successful years of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.; Ahmad, S.; Serafino, G.; Jackman, C.

    As a major element in NASA's comprehensive Upper Atmosphere Research Program, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was launched on September 12, 1991, into a circular orbit at an altitude of approximately 570 km with an inclination of 57 degrees. Ten instruments were flown aboard UARS with the goal to understand 1) the response of the upper atmospheric chemistry to natural and human perturbations, 2) the chemical processes and dynamics that control upper atmosphere structure and variability, and 3) couplings of the lower and upper atmosphere that play a major role in defining climate and climate variability. UARS with its ten unique instruments has been the first satellite to provide high quality, simultaneous global measurements of the chemistry, dynamics, and energetics of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. After 10 years of successful data collection (far exceeding the originally projected lifetime of 3 years), the official mission ended in September 2001. However, seven instruments aboard UARS are still operational and six regularly take measurements. Standard UARS products consisting of measurements of atmospheric internal structure (trace constituents, physical dynamics, radiative emission, thermal structure, density) and measurements of the external influences acting upon the upper atmosphere (solar radiation and charged particle precipitation) and ancillary data consisting of model analyses and correlative measurements are archived at the Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC. Data products from heritage sensors including Nimbus-4 Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (BUV), Nimbus-7 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV) and a series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are also archived at the Goddard DAAC. The continuity of ozone, other trace species, and solar UV measurements will be maintained with the launch of the Aura spacecraft in early 2004 (the third mission in NASA's Earth Observing System program

  17. Upper-atmosphere Aerosols: Properties and Natural Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The middle atmosphere is rich in its variety of particulate matter, which ranges from meteorite debris, to sulfate aerosols, to polar stratospheric ice clouds. Volcanic eruptions strongly perturb the stratospheric sulfate (Junge) layer. High-altitude 'noctilucent' ice clouds condense at the summer mesopause. The properties of these particles, including their composition, sizes, and geographical distribution, are discussed, and their global effects, including chemical, radiative, and climatic roles, are reviewed. Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are composed of water and nitric acid in the form of micron-sized ice crystals. These particles catalyze reactions of chlorine compounds that 'activate' otherwise inert chlorine reservoirs, leading to severe ozone depletions in the southern polar stratosphere during austral spring. PSCs also modify the composition of the polar stratosphere through complex physiocochemical processes, including dehydration and denitrification, and the conversion of reactive nitrogen oxides into nitric acid. If water vapor and nitric acid concentrations are enhanced by high-altitude aircraft activity, the frequency, geographical range, and duration of PSCs might increase accordingly, thus enhancing the destruction of the ozone layer (which would be naturally limited in geographical extent by the same factors that confine the ozone hole to high latitudes in winter). The stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer reflects solar radiation and increases the planetary albedo, thereby cooling the surface and possibly altering the climate. Major volcanic eruptions, which increase the sulfate aerosol burden by a factor of 100 or more, may cause significant global climate anomalies. Sulfate aerosols might also be capable of activating stratospheric chlorine reservoirs on a global scale (unlike PCSs, which represent a localized polar winter phenomenon), although existing evidence suggests relatively minor perturbations in chlorine chemistry. Nevertheless, if

  18. Examining the exobase approximation: DSMC models of Titan's upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, O. J.; Waalkes, W.; Tenishev, V.; Johnson, R. E.; Bieler, A. M.; Nagy, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Chamberlain (1963) developed the so-called exobase approximation for planetary atmospheres below which it is assumed that molecular collisions maintain thermal equilibrium and above which collisions are negligible. Here we present an examination of the exobase approximation applied in the DeLaHaye et al. (2007) study used to extract the energy deposition and non-thermal escape rates from Titan's atmosphere using the INMS data for the TA and T5 Cassini encounters. In that study a Liouville theorem based approach is used to fit the density data for N2 and CH4 assuming an enhanced population of suprathermal molecules (E >> kT) was present at the exobase. The density data was fit in the altitude region of 1450 - 2000 km using a kappa energy distribution to characterize the non-thermal component. Here we again fit the data using the conventional kappa energy distribution function, and then use the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique (Bird 1994) to determine the effect of molecular collisions. The results for the fits are used to obtain improved fits compared to the results in DeLaHaye et al. (2007). In addition the collisional and collisionless DSMC results are compared to evaluate the validity of the assumed energy distribution function and the collisionless approximation. We find that differences between fitting procedures to the INMS data carried out within a scale height of the assumed exobase can result in the extraction of very different energy deposition and escape rates. DSMC simulations performed with and without collisions to test the Liouville theorem based approximation show that collisions affect the density and temperature profiles well above the exobase as well as the escape rate. This research was supported by grant NNH12ZDA001N from the NASA ROSES OPR program. The computations were made with NAS computer resources at NASA Ames under GID 26135.

  19. Simulation of Optical Phenomena in the Upper Atmosphere.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Mark Christopher; Sailor, William C

    2016-09-01

    This SAND report investigates the electron transport equation in the upper atmo- sphere and how it relates to auroral light emissions. The electron transport problem is a very stiff boundary value problem, so standard numerical methods such as symmetric collocation and shooting methods will not succeed unless if the boundary conditions are altered with unrealistic assumptions. We show this to be unnecessary and demon- strate a method in which the fast and slow modes of the boundary value problem are essentially decoupled. This allows for an upwind finite difference method to be applied to each mode as is appropriate. This greatly reduces the number of points needed in the mesh, and we demonstrate how this eliminates the need to define new boundary conditions. This method can be verified by showing that under certain restrictive as- sumptions, the electron transport equation has an exact solution that can be written as an integral. The connection between electron transport and the aurora is made explicit and a kinetic model for calculating auroral light emissions is given.

  20. Investigating gravity waves evidences in the Venus upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Alessandra; Altieri, Francesca; Shakun, Alexey; Zasova, Ludmila; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Grassi, Davide

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to investigate gravity waves properties in the upper mesosphere of Venus, through the O2 nightglow observations acquired with the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS on board Venus Express. Gravity waves are important dynamical features that transport energy and momentum. They are related to the buoyancy force, which lifts air particles. Then, the vertical displacement of air particles produces density changes that cause gravity to act as restoring force. Gravity waves can manifest through fluctuations on temperature and density fields, and hence on airglow intensities. We use the O2 nightglow profiles showing double peaked structures to study the influence of gravity waves in shaping the O2 vertical profiles and infer the waves properties. In analogy to the Earth's and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O2 nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation. Here we propose a statistical discussion of the gravity waves characteristics, namely vertical wavelength and wave amplitude, with respect to local time and latitude. The method is applied to about 30 profiles showing double peaked structures, and acquired with the VIRTIS/Venus Express spectrometer, during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15.

  1. Magnetospheric energy inputs into the upper atmospheres of the giant planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the effects of Joule heating upon the upper atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. We show that in addition to direct Joule heating there is an additional input of kinetic energy – ion drag energy – which we quantify relative to the Joule heating. We also show that fluctuations about the mean electric field, as observed in the Earth's ionosphere, may significantly increase the Joule heating itself. For physically plausible parameters these effects may increase previous estimates of the upper atmospheric energy input at Saturn from ~10 TW to ~20 TW.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Electric fields and currents; Planetary ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena

  2. Theory, measurements, and models of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, S. K.; Donahue, T. M.; Nagy, A. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Mcconnell, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and composition of the thermosphere, exosphere, and ionosphere of saturn have been determined from observations at optical and radio wavelengths mainly by instruments aboard Voyager spacecraft. Techniques for determining the vertical profiles of temperature and density and the atmospheric vertical mixing in the upper Saturn atmosphere are discussed. Radio occultation measurements and theoretical models of Saturn's ionosphere are reviewed, and attempts to interpret the measurements using the models are discussed. Finally, mechanisms of thermospheric heating are examined.

  3. Overview of the upper atmosphere research satellite: Observations from 1991 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Douglass, Anne R.

    2003-05-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (LIARS) was launched in September 1991 by the Space Shuttle Discovery and continues to make relevant atmospheric measurements (as of October 2002). This successful satellite has fostered a better understanding of the middle atmospheric processes, especially those important in the control of ozone. Seven of the original ten instruments aboard the LIARS are still functional and six instruments regularly make measurements. The LIARS is in a stable observing configuration, in spite of experiencing several anomalies over its lifetime. It is expected that the LIARS will overlap the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite (scheduled launch in January 2004) for several months before the end of the LIARS mission.

  4. Cation Chemistry in Titan's Upper Atmosphere and its Influence on Tholin Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, D.; Carrasco, N.; Jovanovic, L.; Vettier, L.

    2017-09-01

    Titan is the only moon in our solar system to have a thick atmosphere. This atmosphere is made of molecular nitrogen and methane. These molecules are broken apart and dissociated in the upper atmosphere, and can then start an intense and complex organic chemistry. This chemistry can be neutral species, or ions. The ions are studied here, in particular the cations, which have been shown to be present in the ionosphere. To investigate this, we turn to laboratory simulations, and reproduce ionosphere conditions using a plasma reactor. We then compare our results with actual Cassini-INMS (Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer) data obtained at Titan.

  5. Long-term changes and trends in the upper atmosphere - An introduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Akmaev, R. A.; Emmert, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 71, 14-15 (2009), s. 1511-1513 ISSN 1364-6826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : long-term changes * long-term trends * upper atmosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13646826

  6. Present state of knowledge of the upper atmosphere 1990: An assessment report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. T.; Kurylo, M. J.; Prather, M. J.; Ormond, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is charged with the responsibility to report on the state of the knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere. Part 1 of this report, issued earlier this year, summarized the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program during the last two years. New findings since the last report to Congress was issued in 1988 are presented. Several scientific assessments of the current understanding of the chemical composition and physical structure of the stratosphere are included, in particular how the abundance and distribution of ozone is predicted to change in the future. These reviews include: a summary of the most recent international assessment of stratospheric ozone; a study of future chlorine and bromine loading of the atmosphere; a review of the photochemical and chemical kinetics data that are used as input parameters for the atmospheric models; a new assessment of the impact of Space Shuttle launches on the stratosphere; a summary of the environmental issues and needed research to evaluate the impact of the newly re-proposed fleet of stratospheric supersonic civil aircraft; and a list of the contributors to this report and the science assessments which have formed our present state of knowledge of the upper atmosphere and ozone depletion.

  7. Sensitivity of upper atmospheric emissions calculations to solar/stellar UV flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthelemy Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar UV (UltraViolet flux, especially the EUV (Extreme UltraViolet and FUV (Far UltraViolet components, is one of the main energetic inputs for planetary upper atmospheres. It drives various processes such as ionization, or dissociation which give rise to upper atmospheric emissions, especially in the UV and visible. These emissions are one of the main ways to investigate the upper atmospheres of planets. However, the uncertainties in the flux measurement or modeling can lead to biased estimates of fundamental atmospheric parameters, such as concentrations or temperatures in the atmospheres. We explore the various problems that can be identified regarding the uncertainties in solar/stellar UV flux by considering three examples. The worst case appears when the solar reflection component is dominant in the recorded spectrum as is seen for outer solar system measurements from HST (Hubble Space Telescope. We also show that the estimation of some particular line parameters (intensity and shape, especially Lyman α, is crucial, and that both total intensity and line profile are useful. In the case of exoplanets, the problem is quite critical since the UV flux of their parent stars is often very poorly known.

  8. Temperature variations in Titan's upper atmosphere: Impact on Cassini/Huygens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kazeminejad

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature variations of Titan's upper atmosphere due to the plasma interaction of the satellite with Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's high altitude monomer haze particles can imply an offset of up to ±30K from currently estimated model profiles. We incorporated these temperature uncertainties as an offset into the recently published Vervack et al. (2004 (Icarus, Vol. 170, 91-112 engineering model and derive extreme case (i.e. minimum and maximum profiles temperature, pressure, and density profiles. We simulated the Huygens probe hypersonic entry trajectory and obtain, as expected, deviations of the probe trajectory for the extreme atmosphere models compared to the simulation based on the nominal one. These deviations are very similar to the ones obtained with the standard Yelle et al. (1997 (ESA SP-1177 profiles. We could confirm that the difference in aerodynamic drag is of an order of magnitude that can be measured by the probe science accelerometer. They represent an important means for the reconstruction of Titan's upper atmospheric properties. Furthermore, we simulated a Cassini low Titan flyby trajectory. No major trajectory deviations were found. The atmospheric torques due to aerodynamic drag, however, are twice as high for our high temperature profile as the ones obtained with the Yelle maximum profile and more than 5 times higher than the worst case estimations from the Cassini project. We propose to use the Cassini atmospheric torque measurements during its low flybys to derive the atmospheric drag and to reconstruct Titan's upper atmosphere density, pressure, and temperature. The results could then be compared to the reconstructed profiles obtained from Huygens probe measurements. This would help to validate the probe measurements and decrease the error bars.

  9. Temperature variations in Titan's upper atmosphere: Impact on Cassini/Huygens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kazeminejad

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature variations of Titan's upper atmosphere due to the plasma interaction of the satellite with Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's high altitude monomer haze particles can imply an offset of up to ±30K from currently estimated model profiles. We incorporated these temperature uncertainties as an offset into the recently published Vervack et al. (2004 (Icarus, Vol. 170, 91-112 engineering model and derive extreme case (i.e. minimum and maximum profiles temperature, pressure, and density profiles. We simulated the Huygens probe hypersonic entry trajectory and obtain, as expected, deviations of the probe trajectory for the extreme atmosphere models compared to the simulation based on the nominal one. These deviations are very similar to the ones obtained with the standard Yelle et al. (1997 (ESA SP-1177 profiles. We could confirm that the difference in aerodynamic drag is of an order of magnitude that can be measured by the probe science accelerometer. They represent an important means for the reconstruction of Titan's upper atmospheric properties. Furthermore, we simulated a Cassini low Titan flyby trajectory. No major trajectory deviations were found. The atmospheric torques due to aerodynamic drag, however, are twice as high for our high temperature profile as the ones obtained with the Yelle maximum profile and more than 5 times higher than the worst case estimations from the Cassini project. We propose to use the Cassini atmospheric torque measurements during its low flybys to derive the atmospheric drag and to reconstruct Titan's upper atmosphere density, pressure, and temperature. The results could then be compared to the reconstructed profiles obtained from Huygens probe measurements. This would help to validate the probe measurements and decrease the error bars.

  10. Discrepancies in tropical upper tropospheric warming between atmospheric circulation models and satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Po-Chedley, Stephen; Fu Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have examined tropical upper tropospheric warming by comparing coupled atmosphere–ocean global circulation model (GCM) simulations from Phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) with satellite and radiosonde observations of warming in the tropical upper troposphere relative to the lower-middle troposphere. These studies showed that models tended to overestimate increases in static stability between the upper and lower-middle troposphere. We revisit this issue using atmospheric GCMs with prescribed historical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and coupled atmosphere–ocean GCMs that participated in the latest model intercomparison project, CMIP5. It is demonstrated that even with historical SSTs as a boundary condition, most atmospheric models exhibit excessive tropical upper tropospheric warming relative to the lower-middle troposphere as compared with satellite-borne microwave sounding unit measurements. It is also shown that the results from CMIP5 coupled atmosphere–ocean GCMs are similar to findings from CMIP3 coupled GCMs. The apparent model-observational difference for tropical upper tropospheric warming represents an important problem, but it is not clear whether the difference is a result of common biases in GCMs, biases in observational datasets, or both. (letter)

  11. An upper limit on Early Mars atmospheric pressure from small ancient craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, E. S.; Williams, J.; Lucas, A.; Aharonson, O.

    2012-12-01

    Planetary atmospheres brake, ablate, and disrupt small asteroids and comets, filtering out small hypervelocity surface impacts and causing fireballs, airblasts, meteors, and meteorites. Hypervelocity craters Earth are typically caused by irons (because stones are more likely to break up), and the smallest hypervelocity craters near sea-level on Earth are ~20 m in diameter. 'Zap pits' as small as 30 microns are known from the airless moon, but the other airy worlds show the effects of progressively thicker atmospheres:- the modern Mars atmosphere is marginally capable of removing >90% of the kinetic energy of >240 kg iron impactors; Titan's paucity of small craters is consistent with a model predicting atmospheric filtering of craters smaller than 6-8km; and on Venus, craters below ~20 km diameter are substantially depleted. Changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration are believed to be the single most important control on Mars climate evolution and habitability. Existing data requires an early epoch of massive atmospheric loss to space; suggests that the present-day rate of escape to space is small; and offers only limited evidence for carbonate formation. Existing evidence has not led to convergence of atmosphere-evolution models, which must balance poorly understood fluxes from volcanic degassing, surface weathering, and escape to space. More direct measurements are required in order to determine the history of CO2 concentrations. Wind erosion and tectonics exposes ancient surfaces on Mars, and the size-frequency distribution of impacts on these surfaces has been previously suggested as a proxy time series of Mars atmospheric thickness. We will present a new upper limit on Early Mars atmospheric pressure using the size-frequency distribution of 20-100m diameter ancient craters in Aeolis Dorsa, validated using HiRISE DTMs, in combination with Monte Carlo simulations of the effect of paleo-atmospheres of varying thickness on the crater flux. These craters are

  12. Active Upper-atmosphere Chemistry and Dynamics from Polar Circulation Reversal on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teanby, Nicholas A.; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Nixon, Conor A.; DeKok, Remco; Vinatier, Sandrine; Coustenis, Athena; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Calcutt, Simon B.; Flasar, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Saturn's moon Titan has a nitrogen atmosphere comparable to Earth's, with a surface pressure of 1.4 bar. Numerical models reproduce the tropospheric conditions very well but have trouble explaining the observed middle-atmosphere temperatures, composition and winds. The top of the middle-atmosphere circulation has been thought to lie at an altitude of 450 to 500 kilometres, where there is a layer of haze that appears to be separated from the main haze deck. This 'detached' haze was previously explained as being due to the colocation of peak haze production and the limit of dynamical transport by the circulation's upper branch. Herewe report a build-up of trace gases over the south pole approximately two years after observing the 2009 post-equinox circulation reversal, from which we conclude that middle-atmosphere circulation must extend to an altitude of at least 600 kilometres. The primary drivers of this circulation are summer-hemisphere heating of haze by absorption of solar radiation and winter-hemisphere cooling due to infrared emission by haze and trace gases; our results therefore imply that these effects are important well into the thermosphere (altitudes higher than 500 kilometres). This requires both active upper-atmosphere chemistry, consistent with the detection of high-complexity molecules and ions at altitudes greater than 950 kilometres, and an alternative explanation for the detached haze, such as a transition in haze particle growth from monomers to fractal structures.

  13. Upper atmosphere research satellite program. [to study the chemistry energetics, and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A satellite program to conduct research on the chemistry, energetics, and dynamics of the upper atmosphere was developed. The scientific goals of the Upper Atmospheric Research Program, the program requirements, and the approach toward meeting those requirements are outlined. An initial series of two overlapping spacecraft missions is described. Both spacecraft are launched and recovered by the STS, one in the winter of 1983 at a 56 deg inclination, and the other a year later at a 70 deg inclination. The duration of each mission is 18 months, and each carries instruments to make global measurements of the temperature, winds, composition, irradation, and radiance in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere between the tropopause and 120 km altitude. The program requires a dedicated ground-based data system and a science team organization that leads to a strong interaction between the experiments and theory. The program includes supportive observations from other platforms such as rockets, balloons, and the Spacelab.

  14. Do vibrationally excited OH molecules affect middle and upper atmospheric chemistry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Except for a few reactions involving electronically excited molecular or atomic oxygen or nitrogen, atmospheric chemistry modelling usually assumes that the temperature dependence of reaction rates is characterized by Arrhenius' law involving kinetic temperatures. It is known, however, that in the upper atmosphere the vibrational temperatures may exceed the kinetic temperatures by several hundreds of Kelvins. This excess energy has an impact on the reaction rates. We have used upper atmospheric OH populations and reaction rate coefficients for OH(v=0...9+O3 and OH(v=0...9+O to estimate the effective (i.e. population weighted reaction rates for various atmospheric conditions. We have found that the effective rate coefficient for OH(v=0...9+O3 can be larger by a factor of up to 1470 than that involving OH in its vibrational ground state only. At altitudes where vibrationally excited states of OH are highly populated, the OH reaction is a minor sink of Ox and O3 compared to other reactions involving, e.g., atomic oxygen. Thus the impact of vibrationally excited OH on the ozone or Ox sink remains small. Among quiescent atmospheres under investigation, the largest while still small (less than 0.1% effect was found for the polar winter upper stratosphere and mesosphere. The contribution of the reaction of vibrationally excited OH with ozone to the OH sink is largest in the upper polar winter stratosphere (up to 4%, while its effect on the HO2 source is larger in the lower thermosphere (up to 1.5% for polar winter and 2.5% for midlatitude night conditions. For OH(v=0...9+O the effective rate coefficients are lower by up to 11% than those involving OH in its vibrational ground state. The effects on the odd oxygen sink are negative and can reach −3% (midlatitudinal nighttime lowermost thermosphere, i.e. neglecting vibrational excitation overestimates the odd

  15. Progress in observations and simulations of global change in the upper atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qian, L.; Laštovička, Jan; Roble, R. G.; Solomon, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 116, - (2011), A00H03/1-A00H03/16 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Long-term trends * upper atmosphere * ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.021, year: 2011 http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2011/2010JA016317.shtml

  16. Ground-based Observations for the Upper Atmosphere at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geonhwa Jee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the operation of the King Sejong Station (KSS started in Antarctic Peninsula in 1989, there have been continuous efforts to perform the observation for the upper atmosphere. The observations during the initial period of the station include Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI and Michelson Interferometer for the mesosphere and thermosphere, which are no longer in operation. In 2002, in collaboration with York University, Canada, the Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI was installed to observe the temperature in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT region and it has still been producing the mesopause temperature data until present. The observation was extended by installing the meteor radar in 2007 to observe the neutral winds and temperature in the MLT region during the day and night in collaboration with Chungnam National University. We also installed the all sky camera in 2008 to observe the wave structures in the MLT region. All these observations are utilized to study on the physical characteristics of the MLT region and also on the wave phenomena such as the tide and gravity wave in the upper atmosphere over KSS that is well known for the strong gravity wave activity. In this article, brief introductions for the currently operating instruments at KSS will be presented with their applications for the study of the upper atmosphere.

  17. NIR-Driven Moist Upper Atmospheres of Synchronously Rotating Temperate Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yuka; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Amundsen, David S.

    2017-01-01

    H2O is a key molecule in characterizing atmospheres of temperate terrestrial planets, and observations of transmission spectra are expected to play a primary role in detecting its signatures in the near future. The detectability of H2O absorption features in transmission spectra depends on the abundance of water vapor in the upper part of the atmosphere. We study the three-dimensional distribution of atmospheric H2O for synchronously rotating Earth-sized aquaplanets using the general circulation model (GCM) ROCKE-3D, and examine the effects of total incident flux and stellar spectral type. We observe a more gentle increase of the water vapor mixing ratio in response to increased incident flux than one-dimensional models suggest, in qualitative agreement with the climate-stabilizing effect of clouds around the substellar point previously observed in GCMs applied to synchronously rotating planets. However, the water vapor mixing ratio in the upper atmosphere starts to increase while the surface temperature is still moderate. This is explained by the circulation in the upper atmosphere being driven by the radiative heating due to absorption by water vapor and cloud particles, causing efficient vertical transport of water vapor. Consistently, the water vapor mixing ratio is found to be well-correlated with the near-infrared portion of the incident flux. We also simulate transmission spectra based on the GCM outputs, and show that for the more highly irradiated planets, the H2O signatures may be strengthened by a factor of a few, loosening the observational demands for a H2O detection.

  18. NIR-driven Moist Upper Atmospheres of Synchronously Rotating Temperate Terrestrial Exoplanets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yuka; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Amundsen, David S.

    2017-01-01

    H 2 O is a key molecule in characterizing atmospheres of temperate terrestrial planets, and observations of transmission spectra are expected to play a primary role in detecting its signatures in the near future. The detectability of H 2 O absorption features in transmission spectra depends on the abundance of water vapor in the upper part of the atmosphere. We study the three-dimensional distribution of atmospheric H 2 O for synchronously rotating Earth-sized aquaplanets using the general circulation model (GCM) ROCKE-3D, and examine the effects of total incident flux and stellar spectral type. We observe a more gentle increase of the water vapor mixing ratio in response to increased incident flux than one-dimensional models suggest, in qualitative agreement with the climate-stabilizing effect of clouds around the substellar point previously observed in GCMs applied to synchronously rotating planets. However, the water vapor mixing ratio in the upper atmosphere starts to increase while the surface temperature is still moderate. This is explained by the circulation in the upper atmosphere being driven by the radiative heating due to absorption by water vapor and cloud particles, causing efficient vertical transport of water vapor. Consistently, the water vapor mixing ratio is found to be well-correlated with the near-infrared portion of the incident flux. We also simulate transmission spectra based on the GCM outputs, and show that for the more highly irradiated planets, the H 2 O signatures may be strengthened by a factor of a few, loosening the observational demands for a H 2 O detection.

  19. NIR-driven Moist Upper Atmospheres of Synchronously Rotating Temperate Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Yuka; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Amundsen, David S. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-10-20

    H{sub 2}O is a key molecule in characterizing atmospheres of temperate terrestrial planets, and observations of transmission spectra are expected to play a primary role in detecting its signatures in the near future. The detectability of H{sub 2}O absorption features in transmission spectra depends on the abundance of water vapor in the upper part of the atmosphere. We study the three-dimensional distribution of atmospheric H{sub 2}O for synchronously rotating Earth-sized aquaplanets using the general circulation model (GCM) ROCKE-3D, and examine the effects of total incident flux and stellar spectral type. We observe a more gentle increase of the water vapor mixing ratio in response to increased incident flux than one-dimensional models suggest, in qualitative agreement with the climate-stabilizing effect of clouds around the substellar point previously observed in GCMs applied to synchronously rotating planets. However, the water vapor mixing ratio in the upper atmosphere starts to increase while the surface temperature is still moderate. This is explained by the circulation in the upper atmosphere being driven by the radiative heating due to absorption by water vapor and cloud particles, causing efficient vertical transport of water vapor. Consistently, the water vapor mixing ratio is found to be well-correlated with the near-infrared portion of the incident flux. We also simulate transmission spectra based on the GCM outputs, and show that for the more highly irradiated planets, the H{sub 2}O signatures may be strengthened by a factor of a few, loosening the observational demands for a H{sub 2}O detection.

  20. Atmospheric tides forced by troposphere heating: Longitudinal variability of upper atmosphere consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli

    This PhD work is motivated by the unprecedented observations provided by the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument on the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) spacecraft. Through creative methods that avoid aliasing problems between tidal variations and mean background temporal variations, a fairly clear picture of both migrating and nonmigrating solar thermal tides from the stratosphere to the MLT (Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere) region is obtained. The background structures in zonal mean temperatures, geopotential, and the zonal mean gradient zonal winds are also achieved. By retrieving net radiative heating rate profiles from the most updated solar radiative fluxes provided by ISCCP/NASA-GISS (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project/NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies) and constructing latent heating rate profiles from the most recent TRMM/NASA-GSFC (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) daily latent heating profiles and 3-hourly TRMM rainfall rates, total tropospheric tidal heating rate profiles are obtained. The Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM) is thus updated with the new tropospheric heat sources and observed mean background inputs to result in the latest version of GSWM, GSWM-09. By comparing GSWM-09 and SABER tidal signatures, the importance of troposphere heat energy in driving atmospheric tides in the MLT region is confirmed and the relative importance of radiative and latent heat sources for migrating and nonmigrating tides is demonstrated with emphasis on longitudinal variability of MLT tides. It confirms that the eastward-propagating diurnal tide with zonal wave number 3 is the outstanding nonmigrating tide due to the topography-modulated tropospheric heating. The critical factors for the seasonal-latitudinal variations of DE3 are examined based on classical tidal theory and its modern developments, since these variations are much

  1. TITAN’S UPPER ATMOSPHERE FROM CASSINI/UVIS SOLAR OCCULTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capalbo, Fernando J.; Bénilan, Yves [Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA), UMR 7583 du CNRS, Universités Paris Est Créteil (UPEC) and Paris Diderot - UPD, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, F-94010, Créteil Cédex (France); Yelle, Roger V.; Koskinen, Tommi T., E-mail: fernando.capalbo@lisa.u-pec.fr [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Titan’s atmosphere is composed mainly of molecular nitrogen, methane being the principal trace gas. From the analysis of 8 solar occultations measured by the Extreme Ultraviolet channel of the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) on board Cassini, we derived vertical profiles of N{sub 2} in the range 1100–1600 km and vertical profiles of CH{sub 4} in the range 850–1300 km. The correction of instrument effects and observational effects applied to the data are described. We present CH{sub 4} mole fractions, and average temperatures for the upper atmosphere obtained from the N{sub 2} profiles. The occultations correspond to different times and locations, and an analysis of variability of density and temperature is presented. The temperatures were analyzed as a function of geographical and temporal variables, without finding a clear correlation with any of them, although a trend of decreasing temperature toward the north pole was observed. The globally averaged temperature obtained is (150 ± 1) K. We compared our results from solar occultations with those derived from other UVIS observations, as well as studies performed with other instruments. The observational data we present confirm the atmospheric variability previously observed, add new information to the global picture of Titan’s upper atmosphere composition, variability, and dynamics, and provide new constraints to photochemical models.

  2. Sensing the upper and lower levels of the atmosphere during the 2009 equinoxes using GPS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Suparta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This short-term work characterized the upper and lower levels of the atmosphere through Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. The observations were conducted during the 2009 equinoxes from two pairs of conjugate polar observing stations: Husafell, Iceland (HUSA and Resolute in Nunavut, Canada (RESO and their conjugate pairs at Scott Base (SBA and Syowa (SYOG in Antarctica, respectively. The total electron content (TEC, an indicator of the upper atmosphere, and the precipitable water vapor (PWV, which served as the lower atmospheric response, were retrieved and analyzed. The results reveal a good relationship between TEC and PWV at each station during the onset day of the equinoxes, whereas an asymmetrical response was observed in the beginning of and after the equinoxes. In addition, the conjugate pairs were only consistent during the autumnal equinox. Thus, the high correlation was observed following the seasonal pattern for the onset day, while strong and moderate correlations were found only for the vernal equinox in Antarctica and the Arctic, respectively. This relationship reflects the fact that the intensity of solar activity during the solar minimum incident on the lower atmosphere through the conjugate points is associated with the variation of the Sun’s seasonal cycle, whereas the TEC and PWV showed an opposite relationship.

  3. A non-LTE retrieval scheme for sounding the upper atmosphere of Mars in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; García-Comas, Maya; Funke, Bernd; Jimenez-Monferrer, Sergio; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Several instruments on board Mars Express have been sounding the upper atmosphere of Mars systematically in a limb geometry in the IR part of the spectrum. Two of them in particular, OMEGA and PFS, performed emission measurements during daytime and detected the strongest IR bands of species like CO2 and CO (Piccialli et al, JGRE, submitted). Similarly on Venus, the instrument VIRTIS carried out observations of CO2 and CO bands at 2.7, 4.3 and 4.7 um at high altitudes (Gilli et al, JGRE, 2009). All these daylight atmospheric emissions respond to fluorescent situations, a case of non-local thermodynamic equilibrum conditions (non-LTE), well understood nowadays using comprehensive non-LTE theoretical models and tools (Lopez-Valverde et al., Planet. Space Sci., 2011). However, extensive exploitation of these emissions has only been done in optically thin conditions to date (Gilli et al, Icarus, 2015) or in a broad range of altitudes if in nadir geometry (Peralta et al, Apj, 2015). Within the H2020 project UPWARDS we aim at performing retrievals under non-LTE conditions including optically thick cases, like those of the CO2 and CO strongest bands during daytime in the upper atmosphere of Mars. Similar effort will also be applied eventually to Venus. We will present the non-LTE scheme used for such retrievals, based on similar efforts performed recently in studies of the Earth's upper atmosphere using data from the MIPAS instrument, on board Envisat (Funke et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2009; Jurado-Navarro, PhD Thesis, Univ. Granada, 2015). Acknowledgemnt: This work is supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Programme under grant agreement UPWARDS-633127

  4. Numerical simulation of small-scale mixing processes in the upper ocean and atmospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinin, O; Troitskaya, Yu; Zilitinkevich, S

    2016-01-01

    The processes of turbulent mixing and momentum and heat exchange occur in the upper ocean at depths up to several dozens of meters and in the atmospheric boundary layer within interval of millimeters to dozens of meters and can not be resolved by known large- scale climate models. Thus small-scale processes need to be parameterized with respect to large scale fields. This parameterization involves the so-called bulk coefficients which relate turbulent fluxes with large-scale fields gradients. The bulk coefficients are dependent on the properties of the small-scale mixing processes which are affected by the upper-ocean stratification and characteristics of surface and internal waves. These dependencies are not well understood at present and need to be clarified. We employ Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) as a research tool which resolves all relevant flow scales and does not require closure assumptions typical of Large-Eddy and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (LES and RANS). Thus DNS provides a solid ground for correct parameterization of small-scale mixing processes and also can be used for improving LES and RANS closure models. In particular, we discuss the problems of the interaction between small-scale turbulence and internal gravity waves propagating in the pycnocline in the upper ocean as well as the impact of surface waves on the properties of atmospheric boundary layer over wavy water surface. (paper)

  5. The Middle and Upper Atmosphere Observations over Syowa Station (69S, 39E), the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Sato, Toru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Yamanouchi, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Sato, Kaoru; Abo, Makoto; Nishiyama, Takanori; Matsuda, Takashi S.; Mizuno, Akira; Isono, Yasuko; Tsuda, Takuo T.

    The polar middle atmosphere is located in the upward/downward stream of the meridional circulation in summer/winter, and the upper part shows a significant seasonal variation in temperature. The cold mesopause in summer and related phenomena such as PMC (polar mesospheric clouds), NLC (noctiluscent clouds), and PMSE (polar mesospheric summer echo) are the most outstanding signals caused by such large amplitude seasonal variations. However, observations of the dynamics and chemistry in the Antarctic middle atmosphere are still very limited. JARE (Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition) has been carrying out a six year prioritized project of the Antarctic research observations since 2010. One of the sub-project is entitled ``the global environmental change revealed through the Antarctic middle and upper atmosphere.'' Profiling dynamical parameters such as temperature and wind, as well as minor constituents is the key component of observations in this project, together with a long term observations using existent various instruments in Syowa, the Antarctic (39E, 69S). The PANSY (Program of Antarctic Syowa MST/IS) radar, a Rayleigh/Raman/Resonance scatter radar, a millimeter-wave spectrometer are the new instruments which started observations during the project. In this paper, the recent researches obtained from the observations at Syowa Station will be reported, The PANSY radar started research observation in April 2012 with the 1/4 of full-array antenna system. Observations of troposphere/lower stratosphere/ mesosphere are almost continuously carried out except for the intermittent system adjustment periods. Our observations have indicated more frequent PMWEs (Polar Mesospheric Winter Echo) than the previous studies. The Rayleigh/Raman lidar have been observing gravity waves in the stratosphere/mesosphere by temperature perturbations, and recently the altitude range has been successfully extended down to upper troposphere by combining Raman scatter signals to the

  6. New Horizons Upper Limits on O{sub 2} in Pluto’s Present Day Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammer, J. A.; Gladstone, G. R. [Southwest Research Institute San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Stern, S. A.; Young, L. A.; Steffl, A. J.; Olkin, C. B. [Southwest Research Institute Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Weaver, H. A. [Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Ennico, K., E-mail: jkammer@swri.edu [NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Collaboration: New Horizons Atmospheres and Alice UV Spectrograph Teams

    2017-08-01

    The surprising discovery by the Rosetta spacecraft of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko challenged our understanding of the inventory of this volatile species on and inside bodies from the Kuiper Belt. That discovery motivated our search for oxygen in the atmosphere of Kuiper Belt planet Pluto, because O{sub 2} is volatile even at Pluto’s surface temperatures. During the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015 July, the spacecraft probed the composition of Pluto’s atmosphere using a variety of observations, including an ultraviolet solar occultation observed by the Alice UV spectrograph. As described in these reports, absorption by molecular species in Pluto’s atmosphere yielded detections of N{sub 2}, as well as hydrocarbon species such as CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Our work here further examines this data to search for UV absorption from molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}), which has a significant cross-section in the Alice spectrograph bandpass. We find no evidence for O{sub 2} absorption and place an upper limit on the total amount of O{sub 2} in Pluto’s atmosphere as a function of tangent height up to 700 km. In most of the atmosphere, this upper limit in line-of-sight abundance units is ∼3 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}, which, depending on tangent height, corresponds to a mixing ratio of 10{sup −6} to 10{sup −4}, far lower than in comet 67P/CG.

  7. Investigations of the Mars Upper Atmosphere with ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valverde, Miguel A.; Gerard, Jean-Claude; González-Galindo, Francisco; Vandaele, Ann-Carine; Thomas, Ian; Korablev, Oleg; Ignatiev, Nikolai; Fedorova, Anna; Montmessin, Franck; Määttänen, Anni; Guilbon, Sabrina; Lefevre, Franck; Patel, Manish R.; Jiménez-Monferrer, Sergio; García-Comas, Maya; Cardesin, Alejandro; Wilson, Colin F.; Clancy, R. T.; Kleinböhl, Armin; McCleese, Daniel J.; Kass, David M.; Schneider, Nick M.; Chaffin, Michael S.; López-Moreno, José Juan; Rodríguez, Julio

    2018-02-01

    The Martian mesosphere and thermosphere, the region above about 60 km, is not the primary target of the ExoMars 2016 mission but its Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) can explore it and address many interesting issues, either in-situ during the aerobraking period or remotely during the regular mission. In the aerobraking phase TGO peeks into thermospheric densities and temperatures, in a broad range of latitudes and during a long continuous period. TGO carries two instruments designed for the detection of trace species, NOMAD and ACS, which will use the solar occultation technique. Their regular sounding at the terminator up to very high altitudes in many different molecular bands will represent the first time that an extensive and precise dataset of densities and hopefully temperatures are obtained at those altitudes and local times on Mars. But there are additional capabilities in TGO for studying the upper atmosphere of Mars, and we review them briefly. Our simulations suggest that airglow emissions from the UV to the IR might be observed outside the terminator. If eventually confirmed from orbit, they would supply new information about atmospheric dynamics and variability. However, their optimal exploitation requires a special spacecraft pointing, currently not considered in the regular operations but feasible in our opinion. We discuss the synergy between the TGO instruments, specially the wide spectral range achieved by combining them. We also encourage coordinated operations with other Mars-observing missions capable of supplying simultaneous measurements of its upper atmosphere.

  8. Poleward upgliding Siberian atmospheric rivers over sea ice heat up Arctic upper air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kensuke K; Alexeev, Vladimir A; Repina, Irina A; Tachibana, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-13

    We carried out upper air measurements with radiosondes during the summer over the Arctic Ocean from an icebreaker moving poleward from an ice-free region, through the ice edge, and into a region of thick ice. Rapid warming of the Arctic is a significant environmental issue that occurs not only at the surface but also throughout the troposphere. In addition to the widely accepted mechanisms responsible for the increase of tropospheric warming during the summer over the Arctic, we showed a new potential contributing process to the increase, based on our direct observations and supporting numerical simulations and statistical analyses using a long-term reanalysis dataset. We refer to this new process as "Siberian Atmospheric Rivers (SARs)". Poleward upglides of SARs over cold air domes overlying sea ice provide the upper atmosphere with extra heat via condensation of water vapour. This heating drives increased buoyancy and further strengthens the ascent and heating of the mid-troposphere. This process requires the combination of SARs and sea ice as a land-ocean-atmosphere system, the implication being that large-scale heat and moisture transport from the lower latitudes can remotely amplify the warming of the Arctic troposphere in the summer.

  9. CAN TiO EXPLAIN THERMAL INVERSIONS IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERES OF IRRADIATED GIANT PLANETS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel, David S.; Silverio, Katie; Burrows, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope infrared observations indicate that several transiting extrasolar giant planets have thermal inversions in their upper atmospheres. Above a relative minimum, the temperature appears to increase with altitude. Such an inversion probably requires a species at high altitude that absorbs a significant amount of incident optical/UV radiation. Some authors have suggested that the strong optical absorbers titanium oxide (TiO) and vanadium oxide (VO) could provide the needed additional opacity, but if regions of the atmosphere are cold enough for Ti and V to be sequestered into solids they might rain out and be severely depleted. With a model of the vertical distribution of a refractory species in gaseous and condensed form, we address the question of whether enough TiO (or VO) could survive aloft in an irradiated planet's atmosphere to produce a thermal inversion. We find that it is unlikely that VO could play a critical role in producing thermal inversions. Furthermore, we find that macroscopic mixing is essential to the TiO hypothesis; without macroscopic mixing, such a heavy species cannot persist in a planet's upper atmosphere. The amount of macroscopic mixing that is required depends on the size of condensed titanium-bearing particles that form in regions of an atmosphere that are too cold for gaseous TiO to exist. We parameterize the macroscopic mixing with the eddy diffusion coefficient K zz and find, as a function of particle size a, the values that K zz must assume on the highly irradiated planets HD 209458b, HD 149026b, TrES-4, and OGLE-TR-56b to loft enough titanium to the upper atmosphere for the TiO hypothesis to be correct. On these planets, we find that for TiO to be responsible for thermal inversions K zz must be at least a few times 10 7 cm 2 s -1 , even for a = 0.1 μm, and increases to nearly 10 11 cm 2 s -1 for a = 10 μm. Such large values may be problematic for the TiO hypothesis, but are not impossible.

  10. Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) science data processing center implementation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Ellen L.; Taylor, K. David

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Goddard is responsible for the development of a ground system for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) observatory, whose launch is scheduled for 1991. This ground system encompasses a dedicated Central Data Handling Facility (CDHF); attention is presently given to the management of software systems design and implementation phases for CDHF by the UARS organization. Also noted are integration and testing activities performed following software deliveries to the CDHF. The UARS project has an obvious requirement for a powerful and flexible data base management system; an off-the-shelf commercial system has been incorporated.

  11. Numerical Solution of the Electron Transport Equation in the Upper Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Mark Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Holmes, Mark [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Sailor, William C [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A new approach for solving the electron transport equation in the upper atmosphere is derived. The problem is a very stiff boundary value problem, and to obtain an accurate numerical solution, matrix factorizations are used to decouple the fast and slow modes. A stable finite difference method is applied to each mode. This solver is applied to a simplifieed problem for which an exact solution exists using various versions of the boundary conditions that might arise in a natural auroral display. The numerical and exact solutions are found to agree with each other to at least two significant digits.

  12. A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightnings in the upper atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, S.; Artikova, S.; Chung, T.; Garipov, G.; Jeon, J.A.; Jeong, S.; Jin, J.Y.; Khrenov, B.A.; Kim, J.E.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y.K.; Klimov, P.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.Y.; Na, G.W.; Oh, S.J.; Panasyuk, M.; Park, I.H.; Park, J.H.; Park, Y.-S.

    2008-01-01

    A new type of telescope with a wide field-of-view and functions of fast zoom-in has been introduced. Two kinds of MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) micromirrors, digital and analog, are used for reflectors of the telescope, placed at different focal lengths. We apply this technology to the observation from space of TLE (Transient Luminous Events), extremely large transient sparks occurring at the upper atmosphere. TLE are one type of important backgrounds to be understood for future space observation of UHECR (Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays). The launch of the payload carried by a Russian microsatellite is foreseen in the middle of 2008

  13. SHARC, a comprehensive non-equilibrium infrared radiation model for the upper atmosphere. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, R.L.; Duff, J.W.; Bernstein, L.S.; Gruninger, J.H.; Matthew, M.W.

    1993-06-21

    A new, first-principles computer model, SHARC, has been developed by the Air Force for the rapid and accurate calculation of non-LTE upper atmospheric infrared radiance and transmittance spectra with a resolution of better than 1/cm. Comprehensive coverage of the 2 micrometers to 40 micrometers (250/cm to 5,000/cm) wavelength region is provided for arbitrary lines of sight in the 50 - 300 km altitude range, accounting for the detailed production, loss, and energy transfer processes among the molecular vibrational states. Auroral production and excitation of CO2, NO, and NO+ are included in addition to quiescent atmospheric processes. Calculated vibrational temperatures are found to be similar to results from other non-LTE codes, and SHARC`s equivalent-width spectral algorithm provides very good agreement with much more time-consuming exact line-by-line methods.

  14. Periodic modulation of gas giant magnetospheres by the neutral upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodic signatures present in the magnetospheres of both Jupiter and Saturn have yet to be fully explained. At Jupiter the unexplained signatures are related to emissions from the Io torus ("System IV"; at Saturn they are observed in emissions of kilometric radiation (SKR and in magnetometer data. These signatures are often interpreted in terms of magnetic field anomalies. This paper describes an alternative mechanism by which the neutral atmosphere may impose such periodic signatures on the magnetosphere. The mechanism invokes a persistent zonal asymmetry in the neutral wind field that rotates with the planet. This asymmetry must be coupled to substantial ionospheric conductivity. It is then able to drive divergent currents in the upper atmosphere that close in and perturb the magnetosphere. We estimate the conductivities and wind speeds required for these perturbations to be significant, and argue that they are most likely to be important at auroral latitudes where the conductivity may be enhanced by particle precipitation.

  15. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program UARP and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1994 - 1996. Report to Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Rose (Compiler); Wolfe, Kathy (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Science Division in the Office of Mission to Planet Earth at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort are also provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aeronautics. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper atmosphere and their effect on the distribution of chemical species in the stratosphere, such as ozone; understand the relationship of the trace constituent composition of the lower stratosphere and the lower troposphere to the radiative balance and temperature distribution of the Earth's atmosphere; and accurately assess possible perturbations of the upper atmosphere caused by human activities as well as by natural phenomena. In compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Law 101-549, NASA has prepared a report on the state of our knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere, and on the progress of UARP and ACMAP. The report for the year 1996 is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA UARP and ACMAP in a document entitled, Research Summary 1994-1996. Part 2 is entitled Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere

  16. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10-100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50-90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10-50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet.

  17. sPLA2-IIA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    67

    2.7 Endocytic activity. Meanwhile, the effect of sPLA2-IIA enzyme on THP-1 macrophages endocytic activity was determined by flow ..... transmembrane domains and competes with cholesterol for the hydrogen-bonded ester carbonyl groups, disturbing the localization and ... Food Chem Toxicol 48:2885–2890. 2. Aviram M ...

  18. Generation and Upper Atmospheric Propagation of Acoustic Gravity Waves according to Numerical Modeling and Radio Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, Artem; Andreeva, Elena; Nesterov, Ivan; Padokhin, Artem; Kurbatov, Grigory

    2016-04-01

    The acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere can be generated by a variety of the phenomena in the near-Earth environment and atmosphere as well as by some perturbations of the Earth's ground or ocean surface. For instance, the role of the AGW sources can be played by the earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seisches, tsunami waves. We present the examples of AGWs excited by the tsunami waves traveling in the ocean, by seisches, and by ionospheric heating by the high-power radio wave. In the last case, the gravity waves are caused by the pulsed modulation of the heating wave. The AGW propagation in the upper atmosphere induces the variations and irregularities in the electron density distribution of the ionosphere, whose structure can be efficiently reconstructed by the method of the ionospheric radio tomography (RT) based on the data from the global navigational satellite systems (GNSS). The input data for RT diagnostics are composed of the 150/400 MHz radio signals from the low-orbiting (LO) satellites and 1.2-1.5 GHz radio signals from the high-orbiting (HO) satellites with their orbits at ~1000 and ~20000 km above the ground, respectively. These data enable ionospheric imaging on different spatiotemporal scales with different spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, which is suitable, inter alia, for tracking the waves and wave-like features in the ionosphere. In particular, we demonstrate the maps of the ionospheric responses to the tornado at Moore (Oklahoma, USA) of May 20, 2013, which are reconstructed from the HO data. We present the examples of LORT images containing the waves and wavelike disturbances associated with various sources (e.g., auroral precipitation and high-power heating of the ionosphere). We also discuss the results of modeling the AGW generation by the surface and volumetric sources. The millihertz AGW from these sources initiate the ionospheric perturbation with a typical scale of a few hundred km at the

  19. Empirical global model of upper thermosphere winds based on atmosphere and dynamics explorer satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, A. E.; Spencer, N. W.; Killeen, T. L.

    1988-01-01

    Thermospheric wind data obtained from the Atmosphere Explorer E and Dynamics Explorer 2 satellites have been used to generate an empirical wind model for the upper thermosphere, analogous to the MSIS model for temperature and density, using a limited set of vector spherical harmonics. The model is limited to above approximately 220 km where the data coverage is best and wind variations with height are reduced by viscosity. The data base is not adequate to detect solar cycle (F10.7) effects at this time but does include magnetic activity effects. Mid- and low-latitude data are reproduced quite well by the model and compare favorably with published ground-based results. The polar vortices are present, but not to full detail.

  20. Multi-station synthesis of early twentieth century surface atmospheric electricity measurements for upper tropospheric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Harrison

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The vertical columnar current density in the global atmospheric electrical circuit depends on the local columnar resistance. A simple model for the columnar resistance is suggested, which separates the local boundary layer component from the upper troposphere cosmic ray component, and calculates the boundary layer component from a surface measurement of air conductivity. This theory is shown to provide reasonable agreement with observations. One application of the simple columnar model theory is to provide a basis for the synthesis of surface atmospheric electrical measurements made simultaneously at several European sites. Assuming the ionospheric potential to be common above all the sites, the theoretical air-earth current density present in the absence of a boundary layer columnar resistance can be found by extrapolation. This is denoted the free troposphere limit air-earth current density, J0. Using early surface data from 1909 when no ionospheric potential data are available for corroboration, J0 is found to be ~6 pA m−2, although this is subject to uncertainties in the data and limitations in the theory. Later (1966–1971 European balloon and surface data give J0=2.4 pA m−2.

  1. Polarisation of auroral emission lines in the Earth's upper atmosphere : first results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, H.; Barthelemy, M.; Simon Wedlund, C.; Lilensten, J.; Bommier, V.

    2011-12-01

    Polarisation of light is a key observable to provide information about asymmetry or anisotropy within a radiative source. Following the pioneering and controversial work of Duncan in 1959, the polarisation of auroral emission lines in the Earth's upper atmosphere has been overlooked for a long time, even though the red intense auroral line (6300Å) produced by collisional impacts with electrons precipitating along magnetic field lines is a good candidate to search for polarisation. This problem was investigated again by Lilensten et al (2006) and observations were obtained by Lilensten et al (2008) confirming that the red auroral emission line is polarised. More recent measurements obtained by Barthélemy et al (2011) are presented and discussed. The results are compared to predictions of the theoretical work of Bommier et al (2011) and are in good agreement. Following these encouraging results, a new dedicated spectropolarimeter is currently under construction between BIRA-IASB and IPAG to provide simultaneously the polarisation of the red line and of other interesting auroral emission lines such as N2+ 1NG (4278Å), other N2 bands, etc... Perspectives regarding the theoretical polarisation of some of these lines will be presented. The importance of these polarisation measurements in the framework of atmospheric modeling and geomagnetic activity will be discussed.

  2. Molecule-based approach for computing chemical-reaction rates in upper atmosphere hypersonic flows.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert

    2009-08-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2009 for the LDRD project 09-1332 'Molecule-Based Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction Rates in Upper-Atmosphere Hypersonic Flows'. The goal of this project was to apply a recently proposed approach for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to calculate chemical-reaction rates for high-temperature atmospheric species. The new DSMC model reproduces measured equilibrium reaction rates without using any macroscopic reaction-rate information. Since it uses only molecular properties, the new model is inherently able to predict reaction rates for arbitrary nonequilibrium conditions. DSMC non-equilibrium reaction rates are compared to Park's phenomenological non-equilibrium reaction-rate model, the predominant model for hypersonic-flow-field calculations. For near-equilibrium conditions, Park's model is in good agreement with the DSMC-calculated reaction rates. For far-from-equilibrium conditions, corresponding to a typical shock layer, the difference between the two models can exceed 10 orders of magnitude. The DSMC predictions are also found to be in very good agreement with measured and calculated non-equilibrium reaction rates. Extensions of the model to reactions typically found in combustion flows and ionizing reactions are also found to be in very good agreement with available measurements, offering strong evidence that this is a viable and reliable technique to predict chemical reaction rates.

  3. The importance of geomagnetic field changes versus rising CO2 levels for long-term change in the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cnossen Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s upper atmosphere has shown signs of cooling and contraction over the past decades. This is generally attributed to the increasing level of atmospheric CO2, a coolant in the upper atmosphere. However, especially the charged part of the upper atmosphere, the ionosphere, also responds to the Earth’s magnetic field, which has been weakening considerably over the past century, as well as changing in structure. The relative importance of the changing geomagnetic field compared to enhanced CO2 levels for long-term change in the upper atmosphere is still a matter of debate. Here we present a quantitative comparison of the effects of the increase in CO2 concentration and changes in the magnetic field from 1908 to 2008, based on simulations with the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM. This demonstrates that magnetic field changes contribute at least as much as the increase in CO2 concentration to changes in the height of the maximum electron density in the ionosphere, and much more to changes in the maximum electron density itself and to low-/mid-latitude ionospheric currents. Changes in the magnetic field even contribute to cooling of the thermosphere at ~300 km altitude, although the increase in CO2 concentration is still the dominant factor here. Both processes are roughly equally important for long-term changes in ion temperature.

  4. Atlantic Induced Pan-tropical Climate Variability in the Upper-ocean and Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Xie, S. P.; Gille, S. T.; Yoo, C.

    2016-02-01

    During the last three decades, tropical sea surface temperature (SST) exhibited dipole-like trends, with warming over the tropical Atlantic and Indo-Western Pacific but cooling over the Eastern Pacific. The Eastern Pacific cooling has recently been identified as a driver of the global warming hiatus. Previous studies revealed atmospheric bridges between the tropical Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean, which could potentially contribute to this zonally asymmetric SST pattern. However, the mechanisms and the interactions between these teleconnections remain unclear. To investigate these questions, we performed a `pacemaker' simulation by restoring the tropical Atlantic SST changes in a state-of-the-art climate model - the CESM1. Results show that the Atlantic plays a key role in initiating the tropical-wide teleconnections, and the Atlantic-induced anomalies contribute 55%-75% of the total tropical SST and circulation changes during the satellite era. A hierarchy of oceanic and atmospheric models are then used to investigate the physical mechanisms of these teleconnections: the Atlantic warming enhances atmospheric deep convection, drives easterly wind anomalies over the Indo-Western Pacific through the Kelvin wave, and westerly anomalies over the eastern Pacific as Rossby waves, in line with Gill's solution (Fig1a). These wind changes induce an Indo-Western Pacific warming via the wind-evaporation-SST effect, and this warming intensifies the La Niña-type response in the upper Pacific Ocean by enhancing the easterly trade winds and through the Bjerknes ocean-dynamical processes (Fig1b). The teleconnection finally develops into a tropical-wide SST dipole pattern with an enhanced trade wind and Walker circulation, similar as the observed changes during the satellite era. This mechanism reveals that the tropical ocean basins are more tightly connected than previously thought, and the Atlantic plays a key role in the tropical climate pattern formation and further the

  5. Observing the Polar Upper Atmosphere from Low Earth Orbit: Challenges, Opportunities, and New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, L. J.

    2001-05-01

    Any observational investigation of a physical phenomenon is confronted with a choice of the temporal and spatial scales to be observed. For observations from a space platform these choices are further constrained by total cost, with its collateral restrictions on payload and instrument size, mass, power, data rate, and choice of orbit. When one posits an investigation of the polar upper atmosphere the choice of orbit is often the determining factor in the design of the instruments. Optical instruments designed for auroral imaging are driven by the desire to image as much of the auroral oval as possible. Choices about bandpasses (the nominal range of sensitivity) have to be made and one commonly encounters far ultraviolet (FUV) instruments. The FUV is chosen because there is no signal from the atmosphere below about 80 km, thus enabling one to make observations of the sunlit aurora. The principle limitations of FUV optical design are the low transmission efficiency of suitable optical materials (glasses and plastics have 0% transmission in the FUV, for example, while commonly used materials have transmissions below 30% for useful thicknesses) and the relatively low reflection efficiency of optical surfaces (this provides a strong impetus towards reducing the total number of reflections since the efficiency if the product of all the reflection efficiencies). From high Earth orbit a camera, that is to say a broadband imager, seems a natural choice as, in principle, such a device can provide continuous imaging at good spatial resolution of the entire oval with reasonable sensitivity. Camera designs have three principle problems: 1) providing a uniform response over the entire image, 2) meeting out of band rejection requirements (i.e. not being sensitive to other than FUV light), and 3) providing images at more than one wavelength simultaneously. These last two problems stem from the use of the combination of filters, mirror coatings, and photocathodes to define the

  6. The determination of parameters of the upper atmosphere by the radio-meteor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamukov, Damir; Fahrutdinova, Antonina; Nugmanov, Ildus

    Study of the parameters of the upper atmosphere on the basis of amplitude-time characteristics of meteor ionization. Together with various methods meteor observations (optical, photographic, visual, spectral, television), the most effective modern method of studying meteors means is radar. The development of modern radar technology allows us to apply this tool to monitor meteors. This method allows to determine the parameters of temperature and atmospheric pressure. Actual issue is the development of methods of determining the coefficient of ambipolar diffusion, pressure, density and temperature of the atmosphere in the meteor zone. Graph of amplitude-time characteristic has the exponential form. This fact allows to determine the coefficient of ambipolar diffusion. New algorithm for estimation of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient based on a set of statistical methods and techniques of digital signal processing. There are decomposition of data on singular values and Prony's method. This method of modeling the sample data as a linear combination of exponential. Prony’s method approximates the amplitude-time characteristics of using a deterministic exponential model. Input data is amplitude-time characteristics of the meteor trail x[1]…x[N]. The method allows to estimate x[n] p-membered exponential model: begin{center} x[n]=Sigma2A_{k}exp[a _{k}(n-1)]Cos[2Pif_{k}(n-1)T+Fi_{k}] (1) end{center} 1<=n<=N, T - time range in seconds, A_{k} and a_{k} - amplitude and damping coefficient, f_{k} and Fi_{k} - frequency and initial phase. The equation describing the decay of radio signal: begin{center} A=A_{0}exp(-16Pi^{2}$D_{a}t/λ (2) ). (2) lambdaλ - radar wavelength. The output of the algorithm - the ambipolar diffusion coefficient values D_{a}. begin{center} T=0.5lnD-T_{0}+mg/2kT_{0} (3) Last equation allows to obtain temperature values using the coefficient of ambipolar diffusion depends on the height.

  7. Redistribution of H atoms in the upper atmosphere during geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J.; Waldrop, L.; Makela, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Atomic hydrogen (H) is the dominant neutral constituent in the terrestrial upper atmosphere and plays a critical role in coupling the thermosphere-ionosphere system to the magnetosphere and solar wind through ion-neutral interactions. These coupling effects can manifest as evident changes in the geocorona H emissions during storm times. In this study, geocoronal H emission data acquired by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) onboard NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite and those acquired by the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager (SSUSI) onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites are analyzed to quantify the H density distribution over the entire magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere region in order to investigate the response of the atmospheric system as a whole to geomagnetic storms. A comprehensive radiative transfer model is used in the H density quantification. In the analyses we find that the storm-time H density in the outer exosphere above 2Re altitude increases by 40%, while the H density in the thermospheric-exospheric transition region between 300km-2Re altitude decreases by 40% relative to the density values at quiet times. We postulate that enhanced ion-neutral charge exchange in the topside ionosphere and inner plasmasphere is the primary driver of the observed H redistribution. Specifically, charge exchange between H atoms and ionospheric/plasmaspheric O+ leads to direct H loss, while those between thermal H and H+ yield kinetically energized H atoms which populate gravitationally bound satellite orbits. The resulting H density enhancements in the outer exosphere would enhance the charge exchange rates in the ring current and the associated energetic neutral atom production. In addition, the enhanced hot H- and O-atom precipitation from the transition region might be partially responsible for the storm-time enhancements in the thermospheric OI and H airglow

  8. Introducing a new stratospheric dust-collecting system with potential use for upper atmospheric microbiology investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Corte, Vincenzo; Rietmeijer, Frans J M; Rotundi, Alessandra; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The stratosphere is a known host to terrestrial microbes of most major biological lineages, but it is also host to incoming meteoric dust. Our goal is to (1) introduce DUSTER (Dust in the Upper Stratosphere Tracking Experiment and Retrieval), an active collector for the nondestructive collection of nano- to micrometer particles in the stratosphere between 30 and 40 km altitude, and (2) demonstrate that even a single particle can be collected free of resident atmospheric and laboratory contaminant particles. DUSTER improves the pervasive and persistent contamination problem in the field of aerobiology research. Here, we demonstrate the collector's advances by the identification of a (terrestrial) spore particle found among a population of nanometer-scale inorganic meteoric particles. This was possible because the size, shape, morphology, and chemical composition of each particle can be determined while still on the collector surface. Particles can be removed from DUSTER for specific laboratory analyses. So far, DUSTER has not been fitted for aerobiological purposes; that is, no attempts were made to sterilize the collector other than with isopropyl alcohol. Its design and laboratory protocols, however, allow adjustments to dedicated aerobiological sampling opportunities.

  9. A review of recent progress in trends in the upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laštovička, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases affect not only the weather and climate in the troposphere; they affect also long-term trends in the mesosphere-thermosphere-ionosphere system, where the amplitudes of anthropogenic changes are substantially larger than in the troposphere. The last four years have seen significant progress in investigating these trends but also some new puzzles have been created. Observations of the CO2 trend in the lower thermosphere appeared but their interpretation is a matter of debate. The role of ozone in mesospheric temperatures and E-region ionosphere has been confirmed and quantified. Agreement between observational and simulated trends in the thermospheric density, supported by satellite observations of radiative cooling was reached but the most recent result re-opened the problem. Much new partial information about trends in the ionospheric F region was reported. Also new information on other experimental trends helped to improve our understanding of long-term trends in the upper atmosphere. Significant progress has been reached in modelling the long-term trends; in a few parameters the agreement with observed trends is now not only quantitative but also qualitative. Several attempts to explain ionospheric trends without CO2 appeared but they are shown not to be correct; CO2 remains to be the primary (although not the only) trend driver. On the other hand, many open questions or puzzles, listed in Concluding remarks, remain to be investigated.

  10. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite: From Coffee Table Art to Quantitative Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.

    1999-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has provided an unprecedented set of observations of constituents of the stratosphere. When used in combination with data from other sources and appropriate modeling tools, these observations are useful for quantitative evaluation of stratospheric photochemical processes. This is illustrated by comparing ozone observations from airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), from the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM), from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and from the Halogen occultation Experiment (HALOE) with ozone fields generated with a three dimensional model. For 1995-96, at polar latitudes, observations from DIAL flights on December 9 and January 30, and POAM and MLS between late December and late January are compared with ozone fields from the GSFC 3D chemistry and transport model. Data from the three platforms consistently show that the observed ozone has a negative trend relative to the modeled ozone, and that the trend is uniform in time between early and mid winter, with no obvious dependence on proximity to the vortex edge. The importance of chlorine catalyzed photochemistry to this ozone loss is explored by comparing observations from MLS and HALOE with simulations for other northern winters, particularly 1997-98.

  11. ON THE COMBINATION OF IMAGING-POLARIMETRY WITH SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF UPPER SOLAR ATMOSPHERES DURING SOLAR ECLIPSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Z. Q.; Deng, L. H.; Dun, G. T.; Chang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Cheng, X. M.; Qu, Z. N.; Xue, Z. K.; Ma, L.; Allington-Smith, J.; Murray, G.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from imaging polarimetry (IP) of upper solar atmospheres during a total solar eclipse on 2012 November 13 and spectropolarimetry of an annular solar eclipse on 2010 January 15. This combination of techniques provides both the synoptic spatial distribution of polarization above the solar limb and spectral information on the physical mechanism producing the polarization. Using these techniques together we demonstrate that even in the transition region, the linear polarization increases with height and can exceed 20%. IP shows a relatively smooth background distribution in terms of the amplitude and direction modified by solar structures above the limb. A map of a new quantity that reflects direction departure from the background polarization supplies an effective technique to improve the contrast of this fine structure. Spectral polarimetry shows that the relative contribution to the integrated polarization over the observed passband from the spectral lines decreases with height while the contribution from the continuum increases as a general trend. We conclude that both imaging and spectral polarimetry obtained simultaneously over matched spatial and spectral domains will be fruitful for future eclipse observations

  12. Dynamics of the Upper Atmosphere X-ray Emission during the 23rd Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, Galina; Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inácio M.; Spjeldvik, Walther

    Long-term observations with the RPS-1instrument on the CORONAS-F satellite (July 2001 to December 2005) permitted the evaluation of the low energy 3.0-31.5 keV X-ray emission flux radiated by the upper nocturnal atmosphere. This emission mostly results from the bremsstrahlung radiation from magnetospheric electrons. The entire nocturnal atmosphere emits energy in the range of 3 to 5 keV, especially in the southern hemisphere, over the Pacific and Indian ocean areas. In the northern hemisphere, the brightest emission from the atmo-sphere is observed at high latitudes in the region of Earth's radiation belt (ERB). In lower northern latitudes, the X-ray emission intensity is rather weak especially during the summer, and on 5-8 keV maps there are regions where there are no discernible emissions. At energies higher than 8 keV, only areas over the South-Atlantic magnetic anomaly and ERB at high latitudes are distinctly observed. This emission is produced by X-rays arising from interactions of ERB particles, descending to the altitude of 500 km in their bounce motion with the am-bient atmospheric matter, and by direct ERB particles passing through the lateral walls and entrance window of the detector (electrons with energies higher than 100 keV and protons with energies higher than 3 MeV). In order to determine the source mechanisms of soft X-rays in the energy range 3 to 8 keV from regions in the ERB, we studied the relationship between the seasonal variation of the X-ray atmospheric radiation and phases of the solar activity cycle. The global monthly, six-monthly, and yearly-averaged X-ray flux distributions were statistically determined for the five-year duration of the CORONAS-F mission. From these distributions, it is possible to infer about the influence of the phase of the solar activity and seasonal effects on the fluxes with energy in the range of 3 to 8 keV. Analysis of these data revealed important regularities in the behavior of this emission. We noted that

  13. Wind and Temperature Spectrometry of the Upper Atmosphere in Low-Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Wind and Temperature Spectrometry (WATS) is a new approach to measure the full wind vector, temperature, and relative densities of major neutral species in the Earth's thermosphere. The method uses an energy-angle spectrometer moving through the tenuous upper atmosphere to measure directly the angular and energy distributions of the air stream that enters the spectrometer. The angular distribution gives the direction of the total velocity of the air entering the spectrometer, and the energy distribution gives the magnitude of the total velocity. The wind velocity vector is uniquely determined since the measured total velocity depends on the wind vector and the orbiting velocity vector. The orbiting spectrometer moves supersonically, Mach 8 or greater, through the air and must point within a few degrees of its orbital velocity vector (the ram direction). Pointing knowledge is critical; for example, pointing errors 0.1 lead to errors of about 10 m/s in the wind. The WATS method may also be applied without modification to measure the ion-drift vector, ion temperature, and relative ion densities of major ionic species in the ionosphere. In such an application it may be called IDTS: Ion-Drift Temperature Spectrometry. A spectrometer-based coordinate system with one axis instantaneously pointing along the ram direction makes it possible to transform the Maxwellian velocity distribution of the air molecules to a Maxwellian energy-angle distribution for the molecular flux entering the spectrometer. This implementation of WATS is called the gas kinetic method (GKM) because it is applied to the case of the Maxwellian distribution. The WATS method follows from the recognition that in a supersonic platform moving at 8,000 m/s, the measurement of small wind velocities in the air on the order of a few 100 m/s and less requires precise knowledge of the angle of incidence of the neutral atoms and molecules. The same is true for the case of ion-drift measurements. WATS also

  14. Observations of a free-energy source for intense electrostatic waves. [in upper atmosphere near upper hybrid resonance frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, W. S.; Frank, L. A.; Gurnett, D. A.; Burek, B. G.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1980-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding intense electrostatic waves near the upper hybrid resonance frequency in terms of the theory of multiharmonic cyclotron emission using a classical loss-cone distribution function as a model. Recent observations by Hawkeye 1 and GEOS 1 have verified the existence of loss-cone distributions in association with the intense electrostatic wave events, however, other observations by Hawkeye and ISEE have indicated that loss cones are not always observable during the wave events, and in fact other forms of free energy may also be responsible for the instability. Now, for the first time, a positively sloped feature in the perpendicular distribution function has been uniquely identified with intense electrostatic wave activity. Correspondingly, we suggest that the theory is flexible under substantial modifications of the model distribution function.

  15. Middle and upper atmosphere pressure-temperature profiles and the abundances of CO2 and CO in the upper atmosphere from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Zander, R.; Lopez-Puertas, M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved method for retrieving pressure-temperature profiles is described and is used to retrieve profiles of the kinetic-temperature and atmospheric-pressure profiles between 20 and 116 km altitudes and the CO2 and CO volume-mixing ratios between 70 and 116 km, using the IR occultation spectra recorded by the Spacelab 3 atmospheric trace molecular spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer between April 29 and May 6, 1985. Profiles are derived for six ATMOS occultations. The CO2 and CO volume-mixing profiles are compared with previous observations and model predictions. Evidence is found for vibrational non-LTE by analyzing the lines of the (nu-2 + nu-3 - nu-2) (C-12)(O-16) band. Results are used for deriving (C-12)(O-16) (010) vibrational temperatures, which are compared with the retrieved kinetic temperatures and the predictions of non-LTE effects by recent models.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Plantaricin Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains (IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, IIA-2B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Arief

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Indonesian lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, IIA-2B2 were purified and characterized. Plantaricin W gene had been successfully amplified from all strains. This amplicon showed the expected 200 bp size of plantaricin W gene. This bacteriocins purified from L. plantarum IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, and IIA-2B2 were named plantaricin IIA-1A5, IIA-1B1, and IIA-2B2. Purification by cation exchange chromatography increased the purity (fold and activity of plantaricins. Purity of plantaricin IIA-1A5 was increased by 3.13 fold with specific activity 13.40 AU/mg. Plantaricin IIA-1B1 had 2.98 fold purity with specific activity 5.12 AU/mg, while purity of plantaricin IIA-2B2 was 1.37 fold with specific activity 7.70 AU/mg. All plantaricins could inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Plantaricins could be digested by trypsin. Stability of plantaricins at 80 oC for 30 min and at 121 oC for 15 min were affected by type of plantaricin and species of pathogenic bacteria. Generally, plantaricin IIA-1A5 was better as antimicrobial agent than plantaricin IIA-1B1 and plantaricin IIA-2B2.

  17. Proceedings of the 13th annual meeting on upper atmosphere studies by optical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaseide, K.

    1986-12-01

    A total of 41 papers were presented under the following session topics: Atmospheric emissions; auroral features and dynamics; auroral pulsations; airglow and atmospheric parameters; atmospheric constituents; instrumentation and data handling; and observation programs. The report presents the full text or abstracts of 31 of the lectures given at the meeting. 25 of the papers are seperate input to the data base from this report

  18. Metadata database and data analysis software for the ground-based upper atmospheric data developed by the IUGONET project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Hori, T.; Koyama, Y.; Shinbori, A.; Abe, S.; Kagitani, M.; Kouno, T.; Yoshida, D.; Ueno, S.; Kaneda, N.; Yoneda, M.; Tadokoro, H.; Motoba, T.; Umemura, N.; Iugonet Project Team

    2011-12-01

    The Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) is a Japanese inter-university project by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR), Tohoku University, Nagoya University, Kyoto University, and Kyushu University to build a database of metadata for ground-based observations of the upper atmosphere. The IUGONET institutes/universities have been collecting various types of data by radars, magnetometers, photometers, radio telescopes, helioscopes, etc. at various locations all over the world and at various altitude layers from the Earth's surface to the Sun. The metadata database will be of great help to researchers in efficiently finding and obtaining these observational data spread over the institutes/universities. This should also facilitate synthetic analysis of multi-disciplinary data, which will lead to new types of research in the upper atmosphere. The project has also been developing a software to help researchers download, visualize, and analyze the data provided from the IUGONET institutes/universities. The metadata database system is built on the platform of DSpace, which is an open source software for digital repositories. The data analysis software is written in the IDL language with the TDAS (THEMIS Data Analysis Software suite) library. These products have been just released for beta-testing.

  19. A global climatology of upper-tropospheric ice supersaturation occurrence inferred from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder calibrated by MOZAIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lamquin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ice supersaturation in the upper troposphere is a complex and important issue for the understanding of cirrus cloud formation. On one hand, infrared sounders have the ability to provide cloud properties and atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. On the other hand, they suffer from coarse vertical resolution, especially in the upper troposphere and therefore are unable to detect shallow ice supersaturated layers. We have used data from the Measurements of OZone and water vapour by AIrbus in-service airCraft experiment (MOZAIC in combination with Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS relative humidity measurements and cloud properties to develop a calibration method for an estimation of occurrence frequencies of ice supersaturation. This method first determines the occurrence probability of ice supersaturation, detected by MOZAIC, as a function of the relative humidity determined by AIRS. The occurrence probability function is then applied to AIRS data, independently of the MOZAIC data, to provide a global climatology of upper-tropospheric ice supersaturation occurrence. Our climatology is then compared to ice supersaturation occurrence statistics from MOZAIC alone and related to high cloud occurrence from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP. As an example of application it is compared to model climatologies of ice supersaturation from the Integrated Forecast System (IFS of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF and from the European Centre HAmburg Model (ECHAM4. This study highlights the benefits of multi-instrumental synergies for the investigation of upper tropospheric ice supersaturation.

  20. Long term evolution of temperature in the venus upper atmosphere at the evening and morning terminators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, P.; Sornig, M.; Wischnewski, C.; Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Herrmann, M.; Sonnabend, G.; Stangier, T.; Wiegand, M.; Pätzold, M.; Mahieux, A.; Vandaele, A. C.; Piccialli, A.; Montmessin, F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper contains a comprehensive dataset of long-term observations between 2009 and 2015 at the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere providing temperature values at different locations of the morning and evening side of the terminator of Venus. Temperature information is obtained by line-resolved spectroscopy of Doppler broadened CO2 transitions features. Results are restricted to a pressure level of 1 μbar, ∼110 km altitude due the nature of the addressed non-LTE CO2 emission line at 10 μm. The required high spectral resolution of the instrumentation is provided by the ground-based spectrometers THIS (University of Cologne) and HIPWAC (NASA GSFC). For the first time upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere temperatures at the Venusian terminator derived from IR-het spectroscopy between 2009 and 2015 are investigated in order to clarify the local-time dependences, latitudinal dependences and the long-term trend. Measured temperatures were distributed in the range between 140 K and 240 K, with mean values equal to 199 K ± 17 K for the morning side of the terminator and 195 K ± 19 K for the evening side of the terminator. Within the uncertainty no difference between the averaged morning and evening terminator side temperature is found. In addition, no strong latitudinal dependency is observed at these near terminator local times. In contrast IR-het data from 2009 show a strong latitudinal dependency at noon, with a temperature difference of around 60 K between the equatorial and polar region (Sonnabend et al., 2012). Accord with the instruments of the Venus Express mission a northern-southern hemispherical symmetry is observed (Mahieux et al., 2012; Piccialli et al., 2015). The data shows no consistent long-term temperature trend throughout the six years of observation, but a variability in the order of tens of Kelvin for the different observing runs representing a time step of few month to two years. This is about the same order of magnitude as the variability

  1. Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Akmaev, R. A.; Beig, G.; Bremer, J.; Emmert, J. T.; Jacobi, C.; Jarvis, M.J.; Nedoluha, G.; Portnyagin, Yu. I.; Ulich, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2008), s. 1255-1268 ISSN 0992-7689 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Atmospheric composition and structure * Thermosphere – composition and chemistry * Evolution of the atmosphere * Ionosphere * Ionosphere-atmosphere interactions Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.660, year: 2008 http://www.ann-geophys.net/26/1255/2008/

  2. XUV-exposed, non-hydrostatic hydrogen-rich upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets. Part I: atmospheric expansion and thermal escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkaev, Nikolai V; Lammer, Helmut; Odert, Petra; Kulikov, Yuri N; Kislyakova, Kristina G; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Güdel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Biernat, Helfried

    2013-11-01

    The recently discovered low-density "super-Earths" Kepler-11b, Kepler-11f, Kepler-11d, Kepler-11e, and planets such as GJ 1214b represent the most likely known planets that are surrounded by dense H/He envelopes or contain deep H₂O oceans also surrounded by dense hydrogen envelopes. Although these super-Earths are orbiting relatively close to their host stars, they have not lost their captured nebula-based hydrogen-rich or degassed volatile-rich steam protoatmospheres. Thus, it is interesting to estimate the maximum possible amount of atmospheric hydrogen loss from a terrestrial planet orbiting within the habitable zone of late main sequence host stars. For studying the thermosphere structure and escape, we apply a 1-D hydrodynamic upper atmosphere model that solves the equations of mass, momentum, and energy conservation for a planet with the mass and size of Earth and for a super-Earth with a size of 2 R(Earth) and a mass of 10 M(Earth). We calculate volume heating rates by the stellar soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) and expansion of the upper atmosphere, its temperature, density, and velocity structure and related thermal escape rates during the planet's lifetime. Moreover, we investigate under which conditions both planets enter the blow-off escape regime and may therefore experience loss rates that are close to the energy-limited escape. Finally, we discuss the results in the context of atmospheric evolution and implications for habitability of terrestrial planets in general.

  3. Atmospheric Forcing and the Structure and Evolution of the Upper Ocean in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    heat, momentum, and freshwater and of upper-ocean (0-200 m) temperature, salinity , and velocity. These time series will serve as a benchmark for...perspective of air- sea interaction: the presence of a salinity -stratified barrier layer is believed to have important effects on the sea surface...instrumentation for high-quality estimates of surface fluxes and high-resolution vertical profiles of temperature, salinity , and velocity over the upper 200

  4. Сhronology of early Neolithic materials of the site Sakhtysh IIa (Central Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Dolbunova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Volga culture (UVC in the Volga and Oka basin is one of the earliest pottery cultures in Eastern Europe. The Sakhtysh IIa site is attributed to the core area of the UVC, with pottery encompassing all stages of this culture. A detailed analysis of artefact deposition in different lay­ers allows the creation of chronological models of early pottery development in this region. A series of new radiocarbon dates of food crust on pottery sherds which typologically belong to different stages of UVC at Sakhtysh IIa, as well as an overview of the oldest pottery are presented in this article.

  5. Young planets under extreme UV irradiation. I. Upper atmosphere modelling of the young exoplanet K2-33b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubyshkina, D.; Lendl, M.; Fossati, L.; Cubillos, P. E.; Lammer, H.; Erkaev, N. V.; Johnstone, C. P.

    2018-04-01

    The K2-33 planetary system hosts one transiting 5 R⊕ planet orbiting the young M-type host star. The planet's mass is still unknown, with an estimated upper limit of 5.4 MJ. The extreme youth of the system (stage when the planet is exposed to an extremely high level of high-energy radiation emitted by the host star. We perform a series of 1D hydrodynamic simulations of the planet's upper atmosphere considering a range of possible planetary masses, from 2 to 40 M⊕, and equilibrium temperatures, from 850 to 1300 K, to account for internal heating as a result of contraction. We obtain temperature profiles mostly controlled by the planet's mass, while the equilibrium temperature has a secondary effect. For planetary masses below 7-10 M⊕, the atmosphere is subject to extremely high escape rates, driven by the planet's weak gravity and high thermal energy, which increase with decreasing mass and/or increasing temperature. For higher masses, the escape is instead driven by the absorption of the high-energy stellar radiation. A rough comparison of the timescales for complete atmospheric escape and age of the system indicates that the planet is more massive than 10 M⊕.

  6. Light in condensed matter in the upper atmosphere as the origin of homochirality: circularly polarized light from Rydberg matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM.

  7. Atmosphere expansion and mass loss of close-orbit giant exoplanets heated by stellar XUV. I. Modeling of hydrodynamic escape of upper atmospheric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikhislamov, I. F. [Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Khodachenko, M. L.; Sasunov, Yu. L.; Lammer, H.; Kislyakova, K. G. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Acad. Sci., Graz (Austria); Erkaev, N. V., E-mail: maxim.khodachenko@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of Computational Modelling, SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-10

    In the present series of papers we propose a consistent description of the mass loss process. To study in a comprehensive way the effects of the intrinsic magnetic field of a close-orbit giant exoplanet (a so-called hot Jupiter) on atmospheric material escape and the formation of a planetary inner magnetosphere, we start with a hydrodynamic model of an upper atmosphere expansion in this paper. While considering a simple hydrogen atmosphere model, we focus on the self-consistent inclusion of the effects of radiative heating and ionization of the atmospheric gas with its consequent expansion in the outer space. Primary attention is paid to an investigation of the role of the specific conditions at the inner and outer boundaries of the simulation domain, under which different regimes of material escape (free and restricted flow) are formed. A comparative study is performed of different processes, such as X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) heating, material ionization and recombination, H{sub 3}{sup +} cooling, adiabatic and Lyα cooling, and Lyα reabsorption. We confirm the basic consistency of the outcomes of our modeling with the results of other hydrodynamic models of expanding planetary atmospheres. In particular, we determine that, under the typical conditions of an orbital distance of 0.05 AU around a Sun-type star, a hot Jupiter plasma envelope may reach maximum temperatures up to ∼9000 K with a hydrodynamic escape speed of ∼9 km s{sup –1}, resulting in mass loss rates of ∼(4-7) · 10{sup 10} g s{sup –1}. In the range of the considered stellar-planetary parameters and XUV fluxes, that is close to the mass loss in the energy-limited case. The inclusion of planetary intrinsic magnetic fields in the model is a subject of the follow-up paper (Paper II).

  8. Investigation of the external flow analysis for density measurements at high altitude. [shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, G. K.

    1983-01-01

    A Monte Carlo program was developed for modeling the flow field around the space shuttle in the vicinity of the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer experiment. The operation of the EXTERNAL code is summarized. Issues associated with geometric modeling of the shuttle nose region and the modeling of intermolecular collisions including rotational energy exchange are discussed as well as a preliminary analysis of vibrational excitation and dissociation effects. The selection of trial runs is described and the parameters used for them is justified. The original version and the modified INTERNAL code for the entrance problem are reviewed. The code listing is included.

  9. Unique, Non-Earthlike, Meteoritic Ion Behavior in Upper Atmosphere of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Benna, M.; Plane, J. M. C.; Collinson, G. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interplanetary dust particles have long been expected to produce permanent ionospheric metal ion layers at Mars, as on Earth, but the two environments are so different that uncertainty existed as to whether terrestrial-established understanding would apply to Mars. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission made the first in situ detection of the continuous presence of Na+, Mg+, and Fe+ at Mars and indeed revealed non-Earthlike features/processes. There is no separation of the light Mg+ and the heavy Fe+ with increasing altitude as expected for gravity control. The metal ions are well-mixed with the neutral atmosphere at altitudes where no mixing process is expected. Isolated metal ion layers mimicking Earths sporadic E layers occur despite the lack of a strong magnetic field as required at Earth. Further, the metal ion distributions are coherent enough to always show atmospheric gravity wave signatures. All features and processes are unique to Mars.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Horizontal temperature at Venus upper atmosphere (Peralta+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, J.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Gilli, G.; Piccialli, A.

    2015-11-01

    The dayside atmospheric temperatures in the UMLT of Venus (displayed in Figure 7A of this article) are listed as a CSV data file. These values consist of averages in bins of 5° in latitude and 0.25-hours in local time from dayside temperatures covering five years of data (from 2006/05/14 to 2011/06/05). These temperatures were inferred from the CO2 NLTE nadir spectra measured by the instrument VIRTIS-H onboard Venus Express (see article for full description of the procedure), and are representative of the atmospheric region between 10-2 to 10-5mb. Along with the temperatures, we also provide the corresponding error and the number of temperatures averaged in each bin. The format of the CSV file reasonably agrees with the expected format of the data files to be provided in the future version of the Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA). (1 data file).

  11. Water vapor absorption spectra of the upper atmosphere /45-185 per cm/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augason, G. C.; Mord, A. J.; Witteborn, F. C.; Erickson, E. F.; Swift, C. D.; Caroff, L. J.; Kunz, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    The far IR nighttime absorption spectrum of the earth's atmosphere above 14 km is determined from observations of the bright moon. The spectra were obtained using a Michelson interferometer attached to a 30-cm telescope aboard a high-altitude jet aircraft. Comparison with a single-layer model atmosphere implies a vertical column of 3.4 plus or minus 0.4 microns of precipitable water on 30 August 1971 and 2.4 plus or minus 0.3 microns of precipitable water on 6 January 1972.-

  12. Introduction to simulation of upper atmosphere oxygen satellite exposed to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplinski, D. R.; Arnold, G. S.; Borson, E. N.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review of atmospheric composition in low Earth orbit is presented. The flux of ambient atomic oxygen incident on a surface orbiting in this environment is described. Estimates are presented of the fluence of atomic oxygen to which satellite surfaces in various orbits are exposed.

  13. Massive type IIA supergravity and E10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, M.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Persson, D.; Jamsin, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this talk we investigate the symmetry under E 10 of Romans' massive type IIA supergravity. We show that the dynamics of a spinning particle in a non-linear sigma model on the coset space E 10 /K(E 10 ) reproduces the bosonic and fermionic dynamics of massive IIA supergravity, in the standard truncation. In particular, we identify Romans' mass with a generator of E 10 that is beyond the realm of the generators of E 10 considered in the eleven-dimensional analysis, but using the same, underformed sigma model. As a consequence, this work provides a dynamical unification of the massless and massive versions of type IIA supergravity inside E 10 . (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Dynamical symmetry enhancement near IIA horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, University; Gutowski, J.; Kayani, University; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-01-01

    We show that smooth type IIA Killing horizons with compact spatial sections preserve an even number of supersymmetries, and that the symmetry algebra of horizons with non-trivial fluxes includes an sl(2,ℝ) subalgebra. This confirms the conjecture of http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)104 for type IIA horizons. As an intermediate step in the proof, we also demonstrate new Lichnerowicz type theorems for spin bundle connections whose holonomy is contained in a general linear group.

  15. Class IIa Bacteriocins: Diversity and New Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Cui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Class IIa bacteriocins are heat-stable, unmodified peptides with a conserved amino acids sequence YGNGV on their N-terminal domains, and have received much attention due to their generally recognized as safe (GRAS status, their high biological activity, and their excellent heat stability. They are promising and attractive agents that could function as biopreservatives in the food industry. This review summarizes the new developments in the area of class IIa bacteriocins and aims to provide uptodate information that can be used in designing future research.

  16. Resolving the Strange Behavior of Extraterrestrial Potassium in the Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Dawkins, E.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Hoeffner, J.; Janches, D.; Marsh, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    It has been known since the 1960s that the layers of Na and K atoms, which occur between 80 and 105km in the Earth's atmosphere as a result of meteoric ablation, exhibit completely different seasonal behavior. In the extratropics Na varies annually, with a pronounced wintertime maximum and summertime minimum. However, K varies semiannually with a small summertime maximum and minima at the equinoxes. This contrasting behavior has never been satisfactorily explained. Here we use a combination of electronic structure and chemical kinetic rate theory to determine two key differences in the chemistries of K and Na. First, the neutralization of K+ ions is only favored at low temperatures during summer. Second, cycling between K and its major neutral reservoir KHCO3 is essentially temperature independent. A whole atmosphere model incorporating this new chemistry, together with a meteor input function, now correctly predicts the seasonal behavior of the K layer.

  17. Acoustic energy transfer to the upper atmosphere from sinusoidal sources and a role of nonlinear processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasnov, Valerij Michailovič; Drobzheva, Yana Viktorovna; Laštovička, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 12 (2007), s. 1357-1365 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/2110; GA ČR GA205/07/1367 Grant - others:Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan (KZ) 1-4-1.11-1 (112) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Infrasonic waves * Ionosphere * Atmosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.566, year: 2007

  18. Retrieval of upper atmosphere pressure-temperature profiles from high resolution solar occultation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Park, J. H.; Namkung, J.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure-temperature profiles over the 18 to 75 km altitude range were retrieved from 0.01 cm(-1) resolution infrared solar absorption spectra recorded with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the solar occultation mode during the Spacelab 3 shuttle mission (April 30 to May 1, 1985). The analysis method is described and preliminary results deduced for five occultation events are compared to correlative pressure-temperature measurments.

  19. THE ROLE OF NITROGEN IN TITAN’S UPPER ATMOSPHERIC HYDROCARBON CHEMISTRY OVER THE SOLAR CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luspay-Kuti, A.; Mandt, K. E.; Greathouse, T. K. [Department of Space Research, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Westlake, J. H. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Plessis, S., E-mail: aluspaykuti@swri.edu [Fund Kis, F-92160 Antony (France)

    2016-06-01

    Titan’s thermospheric photochemistry is primarily driven by solar radiation. Similarly to other planetary atmospheres, such as Mars’, Titan’s atmospheric structure is also directly affected by variations in the solar extreme-UV/UV output in response to the 11-year-long solar cycle. Here, we investigate the influence of nitrogen on the vertical production, loss, and abundance profiles of hydrocarbons as a function of the solar cycle. Our results show that changes in the atmospheric nitrogen atomic density (primarily in its ground state N({sup 4}S)) as a result of photon flux variations have important implications for the production of several minor hydrocarbons. The solar minimum enhancement of CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, despite the lower CH{sub 4} photodissociation rates compared with solar maximum conditions, is explained by the role of N({sup 4}S). N({sup 4}S) indirectly controls the altitude of termolecular versus bimolecular chemical regimes through its relationship with CH{sub 3}. When in higher abundance during solar maximum at lower altitudes, N({sup 4}S) increases the importance of bimolecular CH{sub 3} + N({sup 4}S) reactions producing HCN and H{sub 2}CN. The subsequent remarkable CH{sub 3} loss and decrease in the CH{sub 3} abundance at lower altitudes during solar maximum affects the overall hydrocarbon chemistry.

  20. Near-infrared brightness of the Galilean satellites eclipsed in Jovian shadow: A new technique to investigate Jovian upper atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumura, K. [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Arimatsu, K.; Matsuura, S.; Shirahata, M.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronoutical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Egami, E. [Department of Astronomy, Arizona University, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hayano, Y.; Minowa, Y. [Hawaii Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Honda, C. [Research Center for Advanced Information Science and Technology, Aizu Research Cluster for Space Science, The University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8589 (Japan); Kimura, J. [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kuramoto, K.; Takahashi, Y. [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Nakajima, K. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Nakamoto, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Surace, J., E-mail: tsumura@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    Based on observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Subaru Telescope, we have discovered that Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are bright around 1.5 μm even when not directly lit by sunlight. The observations were conducted with non-sidereal tracking on Jupiter outside of the field of view to reduce the stray light subtraction uncertainty due to the close proximity of Jupiter. Their eclipsed luminosity was 10{sup –6}-10{sup –7} of their uneclipsed brightness, which is low enough that this phenomenon has been undiscovered until now. In addition, Europa in eclipse was <1/10 of the others at 1.5 μm, a potential clue to the origin of the source of luminosity. Likewise, Ganymede observations were attempted at 3.6 μm by the Spitzer Space Telescope, but it was not detected, suggesting a significant wavelength dependence. It is still unknown why they are luminous even when in the Jovian shadow, but forward-scattered sunlight by hazes in the Jovian upper atmosphere is proposed as the most plausible candidate. If this is the case, observations of these Galilean satellites while eclipsed by the Jovian shadow provide us with a new technique to investigate the Jovian atmospheric composition. Investigating the transmission spectrum of Jupiter by this method is important for investigating the atmosphere of extrasolar giant planets by transit spectroscopy.

  1. Atlas II and IIA analyses and environments validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard E.

    1995-06-01

    General Dynamics has now flown all four versions of the Atlas commercial launch vehicle, which cover a payload weight capability to geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) in the range of 5000-8000 lb. The key analyses to set design and environmental test parameters for the vehicle modifications and the ground and flight test data that validated them were prepared in paper IAF-91-170 for the first version, Atlas I. This paper presents similar data for the next two versions, Atlas II and IIA. The Atlas II has propellant tanks lengthened by 12 ft and is boosted by MA-5A rocket engines uprated to 474,000 lb liftoff thrust. GTO payload capability is 6225 lb with the 11-ft fairing. The Atlas IIA is an Atlas II with uprated RL10A-4 engines on the lengthened Centaur II upper stage. The two 20,800 lb thrust, 449 s specific impulse engines with an optional extendible nozzle increase payload capability to GTO to 6635 lb. The paper describes design parameters and validated test results for many other improvements that have generally provided greater capability at less cost, weight and complexity and better reliability. Those described include: moving the MA-5A start system to the ground, replacing the vernier engines with a simple 50 lb thrust on-off hydrazine roll control system, addition of a POGO suppressor, replacement of Centaur jettisonable insulation panels with fixed foam, a new inertial navigation unit (INU) that combines in one package a ring-laser gyro based strapdown guidance system with two MIL-STD-1750A processors, redundant MIL-STD-1553 data bus interfaces, robust Ada-based software and a new Al-Li payload adapter. Payload environment is shown to be essentially unchanged from previous Atlas vehicles. Validation of load, stability, control and pressurization requirements for the larger vehicle is discussed. All flights to date (five Atlas II, one Atlas IIA) have been successful in launching satellites for EUTELSAT, the U.S. Air Force and INTELSAT. Significant design

  2. The plasma properties of the solar upper atmosphere determined from high resolution observations and the nature of the physical processes sustaining it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, U.

    1994-01-01

    Half a century ago, it was established that the temperature of the ''quiescent'' solar corona is ∼10 6 K (∼100 eV). Wave theories have been used to explain the means by which the Sun keeps the corona about 200 times hotter than the 5000 K (∼0.5 eV) photosphere. In recent years, it has been suggested that a mechanism other than wave dissipation heats the ''quiescent'' corona and other transient phenomena that occur in the upper solar atmosphere. It is postulated by some that the solar upper atmosphere is heated by small bursts of energy resulting from magnetic reconnection. In this paper, the plasma properties of the upper solar atmosphere, a domain that, when flares are included, encompasses about three orders of magnitude in temperature (3x10 4 --3x10 7 K) and four orders of magnitude in electron density (3x10 8 ---3x10 12 cm -3 ), are described. It is shown that conventional scenarios based on magnetic reconnections may not adequately explain the observed plasma properties of the solar upper atmosphere. However, a model, consisting of electric currents flowing along magnetic field lines may have a better chance simulating the observed properties. For quiescent solar upper atmosphere phenomena, constant currents are needed to simulate the observations, while for flares, currents supplied by an exponentially decaying storage media are required

  3. Electron-impact vibrational excitation of the hydroxyl radical in the nighttime upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurence; Brunger, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Chemical processes produce vibrationally excited hydroxyl (OH) in a layer centred at an altitude of about 87 km in the Earth's atmosphere. Observations of this layer are used to deduce temperatures in the mesosphere and to observe the passage of atmospheric gravity waves. Due to the low densities and energies at night of electrons at the relevant altitude, it is not expected that electron-impact excitation of OH would be significant. However, there are unexplained characteristics of OH densities and radiative emissions that might be explained by electron impact. These are measurements of higher than expected densities of OH above 90 km and of emissions at higher energies that cannot be explained by the chemical production processes. This study simulates the role of electron impact in these processes, using theoretical cross sections for electron-impact excitation of OH. The simulations show that electron impact, even in a substantial aurora, cannot fully explain these phenomena. However, in the process of this investigation, apparent inconsistencies in the theoretical cross sections and reaction rates were found, indicating that measurements of electron-impact excitation of OH are needed to resolve these problems and scale the theoretical predictions to allow more accurate simulations.

  4. A kinetic-theory approach for computing chemical-reaction rates in upper-atmosphere hypersonic flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallis, Michael A; Bond, Ryan B; Torczynski, John R

    2009-09-28

    Recently proposed molecular-level chemistry models that predict equilibrium and nonequilibrium reaction rates using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties (i.e., no macroscopic reaction-rate information) are investigated for chemical reactions occurring in upper-atmosphere hypersonic flows. The new models are in good agreement with the measured Arrhenius rates for near-equilibrium conditions and with both measured rates and other theoretical models for far-from-equilibrium conditions. Additionally, the new models are applied to representative combustion and ionization reactions and are in good agreement with available measurements and theoretical models. Thus, molecular-level chemistry modeling provides an accurate method for predicting equilibrium and nonequilibrium chemical-reaction rates in gases.

  5. Modeling of plasma chemical processes in the artificial ionized layer in the upper atmosphere by the nanosecond corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikharev, A. L.; Gorbachev, A. M.; Ivanov, O. A.; Kolisko, A. L.; Litvak, A. G.

    1993-08-01

    The plasma chemical processes in the corona discharge formed in air by a series of high voltage pulses of nanosecond duration are investigated experimentally. The experimental conditions (reduced electric field, duration and repetition frequency of the pulses, gas pressure in the chamber) modeled the regime of creation of the artificial ionized layer (AIL) in the upper atmosphere by a nanosecond microwave discharge. It was found that in a nanosecond microwave discharge predominantly generation of ozone occurs, and that the production of nitrogen dioxide is not large. The energy expenditures for the generation of one O 3 molecule were about 15 eV. On the basis of the experimental results the prognosis of the efficiency of ozone generation in AIL was made.

  6. First detection of the O III 495.8911 and 500.6843 nm lines in the Earth's upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Witasse

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the first detection of two emission lines of the atomic oxygen doubly-charged ion at 495.8911 and 500.6843 nm in the terrestrial upper atmosphere. They correspond to the transitions 1D2-3P1 and 1D2-3P2 of the O++ ion, respectively. The measurements were performed on 30 October 2003 during the "Halloween" storms, with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT in Chile. The intensities of these emissions are ~70 mRayleigh, and ~260 mRayleigh, respectively. These emissions constitute a new diagnostic of the state of the ionosphere.

  7. Thermal structure and dynamics of the Martian upper atmosphere at solar minimum from global circulation model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moffat-Griffin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of the Martian upper atmosphere have been produced from a self-consistent three-dimensional numerical model of the Martian thermosphere and ionosphere, called MarTIM. It covers an altitude range of 60 km to the upper thermosphere, usually at least 250 km altitude. A radiation scheme is included that allows the main sources of energy input, EUV/UV and IR absorption by CO2 and CO, to be calculated. CO2, N2 and O are treated as the major gases in MarTIM, and are mutually diffused (though neutral chemistry is ignored. The densities of other species (the minor gases, CO, Ar, O2 and NO, are based on diffusive equilibrium above the turbopause. The ionosphere is calculated from a simple photoionisation and charge exchange routine though in this paper we will only consider the thermal and dynamic structure of the neutral atmosphere at solar minimum conditions. The semi-diurnal (2,2 migrating tide, introduced at MarTIM's lower boundary, affects the dynamics up to 130 km. The Mars Climate Database (Lewis et al., 2001 can be used as a lower boundary in MarTIM. The effect of this is to increase wind speeds in the thermosphere and to produce small-scale structures throughout the thermosphere. Temperature profiles are in good agreement with Pathfinder results. Wind velocities are slightly lower compared to analysis of MGS accelerometer data (Withers, 2003. The novel step-by-step approach of adding in new features to MarTIM has resulted in further understanding of the drivers of the Martian thermosphere.

  8. Thermal structure and dynamics of the Martian upper atmosphere at solar minimum from global circulation model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moffat-Griffin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of the Martian upper atmosphere have been produced from a self-consistent three-dimensional numerical model of the Martian thermosphere and ionosphere, called MarTIM. It covers an altitude range of 60 km to the upper thermosphere, usually at least 250 km altitude. A radiation scheme is included that allows the main sources of energy input, EUV/UV and IR absorption by CO2 and CO, to be calculated. CO2, N2 and O are treated as the major gases in MarTIM, and are mutually diffused (though neutral chemistry is ignored. The densities of other species (the minor gases, CO, Ar, O2 and NO, are based on diffusive equilibrium above the turbopause. The ionosphere is calculated from a simple photoionisation and charge exchange routine though in this paper we will only consider the thermal and dynamic structure of the neutral atmosphere at solar minimum conditions. The semi-diurnal (2,2 migrating tide, introduced at MarTIM's lower boundary, affects the dynamics up to 130 km. The Mars Climate Database (Lewis et al., 2001 can be used as a lower boundary in MarTIM. The effect of this is to increase wind speeds in the thermosphere and to produce small-scale structures throughout the thermosphere. Temperature profiles are in good agreement with Pathfinder results. Wind velocities are slightly lower compared to analysis of MGS accelerometer data (Withers, 2003. The novel step-by-step approach of adding in new features to MarTIM has resulted in further understanding of the drivers of the Martian thermosphere.

  9. Study of Mountain Waves in Middle and Upper Atmosphere by Airglow Imaging beside Mt Fuji in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, M.; Ishii, S.; Suzuki, H.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand propagation and generation mechanisms of mountain waves which play a major role in middle and upper atmospheric dynamics. An airglow imaging observations have been conducted to capture the signatures of mountain waves in the upper mesosphere since Nov. 2015 at Kawasaki (35.6°N, 139.5°E), Japan. Since the observation site located at the center of the Kanto plain which is sandwiched by mountain rich area (including Mt. Fuji) and the Pacific Ocean, occurrence of abundant numbers of mountain wave events would be expected. OH Meinel (7-3) band in the near infrared wavelength ( 890 nm) is chosen for the imaging observation to reduce the contaminations caused by artificial lights from the central area of Tokyo. The data on clear nights from Nov. 2015 to the present have been checked. However, only two events of a wave structure with zero apparent horizontal phase speed (i.e. mountain wave) have been identified during the period. To verify the observation results, a ray-tracing calculation have been conducted. In the ray-tracing, we assume that the highest mountain, Mt. Fuji as an excitation source of mountain waves. A re-analysis meteorological data, MERRA-2 is adopted as a background atmosphere. As a result, it is found that mountain waves generated by Mt. Fuji with shorter horizontal wavelength ( 20 km) can reach the OH layer, especially in March and October. Therefore, re-analysis of the imaging data by focusing on longer wavelength components (>20km) would increase the detection numbers of mountain wave events.

  10. CARINA Satellite Mission to Investigate the Upper Atmosphere below the F-Layer Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; Huba, J.; Montgomery, J. A., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    A new satellite design permits broad science measurements from the ocean to the ionosphere by flying below the F-Layer. The satellite called CARINA for Coastal-Ocean, Assimilation, Radio, Ionosphere, Neutral-Drag, and Atmospherics. The unique system capabilities are long duration orbits below the ionosphere and a HF receiver to measure broadband signals. The CARINA science products include recording the ocean surface properties, data for assimilation into global ionosphere models, radio wave propagation measurements, in-situ observations of ionospheric structures, validating neutral drag models and theory, and broadband atmospheric lightning characterization. CARINA will also measure nonlinear wave-generation using ionospheric modification sites in Alaska, Norway, Puerto Rico, and Russia and collaborate with geophysics HF radars (such as Super-DARN) for system calibration. CARINA is a linear 6-U CubeSat with a long antenna extended in the wake direction. The CARINA science mission is supported by three instruments. First, the Electric Field Instrument (EFI) is a radio receiver covering the 2 to 18 MHz range. The receiver can capture both narrow and wide bandwidths for up to 10 minutes. EFI is designed to provide HF signal strength and phase, radar Doppler shift and group delay, and electron plasma density from photoelectron excited plasma waves. Second a Ram Langmuir Probe (RLP) measures high-resolution ion currents at a 10 kHz rate. These measurements yield electron and ion density at the spacecraft. Finally, the Orbiting GPS Receiver (OGR) provides dual frequency GPS position with ionosphere correction. OGR also measures total electron content above the spacecraft and L-Band scintillations. CARINA will be the lowest satellite in orbit at 250 km altitude, system limiting phenomena such as travelling ionospheric disturbances, field aligned irregularities, sporadic-E and bottomside ionosphere structures.This work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base

  11. Exploring Earth's Ionosphere with CINDI: Bringing an Upper Atmosphere Mission into Pre-College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M. R.; Richardson, J. M.; Olson, C.

    2003-12-01

    We will present the Education and Public Outreach work in progress for the joint Air Force/NASA project CINDI (Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamic Investigation), which will launch in early 2004 on a US Air Force C/NOFS (Communications/Navigations Outage Forecast System) Satellite. CINDI, in conjunction with the other instruments on C/NOFS, will study how radio signals sent through the ionosphere are affected by variability with this layer of the atmosphere. The Educational outreach for CINDI is focused on helping students, educators, and the general public better understand the link between the ionosphere and our technological civilization. The ionosphere is typically neglected in pre-college science classes despite its impact on modern society and the substantial resources invested by funding agencies on furthering our understanding of this atmospheric layer. Our approach is to increase student understanding of the terrestrial ionosphere and Sun-Earth connections through strong connections to existing pre-college curricula and standards. We have created a partnership between the William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and the Science Education Program within the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) to produce a quality Educator Guide and a Summer Educator Workshop. A senior graduate student in physics and an experienced middle school educator in UTD's Science Education Master of Science Teaching Program have been partnered to ensure that our the Educator Guide and Workshop will contain both science and pedagogy, and be easily integrated into secondary science classes. The summer 2004 workshop will be offered in the Dallas area, which has a significant population of minority and economically disadvantaged students. We will recruit teachers from districts that serve a large number of underserved/underrepresented students. The Educator Guide and workshop materials will be made available on the CINDI Web site for distribution to a national audience.

  12. Long-term trends in the ionosphere and upper atmosphere parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper is directed to the investigation of the practical importance of possible longterm trends in the F2-layer for ionospheric prediction models. Using observations of about 50 different ionosonde stations with more than 30 years data series of foF2 and hmF2, trends have been derived with the solar sunspot number R12 as index of the solar activity. The final result of this trend analysis is that the differences between the trends derived from the data of the individual stations are relatively large, the calculated global mean values of the foF2 and hmF2 trends, however, are relatively small. Therefore, these small global trends can be neglected for practical purposes and must not be considered in ionospheric prediction models. This conclusion is in agreement with the results of other investigations analyzing data of globally distributed stations. As shown with the data of the ionosonde station Tromsø, however, at individual stations the ionospheric trends may be markedly stronger and lead to essential effects in ionospheric radio propagation. The second part of the paper deals with the reasons for possible trends in the Earth’s atmo- and ionosphere as investigated by different methods using characteristic parameters of the ionospheric D-, E-, and F-regions. Mainly in the F2-region different analyses have been carried out. The derived trends are mainly discussed in connection with an increasing greenhouse effect or by long-term changes in geomagnetic activity. In the F1-layer the derived mean global trend in foF1 is in good agreement with model predictions of an increasing greenhouse effect. In the E-region the derived trends in foE and h´E are compared with model results of an atmospheric greenhouse effect, or explained by geomagnetic effects or other anthropogenic disturbances. The trend results in the D-region derived from ionospheric reflection height and absorption measurements in the LF, MF and HF ranges can at

  13. Proceedings of the workshop on the modification of the upper atmosphere by Satellite Power System (SPS) propulsion effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, E.

    1980-06-01

    Results of a workshop held in June 1979, to identify research needs for evaluating environmental impacts on the upper atmosphere (here defined as greater than 70 km) due to Satellite Power System (SPS) transport, i.e., propulsion and reentry are presented. The substantial injections of water and hydrogen therefrom may lead to global-scale regions of reduced ionization in the ionospheric F-Region that may have a serious impact on worldwide HF radio communications; and the resulting possibly significant increases in mesospheric humidity and probable cloudiness could afffect climate and remote sensing from satellites. The large injections of argon ions of kilovolt energy between low earth orbit and geostationary orbit may alter substantially the trapped radiation environment of the magnetosphere and thus the hazard for personnel and electronic equipment. During the workshop it became clear that the highest priority for SPS environmental assessment goes to theoretical studies needed before acceptable atmospheric experiments can be designed. Problems to be addressed include: the extent, magnitude, and variability of the predicted depletion in F-region ionization together with descriptions of water and hydrogen injections into the atmosphere characteristic of SPS vehicles and flight profiles; the long-term variations in mesospheric humidity and cloudiness with and without SPS operations; and the description of condensation and evaporation processes of water exhausted from high-altitude rockets in order to predict mesospheric contrail formation and dissipation. Furthermore, in considering argon ion rocket transport to geosynchronous orbit, the stopping and lifetime of the argon ion beams and consequent changes in the radiation belts, especially as they affect spacecraft, should also be addressed.

  14. Remote sensing of ionosphere and upper atmosphere based on low-orbital and GNSS radio tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitsyn, V.; Tereshchenko, E.; Andreeva, E.; Khudukon, B.; Kozharin, M.; Nazarenko, M.; Nesterov, I.

    A dozen of currently operating multi-point receiving networks that carry out measurements of transmissions from low-orbiting LO navigational systems exists at present in different regions of the world - in Europe America and Asia Numerous radio tomographic RT experiments based on LO satellite systems revealed a complexity and variety of ionospheric structures observed under disturbed and quiet conditions Various shapes of the ionospheric trough were detected A series of specific features in the structure and dynamics of the equatorial anomaly were studied RT images of traveling ionospheric disturbances provided information about the parameters of perturbations and allowed investigation of atmospheric-ionospheric coupling RT study of strong ionospheric disturbances caused by anthropogenic factors in particular by rocket launching industrial explosions powerful high-frequency radiation and so on is performed By means of statistical radio tomography distributions of the intensity of ionospheric plasma fluctuations were retrieved LO RT method allows also determination of plasma fluxes from a time-sequence of RT images of the ionosphere Manifestations of particle precipitation in electron density distributions were observed repeatedly in LO RT images of the ionosphere With a several receiving chains spaced a few hundred kilometer apart it is possible to study the three-dimensional structure of the ionosphere In spite of its high efficiency LO RT employment is basically limited due to the necessity to arrange multi-point receiving systems Deployment of

  15. Upper atmosphere tidal oscillations due to latent heat release in the tropical troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Forbes

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat release associated with tropical deep convective activity is investigated as a source for migrating (sun-synchronous diurnal and semidiurnal tidal oscillations in the 80–150-km height region. Satellite-based cloud brightness temperature measurements made between 1988 and 1994 and averaged into 3-h bins are used to determine the annual- and longitude-average local-time distribution of rainfall rate, and hence latent heating, between ±40° latitude. Regional average rainfall rates are shown to be in good agreement with climatological values derived from surface rain gauge data. A global linearized wave model is used to estimate the corresponding atmospheric perturbations in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (80–150 km resulting from upward-propagating tidal components excited by the latent heating. The annual-average migrating diurnal and semidiurnal components achieve velocity and temperature amplitudes of order 10–20 m s–1 and 5–10 K, respectively, which represent substantial contributions to the dynamics of the region. The latent heat forcing also shifts the phase (local solar time of maximum of the semidiurnal surface pressure oscillation from 0912 to 0936 h, much closer to the observed value of 0944 h.

  16. On the role of atmospheric forcing on upper ocean physics in the Southern Ocean and biological impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Magdalena M.

    The Southern Ocean (SO) plays a key role in regulating climate by absorbing nearly half of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2). Both physical and biogeochemical processes contribute to the net CO2 sink. As a result of global warming and ozone depletion, westerly winds have increased, with consequences for upper ocean physics but little is known on how primary producers are expected to respond to changes in atmospheric forcing. This thesis addresses the impact of atmospheric forcing on upper ocean dynamics and phytoplankton bloom development in the SO on synoptic storm scales, combining a broad range of observations derived from satellites, reanalysis, profiling floats and Southern elephant seals. On atmospheric synoptic timescales (2-10 days), relevant for phytoplankton growth and accumulation, wind speed has a larger impact on satellite Chl-a variability than surface heat fluxes or wind stress curl. In summer, strong winds are linked to deep mixed layers, cold sea surface temperatures and enhanced satellite chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), which suggest wind-driven entrainment plays a role in sustaining phytoplankton blooms at the surface. Subsurface bio-optical data from floats and seals reveal deep Chl-a fluorescence maxima (DFM) are ubiquitous in summer and tend to sit at the base of the mixed layer, but can occur in all seasons. The fact that wind speed and Chl-a correlations are maximal at zero lag time (from daily data) and incubation experiments indicate phytoplankton growth occurs 3-4 days after iron addition, suggests high winds in summer entrain Chl-a from a subsurface maximum. Vertical profiles also reveal Chl-a fluorescence unevenness within hydrographically defined mixed layers, suggesting the biological timescales of adaptation through the light gradient (i.e. growth and/or photoacclimation) are often faster than mixing timescales, and periods of quiescence between storms are long enough for biological gradients to form within the homogeneous layer in density

  17. Nitrogen isotope variations in camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) leaves of different ages in upper and lower canopies as an indicator of atmospheric nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Huayun, E-mail: xiaohuayun@vip.skleg.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 46, Guanshui Road, Guiyang 550002 (China); Wu Lianghong; Zhu Renguo; Wang Yanli; Liu Congqiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 46, Guanshui Road, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Nitrogen isotopic composition of new, middle-aged and old camphor leaves in upper and lower canopies has been determined in a living area, near a motorway and near an industrial area (Jiangan Chemical Fertilizer Plant). We found that at sites near roads, more positive {delta}{sup 15}N values were observed in the camphor leaves, especially in old leaves of upper canopies, and {Delta}{delta}{sup 15}N = {delta}{sup 15}N{sub upper} - {delta}{sup 15}N{sub lower} > 0, while those near the industrial area had more negative {delta}{sup 15}N values and {Delta}{delta}{sup 15}N < 0. These could be explained by two isotopically different atmospheric N sources: greater uptake from isotopically heavy pools of atmospheric NO{sub x} by old leaves in upper canopies at sites adjacent to roads, and greater uptake of {sup 15}N-depleted NH{sub y} in atmospheric deposition by leaves at sites near the industrial area. This study presents novel evidence that {sup 15}N natural abundance of camphor leaves can be used as a robust indicator of atmospheric N sources. - Research highlights: Camphor leaves showed high {delta}{sup 15}N values near roads and low values near the industrial area. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of camphor leaves near roads increased with time of exposure. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of camphor leaves near the industrial area decreased with time of exposure. More positive foliage {delta}{sup 15}N values were found in the upper canopies near roads. Near the industrial area, the upper canopies showed more negative foliage {delta}{sup 15}N values. - Nitrogen isotope in camphor leaves indicating atmospheric nitrogen sources.

  18. Supersymmetric geometries of IIA supergravity III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, Ulf; Papadopoulos, George; Schultz, Christian von

    2016-01-01

    We find that (massive) IIA backgrounds that admit a G 2 ⋉ℝ 8 invariant Killing spinor must exhibit a null Killing vector field which leaves the Killing spinor invariant and that the rotation of the Killing vector field satisfies a certain g 2 instanton condition. This result together with those in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2014)024 and http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2015)113 complete the classification of geometries of all (massive) IIA backgrounds that preserve one supersymmetry. We also explore the geometry of a class of backgrounds which admit a G 2 ⋉ℝ 8 invariant Killing spinor and where in addition an appropriate 1-form bilinear vanishes. In all cases, we express the fluxes of the theory in terms of the geometry.

  19. Role of upper-most crustal composition in the evolution of the Precambrian ocean-atmosphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, R. R.; Mukherjee, I.; Zhukova, I.; Corkrey, R.; Stepanov, A.; Danyushevsky, L. V.

    2018-04-01

    Recent research has emphasized the potential relationships between supercontinent cycles, mountain building, nutrient flux, ocean-atmosphere chemistry and the origin of life. The composition of the Upper-Most Continental Crust (UMCC) also figures prominently in these relationships, and yet little detailed data on each component of this complex relationship has been available for assessment. Here we provide a new set of data on the trace element concentrations, including the Rare Earth Elements (REE), in the matrix of 52 marine black shale formations spread globally through the Archean and Proterozoic. The data support previous studies on the temporal geochemistry of shales, but with some important differences. Results indicate a change in provenance of the black shales (upper-most crustal composition), from more mafic in the Archean prior to 2700 Ma, to more felsic from 2700 to 2200 Ma, followed by a return to mafic compositions from 2200 to 1850 Ma. Around 1850 to 1800 Ma there is a rapid change to uniform felsic compositions, which remained for a billion years to 800 Ma. The shale matrix geochemistry supports the assertion that the average upper-most continental source rocks for the shales changed from a mix of felsic, mafic and ultramafic prior to 2700 Ma to more felsic after 1850 Ma, with an extended transition period between. The return to more mafic UMCC from 2200 to 1850 Ma is supported by the frequency of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) and banded iron formations, which suggest a peak in major mantle-connected plume events and associated Fe-rich hydrothermal activity over this period. Support for the change to felsic UMCC around 1850 Ma is provided by previous geological data which shows that felsic magmas, including, A-type granites and K-Th-U-rich granites intruded vast areas of the continental crust, peaking around 1850 Ma and declining to 1000 Ma. The implications of this change in UMCC are far reaching and may go some way to explain the distinct

  20. IIA/B, Wound and Wrapped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, Ulf H.; Guijosa, Alberto; Kruczenski, Martin

    2000-01-01

    We examine the T-duality relation between 1+1 NCOS and the DLCQ limit of type IIA string theory. We show that, as long as there is a compact dimension, one can meaningfully define an 'NCOS' limit of IIB/A string theory even in the absence of D-branes (and even if there is no B-field). This yields a theory of closed strings with strictly positive winding, which is T-dual to DLCQ IIA/B without any D-branes. We call this the Type IIB/A Wound String Theory. The existence of decoupled sectors can be seen directly from the energy spectrum, and mirrors that of the DLCQ theory. It becomes clear then that all of the different p+1 NCOS theories are simply different states of this single Wound IIA/B theory which contain D-branes. We study some of the properties of this theory. In particular, we show that upon toroidal compactification, Wound string theory is U-dual to various Wrapped Brane theories which contain OM theory and the ODp theories as special states. (author)

  1. The electronic Space Weather upper atmosphere (eSWua project at INGV: advancements and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The eSWua project is based on measurements performed by all the instruments installed by the upper atmosphere physics group of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy and on all the related studies. The aim is the realization of a hardware-software system to standardize historical and real-time observations for different instruments.

    An interactive Web site, supported by a well organized database, can be a powerful tool for the scientific and technological community in the field of telecommunications and space weather. The most common and useful database type for our purposes is the relational one, in which data are organized in tables for petabytes data archiving and the complete flexibility in data retrieving.

    The project started in June 2005 and will last till August 2007. In the first phase the major effort has been focused on the design of hardware and database architecture. The first two databases related to the DPS4 digisonde and GISTM measurements are complete concerning populating, tests and output procedures. Details on the structure and Web tools concerning these two databases are presented, as well as the general description of the project and technical features.

  2. The electronic Space Weather upper atmosphere (eSWua project at INGV: advancements and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The eSWua project is based on measurements performed by all the instruments installed by the upper atmosphere physics group of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy and on all the related studies. The aim is the realization of a hardware-software system to standardize historical and real-time observations for different instruments. An interactive Web site, supported by a well organized database, can be a powerful tool for the scientific and technological community in the field of telecommunications and space weather. The most common and useful database type for our purposes is the relational one, in which data are organized in tables for petabytes data archiving and the complete flexibility in data retrieving. The project started in June 2005 and will last till August 2007. In the first phase the major effort has been focused on the design of hardware and database architecture. The first two databases related to the DPS4 digisonde and GISTM measurements are complete concerning populating, tests and output procedures. Details on the structure and Web tools concerning these two databases are presented, as well as the general description of the project and technical features.

  3. Tidal and atmospheric forcing of the upper ocean in the Gulf of California. I - Sea surface temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Cynthia A.; Winant, Clinton D.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    SST variability in the northern Gulf of California is examined on the basis of findings of two years of satellite infrared imagery (1984-1986). Empirical orthogonal functions of the temporal and spatial SST variance for 20 monthly mean images show that the dominant SST patterns are generated by spatially varying tidal mixing in the presence of seasonal heating and cooling. Atmospheric forcing of the northern gulf appears to occur over large spatial scales. Area-averaged SSTs for the Guaymas Basin, island region, and northern basin exhibit significant fluctuations which are highly correlated. These fluctuations in SST correspond to similar fluctuations in the air temperature which are related to synoptic weather events over the gulf. A regression analysis of the SST relative to the fortnightly tidal range shows that tidal mixing occurs over the sills in the island region as well as on the shallow northern shelf. Mixing over the sills occurs as a result of large breaking internal waves of internal hydraulic jumps which mix over water in the upper 300-500 m.

  4. The Relationships of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor with Atmospheric Temperature, SST and Clouds in Different Tropical Ocean Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Chuang, H.; Huang, X.; Jiang, J. H.; Read, W. G.

    2009-12-01

    Water vapor (WV) is a primary natural greenhouse gas and provides a positive feedback to climate change driven by increasing CO2. Variation of upper tropospheric (UT) water vapor is especially important for the greenhouse effect of water vapor. For global and tropical means, the interannual variation of UT WV is found approximately correlated with interannual variation of atmospheric temperature and sea surface temperature (SST). However, regional variability of UT WV and its relationship with temperature, SST and clouds has yet been well documented. In this study, we analyze five years of UT observations from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) in four tropical ocean basins (the Western Pacific, the Eastern Pacific, the Atlantic and Indian Oceans) and examine the correlations of UT WV with temperature, SST and clouds. The observed correlations are compared with climate model simulations for the 20th century and 21st century in a global warming scenario. It is found that the observed interannual variation of basin-averaged UT WV is strongly correlated with that of the UT temperature and tropical-mean SST for all four basins. However, the correlations with basin-averaged ice water content (IWC), cloud fraction, and precipitation are much higher in the Eastern Pacific and the Indian Ocean than in the Western Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean. Model simulations of the 20th century approximately capture the observed correlations of UT WV with temperature, SST and clouds in all basins, but with less variability. For the climate change projections of UT WV in each basin, the Eastern Pacific appears to deviate from the rest of the ocean basins in terms of the regression of UT WV changes on tropical-mean SST or temperature changes. We speculate that this is related to the stronger correlation of UT WV with clouds in the Eastern Pacific than in other basins. Thus, accurate representation of clouds is particularly important to the simulation and projection of UT WV in the Eastern

  5. Letter to the EditorOn the use of the sunspot number for the estimation of past solar and upper atmosphere conditions from historical and modern auroral observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this short contribution the use of different sunspot numbers for the estimation of past solar and upper atmosphere conditions from historical and modern auroral observations realised by Schröder et al. (2004 is analysed. Moreover, some comments are made on the relationships between mean annual visual observations of the auroras at middle latitudes of Europe and the mean annual sunspot number during 1780–1829. Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (Airglow and aurora – Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena, solar wind-magnetosphere interactions – History of geophysics (Solar-planetary relationship

  6. Rainfall Downscaling Conditional on Upper-air Atmospheric Predictors: Improved Assessment of Rainfall Statistics in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Mamalakis, Antonis; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino

    2015-04-01

    To improve the level skill of Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs) in reproducing the statistics of rainfall at a basin level and at hydrologically relevant temporal scales (e.g. daily), two types of statistical approaches have been suggested. One is the statistical correction of climate model rainfall outputs using historical series of precipitation. The other is the use of stochastic models of rainfall to conditionally simulate precipitation series, based on large-scale atmospheric predictors produced by climate models (e.g. geopotential height, relative vorticity, divergence, mean sea level pressure). The latter approach, usually referred to as statistical rainfall downscaling, aims at reproducing the statistical character of rainfall, while accounting for the effects of large-scale atmospheric circulation (and, therefore, climate forcing) on rainfall statistics. While promising, statistical rainfall downscaling has not attracted much attention in recent years, since the suggested approaches involved complex (i.e. subjective or computationally intense) identification procedures of the local weather, in addition to demonstrating limited success in reproducing several statistical features of rainfall, such as seasonal variations, the distributions of dry and wet spell lengths, the distribution of the mean rainfall intensity inside wet periods, and the distribution of rainfall extremes. In an effort to remedy those shortcomings, Langousis and Kaleris (2014) developed a statistical framework for simulation of daily rainfall intensities conditional on upper air variables, which accurately reproduces the statistical character of rainfall at multiple time-scales. Here, we study the relative performance of: a) quantile-quantile (Q-Q) correction of climate model rainfall products, and b) the statistical downscaling scheme of Langousis and Kaleris (2014), in reproducing the statistical structure of rainfall, as well as rainfall extremes, at a

  7. THE VARIABILITY OF HCN IN TITAN’S UPPER ATMOSPHERE AS IMPLIED BY THE CASSINI ION-NEUTRAL MASS SPECTROMETER MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, J.; Cao, Y.-T. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Lavvas, P. P. [Groupe de Spectroscopie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, Universite de Reims, Champagne-Ardenne, CNRS UMR F-7331 (France); Koskinen, T. T. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    HCN is an important constituent in Titan’s upper atmosphere, serving as the main coolant in the local energy budget. In this study, we derive the HCN abundance at the altitude range of 960–1400 km, combining the Ion-Neutral Mass Spectrometer data acquired during a large number of Cassini flybys with Titan. Typically, the HCN abundance declines modestly with increasing altitude and flattens to a near constant level above 1200 km. The data reveal a tendency for dayside depletion of HCN, which is clearly visible below 1000 km but weakens with increasing altitude. Despite the absence of convincing anti-correlation between HCN volume mixing ratio and neutral temperature, we argue that the variability in HCN abundance makes an important contribution to the large temperature variability observed in Titan’s upper atmosphere.

  8. Observations of the UARS Particle Environment Monitor and computation of ionization rates in the middle and upper atmosphere during a geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharber, J. R.; Frahm, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.; Biard, J. C.; Lummerzheim, D.; Rees, M. H.; Chenette, D. L.; Gaines, E. E.; Nightingale, R. W.; Imhof, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present observations made by the Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) instruments during the geomagnetic storm of 8-9 November, 1991. Ionization and energy deposition rates as functions of altitude in the middle and upper atmosphere by incident electrons and positive ions in the storm interval are computed. The suite of PEM instruments provides a systematic measurement of energetic particles and their associated X-rays over an energy range not fully covered by previous satellite missions.

  9. Secretory Phospholipase A(2)-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; Van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J. W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N. M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A. A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Pare, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2))-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Background Higher circulating levels of sPLA(2)-IIA mass or sPLA(2) enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not

  10. Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.......This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease....

  11. Black hole entropy in massive Type IIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Francesco; Khachatryan, Hrachya; Milan, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    We study the entropy of static dyonic BPS black holes in AdS4 in 4d N=2 gauged supergravities with vector and hyper multiplets, and how the entropy can be reproduced with a microscopic counting of states in the AdS/CFT dual field theory. We focus on the particular example of BPS black holes in AdS{\\hspace{0pt}}4 × S6 in massive Type IIA, whose dual three-dimensional boundary description is known and simple. To count the states in field theory we employ a supersymmetric topologically twisted index, which can be computed exactly with localization techniques. We find a perfect match at leading order.

  12. DYNAMO: a Mars upper atmosphere package for investigating solar wind interaction and escape processes, and mapping Martian fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chassefiere, E.; Nagy, A.; Mandea, M.

    2004-01-01

    DYNAMO is a small multi-instrument payload aimed at characterizing current atmospheric escape, which is still poorly constrained, and improving gravity and magnetic field representations, in order to better understand the magnetic, geologic and thermal history of Mars. The internal structure...... of periapsis 170 km), and in a lesser extent 2a, offers an unprecedented opportunity to investigate by in situ probing the chemical and dynamical properties of the deep ionosphere, thermosphere, and the interaction between the atmosphere and the solar wind, and therefore the present atmospheric escape rate...

  13. Tanshinone IIA mitigates peritoneal fibrosis by inhibiting EMT via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-induced expression of fibrogenic cytokines in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs), and to elucidate the mechanisms of action involved. Methods: Seven groups of HPMCs were used in the study: control group, PDF group, T-IIA group, ...

  14. The dynamics of a gas-dust cloud expansion in the upper atmosphere at a shutdown of solid-propellant rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaishvili, S. Sh.; Platov, Yu. V.; Chernouss, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    The velocity of spherical gas-dust cloud expansion in the situation when the stages of solid-propellant rocket separate in the upper atmosphere have been determined. The measured velocity vary from 2.5 to 7.5 km/s. The dispersed component accelerates at the front of a shock that develops at engine-thrust shutdown. The model calculations of the gas-dust cloud luminosity intensity qualitatively coincide with the photometric profiles of object images. Such formations can vary from almost homogeneous ball-shaped clouds to rather thin spherical shells depending on the gas-dust cloud mass and the matter distribution within this cloud.

  15. Tanshinone IIA mitigates peritoneal fibrosis by inhibiting EMT via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LY364947 group, and 2 transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) groups (TGF-β+ 50 μM T-IIA and TGF-β+. 100 μM T- IIA). The expression levels of mRNA and protein of TGF-β, smad2, smad7, α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), fibronectin, collagen І, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, matrix metalloprotein-2(MMP-2), and. MMP-9 in the ...

  16. Inhibitory effect of tanshinone IIA on rat hepatic stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB pathways in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs is one therapeutic approach to hepatic fibrosis. Tanshinone IIA (C19H18O3, Tan IIA is a lipophilic diterpene isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, with reported anti-inflammatory activity. We tested whether Tan IIA could inhibit HSC activation.The cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6 was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS (100 ng/ml. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. HSC-T6 cells were pretreated with Tan IIA (1, 3 and 10 µM, then induced by LPS (100 ng/ml. NF-κB activity was evaluated by the luciferase reporter gene assay. Western blotting analysis was performed to measure NF-κB-p65, and phosphorylations of MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38. Cell chemotaxis was assessed by both wound-healing assay and trans-well invasion assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect gene expression in HSC-T6 cells.All concentrations of drugs showed no cytotoxicity against HSC-T6 cells. LPS stimulated NF-κB luciferase activities, nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65, and phosphorylations of ERK, JNK and p38, all of which were suppressed by Tan IIA. In addition, Tan IIA significantly inhibited LPS-induced HSCs chemotaxis, in both wound-healing and trans-well invasion assays. Moreover, Tan IIA attenuated LPS-induced mRNA expressions of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, iNOS, and α-SMA in HSC-T6 cells.Our results demonstrated that Tan IIA decreased LPS-induced HSC activation.

  17. Critical Evaluation of Chemical Reaction Rates and Collision Cross Sections of Importance in the Earth's Upper Atmosphere and the Atmospheres of Other Planets, Moons, and Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, David L.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to establish a long-term program of critical evaluation by domain experts of the rates and cross sections for atomic and molecular processes that are needed for understanding and modeling the atmospheres in the solar system. We envision data products resembling those of the JPL/NASA Panel for Data Evaluation and the similar efforts of the international combustion modeling community funded by US DoE and its European counterpart.

  18. Solar wind interaction with Mars Upper atmosphere: Results from the one-way coupling between the Multi-fluid MHD model and the M-TGCM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Bougher, S. W.; Ma, Y.; Toth, G.; Nagy, A. F.; Brain, D. A.; Najib, D.

    2012-12-01

    The study of the solar wind interaction with Mars upper atmosphere/ionosphere has triggered great interest in recent years. Among the large number of topics in this research area, the investigation of ion escape rates has become increasingly important due to its potential impact on the long-term evolution of Mars atmosphere (e.g., loss of water) over its history. In the present work, we adopt the 3D Mars neutral atmosphere profiles from the well-regarded Mars Thermospheric Global Circulation Model (M-TGCM) and one-way couple it with the 3D BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD model that solves separate momentum equations for each ion species. The M-TGCM model takes into account the effects of the solar cycle (solar minimum: F10.7=70 and solar maximum: F10.7=200 with equinox condition: Ls=0), allowing us to investigate the effects of the solar cycle on the Mars upper atmosphere ion escape by using a one-way coupling, i.e., the M-TGCM model outputs are used as inputs for the multi-fluid MHD model. A case for solar maximum with extremely high solar wind parameters is also investigated to estimate how high the escape flux can be for such an extreme case. Moreover, the ion escape flux along a satellite trajectory will be studied. This has the potential to provide predictions of ion escape rates for comparison to future data to be returned by the MAVEN mission (2012-2016). In order to make the code run more efficiently, we adopt a more appropriate grid structure compared to the one used previously. This new grid structure will benefit us to investigate the effects of some dynamic events (such as CME and dust storm) on the ion escape flux.

  19. Enhancement of hydrological parameterization and its impact on atmospheric modeling: a WRF-Hydro case study in the upper Heihe river basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Arnault, Joel; Wagner, Sven; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    The upper Heihe river basin (10,020 km2) is situated in the alpine region of northwestern China, where gauge coverage is poor. Water-related activity is essential for the human economy in this region, which requires detailed knowledge of the available water resources. However, the lack of hydro-meteorological data makes any water balance investigation challenging. The use of regional atmospheric models can compensate this lack of data. The aim of this study is to investigate which improvement can be gained by enhancing the hydrological parameterization in atmospheric models. For this purpose, we employ the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and its coupled atmospheric-hydrological version (WRF-Hydro). In comparison to WRF, WRF-Hydro integrates horizontal terrestrial water transport at the land surface and subsurface. Atmospheric processes are downscaled from ECMWF operational analysis to 4 km resolution, and lateral terrestrial water flows are resolved on a sub-grid at 400 m. The study period is 2008-2009, during which observed discharge is available at three gauge stations. The joint terrestrial-atmospheric water budget is investigated in both WRF and WRF-Hydro. In WRF-Hydro, overland flow and re-infiltration increase the soil water storage, consequently increasing evapotranspiration and decreasing river runoff. This change in evapotranspiration influences moisture convergence in the atmosphere, and slightly changes precipitation patterns. Comparing model results with in-situ and gridded datasets (ITP-CAS forcing data, FLUXNET-MTE), WRF-Hydro shows improvement on precipitation and evapotranspiration simulation. The ability of WRF-Hydro to reproduce observed streamflow is also demonstrated.

  20. HF Doppler and VHF radar observations of upper atmospheric disturbances caused by weak cold front during winter time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Gao, M.; Johnson, D. L.; Yang, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    The simultaneous use of the Taiwan VHF radar and the HF Doppler sounder for remote measurement of three-dimensional winds, gravity waves, and density perturbations at mesospheric and thermospheric heights is demonstrated. A special event of atmospheric disturbances caused by propagating gravity waves excited by weak convective motions in winter time were investigated. The three-dimensional wind velocities at different heights were determined, and the frequency, horizontal wavelength, vertical wavelength, and phase velocity of the gravity waves were measured. The subtropical, low-latitude site makes the VHF radar and HF Doppler array systems unique, and the observations especially valuable for space projects dealing with low-latitude atmosphere.

  1. The rocky road to the upper atmosphere; NASA's quest to create long-term platforms in the stratosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagitz, M.

    2011-01-01

    A recent program by NASA aims to develop balloons capable of carrying payloads of several tonnes to above 99% of the Earth's atmosphere for up to a hundred days. However, the road to the stratosphere turned out to be much harder and longer than expected

  2. XUV-Exposed, Non-Hydrostatic Hydrogen-Rich Upper Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets. Part II: Hydrogen Coronae and Ion Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Holmström, Mats; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Odert, Petra; Erkaev, Nikolai V.; Leitzinger, Martin; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Kulikov, Yuri N.; Güdel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We studied the interactions between the stellar wind plasma flow of a typical M star, such as GJ 436, and the hydrogen-rich upper atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and a “super-Earth” with a radius of 2 REarth and a mass of 10 MEarth, located within the habitable zone at ∼0.24 AU. We investigated the formation of extended atomic hydrogen coronae under the influences of the stellar XUV flux (soft X-rays and EUV), stellar wind density and velocity, shape of a planetary obstacle (e.g., magnetosphere, ionopause), and the loss of planetary pickup ions on the evolution of hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres. Stellar XUV fluxes that are 1, 10, 50, and 100 times higher compared to that of the present-day Sun were considered, and the formation of high-energy neutral hydrogen clouds around the planets due to the charge-exchange reaction under various stellar conditions was modeled. Charge-exchange between stellar wind protons with planetary hydrogen atoms, and photoionization, lead to the production of initially cold ions of planetary origin. We found that the ion production rates for the studied planets can vary over a wide range, from ∼1.0×1025 s−1 to ∼5.3×1030 s−1, depending on the stellar wind conditions and the assumed XUV exposure of the upper atmosphere. Our findings indicate that most likely the majority of these planetary ions are picked up by the stellar wind and lost from the planet. Finally, we estimated the long-time nonthermal ion pickup escape for the studied planets and compared them with the thermal escape. According to our estimates, nonthermal escape of picked-up ionized hydrogen atoms over a planet's lifetime within the habitable zone of an M dwarf varies between ∼0.4 Earth ocean equivalent amounts of hydrogen (EOH) to <3 EOH and usually is several times smaller in comparison to the thermal atmospheric escape rates. Key Words: Stellar activity—Low-mass stars—Early atmospheres—Earth-like exoplanets—Energetic neutral

  3. XUV-exposed, non-hydrostatic hydrogen-rich upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets. Part II: hydrogen coronae and ion escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyakova, Kristina G; Lammer, Helmut; Holmström, Mats; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Odert, Petra; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Leitzinger, Martin; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Kulikov, Yuri N; Güdel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    We studied the interactions between the stellar wind plasma flow of a typical M star, such as GJ 436, and the hydrogen-rich upper atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and a "super-Earth" with a radius of 2 R(Earth) and a mass of 10 M(Earth), located within the habitable zone at ∼0.24 AU. We investigated the formation of extended atomic hydrogen coronae under the influences of the stellar XUV flux (soft X-rays and EUV), stellar wind density and velocity, shape of a planetary obstacle (e.g., magnetosphere, ionopause), and the loss of planetary pickup ions on the evolution of hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres. Stellar XUV fluxes that are 1, 10, 50, and 100 times higher compared to that of the present-day Sun were considered, and the formation of high-energy neutral hydrogen clouds around the planets due to the charge-exchange reaction under various stellar conditions was modeled. Charge-exchange between stellar wind protons with planetary hydrogen atoms, and photoionization, lead to the production of initially cold ions of planetary origin. We found that the ion production rates for the studied planets can vary over a wide range, from ∼1.0×10²⁵ s⁻¹ to ∼5.3×10³⁰ s⁻¹, depending on the stellar wind conditions and the assumed XUV exposure of the upper atmosphere. Our findings indicate that most likely the majority of these planetary ions are picked up by the stellar wind and lost from the planet. Finally, we estimated the long-time nonthermal ion pickup escape for the studied planets and compared them with the thermal escape. According to our estimates, nonthermal escape of picked-up ionized hydrogen atoms over a planet's lifetime within the habitable zone of an M dwarf varies between ∼0.4 Earth ocean equivalent amounts of hydrogen (EO(H)) to <3 EO(H) and usually is several times smaller in comparison to the thermal atmospheric escape rates.

  4. On the role of ozone in long-term trends in the upper atmosphere-ionosphere system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2012), s. 811-816 ISSN 0992-7689 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Keywords : Ionosphere-atmosphere interactions * Mid-latitude ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2012 http://www.ann-geophys.net/30/811/2012/angeo-30-811-2012.html

  5. Eccentric contraction-induced injury to type I, IIa, and IIa/IIx muscle fibers of elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Jun; Lim, Jae-Young; Nibaldi, Eva G; Phillips, Edward M; Frontera, Walter R; Fielding, Roger A; Widrick, Jeffrey J

    2012-02-01

    Muscles of old laboratory rodents experience exaggerated force losses after eccentric contractile activity. We extended this line of inquiry to humans and investigated the influence of fiber myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content on the injury process. Skinned muscle fiber segments, prepared from vastus lateralis biopsies of elderly men and women (78 ± 2 years, N = 8), were subjected to a standardized eccentric contraction (strain, 0.25 fiber length; velocity, 0.50 unloaded shortening velocity). Injury was assessed by evaluating pre- and post-eccentric peak Ca(2+)-activated force per fiber cross-sectional area (F (max)). Over 90% of the variability in post-eccentric F (max) could be explained by a multiple linear regression model consisting of an MHC-independent slope, where injury was directly related to pre-eccentric F (max), and MHC-dependent y-intercepts, where the susceptibility to injury could be described as type IIa/IIx fibers > type IIa fibers > type I fibers. We previously reported that fiber type susceptibility to the same standardized eccentric protocol was type IIa/IIx > type IIa = type I for vastus lateralis fibers of 25-year-old adults (Choi and Widrick, Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 299:C1409-C1417, 2010). Modeling combined data sets revealed significant age by fiber type interactions, with post-eccentric F (max) deficits greater for type IIa and type IIa/IIx fibers from elderly vs. young subjects at constant pre-eccentric F (max). We conclude that the resistance of the myofilament lattice to mechanical strain has deteriorated for type IIa and type IIa/IIx, but not for type I, vastus lateralis fibers of elderly adults.

  6. Ozone and Temperature Trends in the Upper Stratosphere at Five Stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecht, W.; Claude, H.; Schönenborn, F.; McDermid, S.; Leblanc, T.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Keckhut, P.; Hauchecorne, A.; van Gijsel, J. A.; Swart, D. P.; Bodeker, G. E.; Parrish, A.; Boyd, I. S.; Kämpfer, N.; Hocke, K.; Stolarski, R. S.; Frith, S. M.; Thomason, L. W.; Remsberg, E. E.; von~Savigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Eyring, V.; Shepherd, T. G.

    2008-12-01

    We use comprehensive records of upper stratospheric (35 to 45~km) ozone and temperature from several space- and ground-based data sets at five stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), from 45°S to 48°N, and starting in 1979. The space based ozone records come from the Solar Backscatter Ultra-Violet (SBUV), Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiments (SAGE I and II), Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS), and Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY). The ground-based records come from lidars and microwave radiometers at the NDACC stations. For temperature, European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast reanalyses (ERA-40), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational analyses, and HALOE and lidar measurements are used. All data sets show essentially the same long-term variations, attributable to QBO, 11-year solar-cycle, anthropogenic chlorine and other trends. Monthly mean anomalies from the different data-sets typically agree within 5% for ozone, and within 3~K for temperature. From 1979 until the late 1990s, due to increasing anthropogenic chlorine, all available data-sets show a clear decline of ozone near 40~km, by 10% to 15%. This decline has not continued in the last 10~years. At some sites, ozone at 40~km even appears to have increased since 2000, consistent with the beginning decline of stratospheric chlorine. Temperatures near 40~km altitude have been fluctuating around a constant level at all five NDACC stations since about 1985. This non-decline of upper stratospheric temperatures would be a new and significant change from the more or less linear cooling of the upper stratosphere seen before the 1990s, and reported in previous trend assessments. Chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations track the historical ozone anomalies and reproduce the change in ozone tendency in the late 1990s. The

  7. Comprehensive investigation of the basic parameters of the upper atmosphere at the time of the flight of the geophysical rocket 'Vertical-6'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apathy, I.; Szemerey, I.; Bencze, P.

    1981-01-01

    On October 25, 1977, the geophysical rocket Vertical-6 was launched from the mid-latitude area of the European part of the USSR for a comprehensive investigation of the upper atmosphere. The rocket reached an altitude of 1500 km. The measurements were conducted with the aid of five planar retarding potential analyzers and a photoelectron analyzer. Results of the investigation are presented in the form of graphs. One graph shows the variation of total ion concentration with height, while the variation of ion temperature with altitude and the electron temperature profile are given on a second graph. The heating and cooling rates of the ion gas are also shown. It is found that the variation of electron temperature with height is affected by the electron (ion) density profile to a height of about 500 km

  8. Designing and Implementing a Computational Methods Course for Upper-level Undergraduates and Postgraduates in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Douglas, A.; Hansen, Z.

    2017-12-01

    In the modern computing age, scientists must utilize a wide variety of skills to carry out scientific research. Programming, including a focus on collaborative development, has become more prevalent in both academic and professional career paths. Faculty in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at the University of Wisconsin—Madison recognized this need and recently approved a new course offering for undergraduates and postgraduates in computational methods that was first held in Spring 2017. Three programming languages were covered in the inaugural course semester and development themes such as modularization, data wrangling, and conceptual code models were woven into all of the sections. In this presentation, we will share successes and challenges in developing a research project-focused computational course that leverages hands-on computer laboratory learning and open-sourced course content. Improvements and changes in future iterations of the course based on the first offering will also be discussed.

  9. Reactions of Azine Anions with Nitrogen and Oxygen Atoms: Implications for Titan's Upper Atmosphere and Interstellar Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Cole, Callie A; Demarais, Nicholas J; Snow, Theodore P; Bierbaum, Veronica M

    2015-08-26

    Azines are important in many extraterrestrial environments, from the atmosphere of Titan to the interstellar medium. They have been implicated as possible carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands in astronomy, indicating their persistence in interstellar space. Most importantly, they constitute the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA, so their chemical reactivity in these environments has significant astrobiological implications. In addition, N and O atoms are widely observed in the ISM and in the ionospheres of planets and moons. However, the chemical reactions of molecular anions with abundant interstellar and atmospheric atomic species are largely unexplored. In this paper, gas-phase reactions of deprotonated anions of benzene, pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, and s-triazine with N and O atoms are studied both experimentally and computationally. In all cases, the major reaction channel is associative electron detachment; these reactions are particularly important since they control the balance between negative ions and free electron densities. The reactions of the azine anions with N atoms exhibit larger rate constants than reactions of corresponding chain anions. The reactions of azine anions with O atoms are even more rapid, with complex product patterns for different reactants. The mechanisms are studied theoretically by employing density functional theory; spin conversion is found to be important in determining some product distributions. The rich gas-phase chemistry observed in this work provides a better understanding of ion-atom reactions and their contributions to ionospheric chemistry as well as the chemical processing that occurs in the boundary layers between diffuse and dense interstellar clouds.

  10. Secretory Phospholipase A(2)-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; Van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Li, Mingyao

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:\\ud This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.\\ud \\ud Background:\\ud Higher circulating levels of sPLA2-IIA mass or sPLA2 enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear if this association is causal. A recent phase III clinical trial of an sPLA2 inhibitor (varespladib) was stopped prematurely for lack of efficacy.\\ud \\ud Methods:\\ud We conducted a Mendeli...

  11. Position of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA) mutations predicts the natural history of MYH9-related disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecci, A.; Panza, E.; Pujol-Moix, N.

    2008-01-01

    MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in MYH9, the gene for the heavy chain of nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMMHC-IIA). All patients present from birth with macrothrombocytopenia, but in infancy or adult life, some of them develop sensorineural deafness......, presenile cataracts, and/or progressive nephritis leading to end-stage renal failure. No consistent correlations have been identified between the 27 different MYH9 mutations identified so far and the variable clinical evolution of the disease. We have evaluated 108 consecutive MYH9-RD patients belonging...... to 50 unrelated pedigrees. The risk of noncongenital manifestations associated with different genotypes was estimated over time by event-free survival analysis. We demonstrated that all subjects with mutations in the motor domain of NMMHC-IIA present with severe thrombocytopenia and develop nephritis...

  12. Remote Sensing of the Upper Atmosphere and the Ionosphere in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet: Results from the LITES Experiment aboard the IS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, S. C.; Chakrabarti, S.; Stephan, A. W.; Geddes, G.; Budzien, S. A.; Cook, T.; Aryal, S.; Martel, J.; Galkin, I. A.; Erickson, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Limb-Imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES) was launched as part of the Space Test Program Houston #5 (STP-H5) payload aboard a commercial resupply flight on February 19, 2017 and was subsequently installed on the International Space Station (ISS). LITES is an imaging spectrograph that spans the 60 - 140 nm wavelength range at 1 nm spectral resolution and samples tangent altitudes 150 - 350 km with 0.2° angular resolution. LITES, in combination with the GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometry - Colocated (GROUP-C) experiment, which includes a GPS receiver and a nadir viewing 135.6 nm photometer, jointly collect new information on the thermosphere and the ionosphere using simultaneous UV and radio emissions. LITES, which uses standard stars to perform in-flight calibration, observes altitude profiles of day and night airglow emissions that are being used to infer thermospheric and ionospheric density profiles. Furthermore, due to the inclination of the ISS, LITES has also observed auroral spectrum and their altitude and spatial variations. Finally, geomagnetic storm effects on its UV emissions can be used to remotely sense their effects on the upper atmospheric morphology. These ISS observations,which are complement to the upcoming ICON and GOLD NASA missions, are focused on ionosphere-atmosphere coupling and global-scale atmospheric response to space weather observed from higher altitudes . We will present an overview of the LITES instrument, some early results from the first few months of operations. We will also summarize the advantages in calibration and validation activities that are possible through space-based LITES, GROUP-C and stellar measurements and simultaneous ground-based optical and radar observations.

  13. Reactions of substituted benzene anions with N and O atoms: Chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere and the interstellar medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Bierbaum, Veronica M

    2016-06-07

    The likely existence of aromatic anions in many important extraterrestrial environments, from the atmosphere of Titan to the interstellar medium (ISM), is attracting increasing attention. Nitrogen and oxygen atoms are also widely observed in the ISM and in the ionospheres of planets and moons. In the current work, we extend previous studies to explore the reactivity of prototypical aromatic anions (deprotonated toluene, aniline, and phenol) with N and O atoms both experimentally and computationally. The benzyl and anilinide anions both exhibit slow associative electron detachment (AED) processes with N atom, and moderate reactivity with O atom in which AED dominates but ionic products are also formed. The reactivity of phenoxide is dramatically different; there is no measurable reaction with N atom, and the moderate reactivity with O atom produces almost exclusively ionic products. The reaction mechanisms are studied theoretically by employing density functional theory calculations, and spin conversion is found to be critical for understanding some product distributions. This work provides insight into the rich gas-phase chemistry of aromatic ion-atom reactions and their relevance to ionospheric and interstellar chemistry.

  14. Suitability of selected bioindicators of atmospheric pollution in the industrialised region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francová, Anna; Chrastný, Vladislav; Šillerová, Hana; Kocourková, Jana; Komárek, Michael

    2017-08-29

    This study is a continuation of our preceding research identifying suitable environmental samples for the tracing of atmospheric pollution in industrial areas. Three additional types of environmental samples were used to characterise contamination sources in the industrial area of Ostrava city, Czech Republic. The region is known for its extensive metallurgical and mining activities. Fingerprinting of stable Pb isotopes was applied to distinguish individual sources of anthropogenic Pb. A wide range of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios was observed in the investigated samples: 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.168-1.198 in mosses; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.167-1.215 in soils and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.158-1.184 in tree cores. Black and brown coal combustion, as well as metallurgical activities, is the two main sources of pollution in the area. Fossil fuel burning in industry and households seems to be a stronger source of Pb emissions than from the metallurgical industry. Concentration analyses of tree rings showed that a significant increase in As concentrations occurred between 1999 and 2016 (from 0.38 mg kg -1 to 13.8 mg kg -1 ). This shift corresponds to the use of brown coal from Bílina, Czech Republic, with an increased As concentration. The burning of low-quality fuels in households remains a problem in the area, as small ground sources have a greater influence on the air quality than do industrial sources.

  15. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase IIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Noboru; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Shimada, Michiya; Saito, Seiji.

    1982-11-01

    This report corresponds to Chapter VI of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR workshop, Phase IIA. Special emphasis is placed on pumped limiter analysis for comparative studies between limiter and divertor concepts. Pumping characteristics of divertor/limiter and radiation cooling of diverted plasmas by impurities are also intensively studied. (author)

  16. Superdualities, brane tensions and massive IIA/IIB duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrinenko, I.V.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    The gauge transformations of p-form fields in supergravity theories acquire a non-commuting character when one introduces potentials both for the theory's original field strengths and for their duals. This has previously been shown in the 'doubled' formalism for maximal supergravities, where a generalised duality relation between original and dual field strengths replaces the equations of motion. In the doubled formalism, the gauge transformations generate a superalgebra, and the corresponding symmetries have accordingly been called 'superdualities'. The corresponding Noether charges form a representation of the cohomology ring on the space-time manifold. In this paper, we show that the gauge symmetry superalgebra implies certain non-trivial relations among the various p-brane tensions, which can straightforwardly be read off from the superalgebra commutation relations. This provides an elegant derivation of the brane-tension relations purely within a given theory, without the need to make use of duality relations between different theories, such as the type IIA/IIB T-duality, although the results are consistent with such dualities. We present the complete set of brane-tension relations in M-theory, in the type IIA and type IIB theories, and in all the lower-dimensional maximal supergravities. We also construct a doubled formalism for massive type IIA supergravity, and this enables us to obtain the brane-tension relations involving the D8-brane, purely within the framework of the massive IIA theory. We also obtain explicit transformations for the nine-dimensional T-duality between the massive type IIA theory and the Scherk-Schwarz reduced type IIB theory

  17. Atmospheric electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volland, H.

    1984-01-01

    The book Atmospheric Electrodynamics, by Hans Voland is reviewed. The book describes a wide variety of electrical phenomena occurring in the upper and lower atmosphere and develops the mathematical models which simulate these processes. The reviewer finds that the book is of interest to researchers with a background in electromagnetic theory but is of only limited use as a reference work

  18. Joint atmospheric-terrestrial water balances for East Africa: a WRF-Hydro case study for the upper Tana River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerandi, Noah; Arnault, Joel; Laux, Patrick; Wagner, Sven; Kitheka, Johnson; Kunstmann, Harald

    2018-02-01

    For an improved understanding of the hydrometeorological conditions of the Tana River basin of Kenya, East Africa, its joint atmospheric-terrestrial water balances are investigated. This is achieved through the application of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and the fully coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system over the Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment (3279 km2) and its surroundings in the upper Tana River basin for 4 years (2011-2014). The model setup consists of an outer domain at 25 km (East Africa) and an inner one at 5-km (Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment) horizontal resolution. The WRF-Hydro inner domain is enhanced with hydrological routing at 500-m horizontal resolution. The results from the fully coupled modeling system are compared to those of the WRF-only model. The coupled WRF-Hydro slightly reduces precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the soil water storage but increases runoff. The total precipitation from March to May and October to December for WRF-only (974 mm/year) and coupled WRF-Hydro (940 mm/year) is closer to that derived from the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data (989 mm/year) than from the TRMM (795 mm/year) precipitation product. The coupled WRF-Hydro-accumulated discharge (323 mm/year) is close to that observed (333 mm/year). However, the coupled WRF-Hydro underestimates the observed peak flows registering low but acceptable NSE (0.02) and RSR (0.99) at daily time step. The precipitation recycling and efficiency measures between WRF-only and coupled WRF-Hydro are very close and small. This suggests that most of precipitation in the region comes from moisture advection from the outside of the analysis domain, indicating a minor impact of potential land-precipitation feedback mechanisms in this case. The coupled WRF-Hydro nonetheless serves as a tool in quantifying the atmospheric-terrestrial water balance in this region.

  19. Understanding the land-atmospheric interaction in drought forecast from CFSv2 for the 2011 Texas and 2012 Upper Midwest US droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Roundy, J. K.; Ek, M. B.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-12-01

    Prediction and thus preparedness in advance of hydrological extremes, such as drought and flood events, is crucial for proactively reducing their social and economic impacts. In the summers of 2011 Texas, and 2012 the Upper Midwest, experienced intense droughts that affected crops and the food market in the US. It is expected that seasonal forecasts with sufficient skill would reduce the negative impacts through planning and preparation. However, the forecast skill from models such as Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is low over the US, especially during the warm season (Jun - Sep), which restricts their practical use for drought prediction. This study analyzes the processes that lead to premature termination of 2011 and 2012 US summer droughts in CFSv2 forecast resulting in its low forecast skill. Using the North American Land Data Assimilation System version 2 (NLDAS2) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) as references, this study investigates the forecast skills of CFSv2 initialized at 00, 06, 12, 18z from May 15 - 31 (leads out to September) for each event in terms of land-atmosphere interaction, through a recently developed Coupling Drought Index (CDI), which is based on the Convective Triggering Potential-Humidity Index-soil moisture (CTP-HI-SM) classification of four climate regimes: wet coupling, dry coupling, transitional and atmospherically controlled. A recycling model is used to trace the moisture sources in the CFSv2 forecasts of anomalous precipitation, which lead to the breakdown of drought conditions and a lack of drought forecasting skills. This is then compared with tracing the moisture source in CFSR with the same recycling model, which is used as the verification for the same periods. This helps to identify the parameterization that triggered precipitation in CFSv2 during 2011 and 2012 summer in the US thus has the potential to improve the forecast skill of CSFv2.

  20. Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J.W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N.M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C.M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A.A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Paré, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Background Higher circulating levels of sPLA2-IIA mass or sPLA2 enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear if this association is causal. A recent phase III clinical trial of an sPLA2 inhibitor (varespladib) was stopped prematurely for lack of efficacy. Methods We conducted a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis of 19 general population studies (8,021 incident, 7,513 prevalent major vascular events [MVE] in 74,683 individuals) and 10 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cohorts (2,520 recurrent MVE in 18,355 individuals) using rs11573156, a variant in PLA2G2A encoding the sPLA2-IIA isoenzyme, as an instrumental variable. Results PLA2G2A rs11573156 C allele associated with lower circulating sPLA2-IIA mass (38% to 44%) and sPLA2 enzyme activity (3% to 23%) per C allele. The odds ratio (OR) for MVE per rs11573156 C allele was 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98 to 1.06) in general populations and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.03) in ACS cohorts. In the general population studies, the OR derived from the genetic instrumental variable analysis for MVE for a 1-log unit lower sPLA2-IIA mass was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.96 to 1.13), and differed from the non-genetic observational estimate (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.79). In the ACS cohorts, both the genetic instrumental variable and observational ORs showed a null association with MVE. Instrumental variable analysis failed to show associations between sPLA2 enzyme activity and MVE. Conclusions Reducing sPLA2-IIA mass is unlikely to be a useful therapeutic goal for preventing cardiovascular events. PMID:23916927

  1. THE DISSOCIATIVE RECOMBINATION OF PROTONATED ACRYLONITRILE, CH2CHCNH+, WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NITRILE CHEMISTRY IN DARK MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF TITAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigren, E.; Hamberg, M.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Kaminska, M.; Thomas, R. D.; Larsson, M.; Geppert, W. D.; Millar, T. J.; Walsh, C.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements on the dissociative recombination (DR) of protonated acrylonitrile, CH 2 CHCNH + , have been performed at the heavy ion storage ring CRYRING located in the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. It has been found that at ∼2 meV relative kinetic energy about 50% of the DR events involve only ruptures of X-H bonds (where X = C or N) while the rest leads to the production of a pair of fragments each containing two heavy atoms (alongside H and/or H 2 ). The absolute DR cross section has been investigated for relative kinetic energies ranging from ∼1 meV to 1 eV. The thermal rate coefficient has been determined to follow the expression k(T) = 1.78 x 10 -6 (T/300) - 0.80 cm 3 s -1 for electron temperatures ranging from ∼10 to 1000 K. Gas-phase models of the nitrile chemistry in the dark molecular cloud TMC-1 have been run and results are compared with observations. Also, implications of the present results for the nitrile chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere are discussed.

  2. High Data Rates for AubieSat-2 A & B, Two CubeSats Performing High Energy Science in the Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss a proposed CubeSat size (3 Units / 6 Units) telemetry system concept being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in cooperation with Auburn University. The telemetry system incorporates efficient, high-bandwidth communications by developing flight-ready, low-cost, PROTOFLIGHT software defined radio (SDR) payload for use on CubeSats. The current telemetry system is slightly larger in dimension of footprint than required to fit within a 0.75 Unit CubeSat volume. Extensible and modular communications for CubeSat technologies will provide high data rates for science experiments performed by two CubeSats flying in formation in Low Earth Orbit. The project is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville and Auburn University to study high energy phenomena in the upper atmosphere. Higher bandwidth capacity will enable high-volume, low error-rate data transfer to and from the CubeSats, while also providing additional bandwidth and error correction margin to accommodate more complex encryption algorithms and higher user volume.

  3. Solar flares as proxy for the young Sun: satellite observed thermosphere response to an X17.2 flare of Earth's upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krauss

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the measured thermospheric response of an extreme solar X17.2 flare that irradiated the Earth's upper atmosphere during the so-called Halloween events in late October/early November 2003. We suggest that such events can serve as proxies for the intense electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation environment of the Sun or other stars during their early phases of evolution. We applied and compared empirical thermosphere models with satellite drag measurements from the GRACE satellites and found that the Jacchia-Bowman 2008 model can reproduce the drag measurements very well during undisturbed solar conditions but gets worse during extreme solar events. By analyzing the peak of the X17.2 flare spectra and comparing it with spectra of young solar proxies, our results indicate that the peak flare radiation flux corresponds to a hypothetical Sun-like star or the Sun at the age of approximately 2.3 Gyr. This implies that the peak extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation is enhanced by a factor of about 2.5 times compared to today's Sun. On the assumption that the Sun emitted an EUV flux of that magnitude and by modifying the activity indices in the Jacchia-Bowman 2008 model, we obtain an average exobase temperature of 1950 K, which corresponds with previous theoretical studies related to thermospheric heating and expansion caused by the solar EUV flux.

  4. Exceptional generalised geometry for massive IIA and consistent reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassani, Davide; Felice, Oscar de; Petrini, Michela [LPTHE, Sorbonne Universités UPMC Paris 06, CNRS,4 place Jussieu, F-75005, Paris (France); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie,35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-10

    We develop an exceptional generalised geometry formalism for massive type IIA supergravity. In particular, we construct a deformation of the generalised Lie derivative, which generates the type IIA gauge transformations as modified by the Romans mass. We apply this new framework to consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions preserving maximal supersymmetry. We find a generalised parallelisation of the exceptional tangent bundle on S{sup 6}, and from this reproduce the consistent truncation ansatz and embedding tensor leading to dyonically gauged ISO(7) supergravity in four dimensions. We also discuss closely related hyperboloid reductions, yielding a dyonic ISO(p,7−p) gauging. Finally, while for vanishing Romans mass we find a generalised parallelisation on S{sup d}, d=4,3,2, leading to a maximally supersymmetric reduction with gauge group SO(d+1) (or larger), we provide evidence that an analogous reduction does not exist in the massive theory.

  5. Massive deformations of Type IIA theory within double field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çatal-Özer, Aybike

    2018-02-01

    We obtain massive deformations of Type IIA supergravity theory through duality twisted reductions of Double Field Theory (DFT) of massless Type II strings. The mass deformation is induced through the reduction of the DFT of the RR sector. Such reductions are determined by a twist element belonging to Spin+(10, 10), which is the duality group of the DFT of the RR sector. We determine the form of the twists and give particular examples of twists matrices, for which a massive deformation of Type IIA theory can be obtained. In one of the cases, requirement of gauge invariance of the RR sector implies that the dilaton field must pick up a linear dependence on one of the dual coordinates. In another case, the choice of the twist matrix violates the weak and the strong constraints explicitly in the internal doubled space.

  6. Characterization of Class IIa Bacteriocin Resistance in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldart, Kathryn; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2017-04-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, particularly resistant Enterococcus faecium , pose an escalating threat in nosocomial environments because of their innate resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin, a treatment of last resort. Many class IIa bacteriocins strongly target these enterococci and may offer a potential alternative for the management of this pathogen. However, E. faecium 's resistance to these peptides remains relatively uncharacterized. Here, we explored the development of resistance of E. faecium to a cocktail of three class IIa bacteriocins: enterocin A, enterocin P, and hiracin JM79. We started by quantifying the frequency of resistance to these peptides in four clinical isolates of E. faecium We then investigated the levels of resistance of E. faecium 6E6 mutants as well as their fitness in different carbon sources. In order to elucidate the mechanism of resistance of E. faecium to class IIa bacteriocins, we completed whole-genome sequencing of resistant mutants and performed reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) of a suspected target mannose phosphotransferase (ManPTS). We then verified this ManPTS's role in bacteriocin susceptibility by showing that expression of the ManPTS in Lactococcus lactis results in susceptibility to the peptide cocktail. Based on the evidence found from these studies, we conclude that, in accord with other studies in E. faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes , resistance to class IIa bacteriocins in E. faecium 6E6 is likely caused by the disruption of a particular ManPTS, which we believe we have identified. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Position of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA) mutations predicts the natural history of MYH9-related disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecci, A.; Panza, E.; Pujol-Moix, N.

    2008-01-01

    MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in MYH9, the gene for the heavy chain of nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMMHC-IIA). All patients present from birth with macrothrombocytopenia, but in infancy or adult life, some of them develop sensorineural deafness......, presenile cataracts, and/or progressive nephritis leading to end-stage renal failure. No consistent correlations have been identified between the 27 different MYH9 mutations identified so far and the variable clinical evolution of the disease. We have evaluated 108 consecutive MYH9-RD patients belonging...... or 1841 result in intermediate clinical pictures. These findings are relevant not only to patients' clinical management but also to the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  8. A kinetic study of Ca-containing ions reacting with O, O2, CO2 and H2O: implications for calcium ion chemistry in the upper atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Sarah; Vondrak, Tomas; Wright, Timothy G; Plane, John M C

    2008-09-14

    A series of gas-phase reactions involving molecular Ca-containing ions was studied by the pulsed laser ablation of a calcite target to produce Ca+ in a fast flow of He, followed by the addition of reagents downstream and detection of ions by quadrupole mass spectrometry. Most of the reactions that were studied are important for describing the chemistry of meteor-ablated calcium in the earth's upper atmosphere. The following rate coefficients were measured: k(CaO+ + O --> Ca+ + O2) = (4.2 +/- 2.8) x 10(-11) at 197 K and (6.3 +/- 3.0) x 10(-11) at 294 K; k(CaO+ + CO --> Ca+ + CO2, 294 K) = (2.8 +/- 1.5) x 10(-10); k(Ca+.CO2 + O2 --> CaO2+ + CO2, 294 K) = (1.2 +/- 0.5) x10(-10); k(Ca+.CO2 + H2O --> Ca+.H2O + CO2) = (13.0 +/- 4.0) x 10(-10); and k(Ca+.H2O + O2 --> CaO2+ + H2O, 294 K) = (4.0 +/- 2.5) x 10(-10) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The quoted uncertainties are a combination of the 1 sigma standard errors in the kinetic data and the systematic errors in the models used to extract the rate coefficients. Rate coefficients were also obtained for the following recombination (also termed association) reactions in He bath gas: k(Ca+.CO2 + CO2 --> Ca+.(CO2)2, 294 K) = (2.6 +/- 1.0) x 10(-29); k(Ca+.H2O + H2O --> Ca+.(H2O)2) = (1.6 +/- 1.1) x 10(-27); and k(CaO2+ + O2 --> CaO2+.O2) high level quantum chemistry calculations and RRKM theory using an inverse Laplace transform solution of the master equation. The surprisingly slow reaction between CaO+ and O was explained using quantum chemistry calculations on the lowest 2A', 2A'' and 4A'' potential energy surfaces. These calculations indicate that reaction mostly occurs on the 2A' surface, leading to production of Ca+ (2S) + O2(1 Delta g). The importance of this reaction for controlling the lifetime of Ca+ in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere is then discussed.

  9. Analysis of tanshinone IIA induced cellular apoptosis in leukemia cells by genome-wide expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA is a diterpene quinone extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, a Chinese traditional herb. Although previous studies have reported the anti-tumor effects of Tan IIA on various human cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The current study was undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms of Tan IIA's apoptotic effects on leukemia cells in vitro. Methods The cytotoxicity of Tan IIA on different types of leukemia cell lines was evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2,5]-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay on cells treated without or with Tan IIA at different concentrations for different time periods. Cellular apoptosis progression with and without Tan IIA treatment was analyzed by Annexin V and Caspase 3 assays. Gene expression profiling was used to identify the genes regulated after Tan IIA treatment and those differentially expressed among the five cell lines. Confirmation of these expression regulations was carried out using real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA. The antagonizing effect of a PXR inhibitor L-SFN on Tan IIA treatment was tested using Colony Forming Unit Assay. Results Our results revealed that Tan IIA had different cytotoxic activities on five types of leukemia cells, with the highest toxicity on U-937 cells. Tan IIA inhibited the growth of U-937 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Annexin V and Caspase-3 assays showed that Tan IIA induced apoptosis in U-937 cells. Using gene expression profiling, 366 genes were found to be significantly regulated after Tan IIA treatment and differentially expressed among the five cell lines. Among these genes, CCL2 was highly expressed in untreated U-937 cells and down-regulated significantly after Tan IIA treatment in a dose-dependent manner. RT-qPCR analyses validated the expression regulation of 80% of genes. Addition of L- sulforaphane (L-SFN, an inhibitor of Pregnane × receptor (PXR significantly

  10. Tanshinone IIA Exerts an Antinociceptive Effect in Rats with Cancer-induced Bone Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei; Chen, Lei; Wu, Li-Fang; Yang, Fan; Niu, Jian-Xiang; Kaye, Alan D; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a common chronic pain characterized by 2 components, ongoing pain and breakthrough pain. Tanshinone IIA (TSN IIA) is a bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese medicine Danshen, which has been reported to have an antinociceptive effect on neuropathic and inflammatory pain through downregulation of the late proinflammatory cytokine high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1). To assess the antinociceptive effect of TSN IIA on CIBP. A randomized, double-blind, controlled animal trial was performed. University lab in China. A rat CIBP model was established by injecting Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells into the intramedullary cavity of the tibia. Both ongoing pain, e.g., flinching and guarding, and breakthrough pain, e.g., limb use and von Frey threshold, were evaluated. The effects of intraperitoneally administered TSN IIA on pain behavior and the expression levels of spinal HMGB1, interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-6 were determined. The effect of TSN IIA on the electrically evoked response of spinal wide-dynamic range (WDR) neurons was performed in vivo. TSN IIA dose-dependently inhibited cancer-induced ongoing pain and breakthrough pain. The expression levels of spinal HMGB1 and other inflammatory factors (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6) were increased in the rat model, but they were suppressed by TSN IIA in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, TSN IIA significantly inhibited the neuronal responses of WDR neurons in spinal deep layers. Further studies are warranted to ascertain how TSN IIA attenuates cancer-induced ongoing pain. Our results indicate that TSN IIA attenuates cancer-induced ongoing pain and breakthrough pain, possibly via suppression of central sensitization in CIBP rats. Therefore, we have provided strong evidence supporting TSN IIA as a potential and effective therapy for relieving CIBP. Cancer-induced bone pain, high-mobility group protein B1, Tanshinone IIA, ongoing pain

  11. Exploiting N=2 in consistent coset reductions of type IIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassani, Davide [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: cassani@lpt.ens.fr; Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie, 35, route de Chartres, 91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)], E-mail: kashani@ihes.fr

    2009-08-11

    We study compactifications of type IIA supergravity on cosets exhibiting SU(3) structure. We establish the consistency of the truncation based on left-invariance, providing a justification for the choice of expansion forms which yields gauged N=2 supergravity in four dimensions. We explore N=1 solutions of these theories, emphasizing the requirements of flux quantization, as well as their non-supersymmetric companions. In particular, we obtain a no-go result for de Sitter solutions at string tree level, and, exploiting the enhanced leverage of the N=2 setup, provide a preliminary analysis of the existence of de Sitter vacua at all string loop order.

  12. 6d surface defects from massive type IIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibitetto, Giuseppe; Petri, Nicolò

    2018-01-01

    We present a new BPS flow within minimal N=1 supergravity in seven dimensions describing a warped AdS3 background supported by a "dyonic" profile of the three-form. Furthermore, we discuss the holographic interpretation of the above solution in terms of a defect SCFT2 inside the 6d (1, 0) theory dual to the AdS in the asymptotic region. Finally we provide the brane picture of the aforementioned defect CFT as D2- and wrapped D4-branes ending on a D6 - NS5 - D8 funnel in massive type IIA string theory.

  13. Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J. W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N. M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A. A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Paré, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Higher circulating levels of sPLA2-IIA mass or sPLA2 enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear if this association is

  14. Angiotensin II type 1-receptor antagonism prevents type IIA secretory phospholipase A(2)-dependent lipid peroxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchtefeld, Maren; Bandlow, Nele; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Grote, Karsten; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Kaszkin, Marietta; Beck, Sabine; Drexler, Helmut; Schieffer, Bernhard

    Accumulation and modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL) within the vessel wall represent key events in atherogenesis. Secretory phospholipase A(2) type IIA (sPLA(2)-IIA) modulates the enzymatic process of LDL- modification and was recently identified as an independent predictor of coronary

  15. 30 CFR 57.22230 - Weekly testing (II-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22230 Weekly testing (II-A mines). (a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weekly testing (II-A mines). 57.22230 Section 57.22230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND...

  16. The antitumor natural product tanshinone IIA inhibits protein kinase C and acts synergistically with 17-AAG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chao; Zeng, Hua-Wu; Wang, Jin-Xin; Yuan, Xing; Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Ting; Yang, Pei-Ming; Wu, Tong; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2018-02-07

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), the primary bioactive compound derived from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been reported to possess antitumor activity. However, its antitumor mechanisms are not fully understood. To resolve the potential antitumor mechanism(s) of Tan IIA, its gene expression profiles from our database was analyzed by connectivity map (CMAP) and the CMAP-based mechanistic predictions were confirmed/validated in further studies. Specifically, Tan IIA inhibited total protein kinase C (PKC) activity and selectively suppressed the expression of cytosolic and plasma membrane PKC isoforms ζ and ε. The Ras/MAPK pathway that is closely regulated by the PKC signaling is also inhibited by Tan IIA. While Tan IIA did not inhibit heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), it synergistically enhanced the antitumor efficacy of the Hsp90 inhibitors 17-AAG and ganetespib in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In addition, Tan IIA significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, and induced both cell cycle arrest and autophagy. Collectively, these studies provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms responsible for antitumor activity of Tan IIA.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Mechanism of Tanshinone IIA for Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan II A is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. It has been demonstrated to have pleiotropic effects for atherosclerosis. From the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanism perspective, this paper reviewed major progresses of Tan IIA in antiatherosclerosis research, including immune cells, antigens, cytokines, and cell signaling pathways.

  18. Class IIa histone deacetylases are hormone-activated regulators of FOXO and mammalian glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihaylova, Maria M; Vasquez, Debbie S; Ravnskjær, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are signal-dependent modulators of transcription with established roles in muscle differentiation and neuronal survival. We show here that in liver, class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, and 7) are phosphorylated and excluded from the nucleus by AMPK family kinases....... In response to the fasting hormone glucagon, class IIa HDACs are rapidly dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus where they associate with the promoters of gluconeogenic enzymes such as G6Pase. In turn, HDAC4/5 recruit HDAC3, which results in the acute transcriptional induction of these genes via...... deacetylation and activation of FOXO family transcription factors. Loss of class IIa HDACs in murine liver results in inhibition of FOXO target genes and lowers blood glucose, resulting in increased glycogen storage. Finally, suppression of class IIa HDACs in mouse models of type 2 diabetes ameliorates...

  19. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  20. Purification and biochemical characterization of a secreted group IIA chicken intestinal phospholipase A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (IIA PLA2 is a protein shown to be highly expressed in the intestine of mammals. However, no study was reported in birds. Results Chicken intestinal group IIA phospholipase A2 (ChPLA2-IIA was obtained after an acidic treatment (pH.3.0, precipitation by ammonium sulphate, followed by sequential column chromatographies on Sephadex G-50 and mono-S ion exchanger. The enzyme was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of around 14 kDa. The purified enzyme showed a substrate preference for phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, and didn't hydrolyse phosphatidylcholine. Under optimal assay conditions, in the presence of 10 mM NaTDC and 10 mM CaCl2, a specific activity of 160 U.mg-1 for purified ChPLA2-IIA was measured using egg yolk as substrate. The fifteen NH2-terminal amino acid residues of ChPLA2-IIA were sequenced and showed a close homology with known intestinal secreted phospholipases A2. The gene encoding the mature ChPLA2-IIA was cloned and sequenced. To further investigate structure-activity relationship, a 3D model of ChPLA2-IIA was built using the human intestinal phospholipase A2 structure as template. Conclusion ChPLA2-IIA was purified to homogeneity using only two chromatographic colomns. Sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA indicates that the enzyme is highly basic with a pI of 9.0 and has a high degree of homology with mammalian intestinal PLA2-IIA.

  1. Global peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN retrieval in the upper troposphere from limb emission spectra of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Glatthor

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We use limb emission spectra of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS onboard the ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT to derive the first global distribution of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN in the upper troposphere. PAN is generated in tropospheric air masses polluted by fuel combustion or biomass burning and acts as a reservoir and carrier of NOx in the cold free troposphere. PAN exhibits continuum-like broadband structures in the mid-infrared region and was retrieved in a contiguous analysis window covering the wavenumber region 775–800 cm−1. The interfering species CCl4, HCFC-22, H2O, ClONO2, CH3CCl3 and C2H2 were fitted along with PAN, whereas pre-fitted profiles were used to model the contribution of other contaminants like ozone. Sensitivity tests consisting in retrieval without consideration of PAN demonstrated the existence of PAN signatures in MIPAS spectra obtained in polluted air masses. The analysed dataset consists of 10 days between 4 October and 1 December 2003. This period covers the end of the biomass burning season in South America and South and East Africa, in which generally large amounts of pollutants are produced and distributed over wide areas of the southern hemispheric free troposphere. Indeed, elevated PAN amounts of 200–700 pptv were measured in a large plume extending from Brasil over the Southern Atlantic, Central and South Africa, the South Indian Ocean as far as Australia at altitudes between 8 and 16 km. Enhanced PAN values were also found in a much more restricted area between northern subtropical Africa and India. The most significant northern midlatitude PAN signal was detected in an area at 8 km altitude extending from China into the Chinese Sea. The average mid and high latitude PAN amounts found at 8 km were around 125 pptv in the northern, but only between 50 and 75 pptv in the

  2. Expression of Type IIA Secretory Phospholipase A 2 Inhibits Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Activity in Transgenic Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurt-Camejo, Eva; Gautier, Thomas; Rosengren, Birgitta; Dikkers, Arne; Behrendt, Margareta; Grass, David S.; Rader, Daniel J.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective High circulating levels of group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) activity and mass are independent cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, inhibition of sPLA(2)-IIA may be a target for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The present study evaluated the

  3. Solar wind interaction with Mars' upper atmosphere: Results from 3-D studies using one-way coupling between the Multi-fluid MHD, the M-GITM and the AMPS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Bougher, S. W.; Ma, Y.; Toth, G.; Lee, Y.; Nagy, A. F.; Tenishev, V.; Pawlowski, D. J.; Meng, X.; Combi, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The study of the solar wind interaction with Mars upper atmosphere/ionosphere has triggered a great of interest in recent years. Among the large number of topics in this research area, the investigation of ion escape fluxes has become increasingly important due to its potential impact on the long-term evolution of Mars atmosphere (e.g., loss of water) over its history. In the present work, we adopt the 3-D Mars cold neutral atmosphere profiles (0~300 km) from the newly developed and validated Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (M-GITM) and the 3-D hot oxygen profiles (100km~5RM) from the exosphere Monte Carlo model Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (AMPS). We apply these 3-D model outputs fields into the 3-D BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD model (100km~20RM) that can better simulate the interplay between Mars upper atmosphere and solar wind by considering the dynamics of individual ion species. The multi-fluid model solves separate continuity, momentum and energy equations for each ion species (H+, O+, O2+, CO2+). The M-GITM model together with the AMPS exosphere model take into account the effects of solar cycle and seasonal variations on both cold and hot neutral atmospheres, allowing us to investigate the corresponding effects on the Mars upper atmosphere ion escape by using a one-way coupling approach, i.e., both the M-GITM and AMPS model outputs are used as the inputs for the multi-fluid model and M-GITM is used as input into the AMPS exosphere model. The calculations are carried out for selected cases with different nominal solar wind, solar cycle and crustal field orientation conditions. This work has the potential to provide predictions of ion escape rates for comparison to future data to be returned by the MAVEN primary mission (2014-2016) and thereby improve our understanding of present day escape processes. Acknowledgments: The work presented here was supported by NASA grants NNH10CC04C, NNX09AL26G, NSF grant ATM-0535811.

  4. Value of urinary topoisomerase-IIA cell-free DNA for diagnosis of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye-Hwan; Yan, Chunri; Lee, Il-Seok; Piao, Xuan-Mei; Byun, Young Joon; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2016-03-01

    Topoisomerase-II alpha (TopoIIA ), a DNA gyrase isoform that plays an important role in the cell cycle, is present in normal tissues and various human cancers, and can show altered expression in both. The aim of the current study was to examine the value of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Two patient cohorts were examined. Cohort 1 (73 BC patients and seven controls) provided bladder tissue samples, whereas cohort 2 (83 BC patients, 54 nonmalignant hematuric patients, and 61 normal controls) provided urine samples. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of TopoIIA mRNA in tissues and TopoIIA cell-free DNA in urine samples. The results showed that expression of TopoIIA mRNA in BC tissues was significantly higher than that in noncancer control tissues (pbladder cancer (MIBC) when compared with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (p=0.002). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity/specificity of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA for diagnosing BC, NMIBC, and MIBC. The areas under the ROC curve for BC, NMIBC, and MIBC were 0.741, 0.701, and 0.838, respectively. In summary, the results of this study provide evidence that cell-free TopoIIA DNA may be a potential biomarker for BC.

  5. Molecular determinants of bacterial sensitivity and resistance to mammalian Group IIA phospholipase A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jerrold P

    2015-11-01

    Group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA(2)-IIA) of mammalian species is unique among the many structurally and functionally related mammalian sPLA(2) in their high net positive charge and potent (nM) antibacterial activity. Toward the Gram-positive bacteria tested thus far, the global cationic properties of sPLA(2)-IIA are necessary for optimal binding to intact bacteria and penetration of the multi-layered thick cell wall, but not for the degradation of membrane phospholipids that is essential for bacterial killing. Various Gram-positive bacterial species can differ as much as 1000-fold in sPLA(2)-IIA sensitivity despite similar intrinsic enzymatic activity of sPLA(2)-IIA toward the membrane phospholipids of various bacteria. d-alanylation of wall- and lipo-teichoic acids in Staphylococcus aureus and sortase function in Streptococcus pyogenes increase bacterial resistance to sPLA(2)-IIA by up to 100-fold apparently by affecting translocation of bound sPLA(2)-IIA to the cell membrane. Action of the sPLA(2)-IIA and other related sPLA(2) against Gram-negative bacteria is more dependent on cationic properties of the enzyme near the amino-terminus of the protein and collaboration with other host defense proteins that produce alterations of the unique Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane that normally represents a barrier to sPLA(2)-IIA action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Overexpressed human metallothionein IIA gene protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from killing by alkylating agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaina, B; Lohrer, H; Karin, M; Herrlich, P

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-IIA) gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-IIA, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT than the parent cells. Even under conditions of re...

  7. M-theory on Manifolds of G{sub 2} Holonomy and Type IIA Orientifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachru, Shamit

    2001-07-25

    We demonstrate that M-theory compactifications on 7-manifolds of G{sub 2} holonomy, which yield 4d N = 1 supersymmetric systems, often admit at special loci in their moduli space a description as type IIA orientifolds. In this way, we are able to find new dualities of special IIA orientifolds, including dualities which relate orientifolds of IIA strings on manifolds of different topology with different numbers of wrapped D-branes. We also discuss models which incorporate, in a natural way, compact embeddings of gauge theory/gravity dualities similar to those studied in the recent work of Atiyah, Maldacena and Vafa.

  8. Regulation of myosin IIA and filamentous actin during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stall, Richard; Ramos, Joseph; Kent Fulcher, F.; Patel, Yashomati M., E-mail: ympatel@uncg.edu

    2014-03-10

    Insulin stimulated glucose uptake requires the colocalization of myosin IIA (MyoIIA) and the insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) at the plasma membrane for proper GLUT4 fusion. MyoIIA facilitates filamentous actin (F-actin) reorganization in various cell types. In adipocytes F-actin reorganization is required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. What is not known is whether MyoIIA interacts with F-actin to regulate insulin-induced GLUT4 fusion at the plasma membrane. To elucidate the relationship between MyoIIA and F-actin, we examined the colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation as well as the regulation of this interaction. Our findings demonstrated that MyoIIA and F-actin colocalized at the site of GLUT4 fusion with the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation. Furthermore, inhibition of MyoII with blebbistatin impaired F-actin localization at the plasma membrane. Next we examined the regulatory role of calcium in MyoIIA-F-actin colocalization. Reduced calcium or calmodulin levels decreased colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the plasma membrane. While calcium alone can translocate MyoIIA it did not stimulate F-actin accumulation at the plasma membrane. Taken together, we established that while MyoIIA activity is required for F-actin localization at the plasma membrane, it alone is insufficient to localize F-actin to the plasma membrane. - Highlights: • Insulin induces colocalization of MyoIIA and F-actin at the cortex in adipocytes. • MyoIIA is necessary but not sufficient to localize F-actin at the cell cortex. • MyoIIA-F-actin colocalization is regulated by calcium and calmodulin.

  9. A new approach for deriving the solar irradiance from non-flaring solar upper atmosphere plasmas at 2 x 10^4<-T<-2 x 10^7 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abdallaf, Jr., Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fontes, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sherrill, Manolo E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feldmn, U [NON LANL; Landi, E [NON LANL; Brown, C M [NON LANL; Seely, J F [NON LANL; Doschek, G A [NON LANL; Dammasch, I E [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new approach for deriving the solar irradiance in the X-ray to VUV range due to the emission by solar upper atmosphere plasmas at 2 x 10{sup 4} {le} T {le} 2 x 10{sup 7} K. Our approach is based on new understanding of the properties of the solar upper atmosphere; specifically, the discovery that the majority of emission from the non-flaring solar upper transition region and corona in the temperature range 3 x 10{sup 5} {le} T {le} 3 x 10{sup 6} K arises from isothermal plasmas that have four distinct temperatures: 0.35, 0.9, 1.4 and 3 x 10{sup 6} K. In the lower transition region (2 x 10{sup 4} {le} T {le} 2 x 10{sup 5} K) of coronal holes, quiet regions or active regions, although multithermal and variable in brightness, the shape of emission measure vs. temperature curves is almost constant. Flaring plasmas are for most part isothermal, although their emission measure and temperature continuously change. In this paper we review these recent results and propose a set of simple spectrometers for recording the solar spectrum in several narrow bands. The solar emission measure, average plasma temperature, and composition can be derived using the measured line fluxes. By combining the emission measure and other plasma properties with the output of a suite of atomic physics codes, which are also described here, the solar irradiance in the temperature range 2 x 10{sup 4} {le} T {le} 2 x 10{sup 7} K can be calculated.

  10. Heterotic-type IIA duality and degenerations of K3 surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, A.P. [Department of Mathematics, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Rd, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Watari, T. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo,Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-08-04

    We study the duality between four-dimensional N=2 compactifications of heterotic and type IIA string theories. Via adiabatic fibration of the duality in six dimensions, type IIA string theory compactified on a K3-fibred Calabi-Yau threefold has a potential heterotic dual compactification. This adiabatic picture fails whenever the K3 fibre degenerates into multiple components over points in the base of the fibration. Guided by monodromy, we identify such degenerate K3 fibres as solitons generalizing the NS5-brane in heterotic string theory. The theory of degenerations of K3 surfaces can then be used to find which solitons can be present on the heterotic side. Similar to small instanton transitions, these solitons escort singular transitions between different Calabi-Yau threefolds. Starting from well-known examples of heterotic-type IIA duality, such transitions can take us to type IIA compactifications with unknown heterotic duals.

  11. Tanshinon IIA injection accelerates tissue expansion by reducing the formation of the fibrous capsule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiong Yu

    Full Text Available The tissue expansion technique has been applied to obtain new skin tissue to repair large defects in clinical practice. The implantation of tissue expander could initiate a host response to foreign body (FBR, which leads to fibrotic encapsulation around the expander and prolongs the period of tissue expansion. Tanshinon IIA (Tan IIA has been shown to have anti-inflammation and immunoregulation effect. The rat tissue expansion model was used in this study to observe whether Tan IIA injection systematically could inhibit the FBR to reduce fibrous capsule formation and accelerate the process of tissue expansion. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into the Tan IIA group and control group with 24 rats in each group. The expansion was conducted twice a week to maintain a capsule pressure of 60 mmHg. The expansion volume and expanded area were measured. The expanded tissue in the two groups was harvested, and histological staining was performed; proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β were examined. The expansion volume and the expanded area in the Tan IIA group were greater than that of the control group. The thickness of the fibrous capsule in the Tan IIA group was reduced with no influence on the normal skin regeneration. Decreased infiltration of macrophages, lower level of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and TGF-β, less proliferating myofibroblasts and enhanced neovascularization were observed in the Tan IIA group. Our findings indicated that the Tan IIA injection reduced the formation of the fibrous capsule and accelerated the process of tissue expansion by inhibiting the FBR.

  12. Point of care testing of phospholipase A2 group IIA for serological diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nathan J.; Chapman, Robert; Lin, Yiyang; Mmesi, Jonas; Bentham, Andrew; Tyreman, Matthew; Abraham, Sonya; Stevens, Molly M.

    2016-02-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care.Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08423g

  13. Lower hybrid wave electron heating experiments in Doublet IIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.L.; Luxon, J.L.; Chan, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments designed to heat electrons by Landau damping of waves at approximately twice the lower hybrid frequency have been carried out on Doublet IIA. This objective is in contrast to other lower hybrid experiments which are designed to heat ions using frequencies corresponding to the lower hybrid resonance frequency. Up to 500 kW of rf power was applied to discharges with approximately 100 kW ohmic input using parallel wavelengths chosen to optimize the spatial distribution of the power deposition based on linear or quasi-linear Landau damping. Coupling of the power to both electrons and ions was observed, but there was no indication of effective bulk heating of either species. The desired slow wave propagated into the plasma and efficient coupling of the wave energy to the plasma occurred, but this energy was poorly confined. Two possible models of the absorption and loss mechanisms remain unresolved: 1) The power is coupled to energetic electrons by Landau damping and is lost via anomolous electron transport before it can thermalize. 2) The power is coupled to energetic ions and is lost by direct particle losses before it can thermalize

  14. Type IIA flux compactifications. Vacua, effective theories and cosmological challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koers, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we studied a number of type IIA SU(3)-structure compactifications with 06-planes on nilmanifolds and cosets, which are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the low energy effective theory. In particular we calculated the mass spectrum of the light scalar modes, using N = 1 supergravity techniques. For the torus and the Iwasawa solution, we have also performed an explicit Kaluza-Klein reduction, which led to the same result. For the nilmanifold examples we have found that there are always three unstabilized moduli corresponding to axions in the RR sector. On the other hand, in the coset models, except for SU(2) x SU(2), all moduli are stabilized. We discussed the Kaluza-Klein decoupling for the supersymmetric AdS vacua and found that it requires going to the Nearly-Calabi Yau limited. We searched for non-trivial de Sitter minima in the original flux potential away from the AdS vacuum. Finally, in chapter 7, we focused on a family of three coset spaces and constructed non-supersymmetric vacua on them. (orig.)

  15. Surface Wind and Upper-Ocean Variability Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation Simulated by the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    temperature is observed during the suppressed phase of the MJO because of the weak winds and large shortwave radiation (Weller and Anderson 1996...western PacificOceans (e.g.,Weller andAnderson 1996; Soloviev and Lukas 1997; Bellenger and Duvel 2009). The diurnal cycle of the solar radiation ...the difference in surface shortwave radiation caused by the small-scale cloud variability, which cannot be resolved by the atmospheric model. Also

  16. Solar Tides in the Upper Equatorial Thermosphere: A Comparison between AE-E (Atmosphere Explorer-E Satellite) Data and the NCAR Thermospheric General Circulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    serves to increase the resolution of the binning scheme without seriously lowering the number of data points collected in any particular bin. This...National Center for Atmospheric Research for her excellent work in running the NCAR TGCM. 13 * ... . REFERENCES Broglio, L., C. Buongiorno, U. Ponzi ...exhibit a greater asymmetry about the geographic equator. 0" REFERENCES Broglio, L., C. Buongiorno, U. Ponzi , and G. Ravelli, San Marco 3 drag balance

  17. Global Coupled Model Studies of The Jovian Upper Atmosphere In Response To Electron Precipitation and Ionospheric Convection Within The Auroral Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, G. H.; Miller, S.; Aylward, A. D.

    The Jovian Ionospheric Model (JIM) is a global three-dimensional model of Jupiter's coupled ionosphere and thermosphere, developed at University College London. Re- cently, the model has been used to investigate the atmospheric response to electron precipitation within the high-latitude auroral region. A series of simulations have been performed in which the model atmosphere is subjected to monochromatic precipitat- ing electrons of varying number flux and initial energy and, in addition, to various degrees of ionospheric convection. The auroral ionospheric conductivity which re- sults is shown to be strongly non-linear with respect to the incoming electron energy, with a maximum observed for incident particles of initial energy 60 KeV. Electrons with higher energies penetrate the thermospheric region completely, whilst electrons of lower energy (say 10 keV) produce ionisation at higher levels in the atmosphere which are less less condusive to the creation of ionospheric conductivity. Studies of the thermospheric winds with the auroral region show that zonal winds (around the auroral oval) can attain values of around 70% of the driving zonal ion velocity. Also the results show that these large neutral winds are limited in vertical extent to the region of large ionospheric conductivity, tailing off markedly at altitudes above this. The latest results from this work will be presented, and the implications for Jovian magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling will be discussed.

  18. Tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate facilitates endocytic HMGB1 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yusong; Li, Wei; Zhu, Shu; Jundoria, Arvin; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Huan; Fan, Saijun; Wang, Ping; Tracey, Kevin J; Sama, Andrew E; Wang, Haichao

    2012-12-01

    Our seminal discovery of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation has prompted a new field of investigation for the development of experimental therapeutics. We previously reported that a major Danshen ingredient, tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate (TSN-SS), selectively inhibited endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release and conferred protection against lethal endotoxemia and sepsis. To investigate the underlying mechanisms by which TSN-SS effectively inhibits HMGB1 release, we examined whether TSN-SS stimulates HMGB1 uptake by macrophages and whether genetic depletion of HMGB1 receptors [e.g., toll-like receptors (TLR)2, TLR4, or the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE)] or pharmacological inhibition of endocytosis impairs TSN-SS-facilitated HMGB1 cellular uptake. TSN-SS stimulated internalization of exogenous HMGB1 protein into macrophage cytoplasmic vesicles that subsequently co-localized with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-positive punctate structures (likely amphisomes). Meanwhile, it time-dependently elevated cellular levels of internalized HMGB1, leading to elevated LC3-II production and aggregation. Although genetic depletion of TLR2, TLR4, and/or RAGE did not impair TSN-SS-mediated HMGB1 uptake, specific inhibitors of the clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis significantly impaired TSN-SS-mediated HMGB1 uptake. Co-treatment with a lysosomal inhibitor, bafilomycin A1, led to enhanced accumulation of endogenous LC3-II and internalized exogenous HMGB1 in TSN-SS/rHMGB1-treated macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that TSN-SS may facilitate HMGB1 endocytic uptake, and subsequently delivered it to LC3-positive vacuoles (possibly amphisomes) for degradation via a lysosome-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prospects for developing new antibacterials targeting bacterial type IIA topoisomerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašić, Tihomir; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin

    2014-01-01

    The modulation of DNA topology by DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, both of which are type IIA topoisomerases and found in most bacteria, is a function vital to DNA replication, repair and decatenation. Despite the potential for resistance development, DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV have been proven to be and remain highly attractive targets in antibacterial drug discovery due to their potential for dual targeting. The search for new GyrA and/or ParC inhibitors that can overcome the increasing spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria has been successfully focused in the last decades on the modification of the known fluoroquinolone scaffold as primarily guided by ligand-based design via classical structure-activity relationship studies and the optimisation of physicochemical properties. This focus has resulted in several novel fluoroquinolones that have been introduced into clinical practice since 2000, and several of these new compounds are currently in different phases of clinical trials. Due to increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones, a significant part of DNA gyrase research has shifted to the discovery of new GyrB and/or ParE inhibitors, which are commonly identified through fragment-based design as well as virtual screening techniques and structure-based hit optimisation programs. This research often results in lead compounds with potent inhibitory activity and promising antibacterial activity profiles. Nevertheless, it is important to understand how different physicochemical properties (e.g., logD and total polar surface area) and different structural motifs influence the compounds' permeability to ensure the efficient discovery of potent, small-molecule antibacterials particularly against Gram-negative strains.

  20. Class IIa histone deacetylases are hormone-activated regulators of FOXO and mammalian glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylova, Maria M; Vasquez, Debbie S; Ravnskjaer, Kim; Denechaud, Pierre-Damien; Yu, Ruth T; Alvarez, Jacqueline G; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M; Montminy, Marc; Shaw, Reuben J

    2011-05-13

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are signal-dependent modulators of transcription with established roles in muscle differentiation and neuronal survival. We show here that in liver, class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, and 7) are phosphorylated and excluded from the nucleus by AMPK family kinases. In response to the fasting hormone glucagon, class IIa HDACs are rapidly dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus where they associate with the promoters of gluconeogenic enzymes such as G6Pase. In turn, HDAC4/5 recruit HDAC3, which results in the acute transcriptional induction of these genes via deacetylation and activation of FOXO family transcription factors. Loss of class IIa HDACs in murine liver results in inhibition of FOXO target genes and lowers blood glucose, resulting in increased glycogen storage. Finally, suppression of class IIa HDACs in mouse models of type 2 diabetes ameliorates hyperglycemia, suggesting that inhibitors of class I/II HDACs may be potential therapeutics for metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Secondary cosmic-ray e+- from 1 to 100 GeV in the upper atmosphere and interstellar space, and interpretation of a recent e+ flux measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Buffington, A.

    1976-01-01

    Secondary fluxes of cosmic-ray e from the decay of mesons produced by nuclear interactions are calculated for depths under 10 g cm -2 of atmosphere or interstellar space for energies from 1 to 100 GeV. Secondary meson spectra applicable for energies > or =5 GeV are obtained from the recently measured spectra of Carey et al. using Monte Carlo techniques. An analytic model is presented which identifies all essential parameters and enables easy calculation of efluxes for various parameter values. This model is used to interpret the e + measurement of Buffington, Orth, and Smoot. We find the mean thickness of interstellar and source material to be 4.3 (+1.8,-1.2) g cm -2 for cosmic-ray e + above 4 GeV. This result is difficult to reconcile with the recently proposed two-containment-volume propagation models of Cowsik and Wilson; Rengarajan, Stephens, and Verma; and Meneguzzi: all of the models predict a result near 1.8 g cm -2 at these energies due to the energy dependence of the measured (Li+Be+B)/(C+O) ratio. Single-containment-volume (galactic) models invoking an energy-dependent leakage lifetime are compatible with the e + data, but lack a mechanism to explain the energy dependence

  2. Reactions of substituted benzene anions with N and O atoms: Chemistry in Titan’s upper atmosphere and the interstellar medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Bierbaum, Veronica M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    The likely existence of aromatic anions in many important extraterrestrial environments, from the atmosphere of Titan to the interstellar medium (ISM), is attracting increasing attention. Nitrogen and oxygen atoms are also widely observed in the ISM and in the ionospheres of planets and moons. In the current work, we extend previous studies to explore the reactivity of prototypical aromatic anions (deprotonated toluene, aniline, and phenol) with N and O atoms both experimentally and computationally. The benzyl and anilinide anions both exhibit slow associative electron detachment (AED) processes with N atom, and moderate reactivity with O atom in which AED dominates but ionic products are also formed. The reactivity of phenoxide is dramatically different; there is no measurable reaction with N atom, and the moderate reactivity with O atom produces almost exclusively ionic products. The reaction mechanisms are studied theoretically by employing density functional theory calculations, and spin conversion is found to be critical for understanding some product distributions. This work provides insight into the rich gas-phase chemistry of aromatic ion-atom reactions and their relevance to ionospheric and interstellar chemistry.

  3. A Case Report of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type IIa Associated with Cushing Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Borzouei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa (MEN IIa is an autosomal dominant syn-drome characterized bypheochromocytoma ,medullary thyroid carcinoma and hyperparathy-roidism. Pheochromocytoma approximately occurs in 50% of patients with MEN IIa. This tumor has the capacity to produce ACTH ectopically and becomes manifest like Cushing syndrome,although it is very rare. Case Report: We report a 26-year-old woman patient with severe muscle weakness, skin le-sions in extremity, hypertension, new onset diabetes and in the laboratory data hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, high serum level of cortisol, metanephrine, normetanephrine, calcitonin and bilateral adrenal mass in computed tomography as the first clinical manifestations of an ACTH-secreting pheochromocytoma. Conclusion: In the patients with hypertension, new onset diabetes and hypokalemia Cushing syndrome and pheochromocytoma should always be ruled out. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:260-265

  4. Model studies of the influence of O2 photodissociation parameterizations in the Schumann-Runge bands on ozone related photolysis in the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs A. A. Koppers

    Full Text Available A new parameterization for atmospheric transmission and O2 photodissociation in the Schumann-Runge band region has been developed and tested with a 1D radiative-photochemical model. The parameterization is based on the O2-column along the line of sight to the Sun and the local temperature. Line-by-line calculations have served as a benchmark for testing this method and several other, commonly used, parameterizations. The comparisons suggest that differences between the line-by-line calculations and currently accepted parameterizations can be reduced significantly by using the new method, particularly at large solar zenith angles. The production rate of O-atoms computed with this method shows less than 6% deviation compared to the line-by-line calculations at any altitude, all solar zenith angles and in all seasons. The largest errors are found toward the shorter wavelengths in the Schumann-Runge region at low altitudes. Transmittance is approximated to better than 4% at any altitude and/or solar zenith angle. The total O-production rate above 20 km is approximated to better than 2%. The new parameterization is easily implemented in existing photochemical models and in many cases it may simply replace the existing algorithm. The computational effort exceeds that of other parameterizations but in view of the total computation time needed for the actual calculation of the parameterized Schumann-Runge bands this should not lead to significant performance degeneration. The first 14 coefficients of the parameterization are included in this study. Both the complete sets of coefficients and a simple algorithm can be obtained by contacting the authors. A photochemical model study shows the largest effect of the parameterization method is on odd hydrogen concentrations. Subsequent interaction with an odd oxygen family causes differences in the ozone concentrations between the different parameterizations of more than 10% at selected

  5. Inhibition of class IIa histone deacetylase activity by gallic acid, sulforaphane, TMP269, and panobinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sin Young; Kee, Hae Jin; Jin, Li; Ryu, Yuhee; Sun, Simei; Kim, Gwi Ran; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-02-23

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are gaining increasing attention as potential therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. We recently reported that the class II HDAC inhibitor, MC1568, and the phytochemical, gallic acid, lowered high blood pressure in mouse models of hypertension. We hypothesized that class II HDACs may be involved in the regulation of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of well-known HDAC inhibitors (TMP269, panobinostat, and MC1568), phytochemicals (gallic acid, sulforaphane, and piceatannol), and anti-hypertensive drugs (losartan, carvedilol, and furosemide) on activities of class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, 7, and 9). The selective class IIa HDAC inhibitor, TMP269, and the pan-HDAC inhibitor, panobinostat, but not MC1568, clearly inhibited class IIa HDAC activities. Among the three phytochemicals, gallic acid showed remarkable inhibition, whereas sulforaphane presented mild inhibition of class IIa HDACs. Piceatannol inhibited only HDAC7 activity. As expected, the anti-hypertensive drugs losartan, carvedilol, and furosemide did not affect the activity of any class IIa HDAC. In addition, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of several compounds on the activity of class l HDACs (HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8) and class IIb HDAC (HDAC6). MC1568 did not affect the activities of HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3, but it reduced the activity of HDAC8 at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM. Gallic acid weakly inhibited HDAC1 and HDAC6 activities, but strongly inhibited HDAC8 activity with effectiveness comparable to that of trichostatin A. Inhibition of HDAC2 activity by sulforaphane was stronger than that by piceatnnaol. These results indicated that gallic acid is a powerful dietary inhibitor of HDAC8 and class IIa/b HDAC activities. Sulforaphane may also be used as a dietary inhibitor of HDAC2 and class IIa HDAC. Our findings suggest that the class II HDAC inhibitor, MC1568, does not inhibit class IIa HDAC, but inhibits

  6. Geospatial Strategy for Adverse Impact of Urban Heat Island in upper atmospheres of the earth Mountain Areas using LANDSAT ETM+ Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of the rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with advanced technical capacity. This has been resulting in widespread land cover change. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. Urban Heat Islands exist in many large cities especially metropolitan cities and can significantly affect the permafrost layer in mountain areas. The adverse effect of urban heat island has become the subject of numerous studies in recent decades and is reflected in many major mountain cities around the world. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to the development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The Urban Heat Island for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment of the climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The knowledge of surface temperature is important for the study of urban climate and human health. The rapid growth of industries in peri-urban areas results in excessive warming and variations in weather conditions. It leads to soil degradation in frozen areas due to high temperature which leads to melting of snow in mountain areas Remotely sensed data of thermal infrared band in the region of 10.4-12.5 µm of EMR spectrum, available from LANDSAT- ETM+ is proved to be very helpful to identify urban heat islands. Thermal infrared data acquired during the daytime and night time can be used to monitor the heat island associated with urban areas as well as atmospheric pollution. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island

  7. Septin 7 reduces nonmuscle myosin IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex and hinders GLUT4 storage vesicle docking and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasik, Anita A.; Dumont, Vincent [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Tienari, Jukka [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, 05850 Hyvinkää (Finland); Nyman, Tuula A. [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Fogarty, Christopher L.; Forsblom, Carol; Lehto, Markku [Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Abdominal Center Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 000290 Helsinki (Finland); Diabetes& Obesity Research Program, Research Program´s Unit, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehtonen, Eero [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Laboratory Animal Centre, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Groop, Per-Henrik [Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Abdominal Center Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 000290 Helsinki (Finland); Diabetes& Obesity Research Program, Research Program´s Unit, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute, 3004 Melbourne (Australia); Lehtonen, Sanna, E-mail: sanna.h.lehtonen@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-01-15

    Glomerular epithelial cells, podocytes, are insulin responsive and can develop insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the small GTPase septin 7 forms a complex with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA; encoded by MYH9), a component of the nonmuscle myosin IIA (NM-IIA) hexameric complex. We observed that knockdown of NMHC-IIA decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Both septin 7 and NM-IIA associate with SNAP23, a SNARE protein involved in GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. We observed that insulin decreases the level of septin 7 and increases the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex, as visualized by increased phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain. Also knockdown of septin 7 increases the activity of NM-IIA in the complex. The activity of NM-IIA is increased in diabetic rat glomeruli and cultured human podocytes exposed to macroalbuminuric sera from patients with type 1 diabetes. Collectively, the data suggest that the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex plays a key role in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Furthermore, we observed that septin 7 reduces the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex and thereby hinders GSV docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. - Highlights: • Septin 7, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA) and SNAP23 form a complex. • Knockdown of septin 7 increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Insulin decreases septin 7 level and increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Septin 7 hinders GSV docking/fusion by reducing NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex.

  8. Tanshinone IIA Prevents Leu27IGF-II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Mediated by Estrogen Receptor and Subsequent Akt Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yueh-Shan; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Pai, Pei-Ying; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chung, Li-Chin; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; HsuanDay, Cecilia; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    IGF-IIR plays important roles as a key regulator in myocardial pathological hypertrophy and apoptosis, which subsequently lead to heart failure. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Tanshinone IIA is an active compound in Danshen and is structurally similar to 17[Formula: see text]-estradiol (E[Formula: see text]. However, whether tanshinone IIA improves cardiomyocyte survival in pathological hypertrophy through estrogen receptor (ER) regulation remains unclear. This study investigates the role of ER signaling in mediating the protective effects of tanshinone IIA on IGF-IIR-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Leu27IGF-II (IGF-II analog) was shown in this study to specifically activate IGF-IIR expression and ICI 182,780 (ICI), an ER antagonist used to investigate tanshinone IIA estrogenic activity. We demonstrated that tanshinone IIA significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation through ER activation to inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin expression and subsequent NFATc3 nuclear translocation to suppress myocardial hypertrophy. Tanshinone IIA reduced the cell size and suppressed ANP and BNP, inhibiting antihypertrophic effects induced by Leu27IGF-II. The cardioprotective properties of tanshinone IIA that inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced cell hypertrophy and promote cell survival were reversed by ICI. Furthermore, ICI significantly reduced phospho-Akt, Ly294002 (PI3K inhibitor), and PI3K siRNA significantly reduced the tanshinone IIA-induced protective effect. The above results suggest that tanshinone IIA inhibited cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which was mediated through ER, by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibiting Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin and NFATC3. Tanshinone IIA exerted strong estrogenic activity and therefore represented a novel selective ER modulator that inhibits IGF-IIR signaling to block cardiac hypertrophy.

  9. Overexpressed human metallothionein IIA gene protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from killing by alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaina, B.; Lohrer, H.; Karin, M.; Herrlich, P.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-IIA) gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-IIA, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT than the parent cells. Even under conditions of reduced glutathione synthesis, the transfectants were not more resistant to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and bleomycin than the parent cells. Thus free radicals generated by these agents cannot be scavenged efficiently by MT in vivo. The hMT-IIA transfectants, however, but not control transfectants harboring a BPV-MT promoter-neo construct, tolerated significantly higher doses of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Resistance and MT overexpression occurred irrespective of selection and cultivation in cadmium and zinc. There was no increase in resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea. MT did not affect the degree of overall DNA methylation after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treatment nor the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The results suggest that MT participates as a cofactor or regulatory element in repair or tolerance of toxic alkylation lesions

  10. Overexpressed human metallothionein IIA gene protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from killing by alkylating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaina, B.; Lohrer, H.; Karin, M.; Herrlich, P. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-04-01

    Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-IIA) gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-IIA, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT than the parent cells. Even under conditions of reduced glutathione synthesis, the transfectants were not more resistant to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and bleomycin than the parent cells. Thus free radicals generated by these agents cannot be scavenged efficiently by MT in vivo. The hMT-IIA transfectants, however, but not control transfectants harboring a BPV-MT promoter-neo construct, tolerated significantly higher doses of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Resistance and MT overexpression occurred irrespective of selection and cultivation in cadmium and zinc. There was no increase in resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea. MT did not affect the degree of overall DNA methylation after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treatment nor the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The results suggest that MT participates as a cofactor or regulatory element in repair or tolerance of toxic alkylation lesions.

  11. Overexpressed human metallothionein IIA gene protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from killing by alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaina, B; Lohrer, H; Karin, M; Herrlich, P

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-IIA) gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-IIA, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT than the parent cells. Even under conditions of reduced glutathione synthesis, the transfectants were not more resistant to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and bleomycin than the parent cells. Thus free radicals generated by these agents cannot be scavenged efficiently by MT in vivo. The hMT-IIA transfectants, however, but not control transfectants harboring a BPV-MT promoter-neo construct, tolerated significantly higher doses of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Resistance and MT overexpression occurred irrespective of selection and cultivation in cadmium and zinc. There was no increase in resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea. MT did not affect the degree of overall DNA methylation after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treatment nor the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The results suggest that MT participates as a cofactor or regulatory element in repair or tolerance of toxic alkylation lesions. Images PMID:2320583

  12. Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Dysfunctions via Improving Cholinergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Qing Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium Tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS is a derivative of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA. Tan IIA has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, whether STS possesses effect on AD remains unclear. This study aims to estimate whether STS could protect against scopolamine- (SCOP- induced learning and memory deficit in Kunming mice. Morris water maze results showed that oral administration of STS (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg and Donepezil shortened escape latency, increased crossing times of the original position of the platform, and increased the time spent in the target quadrant. STS decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT in the hippocampus and cortex of SCOP-treated mice. Oxidative stress results showed that STS increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and reactive oxygen species (ROS in hippocampus and cortex. In addition, western blot was carried out to detect the expression of apoptosis related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3. STS upregulated the protein expression of Bcl-2 and downregulated the proteins expression of Bax and Caspase-3. These results indicated that STS might become a promising therapeutic candidate for attenuating AD-like pathological dysfunction.

  13. Expression of Dihydropyridine and Ryanodine Receptors in Type IIA Fibers of Rat Skeletal Muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, Katja; Mänttäri, Satu; Järvilehto, Matti

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the fiber type specificity of dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in different rat limb muscles was investigated. Western blot and histochemical analyses provided for the first time evidence that the expression of both receptors correlates to a specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition. We observed a significant (p=0.01) correlation between DHP as well as Ry receptor density and the expression of MHC IIa (correlation factor r=0.674 and r=0.645, respectively) in one slow-twitch, postural muscle (m. soleus), one mixed, fast-twitch muscle (m. gastrocnemius) and two fast-twitch muscles (m. rectus femoris, m. extensor digitorum longus). The highest DHP and Ry receptor density was found in the white part of m. rectus femoris (0.058±0.0060 and 0.057±0.0158 ODu, respectively). As expected, the highest relative percentage of MHC IIa was also found in the white part of m. rectus femoris (70.0±7.77%). Furthermore, histochemical experiments revealed that the IIA fibers stained most strongly for the fluorophore-conjugated receptor blockers. Our data clearly suggest that the expression of DHPRs and RyRs follows a fiber type-specific pattern, indicating an important role for these proteins in the maintenance of an effective Ca 2+ cycle in the fast contracting fiber type IIA

  14. Novel Class IIa-Selective Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Discovered Using an in Silico Virtual Screening Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Yi; Lin, Tony Eight; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Tseng, Hui-Ju; Yang, Jinn-Moon; Huang, Wei-Jan

    2017-06-12

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) contain eighteen isoforms that can be divided into four classes. Of these isoform enzymes, class IIa (containing HDAC4, 5, 7 and 9) target unique substrates, some of which are client proteins associated with epigenetic control. Class IIa HDACs are reportedly associated with some neuronal disorders, making HDACs therapeutic targets for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, some reported HDAC inhibitors contain hydroxamate moiety that chelates with zinc ion to become the cofactor of HDAC enzymes. However, the hydroxamate functional group is shown to cause undesirable effects and has poor pharmacokinetic profile. This study used in silico virtual screening methodology to identify several nonhydroxamate compounds, obtained from National Cancer Institute database, which potentially inhibited HDAC4. Comparisons of the enzyme inhibitory activity against a panel of HDAC isoforms revealed these compounds had strong inhibitory activity against class IIa HDACs, but weak inhibitory activity against class I HDACs. Further analysis revealed that a single residue affects the cavity size between class I and class IIa HDACs, thus contributing to the selectivity of HDAC inhibitors discovered in this study. The discovery of these inhibitors presents the possibility of developing new therapeutic treatments that can circumvent the problems seen in traditional hydroxamate-based drugs.

  15. Type IIA2 urethral duplication: report of an unusual case | Gupta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report describes a rare case of type IIA2 sagittal urethral duplication. The presentation, investigation, and management of this rare anomaly are briefly discussed. A 3½-year-old boy presented with urinary obstruction and recurrent urinary tract infection due to a stenosed dorsal urethra and segmental stenosis of the ...

  16. Bactericidal properties of group IIA and group V phospholipases A2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grönroos, J.O.; Laine, V.J.O.; Janssen, M.J.W.; Egmond, M.R.; Nevalainen, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Group V phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a recently characterized 14-kDa secretory PLA2 of mammalian heart and macrophage-derived cells. Group IIA PLA2, which is structurally close to group V PLA2, has been shown to kill Gram-positive bacteria in vitro and to prevent symptoms of Gram-positive infection in

  17. Comparisons between high-resolution profiles of squared refractive index gradient M2 measured by the Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs during the Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment 2015 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available New comparisons between the square of the generalized potential refractive index gradient M2, estimated from the very high-frequency (VHF Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU Radar, located at Shigaraki, Japan, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV measurements are presented. These comparisons were performed at unprecedented temporal and range resolutions (1–4 min and  ∼  20 m, respectively in the altitude range  ∼  1.27–4.5 km from simultaneous and nearly collocated measurements made during the ShUREX (Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment 2015 campaign. Seven consecutive UAV flights made during daytime on 7 June 2015 were used for this purpose. The MU Radar was operated in range imaging mode for improving the range resolution at vertical incidence (typically a few tens of meters. The proportionality of the radar echo power to M2 is reported for the first time at such high time and range resolutions for stratified conditions for which Fresnel scatter or a reflection mechanism is expected. In more complex features obtained for a range of turbulent layers generated by shear instabilities or associated with convective cloud cells, M2 estimated from UAV data does not reproduce observed radar echo power profiles. Proposed interpretations of this discrepancy are presented.

  18. Radiation-induced myosin IIA expression stimulates collagen type I matrix reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockhuys, Stéphanie; Van Rompaye, Bart; De Rycke, Riet; Lambein, Kathleen; Claes, Kathleen; Bracke, Marc; De Wagter, Carlos; De Wever, Olivier

    2013-07-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) reorganization critically contributes to breast cancer (BC) progression and radiotherapy response. We investigated the molecular background and functional consequences of collagen type I (col-I) reorganization by irradiated breast cancer cells (BCC). Radiation-induced (RI) col-I reorganization was evaluated for MCF-7/6, MCF-7/AZ, T47D and SK-BR-3 BCC. Phase-contrast microscopy and a stressed matrix contraction assay were used for visualization and quantification of col-I reorganization. Cell-matrix interactions were assessed by the inhibition of β1 integrin (neutralizing antibody 'P5D2') or focal adhesion kinase (FAK; GSK22560098 small molecule kinase inhibitor). The role of the actomyosin cytoskeleton was explored by western blotting analysis of myosin II expression and activity; and by gene silencing of myosin IIA and pharmacological inhibition of the actomyosin system (blebbistatin, cytochalasin D). BCC death was evaluated by propidium iodide staining. We observed a radiation dose-dependent increase of col-I reorganization by BCC. β1 Integrin/FAK-mediated cell-matrix interactions are essential for RI col-I reorganization. Irradiated BCC are characterized by increased myosin IIA expression and myosin IIA-dependent col-I reorganization. Moreover, RI col-I reorganization by BCC is associated with decreased BCC death, as suggested by pharmacological targeting of the β1 integrin/FAK/myosin IIA pathway. Our data indicate the role of myosin IIA in col-I reorganization by irradiated BCC and reciprocal BCC death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of starch synthase IIa gene dosage on grain, protein and starch in endosperm of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konik-Rose, Christine; Thistleton, Jenny; Chanvrier, Helene; Tan, Ihwa; Halley, Peter; Gidley, Michael; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Ikea, Joseph; McMaugh, Steve; Regina, Ahmed; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Li, Zhongyi

    2007-11-01

    Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat.

  20. Geomagnetism solid Earth and upper atmosphere perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Basavaiah, Nathani

    2011-01-01

    This volume elaborates several important aspects of solid Earth geomagnetism. It covers all the basics of the subject, including biomagnetism and instrumentation, and offers a number of practical applications with carefully selected examples and illustrations.

  1. Upper Atmosphere Research Report Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-10-01

    TD -4 " (32-37) BuOrd, Wash., D. C.,Attn: Re-9 " (38-41) BuShips, Wash., D. C.,Attn: Codes 633, 910A, and 343 " (42-44) Ch/GMBranch, Technical...Dir. of Tests CO, NAES , Phila., Attn: Supt. AEL CO, Watertown Arsenal, Mass., Attn: Laboratory ComOpDevFor, c/o Fleet Post Office, N. Y., N. Y

  2. Upper Atmosphere Research Report Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-06-17

    instrument was recovered, however, and in good condition. TRAJECTORY ALTITUDE AND VELOCITY Vb TIME 1Q170 T- 170 ISO ----- -- d *--- -------- 150 1600-A...8217aa- 6- 2~~D v Y 0 0 , 1 3$%-3p’P 0 Fel UL !UAT .21 ,’S P I1L11*1111-z Fe -II RI a D- 0C Si I3e 3P- 4s3P0 02400 2500 2600 27000 WAVELENGTH...tototot- to 4 L (4 ~~~~4 toý to ).- IDt 0 4 mo ao 0--0)o- cot i0 t CU1 Ci) M4 ISo &a0c 0c nU n s U4C - ~ r e 4.o..4 -W--I~4 w-t4 M..4(4.4 (4(4l C Mt

  3. Domain-induced activation of human phospholipase A2 type IIA: Local versus global lipid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leidy, C.; Linderoth, L.; Andresen, T.L.

    2006-01-01

    , we show that local enrichment of anionic lipids into fluid domains triggers PLA(2)-IIA activity. In addition, the compositional range of enzyme activity is shown to be related to the underlying lipid phase diagram. A comparison is done between PLA(2)-IIA and snake venom PLA(2), which in contrast...... to PLA(2)-IIA hydrolyzes both anionic and zwitterionic membranes. In general, this work shows that PLA(2)-IIA activation can be accomplished through local enrichment of anionic lipids into domains, indicating a mechanism for PLA(2)-IIA to target perturbed native membranes with low global anionic lipid...

  4. Tanshinone‑IIA attenuates the deleterious effects of oxidative stress in osteoporosis through the NF‑κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowen; Wei, Wanfu; Liu, Zhiwei; Yang, Yang; Jia, Haobo

    2018-05-01

    Osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption caused by bone microstructural damage and bone-related disorders. Evidence shows that tanshinone IIA (Tan‑IIA), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used clinically as a drug for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the efficacy and mechanism underlying the effect of Tan‑IIA on the viability of osteoclasts remain to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of Tan‑IIA on osteoblast differentiation and oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability was analyzed and oxidative stress was examined in the osteoblasts. Wnt1sw/sw mice were used to investigate the therapeutic effects of Tan‑IIA on spontaneous tibia fractures and severe osteopenia. The bone strength, collagen and mineral were examined in the tibia. Osteoblast activity was also analyzed in the experimental mice. The Tan‑IIA‑induced differentiation of osteoclasts and the mechanism of action were investigated in osteocytes. The data showed that Tan‑IIA treatment improved cell viability. The data also demonstrated that Tan‑IIA decreased the levels of H2O2, accumulation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis of osteoblasts. Tan‑IIA inhibited the deleterious outcomes triggered by oxidative stress. In addition, Tan‑IIA inhibited the activation of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and its target genes, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and increased the levels of TNF receptor‑associated factor 1 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein‑1/2 in the osteocytes. Furthermore, it was shown that Tan‑IIA reduced the propensity to fractures and severe osteopenia in mice with osteoporosis. Tan‑IIA also exhibited improved bone strength, mineral and collagen in the bone matrix of the experimental mice. It was found that the Tan‑IIA‑mediated benefits on osteoblast activity and function were through the NF‑κB signaling pathway

  5. The effect of tanshinone IIA upon the TGF-beta1/Smads signaling pathway in hypertrophic myocardium of hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongsheng; Yang, Yuping; Yu, Dan; Liang, Qiansheng

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism by which Tanshinone IIA (TSN IIA) prevents left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), we examined the expression of AT1R, TGF-beta1 and Smads gene in the hypertrophic myocardium of hypertensive rats with abdominal aorta constriction. LVH model was established by creating abdominal aorta constriction. Four weeks later, animals were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 animals in each. One group was used as model control, the other three groups were treated with TSN IIA (20 mg/kg), TSN IIA (10 mg/kg) and valsartan (10 mg/kg), respectively. Another 8 SD rats were subjected to sham surgery and served as blank control. After 8-week treatment, the caudal artery pressure of the animals was measured. The tissues of left ventricle were taken for the measurement of the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and pathological sectioning and HE-staining were used for determining the myocardial fiber dimension (MFD). The mRNA expression of AT1R, protein expression of TGF-beta1 and activity of Smad-2, 4, 7 were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Our results showed that (1) the blood pressure of rats treated with TSN IIA, either at high or low dose, was significantly higher than those in the control and valsartan-treated group (PTSN IIA and valsartan-treated rats were higher than those in the control group (PTSN IIA and valsartan significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of AT1R and protein expression of TGF-beta1 and Smad-3 in the hypertrophic myocardium (PTSN IIA; (4) the two doses of TSN IIA and valsartan significantly up-regulated the protein expression of Smad-7 in the hypertrophic myocardium (PTSN IIA was significantly higher than that in rats treated with valsartan. It is concluded that inhibition of myocardial hypertrophy induced by TSN IIA independent of blood pressure. The underlying mechanism might be the down-regulated expression of AT1R mRNA and Smad-3, increased production of Smad-7, and blocking effect of TSN

  6. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  7. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy After Mastectomy in Preventing Recurrence in Patients With Stage IIa-IIIa Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Medullary Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  8. Holographic microstate counting for AdS4 black holes in massive IIA supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Hristov, Kiril; Passias, Achilleas

    2017-10-01

    We derive the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for a class of BPS black holes in the massive type IIA supergravity background AdS4 × S 6 from a microscopic counting of supersymmetric ground states in a holographically dual field theory. The counting is performed by evaluating the topologically twisted index of three-dimensional N=2 Chern-Simons-matter gauge theories in the large N limit. The I-extremization principle is shown to match the attractor mechanism for the near-horizon geometries constructed in the four-dimensional dyonic N=2 gauged supergravity, that arises as a consistent truncation of massive type IIA supergravity on S 6. In particular, our results prove that the imaginary part of the three-dimensional partition functions plays a crucial rôle in holography.

  9. 10D massive type IIA supergravities as the uplift of parabolic M2-brane torus bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia del Moral, Maria Pilar [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Restuccia, Alvaro [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Dept. de Fisica

    2016-04-15

    We remark that the two 10D massive deformations of the N = 2 maximal type IIA supergravity (Romans and HLW supergravity) are associated to the low energy limit of the uplift to 10D of M2-brane torus bundles with parabolic monodromy linearly and non-linearly realized respectively. Romans supergravity corresponds to M2-brane compactified on a twice-punctured torus bundle. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Plutonium contamination monitoring in the HFEF hot cells during sectioning of Mark-IIA sodium loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.H.; Villarreal, R.; Holson, C.E.; Kerr, J.F.

    1975-05-01

    An extensive program for monitoring alpha contamination was conducted in-cell and out-of-cell in HFEF/S to establish the contamination spread from sectioning sodium loops that contained failed mixed-oxide fuel elements. The monitoring program was maintained during the sectioning of six RAS-TREAT Mark-IIA loops in the argon cell. The monitoring program provided conclusive evidence that no contamination spread resulted from sectioning the loops. (U.S.)

  11. Direct control of type IIA topoisomerase activity by a chromosomally encoded regulatory protein

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Seychelle M.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Hershey, David M.; Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Sengupta, Sugopa; Nagaraja, Valakunja; Berger, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Topoisomerases are central regulators of DNA supercoiling; how these enzymes are regulated to suit specific cellular needs is poorly understood. Vos et al. now report the structure of E. coli gyrase, a type IIA topoisomerase bound to an inhibitor, YacG. YacG represses gyrase through steric occlusion of its DNA-binding site. Further studies show that YacG engages two spatially segregated regions associated with small-molecule inhibitor interactions—fluoroquinolone antibiotics and a gyrase agon...

  12. Ligand promiscuity through the eyes of the aminoglycoside N3 acetyltransferase IIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Adrianne L; Serpersu, Engin H

    2013-07-01

    Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AGMEs) are expressed in many pathogenic bacteria and cause resistance to aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics. Remarkably, the substrate promiscuity of AGMEs is quite variable. The molecular basis for such ligand promiscuity is largely unknown as there is not an obvious link between amino acid sequence or structure and the antibiotic profiles of AGMEs. To address this issue, this article presents the first kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of one of the least promiscuous AGMEs, the AG N3 acetyltransferase-IIa (AAC-IIa) and its comparison to two highly promiscuous AGMEs, the AG N3-acetyltransferase-IIIb (AAC-IIIb) and the AG phosphotransferase(3')-IIIa (APH). Despite having similar antibiotic selectivities, AAC-IIIb and APH catalyze different reactions and share no homology to one another. AAC-IIa and AAC-IIIb catalyze the same reaction and are very similar in both amino acid sequence and structure. However, they demonstrate strong differences in their substrate profiles and kinetic and thermodynamic properties. AAC-IIa and APH are also polar opposites in terms of ligand promiscuity but share no sequence or apparent structural homology. However, they both are highly dynamic and may even contain disordered segments and both adopt well-defined conformations when AGs are bound. Contrary to this AAC-IIIb maintains a well-defined structure even in apo form. Data presented herein suggest that the antibiotic promiscuity of AGMEs may be determined neither by the flexibility of the protein nor the size of the active site cavity alone but strongly modulated or controlled by the effects of the cosubstrate on the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the enzyme. Copyright Copyright © 2013 The Protein Society.

  13. Tanshinone IIA inhibits metastasis after palliative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma and prolongs survival in part via vascular normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen-Quan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promotion of endothelial normalization restores tumor oxygenation and obstructs tumor cells invasion, intravasation, and metastasis. We therefore investigated whether a vasoactive drug, tanshinone IIA, could inhibit metastasis by inducing vascular normalization after palliative resection (PR of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Methods A liver orthotopic double-tumor xenograft model in nude mouse was established by implantation of HCCLM3 (high metastatic potential and HepG2 tumor cells. After removal of one tumor by PR, the effects of tanshinone IIA administration on metastasis, tumor vascularization, and survival were evaluated. Tube formation was examined in mouse tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs treated with tanshinone IIA. Results PR significantly accelerated residual hepatoma metastases. Tanshinone IIA did not inhibit growth of single-xenotransplanted tumors, but it did reduce the occurrence of metastases. Moreover, it inhibited PR-enhanced metastases and, more importantly, prolonged host survival. Tanshinone IIA alleviated residual tumor hypoxia and suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in vivo; however, it did not downregulate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α or reverse EMT of tumor cells under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Tanshinone IIA directly strengthened tube formation of TECs, associated with vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor 1/platelet derived growth factor receptor (VEGFR1/PDGFR upregulation. Although the microvessel density (MVD of residual tumor tissue increased after PR, the microvessel integrity (MVI was still low. While tanshinone IIA did not inhibit MVD, it did dramatically increase MVI, leading to vascular normalization. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that tanshinone IIA can inhibit the enhanced HCC metastasis associated with PR. Inhibition results from promoting VEGFR1/PDGFR-related vascular normalization. This application demonstrates the potential clinical

  14. 30 CFR 57.22208 - Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines... fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Auxiliary fans, except fans used in shops and other areas... applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18, and be operated so that recirculation is minimized. Auxiliary fans...

  15. Upaya Meningkatkan Gerak Lokomotor Lari 40 Meter melalui Metode Picture And Picture Kelas Iia Sds Kristen Kanaan Kubu Raya

    OpenAIRE

    Riyanto, Sigit

    2017-01-01

    Problem of the research is how the picture and picture method can increase the learning outcomes locomotor movement in 40 metres run to students grade IIA SDS Kristen Kanaan Kubu Raya Regency. The purpose of this research is to know the effort increasing locomotor movement in 40 metres run through picture and picture method to students grade IIA SDS Kristen Kanaan Kubu Raya Regency. Research methodology is Descriptive method with Classroom Action Research. Subject of the research was 23 stude...

  16. Fairweather atmospheric electricity at Antarctica during local ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apart from the day-to-day variation in low latitude thunderstorm activity, there are diurnal, seasonal, inter-annual ... Atmospheric sciences; climate; upper atmosphere; global electric circuit; thunderstorm; Antarctica; atmospheric electricity; fairweather ... tribute to meteorological noise in the measured atmospheric electric ...

  17. A counterselection method for Lactococcus lactis genome editing based on class IIa bacteriocin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xing; Usvalampi, Anne M; Saris, Per E J; Takala, Timo M

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new counterselection method for deleting fragments from Lactococcus lactis chromosome. The method uses a non-replicating plasmid vector, which integrates into the chromosome and makes the cell sensitive to bacteriocins. The integration vector carries pUC ori functional in Escherichia coli but not in L. lactis, an erythromycin resistance gene for selecting single crossover integrants, and two fragments from L. lactis chromosome for homologous recombinations. In addition, the integration vector is equipped with the Listeria monocytogenes gene mptC encoding the mannose-phosphotransferase system component IIC, the receptor for class IIa bacteriocins. Expression of mptC from the integration vector renders the naturally resistant L. lactis sensitive to class IIa bacteriocins. This sensitivity is then used to select the double crossover colonies on bacteriocin agar. Only the cells which have regained the endogenous bacteriocin resistance through the loss of the mptC plasmid will survive. The colonies carrying the desired deletion can then be distinguished from the wild-type revertants by PCR. By using the class IIa bacteriocins leucocin A, leucocin C or pediocin AcH as the counterselective agents, we deleted 22- and 33-kb chromosomal fragments from the wild-type nisin producing L. lactis strain N8. In conclusion, this counterselection method presented here is a convenient, efficient and inexpensive technique to generate successive deletions in L. lactis chromosome.

  18. Surgery or radiation therapy for Stage I and IIA carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    The choice of treatment in carcinoma of the cervix is best decided after careful individual appraisal has been carried out. For best results, a long-term view must be agreed upon initially and careful followup by the same team is obligatory. At present, surgery, radiation therapy, and a combination of these two modalities have been employed successfully to manage carcinoma of the cervix. To a great extent, the facilities, the experience, and the interest of the personnel involved influence the type of therapy that will be employed. Generally speaking, the choice of treatment is determined primarily by the stage of the disease process. Radical surgery in the management of patients with Stage I and Stage II-A carcinoma of the cervix must be planned to include within the en bloc dissection the uterus, tubes, ovaries, and regional lymph node drainage from those organs. Therefore, a radical lymphadnectomy is an integral and important part of the overall management program when radical surgery is performed. In most institutions, radiation therapy is used most frequently to treat carcinoma of the cervix in Stages I and II-A. The data from various institutions indicate significant survival potential from radiation therapy treatment programs that are appropriately devised. In Stages I and II-A the complications are minimal in character (primarily proctitis and cystitis); generally, they involve a potential incidence of about six percent

  19. Rescue therapy with Tanshinone IIA hinders transition of acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease via targeting GSK3β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunming; Zhu, Wei; Yan, Xiang; Shao, Qiuyuan; Xu, Biao; Zhang, Miao; Gong, Rujun

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains challenging for clinical practice and poses a risk of developing progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) with no definitive treatment available yet. Tanshinone IIA, an active ingredient of Chinese herbal Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been widely used in Asia for the remarkable organoprotective activities. Its effect on established AKI, however, remains unknown. In mice with folic acid-induced AKI, delayed treatment with Tanshinone IIA, commenced early or late after injury, diminished renal expression of kidney injury markers, reduced apoptosis and improved kidney dysfunction, concomitant with mitigated histologic signs of AKI to CKD transition, including interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and with an ameliorated inflammatory infiltration in tubulointerstitium and a favored M2-skewed macrophage polarization. Mechanistically, Tanshinone IIA blunted glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3β overactivity and hyperactivation of its downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases that are centrally implicated in renal fibrogenesis and inflammation. Inhibition of GSK3β is likely a key mechanism mediating the therapeutic activity of Tanshinone IIA, because sodium nitroprusside, a GSK3β activator, largely offset its renoprotective effect. In confirmatory studies, rescue treatment with Tanshinone IIA likewise ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney destruction in mice. Our data suggest that Tanshinone IIA represents a valuable treatment that improves post-AKI kidney salvage via targeting GSK3β. PMID:27857162

  20. Secretory phospholipase A2-IIa is involved in prostate cancer progression and may potentially serve as a biomarker for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhongyun; Liu, Yin; Scott, Kieran F; Levin, Linda; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Bracken, R Bruce; Burke, Barbara; Zhai, Qihui Jim; Wang, Jiang; Oleksowicz, Leslie; Lu, Shan

    2010-11-01

    The majority of prostate cancers are indolent, whereas a significant portion of patients will require systemic treatment during the course of their disease. To date, only high Gleason scores are best associated with a poor prognosis in prostate cancer. No validated serum biomarker has been identified with prognostic power. Previous studies showed that secretory phospholipase A2-IIa (sPLA2-IIa) is overexpressed in almost all human prostate cancer specimens and its elevated levels are correlated with high tumor grade. Here, we found that sPLA2-IIa is overexpressed in androgen-independent prostate cancer LNCaP-AI cells relative to their androgen-dependent LNCaP cell counterparts. LNCaP-AI cells also secrete significantly higher levels of sPLA2-IIa. Blocking sPLA2-IIa function compromises androgen-independent cell growth. Inhibition of the ligand-induced signaling output of the HER network, by blocking PI3K-Akt signaling and the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)-mediated pathway, compromises both sPLA2-IIa protein expression and secretion, as a result of downregulation of sPLA2-IIa promoter activity. More importantly, we demonstrated elevated serum sPLA2-IIa levels in prostate cancer patients. High serum sPLA2-IIa levels are associated significantly with high Gleason score and advanced disease stage. Increased sPLA2-IIa expression was confirmed in prostate cancer cells, but not in normal epithelium and stroma by immunohistochemistry analysis. We showed that elevated signaling of the HER/HER2-PI3K-Akt-NF-κB pathway contributes to sPLA2-IIa overexpression and secretion by prostate cancer cells. Given that sPLA2-IIa overexpression is associated with prostate development and progression, serum sPLA2-IIa may serve as a prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer and a potential surrogate prostate biomarker indicative of tumor burden.

  1. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  2. New atmospheric program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Science Foundation's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has established an Upper Atmospheric Facilities program within its Centers and Facilities section. The program will support the operation of and the scientific research that uses the longitudinal chain of incoherent scatter radars. The program also will ensure that the chain is maintained as a state-of-the-art research tool available to all interested and qualified scientists.For additional information, contact Richard A. Behnke, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 202-357-7390).

  3. An estimation of Central Iberian Peninsula atmospheric δ13C and water δD in the Upper Cretaceous using pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis (Py-CSIA) of a fossil conifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; De la Rosa, José M.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2015-04-01

    and saline habitats being a component of salt-marsh vegetation. The values obtained for δD (-101.9±2.2 ‰), δ15N (10.7±0.2 ‰) and δ18O (20.9±0.39 ‰) lay within those previously reported for fossil floras [10] growing in warm environment and probably with very high evaporation rates. δ13C Py-CSIA was recorded for biogenic compound; polysaccharides, lipid series, lignin and degraded lignin compounds (alkyl benzenes and alkyl phenols) and for a S containing compounds probably with a diagenetic origin. In general δ13C Py-CSIA values were more depleted that the bulk ones and can be considered a better approach to the real plant δ13C value (c. -22 ‰). Considering that plant-air C fractionation in degraded lignin compounds for a C4 photosystem plant is c. Δ13C≈ 20.0 ‰ [11] and a an extra fractionation (Δ13C≈ -3.0 ‰) due to the plant depleted stomatal conductance growing in extreme warm, saline and dry conditions, we estimate atmospheric δ13C value in the area during the Upper Cretaceous in c. δ13C = -5.3±0.2 ‰. This indicates that our F.oligostomata probably grew on a 13C enriched atmosphere, more enriched than preindustrial one (δ13C ≈ -6.5 ‰; [12]). This could be caused by a combination of reasons i.e. emissions of heavy 13C isotope to the atmosphere by an increase in ocean's temperature and acidification by volcanic S depositions during this geologically active and warm period, and/or an increase of primary production and net terrestrial C uptake with selective removal of light 12C isotope by plants. Values for δD CSIA of lipid compounds such as n-alkanes with C chain lengths, C23-C31 are believed to derive exclusively from leaf waxes of higher plants. Plant δD carries isotope information of environmental water that is particularly preserved during the geological record in n-alkyl structures, whereas other structures i.e. isoprenoids, are most prone to hydrogen exchange [13-14]. We were able to measure δD for long chain alkane

  4. Jovian atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, M.; Travis, L.D.

    1986-10-01

    A conference on the atmosphere of Jupiter produced papers in the areas of thermal and ortho-para hydrogen structure, clouds and chemistry, atmospheric structure, global dynamics, synoptic features and processes, atmospheric dynamics, and future spaceflight opportunities. A session on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune was included, and the atmosphere of Saturn was discussed in several papers

  5. Diversity in secreted PLA2-IIA activity among inbred mouse strains that are resistant or susceptible to Apc Min/+ tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Marina; Koratkar, Revati A; Silverman, Karen A; Sollars, Vincent E; MacPhee-Pellini, Melina; Walters, Rhonda; Palazzo, Juan P; Buchberg, Arthur M; Siracusa, Linda D; Farber, Steven A

    2005-09-22

    The secreted phospholipase A2 type IIA (Pla2g2a) gene was previously identified as a modifier of intestinal adenoma multiplicity in Apc Min/+ mice. To determine if intestinal secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity was also attenuated in susceptible strains, we developed a sensitive assay to directly quantitate sPLA2 activity in the murine intestinal tract utilizing a fluorescent BODIPY-labeled phospholipid substrate. Here, we report assay conditions that distinguish between secreted and cytosolic PLA2 enzyme activities in extracts of intestinal tissue. The small intestine exhibited higher activity levels than the large intestine. Consistent with predictions from the sPLA2-IIA gene sequence in inbred strains, we detected low levels of enzyme activity in inbred strains containing sPLA2-IIA mutations; these strains were also associated with greater numbers of intestinal polyps. Additionally, the assay was able to distinguish differences in levels of sPLA2 activity between neoplasia-resistant strains, which were then shown by sequencing to carry variant wild-type sPLA2-IIA alleles. Immunohistochemical analyses of intestinal tissues were consistent with sPLA2-IIA activity levels. This approach enables further studies of the mechanisms of sPLA2 action influencing the development and tumorigenesis of the small intestine and colon in both mice and humans.

  6. General N=1 supersymmetric flux vacua of massive type IIA string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrndt, Klaus; Cvetic, Mirjam

    2005-07-08

    We derive conditions for the existence of four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric flux vacua of massive type IIA string theory with general supergravity fluxes turned on. For an SU(3) singlet Killing spinor, we show that such flux vacua exist when the internal geometry is nearly Kähler. The geometry is not warped, all the allowed fluxes are proportional to the mass parameter, and the dilaton is fixed by a ratio of (quantized) fluxes. The four-dimensional cosmological constant, while negative, becomes small in the vacuum with the weak string coupling.

  7. New industrial heat pump applications to a synthetic rubber plant. Final report, Phase IIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Phase IIA of the DOE sponsored study titled, Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Application and Evaluation. The scope of this phase of the study was to finalize the process design of the heat pump scheme, develop a process and instrumentation diagram, and a detailed cost estimate for the project. This information is essential for the site management to evaluate the economic viability and operability of the proposed heat pump design, prior to the next phase of installation and testing.

  8. Moduli Potentials in Type IIA Compactifications with RR and NS Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachru, S.

    2004-12-01

    We describe a simple class of type IIA string compactifications on Calabi-Yau manifolds where background fluxes generate a potential for the complex structure moduli, the dilaton, and the Kaehler moduli. This class of models corresponds to gauged {Nu} = 2 supergravities, and the potential is completely determined by a choice of gauging and by data of the {Nu} = 2 Calabi-Yau model--the prepotential for vector multiplets and the quaternionic metric on the hypermultiplet moduli space. Using mirror symmetry, one can determine many (though not all) of the quantum corrections which are relevant in these models.

  9. Tanshinone IIA suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration by downregulation of FOXM1

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Li, Yuhua; Tang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA (TSN) exhibits a variety of anticancer effects. However, whether it inhibits gastric cancer (GC) cell proliferation and migration and the mechanism remain unclear. In the present study, different concentrations of TSN were co-incubated with SGC-7901 cells. The pcDNA-FOXM1 or FOXM1-siRNA plasmid was transfected into cells before treatment with 5 ?g/l TSN. The proliferation and migration abilities of the SGC-7901 cells were tested by MTT and wound healing assays. Western blotting...

  10. Non-perturbative scalar potential inspired by type IIA strings on rigid CY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, Sergei [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR 5221, CNRS-Université de Montpellier,F-34095, Montpellier (France); Ketov, Sergei V. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University,1-1 Minami-ohsawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo,Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Institute of Physics and Technology, Tomsk Polytechnic University,30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Wakimoto, Yuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University,1-1 Minami-ohsawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2016-11-10

    Motivated by a class of flux compactifications of type IIA strings on rigid Calabi-Yau manifolds, preserving N=2 local supersymmetry in four dimensions, we derive a non-perturbative potential of all scalar fields from the exact D-instanton corrected metric on the hypermultiplet moduli space. Applying this potential to moduli stabilization, we find a discrete set of exact vacua for axions. At these critical points, the stability problem is decoupled into two subspaces spanned by the axions and the other fields (dilaton and Kähler moduli), respectively. Whereas the stability of the axions is easily achieved, numerical analysis shows instabilities in the second subspace.

  11. Improving the orbits of GPS block IIA satellites during eclipse seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Solano, C. J.; Hugentobler, U.; Steigenberger, P.; Allende-Alba, G.

    2013-10-01

    During Sun-Earth eclipse seasons, GPS-IIA satellites perform noon, shadow and post-shadow yaw maneuvers. If the yaw maneuvers are not properly taken into account in the orbit determination process, two problems appear: (1) the observations residuals increase since the modeled position of the satellite's navigation antenna differs from the true position, and (2) the non-conservative forces like solar radiation pressure or Earth radiation pressure are mismodeled due to the wrong orientation of the satellite's surfaces in space. In this study we consider the yaw maneuvers for the computation of solar radiation pressure and Earth radiation pressure acting on a box-wing like satellite. Also the computation of the satellite's navigation antenna position takes into account the yaw maneuvers. Two models are tested for the yaw maneuvers of GPS-IIA satellites, the existing attitude model with nominal yaw rates and an upgraded version based on the real yaw attitude estimated from PPP (Precise Point Positioning) phase residuals. Additionally, for GPS-IIR and GLONASS-M the existing yaw attitude models with nominal yaw rates are tested. Moreover, two models are tested for the orientation of the solar panels of GPS-IIA satellites during yaw maneuvers, one assuming that the panels point as perpendicular as possible to the Sun and the other assuming a specific pitch attitude during the shadow and post-shadow turns. The attitude models of increasing complexity are introduced into the computation of daily orbits based on real GPS+GLONASS tracking data for the years 2007 and 2008. From the solutions including the box-wing model with nominal attitude to the one with the most refined attitude models, the average improvements in the orbits of GPS-IIA satellites during eclipse seasons are quantified as follows: orbit overlap errors decrease from 0.075 to 0.063 m, orbit prediction errors after the first 3-9 h decrease from 0.155 to 0.095 m, and after four days decrease from 6.77 to 3.28 m.

  12. A maturase-encoding group IIA intron of yeast mitochondria self-splices in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Hebbar, S K; Belcher, S M; Perlman, P S

    1992-01-01

    Intron 1 of the coxI gene of yeast mitochondrial DNA (aI1) is a group IIA intron that encodes a maturase function required for its splicing in vivo. It is shown here to self-splice in vitro under some reaction conditions reported earlier to yield efficient self-splicing of group IIB introns of yeast mtDNA that do not encode maturase functions. Unlike the group IIB introns, aI1 is inactive in 10 mM Mg2+ (including spermidine) and requires much higher levels of Mg2+ and added salts (1M NH4Cl or...

  13. Reply to comment "On the hydrogen escape: Comment to variability of the hydrogen in the Martian upper atmosphere as simulated by a 3D atmosphere-exosphere coupling by J.-Y. Chaufray et al." by V. Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 281, 262

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufray, J.-Y.; Gonzalez-Galindo, F.; Forget, F.; Lopez-Valverde, M.; Leblanc, F.; Modolo, R.; Hess, S.

    2018-02-01

    Krasnopolsky (2017) makes a careful review of our recent results about the Martian hydrogen content of the Martian upper atmosphere (Chaufray et al., 2015). We comment here on his two major points. First, he suggests that the non-thermal escape of H2, and particularly collisions with hot oxygen, not taken into account in our general circulation model (GCM), should modify our reported H2 and H density profiles. This is an important issue; we acknowledge that future effective coupling of our GCM with comprehensive models of the Martian solar wind interaction, ideally after being validated with the latest plasma observations of H2+, would allow for better estimations of the relative importance of the H2 non-thermal and thermal escape processes. For the time being we need assumptions in the GCM, with proper and regular updates. According to a recent and detailed study of the anisotropic elastic and inelastic collision cross sections between O and H2 (Gacesa et al., 2012), the escape rates used by Krasnopolsky (2010) for this process might be overestimated. We therefore do not include non thermal escape of H2 in the model. And secondly, in response to Krasnopolsky's comment on the H escape variability with the solar cycle, we revised our calculations and found a small bug in the computation of the Jeans effusion velocity. Our revised computed H escape rates are included here. They have a small impact on our key conclusions: similar seasonal variations, a reduced variation with the solar cycle but still larger than Krasnopolsky (2017), and again a hydrogen scape systematically lower than the diffusion-limited flux. This bug does not affect the latest Mars Climate Database v5.2.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of tanshinone IIA on radiation-induced microglia BV-2 cells inflammatory response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Xiaorong; Dong, Jihua; Zhang, Ruiguang

    2009-01-01

    and confocal microscopy analysis were applied to detect the expression of gamma-H2AX and p65 postirradiation. RESULTS: Radiation-induced release of proinflammatory cytokines in BV-2 cells was detectable after irradiation. Tanshinone II(A) decreased the radiation-induced release of proinflammatory cytokines......AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the inhibitory effects of Tanshinone II(A) on the production of proinflammation cytokines in radiation-stimulated microglia. METHODS: Microglia cells were treated with 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 Gy of irradiation or sham-irradiated in the presence or absence of 1....... Further, Western blotting showed that Tanshinone II(A) could attenuate the nuclear translocation of (NF-kappabeta) p65 submit postirradiation. Immunofluorescence staining showed gamma-H2AX foci formation with p65 translocation into the nucleus postirradiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated...

  15. Brane/antibrane Configurations in Type IIA and M-Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsano, Joseph

    We investigate the relation between large N duality applied to systems of D5's and /lineD5's wrapping vanishing cycles of local CY in type IIB and M-theory lifts of the NS5/D4//lineD4 systems in type IIA to which they are related by T-duality. Through a simple example based on a local CY constructed using an A2 singularity, we review this well-known correspondence in the supersymmetric setting and describe the manner in which it generalizes when antibranes are added. Agreement between the IIB and IIA pictures, which supports the assertion that {N}=2 supersymmetry is spontaneously broken in these systems at string tree level, is demonstrated when gs ≪ 1. Novel nonholomorphic features can arise away from this regime and their physical origin is discussed. This note is based on talks given at KITP, Harvard University, TIFR, the University of Tokyo at Hongo, the 2007 Les Houches Summer School, and the 2007 Simons Workshop, is based on work done in collaboration with K. Papadodimas and M. Shigemori, and contains some previously unpublished results.

  16. OECD/NEA burnup credit criticality benchmark. Result of phase IIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Makoto; Okuno, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-02-01

    The report describes the final result of the Phase IIA of the Burnup Credit Criticality Benchmark conducted by OECD/NEA. In the Phase IIA benchmark problems, the effect of an axial burnup profile of PWR spent fuels on criticality (end effect) has been studied. The axial profiles at 10, 30 and 50 GWd/t burnup have been considered. In total, 22 results from 18 institutes of 10 countries have been submitted. The calculated multiplication factors from the participants have lain within the band of {+-} 1% {Delta}k. For the irradiation up to 30 GWd/t, the end effect has been found to be less than 1.0% {Delta}k. But, for the 50 GWd/t case, the effect is more than 4.0% {Delta}k when both actinides and FPs are taken into account, whereas it remains less than 1.0% {Delta}k when only actinides are considered. The fission density data have indicated the importance end regions have in the criticality safety analysis of spent fuel systems. (author).

  17. PENGGUNAAN BAHAN AJAR TEMATIK PEMBAGIAN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR DI KELAS IIA MI AHLIYAH II PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luvi Antari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to look at improving student learning outcomes in the materials division using a thematic approach based teaching materials. This research is a classroom action research (Claassroom Action Research with a research subject graders IIA MI Ahliyah 2 Palembang, the second semester of 2014/2015 the number of students 28 people, consisting of 14 male students and 14 female students. This study was conducted by two cycles following the model of a Class Action Research & McTaggart Kemmis models which consists of four stages: planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The process of collecting data by using observation and tests. Based on this research, the data obtained in the first cycle who scored ≥ 70 there were 17 students with learning completeness percentage amounted to 60.71% of students had reached the indicators of success and the second cycle there are 23 students who reached a value ≥ 70 on the percentage of students learning completeness by 82 , 14% had reached an indicator of success. With the student response rate reached 76.56% in the first cycle and the second cycle reaches 81.25%. It can be concluded that learning by using a thematic approach based teaching materials division performed in this research was effective, because it can improve student learning outcomes in the distribution of matter in class IIA MI Ahliyah II Palembang

  18. Type IIA photosensitivity and formation of pores in optical fibers under intense ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, S. A.; Shlyagin, M. G.; Swart, P. L.; Chtcherbakov, A. A.; Osipov, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    Formation of the type IIA Bragg gratings in germanosilicate optical fibers is studied. We report the observation of such a type of gratings in the standard single-mode fiber (Corning SMF-28) under different experimental conditions. A mechanism for the type IIA photosensitivity in optical fibers is proposed which is based on nucleation and evolution of pores from vacancy-type defects in fiber areas where a high level of mechanical stress is induced under intense ultraviolet (UV) light. Evolution of fiber core temperature under influence of a single 20 ns light pulse from a KrF excimer laser was measured and compared with theoretical calculations. It was shown that transient thermoinduced stress in the fiber core can achieve a level sufficient for effective nucleation of pores. A theory describing formation of pores in optical fibers has been developed and was used to estimate the pore nucleation rate, concentration, and other parameters of pore evolution for different levels of UV fluence and fiber core stress

  19. Down-Regulation of the Na+-Coupled Phosphate Transporter NaPi-IIa by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miribane Dërmaku-Sopjani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Na+-coupled phosphate transporter NaPi-IIa is the main carrier accomplishing renal tubular phosphate reabsorption. It is driven by the electrochemical Na+ gradient across the apical cell membrane, which is maintained by Na+ extrusion across the basolateral cell membrane through the Na+/K+ ATPase. The operation of NaPi-IIa thus requires energy in order to avoid cellular Na+ accumulation and K+ loss with eventual decrease of cell membrane potential, Cl- entry and cell swelling. Upon energy depletion, early inhibition of Na+-coupled transport processes may delay cell swelling and thus foster cell survival. Energy depletion is sensed by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a serine/threonine kinase stimulating several cellular mechanisms increasing energy production and limiting energy utilization. The present study explored whether AMPK influences the activity of NAPi-IIa. Methods: cRNA encoding NAPi-IIa was injected into Xenopus oocytes with or without additional expression of wild-type AMPK (AMPKα1-HA+AMPKβ1-Flag+AMPKγ1-HA, of inactive AMPKαK45R (AMPKα1K45R+AMPKβ1-Flag+AMPKγ1-HA or of constitutively active AMPKγR70Q (AMPKα1-HA+AMPKβ1-Flag+AMPKγ1R70Q. NaPi-IIa activity was estimated from phosphate-induced current in dual electrode voltage clamp experiments. Results: In NaPi-IIa-expressing, but not in water-injected Xenopus oocytes, the addition of phosphate (1 mM to the extracellular bath solution generated a current (Ip, which was significantly decreased by coexpression of wild-type AMPK and of AMPKγR70Q but not of AMPKαK45R. The phosphate-induced current in NaPi-IIa- and AMPK-expressing Xenopus ooocytes was significantly increased by AMPK inhibitor Compound C (20 µM. Kinetic analysis revealed that AMPK significantly decreased the maximal transport rate. Conclusion: The AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK is a powerful regulator of NaPi-IIa and thus of renal tubular phosphate transport.

  20. Tanshinone IIA reduces apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide in the human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lian-Qun; Yang, Guan-Lin; Ren, Lu; Chen, Wen-Na; Feng, Jun-Yi; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Lin; Li, Xue-Tao; Lei, Ping

    2012-08-30

    Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge (also known as herb Danshen in Chinese) is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine. Tanshinone IIA (TSN IIA) is considered to be the most important bioactive ingredient in Danshen and exhibits an anti-atherosclerotic activity. To evaluate the protective effect of TSN IIA on the human endothelial EA.hy926 cells injured by hydrogen peroxide in vitro and its possible mechanism. The EA.hy926 cells were incubated for 24h with different concentrations of TSN IIA (5, 10 and 20 μg/μL ) or DMEM. Subsequently, cells were treated with 300 μmol/L H(2)O(2) for another 4h. Then, the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptosis of EA.hy926 cells was detected by flow cytometry with AnnexinV-FITC/PI double staining and laser scanning spectral confocal technique. The generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was analyzed by flow cytometry. The mRNA expressions of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax were tested by real time-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR). The protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was determined by Western blotting. MDA levels, NO production, LDH leakage, and SOD as well as caspase-3 activities were also measured using standard methods. Loss of cell viability and excessive cell apoptosis were observed in EA.hy926 cells after 4h of challenge with H(2)O(2) (300 μmol/L). However, cell apoptosis was attenuated in different concentrations of TSN IIA (5, 10 and 20 μg/μL) pretreated cells. Furthermore, TSN IIA markedly inhibited the elevation of ROS evoked by H(2)O(2). Real time RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis showed that TSN IIA significantly decreased the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3) while significantly increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and resulted in obvious reduction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in EA.hy926 cells induced by H(2)O(2). These observations

  1. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  2. Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing ERK1/2 MAPK signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. Our current study sought to explore the effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the effects of tanshinone IIA by cell proliferation assay and cell migration assay. And we explored the underlying mechanism by Western blotting. Results: AGEs significantly induced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, but treatment with tanshinone IIA attenuated these effects. AGEs could increase the activity of the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways but not the JNK pathway. Treatment with tanshinone IIA inhibited the AGEs-induced activation of the ERK1/2 pathway but not the p38 pathway.   Conclusion: Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs by suppressing the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway.

  3. Upper GI Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Upper GI Series Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Upper GI Endoscopy What is upper gastrointestinal ( ... endoscopy, a doctor obtains biopsies by passing an instrument through the endoscope to obtain a small piece ...

  4. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai, E-mail: rei.chemke@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl st., 76100, Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-08-10

    The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.

  5. Therapeutic Intervention in Multiple Sclerosis with Alpha B-Crystallin: A Randomized Controlled Phase IIa Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes M van Noort

    Full Text Available As a molecular chaperone and activator of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated protective responses by microglia and macrophages, the small heat shock protein alpha B-crystallin (HspB5 exerts therapeutic effects in different animal models for neuroinflammation, including the model for multiple sclerosis (MS. Yet, HspB5 can also stimulate human antigen-specific memory T cells to release IFN-γ, a cytokine with well-documented detrimental effects during MS. In this study, we explored in a Phase IIa randomized clinical trial the therapeutic application of HspB5 in relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS, using intravenous doses sufficient to support its protective effects, but too low to trigger pathogenic memory T-cell responses. These sub-immunogenic doses were selected based on in vitro analysis of the dose-response profile of human T cells and macrophages to HspB5, and on the immunological effects of HspB5 in healthy humans as established in a preparatory Phase I study. In a 48-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind Phase IIa trial, three bimonthly intravenous injections of 7.5, 12.5 or 17.5 mg HspB5 were found to be safe and well tolerated in RR-MS patients. While predefined clinical endpoints did not differ significantly between the relatively small groups of MS patients treated with either HspB5 or placebo, repeated administration especially of the lower doses of HspB5 led to a progressive decline in MS lesion activity as monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which was not seen in the placebo group. Exploratory linear regression analysis revealed this decline to be significant in the combined group receiving either of the two lower doses, and to result in a 76% reduction in both number and total volumes of active MRI lesions at 9 months into the study. These data provide the first indication for clinical benefit resulting from intervention in RR-MS with HspB5.ClinicalTrials.gov Phase I: NCT02442557; Phase IIa: NCT02442570.

  6. Radiation therapy for stage IIA and IIB testicular seminoma: peripheral dose calculations and risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theocharris; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to calculate the peripheral dose to critical structures and assess the radiation risks from modern radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB testicular seminoma. A Monte Carlo code was used for treatment simulation on a computational phantom representing an average adult. The initial treatment phase involved anteroposterior and posteroanaterior modified dog-leg fields exposing para-aortic and ipsilateral iliac lymph nodes followed by a cone-down phase for nodal mass irradiation. Peripheral doses were calculated using different modified dog-leg field dimensions and an extended conventional dog-leg portal. The risk models of the BEIR-VII report and ICRP-103 were combined with dosimetric calculations to estimate the probability of developing stochastic effects. Radiotherapy for stage IIA seminoma with a target dose of 30 Gy resulted in a range of 23.0-603.7 mGy to non-targeted peripheral tissues and organs. The corresponding range for treatment of stage IIB disease to a cumulative dose of 36 Gy was 24.2-633.9 mGy. A dose variation of less than 13% was found by altering the field dimensions. Radiotherapy with the conventional instead of the modern modified dog-leg field increased the peripheral dose up to 8.2 times. The calculated heart doses of 589.0-632.9 mGy may increase the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases whereas the testicular dose of more than 231.9 mGy may lead to a temporary infertility. The probability of birth abnormalities in the offspring of cancer survivors was below 0.13% which is much lower than the spontaneous mutation rate. Abdominoplevic irradiation may increase the lifetime intrinsic risk for the induction of secondary malignancies by 0.6-3.9% depending upon the site of interest, patient’s age and tumor dose. Radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB seminoma with restricted fields and low doses is associated with an increased morbidity. These data may allow the definition of a risk-adapted follow-up scheme for long

  7. Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 and Photodynamic Therapy in Stage IA-IIA Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage II Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IIA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome

  8. Increased type IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) expression contributes to oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giet, Markus; Toelle, Markus; Pratico, Domenico; Lufft, Volkmar; Schuchardt, Mirjam; Hoerl, Matthias P.; Zidek, Walter; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients exhibit increased in vivo oxidative stress conceivably contributing to cardiovascular mortality. The type IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) has proatherogenic activity. We explored the hypothesis that sPLA(2) contributes to oxidative stress generation

  9. Surgical pathologic factors that predict recurrence in stage IB and IIA cervical carcinoma patients with negative pelvic lymph nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samlal, R. A.; van der Velden, J.; ten Kate, F. J.; Schilthuis, M. S.; Hart, A. A.; Lammes, F. B.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to identify pathologic risk factors for recurrence and patterns of recurrence in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB and IIA cervical carcinoma and negative pelvic lymph nodes after radical hysterectomy. During the period

  10. Cytotoxicity of Tanshinone IIA combined with Taxol on drug-resist breast cancer cells MCF-7 through inhibition of Tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Zheng, Luya; Li, Shixiao; Xie, Bojian; Cui, Binbin; Xia, Aixiao; Lin, Zhong; Zhou, Peng

    2018-01-24

    Drug resistance represents a major obstacle to improving the overall response and survival of cancer patients. Taxol is one of the most commonly used chemotherapy agents in breast cancer. As with many cancer therapeutic agents, resistance remains a significant problem when using Taxol to treat malignancies. In this study, estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells MCF-7 were induced Taxol resistance. And Tanshinone IIA combined with Taxol was chosen to treat it. The drugs combination showed additive effect in most drug concentrations. Drug resistance cancer cells showed a higher microtubule associated protein (Tau) expression, which was considered as one of the reasons for Taxol resistance. Tanshinone IIA inhibited the expression of Tau in MCF-7 cells and resulted in higher sensibility of Taxol. Moreover, Tanshinone IIA also showed cytotoxicity to MCF-7, which might be related to its estrogenicity effect. In conclusion, the combination of Tanshinone IIA and Taxol showed higher cytotoxicity to Taxol resistant MCF-7 cells, which might be related to the inhibition of Tau. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Modern tendencies in the treatment of cervical cancer stage IB-IIA, prognostic factors--our and foreign experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S; Batashki, I

    2008-01-01

    We tried to summarize our and foreign experience in the treatment of cervical cancer stage IB-IIA, as well as to examine and evaluate the prognostic factors in this field. We tried to summarize our and foreign experience for 10 years period /from 1998 till 2008/ as we examined 1250 patients with cervical cancer stage IB-IIA. According to our results and most of the authors the preferred method for treatment of cervical cancer stage IB-IIA is the radical hysterectomy with or without chemo-radiation therapy. In patients with bulky lymph nodes we performed radical hysterectomy with dyssection only of these nudes, as in this way we converted the patient into patient with micrometastases. We introduced postoperative radiotherapy with "small field "of radiation. In our study we examined the most important prognostic factors as LVSI, the depth of invasion, the parametrial invasion and the hystological type of tumor. When we summarized our and foreign experience in the field of radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph nude dyssection in the treatment of cervical cancer stage IB-IIA we have produced an algorithm, which can be practically useful.

  12. Structural characterization of the PTS IIA and IIB proteins associated with pneumococcal fucose utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Melanie A; Hamilton, Aileen M; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2017-05-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae harbors a significant number of transporters, including phosphotransferase (PTS) systems, allowing the bacterium to utilize a number of different carbohydrates for metabolic and other purposes. The genes encoding for one PTS transport system in particular (EII fuc ) are found within a fucose utilization operon in S. pneumoniae TIGR4. Here, we report the three-dimensional structures of IIA fuc and IIB fuc providing evidence that this PTS system belongs to the EII man family. Additionally, the predicted metabolic pathway for this distinctive fucose utilization system suggests that EII fuc transports the H-disaccharide blood group antigen, which would represent a novel PTS transporter specificity. Proteins 2017; 85:963-968. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. On (orientifold of) type IIA on a compact Calabi-Yau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, A.

    2004-01-01

    We study the gauged sigma model and its mirror Landau-Ginsburg model corresponding to type IIA on the Fermat degree-24 hypersurface in WCP 4 [1,1,2,8,12] (whose blow-up gives the smooth CY 3 (3,243)) away from the orbifold singularities, and its orientifold by a freely-acting antiholomorphic involution. We derive the Picard-Fuchs equation obeyed a period integral of a parent N=2 type IIA theory. We obtain the Meijer's basis of solutions to the equation in the large and small complex structure limits (on the mirror Landau-Ginsburg side) of the abovementioned Calabi-Yau, and make some remarks about the monodromy properties associated at the same and another MATHEMATICAlly interesting point. Based on a recently shown N=1 four-dimensional triality between Heterotic on the self-mirror Calabi-Yau CY 3 (11,11), M theory on CY 3 (3,243) x S 1 /(Z 2 ) and F-theory on an elliptically fibered CY 4 with the base given by CP 1 x Enriques surface, we first give a heuristic argument that there can be no superpotential generated in the orientifold of of CY 3 (3,243), and then explicitly verify the same using a mirror symmetry formulation for the abovementioned hypersurface away from its orbifold singularities. We then discuss briefly the sigma model and the mirror Landau-Ginsburg model corresponding to the resolved Calabi-Yau as well. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Tanshinone II-A attenuates cardiac fibrosis and modulates collagen metabolism in rats with renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jian; Xu, Suo-Wen; Wang, Ping; Tang, Fu-Tian; Zhou, Si-Gui; Gao, Jie; Chen, Jian-Wen; Huang, He-Qing; Liu, Pei-Qing

    2010-12-15

    The adaptive changes that develop in the pressure-overloaded left ventricular myocardium include cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of Tanshinone II-A, a bioactive diterpene quinone isolated from Danshen, on cardiac fibrosis and collagen metabolism in rats with renovascular hypertension. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to two-kidney two-clip (2K2C) or sham operation (sham) and treated with Valsartan (Val, 26.7 mg/kg/d), Tanshinone II-A (Tsn, 70, 35 mg/kg/d) or vehicle. Six weeks later, systolic blood pressure (BP), LV weight, collagen abundance, cardiac function parameters, hydroxyproline content and mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 were evaluated. Both high-dose (Tsn-H, 70 mg/kg/d) and low-dose (Tsn-L, 35 mg/kg/d) of Tsn failed to attenuate 2K2C-induced BP elevation but significantly attenuated the attendant interstitial fibrosis. Val suppressed elevations of BP and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) in 2K2C rats. Val and Tsn-H exerted comparable suppressive effects on the gene expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1, while Val decreased the MMP-2 mRNA level without affecting the transcript levels of TIMP-2. Both Val and Tsn-H attenuated cardiac dysfunction, while Tsn-L showed slight improvement. These data demonstrate for the first time, that Tsn prevented cardiac fibrosis and improved cardiac function in a rat model of renovascular hypertensive independent of hypotensive effect. Tsn conferred its beneficial effects on the collagen metabolism probably through its regulation of transcript levels of the MMPs/TIMPs balance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of aph(3‘-IIa in the formation of mosaic aminoglycoside resistance genes in natural environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eWoegerbauer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intragenic recombination leading to mosaic gene formation is known to alter resistance profiles for particular genes and bacterial species. Few studies have examined to what extent aminoglycoside resistance genes undergo intragenic recombination.We screened the GenBank database for mosaic gene formation in homologs of the aph(3’-IIa (nptII gene. APH(3’-IIa inactivates important aminoglycoside antibiotics. The gene is widely used as a selectable marker in biotechnology and enters the environment via laboratory discharges and the release of transgenic organisms. Such releases may provide opportunities for recombination in competent environmental bacteria.The retrieved GenBank sequences were grouped in 3 datasets comprising river water samples, duck pathogens and full-length variants from various bacterial genomes and plasmids. Analysis for recombination in these datasets was performed with the Recombination Detection Program, RDP4, and the Genetic Algorithm for Recombination Detection, GARD.From a total of 89 homologous sequences, 83% showed 99% - 100% sequence identity with aph(3’-IIa originally described as part of transposon Tn5. Fifty one were unique sequence variants eligible for recombination analysis. Only a single recombination event was identified with high confidence and indicated the involvement of aph(3’-IIa in the formation of a mosaic gene located on a plasmid of environmental origin in the multi-resistant isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA96. The available data suggest that aph(3’-IIa is not an archetypical mosaic gene as the divergence between the described sequence variants and the number of detectable recombination events is low. This is in contrast to the numerous mosaic alleles reported for certain penicillin or tetracycline resistance determinants.

  16. Upper Limb Exoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusak, Z.; Luijten, J.; Kooijman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates a wearable exoskeleton for a user having a torso with an upper limb to support motion of the said upper limb. The wearable exoskeleton comprises a first fixed frame mountable to the torso, an upper arm brace and a first group of actuators for moving the upper arm brace

  17. Tanshinone IIA increases the bystander effect of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir gene therapy via enhanced gap junctional intercellular communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Xiao

    Full Text Available The bystander effect is an intriguing phenomenon by which adjacent cells become sensitized to drug treatment during gene therapy with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV. This effect is reported to be mediated by gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC, and therefore, we postulated that upregulation of genes that facilitate GJIC may enhance the HSV-tk/GCV bystander effect. Previous findings have shown Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA, a chemical substance derived from a Chinese medicine herb, promotes the upregulation of the connexins Cx26 and Cx43 in B16 cells. Because gap junctions are formed by connexins, we hypothesized that Tan IIA might increase GJIC. Our results show that Tan IIA increased GJIC in B16 melanoma cells, leading to more efficient GCV-induced bystander killing in cells stably expressing HSV-tk. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrated that tumors in mice with 10% HSV-tk positive B16 cells and 90% wild-type B16 cells became smaller following treatment with the combination of GCV and Tan IIA as compared to GCV or Tan IIA alone. These data demonstrate that Tan IIA can augment the bystander effect of HSV-tk/GCV system through increased gap junction coupling, which adds strength to the promising strategy that develops connexins inducer to potentiate the effects of suicide gene therapy.

  18. [Effect of tanshinone IIA on the change of calcium current induced by beta-amyloid protein 25-35 in neurons of nucleus basalis of Meynert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shujuan; Qian, Yihua; Shi, Lili; Yang, Weina; Feng, Xinzheng; Li, Cuiqin; Liu, Yong

    2010-08-01

    To explore the effect of tanshinone IIA (TanIIA) on calcium current induced by beta-amyloid protein 25-35 (Abeta25-35) in neurons of nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM). Cell acute dissociated technique and the whole-cell recording model of patch-clamp technique of single-cell were used. The voltage-dependent calcium current in neurons of nbM was recorded in SD rats first. Then the effect of TanIIA on the voltage-dependent calcium current in the neurons was assayed. The change of calcium current induced by Abeta25-35 as well as the effect of TanIIA on the change of calcium current induced by Abeta25-35 in neurons of nbM were analyzed. Extracellular fluid containing different concentrations of TanIIA was irrigated, respectively. The peak current did not change obviously. There was no difference in current density between the TanIIA group and the control group at 0 mV (P>0.05). Extracellular fluid containing 200 nmol/L Abeta25-35 was irrigated after the normal calcium current recorded under whole patch clamp, and the peak current changed obviously. There was distinct difference in the current density between the Abeta group and the control group at 0 mV (Pcalcium current was recorded under whole patch clamp, respectively, and the peak current did not change. There was no difference in current density between the TanIIA +Abeta group and the control group at 0 mV (P>0.05). In vitro, TanIIA could inhibit the calcium current amplification induced by Abeta25-35 in neurons of nbM. TanIIA may protect neurons against the toxicity of Abeta and decrease the inward flow of Ca(2+).

  19. BOREAS AFM-05 Level-2 Upper Air Network Standard Pressure Level Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Basic upper-air parameters interpolated at 0.5 kiloPascal increments of atmospheric pressure from the network of upper-air stations during the 1993, 1994, and 1996...

  20. BOREAS AFM-05 Level-2 Upper Air Network Standard Pressure Level Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Basic upper-air parameters interpolated at 0.5 kiloPascal increments of atmospheric pressure from the network of upper-air stations during the 1993, 1994,...

  1. Upper ocean variability of the equatorial Indian Ocean and its relation to chlorophyll pigment concentration.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, J.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Hydrographic data from the upper ocean together with atmospheric data and satellite data are used to understand the variability of upper ocean and its relation to surface chlorophyll in the Equatorial Indian Ocean. The sea surface temperature showed...

  2. Regional Variability and Predictability in the Upper Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weller, Robert A; LaCasce, Joseph H

    2005-01-01

    We pursued understanding of regional upper ocean and lower atmospheric variability in large part by participation in fleet exercises and examination of the realism of oceanographic and meteorological models...

  3. Tanshinone IIA combined with adriamycin inhibited malignant biological behaviors of NSCLC A549 cell line in a synergistic way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jia-Hui; Liu, Heng; Liao, Xiao-Zhong; Chen, Yuling; Lin, Mei-Gui; Gu, Yue-Yu; Liu, Tao-Li; Wang, Dong-Mei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-Lin

    2016-11-18

    The study was designed to develop a platform to verify whether the extract of herbs combined with chemotherapy drugs play a synergistic role in anti-tumor effects, and to provide experimental evidence and theoretical reference for finding new effective sensitizers. Inhibition of tanshinone IIA and adriamycin on the proliferation of A549, PC9 and HLF cells were assessed by CCK8 assays. The combination index (CI) was calculated with the Chou-Talalay method, based on the median-effect principle. Migration and invasion ability of A549 cells were determined by wound healing assay and transwell assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis and the distribution of cell cycles. TUNEL staining was used to detect the apoptotic cells. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of Cleaved Caspase-3. Western blotting was used to detect the proteins expression of relative apoptotic signal pathways. CDOCKER module in DS 2.5 was used to detect the binding modes of the drugs and the proteins. Both tanshinone IIA and adriamycin could inhibit the growth of A549, PC9, and HLF cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while the proliferative inhibition effect of tanshinone IIA on cells was much weaker than that of adriamycin. Different from the cancer cells, HLF cells displayed a stronger sensitivity to adriamycin, and a weaker sensitivity to tanshinone IIA. When tanshinone IIA combined with adriamycin at a ratio of 20:1, they exhibited a synergistic anti-proliferation effect on A549 and PC9 cells, but not in HLF cells. Tanshinone IIA combined with adriamycin could synergistically inhibit migration, induce apoptosis and arrest cell cycle at the S and G2 phases in A549 cells. Both groups of the single drug treatment and the drug combination up-regulated the expressions of Cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax, but down-regulated the expressions of VEGF, VEGFR2, p-PI3K, p-Akt, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 protein. Compared with the single drug treatment groups, the drug

  4. Multiple Authorisation: The Legal Complexity of Desentralisasi in Indonesia and the Potential Contribution of IIAs in Reducing Confusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ewing-Chow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Decentralisation system in Indonesia was introduced after the fall of the former President Soeharto with the objective of ensuring good governance and equitable development across all regions in the country. Unfortunately, the implementation of desentralisasi has been complicated. Some scholars have suggested that the model was flawed as it did not consider Indonesia’s context of less developed administrative institutions in the regions. Not only did desentralisasi cause headaches for the government, it also created confusion for foreign investors. Consequently, it affects the investment climate in the country and undermines the perception of Indonesia as an attractive place to invest in. In certain cases, desentralisasi has also led to claims by foreign investors for investor-State arbitration under Indonesia’s international investment agreements (IIAs. This paper analyses the problems of desentralisasi in Indonesia, its effects to foreign investors and suggests ways to alleviate the problems by modifying and using Indonesia’s IIAs effectively.

  5. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  6. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kajita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses atmospheric neutrino experiments and the neutrino oscillation studies with these neutrinos.

  7. Upper Extremity Length Equalization

    OpenAIRE

    DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, sho...

  8. Prinsip Penyelenggaraan Higiene Sanitasi Makanan Dan Tingkat Pengetahuan Serta Sikap Penjamah Makanan Di Lembaga Permasyarakatan Kelas Iia Binjai Tahun 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Aswita, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The food handlers is a workerhandling food, both in preparing, processing, transporting and storing the food presentation. Processing personnel who provide service agencies that occupy specific (dormitories, orphanages, jails, etc). It is necessary for discussion to find out the attitude anf knowledge of food handlers in prison the class IIA Binjai. The purpose of this study is to get an overview of the state of hygiene and sanitation of food attitudes and knowledges of food handlers in p...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22212 - Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines). 57.22212 Section 57.22212 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmeta...

  10. Remarks on non-BPS string amplitudes and their all order α{sup ′} contact interactions in IIB, IIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatefi, Ehsan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2017-03-06

    We explore the entire form of S-Matrix elements of a potential C{sub n−1} Ramond-Ramond (RR) form field, a tachyon and two transverse scalar fields on both world volume and transverse directions of type IIB and IIA superstring theories. Apart from the other scattering amplitude, namely is also revealed. We then start to compare all singularity structures of symmetric and asymmetric analysis, generating all infinite singularity structures as well as all order α{sup ′} contact interactions on the whole directions. This leads to deriving various new contact terms and several new restricted Bianchi identities in both type IIB and IIA. It is also shown that just some of the new couplings of type IIB (IIA) string theory can be re-verified in an Effective Field Theory (EFT) by pull-back of branes. To construct the rest of S-matrix elements one needs to first derive restricted world volume (or bulk) Bianchi identities and then discover new EFT couplings in both type IIB and IIA. Finally the presence of commutator of scalar fields inside the exponential of Wess-Zumino action for non-BPS branes has been confirmed as well.

  11. Exploring Left-Hand-Side substitutions in the benzoxazinone series of 4-amino-piperidine bacterial type IIa topoisomerase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bolin; Comita-Prevoir, Janelle; Eyermann, Charles J; Reck, Folkert; Fisher, Stewart

    2011-09-15

    An SAR survey at the C-6 benzoxazinone position of a novel scaffold which inhibits bacterial type IIa topoisomerase demonstrates that a range of small electron donating groups (EDG) and electron withdrawing groups (EWG) are tolerated for antibacterial activity. Cyano was identified as a preferred substituent that affords good antibacterial potency while minimizing hERG cardiac channel activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 30 CFR 57.22205 - Doors on main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Doors on main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A... main fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). In mines ventilated by multiple main fans, each main fan... reversal through the fan. The doors shall be located so that they are not in direct line with explosive...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on the... mines, provided with an automatic signal device to give an alarm when the fan stops. The signal device...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22204 - Main fan operation and inspection (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation and inspection (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22204 Section 57.22204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Main fan operation and inspection (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). Main fans shall be— (a) Provided...

  15. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  16. Platelets release mitochondria serving as substrate for bactericidal group IIA-secreted phospholipase A2 to promote inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Luc H.; Duchez, Anne-Claire; Cloutier, Nathalie; Soulet, Denis; Martin, Nicolas; Bollinger, James; Paré, Alexandre; Rousseau, Matthieu; Naika, Gajendra S.; Lévesque, Tania; Laflamme, Cynthia; Marcoux, Geneviève; Lambeau, Gérard; Farndale, Richard W.; Pouliot, Marc; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Cognasse, Fabrice; Garraud, Olivier; Nigrovic, Peter A.; Guderley, Helga; Lacroix, Steve; Thibault, Louis; Semple, John W.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a highly potent inflammatory trigger and is reportedly found outside the cells in blood in various pathologies. Platelets are abundant in blood where they promote hemostasis. Although lacking a nucleus, platelets contain functional mitochondria. On activation, platelets produce extracellular vesicles known as microparticles. We hypothesized that activated platelets could also release their mitochondria. We show that activated platelets release respiratory-competent mitochondria, both within membrane-encapsulated microparticles and as free organelles. Extracellular mitochondria are found in platelet concentrates used for transfusion and are present at higher levels in those that induced acute reactions (febrile nonhemolytic reactions, skin manifestations, and cardiovascular events) in transfused patients. We establish that the mitochondrion is an endogenous substrate of secreted phospholipase A2 IIA (sPLA2-IIA), a phospholipase otherwise specific for bacteria, likely reflecting the ancestral proteobacteria origin of mitochondria. The hydrolysis of the mitochondrial membrane by sPLA2-IIA yields inflammatory mediators (ie, lysophospholipids, fatty acids, and mtDNA) that promote leukocyte activation. Two-photon microscopy in live transfused animals revealed that extracellular mitochondria interact with neutrophils in vivo, triggering neutrophil adhesion to the endothelial wall. Our findings identify extracellular mitochondria, produced by platelets, at the midpoint of a potent mechanism leading to inflammatory responses. PMID:25082876

  17. Value of diffusion-weighted imaging in predicting parametrial invasion in stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Jae; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Sung Yoon; Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Bohyun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in evaluating parametrial invasion (PMI) in stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer. A total of 117 patients with stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer who underwent preoperative MRI and radical hysterectomy were included in this study. Preoperative clinical variables and MRI variables were analysed and compared between the groups with and without pathologically proven PMI. All variables except age were significantly different between patients with and without pathologic PMI (P < 0.05). All variables except squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen were also significantly correlated with pathologic PMI on univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that PMI on MRI (P < 0.001) and tumour apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) (P = 0.029) were independent predictors of pathologic PMI. Area under the curve of PMI on MRI increased significantly from 0.793 to 0.872 when combined with tumour ADC (P = 0.002). When PMI on MRI was further stratified by tumour ADC, the false negative rate was 2.0 % (1/49). In stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer, tumour ADC and PMI on MRI seem to be independent predictors of pathologic PMI. Combining the two predictors improved the diagnostic performance of identifying patients at low risk of pathologic PMI. (orig.)

  18. The complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LPL-1, a novel antibacterial probiotic producing class IIa bacteriocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Shang, Nan; Qin, Yuxuan; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jinlan; Li, Pinglan

    2018-01-20

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins or peptides synthesized by ribosomes to inhibit or kill both closely related and non-related bacterium. Class IIa bacteriocins possess high activity against foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. A novel strain Lactobacillus plantarum LPL-1 was isolated from fermented fish and considered as a bacteriocin producing probiotic with great antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes 54002. The complete genome of L. plantarum LPL-1 contains one circular chromosome and plasmid. According to the genome, biosynthetic genes of bacteriocin including precursor, immunity protein,accessory protein and transporter protein were identified; and biosynthetic mechanism of class IIa bacteriocin was also further analyzed. The antibacterial activity of purified bacteriocin against L.monocytogenes54002 was determined and the diameter of inhibition zone was about 16.6 mm by vernier caliper. This work provided the complete genome information of L. plantarum LPL-1 that could benefit for understanding the biosynthetic mechanism of class IIa bacteriocin as well as the potential application of L. plantarum LPL-1 in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and clinical application in arthritis of a new immunoassay for serum type IIA procollagen NH2 propeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Jean-Charles; Sandell, Linda J; Delmas, Pierre D; Garnero, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Type II collagen, the most abundant protein of cartilage matrix, is synthesized as a procollagen molecule including the N-(PIINP) and C-(PIICP) propeptides at each end. Type II procollagen is produced in two forms as the result of alternative RNA splicing. One form (IIA) includes and the other form (IIB) excludes a 69-amino acid cysteine-rich globular domain encoded by exon 2 in PIINP. During the process of synthesis, these N-propeptides are removed by specific proteases and released in the circulation, and their levels are believed to reflect type II collagen synthesis. In this chapter we describe the development of a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of the IIA form of PIINP (PIIANP) in serum based on a polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant human exon 2 fusion protein of type II procollagen. We show that this ELISA is highly specific for circulating PIIANP and has adequate technical precision. In patients with knee osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, serum PIIANP was decreased by 53% (p type IIA collagen synthesis is altered in these arthritic diseases. The measurement of serum PIIANP may be useful for the clinical investigation of patients with joint diseases.

  20. Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, K.; Sokol, D.; Lee, G.; Dailey, D.; Polidan, R.

    2013-12-01

    We have explored a possible new approach to Venus upper atmosphere exploration by applying recent Northrop Grumman (non-NASA) development programs to the challenges associated with Venus upper atmosphere science missions. Our concept is a low ballistic coefficient (gas, wing span, vehicle mass, power supply, propulsion, materials considerations, structural elements, subsystems, and packaging. The interaction between the VAMP vehicle and the supporting orbiter will also be discussed. In this context, we will specifically focus upon four key factors impacting the design and performance of VAMP: 1. Feasibility of and options for the deployment of the vehicle in space 2. Entry into the Venus atmosphere, including descent profile, heat rate, total heat load, stagnation temperature, control, and entry into level flight 3. Characteristics of flight operations and performance in the Venus atmosphere: altitude range, latitude and longitude access, day/night performance, aircraft performance (aerodynamics, power required vs. power available, propulsion, speed, percent buoyancy), performance sensitivity to payload weight 4. Science payload accommodation, constraints, and opportunities We will discuss interdependencies of the above factors and the manner in which the VAMP strawman's characteristics affect the CONOPs and the science objectives. We will show how the these factors provide constraints as well as enable opportunities for novel long duration scientific studies of the Venus upper atmosphere that support VEXAG goals 2 and 3. We will also discuss how the VAMP platform itself can facilitate some of these science measurements.

  1. Tanshinone IIA attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibiting glial activation and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fa-Le; Xu, Min; Wang, Yan; Gong, Ke-Rui; Zhang, Jin-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia, is a devastating neurological disease that seriously affects patients' quality of life. We have previously shown that tanshinone IIA (TIIA), an important lipophilic component of Danshen, had significant anti-nociceptive effect in somatic and visceral pain, it is surprisingly noted that few pharmacological studies have been carried out to explore the possible analgesic action of TIIA on neuropathic pain and the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, by using spinal nerve ligation (SNL) pain model, the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of TIIA on neuropathic pain were evaluated by intraperitoneal administration in rats. The results indicated that TIIA dose-dependently inhibited SNL-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. As revealed by OX42 levels, TIIA effectively repressed the activation of spinal microglial activation in SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Meanwhile, TIIA also decreased the expressions of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in the spinal cord. Furthermore, TIIA inhibited oxidative stress by significantly rescuing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, TIIA depressed SNL-induced MAPKs activation in spinal cord. Taken together, our study provides evidence that TIIA inhibited SNL-induced neuropathic pain through depressing microglial activation and immune response by the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways. Our findings suggest that TIIA might be a promising agent in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ART CCIM Phase II-A Off-Gas System Evaluation Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Jay Roach

    2009-01-01

    This test plan defines testing to be performed using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) engineering-scale cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system for Phase II-A of the Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) CCIM Project. The multi-phase ART-CCIM Project is developing a conceptual design for replacing the joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) with a cold crucible induction melter. The INL CCIM test system includes all feed, melter off-gas control, and process control subsystems needed for fully integrated operation and testing. Testing will include operation of the melter system while feeding a non-radioactive slurry mixture prepared to simulate the same type of waste feed presently being processed in the DWPF. Process monitoring and sample collection and analysis will be used to characterize the off-gas composition and properties, and to show the fate of feed constituents, to provide data that shows how the CCIM retrofit conceptual design can operate with the existing DWPF off-gas control system.

  3. Type IIA on a compact Calabi-Yau and D=11 supergravity uplift of its orientifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, A.

    2004-01-01

    Using the prescription of K. Hori and C. Vafa for defining period integrals in the Landau-Ginsburg theory for compact Calabi-Yau's, we obtain the Picard-Fuchs equation and the Meijer basis of solutions for the compact Calabi-Yau CY 3 (3,243) expressed as a degree-24 Fermat hypersurface after resolution of the orbifold singularities. The importance of the method lies in the ease with which one can consider the large and small complex structure limits, as well as the ability to get the ''ln''-terms in the periods without having to parametrically differentiate infinite series. We consider in detail the evaluation of the monodromy matrix in the large and small complex structure limits. We also consider the action of the freely acting antiholomorphic involution on D=11 supergravity compactified on CY 3 (3,243) x S 1 and obtain the Kaehler potential for the same in the limit of large volume of the Calabi-Yau. As a by-product, we also give a conjecture for the action of the orientation-reversing antiholomorphic involution on the periods, given its action on the cohomology, using a canonical (co)homology basis. Finally, we also consider showing a null superpotential on the orientifold of type IIA on CY 3 (3,243), having taken care of the orbifold singularities. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Water Dancer II-A: A Non-Tethered Telecontrollable Water Strider Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licheng Wu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water Strider Robot (WSR is a kind of bio-inspired micro robot that can stand and move on water surface via surface tension. In this paper, a design method is presented with algorithms for designing driving leg. Structure, control system and software of the robot are also discussed in details. A prototype Water Dancer II-a that is driven with two electric motors is presented as successfully tested in lab. The proposed WSR is tele-controlled with infrared signals and has the capability of turning and speed regulation with features of light tiny volume and low power consumption. Experimental results are reported and discussed to show practical feasibility of the presented WSR prototype. The new results in the paper are related also to the WSR prototype design with a robot body of less than 30 × 30 mm size and with ten leg rods of 90 mm length and 0.2 diameter that are able to provide lifting force for a water walk of the 6.0 grams robot at a forward speed of 20 cm/s or angular velocity of 9 degree/s with two micro DC motors(RoomFlight 4 × 8 mm, 28 Ohm.

  5. Sodium tanshinone IIA silate as an add-on therapy in patients with unstable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Long, Mingzhi; Wu, Zhiwen; Han, Xu; Yu, Yichao

    2014-12-01

    To investigate whether sodium tanshinone IIA silate (STS) as an add-on therapy to conventional treatment may provide additional benefits for patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and is associated with changes in profiles of serum inflammatory factors. Eighty patients diagnosed with UAP were randomly divided into two groups for the 2-week treatment. The control group received conventional therapy, while the treatment group was given intravenous STS (0.06 mg in 250 mL, once daily) as an add-on therapy to the conventional medications. The therapeutic efficacy and changes in serum levels of several inflammatory cytokines, including monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) from baseline were determined and compared between the two group. The clinical symptoms of all patients in both groups were improved after treatment. The overall rate of effectiveness was 97.5% in the treatment group vs. 80.0% in the control group. Serum levels of MCP-1, TNF-α, and hs-CRP levels were significantly reduced in both groups (P<0.01), whereas the reduction was greater in patients receiving additional STS (P<0.05). PPAR-γ was significantly elevated in both groups (P<0.01). STS in combination with conventional treatment may be associated with better outcomes in patients with UAP.

  6. Direct control of type IIA topoisomerase activity by a chromosomally encoded regulatory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Seychelle M; Lyubimov, Artem Y; Hershey, David M; Schoeffler, Allyn J; Sengupta, Sugopa; Nagaraja, Valakunja; Berger, James M

    2014-07-01

    Precise control of supercoiling homeostasis is critical to DNA-dependent processes such as gene expression, replication, and damage response. Topoisomerases are central regulators of DNA supercoiling commonly thought to act independently in the recognition and modulation of chromosome superstructure; however, recent evidence has indicated that cells tightly regulate topoisomerase activity to support chromosome dynamics, transcriptional response, and replicative events. How topoisomerase control is executed and linked to the internal status of a cell is poorly understood. To investigate these connections, we determined the structure of Escherichia coli gyrase, a type IIA topoisomerase bound to YacG, a recently identified chromosomally encoded inhibitor protein. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that YacG is frequently associated with coenzyme A (CoA) production enzymes, linking the protein to metabolism and stress. The structure, along with supporting solution studies, shows that YacG represses gyrase by sterically occluding the principal DNA-binding site of the enzyme. Unexpectedly, YacG acts by both engaging two spatially segregated regions associated with small-molecule inhibitor interactions (fluoroquinolone antibiotics and the newly reported antagonist GSK299423) and remodeling the gyrase holoenzyme into an inactive, ATP-trapped configuration. This study establishes a new mechanism for the protein-based control of topoisomerases, an approach that may be used to alter supercoiling levels for responding to changes in cellular state. © 2014 Vos et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Type IIA topoisomerase inhibition by a new class of antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Benjamin D; Chan, Pan F; Eggleston, Drake S; Fosberry, Andrew; Gentry, Daniel R; Gorrec, Fabrice; Giordano, Ilaria; Hann, Michael M; Hennessy, Alan; Hibbs, Martin; Huang, Jianzhong; Jones, Emma; Jones, Jo; Brown, Kristin Koretke; Lewis, Ceri J; May, Earl W; Saunders, Martin R; Singh, Onkar; Spitzfaden, Claus E; Shen, Carol; Shillings, Anthony; Theobald, Andrew J; Wohlkonig, Alexandre; Pearson, Neil D; Gwynn, Michael N

    2010-08-19

    Despite the success of genomics in identifying new essential bacterial genes, there is a lack of sustainable leads in antibacterial drug discovery to address increasing multidrug resistance. Type IIA topoisomerases cleave and religate DNA to regulate DNA topology and are a major class of antibacterial and anticancer drug targets, yet there is no well developed structural basis for understanding drug action. Here we report the 2.1 A crystal structure of a potent, new class, broad-spectrum antibacterial agent in complex with Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase and DNA, showing a new mode of inhibition that circumvents fluoroquinolone resistance in this clinically important drug target. The inhibitor 'bridges' the DNA and a transient non-catalytic pocket on the two-fold axis at the GyrA dimer interface, and is close to the active sites and fluoroquinolone binding sites. In the inhibitor complex the active site seems poised to cleave the DNA, with a single metal ion observed between the TOPRIM (topoisomerase/primase) domain and the scissile phosphate. This work provides new insights into the mechanism of topoisomerase action and a platform for structure-based drug design of a new class of antibacterial agents against a clinically proven, but conformationally flexible, enzyme class.

  8. First-principle approach based bandgap engineering for cubic boron nitride doped with group IIA elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubo; Wang, Pengtao; Hua, Fei; Zhan, Shijie; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, Jikui; Yang, Hangsheng

    2018-03-01

    Electronic properties of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) doped with group IIA elements were systematically investigated using the first principle calculation based on density functional theory. The electronic bandgap of c-BN was found to be narrowed when the impurity atom substituted either the B (IIA→B) or the N (IIA→N) atom. For IIA→B, a shallow accept level degenerated into valence band (VB); while for IIA→N, a shallow donor level degenerated conduction band (CB). In the cases of IIBe→N and IIMg→N, deep donor levels were also induced. Moreover, a zigzag bandgap narrowing pattern was found, which is in consistent with the variation pattern of dopants' radius of electron occupied outer s-orbital. From the view of formation energy, the substitution of B atom under N-rich conditions and the substitution of N atom under B-rich conditions were energetically favored. Our simulation results suggested that Mg and Ca are good candidates for p-type dopants, and Ca is the best candidate for n-type dopant.

  9. Type IIA Monteggia Fracture Dislocation with Ipsilateral Distal Radius Fracture in Adult – A Rare Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Boblee

    2016-01-01

    Monteggia fracture constitutes about 5-10% of the forearm fractures. Monteggia fracture by definition is proximal ulnar fracture with disruption of proximal radioulnar joint. Bado classified Monteggia fracture dislocation into four types and Jupiter subclassified type II Bado’s fractures into four types. The associated injury in the form of distal radial fractures and distal humerus fractures are rare though many cases of distal radial physeal injuries have been reported in paediatric population. Hereby we report a rare association of type IIA Monteggia fracture dislocation with ipsilateral distal radius fracture in an adult patient. This case report also highlights on proper examination and full length radiographs of forearm to avoid missing injury at wrist in cases of elbow injuries. Management of such complex injuries included open reduction and internal fixation of olecronon fracture, distal radius fracture and radial head resection. Functional outcome at six months was good at wrist whereas at elbow, stiffness was a major concern with elbow range of movement from 40°-110°. PMID:27656518

  10. First-principle approach based bandgap engineering for cubic boron nitride doped with group IIA elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic properties of cubic boron nitride (c-BN doped with group IIA elements were systematically investigated using the first principle calculation based on density functional theory. The electronic bandgap of c-BN was found to be narrowed when the impurity atom substituted either the B (IIA→B or the N (IIA→N atom. For IIA→B, a shallow accept level degenerated into valence band (VB; while for IIA→N, a shallow donor level degenerated conduction band (CB. In the cases of IIBe→N and IIMg→N, deep donor levels were also induced. Moreover, a zigzag bandgap narrowing pattern was found, which is in consistent with the variation pattern of dopants’ radius of electron occupied outer s-orbital. From the view of formation energy, the substitution of B atom under N-rich conditions and the substitution of N atom under B-rich conditions were energetically favored. Our simulation results suggested that Mg and Ca are good candidates for p-type dopants, and Ca is the best candidate for n-type dopant.

  11. Identification of the group IIa WRKY subfamily and the functional analysis of GhWRKY17 in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lijiao; Li, Libei; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Hantao; Su, Junji; Guo, Yaning; Yu, Shuxun

    2018-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in plant defense, stress response, leaf senescence, and plant growth and development. Previous studies have revealed the important roles of the group IIa GhWRKY genes in cotton. To comprehensively analyze the group IIa GhWRKY genes in upland cotton, we identified 15 candidate group IIa GhWRKY genes in the Gossypium hirsutum genome. The phylogenetic tree, intron-exon structure, motif prediction and Ka/Ks analyses indicated that most group IIa GhWRKY genes shared high similarity and conservation and underwent purifying selection during evolution. In addition, we detected the expression patterns of several group IIa GhWRKY genes in individual tissues as well as during leaf senescence using public RNA sequencing data and real-time quantitative PCR. To better understand the functions of group IIa GhWRKYs in cotton, GhWRKY17 (KF669857) was isolated from upland cotton, and its sequence alignment, promoter cis-acting elements and subcellular localization were characterized. Moreover, the over-expression of GhWRKY17 in Arabidopsis up-regulated the senescence-associated genes AtWRKY53, AtSAG12 and AtSAG13, enhancing the plant's susceptibility to leaf senescence. These findings lay the foundation for further analysis and study of the functions of WRKY genes in cotton.

  12. Identification of the group IIa WRKY subfamily and the functional analysis of GhWRKY17 in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijiao Gu

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors play important roles in plant defense, stress response, leaf senescence, and plant growth and development. Previous studies have revealed the important roles of the group IIa GhWRKY genes in cotton. To comprehensively analyze the group IIa GhWRKY genes in upland cotton, we identified 15 candidate group IIa GhWRKY genes in the Gossypium hirsutum genome. The phylogenetic tree, intron-exon structure, motif prediction and Ka/Ks analyses indicated that most group IIa GhWRKY genes shared high similarity and conservation and underwent purifying selection during evolution. In addition, we detected the expression patterns of several group IIa GhWRKY genes in individual tissues as well as during leaf senescence using public RNA sequencing data and real-time quantitative PCR. To better understand the functions of group IIa GhWRKYs in cotton, GhWRKY17 (KF669857 was isolated from upland cotton, and its sequence alignment, promoter cis-acting elements and subcellular localization were characterized. Moreover, the over-expression of GhWRKY17 in Arabidopsis up-regulated the senescence-associated genes AtWRKY53, AtSAG12 and AtSAG13, enhancing the plant's susceptibility to leaf senescence. These findings lay the foundation for further analysis and study of the functions of WRKY genes in cotton.

  13. The effects of Tanshinone IIA on blood-brain barrier and brain edema after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao; Xue, Hongli; Bai, Changlin; Fu, Rong; Wu, Anhua

    2010-12-01

    Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and edema formation play a key role in the development of neurological dysfunction after cerebral ischemia. In this study, the effects of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), one of the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza root, on the BBB and brain edema after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats were examined. Our study demonstrated that Tan IIA reduced brain infarct area, water content in the ischemic hemisphere. Furthermore, Tan IIA significantly decreased BBB permeability to Evans blue, suppressed the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), inhibited the degradation of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Occludin. These results demonstrated that Tan IIA was effective for attenuating the extent of brain edema formation in response to ischemia injury in rats, partly by Tan IIA's protective effect on the BBB. Our results may have implications in the treatment of brain edema in cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Tanshinone IIA Inhibits Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Toxicity through Prevention of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Suppression of MAPK Activation in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate excitotoxicity is associated with many neurological diseases, including cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases. Tanshinone IIA, a diterpenoid naphthoquinone from Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been shown to suppress presynaptic glutamate release, but its protective mechanism against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity is lacking. Using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, we show here that excessive glutamate exposure decreases cell viability and proliferation and increases LDH release. Pretreatment with tanshinone IIA, however, prevents the decrease in cell viability and proliferation and the increase in LDH release induced by glutamate. Tanshinone IIA also attenuates glutamate-induced oxidative stress by reducing reactive oxygen species level and malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents and by enhancing activities and protein levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. We then show that tanshinone IIA prevents glutamate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content and by reducing mitochondrial protein carbonyl content. Moreover, tanshinone IIA can inhibit glutamate-induced apoptosis through regulation of apoptosis-related protein expression and MAPK activation, including elevation of Bcl-2 protein level, decrease in Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels, and suppression of JNK and p38 MAPK activation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that tanshinone IIA protects SH-SY5Y cells against glutamate toxicity by reducing oxidative stress and regulating apoptosis and MAPK pathways.

  15. The sources of atmospheric gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, O.P.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity wave theory has been very successful in the interpretation of various upper atmospheric phenomena. This article offers a review of the present state of knowledge about the various sources of atmospheric gravity waves, particularly those which give rise to different types of travelling ionospheric disturbance. Some specific case studies are discussed. (author)

  16. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    , the conceptual foundations and protocols for the production of atmosphere in architecture might be found beneath the surface of contemporary debates. In this context, the notion of atmospheric dispositif – illustrated through an oeuvre of the German architect Werner Ruhnau and its theoretical and historical...

  17. Urban atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  18. Interaction of c-Cbl with myosin IIA regulates Bleb associated macropinocytosis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiya Veettil, Mohanan; Sadagopan, Sathish; Kerur, Nagaraj; Chakraborty, Sayan; Chandran, Bala

    2010-12-23

    KSHV is etiologically associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an angioproliferative endothelial cell malignancy. Macropinocytosis is the predominant mode of in vitro entry of KSHV into its natural target cells, human dermal microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-d) cells. Although macropinocytosis is known to be a major route of entry for many viruses, the molecule(s) involved in the recruitment and integration of signaling early during macropinosome formation is less well studied. Here we demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of the adaptor protein c-Cbl is required for KSHV induced membrane blebbing and macropinocytosis. KSHV induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl as early as 1 min post-infection and was recruited to the sites of bleb formation. Infection also led to an increase in the interaction of c-Cbl with PI3-K p85 in a time dependent manner. c-Cbl shRNA decreased the formation of KSHV induced membrane blebs and macropinocytosis as well as virus entry. Immunoprecipitation of c-Cbl followed by mass spectrometry identified the interaction of c-Cbl with a novel molecular partner, non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (myosin IIA), in bleb associated macropinocytosis. Phosphorylated c-Cbl colocalized with phospho-myosin light chain II in the interior of blebs of infected cells and this interaction was abolished by c-Cbl shRNA. Studies with the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin demonstrated that myosin IIA is a biologically significant component of the c-Cbl signaling pathway and c-Cbl plays a new role in the recruitment of myosin IIA to the blebs during KSHV infection. Myosin II associates with actin in KSHV induced blebs and the absence of actin and myosin ubiquitination in c-Cbl ShRNA cells suggested that c-Cbl is also responsible for the ubiquitination of these proteins in the infected cells. This is the first study demonstrating the role of c-Cbl in viral entry as well as macropinocytosis, and provides the evidence that a signaling complex containing c

  19. Interaction of c-Cbl with myosin IIA regulates Bleb associated macropinocytosis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanan Valiya Veettil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available KSHV is etiologically associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, an angioproliferative endothelial cell malignancy. Macropinocytosis is the predominant mode of in vitro entry of KSHV into its natural target cells, human dermal microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-d cells. Although macropinocytosis is known to be a major route of entry for many viruses, the molecule(s involved in the recruitment and integration of signaling early during macropinosome formation is less well studied. Here we demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of the adaptor protein c-Cbl is required for KSHV induced membrane blebbing and macropinocytosis. KSHV induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl as early as 1 min post-infection and was recruited to the sites of bleb formation. Infection also led to an increase in the interaction of c-Cbl with PI3-K p85 in a time dependent manner. c-Cbl shRNA decreased the formation of KSHV induced membrane blebs and macropinocytosis as well as virus entry. Immunoprecipitation of c-Cbl followed by mass spectrometry identified the interaction of c-Cbl with a novel molecular partner, non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (myosin IIA, in bleb associated macropinocytosis. Phosphorylated c-Cbl colocalized with phospho-myosin light chain II in the interior of blebs of infected cells and this interaction was abolished by c-Cbl shRNA. Studies with the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin demonstrated that myosin IIA is a biologically significant component of the c-Cbl signaling pathway and c-Cbl plays a new role in the recruitment of myosin IIA to the blebs during KSHV infection. Myosin II associates with actin in KSHV induced blebs and the absence of actin and myosin ubiquitination in c-Cbl ShRNA cells suggested that c-Cbl is also responsible for the ubiquitination of these proteins in the infected cells. This is the first study demonstrating the role of c-Cbl in viral entry as well as macropinocytosis, and provides the evidence that a signaling complex

  20. Photochemistry of Pluto's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    1999-01-01

    This work include studies of two problems: (1) Modeling thermal balance, structure. and escape processes in Pluto's upper atmosphere. This study has been completed in full. A new method, of analytic solution for the equation of hydrodynamic flow from in atmosphere been developed. It was found that the ultraviolet absorption by methane which was previously ignored is even more important in Pluto's thermal balance than the extreme ultraviolet absorption by nitrogen. Two basic models of the lower atmosphere have been suggested, with a tropopause and a planetary surface at the bottom of the stellar occultation lightcurve, respectively, Vertical profiles, of temperature, density, gas velocity, and the CH4 mixing ratio have been calculated for these two models at low, mean, and high solar activity (six models). We prove that Pluto' " s atmosphere is restricted to 3060-4500 km, which makes possible a close flyby of future spacecraft. Implication for Pluto's evolution have also been discussed. and (2) Modeling of Pluto's photochemistry. Based on the results of (1), we have made some changes in the basic continuity equation and in the boundary conditions which reflect a unique can of hydrodynamic escape and therefore have not been used in modeling of other planetary atmospheres. We model photochemistry of 44 neutral and 23 ion species. This work required solution of a set of 67 second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Two models have been developed. Each model consists of the vertical profiles for 67 species, their escape and precipitation rates. These models predict the chemical structure and basic chemical processes in the current atmosphere and possible implication of these processes for evolution. This study has also been completed in full.

  1. MAGNETIC DRAG ON HOT JUPITER ATMOSPHERIC WINDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, Rosalba; Menou, Kristen; Rauscher, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Hot Jupiters, with atmospheric temperatures T ∼> 1000 K, have residual thermal ionization levels sufficient for the interaction of ions with the planetary magnetic field to result in a sizable magnetic drag on the (neutral) atmospheric winds. We evaluate the magnitude of magnetic drag in a representative three-dimensional atmospheric model of the hot Jupiter HD 209458b and find that it is a plausible mechanism to limit wind speeds in this class of atmospheres. Magnetic drag has a strong geometrical dependence, both meridionally and from the dayside to the nightside (in the upper atmosphere), which could have interesting consequences for the atmospheric flow pattern. By extension, close-in eccentric planets with transiently heated atmospheres will experience time-variable levels of magnetic drag. A robust treatment of magnetic drag in circulation models for hot atmospheres may require iterated solutions to the magnetic induction and Saha equations as the hydrodynamic flow is evolved.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Tanshinone IIA on Atherosclerostic Vessels of Ovariectomized ApoE-/- Mice are Mediated by Estrogen Receptor Activation and Through the ERK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Estrogen plays a protective role in atherosclerosis. Our preliminary work demonstrated that the active conformation of Tanshinone IIA(TanIIA is similar to the 17ß-estradiol and it can bind to the estrogen receptor. Here, we hypothesized that Tanshinone IIA might have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in atherosclerosis, mediated through estrogen receptor activation. Methods: Subjects for this study were 120 apoE-/- female mice and 20 C57/BL female mice. The apoE-/- mice were ovariectomized (OVX and the C57/BL mice were sham ovariectomized. The sham OVX mice were maintained on a normal diet (NOR group. The OVX apoE-/- mice were fed a high fat diet and randomly divided into 6 groups: Model (MOD group which was fed a high fat diet only, E2 group were given estrogen (E2 0.13mg/kg/d; E2+ICI group were given E2:0.13mg/kg/d and ICI182780:65mg/kg/m; TLD group (TanIIA low dose were given TanIIA: 30mg/kg/d; THD group (TanIIA high dose were given TanIIA:60mg/kg/d; and TLD+ICI group were given TanIIA 30mg/kg/d and ICI182780 65mg/kg/m. After three months of treatment, the aorta and the blood of the mice from each group was collected. The aorta were used for testing the lipid deposition by using hematoxylin and eosin(HE and oil red O staining and for testing the expression of p-ERK1/2 by Western blot. The blood was used for testing the serum cholesterol, superoxide dismutase (SOD, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA, nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB, soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, activating protein-1 (AP-1, E-selectin and 17ß-estradiol in serum. Results: Tanshinone IIA significantly reduced the lipid deposition in aorta, decreased the levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, MDA, NF-κB, sICAM-1, AP-1, and E-selectin in serum but increased the levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL and SOD in serum. Tanshinone IIA also suppressed the

  3. Adjuvant radiotherapy following radical hysterectomy for patients with stage IB and IIA cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soisson, A.P.; Soper, J.T.; Clarke-Pearson, D.L.; Berchuck, A.; Montana, G.; Creasman, W.T. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

    1990-06-01

    From 1971 through 1984, 320 women underwent radical hysterectomy as primary therapy of stage IB and IIA cervical cancer. Two hundred forty-eight patients (78%) were treated with surgery alone and 72 patients (22%) received adjuvant postoperative external-beam radiotherapy. Presence of lymph node metastasis, large lesion (greater than 4 cm in diameter), histologic grade, race (noncaucasian), and age (greater than 40 years) were significant poor prognostic factors for the entire group of patients. Patients treated with surgery alone had a better disease-free survival than those who received combination therapy (P less than 0.001). However, patients receiving adjuvant radiation therapy had a higher incidence of lymphatic metastases, tumor involvement of the surgical margin, and large cervical lesions. Adjuvant pelvic radiation therapy did not improve the survival of patients with unilateral nodal metastases or those who had a large cervical lesion with free surgical margins and the absence of nodal involvement. Radiation therapy appears to reduce the incidence of pelvic recurrences. Unfortunately, 84% of patients who developed recurrent tumor after combination therapy had a component of distant failure. The incidence of severe gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract complications was not different in the two treatment groups. However, the incidence of lymphedema was increased in patients who received adjuvant radiation therapy. Although adjuvant radiation therapy appears to be tolerated without a significant increase in serious complications, the extent to which it may improve local control rates and survival in high-risk patients appears to be limited. In view of the high incidence of distant metastases in high-risk patients, consideration should be given to adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in addition to radiation therapy.

  4. microRNA-29b Mediates the Antifibrotic Effect of Tanshinone IIA in Postinfarct Cardiac Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Li, Ping; Li, Haiyu; Shi, Qiangwei; Li, Shuaibing; Zhao, Luosha

    2015-05-01

    Tanshinone IIA (TSN) is one of the main components isolated from Danshen, which is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway and microRNA (miR)-29b play important roles in the progression of cardiac fibrosis and the modulation of cardiac fibroblast (CF) function. Our study investigated the role of miR-29b in the cardioprotective effects of TSN in postinfarct cardiac remodeling. Echocardiography demonstrated that medium-dose TSN (TSN-M) and high-dose TSN (TSN-H) significantly inhibited postinfarct cardiac fibrosis and improved the impaired left ventricular function in rats subjected to acute myocardial infarction. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot demonstrated that TSN-M and TSN-H downregulated the expression of TGF-β1, Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA but upregulated the expression of miR-29b. CFs treated with TSN showed inhibited TGF-β signaling pathway, downregulated expression of Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA, and upregulated miR-29b expression in vitro. Furthermore, treatment with a miR-29b inhibitor dramatically inhibited these TSN-induced antifibrotic effects, suggesting that miR-29b may be responsible for the antifibrotic effects of TSN. In addition, treatment with Smad3 siRNA significantly inhibited miR-29b expression in CFs, which implies that Smad3 signaling promotes miR-29b expression on CFs. TSN exerts antifibrotic effects in postinfarct cardiac fibrosis by upregulating the expression of miR-29b, which is mediated by the TGF-β-Smad3 signaling pathway.

  5. Binding of methacycline to human serum albumin at subdomain IIA using multispectroscopic and molecular modeling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chengyu; Lu, Ningning; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the interaction of methacyline (METC) with human serum albumin (HSA) by multispectroscopy and a molecular modeling method under simulative physiological conditions. The quenching mechanism was suggested to be static quenching based on fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. According to the Vant' Hoff equation, the values of enthalpy (∆H) and entropy change (∆S) were calculated to be -95.29 kJ/mol and -218.13 J/mol/K, indicating that the main driving force of the interaction between HSA and METC were hydrogen bonds and van der Waals's forces. By performing displacement measurements, the specific binding of METC in the vicinity of Sudlow's site I of HSA was clarified. An apparent distance of 3.05 nm between Trp214 and METC was obtained via the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method. Furthermore, the binding details between METC and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking studies, which revealed that METC was bound at subdomain IIA through multiple interactions, such as hydrophobic effect, polar forces, hydrogen bonding, etc. The results of three-dimensional fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that METC caused conformational and some microenvironmental changes in HSA and reduced the α-helix significantly in the range of 52.3-40.4% in HSA secondary structure. Moreover, the coexistence of metal ions such as Ca(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+) and Cd(2+) can decrease the binding constants of METC-HSA. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Tanshinone IIA Sodium Sulfonate Attenuates LPS-Induced Intestinal Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jing Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate (TSS is known to possess anti-inflammatory effects and has exhibited protective effects in various inflammatory conditions; however, its role in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced intestinal injury is still unknown. Objective. The present study is designed to explore the role and possible mechanism of TSS in LPS-induced intestinal injury. Methods. Male C57BL/6J mice, challenged with intraperitoneal LPS injection, were treated with or without TSS 0.5 h prior to LPS exposure. At 1, 6, and 12 h after LPS injection, mice were sacrificed, and the small intestine was excised. The intestinal tissue injury was analyzed by HE staining. Inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the intestinal tissue were examined by ELISA and RT-PCR. In addition, expressions of autophagy markers (microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3 and Beclin-1 were detected by western blot and RT-PCR. A number of autophagosomes were also observed under electron microscopy. Results. TSS treatment significantly attenuated small intestinal epithelium injury induced by LPS. LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, were markedly inhibited by TSS. Furthermore, TSS treatment could effectively upregulate LPS-induced decrease of autophagy levels, as evidenced by the increased expression of LC3 and Beclin-1, and more autophagosomes. Conclusion. The protective effect of TSS on LPS-induced small intestinal injury may be attributed to the inhibition of inflammatory factors and promotion of autophagy levels. The present study may provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of TSS on the treatment of intestinal injury.

  7. High ω-3:ω-6 fatty acids ratio increases fatty acid binding protein 4 and extracellular secretory phospholipase A2IIa in human ectopic endometrial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanaki, Korosh; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Darabi, Masoud; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Shabani, Mahdi; Rahimipour, Ali; Nouri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis, a common chronic inflammatory disorder, is defined by the atypical growth of endometrium- like tissue outside of the uterus. Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIa (sPLA2-IIa) and fatty acid binding protein4 (FABP4) play several important roles in the inflammatory diseases. Objective: Due to reported potential anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on fatty acid binding protein 4 and extracellular secretory phospholipase A2IIa in cultured endometrial cells. Materials and Methods: Ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues obtained from 15 women were snap frozen. After thawing and tissue digestion, primary mixed stromal and endometrial epithelial cell culture was performed for 8 days in culture mediums supplemented with normal and high ratios of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA. sPLA2-IIa in the culture medium and FABP4 level was determined using enzyme immuno assay (EIA) technique. Results: Within ectopic endometrial cells group, the level of cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa were remarkably increased under high ω-3 PUFA exposure compared with control condition (p=0.014 and p=0.04 respectively). Conclusion: ω-3 PUFAs may increase the level of cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa in ectopic endometrial cells, since sPLAIIa and FABP4 may affect endometriosis via several mechanisms, more relevant studies are encouraged to know the potential effect of increased cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa on endometriosis. PMID:25709631

  8. A SEARCH FOR MAGNESIUM IN EUROPA'S ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hörst, S. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Europa's tenuous atmosphere results from sputtering of the surface. The trace element composition of its atmosphere is therefore related to the composition of Europa's surface. Magnesium salts are often invoked to explain Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer spectra of Europa's surface, thus magnesium may be present in Europa's atmosphere. We have searched for magnesium emission in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph archival spectra of Europa's atmosphere. Magnesium was not detected and we calculate an upper limit on the magnesium column abundance. This upper limit indicates that either Europa's surface is depleted in magnesium relative to sodium and potassium, or magnesium is not sputtered as efficiently resulting in a relative depletion in its atmosphere.

  9. Tanshinone IIA inhibits hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation via Akt/Skp2/p27-associated pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Luo

    Full Text Available We previously showed that tanshinone IIA ameliorated the hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH partially by attenuating pulmonary artery remodeling. The hypoxia-induced proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs is one of the major causes for pulmonary arterial remodeling, therefore the present study was performed to explore the effects and underlying mechanism of tanshinone IIA on the hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation. PASMCs were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured in normoxic (21% or hypoxic (3% condition. Cell proliferation was measured with 3 - (4, 5 - dimethylthiazal - 2 - yl - 2, 5 - diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay and cell counting. Cell cycle was measured with flow cytometry. The expression of of p27, Skp-2 and the phosphorylation of Akt were measured using western blot and/or RT-PCR respectively. The results showed that tanshinone IIA significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and arrested the cells in G1/G0-phase. Tanshinone IIA reversed the hypoxia-induced reduction of p27 protein, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, in PASMCs by slowing down its degradation. Knockdown of p27 with specific siRNA abolished the anti-proliferation of tanshinone IIA. Moreover, tanshinone IIA inhibited the hypoxia-induced increase of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2 and the phosphorylation of Akt, both of which are involved in the degradation of p27 protein. In vivo tanshinone IIA significantly upregulated the hypoxia-induced p27 protein reduction and downregulated the hypoxia-induced Skp2 increase in pulmonary arteries in HPH rats. Therefore, we propose that the inhibition of tanshinone IIA on hypoxia-induce PASMCs proliferation may be due to arresting the cells in G1/G0-phase by slowing down the hypoxia-induced degradation of p27 via Akt/Skp2-associated pathway. The novel information partially explained the anti-remodeling property of

  10. The elusive third subunit IIa of the bacterial B-type oxidases: the enzyme from the hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Prunetti

    Full Text Available The reduction of molecular oxygen to water is catalyzed by complicated membrane-bound metallo-enzymes containing variable numbers of subunits, called cytochrome c oxidases or quinol oxidases. We previously described the cytochrome c oxidase II from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus as a ba(3-type two-subunit (subunits I and II enzyme and showed that it is included in a supercomplex involved in the sulfide-oxygen respiration pathway. It belongs to the B-family of the heme-copper oxidases, enzymes that are far less studied than the ones from family A. Here, we describe the presence in this enzyme of an additional transmembrane helix "subunit IIa", which is composed of 41 amino acid residues with a measured molecular mass of 5105 Da. Moreover, we show that subunit II, as expected, is in fact longer than the originally annotated protein (from the genome and contains a transmembrane domain. Using Aquifex aeolicus genomic sequence analyses, N-terminal sequencing, peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometry analysis on entire subunits, we conclude that the B-type enzyme from this bacterium is a three-subunit complex. It is composed of subunit I (encoded by coxA(2 of 59000 Da, subunit II (encoded by coxB(2 of 16700 Da and subunit IIa which contain 12, 1 and 1 transmembrane helices respectively. A structural model indicates that the structural organization of the complex strongly resembles that of the ba(3 cytochrome c oxidase from the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the IIa helical subunit being structurally the lacking N-terminal transmembrane helix of subunit II present in the A-type oxidases. Analysis of the genomic context of genes encoding oxidases indicates that this third subunit is present in many of the bacterial oxidases from B-family, enzymes that have been described as two-subunit complexes.

  11. An accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen in patients after organ-sparing surgery for stages I–IIA breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Gladilina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the results of accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy and to comparatively analyze it with the standard radiotherapy in patients with stages I–IIA breast cancer (BC after organ-sparing surgery.Materials and methods. A total of 203 patients with stages I–IIA BC underwent radiotherapy after organ-sparing surgery. A control group of 91 patients received the standard radiotherapy (the single focal dose (SFD was 2 Gy 5 times a week, 25 fractions; the total focal dose (TFD was 50 Gy for 5 weeks. A study group of 112 patients had accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy (SFD 3 Gy 5 times a week, 13 fractions; TFD 39 Gy for 2.3 weeks.Results. Local recurrences were not detected in any patient after the hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen and were diagnosed in 3.3 % of the patients after the standard regimen. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in 5-year overall and relapsefree survival rates. Further observation revealed a statistically significant difference in 6-year overall survival rates in the study and control groups: 99.1 and 70.4 %, respectively (p ≤ 0.046. The 6-year relapse-free survival rates in patients who had received the accelerated hypo-fractionated radiotherapy regimen were also significantly higher than in those who had the standard radiotherapy regimen: 97.9 and 71.3 %, respectively (p ≤ 0.043. The rate of post-radiation normal tissue damages after the hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen was significantly lower (15.2 % than that after the standard regimen (27.5 %. Good and excellent cosmetic results of treatment were achieved in most (95.1 % patients and did not differ in their frequency after different radiotherapy regimens.Conclusion. The accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen showed a high efficiency and a favorable toxicity profile in patients with stages I–IIA BC.

  12. An Amperometric Biosensor for the Determination of Bacterial Sepsis Biomarker, Secretory Phospholipase Group 2-IIA Using a Tri-Enzyme System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nurhanan Nik Mansor

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A tri-enzyme system consisting of choline kinase/choline oxidase/horseradish peroxidase was used in the rapid and specific determination of the biomarker for bacterial sepsis infection, secretory phospholipase Group 2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA. These enzymes were individually immobilized onto the acrylic microspheres via succinimide groups for the preparation of an electrochemical biosensor. The reaction of sPLA2-IIA with its substrate initiated a cascading enzymatic reaction in the tri-enzyme system that led to the final production of hydrogen peroxide, which presence was indicated by the redox characteristics of potassium ferricyanide, K3Fe(CN6. An amperometric biosensor based on enzyme conjugated acrylic microspheres and gold nanoparticles composite coated onto a carbon-paste screen printed electrode (SPE was fabricated and the current measurement was performed at a low potential of 0.20 V. This enzymatic biosensor gave a linear range 0.01–100 ng/mL (R2 = 0.98304 with a detection limit recorded at 5 × 10−3 ng/mL towards sPLA2-IIA. Moreover, the biosensor showed good reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD of 3.04% (n = 5. The biosensor response was reliable up to 25 days of storage at 4 °C. Analysis of human serum samples for sPLA2-IIA indicated that the biosensor has potential for rapid bacterial sepsis diagnosis in hospital emergency department.

  13. Genetic organization of ascB-dapE internalin cluster serves as a potential marker for Listeria monocytogenes sublineages IIA, IIB, and IIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianshun; Fang, Chun; Zhu, Ningyu; Lv, Yonghui; Cheng, Changyong; Bei, Yijiang; Zheng, Tianlun; Fang, Weihuan

    2012-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that comprises four genetic lineages: I, II, III, and IV. Of these, lineage II is frequently recovered from foods and environments and responsible for the increasing incidence of human listeriosis. In this study, the phylogenetic structure of lineage II was determined through sequencing analysis of the ascB-dapE internalin cluster. Fifteen sequence types proposed by multilocus sequence typing based on nine housekeeping genes were grouped into three distinct sublineages, IIA, IIB, and IIC. Organization of the ascBdapE internalin cluster could serve as a molecular marker for these sublineages, with inlGHE, inlGC2DE, and inlC2DE for IIA, IIB, and IIC, respectively. These sublineages displayed specific genetic and phenotypic characteristics. IIA and IIC showed a higher frequency of recombination (rho/theta). However, recombination events had greater effect (r/m) on IIB, leading to its high nucleotide diversity. Moreover, IIA and IIB harbored a wider range of internalin and stress-response genes, and possessed higher nisin tolerance, whereas IIC contained the largest portion of low-virulent strains owing to premature stop codons in inlA. The results of this study indicate that IIA, IIB, and IIC might occupy different ecological niches, and IIB might have a better adaptation to a broad range of environmental niches.

  14. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  15. Functional analysis of two PLA2G2A variants associated with secretory phospholipase A2-IIA levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly J Exeter

    Full Text Available Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA has been identified as a biomarker of atherosclerosis in observational and animal studies. The protein is encoded by the PLA2G2A gene and the aim of this study was to test the functionality of two PLA2G2A non-coding SNPs, rs11573156 C>G and rs3767221 T>G where the rare alleles have been previously associated with higher and lower sPLA2-IIA levels respectively.Luciferase assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA, and RNA expression by RT-PCR were used to examine allelic differences. For rs3767221 the G allele showed ∼55% lower luciferase activity compared to the T allele (T = 62.1 (95% CI 59.1 to 65.1 G = 27.8 (95% CI 25.0 to 30.6, p = 1.22×10⁻³⁵, and stronger EMSA binding of a nuclear protein compared to the T-allele. For rs11573156 C >G there were no luciferase or EMSA allelic differences seen. In lymphocyte cell RNA, from individuals of known rs11573156 genotype, there was no allelic RNA expression difference for exons 5 and 6, but G allele carriers (n = 7 showed a trend to lower exon 1-2 expression compared to CC individuals. To take this further, in the ASAP study (n = 223, an rs11573156 proxy (r² = 0.91 showed ∼25% higher liver expression of PLA2G2A (1.67×10⁻¹⁷ associated with the G allele. However, considering exon specific expression, the association was greatly reduced for exon 2 (4.5×10⁻⁵ compared to exons 3-6 (10⁻¹⁰ to 10⁻²⁰, suggesting rs11573156 G allele-specific exon 2 skipping.Both SNPs are functional and provide useful tools for Mendelian Randomisation to determine whether the relationship between sPLA2-IIA and coronary heart disease is causal.

  16. A Precision Measurement of the W Boson Mass with 1 Inverse Femtobarn of DZero Run IIa Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osta, Jyotsna [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This thesis is a detailed presentation of a precision measurement of the mass of the W boson. It has been obtained by analyzing W → ev decays. The data used for this analysis was collected from 2002 to 2006 with the D0 detector, during Run IIa of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. It corresponds to a total integrated luminosity of 1 fb-1. With a sample of 499,830 W → ev candidate events, we obtain a mass measurement of MW = 80.401 ± 0.043 GeV. This is the most precise measurement from a single experiment to date.

  17. C1-C3 lateral mass fusion for type IIa and type III Hangman′s fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Muthukumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hangman′s fractures, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis, can be managed either conservatively with immobilization or by surgery. Surgery is usually indicated in cases with instability or failure of conservative treatment. Different surgical approaches, both anterior and posterior, have been described for treating Hangman′s fracture. We report two patients, one with type IIa and another with type III Hangman′s fracture treated with C1-C3 lateral mass fusion and discuss the advantages and limitations of this technique when compared to other techniques for fusion in patients with Hangman′s fracture.

  18. A densitometric analysis of IIaO film flown aboard the space shuttle transportation system STS #3, 7, and 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since the United States of America is moving into an age of reusable space vehicles, both electronic and photographic materials will continue to be an integral part of the recording techniques available. Film as a scientifically viable recording technique in astronomy is well documented. There is a real need to expose various types of films to the Shuttle environment. Thus, the main objective was to look at the subtle densitometric changes of canisters of IIaO film that was placed aboard the Space Shuttle 3 (STS-3).

  19. Fermionic T-duality in massive type IIA supergravity on AdS_{10-k} × M_k

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmatov, Ilya

    2016-04-01

    Fermionic T-duality transformation is studied for supersymmetric solutions of massive type IIA supergravity with the metric AdS_{10-k} × M_k for k=3 and 5. We derive the Killing spinors of these backgrounds and use them as input for the fermionic T-duality transformation. The resulting dual solutions form a large family of supersymmetric deformations of the original solutions by complex valued RR fluxes. We observe that the Romans mass parameter does not change under fermionic T-duaity, and prove its invariance in the k=3 case.

  20. Retrospective case-control study of surgical treatment of stage IB-IIA cervical carcinomas after neoadjuvant radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigriejiene, V. M.; Kajenas, S.; Balnys, M.; Mikuckaite, L.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate if preoperative radiotherapy influences course of operation (radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy) and postoperative period in series of stage IB-IIA cervical carcinomas. Retrospective comparative study was performed. During the study we analyzed 101 case histories of patients who underwent radical type II hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy in Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital and Kaunas Hospital of Oncology between 1995 and 2002. Mean operation time was shorter, hemoglobin and hematocrit values after operation were better, stay in hospital was longer, demand for narcotic analgetics was bigger, function of ovaries was maintained more rarely (p 0.05). In our study, preoperative radiotherapy did not seem to complicate course of radical hysterectomy. (author)

  1. Advanced Start of Combustion Sensor Phases I and II-A: Feasibility Demonstration, Design and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Smutzer

    2010-01-31

    Homogeneous Compressed Charge Ignition (HCCI) has elevated the need for Start of Combustion (SOC) sensors. HCCI engines have been the exciting focus of engine research recently, primarily because HCCI offers higher thermal efficiency than the conventional Spark Ignition (SI) engines and significantly lower NOx and soot emissions than conventional Compression Ignition (CI) engines, and could be fuel neutral. HCCI has the potential to unify all the internal combustion engine technology to achieve the high-efficiency, low-emission goal. However, these advantages do not come easy. It is well known that the problems encountered with HCCI combustion center on the difficulty of controlling the Start of Combustion. TIAX has an SOC sensor under development which has shown promise. In previous work, including a DOE-sponsored SBIR project, TIAX has developed an accelerometer-based method which was able to determine SOC within a few degrees crank angle for a range of operating conditions. A signal processing protocol allows reconstruction of the combustion pressure event signal imbedded in the background engine vibration recorded by the accelerometer. From this reconstructed pressure trace, an algorithm locates the SOC. This SOC sensor approach is nonintrusive, rugged, and is particularly robust when the pressure event is strong relative to background engine vibration (at medium to high engine load). Phase I of this project refined the previously developed technology with an engine-generic and robust algorithm. The objective of the Phase I research was to answer two fundamental questions: Can the accelerometer-based SOC sensor provide adequate SOC event capture to control an HCCI engine in a feedback loop? And, will the sensor system meet cost, durability, and software efficiency (speed) targets? Based upon the results, the answer to both questions was 'YES'. The objective of Phase II-A was to complete the parameter optimization of the SOC sensor prototype in order

  2. Comparison of tension band wiring and precontoured locking compression plate fixation in Mayo type IIA olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Raschke, Michael J; Groene, Philipp; Weimann, André; Wähnert, Dirk; Lenschow, Simon; Kösters, Clemens

    2014-03-01

    Aim of the present study was to compare the clinical and radiographic outcome of tension band wiring and precontoured locking compression plate fixation in patients treated surgically for an isolated olecranon fractures type IIA according to the Mayo classification. Of 26 patients presenting with an isolated Mayo type IIA olecranon fracture, 13 underwent fixation with a precontoured locking compression plate (group A), 13 patients were treated with tension band wiring (group B). At a mean follow-up of 43 months, patients were clinically and radiographically re-examined using the DASH score, the Mayo Elbow Performance score (MEPS) and anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. The mean DASH score was 14 points in group A and 12.5 points in group B. Regarding the MEPS, 92% of the patients in group A achieved a good to excellent results in comparison to 77% in group B. No significant differences between the two groups could be detected regarding the clinical and radiographic outcome. Implant-related irritations requiring hardware removal occurred more frequently in group B (12 vs. 7). Procedure and implant related costs were significantly higher in group A. Tension band wiring is still a preferable surgical method to treat simple isolated olecranon fractures. The patient must be informed that in all likelihood implant removal will be required once the fracture has healed. Fixation with precontoured locking compression plates does not provide better functional and radiographic outcome but is more expensive than tension band wiring.

  3. Phase IIA and IIB experiments of JAERI/U.S.DOE collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    1989-12-01

    Phase IIA and IIB experiments on fusion blanket neutronics has been performed on a basis of JAERI/USDOE collaborative program. In the Phase II experimental series, a D-T neutron source and a test blanket were contained by a lithium-carbonate enclosure to adjust the incident neutron spectrum to the test blanket so as to simulate that of a fusion reactor. First two series of the Phase II, IIA and IIB, focused especially on influences of beryllium configurations for neutron multiplying zone to neutronic parameters. Measured parameters were tritium production rate using Li-glass and NE213 scintillators, and Li-metal foil and Lithium-oxide block with liquid scintillation technique; neutron spectrum using NE213 scintillator and proton recoil proportional counter; reaction rate using foil activation technique. These parameters were compared among six different beryllium configurations of the experimental system. Consistency between different techniques for each measured parameter was also tested among different experimental systems and confirmed to be within experimental errors. This report describes, in detail, experimental conditions, assemblies, equipments and neutron source in Part I. The part II compiles all information required for a calculational analysis of this experiment, e.g., dimensions of the target room, target assembly, experimental assembly, their material densities and numerical data of experimental results. This compilation provides benchmark data to test calculation models and computing code systems used for a nuclear design of a fusion reactor. (author)

  4. The novel kasugamycin 2'-N-acetyltransferase gene aac(2')-IIa, carried by the IncP island, confers kasugamycin resistance to rice-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Atsushi; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2012-08-01

    Kasugamycin (KSM), a unique aminoglycoside antibiotic, has been used in agriculture for many years to control not only rice blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea but also rice bacterial grain and seedling rot or rice bacterial brown stripe caused by Burkholderia glumae or Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, respectively. Since both bacterial pathogens are seed-borne and cause serious injury to rice seedlings, the emergence of KSM-resistant B. glumae and A. avenae isolates highlights the urgent need to understand the mechanism of resistance to KSM. Here, we identified a novel gene, aac(2')-IIa, encoding a KSM 2'-N-acetyltransferase from both KSM-resistant pathogens but not from KSM-sensitive bacteria. AAC(2')-IIa inactivates KSM, although it reveals no cross-resistance to other aminoglycosides. The aac(2')-IIa gene from B. glumae strain 5091 was identified within the IncP genomic island inserted into the bacterial chromosome, indicating the acquisition of this gene by horizontal gene transfer. Although excision activity of the IncP island and conjugational gene transfer was not detected under the conditions tested, circular intermediates containing the aac(2')-IIa gene were detected. These results indicate that the aac(2')-IIa gene had been integrated into the IncP island of a donor bacterial species. Molecular detection of the aac(2')-IIa gene could distinguish whether isolates are resistant or susceptible to KSM. This may contribute to the production of uninfected rice seeds and lead to the effective control of these pathogens by KSM.

  5. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  6. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  7. Atmospheric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactivity in air was measured by a network of continuously operating air samplers at nineteen locations near the Site perimeter and five locations somewhat distant from the Site. The Site perimeter samplers provided for general coverage in all directions but with emphasis in the prevalent downwind directions to the south and east of the Site including the communities of Benton City, Richland, Pasco, Connell, and Othello. The distant air sample locations provided background airborne radioactivity data for comparison. These samplers were located at Sunnyside, Moses Lake, Washtucna, Walla Walla, and at McNary Dam. Airborne radionuclide concentrations during 1982 were lower than those observed in 1981 because of the gradual decline of atmospheric fallout associated with a foreign atmospheric nuclear test that occurred in the fall of 1980. Airborne radioactivity data collected during 1982 did not indicate the presence of detectable levels of Hanford origin radionuclides in the offsite environs

  8. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  9. Single Particle Studies of Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry on Aluminum Oxide Particles in a Quadrupole Trap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, A

    2000-01-01

    ... on upper atmospheric chemical cycles and ozone. The experimental investigation employs a laboratory quadrupole trap electrodynamic levitation apparatus to study heterogeneous processes on single aluminum oxide particles representative...

  10. Solar activity impact on the Earth’s upper atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutiev, I.; Tsagouri, I.; Perrone, L.; Pancheva, D.; Mukhtarov, P.; Mikhailov, A.; Laštovička, Jan; Jakowski, N.; Burešová, Dalia; Blanch, E.; Andonov, B.; Altadill, D.; Magdaleno, S.; Parisi, M.; Torta, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, February (2013), A06/1-A06/21 ISSN 2115-7251 Grant - others:COST(XE) ES0803 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionosphere * solar activity * storm * total electron content * data analysis Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2013 http://www.swsc-journal.org/index.php?option=com_article&access=doi&doi=10.1051/swsc/2013028&Itemid=129

  11. European Upper Atmosphere Server DIAS - Final Conference/ Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-10

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) INGV - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (Nat Instit Geophysics, Volcanology) Via di Vigna...organised by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy. D6.8 Report on the Final Conference - 3 - In general, the DIAS...the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Rome focused on the general overview of scientific and technical tools adopted by the DIAS

  12. Electromagnetic oscillations of the Earth's upper atmosphere (review)

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Khantadze; G. V. Jandieri; G. V. Jandieri; A. Ishimaru; T. D. Kaladze; Zh. M. Diasamidze

    2010-01-01

    A complete theory of low-frequency MHD oscillations of the Earth's weakly ionized ionosphere is formulated. Peculiarities of excitation and propagation of electromagnetic acoustic-gravity, MHD and planetary waves are considered in the Earth's ionosphere. The general dispersion equation is derived for the magneto-acoustic, magneto-gravity and electromagnetic planetary waves in the ionospheric E- and F-regions. The action of the geomagnetic field on the propagation of acous...

  13. WINDII atmospheric wave airglow imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, W.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hoppe, U.-P. [Forsvarets Forskningsinstitutt, Kjeller (Norway); Solheim, B.H.; Shepherd, G.G. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Inst. for Space and Terrestrial Science

    1996-12-31

    Preliminary WINDII nighttime airglow wave-imaging data in the UARS rolldown attitude has been analyzed with the goal to survey gravity waves near the upper boundary of the middle atmosphere. Wave analysis is performed on O[sub 2](0,0) emissions from a selected 1[sup 0] x 1[sup 0] oblique view of the airglow layer at approximately 95 km altitude, which has no direct earth background and only an atmospheric background which is optically thick for the 0[sub 2](0,0) emission. From a small data set, orbital imaging of atmospheric wave structures is demonstrated, with indication of large variations in wave activity across land and sea. Comparison ground-based imagery is discussed with respect to similarity of wave variations across land/sea boundaries and future orbital mosaic image construction.

  14. Upper tropospheric humidity changes under constant relative humidity

    OpenAIRE

    K. Gierens; K. Eleftheratos

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical derivations are given on the change of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) in a warming climate. The considered view is that the atmosphere, which is getting moister with increasing temperatures, will retain a constant relative humidity. In the present study, we show that the upper tropospheric humidity, a weighted mean over a relative humidity profile, will change in spite of constant relative humidity. The simple reason for this is that the weighting function ...

  15. Preoperatively Assessable Clinical and Pathological Risk Factors for Parametrial Involvement in Surgically Treated FIGO Stage IB-IIA Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaz, Emel; Ozyurek, Eser Sefik; Erdem, Baki; Aldikactioglu Talmac, Merve; Yildiz Ozaydin, Ipek; Akbayir, Ozgur; Numanoglu, Ceyhun; Ulker, Volkan

    2017-10-01

    Determining the risk factors associated with parametrial involvement (PMI) is of paramount importance to decrease the multimodality treatment in early-stage cervical cancer. We investigated the preoperatively assessable clinical and pathological risk factors associated with PMI in surgically treated stage IB1-IIA2 cervical cancer. A retrospective cohort study of women underwent Querleu-Morrow type C hysterectomy for cervical cancer stage IB1-IIA2 from 2001 to 2015. All patients underwent clinical staging examination under anesthesia by the same gynecological oncologists during the study period. Evaluated variables were age, menopausal status, body mass index, smoking status, FIGO (International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology) stage, clinically measured maximal tumor diameter, clinical presentation (exophytic or endophytic tumor), histological type, tumor grade, lymphovascular space invasion, clinical and pathological vaginal invasion, and uterine body involvement. Endophytic clinical presentation was defined for ulcerative tumors and barrel-shaped morphology. Two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasonography was used to measure tumor dimensions. Of 127 eligible women, 37 (29.1%) had PMI. On univariate analysis, endophytic clinical presentation (P = 0.01), larger tumor size (P PMI. In multivariate analysis endophytic clinical presentation (odds ratio, 11.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-95.85; P = 0.02) and larger tumor size (odds ratio, 32.31; 95% confidence interval, 2.46-423.83; P = 0.008) were the independent risk factors for PMI. Threshold of 31 mm in tumor size predicted PMI with 71% sensitivity and 75% specificity. We identified 18 patients with tumor size of more than 30 mm and endophytic presentation; 14 (77.7%) of these had PMI. Endophytic clinical presentation and larger clinical tumor size (>3 cm) are independent risk factors for PMI in stage IB-IIA cervical cancer. Approximately 78% of the patients with a tumor size of more than 3 cm and endophytic

  16. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part IIa: The Northern Plains. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    Part IIa of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes in the Northern Plains (Montana and North Dakota). Documents are presented relative to the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation, the Blackfeet Tribe of the…

  17. Comparison of CO2 and Nd:YAG laser welding of grade 250 maraging steel, IIW doc. II-A-173-06

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available :YAG Laser Welding of Grade 250 Maraging Steel IIW Doc. II-A-173-06 C. van Rooyen1, H.P. Burger1, P. Kazadi1, C. Kriek2 1National Laser Centre-CSIR, Meiring Naude Rd, Pretoria, South Africa 2Denel Land Systems, Western Cape, Reeb Rd, Firgrove, South...

  18. A combination of two truncating mutations in USH2A causes more severe and progressive hearing impairment in Usher syndrome type IIa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartel, Bas P.; Lofgren, Maria; Huygen, Patrick L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Usher syndrome is an inherited disorder that is characterized by hearing impairment (HI), retinitis pigmentosa, and in some cases vestibular dysfunction. Usher syndrome type IIa is caused by mutations in USH2A. HI in these patients is highly heterogeneous and the present study evaluate...

  19. ATP6V0A2 mutations present in two Mexican Mestizo children with an autosomal recessive cutis laxa syndrome type IIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bahena-Bahena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with ARCL-IIA harbor mutations in ATP6V0A2 that codes for an organelle proton pump. The ARCL-IIA syndrome characteristically presents a combined glycosylation defect affecting N-linked and O-linked glycosylations, differentiating it from other cutis laxa syndromes and classifying it as a Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation (ATP6V0A2-CDG. We studied two Mexican Mestizo patients with a clinical phenotype corresponding to an ARCL-IIA syndrome. Both patients presented abnormal transferrin (N-linked glycosylation but Patient 1 had a normal ApoCIII (O-linked glycosylation profile. Mutational screening of ATP6V0A2 using cDNA and genomic DNA revealed in Patient 1 a previously reported homozygous nonsense mutation c.187C>T (p.R63X associated with a novel clinical finding of a VSD. In Patient 2 we found a homozygous c.2293C>T (p.Q765X mutation that had been previously reported but found that it also altered RNA processing generating a novel transcript not previously identified (r.2176_2293del; p.F726Sfs*10. This is the first report to describe Mestizo patients with molecular diagnosis of ARCL-IIA/ATP6V0A2-CDG and to establish that their mutations are the first to be found in patients from different regions of the world and with different genetic backgrounds.

  20. Right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal

  1. The atmosphere of Pluto as observed by New Horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, G Randall; Stern, S Alan; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Catherine B; Weaver, Harold A; Young, Leslie A; Summers, Michael E; Strobel, Darrell F; Hinson, David P; Kammer, Joshua A; Parker, Alex H; Steffl, Andrew J; Linscott, Ivan R; Parker, Joel Wm; Cheng, Andrew F; Slater, David C; Versteeg, Maarten H; Greathouse, Thomas K; Retherford, Kurt D; Throop, Henry; Cunningham, Nathaniel J; Woods, William W; Singer, Kelsi N; Tsang, Constantine C C; Schindhelm, Eric; Lisse, Carey M; Wong, Michael L; Yung, Yuk L; Zhu, Xun; Curdt, Werner; Lavvas, Panayotis; Young, Eliot F; Tyler, G Leonard

    2016-03-18

    Observations made during the New Horizons flyby provide a detailed snapshot of the current state of Pluto's atmosphere. Whereas the lower atmosphere (at altitudes of less than 200 kilometers) is consistent with ground-based stellar occultations, the upper atmosphere is much colder and more compact than indicated by pre-encounter models. Molecular nitrogen (N2) dominates the atmosphere (at altitudes of less than 1800 kilometers or so), whereas methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4), and ethane (C2H6) are abundant minor species and likely feed the production of an extensive haze that encompasses Pluto. The cold upper atmosphere shuts off the anticipated enhanced-Jeans, hydrodynamic-like escape of Pluto's atmosphere to space. It is unclear whether the current state of Pluto's atmosphere is representative of its average state--over seasonal or geologic time scales. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Intraoperative validation of CT-based lymph nodal levels, sublevels IIa and IIb: Is it of clinical relevance in selective radiation therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levendag, Peter; Gregoire, Vincent; Hamoir, Marc; Voet, Peter; Est, Henrie van der; Heijmen, Ben; Kerrebijn, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study are to discuss the intraoperative validation of CT-based boundaries of lymph nodal levels in the neck, and in particular the clinical relevance of the delineation of sublevels IIa and IIb in case of selective radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: To validate the radiologically defined level contours, clips were positioned intraoperatively at the level boundaries defined by surgical anatomy. In 10 consecutive patients, clips were placed, at the time of a neck dissection being performed, at the most cranial border of the neck. Anterior-posterior and lateral X-ray films were obtained intraoperatively. Next, in 3 patients, neck levels were contoured on preoperative contrast-enhanced CT scans according to the international consensus guidelines. From each of these 3 patients, an intraoperative CT scan was also obtained, with clips placed at the surgical-anatomy-based level boundaries. The preoperative (CT-based) and intraoperative (surgery-defined) CT scans were matched. Results: Clips placed at the most cranial part of the neck lined up at the caudal part of the transverse process of the cervical vertebra C-I. The posterior border of surgical level IIa (spinal accessory nerve [SAN]) did not match with the posterior border of CT-based level IIa (internal jugular vein [IJV]). Other surgical boundaries and CT-based contours were in good agreement. Conclusions: The cranial border of the neck, i.e., the cranial border of level IIa/IIb, corresponds to the caudal edge of the lateral process of C-I. Except for the posterior border between level IIa and level IIb, a perfect match was observed between the other surgical-clip-identified levels II-V boundaries (surgical-anatomy) and the CT-based delineation contours. It is argued that (1) because of the parotid gland overlapping part of level II, and (2) the frequent infestation of occult metastatic cells in the lymph channels around the IJV, the division of level II into radiologic

  3. Role of acetate in production of an autoinducible Class IIa Bacteriocin in Carnobacterium piscicola A9b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lilian; Nielsen, Michael Krogsgaard; Ng, Yin

    2002-01-01

    Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b isolated from cold smoked salmon inhibits growth of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes partly due to the production of a proteinaceous compound (L. Nilsson, L. Gram, and H. H. Huss. J. Food Prot. 62:336-342, 1999). The purpose of the present study...... was to purify the compound and describe factors affecting its production, with particular emphasis on food-relevant factors. Amino acid sequencing showed that the compound is a class IIa bacteriocin with an N-terminal amino acid sequence identical to that of carnobacteriocin B2. The production....... The induction of bacteriocin production showed a dose-dependent relationship at acetate concentrations of up to 10 to 20 mM (depending on the growth medium) and at a concentration of 1.9 x 10(-8) M for the bacteriocin itself; a saturation level of bacteriocin specific activity was reached...

  4. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroki, Tsunehide, E-mail: kuroki@dg.kagawa-nct.ac.jp [General Eduction, National Institute of Technology, Kagawa College, 551 Kohda, Takuma-cho, Mitoyo, Kagawa 769-1192 (Japan); Sugino, Fumihiko, E-mail: fusugino@gmail.com [Okayama Institute for Quantum Physics, Furugyocho 1-7-36, Naka-ku, Okayama 703-8278 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond–Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supersymmetric operators.

  5. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Tsunehide; Sugino, Fumihiko

    2017-01-01

    In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond–Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supersymmetric operators.

  6. Tanshinone IIA protects against immune-mediated liver injury through activation of T-cell subsets and regulation of cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Yan; Li, Tang; Yan, Li; Liu, Qing-Shan; Tian, Yu

    2010-03-01

    Tanshione IIA (TSN) is the major active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, a traditional Chinese Medicine. TSN protects against antioxidant-induced liver injury, although the exact mechanism is not well understood. In this study, the protective effects of TSN was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and histochemistry of several cytokines. TSN is found to significantly reduce plasma alanin aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase levels in mice with concanavalin A-induced immune-mediated liver injury. TSN increases T lymphocyte subset CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ ratios.Also, TSN significantly reduces inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha, while elevates anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10. TSN may provide a potential drug candidate for liver injury therapeutics.

  7. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Tsunehide; Sugino, Fumihiko

    2017-06-01

    In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond-Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supersymmetric operators.

  8. Upper-extremity venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, J.S.T.; Neiman, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    Symptomatically, patients often present with pain, swelling, and occasionally discoloration of the hand. In the presence of chronic swelling, it may be difficult to differentiate thrombosis from lymphedema, especially in patients who have undergone mastectomy. Noninvasive testing is helpful in differentiating between these two conditions, but venography offers definitive diagnosis. More importantly, venography demonstrates the site as well as the extent of the thrombotic process. Venography of the upper extremity was first introduced in 1931. Unlike the lower extremity, the use of this simple radiographic technique to evaluate venous problems of the upper extremity has received little attention

  9. Tanshinone IIA Attenuates Chronic Pancreatitis-Induced Pain in Rats via Downregulation of HMGB1 and TRL4 Expression in the Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye-song; Li, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Li-hua; Kang, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zi-quan; Wang, Kun; Kaye, Alan David; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a long-standing inflammation of the exocrine pancreas, which typically results in severe and constant abdominal pain. Previous studies on the mechanisms underlying CP-induced pain have primarily focused on the peripheral nociceptive system. A role for a central mechanism in the mediation or modulation of abdominal pain is largely unknown. Tanshinone IIA (TSN IIA), an active component of the traditional Chinese medicine Danshen, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties via downregulation of the expression of high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), a late proinflammatory cytokine. HMGB1 binds and activates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to induce spinal astrocyte activation and proinflammatory cytokine release in neuropathic pain. In this study, we investigated the effect of TSN IIA on pain responses in rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced CP. The roles of central mechanisms in the mediation or modulation of CP were also investigated. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled animal trial. CP was induced in rats by intrapancreatic infusion of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Pancreatic histopathological changes were characterized with semi-quantitative scores. The abdomen nociceptive behaviors were assessed with von Frey filaments. The effects of intraperitoneally administered TSN IIA on CP-induced mechanical allodynia were tested. The spinal protein expression of HMGB1 was determined by western blot. The spinal mRNA and protein expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 were determined by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The spinal expression of the HMGB1 receptor TRL4 and the astrocyte activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were determined by western blot or immunohistological staining after intraperitoneal injection of TSN IIA or intrathecal administration of a neutralizing anti-HMGB1 antibody. TNBS infusion resulted in pancreatic histopathological changes of chronic

  10. Application of phenol red as a marker ligand for bilirubin binding site at subdomain IIA on human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacka, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The drug-bilirubin interaction for all drugs administered especially to infants with hyperbilirubinemia should be evaluated for their ability to displace bilirubin and vice versa. In order to examine whether phenol red (PhRed) can be used as a marker for bilirubin binding site located in subdomain IIA the interaction between PhRed and human serum albumin (HSA) in buffer solution or in normal and pathological sera solutions with different HSA:bilirubin molar ratio was investigated using absorption/absorption difference spectroscopy and molecular docking method. Six sulfonamides representing the binding site in the subdomain IIA and known to influence the binding of bilirubin were used for the PhRed displacement studies. The absorption spectra for PhRed completely bound to HSA showed significant differences in the spectral characteristic relative to the spectral profile of free PhRed. The intensity of the peak originating from the bivalent anionic form of dye was strongly reduced and the maximum peak position was red-shifted by 12 nm. The binding constant (K) of the bivalent anionic form of PhRed, calculated from absorbance data, was 1.61 · 10(4) L mol(-1). The variations of the absorption and absorption difference spectra of PhRed in the presence of HSA-bilirubin complex were indicative of the inhibition of PhRed binding process by bilirubin. Binding of PhRed carried out in the presence of sulfonamides showed that drugs and PhRed have a common site which also involves bilirubin. In agreement with the results of the spectroscopic analysis and molecular docking it was concluded that PhRed may be applied as a marker in the study of the binding of drugs to high-affinity bilirubin binding site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of Tanshinone IIA, Salvianolic Acid A and Salvianolic Acid B on Areca Nut Extract-Induced Oral Submucous Fibrosis in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ping Dai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge has been reported to possess excellent antifibrotic activity. In this study, we have investigated the effect and mechanism of tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA, salvianolic acid A (Sal-A and salvianolic acid B (Sal-B, the important active compounds of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, on areca nut extract (ANE-induced oral submucous fibrosis (OSF in vitro. Through human procollagen gene promoter luciferase reporter plasmid assay, hydroxyproline assay, gelatin zymography assay, qRT-PCR, ELISA and Western blot assay, the influence of these three compounds on ANE-stimulated cell viability, collagen accumulation, procollagen gene transcription, MMP-2/-9 activity, MMP-1/-13 and TIMP-1/-2 expression, cytokine secretion and the activation of PI3K/AKT, ERK/JNK/p38 MAPK and TGF-β/Smads pathways were detected. The results showed that Tan-IIA, Sal-A and Sal-B could significantly inhibit the ANE-stimulated abnormal viability and collagen accumulation of mice oral mucosal fibroblasts (MOMFs, inhibit the transcription of procollagen gene COL1A1 and COL3A1, increase MMP-2/-9 activity, decrease TIMP-1/-2 expression and inhibit the transcription and release of CTGF, TGF-β1, IL-6 and TNF-α; Tan-IIA, Sal-A and Sal-B also inhibited the ANE-induced activation of AKT and ERK MAPK pathways in MOMFs and the activation of TGF-β/Smads pathway in HaCaT cells. In conclusion, Tan-IIA, Sal-A and Sal-B possess excellent antifibrotic activity in vitro and can possibly be used to promote the rehabilitation of OSF patients.

  12. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of major histocompatibility complex class I, IIA and IIB genes of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Wen, Jiu-fu; Liu, Hong; Wang, Wei-min; Gao, Ze-xia

    2014-02-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in the immune response of vertebrates. In this study, we isolated MHC class IIA and IIB genes from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). In order to study the function of the MHC genes in M. amblycephala, tissue distribution and immune response of the MHC genes to bacterial challenge were analyzed. All the characteristic features of MHC class II chain structure could be identified in the deduced amino sequences of MHC IIA and IIB, including the leader peptide, α1/β1 and α2/β2 domains, connecting peptide and transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions, as well as conserved cysteines and N-glycosylation site. The deduced amino acid sequence of the MHC IIA and IIB molecules shared from 48% to 88% and from 65% to 77% similarity with those of other teleosts, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that MHC I and II genes were ubiquitously expressed in ten tissues, with high level in immune related tissues, including kidney, intestine, gill and spleen. Challenge of M. amblycephala with the extracellular pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila, resulted in a significant increase in the expression of MHC I, MHC IIA and IIB mRNA within 72 h after infection in gill, kidney, intestine and liver, followed by a recovery to normal level after 120 h. The changes of expression levels for MHC IIA and IIB in most tissues were significantly higher than that of MHC I in the corresponding tissues at most time points (P<0.05). These results demonstrated the MHC genes played an important role in response to bacterial infection in M. amblycephala; however, MHC class I and II genes showed different functional activity, which need be further investigated in teleost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Atmospheric Smell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenslund, Anette

    revealed how a museum-staged hospital atmosphere of an art installation was directly addressed owing to its smell. Curiously, this observation speaks against prevailing literature portraying smell as the ‘mute sense’, and what is more, the museum display did not alter smell curatorially. Rather, smell......, hospital-based and museum-staged. Prompted by the ambition to acknowledge the museum’s need to have its activities rooted in thorough investigation of the given culture on show, the dual analytical disposition is a sine qua non spanning varied fields and disciplines. The conceptual discussion offered...... in the thesis is spurred on by philosophical phenomenology predominantly paired with sociological and anthropological theory. It finds support in empirical work from both a hospital and a museum setting. Thus, it draws on a three-month ethnographic fieldwork conducted in 2012 in a Danish hospital, including...

  14. Upper airway evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.A.; Gefter, W.B.; Schnall, M.; Nordberg, J.; Listerud, J.; Lenkinski, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are evaluating upper-airway sleep disorders with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and x-ray cine computed tomography (CT). Fixed structural anatomy is visualized with multisection spin-echo MR imaging, the dynamic component with cine CT. Unique aspects of the study are described in this paper

  15. Atmospheric effects on the underground muon intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.; Humble, J. E.; Hyland, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    It has previously been reported that the barometric pressure coefficient observed for muons at Poatina (vertical absorber depth 357 hg/sq cm) appears to be appreciably higher than would be expected from atmospheric absorption alone. There is a possibility that the effect is due to an upper atmospheric temperature effect arising from an inverse correlation of surface pressure with stratospheric temperature. A new proportional telescope is discussed which has been operating at Poatina since about the beginning of 83 and which has a long term stability suitable for studying variations of atmospheric origin.

  16. Development of Diesel Engine Operated Forklift Truck for Explosive Gas Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Rajendra Kumar; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Ahirwal, Bhagirath; Sinha, Amalendu

    2018-02-01

    For the present study, a prototype diesel engine operated Forklift truck of 2 t capacity is developed for explosive gas atmosphere. The parts of the Forklift truck are assessed against risk of ignition of the explosive gases, vapors or mist grouped in Gr. IIA and having ignition temperature more than 200°C. Identification of possible sources of ignition and their control or prevention is the main objective of this work. The design transformation of a standard Forklift truck into a special Forklift truck is made on prototype basis. The safety parameters of the improved Forklift truck are discussed in this paper. The specially designed Forklift truck is useful in industries where explosive atmospheres may present during normal working conditions and risk of explosion is a concern during handling or transportation of materials. This indigenous diesel engine based Forklift truck for explosive gas atmosphere classified as Zone 1 and Zone 2 area and gas group IIA is developed first time in India in association with the Industry.

  17. Atmospheric Models/Global Atmospheric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-30

    Atmospheric Models /Global Atmospheric Modeling Timothy F. Hogan Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, CA 93943-5502 phone: (831) 656-4705 fax: (831...to 00-00-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Atmospheric Models /Global Atmospheric Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...initialization of increments, improved cloud prediction, and improved surface fluxes) have been transition to 6.4 (Global Atmospheric Models , PE 0603207N, X-0513

  18. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

  19. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R.I.; Stein, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations from LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient b is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section αsub(ν) grows with frequency ν faster than ν 2 ; b exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of αsub(ν). Overpopulation (b > 1) always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature. (author)

  20. LIMITS ON QUAOAR'S ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, J. J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 W. Saanich Rd. Victoria, BCV9E 2E7 (Canada); Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Gimeno, German [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Brown, Michael E., E-mail: wesley.fraser@nrc.ca [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Here we present high cadence photometry taken by the Acquisition Camera on Gemini South, of a close passage by the {approx}540 km radius Kuiper belt object, (50000) Quaoar, of a r' = 20.2 background star. Observations before and after the event show that the apparent impact parameter of the event was 0.''019 {+-} 0.''004, corresponding to a close approach of 580 {+-} 120 km to the center of Quaoar. No signatures of occultation by either Quaoar's limb or its potential atmosphere are detectable in the relative photometry of Quaoar and the target star, which were unresolved during closest approach. From this photometry we are able to put constraints on any potential atmosphere Quaoar might have. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo and likelihood approach, we place pressure upper limits on sublimation supported, isothermal atmospheres of pure N{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4}. For N{sub 2} and CO, the upper limit surface pressures are 1 and 0.7 {mu}bar, respectively. The surface temperature required for such low sublimation pressures is {approx}33 K, much lower than Quaoar's mean temperature of {approx}44 K measured by others. We conclude that Quaoar cannot have an isothermal N{sub 2} or CO atmosphere. We cannot eliminate the possibility of a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, but place upper surface pressure and mean temperature limits of {approx}138 nbar and {approx}44 K, respectively.

  1. The reaction of the atmosphere to solar disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhnevich, V. V.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of solar flares on the thermosphere and the troposphere is investigated. It is found that during periods of geoeffect solar disturbances, there is a connection between phenomena in the upper and lower atmospheres and that variations in atmospheric parameters correlate with changes in the geomagnetic index.

  2. Upper Ocean Stratification in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    thermal inertia of the upper ocean and thus the time scale on which the ocean can respond to the atmosphere. A likely reason for this bias is an...the technician who builds the floats) participated in a cruise on the R.V. Sagar Nidhi, in August/September 2015, continuing joint work begun on

  3. Upper tropospheric water vapour variability over tropical latitudes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Upper tropospheric water vapour variability over tropical latitudes observed using radiosonde and satellite measurements. Ghouse Basha1, M Venkat Ratnam1,∗ and B V Krishna Murthy2. 1National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Department of Space, Government of India,. Gadanki, PB No. 123, Tirupati 517 ...

  4. Preoperative radium therapy and radical hysterectomy in the treatment of cervical cancer stage IB, IIA, and initial IIB.; Radiumterapia pre-operatoria e histerectomia radical no tratamento do cancer do colo uterino IB, IIA e IIB inicial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, Resalla; Lopes, Edison R.; Souza, Maria A.H. de [Faculdade de Medicina do Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG (Brazil). Hospital Escola

    1995-07-01

    Patients with IB, IIa and in initial IIb cervical cancer were randomized for combined therapy, consisting of one or two radium insertion followed by Wertheim Meigs operation performed 40 days later. We look for the early and late complications of the treatment, residual cancer after radiotherapy and survival without recurrence. The project begin in 1965 and ended in 1986. All the operations were done by one of the investigators and 116 patients were analysed. The age ranged from 21 to 75 years with an average of 4.18 years. During the operations 31 (26.72%) patients needed 1.500 cc or greater amount of blood transfusion and we have 3 iliac veins lesions. Managing the ureters, we do our best to leave the posterior fascia as intact as possible. Post operative complications ranged from minor (fever, localised pelvic infections, temporary popliteal nerve paralysis) to evisceration (3 patients) deep venous thrombosis (3 patients) and two early urinary fistulas. Late complications were seen in patients submitted to sequential teletherapy irradiation. One uretrovaginal fistula occurred 10 month after treatment, another one, 7 years later and the third one 24 years later. One patient develop hydronefrosis and enterocolite after 7.000 rads of teletherapy and another one rectovaginal fistula 13 years after initial therapy. The shortening of the vagina making impossible the intercourse was seen in 7 patients. By the histological examination, the cervix was sterilized in 73.3 % of the patients. Residual cancer was found according the original size of the tumour and the stage of the disease. Studying different combinations between the existence of residual cervical cancer with positive or negative limphnodes and making a correlation with survival, we found the critical points is to have positive cervix and positive lymphonodes. The five years survival (life table methodology) for stage 1 lesion was 96%; stage II, 67%. At ten years survival was slighted different. With positive

  5. NACP MCI: CO2 Flux Tower Measurements, Upper Midwest Region, USA, 2007-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides high precision and high accuracy atmospheric CO2 data from seven instrumented communication towers located in the U.S. Upper...

  6. 2015 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar DEM: Upper Rogue 3DEP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Upper Rogue 2015 study area. The collection of high...

  7. 2015 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: Upper Rogue 3DEP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Upper Rogue 2015 study area. The collection of high...

  8. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Upper Naches River, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Upper Naches River Valley and Nile Slide area of interest on September 30th,...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, diving birds, raptors, waterfowl, wading birds, terns, and gulls for the Upper Coast of...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered plants for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data set represent occurrence...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles, estuarine reptiles, and terrestrial endangered species occurrences for the Upper Coast of...

  14. A STUDY ON ENDOSCOPIC EVALUATION OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranaya Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB is one of the commonest gastrointestinal emergencies encountered by clinicians. Peptic ulcers are the most common cause of UGIB. Endoscopy has become the preferred method for diagnosis in patients with acute UGIB. This study is done in a diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE setup of a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the causes of UGIB prevalent in this part of our country which might differ from other studies. AIM To ascertain prevalent causes of UGIB in patients of this part of India admitted to a Govt. Tertiary Hospital with a provisional diagnosis of UGIB. METHOD One hundred consecutive patients with UGIB were subjected to UGIE to find out the aetiology. The clinical profile and endoscopic findings were analysed and compared with the data on UGIB from other studies. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 47.03 years with male: female ratio of 2.33:1. 58% of patients were first time bleeders. Majority of patients presented with melaena. Visualisation of active bleeding achieved to 85.7% when endoscopy was done within first 24 hrs. The commonest cause of UGIB was duodenal ulcer (DU which accounted for 41% cases. Gastric ulcer was responsible in 13% of cases. Portal hypertension was responsible for bleed in only 13%. Neoplasms accounted for 25% of cases. Other less common causes were erosive gastritis (3%, gastric polyp (3%, Mallory-Weiss tear (1%, and Dieulafoy’s lesion (1%. Among bleeding peptic ulcers, 27.8% of cases were classified as Forrest IIa and 20.4% in Forrest IIb & IIc each. Acid peptic disease was past history elicited in majority (33% followed by NSAID (26% and alcohol (26%. CONCLUSION The present study has diagnosed various causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in this part of country. The incidence of gastric carcinoma as a cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is significantly high compared to those in other studies. UGI endoscopy should be done in every case

  15. Non-thermal hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial upper thermosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianqi; Waldrop, Lara

    2016-12-06

    Model predictions of the distribution and dynamical transport of hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial atmosphere have long-standing discrepancies with ultraviolet remote sensing measurements, indicating likely deficiencies in conventional theories regarding this crucial atmospheric constituent. Here we report the existence of non-thermal hydrogen atoms that are much hotter than the ambient oxygen atoms in the upper thermosphere. Analysis of satellite measurements indicates that the upper thermospheric hydrogen temperature, more precisely the mean kinetic energy of the atomic hydrogen population, increases significantly with declining solar activity, contrary to contemporary understanding of thermospheric behaviour. The existence of hot hydrogen atoms in the upper thermosphere, which is the key to reconciling model predictions and observations, is likely a consequence of low atomic oxygen density leading to incomplete collisional thermalization of the hydrogen population following its kinetic energization through interactions with hot atomic or ionized constituents in the ionosphere, plasmasphere or magnetosphere.

  16. Primary radiotherapy of stage IIA/B-IIIB cervical carcinoma. A comparison of continuous versus sequential regimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Nemeskeri, C.; Petnehazi, C.; Varga, S.; Naszaly, A.; Borgulya, G.

    2004-01-01

    Background: comprehensive literature on cervical cancer demonstrates, even today, the need for optimization of the timing of external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in the treatment of stage IIA/B-IIIB cervical carcinoma. Patients and methods: 210 patients with carcinoma of the cervix were treated in the Municipal Center of Oncoradiology between January 1991 and December 1996 (FIGO IIA: n = 10, FIGO IIB: n = 113, and FIGO IIIB: n = 87). Two regimens were compared: sequential radiation therapy (SRT) with 4 x 8 Gy HDR-BT to point A followed by EBRT, and continuous radiation therapy (CRT) in which 5 x 6 Gy HDR-BT to point A, one session per week, was integrated into the EBRT. A total dose of 68-70 Gy to point A and 52-54 Gy to point B was given in EBRT with SRT, five fractions per week were applied. Four fractions per week were applied in CRT, i.e., no EBRT was performed on the day of HDR-BT. Total doses to points A and B were identical in both regimens. Overall treatment time (OTT) amounted to 56 days for SRT and 35 days for CRT. Median follow-up time was 3.4 (2.5-4.2) years. Results: progression-free 5-year-survival (PFS) was 71% in the CRT and 56% in the SRT group. Nevertheless, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 1.00), and the same was found in a subgroup analysis of the different tumor stages, showing, however, an unequivocal trend. Late bladder and rectal injuries occurred in 13% and 25%, respectively. Late rectal injuries were significantly more frequent with SRT than CRT (35 patients in the SRT and 18 patients in the CRT group; p = 0.037). This was due to the higher doses per fraction of HDR-BT in the SRT group. No difference was found regarding late bladder injuries (p = 0.837). Conclusion: for the patients included in this study, no advantage has been found so far in using CRT, i.e., shortening the OTT by weekly integration of HDR-BT into EBRT. Nevertheless, an obvious trend exists. The dose of 8 Gy per

  17. Preoperative radium therapy and radical hysterectomy in the treatment of cervical cancer stage IB, IIA, and initial IIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salum, Resalla; Lopes, Edison R.; Souza, Maria A.H. de

    1995-01-01

    Patients with IB, IIa and in initial IIb cervical cancer were randomized for combined therapy, consisting of one or two radium insertion followed by Wertheim Meigs operation performed 40 days later. We look for the early and late complications of the treatment, residual cancer after radiotherapy and survival without recurrence. The project begin in 1965 and ended in 1986. All the operations were done by one of the investigators and 116 patients were analysed. The age ranged from 21 to 75 years with an average of 4.18 years. During the operations 31 (26.72%) patients needed 1.500 cc or greater amount of blood transfusion and we have 3 iliac veins lesions. Managing the ureters, we do our best to leave the posterior fascia as intact as possible. Post operative complications ranged from minor (fever, localised pelvic infections, temporary popliteal nerve paralysis) to evisceration (3 patients) deep venous thrombosis (3 patients) and two early urinary fistulas. Late complications were seen in patients submitted to sequential teletherapy irradiation. One uretrovaginal fistula occurred 10 month after treatment, another one, 7 years later and the third one 24 years later. One patient develop hydronefrosis and enterocolite after 7.000 rads of teletherapy and another one rectovaginal fistula 13 years after initial therapy. The shortening of the vagina making impossible the intercourse was seen in 7 patients. By the histological examination, the cervix was sterilized in 73.3 % of the patients. Residual cancer was found according the original size of the tumour and the stage of the disease. Studying different combinations between the existence of residual cervical cancer with positive or negative limphnodes and making a correlation with survival, we found the critical points is to have positive cervix and [positive lymphonodes. The five years survival (life table methodology) for stage 1 lesion was 96%; stage II, 67%. At ten years survival was slighted different. With positive

  18. Primary radiotherapy of stage IIA/B-IIIB cervical carcinoma. A comparison of continuous versus sequential regimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, A.; Nemeskeri, C.; Petnehazi, C.; Varga, S.; Naszaly, A. [Center of Oncoradiology, Uzsoki Hospital, Budapest (Hungary); Borgulya, G. [National Pediatric Cancer Registry of the Hungarian Pediatric Oncology Working Group, 2nd Dept. of Pediatrics, Semmelweis Univ. Budapest (Hungary)

    2004-04-01

    Background: comprehensive literature on cervical cancer demonstrates, even today, the need for optimization of the timing of external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in the treatment of stage IIA/B-IIIB cervical carcinoma. Patients and methods: 210 patients with carcinoma of the cervix were treated in the Municipal Center of Oncoradiology between January 1991 and December 1996 (FIGO IIA: n = 10, FIGO IIB: n = 113, and FIGO IIIB: n = 87). Two regimens were compared: sequential radiation therapy (SRT) with 4 x 8 Gy HDR-BT to point A followed by EBRT, and continuous radiation therapy (CRT) in which 5 x 6 Gy HDR-BT to point A, one session per week, was integrated into the EBRT. A total dose of 68-70 Gy to point A and 52-54 Gy to point B was given in EBRT with SRT, five fractions per week were applied. Four fractions per week were applied in CRT, i.e., no EBRT was performed on the day of HDR-BT. Total doses to points A and B were identical in both regimens. Overall treatment time (OTT) amounted to 56 days for SRT and 35 days for CRT. Median follow-up time was 3.4 (2.5-4.2) years. Results: progression-free 5-year-survival (PFS) was 71% in the CRT and 56% in the SRT group. Nevertheless, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 1.00), and the same was found in a subgroup analysis of the different tumor stages, showing, however, an unequivocal trend. Late bladder and rectal injuries occurred in 13% and 25%, respectively. Late rectal injuries were significantly more frequent with SRT than CRT (35 patients in the SRT and 18 patients in the CRT group; p = 0.037). This was due to the higher doses per fraction of HDR-BT in the SRT group. No difference was found regarding late bladder injuries (p = 0.837). Conclusion: for the patients included in this study, no advantage has been found so far in using CRT, i.e., shortening the OTT by weekly integration of HDR-BT into EBRT. Nevertheless, an obvious trend exists. The dose of 8 Gy per

  19. Biomechanics of the upper limb

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Jaworski; Robert Karpiński; Angelika Dobrowolska

    2016-01-01

    The article presents basics of the human upper limb’s anatomy, including skeletal system, joints and basic division of muscles in the limb. The biomechanics of the upper limb is introduced. The range of performed motions is depicted. The possible applications of anatomy and biomechanics of the upper limb are shown.

  20. Whole Atmosphere Simulation of Anthropogenic Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Stanley C.; Liu, Han-Li; Marsh, Daniel R.; McInerney, Joseph M.; Qian, Liying; Vitt, Francis M.

    2018-02-01

    We simulated anthropogenic global change through the entire atmosphere, including the thermosphere and ionosphere, using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model-eXtended. The basic result was that even as the lower atmosphere gradually warms, the upper atmosphere rapidly cools. The simulations employed constant low solar activity conditions, to remove the effects of variable solar and geomagnetic activity. Global mean annual mean temperature increased at a rate of +0.2 K/decade at the surface and +0.4 K/decade in the upper troposphere but decreased by about -1 K/decade in the stratosphere-mesosphere and -2.8 K/decade in the thermosphere. Near the mesopause, temperature decreases were small compared to the interannual variation, so trends in that region are uncertain. Results were similar to previous modeling confined to specific atmospheric levels and compared favorably with available measurements. These simulations demonstrate the ability of a single comprehensive numerical model to characterize global change throughout the atmosphere.

  1. ENDOSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Benedeto-Stojanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB is a common medical emergency problem with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper is to establish the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in relation to sex and age, determine the prevalence of bleeding lesions and perform analysis of bleeding peptic ulcer in relation to the location, age, gender, Forrest classification and the need for endoscopic hemostasis. Thе prospective study included 70 patients with UGB, 42 men and 28 women, mean age 68.64±13.66 years. The diagnosis of bleeding lesions was made exclusively by means of esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Forrest classification was used in the evaluation of the activity of bleeding ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. The largest number of bleeding patients was of male sex (60%. Bleeding most commonly occurred in patients older than 60 years (84.29%. Statistically, female patients were significantly older than patients of male gender (p=0.001. The most common cause of bleeding was peptic ulcer (65.71%. The average age of patients with gastric ulcer was 70.57±15.68 years, with a duodenal ulcer 63.78±16.70 years. In the duodenum, Forrest Ib, IIa and IIb ulcers were usually confirmed, whereas Forrest IIc ulcers were identified in the stomach. Endoscopic hemostasis was required in 55.56% of patients with duodenal and in 23.81% of patients with gastric ulcer. The incidence of UGB is higher in men and it increases with age. The most common cause of bleeding is ulcer disease. Patients with gastric ulcer are older than patients with duodenal ulcer, while both gastric and duodenal ulcers are found in the oldest patients. Duodenal ulcers cause serious bleeding and more often require endoscopic hemostasis.

  2. Graves upper eyelid retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Antonio Augusto Velasco; Ribeiro, Sara F T; Garcia, Denny M; Akaishi, Patricia Mitiko; Pinto, Carolina T

    2013-01-01

    Graves upper eyelid retraction (GUER) is the most common and characteristic sign of Graves orbitopathy. Despite being well recognized since the 19th century, GUER is still a subject of controversy. We review GUER, including historical aspects, diagnosis, methods of measurements, ocular surface abnormalities, etiology, and medical and surgical treatments. There is no consensus about the mechanisms of its etiology or the best surgical correction. There is a need for quantitative studies on the effects of GUER on lid movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 30 CFR 57.22220 - Air passing unsealed areas (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air passing unsealed areas (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22220 Section 57.22220 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for...

  4. Two types of genetic carrier, the IncP genomic island and the novel IncP-1β plasmid, for the aac(2')-IIa gene that confers kasugamycin resistance in Acidovorax avenae ssp. avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Atsushi; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Katayama, Yukie; Koyama, Satoshi; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    A unique aminoglycoside antibiotic, kasugamycin (KSM), has been used to control many plant bacterial and fungal diseases in several countries. The emergence of KSM-resistant Acidovorax avenae ssp. avenae and Burkholderia glumae, which cause rice bacterial brown stripe and rice bacterial grain and seedling rot, respectively, is a serious threat for the effective control of these diseases. Previously, we have identified the aac(2')-IIa gene, encoding a KSM 2'-N-acetyltransferase, from both KSM-resistant pathogens. Although all KSM-resistant isolates from both species possess the aac(2')-IIa gene, only A. avenae strain 83 showed higher resistance than other strains. In this research, kinetic analysis indicates that an amino acid substitution from serine to threonine at position 146 of AAC(2')-IIa in strain 83 is not involved in this increased resistance. Whole draft genome analysis of A. avenae 83 shows that the aac(2')-IIa gene is carried by the novel IncP-1β plasmid pAAA83, whereas the genetic carrier of other strains, the IncP genomic island, is inserted into their chromosomes. The difference in the nucleotides of the promoter region of aac(2')-IIa between strain 83 and other strains indicates an additional transcription start site and results in the increased transcription of aac(2')-IIa in strain 83. Moreover, biological characterization of pAAA83 demonstrates that it can be transferred by conjugation and maintained in the host cells. These results demonstrate that acquisition of the aac(2')-IIa gene takes place in at least two ways and that the gene module, which includes aac(2')-IIa and the downstream gene, may be an important unit for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5−80 μmol/L for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π–π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2.

  6. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II...-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines shall...

  7. A densitometric analysis of IIaO film flown aboard the space shuttle transportation system STS-3, STS-8, and STS-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, E. C., Jr.; Peters, K. A.; Atkinson, P. F.

    1986-01-01

    Three canisters of IIaO film were prepared along with packets of color film from the National Geographic Society, which were then placed on the Space Shuttle #3. The ultimate goal was to obtain reasonably accurate data concerning the background fogging effects on IIaO film as it relates to the film's total environmental experience. This includes: the ground based packing, and loading of the film from Goddard Space Flight Center to Cape Kennedy; the effects of the solar wind, humidity, and cosmic rays; the Van Allen Belt radiation exposure; various thermal effect; reentry and off-loading of the film during take off, and 8 day, 3 hour 15 minutes orbits. The total densitometric change caused by all of the above factors were examined. The results of these studies have implications for the utilization of IIaO spectroscopic film on the future shuttle and space lab missions. These responses to standard photonic energy sources will have immediate application for the uneven responses of the film photographing a star field in a terrestrial or extraterrestrial environment with associated digital imaging equipment.

  8. Characterization of the charge-carrier transport properties of IIa-Tech SC diamond for radiation detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomorski, M.; Delfaure, C.; Tromson, D.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vaissiere, N.; Bensalah, H.; Barjon, J.; Pinault-Thaury, M.A. [Groupe d' Etude de la Matiere Condensee (GEMaC), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines (UVSQ), Versailles (France)

    2015-11-15

    Single crystal (SC) diamond has since years demonstrated its interest for the fabrication of radiation detectors, especially where the material properties are providing superior interests with respect to the detection application. Among the industrial suppliers able to provide on a commercial basis high-grade single crystal diamond, IIa-Tech has recently appeared in the market as a new player. The aim of this paper is to assess the quality of one SC sample when characterized under α-particles for the measurement of its carrier transport properties. We observed that full charge collection could be observed at biases as low as 0.11 V/μm with no space charge build-up (conventionally typical bias values used are closer to 1 V/μm). Velocity reached values of 38 μm/ns and 53 μm/ns for electrons and holes, respectively (values probed at 0.33 V/μm). Similarly, the α detection spectrum displays a sharp line demonstrating the good uniformity of the material over its surface. By combining the measurements with more conventional optical observations such as birefringence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, it comes that the material demonstrates its ability to be used as a detector, with properties that can compare with the highest grade materials today available on the market. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunehide Kuroki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond–Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supersymmetric operators.

  10. Dlc1 interaction with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9 and Rac1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad G. Sabbir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Deleted in liver cancer 1 (Dlc1 gene codes for a Rho GTPase-activating protein that also acts as a tumour suppressor gene. Several studies have consistently found that overexpression leads to excessive cell elongation, cytoskeleton changes and subsequent cell death. However, none of these studies have been able to satisfactorily explain the Dlc1-induced cell morphological phenotypes and the function of the different Dlc1 isoforms. Therefore, we have studied the interacting proteins associated with the three major Dlc1 transcriptional isoforms using a mass spectrometric approach in Dlc1 overexpressing cells. We have found and validated novel interacting partners in constitutive Dlc1-expressing cells. Our study has shown that Dlc1 interacts with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9, plectin and spectrin proteins in different multiprotein complexes. Overexpression of Dlc1 led to increased phosphorylation of Myh9 protein and activation of Rac1 GTPase. These data support a role for Dlc1 in induced cell elongation morphology and provide some molecular targets for further analysis of this phenotype.

  11. Discriminative Features in Three Autosomal Recessive Cutis Laxa Syndromes: Cutis Laxa IIA, Cutis Laxa IIB, and Geroderma Osteoplastica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Kariminejad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cutis laxa is a heterogeneous condition characterized by redundant, sagging, inelastic, and wrinkled skin. The inherited forms of this disease are rare and can have autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked inheritance. Three of the autosomal recessive cutis laxa syndromes, namely cutis laxa IIA (ARCL2A, cutis laxa IIB (ARCL2B, and geroderma osteodysplastica (GO, have very similar clinical features, complicating accurate diagnosis. Individuals with these conditions often present with cutis laxa, progeroid features, and hyperextensible joints. These conditions also share additional features, such as short stature, hypotonia, and congenital hip dislocation, but the severity and frequency of these findings are variable in each of these cutis laxa syndromes. The characteristic features for ARCL2A are abnormal isoelectric focusing and facial features, including downslanting palpebral fissures and a long philtrum. Rather, the clinical phenotype of ARCL2B includes severe wrinkling of the dorsum of the hands and feet, wormian bones, athetoid movements, lipodystrophy, cataract and corneal clouding, a thin triangular face, and a pinched nose. Normal cognition and osteopenia leading to pathological fractures, maxillary hypoplasia, and oblique furrowing from the outer canthus to the lateral border of the supraorbital ridge are discriminative features for GO. Here we present 10 Iranian patients who were initially diagnosed clinically using the respective features of each cutis laxa syndrome. Each patient’s clinical diagnosis was then confirmed with molecular investigation of the responsible gene. Review of the clinical features from the cases reported from the literature also supports our conclusions.

  12. Effects of tanshinone IIA on transforming growth factor beta1-Smads signal pathway in renal interstitial fibroblasts of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinhui; Zhan, Chengye; Zhou, Jianhua

    2008-10-01

    The effects of tanshinone IIA (TSN) on transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) signal transduction in renal interstitial fibroblasts of rats were studied in order to investigate its mechanism in prevention of renal interstitial fibrosis. Rat renal fibroblasts of the line NRK/49F were cultured in vitro, stimulated with 5 ng/mL TGFbeta1 and pretreated with 10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4) mol/L TSN respectively. The mRNA levels of fibronectin (FN) were examined by RT-PCR. The protein expression of FN and Smads was detected by Western blot. TGFbeta1 induced the expression of FN mRNA and Smads in a time-dependent manner in a certain range. Compared with pre-stimulation, the FN mRNA and protein levels were increased by 1.1 times and 1.5 times respectively (PTSN pretreatment may down-regulate the FN and p-Smad2/3 expression in a dose-dependent manner. 10(-6) mol/L TSN pretreatment had no effect on the FN and p-Smad2/3 expression (both P>0.05). After pretreatment with 10(-5) and 10(-4) mol/L TSN, the FN mRNA levels were decreased by 28.1% and 43.8% respectively (PTSN on renal interstitial fibrosis may be related to its blocking effect on TGFbeta1-Smads signal pathway in renal interstitial fibroblasts.

  13. Study of anti-myocardial cell oxidative stress action and effect of tanshinone IIA on prohibitin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Jia, Yu-Hua; Li, Jie; Li, Li-Jun; Zhou, Feng-Hua

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the protective action of tanshinone IIA (TSN) on myocardial apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and its effect on prohibitin (PHB) expression to probe the role of PHB in the oxidation stress of myocardial cells. Primary cultured neonate rat myocardial cells were cultured with TSN (1 x 10(-4) mol/L) for 24 hours, and then the medium was supplemented with 200 micromol/L hydrogen peroxide for 2 h to initiate myocardial cell oxidative stress injury. PHB in myocardial cells was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the expression level of PHB was determined by western blot analysis. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate, intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The PHB expression, [Ca2+]i and the apoptotic rate significantly increased, and the MMP significantly decreased in the oxidative stress group compared with the control. The PHB expression, apoptosis rate and [Ca2+]i decreased, and MMP increased significantly in the TSN group compared with the oxidative stress group. Compared with the siRNA negative control group, the PHB expression level in myocardial cells was down-regulated, and the apoptosis rate and [Ca2+]i increased, and MMP decreased significantly in the siRNA group. TSN can reduce PHB expression in oxidative stress-injured myocardial cells hence protecting the myocardial cells.

  14. Effects of tanshinone IIA on the transforming growth factor β1/Smad signaling pathway in rat cardiac fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Cheng-Ye; Tang, Jin-Hui; Zhou, Dai-Xing; Li, Zhi-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the mechanism of tanshinone IIA (TSN)-mediated inhibition of myocardial fibrosis by investigating the effect of TSN on transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) signal transduction in rat cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). CFs were isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by trypsin digestion and differential adhesion and stimulated with 5 ng/mL TGFβ1 and TSN (10(-6), 10(-5), or 10(-4) mol/L). The expression of fibronectin (FN) mRNA in the CFs was determined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and the protein expression of FN and Smads in CFs was detected using Western blot. The intracellular expression and localization of Smads in the CFs were analyzed using immunocytochemistry. TGFβ1 induced the expression of FN and Smads in a time-dependent manner. At the end of the culture treatment, the mRNA expression of FN and the expression of phosphorylated Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) increased significantly (P TSN pretreatment (10(-5) and 10(-4) mol/L) reduced the expression of FN and p-Smad2/3 (P TSN on myocardial fibrosis may be associated with its inhibition of TGFβ1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation and p-Smad2/3 nuclear translocation, which blocks the TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway in CFs.

  15. Design of group IIA secreted/synovial phospholipase A(2 inhibitors: an oxadiazolone derivative suppresses chondrocyte prostaglandin E(2 secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Edouard Ombetta

    Full Text Available Group IIA secreted/synovial phospholipase A(2 (GIIAPLA(2 is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2, the main eicosanoid contributing to pain and inflammation in rheumatic diseases. We designed, by molecular modeling, 7 novel analogs of 3-{4-[5(indol-1-ylpentoxy]benzyl}-4H-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-one, denoted C1, an inhibitor of the GIIAPLA(2 enzyme. We report the results of molecular dynamics studies of the complexes between these derivatives and GIIAPLA(2, along with their chemical synthesis and results from PLA(2 inhibition tests. Modeling predicted some derivatives to display greater GIIAPLA(2 affinities than did C1, and such predictions were confirmed by in vitro PLA(2 enzymatic tests. Compound C8, endowed with the most favorable energy balance, was shown experimentally to be the strongest GIIAPLA(2 inhibitor. Moreover, it displayed an anti-inflammatory activity on rabbit articular chondrocytes, as shown by its capacity to inhibit IL-1beta-stimulated PGE(2 secretion in these cells. Interestingly, it did not modify the COX-1 to COX-2 ratio. C8 is therefore a potential candidate for anti-inflammatory therapy in joints.

  16. Atmosphere: Power, Critique, Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...... be critiqued. Which conception of critique can be involved? Third, critiquing atmospheric powers can generate political conflict. How does atmospheric disputes relate to conceptions of politics and the political?...

  17. The Ocean-Atmosphere Hydrothermohaline Conveyor Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döös, Kristofer; Kjellsson, Joakim; Zika, Jan; Laliberté, Frédéric; Brodeau, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    The ocean thermohaline circulation is linked to the hydrothermal circulation of the atmosphere. The ocean thermohaline circulation is expressed in potential temperature-salinity space and comprises a tropical upper-ocean circulation, a global conveyor belt cell and an Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The atmospheric hydrothermal circulation in a potential temperature-specific humidity space unifies the tropical Hadley and Walker cells as well as the midlatitude eddies into a single, global circulation. Superimposed, these thermohaline and hydrothermal stream functions reveal the possibility of a close connection between some parts of the water and air mass conversions. The exchange of heat and fresh water through the sea surface (precipiation-evaporation) and incoming solar radiation act to make near-surface air warm and moist while making surface water warmer and saltier as both air and water travel towards the Equator. In the tropics, air masses can undergo moist convection releasing latent heat by forming precipitation, thus acting to make warm surface water fresher. We propose that the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship for moist near-surface air acts like a lower bound for the atmospheric hydrothermal cell and an upper bound for the ocean thermohaline Conveyor-Belt cell. The analysis is made by combining and merging the overturning circulation of the ocean and atmosphere by relating the salinity of the ocean to the humidity of the atmosphere, where we set the heat and freshwater transports equal in the two stream functions By using simulations integrated with our Climate-Earth system model EC-Earth, we intend to produce the "hydrothermohaline" stream function of the coupled ocean-atmosphere overturning circulation in one single picture. We explore how the oceanic thermohaline Conveyor Belt can be linked to the global atmospheric hydrothermal circulation and if the water and air mass conversions in humidity-temperature-salinity space can be related and linked to each

  18. Upper Carboniferous herbaceous lycopsids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.A. [University of Wales, Cardigan (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

    1997-01-01

    Herbaceous lycopsids are often overlooked in palaeobotanical studies because of problems of morphological interpretation and identification. The literature on Euramerican Upper Carboniferous herbaceous lycopsids is reviewed on those species referred to the genera Selaginellites, Lycopodites, Paurodendron, Carinostrobus, Miadesmia, Spencerites and the identification of some specimens is challenged. The stratigraphical range of these lycopsids and those of dispersed spores referable to them are also reviewed and suggestions are given for the relatively late appearance of many of these lycopsids in the Euramerican Coal Measures swamps. It is suggested that anisophyllous Selaginella-like lycopsids made their first appearance in the Bolsovian (ex Westphalian C) of the Saar-Lorraine intramontane basin. Evidence from studies of coal balls and dispersed spore assemblages confirm that herbaceous lycopsids were most abundantly present in open-moor communities. Certain species of these herbaceous lycopsids, the Selaginella-like ones, are included within the extant genus Selaginella Linnaeus. For this reason a number of new combinations are proposed.

  19. Elevated tumor-to-liver uptake ratio (TLR) from 18F-FDG-PET/CT predicts poor prognosis in stage IIA colorectal cancer following curative resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jun; Huang, Liang; Zhou, Jiaming; Huang, Pinzhu; Tan, Shuyun; Wang, Jianping; Huang, Meijin; Duan, Yinghua; Zhang, Zhanwen; Hu, Ping; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    The prognostic value of the tumor-to-liver uptake ratio (TLR) from 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET/CT) in the early stage of colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. Notably, some stage IIA CRC patients experience early recurrence even after curative resection and might benefit from neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. This study aims to evaluate whether elevated TLR from 18 F-FDG-PET/CT can predict poor prognosis in stage IIA CRC patients undergoing curative resection. From April 2010 to December 2013, 504 consecutive CRC patients with different TNM stages (I-IV) underwent 18 F-FDG-PET/CT scans at the 6th Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University. Among the patients, 118 with stage IIA CRC who accepted preoperative 18 F-FDG-PET/CT scanning and were treated with curative surgery alone were reviewed retrospectively. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the primary tumor, TLR, and demographic, clinical, histopathological, and laboratory data were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors associated with patient disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). ROC curve analysis demonstrated that TLR was superior to primary tumor SUVmax in predicting the risk of recurrence in stage IIA CRC. The optimal TLR cutoff was 6.2. Univariate analysis indicated that elevated TLR, tumor size, and lymphovascular/neural invasion correlated with DFS (P = 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively) and OS (P = 0.001, P = 0.003, and P < 0.001, respectively). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS rates were 98.4%, 96.9%, and 96.9% for stage IIA CRC patients with lower TLR (≤6.2) versus 77.8%, 60.6%, and 60.6% for those with elevated TLR (>6.2), respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 100.0%, 100.0%, and 98.3% for the patients with lower TLR versus 98.1%, 83.3%, and 74.3% for those with elevated TLR. Cox

  20. Elevated tumor-to-liver uptake ratio (TLR) from {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT predicts poor prognosis in stage IIA colorectal cancer following curative resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jun; Huang, Liang; Zhou, Jiaming; Huang, Pinzhu; Tan, Shuyun; Wang, Jianping; Huang, Meijin [6th Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Colorectal Surgery, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Duan, Yinghua [1st Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Zhanwen; Hu, Ping [6th Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Xiaoyan [1st Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-11-15

    The prognostic value of the tumor-to-liver uptake ratio (TLR) from 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) in the early stage of colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. Notably, some stage IIA CRC patients experience early recurrence even after curative resection and might benefit from neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. This study aims to evaluate whether elevated TLR from {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT can predict poor prognosis in stage IIA CRC patients undergoing curative resection. From April 2010 to December 2013, 504 consecutive CRC patients with different TNM stages (I-IV) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT scans at the 6th Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University. Among the patients, 118 with stage IIA CRC who accepted preoperative {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT scanning and were treated with curative surgery alone were reviewed retrospectively. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the primary tumor, TLR, and demographic, clinical, histopathological, and laboratory data were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors associated with patient disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). ROC curve analysis demonstrated that TLR was superior to primary tumor SUVmax in predicting the risk of recurrence in stage IIA CRC. The optimal TLR cutoff was 6.2. Univariate analysis indicated that elevated TLR, tumor size, and lymphovascular/neural invasion correlated with DFS (P = 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively) and OS (P = 0.001, P = 0.003, and P < 0.001, respectively). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS rates were 98.4%, 96.9%, and 96.9% for stage IIA CRC patients with lower TLR (≤6.2) versus 77.8%, 60.6%, and 60.6% for those with elevated TLR (>6.2), respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 100.0%, 100.0%, and 98.3% for the patients with lower TLR versus 98.1%, 83.3%, and 74.3% for those with

  1. A non-enzymatic function of Golgi glycosyltransferases: mediation of Golgi fragmentation by interaction with non-muscle myosin IIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, Armen; Cheng, Pi-Wan

    2013-06-01

    The Golgi apparatus undergoes morphological changes under stress or malignant transformation, but the precise mechanisms are not known. We recently showed that non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA) binds to the cytoplasmic tail of Core 2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase mucus-type (C2GnT-M) and transports it to the endoplasmic reticulum for recycling. Here, we report that Golgi fragmentation induced by brefeldin A (BFA) or coatomer protein (β-COP) knockdown (KD) in Panc1-bC2GnT-M (c-Myc) cells is accompanied by the increased association of NMIIA with C2GnT-M and its degradation by proteasomes. Golgi fragmentation is prevented by inhibition or KD of NMIIA. Using multiple approaches, we have shown that the speed of BFA-induced Golgi fragmentation is positively correlated with the levels of this enzyme in the Golgi. The observation is reproduced in LNCaP cells which express high levels of two endogenous glycosyltransferases--C2GnT-L and β-galactoside α2,3 sialyltransferase 1. NMIIA is found to form complexes with these two enzymes but not Golgi matrix proteins. The KD of both enzymes or the prevention of Golgi glycosyltransferases from exiting endoplasmic reticulum reduced Golgi-associated NMIIA and decreased the BFA-induced fragmentation. Interestingly, the fragmented Golgi detected in colon cancer HT-29 cells can be restored to a compact morphology after inhibition or KD of NMIIA. The Golgi disorganization induced by the microtubule or actin destructive agent is NMIIA-independent and does not affect the levels of glycosyltransferases. We conclude that NMIIA interacts with Golgi residential but not matrix proteins, and this interaction is responsible for Golgi fragmentation induced by β-COP KD or BFA treatment. This is a novel non-enzymatic function of Golgi glycosyltransferases.

  2. Reappraisal of VAChT-Cre: Preference in slow motor neurons innervating type I or IIa muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Hidemi; Inomata, Daijiro; Kikuchi, Miseri; Maruyama, Sae; Moriwaki, Yasuhiro; Okuda, Takashi; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Tomoyuki

    2016-11-01

    VAChT-Cre.Fast and VAChT-Cre.Slow mice selectively express Cre recombinase in approximately one half of postnatal somatic motor neurons. The mouse lines have been used in various studies with selective genetic modifications in adult motor neurons. In the present study, we crossed VAChT-Cre lines with a reporter line, CAG-Syp/tdTomato, in which synaptophysin-tdTomato fusion proteins are efficiently sorted to axon terminals, making it possible to label both cell bodies and axon terminals of motor neurons. In the mice, Syp/tdTomato fluorescence preferentially co-localized with osteopontin, a recently discovered motor neuron marker for slow-twitch fatigue-resistant (S) and fast-twitch fatigue-resistant (FR) types. The fluorescence did not preferentially co-localize with matrix metalloproteinase-9, a marker for fast-twitch fatigable (FF) motor neurons. In the neuromuscular junctions, Syp/tdTomato fluorescence was detected mainly in motor nerve terminals that innervate type I or IIa muscle fibers. These results suggest that the VAChT-Cre lines are Cre-drivers that have selectivity in S and FR motor neurons. In order to avoid confusion, we have changed the mouse line names from VAChT-Cre.Fast and VAChT-Cre.Slow to VAChT-Cre.Early and VAChT-Cre.Late, respectively. The mouse lines will be useful tools to study slow-type motor neurons, in relation to physiology and pathology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Integrating transcriptomics and proteomics to show that tanshinone IIA suppresses cell growth by blocking glucose metabolism in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Ling; Hsia, Chieh-Ren; Hsu, Chia-Lang; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2015-02-05

    Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) is a diterpene quinone extracted from the plant Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. It has been reported to have anti-tumor potential against several kinds of cancer, including gastric cancer. In most solid tumors, a metabolic switch to glucose is a hallmark of cancer cells, which do this to provide nutrients for cell proliferation. However, the mechanism associated with glucose metabolism by which TIIA acts on gastric cancer cells remains to be elucidated. We found that TIIA treatment is able to significantly inhibit cell growth and the proliferation of gastric cancer in a dose-dependent manner. Using next-generation sequencing-based RNA-seq transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics-isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), we characterized the mechanism of TIIA regulation in gastric cancer cell line AGS. In total, 16,603 unique transcripts and 102 proteins were identified. After enrichment analysis, we found that TIIA regulated genes are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, the cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage and cytoskeleton reorganization. Our proteomics data revealed the downregulation of intracellular ATP levels, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and L-lactate dehydrogenase B chains by TIIA, which might work with disorders of glucose metabolism and extracellular lactate levels to suppress cell proliferation. The up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of AKT was shown in TIIA- treated cells, which indicates the transformation of oncogenes. Severe DNA damage, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition and apoptosis with cytoskeleton reorganization were detected in TIIA-treated gastric cancer cells. Combining transcriptomics and proteomics results, we propose that TIIA treatment could lead cell stresses, including nutrient deficiency and DNA damage, by inhibiting the glucose metabolism of cancer cells. This study provides an insight into how the TIIA regulatory metabolism in

  4. Water Infiltration and Moisture in Soils under Conservation and Conventional Agriculture in Agro-Ecological Zone IIa, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell B. Esser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture is often presented as being ‘climate smart’ due to anticipated increases in soil moisture. The extent of enhanced water availability in farmers’ fields is, however, poorly documented. This paper presents five data sets describing soil moisture in fields of small-scale conservation and conventional farmers in the Agro-ecological Zone IIa, Zambia. The data include (1 soil cover; (2 time required for visible soil surface saturation, ponding and initial runoff under artificial rainfall; (3 saturated water infiltration rates; (4 weekly soil moisture at six soil depths for two entire rain seasons; and (5 weekly rainfall in each field. Measurements were done for 15 pairs of comparable fields under conservation and conventional agriculture. Pairwise analysis showed significantly shorter time for surface saturation, ponding, and runoff in conservation fields compared to conventional fields. Saturated infiltration rates in riplines and basins of conservation fields were similar to rates in ploughed/hoed fields. Infiltration rates between riplines and between basins were 31–37% lower than those in ploughed/hoed fields. Soil moisture in riplines and basins of conservation fields was higher by an average factor of 1.08 down to 40 cm soil depth, whereas it was lower by an average factor of 0.89 between plant rows compared to fields under conventional tillage. Based on 34,000 soil moisture measurements from 0 to 60 cm depth over two seasons, soils in conservation fields contained a weighted average of 18.2% (vol. water compared to 19.9% (vol. in conventional fields (p < 0.05. The results indicate that small-scale adopters of conservation agriculture are less ‘climate smart’ than conventional farmers in terms of water infiltration and soil moisture.

  5. Tanshinone IIA attenuates the inflammatory response and apoptosis after traumatic injury of the spinal cord in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI, including immediate mechanical injury and secondary injury, is associated with the inflammatory response, apoptosis and oxidative stress in response to traumatic injury. Tanshinone IIA (TIIA is one of the major extracts obtained from Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on many diseases. However, little is known about the effects of TIIA treatment on SCI. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the pharmacological action of TIIA on secondary damage and the underlying mechanisms of experimental SCI in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SCI was generated using a weight drop device on the dorsal spinal cord via a two-level T9-T11 laminectomy. SCI in rats resulted in severe trauma, characterized by locomotor disturbance, edema, neutrophil infiltration, the production of astrocytes and inflammatory mediators, apoptosis and oxidative stress. TIIA treatment (20 mg/kg, i.p. after SCI induced significant effects: (1 improved motor function (Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores, (2 reduced the degree of tissue injury (histological score, neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity and the expression of astrocytes, (3 inhibited the activation of SCI-related pathways, such as NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, (4 decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and iNOS, (5 reduced apoptosis (TUNEL staining, and Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression and (6 reversed the redox state imbalance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results clearly show that TIIA has a prominent protective effect against SCI through inhibiting the inflammatory response and apoptosis in the spinal cord tissue after SCI.

  6. TanshinoneIIA and cryptotanshinone protect against hypoxia-induced mitochondrial apoptosis in H9c2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyou-Ju Jin

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial apoptosis pathway is an important target of cardioprotective signalling. Tanshinones, a group of major bioactive compounds isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, have been reported with actions against inflammation, oxidative stress, and myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. However, the actions of these compounds on the chronic hypoxia-related mitochondrial apoptosis pathway have not been investigated. In this study, we examined the effects and molecular mechanisms of two major tanshonones, tanshinone IIA (TIIA and cryptotanshinone (CT on hypoxia induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Cultured H9c2 cells were treated with TIIA and CT (0.3 and 3 μΜ 2 hr before and during an 8 hr hypoxic period. Chronic hypoxia caused a significant increase in hypoxia inducible factor 1α expression and the cell late apoptosis rate, which was accompanied with an increase in caspase 3 activity, cytochrome c release, mitochondria membrane potential and expression of pro-apoptosis proteins (Bax and Bak. TIIA and CT (0.3 and 3 μΜ, in concentrations without affecting the cell viability, significantly inhibited the late apoptosis and the changes of caspase 3 activity, cytochrome c release, and mitochondria membrane potential induced by chronic hypoxia. These compounds also suppressed the overexpression of Bax and reduced the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. The results indicate that TIIA and CT protect against chronic hypoxia induced cell apoptosis by regulating the mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway, involving inhibitions of mitochondria hyperpolarization, cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activity, and balancing anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins in Bcl-2 family proteins.

  7. Tanshinone IIA attenuates the inflammatory response and apoptosis after traumatic injury of the spinal cord in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Yin, Yue; Cao, Fa-Le; Chen, Yu-Fei; Peng, Ye; Hou, Wu-Gang; Sun, Shu-Kai; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI), including immediate mechanical injury and secondary injury, is associated with the inflammatory response, apoptosis and oxidative stress in response to traumatic injury. Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) is one of the major extracts obtained from Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on many diseases. However, little is known about the effects of TIIA treatment on SCI. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the pharmacological action of TIIA on secondary damage and the underlying mechanisms of experimental SCI in rats. SCI was generated using a weight drop device on the dorsal spinal cord via a two-level T9-T11 laminectomy. SCI in rats resulted in severe trauma, characterized by locomotor disturbance, edema, neutrophil infiltration, the production of astrocytes and inflammatory mediators, apoptosis and oxidative stress. TIIA treatment (20 mg/kg, i.p.) after SCI induced significant effects: (1) improved motor function (Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores), (2) reduced the degree of tissue injury (histological score), neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) and the expression of astrocytes, (3) inhibited the activation of SCI-related pathways, such as NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, (4) decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and iNOS, (5) reduced apoptosis (TUNEL staining, and Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression) and (6) reversed the redox state imbalance. The results clearly show that TIIA has a prominent protective effect against SCI through inhibiting the inflammatory response and apoptosis in the spinal cord tissue after SCI.

  8. Tides in the Martian atmosphere, and other topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul Gareth

    2003-11-01

    The dynamics of the martian upper atmosphere are not well-understood. I have identified the dominant tidal modes present in the upper atmosphere by comparing density measurements from the aerobraking of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft to predictions from classical tidal theory. Other observations and general circulation models have also provided constraints. I have presented a justification for why topography has a strong influence on the tides in the upper atmosphere. I have also studied sol-to-sol variations in density at fixed altitude, latitude, longitude, season, and time of day. I have developed a novel “Balanced Arch” technique to derive pressures and temperature from these density measurements that also estimates the zonal wind speed in the atmosphere. These are the first measurements of winds in the martian upper atmosphere. This technique can also be applied to anticipated data from Titan to measure winds in its upper atmosphere. I have developed techniques to derive density, pressure, and temperature profiles from entry accelerometer data, used them to investigate the entry of Mars Pathfinder, and discovered that surprisingly accurate temperature profiles can be derived without using any aerodynamic information at all. I have also investigated techniques to derive atmospheric properties from the Doppler shift in telemetry from a spacecraft during atmospheric entry and found that a surprisingly robust estimate of temperature at peak acceleration can be derived. I have discovered a network of tectonic ridges in the otherwise bland northern plains of Mars and studied their implications for a possible ocean in that area. I have tested the hypothesis that the formation of lunar crater Giordano Bruno was witnessed in 1178 AD and rejected it due to the lack of any observations of the immense meteor storm that must have followed the crater's formation.

  9. Ocean-atmosphere interactions during cyclone Nargis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    McPhaden, M.J.; Foltz, G.R.; Lee, T.; Murty, V.S.N.; Ravichandran, M.; Vecchi, G.A.; Vialard, J.; Wiggert, J.D.; Yu, L.

    Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction; McPhaden et al, 2008) designed to complement a constellation of earth observing satellites for key environmental parameters such as winds, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea... in IndOOS. The satellite in the upper right symbolizes the constellation of Earth-observing satellites for SST, surface winds, sea level, and other important oceanic and atmospheric parameters. ...

  10. MARCS model atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plez, B [GRAAL, CNRS, UMR5024, Universite Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: bertrand.plez@graal.univ-montp2.fr

    2008-12-15

    In this review presented at the Symposium A Stellar Journey in Uppsala, June 2008, I give an account of the historical development of the MARCS code, and its premises from the first version published in 1975 to the 2008 grid. The primary driver for the development team who constantly strive to include the best possible physical data, is the science that can be done with the models. A few preliminary comparisons of M star model spectra to spectrophotometric observations are presented. Particular results related to opacity effects are discussed. The size of errors in spectral energy distribution (SED) and model thermal stratification is estimated for different densities of wavelength sampling. The number of points used in the MARCS 2008 grid (108 000) is large enough to ensure errors of only a few K in all models of the grid, except the optically very thin layers of metal-poor stars. Errors in SEDs may reach about 10% locally in the UV. The published sampled SEDs are thus adequate to compute synthetic broadband photometry, but higher resolution spectra will be computed in the near future and published as well on the MARCS site (marcs.astro.uu.se). Test model calculations with TiO line opacity accounted for in scattering show significant cooling of the upper atmospheric layers of red giants. Rough estimates of radiative and collisional time scales for electronic transitions of TiO indicate that scattering may well be the dominant mechanism in these lines. However, models constructed with this hypothesis are incompatible with optical observations of TiO (Arcturus) or IR observations of OH (Betelgeuse), although they may succeed in explaining H{sub 2}O line observations. More work is needed in that direction.

  11. Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems–Atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, D.; Pilegaard, Kim; Sutton, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystems and the atmosphere: This review describes the state of understanding the processes involved in the exchange of trace gases and aerosols between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The gases covered include NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, NH3, SO2, DMS, Biogenic VOC, O3, CH4, N2O and particles...

  12. Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems-Atmosphere interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fowler, D.; Pilegaard, K.; Sutton, M.A.; Ambus, P.; Raivonen, M.; Duyzer, J.; Simpson, D.; Fagerli, H.; Fuzzi, S.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Granier, C.; Neftel, A.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Laj, P.; Maione, M.; Monks, P.S.; Burkhardt, J.; Daemmgen, U.; Neirynck, J.; Personne, E.; Wichink Kruit, R.J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Flechard, C.; Tuovinen, J.P.; Coyle, M.; Gerosa, G.; Loubet, B.; Altimir, N.; Gruenhage, L.; Ammann, C.; Cieslik, S.; Paoletti, E.; Mikkelsen, T.N.; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Cellier, P.; Cape, J.N.; Horvath, L.; Loreto, F.; Niinemets, U.; Palmer, P.I.; Rinne, J.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Nilsson, D.; Pryor, S.; Gallagher, M.W.; Vesala, T.; Skiba, U.; Brueggemann, N.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Williams, J.; O'Dowd, C.; Facchini, M.C.; Leeuw, de G.; Flossman, A.; Chaumerliac, N.; Erisman, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystems and the atmosphere: This review describes the state of understanding the processes involved in the exchange of trace gases and aerosols between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The gases covered include NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, NH3, SO2, DMS, Biogenic VOC, O-3, CH4, N2O and particles

  13. Low upper bounds of ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Kucera, Antonin; Slaman, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    We show that there is a low T-upper bound for the class of K-trivial sets, namely those which are weak from the point of view of algorithmic randomness. This result is a special case of a more general characterization of ideals in Δ02 T-degrees for which there is a low T-upper bound.

  14. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  15. The PHOCUS Project: Atmospheric Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, J.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.

    2012-12-01

    On the morning of July 21, 2011, the PHOCUS sounding rocket was launched from Esrange, Sweden, into strong noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). The aim of the PHOCUS project (Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer mesosphere) is to study mesospheric particles (ice and meteoric smoke) and their interaction with their neutral and charged environment. Interactions of interest comprise the charging and nucleation of particles, the relationship between meteoric smoke and ice, and the influence of these particles on gas-phase chemistry. Here we will describe the optical measurements of the atmospheric composition and present first results including comparison to the other simultaneous measurements. The atmospheric composition was probed by a set of optical instruments from Stockholm University. The idea behind the instrument setup was to combine the advantages of the sensitive resonance fluorescence with well-calibrated airglow photometry. The set of instruments consisted of two resonance fluorescence probes (each containing a lamp and a detector), one for atomic oxygen and one for atomic hydrogen, and two IR photometers for O2 and OH dayglow emissions in the near IR. The O2 IR Atmospheric system at 1.27 μm is related to the photolysis of O3, which during the day is in steady state with O and a retrieval of O is possible. The OH Meinel emission is produced by the reaction between mesospheric O3 and H, and H concentrations can be deduced by combining information from both photometers. Unfortunately, some of these measurements were corrupted by instrument problems or payload glow. O3 and O profiles will be presented and compared to the simultaneous measurements of ice and meteoric smoke particles, water vapour and the state of the background neutral and charged atmosphere.

  16. First description of Cryptosporidium hominis GP60 genotype IkA20G1 and Cryptosporidium parvum GP60 genotypes IIaA18G3R1 and IIaA15G2R1 in foals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Sandra Valéria; Widmer, Giovanni; de Brito, Roberta Lomonte Lemos; Zucatto, Anaiza Simão; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; Nakamura, Alex Akira; Neto, Luiz da Silveira; Carvalho, João Gabriel Balizardo; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2017-01-15

    The present study focuses on Cryptosporidium infections of foals in Brazil. A total of 92 animals of different breeds from 11 farms in the vicinity of Araçatuba in the state of São Paulo, were examined. According to PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene, Cryptosporidium sp. DNA was detected in 21.7% (20/92) of foals. Good quality 18S rRNA, actin, HSP70 and gp60 genes nPCR amplicons were obtained from five fecal samples. PCR amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the GP60 sporozoite surface glycoprotein gene revealed C. parvum genotypes IIaA18G3R1, IIaA15G2R1. Interestingly, we also detected in two foals a GP60 genotype related to the human parasite C. hominis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulations of Precipitation Variability over the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costigan, Keeley R.; Bossert, James E.; Langley, David L.

    1997-12-31

    In this research, we study Albuquerque`s water and how it may be affected by changes in the regional climate, as manifested by variations in Rio Grande water levels. To do this, we rely on the use of coupled atmospheric, runoff, and ground water models. Preliminary work on the project has focused on uncoupled simulations of the aquifer beneath Albuquerque and winter precipitation simulations of the upper Rio Grande Basin. The latter is discussed in this paper.

  18. Simulations of Precipitation Variability over the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costigan, Keeley R.; Bossert, James E.; Langley, David L.

    1997-10-01

    In this research, we study Albuquerque's water and how it may be affected by changes in the regional climate, as manifested by variations in Rio Grande water levels. To do this, we rely on the use of coupled atmospheric, runoff, and ground water models. Preliminary work on the project has focused on uncoupled simulations of the aquifer beneath Albuquerque and winter precipitation simulations of the upper Rio Grande Basin. The latter is discussed in this paper

  19. Fermionic T-duality in massive type IIA supergravity on AdS{sub 10-k} x M{sub k}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhmatov, Ilya [Kazan Federal University, General Relativity Department, Institute of Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Fermionic T-duality transformation is studied for supersymmetric solutions of massive type IIA supergravity with the metric AdS{sub 10-k} x M{sub k} for k = 3 and 5. We derive the Killing spinors of these backgrounds and use them as input for the fermionic T-duality transformation. The resulting dual solutions form a large family of supersymmetric deformations of the original solutions by complex valued RR fluxes. We observe that the Romans mass parameter does not change under fermionic T-duality, and prove its invariance in the k = 3 case. (orig.)

  20. CRCP-Water temperature data from loggers deployed at various reef sites off the upper Florida Keys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature loggers were deployed at various monitoring sites off the upper Florida Keys where other ecological studies were underway, most focused on aspects of...

  1. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: Upper thermal tolerance in red and blue king crab: Sublethal and lethal effects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from a series of experiments that determined the upper thermal tolerance of early benthic stage red and blue king crabs. Experiments...

  2. Acropora Spatial Survey Data of the Upper Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary 2005 -2007 (NODC Accession 0046934)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Presence or absence of acroporid corals marked by handheld GPS during snorkel or tow surveys of shallow water (5m) reef habitats in the Upper Florida Keys National...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the Upper...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins and manatees for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: ESIP (ESI Shoreline Types - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIP data set contains polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Upper Coast of Texas, classified according to the Environmental...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BENTHIC (Benthic habitat polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains known locations of patchy and continuous seagrass and oyster reef habitat for the Upper Coast of Texas benthic habitat data. This data set...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: ESIL (ESI Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIL data set contains lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Upper Coast of Texas, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity...

  9. Physical and meteorological delayed-mode full-resolution data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the Equatorial Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array of moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific. Moorings within the array measure surface meteorological and upper-ocean...

  10. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  11. Our shared atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our atmosphere is a precious and fascinating resource, providing air to breath, shielding us from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV), and maintaining a comfortable climate. Since the industrial revolution, people have significantly altered the composition of the atmosphere throu...

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry of Micrometeoritic Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, M. E.; Belle, C. L.; Pevyhouse, A. R.; Iraci, L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Micrometeorites approx.100 m in diameter deliver most of the Earth s annual accumulation of extraterrestrial material. These small particles are so strongly heated upon atmospheric entry that most of their volatile content is vaporized. Here we present preliminary results from two sets of experiments to investigate the fate of the organic fraction of micrometeorites. In the first set of experiments, 300 m particles of a CM carbonaceous chondrite were subject to flash pyrolysis, simulating atmospheric entry. In addition to CO and CO2, many organic compounds were released, including functionalized benzenes, hydrocarbons, and small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the second set of experiments, we subjected two of these compounds to conditions that simulate the heterogeneous chemistry of Earth s upper atmosphere. We find evidence that meteor-derived compounds can follow reaction pathways leading to the formation of more complex organic compounds.

  13. The Radiation Environment of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Linsky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exoplanets are born and evolve in the radiation and particle environment created by their host star. The host star’s optical and infrared radiation heats the exoplanet’s lower atmosphere and surface, while the ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet and X-radiation control the photochemistry and mass loss from the exoplanet’s upper atmosphere. Stellar radiation, especially at the shorter wavelengths, changes dramatically as a host star evolves leading to changes in the planet’s atmosphere and habitability. This paper reviews the present state of our knowledge concerning the time-dependent radiation emitted by stars with convective zones, that is stars with spectral types F, G, K, and M, which comprise nearly all of the host stars of detected exoplanets.

  14. Atmospheric water harvester

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... ... involve condensation and precipitation. So, in order to examine the potential water in the atmosphere, atmospheric water harvester model was developed since it is one of the sustainable alternative water resources [6]. Normally, the atmosphere contains water in the form of water vapor, moisture and so ...

  15. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  16. Facilitating atmosphere oxidation through mantle convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. K. M.; Gu, T.; Creasy, N.; Li, M.; McCammon, C. A.; Girard, J.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's mantle connects the surface with the deep interior through convection, and the evolution of its redox state will affect the distribution of siderophile elements, recycling of refractory isotopes, and the oxidation state of the atmosphere through volcanic outgassing. While the rise of oxygen in the atmosphere, i.e., the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) occurred 2.4 billion years ago (Ga), multiple lines of evidence point to oxygen production in the atmosphere well before 2.4 Ga. In contrast to the fluctuations of atmospheric oxygen, vanadium in Archean mantle lithosphere suggests that the mantle redox state has been constant for 3.5 Ga. Indeed, the connection between the redox state of the deep Earth and the atmosphere is enigmatic as is the effect of redox state on mantle dynamics. Here we show a redox-induced density contrast affects mantle convection and may potentially cause the oxidation of the upper mantle. We compressed two synthetic enstatite chondritic samples with identical bulk compositions but formed under different oxygen fugacities (fO2) to lower mantle pressures and temperatures and find Al2O3 forms its own phase separate from the dominant bridgmanite phase in the more reduced composition, in contrast to a more Al-rich, bridgmanite-dominated assemblage for a more oxidized starting composition. As a result, the reduced material is 1-1.5% denser than the oxidized material. Subsequent experiments on other plausible mantle compositions, which differ only in redox state of the starting glass materials, show similar results: distinct mineral assemblages and density contrasts up to 4%. Our geodynamic simulations suggest that such a density contrast causes a rapid ascent and accumulation of oxidized material in the upper mantle, with descent of the denser reduced material to the core-mantle boundary. The resulting heterogeneous redox conditions in Earth's interior may have contributed to the large low-shear velocity provinces in the lower mantle and the

  17. Upper tropospheric ice sensitivity to sulfate geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Mancini, Eva

    2017-04-01

    In light of the Paris Agreement which aims to keep global warming under 2 °C in the next century and considering the emission scenarios produced by the IPCC for the same time span, it is likely that to remain below that threshold some kind of geoengineering technique will have to be deployed. Amongst the different methods, the injection of sulfur into the stratosphere has received much attention considering its effectiveness and affordability. Aside from the rather well established surface cooling sulfate geoengineering (SG) would produce, the investigation on possible side-effects of this method is still ongoing. For instance, some recent studies have investigated the effect SG would have on upper tropospheric cirrus clouds, expecially on the homogenous freezing mechanisms that produces the ice particles (Kuebbeler et al., 2012). The goal of the present study is to better understand the effect of thermal and dynamical anomalies caused by SG on the formation of ice crystals via homogeneous freezing by comparing a complete SG simulation with a RCP4.5 reference case and with a number of sensitivity studies where atmospheric temperature changes in the upper tropospheric region are specified in a schematic way as a function of the aerosol driven stratospheric warming and mid-lower tropospheric cooling. These changes in the temperature profile tend to increase atmospheric stabilization, thus decreasing updraft and with it the amount of water vapor available for homogeneous freezing in the upper troposphere. However, what still needs to be assessed is the interaction between this dynamical effect and the thermal effects of tropospheric cooling (which would increase ice nucleation rates) and stratospheric warming (which would probably extend to the uppermost troposphere via SG aerosol gravitational settling, thus reducing ice nucleation rates), in order to understand how they combine together. Changes in ice clouds coverage could be important for SG, because cirrus ice

  18. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I.; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10"9 cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  19. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S., E-mail: j.s.yates@ed.ac.uk [Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-20

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10{sup 9} cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  20. Detection of HTLV-IIa in blood donors in an urban area of the Amazon Region of Brazil (Belém, PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The human lymphotropic viruses type I (HTLV-I and type II (HTLV-II are members of a group of mammalian retroviruses with similar biological properties, and blood transfusion is an important route of transmission. HTLV-I is endemic in a number of different geographical areas and is associated with several clinical disorders. HTLV-II is endemic in several Indian groups of the Americas and intravenous drug abusers in North and South America, Europe and Southeast Asia. During the year of 1995, all blood donors tested positive to HTLV-I/II in the State Blood Bank (HEMOPA, were directed to a physician and to the Virus Laboratory at the Universidade Federal do Pará for counselling and laboratory diagnosis confirmation. Thirty-five sera were tested by an enzyme immune assay, and a Western blot that discriminates HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection. Two HTLV-II positive samples were submitted to PCR analysis of pX and env genomic region, and confirmed to be of subtype IIa. This is the first detection in Belém of the presence of HTLV-IIa infection among blood donors. This result emphasizes that HTLV-II is also present in urban areas of the Amazon region of Brazil and highlights the need to include screening tests that are capable to detect antibodies for both types of HTLV.

  1. Risk strata-based therapy and outcome in stage Ib-IIa carcinoma cervix: single-centre ten-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundargi, Rajshekar S; Guruprasad, B; Rathod, Praveen Shankar; Shakuntala, Pn; Shobha, K; Pallavi, Vr; Uma Devi, K; Bafna, Ud

    2013-01-01

    To review the outcome of stage (Ib, IIa), cervical cancer patients were primarily treated with radical hysterectomy and risk-based postoperative therapy. Between January 2001 and December 2011, 601 cases underwent surgery followed by tailored therapy. Patients were classified into low risk (pelvic lymph node negative, tumour less than 4 cm, no evidence of lympho-vascular invasion, less than one-third of thickness of surgical stoma involved), intermediate risk (positive lympho-vascular space invasion, tumour size more than 4 cm, and deep invasion of cervical stroma), and high risk (pelvic lymph node involved, positive parametrial, or vaginal margins) groups. Postoperative adju-vant therapy in the form of radiotherapy alone to those with intermediate risk and chemo-radiotherapy to those with high risk was given to patients. The median follow-up was 60 months. The majority of patients had intermediate risk. The overall event-free survival (EFS) at five years was 74.37%, with EFS of 86.5% in those from the low-risk group, 73% in those from the intermediate-risk group, and 64% in those from the high-risk group. In conclusion, risk strata-based adjuvant postoperative therapy is able to provide a favourable outcome in patients with stage Ib-IIa cervical cancer with a nearly 11% improvement in survival compared with historical control.

  2. The Novel Kasugamycin 2′-N-Acetyltransferase Gene aac(2′)-IIa, Carried by the IncP Island, Confers Kasugamycin Resistance to Rice-Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Kasugamycin (KSM), a unique aminoglycoside antibiotic, has been used in agriculture for many years to control not only rice blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea but also rice bacterial grain and seedling rot or rice bacterial brown stripe caused by Burkholderia glumae or Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, respectively. Since both bacterial pathogens are seed-borne and cause serious injury to rice seedlings, the emergence of KSM-resistant B. glumae and A. avenae isolates highlights the urgent need to understand the mechanism of resistance to KSM. Here, we identified a novel gene, aac(2′)-IIa, encoding a KSM 2′-N-acetyltransferase from both KSM-resistant pathogens but not from KSM-sensitive bacteria. AAC(2′)-IIa inactivates KSM, although it reveals no cross-resistance to other aminoglycosides. The aac(2′)-IIa gene from B. glumae strain 5091 was identified within the IncP genomic island inserted into the bacterial chromosome, indicating the acquisition of this gene by horizontal gene transfer. Although excision activity of the IncP island and conjugational gene transfer was not detected under the conditions tested, circular intermediates containing the aac(2′)-IIa gene were detected. These results indicate that the aac(2′)-IIa gene had been integrated into the IncP island of a donor bacterial species. Molecular detection of the aac(2′)-IIa gene could distinguish whether isolates are resistant or susceptible to KSM. This may contribute to the production of uninfected rice seeds and lead to the effective control of these pathogens by KSM. PMID:22660700

  3. Quasisteady primitive equations with associated upper boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents another approach to the problem of modeling large scale atmospheric flow. The major thrust of the method is to search for quasi-steady-state phenomena. This leads to sets of diagnostic and predictive equations that differ from those presently in use. Another important feature of the analysis is the introduction of a slowly floating upper boundary. In addition to simplifying the question of boundary conditions at the upper boundary, the floating top requires a highly significant change in the set of diagnostic variables. Two possible upper boundary conditions are derived in conjunction with the floating top. The first assumes continuous flow at the upper boundary, while the second assumes a compression-wave type discontinuity. Two specific criteria are formulated for checking the validity of the quasi-steady-state model. One is a scale assumption, between the physical scale and the time scale. The other is the requirement that the solution of the diagnostic equations be the steady-state limit of the original time-dependent equations. Various examples are given in order to attempt to clarify the techniques and philosophy of this approach. In addition, a specific test case is solved numerically with three models: The fixed top quasi-steady-state model, the floating top quasi-steady-state model, and a hydrostatic model. At the same time various upper boundary conditions are tested and compared. The results of the investigation indicate several significant advantages in favor of the floating top quasi-steady-state model

  4. Elaboration of collisional-radiative models applied to atmospheric entry into the Earth and Mars atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Annaloro, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The hypersonic entry of a body into the upper layers of a planetary atmosphere leads to the formation of a plasma resulting from the intense compression of the incident gas. This compression takes place within a shock layer in non-equilibrium, the knowledge of which is partial. This prevents a precise assessment of the convective, radiative and catalytic parts of the parietal heat flux required for the sizing of the thermal protection system of the entering body. The latter contributions stro...

  5. Glucose-Specific Enzyme IIA of the Phosphoenolpyruvate:Carbohydrate Phosphotransferase System Modulates Chitin Signaling Pathways in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shouji; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2017-09-15

    In Vibrio cholerae , the genes required for chitin utilization and natural competence are governed by the chitin-responsive two-component system (TCS) sensor kinase ChiS. In the classical TCS paradigm, a sensor kinase specifically phosphorylates a cognate response regulator to activate gene expression. However, our previous genetic study suggested that ChiS stimulates the non-TCS transcriptional regulator TfoS by using mechanisms distinct from classical phosphorylation reactions (S. Yamamoto, J. Mitobe, T. Ishikawa, S. N. Wai, M. Ohnishi, H. Watanabe, and H. Izumiya, Mol Microbiol 91:326-347, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1111/mmi.12462). TfoS specifically activates the transcription of tfoR , encoding a small regulatory RNA essential for competence gene expression. Whether ChiS and TfoS interact directly remains unknown. To determine if other factors mediate the communication between ChiS and TfoS, we isolated transposon mutants that turned off tfoR :: lacZ expression but possessed intact chiS and tfoS genes. We demonstrated an unexpected association of chitin-induced signaling pathways with the glucose-specific enzyme IIA (EIIA glc ) of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) for carbohydrate uptake and catabolite control of gene expression. Genetic and physiological analyses revealed that dephosphorylated EIIA glc inactivated natural competence and tfoR transcription. Chitin-induced expression of the chb operon, which is required for chitin transport and catabolism, was also repressed by dephosphorylated EIIA glc Furthermore, the regulation of tfoR and chb expression by EIIA glc was dependent on ChiS and intracellular levels of ChiS were not affected by disruption of the gene encoding EIIA glc These results define a previously unknown connection between the PTS and chitin signaling pathways in V. cholerae and suggest a strategy whereby this bacterium can physiologically adapt to the existing nutrient status. IMPORTANCE The EIIA glc

  6. Neuroprotective effect of combining tanshinone IIA with low-dose methylprednisolone following acute spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nian-Wei; Lu, Yuan; Shi, Li-Qi; Xu, Feng; Cai, Xian-Hua

    2017-05-01

    The present study compared the potential neuroprotective effect of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) monotherapy, methylprednisolone (MP) monotherapy and combined treatment in an adult acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) rat model. The current study used the weight-drop method (Allen's Impactor) in the rat model and the mechanical scratch method in primary spinal cord neuron culture to determine whether the combined treatment was able to reduce the required dosage of MP in the treatment of ASCI to produce a similar or improved therapeutic effect. In vivo male Sprague Dawley rats (n=60) were randomly divided into 5 groups, of which 12 rats were selected for the sham group and T9-T11 laminectomies, leading to ASCI, were performed on 48 of the 60 rats using a 10 g ×25 mm weight-drop at the level of T10 spinal cord. Therefore, the ASCI group (n=12) included the 'laminectomy and weight-drop'. The remaining 36 ASCI model animals were subdivided into 3 groups (n=12 each group): TIIA group (30 mg/kg/day), MP group (30 mg/kg) and combined treatment group (TIIA 30 mg/kg/day + MP 20 mg/kg). Neuronal function following ASCI was evaluated using the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Levels of the anti-apoptotic factor B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), the pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax) and caspase-3, and the inflammatory associated factor nuclear factor-κB, were analyzed by western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect caspase-3. To investigate the underlying mechanism, the anti-oxidative effect of combination TIIA and MP treatment was assessed by measuring the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in ASCI. In agreement with the experiment in vivo , primary neurons were prepared from the spinal cord of one-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats' and co-cultured with astrocytes from the brain cortex. The injury of neurons was induced by mechanical scratch and levels of apoptosis factors were analyzed by western blot analysis

  7. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Joseph; Chen, Dar-Ren; Wang, Yu-Fen; Lai, Hung-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group) and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group). The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6%) ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1%) to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  8. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lin

    Full Text Available Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group. The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6% ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1% to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  9. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G

    2011-01-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  10. Pluto's atmosphere near perihelion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trafton, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    A recent stellar occultation has confirmed predictions that Pluto has an atmosphere which is sufficiently thick to uniformly envelope the planet and to extend far above the surface. Pluto's atmosphere consists of methane and perhaps other volatile gases at temperatures below their freezing points; it should regulate the surface temperature of its volatile ices to a globally uniform value. As Pluto approaches and passes through perihelion, a seasonal maximum in the atmospheric bulk and a corresponding minimum in the exposed volatile ice abundance is expected to occur. The lag in maximum atmospheric bulk relative to perihelion will be diagnostic of the surface thermal properties. An estimate of Pluto's atmospheric bulk may result if a global darkening (resulting from the disappearance of the seasonally deposited frosts) occurs before the time of maximum atmospheric bulk. The ice deposited shortly after perihelion may be diagnostic of the composition of Pluto's volatile reservoir

  11. Atmosphere physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.; Megie, G.; Peuch, V.H.

    2005-10-01

    Since the 1970's, the awareness about the atmospheric pollution threat has led to a spectacular development of the researches on the complex interactions between the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the climate. This book makes a synthesis of the state-of-the-art in this very active domain of research. Content: introduction, atmosphere dynamics and transport, matter-radiation interaction and radiant transfer, physico-chemical processes, atmospheric aerosol and heterogenous chemistry, anthropic and natural emissions and deposition, stratospheric chemical system, tropospheric chemical system, polluted boundary layer, paleo-environments and ice archives, role of atmospheric chemistry in global changes, measurement principles and instruments, numerical modeling, experimental strategy, regulation and management of the atmospheric environment, index. (J.S.)

  12. Ocean-atmosphere interaction and synoptic weather conditions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... period of strong north-south pressure gradient over the Bay region. Events of prominent fall in SST and in the upper 15m ocean layer mean temperature and salinity values during typical rainfall events are cited. The impact of monsoon disturbances on ocean-atmosphere interface transfer processes has been investigated.

  13. Sources of atmospheric ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriss, R.C.; Michaels, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    The information available on factors that influence emissions from the principal societal sources of ammonia to the atmosphere, namely combustion processes, volatilization of farm animal wastes, and volatilization of fertilizers, is reviewed. Emission factors are established for each major source of atmospheric ammonia. The factors are then multiplied by appropriate source characterization descriptors to obtain calculated fluxes of ammonia to the atmosphere on a state-by-state basis for the United States

  14. Upper incisors' positions after extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics.

  15. Measurements of Terminal Velocities of Cirrus Clouds in the Upper Trosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee Jan Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds are composed of ice crystals condensed from humidity due to low temperature condition in the upper atmosphere. The microphysics of cirrus clouds including sizes and shapes of ice particles are not well understood but are important in climate modeling. Ice crystal will fall under gravitational sedimentation to reach terminal velocities which depend on the size, mass, and ice habit. We studied here the terminal velocity of cirrus clouds by using lidar observations at Chungli (25N, 121E. The terminal velocities for a few cases of stable cirrus clouds are measured to determine the ice particle sizes and processes in the upper atmosphere.

  16. New measurements quantify atmospheric greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    In spite of a large body of existing measurements of incoming short-wave solar radiation and outgoing long-wave terrestrial radiation at the surface of the Earth and, more recently, in the upper atmosphere, there are few observations documenting how radiation profiles change through the atmosphere—information that is necessary to fully quantify the greenhouse effect of Earth's atmosphere. Through the use of existing technology but employing improvements in observational techniques it may now be possible not only to quantify but also to understand how different components of the atmosphere (e.g., concentration of gases, cloud cover, moisture, and aerosols) contribute to the greenhouse effect. Using weather balloons equipped with radiosondes, Philipona et al. continuously measured radiation fluxes from the surface of Earth up to altitudes of 35 kilometers in the upper stratosphere. Combining data from flights conducted during both day and night with continuous 24-hour measurements made at the surface of the Earth, the researchers created radiation profiles of all four components necessary to fully capture the radiation budget of Earth, namely, the upward and downward short-wave and long-wave radiation as a function of altitude.

  17. Understanding Callisto's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John

    2016-10-01

    We plan to address first-order questions about the nature and origin of the mysterious atmosphere of Callisto, including its composition, longitudinal distribution, formation, and support mechanisms. This investigation is made possible by the remarkable sensitivity of the COS instrument, which has recently detected faint 1304 A and 1356 A O I emission from Callisto's leading / Jupiter-facing quadrant. The emission is probably due to dissociation of O2 molecules in Callisto's atmosphere by photo-electrons, and resonant scattering from an extended atomic O corona. We suspect, from Galileo ionospheric data, that the atmosphere may be much denser, and brighter in emission, on the trailing hemisphere, as expected for a sputter-generated atmosphere, and propose to test the sputter generation hypothesis with 4-orbit COS integrations on the leading and trailing hemispheres. If the trailing side emissions are indeed brighter, the improved SNR there will also allow much improved determination of atmospheric and coronal composition and optical depth. The observations will set the stage for, and aid in planning of, the extensive observations of Callisto's environment planned for the JUICE mission. Because Callisto's atmospheric oxygen emissions are indirectly illuminated by sunlight, which is uniform and quantifiable, it is much easier to understand atmospheric spatial distribution, and thus origin, than on Europa and Ganymede were emissions depend on magnetospheric excitation which is spatially variable and poorly understood. Callisto's atmosphere thus provides a unique chance to better understand the oxygen atmospheres of all the icy Galilean moons.

  18. Designing Dynamic Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Højlund, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful,....... The potentials and implica-­‐ tions are presented through a design case, Kidkit, highlighting temporality as design parametre within interaction design.......This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful...

  19. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  20. Io's tenuous atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.V.; Matson, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation is made of observational evidence adduced to date for the various extant models of the Io atmosphere. SO2 and its various photochemical products have been noted to play a major role in the atmosphere; such atomic species as Na and K are present in smaller quantities, and play an important role in the atmosphere's ion chemistry. The vapor pressure equilibrium between condensed SO 2 on the surface and the atmospheric gas is an important factor in the global control of SO 2 gas distribution, but cannot account for the neutral densities at the terminator required for ionospheric models in view of realistic surface temperature distributions