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Sample records for ii lung cancer

  1. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  2. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease ...

  3. Phase II study of ACNU in non-small-cell lung cancer: EORTC study 08872

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S.Th. Planting (André); A. Ardizzoni (A.); J. Estapé (J.); G. Giaccone (Giuseppe); G.V. Scagliotti (Giorgio); T.A.W. Splinter (Ted); A. Kirkpatrick (A.); O. Dalesio (O.); J.G. Mcvie (John Gordon)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractA total of 62 patients with metastatic or locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer were entered in a phase II study of ACNU. Initially, the drug was given i. v. at a dose of 100 mg/m2 every 6 weeks, but due to observed haematological side effects in chemotherapy-pretreated patients,

  4. Inhaled cisplatin deposition and distribution in lymph nodes in stage II lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Krauss, Leslie; Huang, Haidong; Zachariadis, George A; Katsavou, Anna; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Vogl, Thomas J; Freitag, Lutz; Stamatis, George; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-09-01

    Lung cancer therapies during the last decade have focused on targeting the genome of cancer cells, and novel routes for administering lung cancer therapies have been investigated for decades. Aerosol therapies for several systematic diseases and systemic infections were introduced into the market a decade ago. One of the main issues of aerosol therapies has been the ability to investigate the deposition of a drug compound throughout the systematic circulation and lymph node circulation. Until now, none of the published studies have efficiently shown the deposition of a chemotherapy pharmaceutical within the lymph node tissue. In our current work we present, for the first time, with the novel CytoViva(®) (AL, USA) technique, the deposition of cisplatin aerosol therapy in surgically resected stage II lymph nodes from lung cancer patients. Finally, we present the distribution of cisplatin in correlation with the cisplatin concentration in different lymph stations and comment on the possible mechanisms of distribution.

  5. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  6. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graphics Infographic Stay Informed Cancer Home What Is Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may ...

  7. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  8. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  9. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  10. Genetic Polymorphisms of Phase II Metabolic Enzymes and Lung Cancer Susceptibility in a Population of Central South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-chun Chen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study was conducted for analyzing the genetic polymorphisms of phase II metabolic enzymes in 97 patients with lung cancer and 197 healthy subjects from Han ethnic group of Hunan Province located in Central South China. The results showed that the frequencies of glutathione S-transferase (GST M1-null (GSTM1- or GSTT1-null (GSTT1- genotype alone, or combined form of both in lung cancer patients were significantly higher than those of the controls. Genotypes of combining GSTP1 mutant/GSTM1(- or GSTP1 mutant/GSTT1(- led to high risk of lung cancer. Individuals carrying any two or all three of GSTM1(-, GSTT1(- and GSTP1 mutant genotypes have a distinctly increased risk of lung cancer when compared to those with GSTM1 present (GSTM1+: GSTM1+/+ or GSTM1+/−, GSTT1 present (GSTT1+: GSTT1+/+ or GSTT1+/− and GSTP1 wild genotypes. Furthermore, individuals possessing combined genotypes of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 rapid acetylator, GSTP1 mutant and both GSTT1(- and GSTM1(- have a remarkably higher lung cancer risk than those carrying combined NAT2 slow acetylator genotype, GSTP1 wild genotype and both GSTT1(+ and GSTM1(+ genotypes. All these findings suggest that the genetic polymorphisms of phase II metabolic enzymes affect the susceptibility of lung cancer in the Han ethnic group of Central South China.

  11. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Do I Stay Healthy Share this page: Nutrition for Lung Cancer Key Points There is no ... lung cancer symptoms, making them worse or better. Nutrition Goals Each person's nutritional needs during lung cancer ...

  12. Immunotherapy for Lung Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yi Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although treatment methods in surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy have improved, prognosis remains unsatisfactory and developing new therapeutic strategies is still an urgent demand. Immunotherapy is a novel therapeutic approach wherein activated immune cells can specifically kill tumor cells by recognition of tumor-associated antigens without damage to normal cells. Several lung cancer vaccines have demonstrated prolonged survival time in phase II and phase III trials, and several clinical trials are under investigation. However, many clinical trials involving cancer vaccination with defined tumor antigens work in only a small number of patients. Cancer immunotherapy is not completely effective in eradicating tumor cells because tumor cells escape from host immune scrutiny. Understanding of the mechanism of immune evasion regulated by tumor cells is required for the development of more effective immunotherapeutic approaches against lung cancer. This paper discusses the identification of tumor antigens in lung cancer, tumor immune escape mechanisms, and clinical vaccine trials in lung cancer.

  13. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  14. Phase II trial of second-line erlotinib and digoxin for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Kayali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fadi Kayali, Muhamad A Janjua, Damian A Laber, Donald Miller, Goetz H KloeckerUniversity of Louisville, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville, KY, USABackground: In vitro digoxin sensitizes cancer cells to the induction of apoptosis by chemotherapy. Inhibition of the Na/K-ATPase enzyme by ouabain disturbs the intracellular ion composition of cancer cells, altering cellular homeostasis. This suggests that inhibition of the Na/K pump results in cellular sensitization of malignant but not benign cells to the induction of apoptosis. Epidemiologic studies have also shown beneficial effects of digitalis in breast cancer incidence. At ASCO (American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 our group presented a Phase II study showing encouraging results by adding digoxin to biochemotherapy for melanoma. Erlotinib is one of the standard second-line treatments for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC, with a response rate (RR of 10%. This study's hypothesis was that adding digoxin to erlotinib will improve the RR and time to progression (TTP in NSCLC.Methods: Patients with progressive disease (PD after chemotherapy were enrolled if they had an ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score from 0 to 2 and good organ function. Daily erlotinib 150 mg and digoxin 0.25 mg were taken by mouth. The digoxin dose was adjusted to keep levels between 1 and 2 ng/mL. Computed tomography scans were done every 6 weeks. Treatment continued until PD or significant toxicity occurred.Results: Patient accrual lasted from March 2006 until August 2008 and was stopped early at the time of interim analysis. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled, and 24 who completed at least 6 weeks of therapy are presented here. All patients had unresectable NSCLC stage III/IV at diagnosis. Median age was 61 (34–78, 14 were female, 17 had prior radiation (not involving the target lesions, 23 had one prior chemotherapy, and one subject had two. Only one patient was a never-smoker. Histologies were

  15. New serum markers for small-cell lung cancer. II. The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A; Drivsholm, L; Andersen, E;

    1994-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) was recently suggested as a marker for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of the NCAM in 78% of SCLC patients and in 25% of patients with other cancer forms. NCAM was proposed to be the most sensitive marker...

  16. Smoking cessation intervention within the framework of a lung cancer screening program: preliminary results and clinical perspectives from the "Cosmos-II" Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippo, Lococo; Principe, Rosastella; Cesario, Alfredo; Apolone, Giovanni; Carleo, Francesco; Ialongo, Pasquale; Veronesi, Giulia; Cardillo, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Data coming from the literature investigating the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation (SC) and lung cancer screening (LCScr) are still sparse and inconsistent. Herein, we report the preliminary results from the ongoing lung cancer screening trial ("Cosmos-II") focusing our analysis on the inter-relationship between the SC program and the LCScr.

  17. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are available to help. HELPFUL WEB SITES ON LUNG CANCER American Lung Association www.lung.org Lungcancer.org www.lungcancer.org Lung Cancer Alliance www.lungcanceralliance.org Lung Cancer Online www. ...

  18. Effect of recombinant alpha interferon on NK and ADCC function in lung cancer patients: results from a phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Olesen, B K

    1985-01-01

    During a phase II trial of recombinant IFN-alpha given in doses of 50 X 10(6) units/m2 three times per week to lung cancer patients, 13 patients were evaluated longitudinally in NK and ADCC assays and in immunofluorescence tests enumerating the number of cells reactive with the new N901 NK-cell a....... These data are discussed in relation to other clinical trials using leukocyte or recombinant IFN-alpha. Udgivelsesdato: 1984 Fall...

  19. A phase II study of paclitaxel in heavily pretreated patients with small-cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EF; Fokkema, E; Biesma, B; Groen, HJM; Snoek, W; Postmus, PE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to delineate the efficacy and toxicity of paclitaxel (Taxol, Bristol Myers Squibb) in the treatment of drug resistant small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Patients with SCLC relapsing within 3 months of cytotoxic therapy received paclitaxel 175 mg m(-2) intravenously over 3 h

  20. Palliative Care Intervention in Improving Symptom Control and Quality of Life in Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-13

    Caregiver; Psychological Impact of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. A resected case of metachronous liver metastasis from lung cancer producing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Yukio; Takada, Yasutsugu; Enomoto, Tsuyoshi; Fukao, Katashi; Ishikawa, Shigemi; Iijima, Tatsuo

    2004-01-01

    A resected case of huge liver metastasis of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the lung is described. A 77-year-old man who presented a solitary huge liver tumor was admitted to our hospital. He had undergone right lower lobectomy of the lung for lung cancer one year before. The view of imaging studies was not a typical one of hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum levels of AFP and PIVKA-II were 334,500ng/mL and 3,890mAU/mL, respectively, and the proportion of AFP L3 was 97.9%. It was thought that they were strongly diagnostic for hepatocellular carcinoma. Extended right lobectomy of the liver was performed. Microscopically, it was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and diagnosed as liver metastasis from the formerly resected lung cancer. The tumor was composed of cells with both sheet-like growth and tubule formation. The neoplastic cells, in the sheet-like growth resembled hepatocellular carcinoma cells. By immunohistochemical staining with anti-AFP and anti-PIVKA-II antibodies, cancer cells of both the primary and metastatic lesions were positive. The patient eventually died of multiple liver and bone metastasis 6 months after the operation.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neoplasm of lung malignant tumor of lung pulmonary cancer pulmonary carcinoma pulmonary neoplasms respiratory carcinoma Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources ... Encyclopedia: Lung Cancer--Non-Small Cell Encyclopedia: Lung Cancer--Small Cell ...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... you should know about six of the most common cancers and some of the NCI funded research ...

  4. Second lung cancers in patients successfully treated for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B E; Cortazar, P; Chute, J P

    1997-08-01

    The rate of developing second lung cancers and other aerodigestive tumors in patients who have been treated for both small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is approximately 10-fold higher than other adult smokers. The risk of second lung cancers in patients surviving resection of NSCLC is approximately 1% to 2% per year. The series reported show that the patients who develop second NSCLCs tend to have early-stage NSCLC (predominantly stage I and II). The survival of patients after the second resection of lung cancer is similar to that of patients presenting with initial NSCLC. The risk of second lung cancers in patients surviving SCLC is 2% to 14% per patient per year and increases two- to seven-fold with the passage of time from 2 to 10 years. The risk of second lung cancers in patients treated for SCLC appears to be higher than that found in patients with NSCLC who were treated only with surgical resection. In addition, the chances of successful resection of second primary NSCLCs in patients who were treated for SCLC is much less than that for patients with metachronous lung cancers after an initial NSCLC. Patients treated for SCLC who continue to smoke cigarettes increase their rate of developing second lung cancers. The contribution of chest radiation and chemotherapy administration to the risk of developing second lung tumors remain to be defined but may be responsible for some of the increased risk in patients treated for SCLC compared to patients undergoing a surgical resection for NSCLC.

  5. Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Nørgaard, P; Abrahamsen, N;

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) exerts a growth inhibitory effect on many cell types through binding to two types of receptors, the type I and II receptors. Resistance to TGF-beta due to lack of type II receptor (RII) has been described in some cancer types including small cell lung...... cancer (SCLC). The purpose of this study was to examine the cause of absent RII expression in SCLC cell lines. Northern blot analysis showed that RII RNA expression was very weak in 16 of 21 cell lines. To investigate if the absence of RII transcript was due to mutations, we screened the poly-A tract...... for mutations, but no mutations were detected. Additional screening for mutations of the RII gene revealed a GG to TT base substitution in one cell line, which did not express RII. This mutation generates a stop codon resulting in predicted synthesis of a truncated RII of 219 amino acids. The nature...

  6. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  7. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  8. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet....

  9. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  10. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Colon, Pancreatic, or Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer

  11. Randomized phase II clinical trial of chemo-immunotherapy in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lasalvia-Prisco

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Lasalvia-Prisco1,4, Emilio Garcia-Giralt2, Jesús Vázquez2,4, Marta Aghazarian4, Eduardo Lasalvia-Galante3,4, Joshemaria Larrañaga3,4, Gonzalo Spera31Interdoctors Medical Procedures, North Miami Beach, FL, USA; 2Centre De Cancérologie Hartmann, Neuilly Sur Seine, France; 3Interdoctors Medical Procedures, Montevideo, Uruguay; 4National Institute of Oncology, Montevideo, Uruguay (initial dataAbstract: The purpose of this study was to compare chemotherapy-naive patients with stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy. We tested doxetacel plus cisplatinum as chemotherapy protocol. An immunomodulatory adjuvant system was added as chemoimmunotherapy to the previously mentioned protocol. This system contains three well-known and complementary conditioners of protective immune-responses: cyclophosphamide low-dose, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulant factor and magnesium silicate granuloma. Eighty-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive every 3-weeks one of the treatments under comparison. Patients received four cycles of treatment unless disease progression or unacceptable toxicity was documented. The maximum follow-up was one year. In each arm, tumor response (rate, duration, median survival time, 1-year overall survival, safety, and immunity modifications were assessed. Immunity was evaluated by submitting peripheral blood mononuclear cells to laboratory tests for nonspecific immunity: a phytohemaglutinin-induced lymphocyte proliferation, b prevalence of T-Regulatory (CD4+CD25+ cells and for specific immunity: a lymphocyte proliferation induced by tumor-associated antigens (TAA contained in a previously described autologous thermostable hemoderivative. The difference (chemotherapy vs. chemoimmunotherapy in response rate induced by the two treatments (39.0% and 35.0% was not statistically significant. However, the response duration (22 and 31 weeks, the median survival time (32

  12. Immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Antonius; Fisher, Scott A; Robinson, Bruce W

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of lung cancer remains a challenge, and lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Immunotherapy has previously failed in lung cancer but has recently emerged as a very effective new therapy, and there is now growing worldwide enthusiasm in cancer immunotherapy. We summarize why immune checkpoint blockade therapies have generated efficacious and durable responses in clinical trials and why this has reignited interest in this field. Cancer vaccines have also been explored in the past with marginal success. Identification of optimal candidate neoantigens may improve cancer vaccine efficacy and may pave the way to personalized immunotherapy, alone or in combination with other immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint blockade. Understanding the steps in immune recognition and eradication of cancer cells is vital to understanding why previous immunotherapies failed and how current therapies can be used optimally. We hold an optimistic view for the future prospect in lung cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  14. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  15. Brain-only metastases of small cell lung cancer; efficacy of whole brain radiotherapy. An EORTC phase II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, PE; Haaxma-Reiche, H; Gregor, A; Groen, HJM; Lewinski, T; Scolard, T; Kirkpatrick, A; Curran, D; Sahmoud, T; Giaccone, G

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of WBRT as a single treatment modality in patients with brain metastases of small cell lung cancer. Patients and methods: The patients had brain metastases of small cell lung cancer without any sign of tumour outside the brain and were treated with 10

  16. Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Emily H; Horn, Leora

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has not traditionally been viewed as an immune-responsive tumor. However, it is becoming evident that tumor-induced immune suppression is vital to malignant progression. Immunotherapies act by enhancing the patient's innate immune response and hold promise for inducing long-term responses in select patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, in particular, inhibitors to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown promise in early studies and are currently in clinical trials in both small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer patients. Two large randomized phase III trials recently demonstrated superior overall survival (OS) in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy compared to chemotherapy in the second-line setting.

  17. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  18. PET-Adjusted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Brain; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  19. Lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazerooni, E.A. [Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-11-15

    Lung cancer screening with CT remains controversial. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. To date, no screening test has been demonstrated to reduce mortality. Given the large population of adult cigarette smokers and former smokers worldwide, there is a large population at risk for lung cancer. While a lot has been learned from prospective single-arm cohort studies about the feasibility of performing annual CT to screen for lung cancer, many questions have also been raised. While we know that screening for lung cancer with CT detects many small nodules, with up to half the subjects having a positive baseline screen, and up to 75% of subjects having a positive screen at least once if screened annually for 5 years, the great majority of these nodules exhibit benign biologic behavior. The innumerable small nodules detected with screening CT, and diagnostic chest CT in general, present a daily clinical challenge, and result in extensive medical resource utilization and additional radiation exposure. Algorithms for how and when to follow small nodules detected on CT are in evolution. Ongoing studies are designed to determine if lung cancer screening with CT reduces lung cancer mortality. (orig.)

  20. Image-Guided Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Boost and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon R. Pine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation pathways are maintained within distinct cancer types, and destabilization of this machinery may participate in maintenance of cancer stem cells. Characterization of lung cancer stem cells is an area of active research and is critical for developing novel therapies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell signaling pathways and cell markers used to identify the lung cancer stem cells.

  2. Randomized Phase II and Pharmacogenetic Study of Pemetrexed Compared With Pemetrexed Plus Carboplatin in Pretreated Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Egbert F.; Burgers, Sjaak A.; Biesma, Bonne; Eppinga, Pier; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Joerger, Markus; Schellens, Jan H.; Vincent, Andrew; van Zandwijk, Nico; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We performed a randomized phase II trial comparing pemetrexed with pemetrexed plus carboplatin (PC) in patients experiencing relapse after platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients and Methods Main eligibility criteria were histologic or cytologic proof of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NS

  3. Phase II proof-of-concept study of pazopanib monotherapy in treatment-naive patients with stage I/II resectable non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altorki, Nasser; Lane, Maureen E; Bauer, Thomas; Lee, Paul C; Guarino, Michael J; Pass, Harvey; Felip, Enriqueta; Peylan-Ramu, Nili; Gurpide, Alfonso; Grannis, Frederic W; Mitchell, John D; Tachdjian, Sabrina; Swann, R Suzanne; Huff, Anne; Roychowdhury, Debasish F; Reeves, Anthony; Ottesen, Lone H; Yankelevitz, David F

    2010-07-01

    Patients with early-stage, resectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are at risk for recurrent disease, and 5-year survival rates do not exceed 75%. Angiogenesis inhibitors have shown clinical activity in patients with late-stage NSCLC, raising the possibility that targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway in earlier-stage disease may be beneficial. This proof-of-concept study examined safety and efficacy of short-term, preoperative pazopanib monotherapy in patients with operable stage I/II NSCLC. Patients scheduled for resection received oral pazopanib 800 mg/d for 2 to 6 weeks preoperatively. Tumor response was measured by high-resolution computed tomography, permitting estimation of change in tumor volume and diameter. Gene-expression profiling was performed on 77 pre- and post-treatment lung samples from 34 patients. Of 35 patients enrolled, 33 (94%) had clinical stage I NSCLC and two (6%) had clinical stage II NSCLC. Median treatment duration was 16 days (range, 3 to 29 days). Thirty patients (86%) achieved tumor-volume reduction after pazopanib treatment. Two patients achieved tumor-volume reduction > or = 50%, and three patients had partial response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Pazopanib was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events included grade 2 hypertension, diarrhea, and fatigue. One patient developed pulmonary embolism 11 days after surgery. Several pazopanib target genes and other angiogenic factors were dysregulated post-treatment. Short-duration pazopanib was generally well tolerated and demonstrated single-agent activity in patients with early-stage NSCLC. Several target genes were dysregulated after pazopanib treatment, validating target-specific response and indicating a persistent pazopanib effect on lung cancer tissue. Further clinical evaluation of pazopanib in NSCLC is planned.

  4. A Phase I/II Study Combining Erlotinib and Dasatinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Kathryn A.; Lee, J. Jack; Harun, Nusrat; Tang, Ximing; Price, Justina; Kawedia, Jitesh D.; Tran, Hai T.; Erasmus, Jeremy J.; Blumenschein, George R.; William, William N.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.

    2014-01-01

    Background. EGFR and Src are frequently activated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In preclinical models, combining EGFR and Src inhibition has additive synergistic effects. We conducted a phase I/II trial of the combination of Src inhibitor dasatinib with EGFR inhibitor erlotinib to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetic drug interactions, biomarkers, and efficacy in NSCLC. Methods. The phase I 3+3 dose-escalation study enrolled patients with solid tumors to determine the MTD. The phase II trial enrolled patients with advanced NSCLC who had undergone no previous treatments to determine progression-free survival (PFS) and response. Pharmacokinetic and tissue biomarker analyses were performed. Results. MTD was 150 mg of erlotinib and 70 mg of dasatinib daily based on 12 patients treated in the phase I portion. No responses were observed in phase I. The 35 NSCLC patients treated in phase II had an overall disease control rate of 59% at 6 weeks. Five patients (15%) had partial responses; all had activating EGFR mutations. Median PFS was 3.3 months. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers did not correlate with outcomes. Conclusion. The combination of erlotinib and dasatinib is safe and feasible in NSCLC. The results of this study do not support use of this combination in molecularly unselected NSCLC. PMID:25170013

  5. Lycopene and Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although epidemiological studies have shown dietary intake of lycopene is associated with decreased risk of lung cancer, the effect of lycopene on lung carcinogenesis has not been well studied. A better understanding of lycopene metabolism and the mechanistic basis of lycopene chemoprevention must ...

  6. Polonium and lung cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma...

  7. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  8. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma...

  9. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2010. Online Version Reviewed September 2013 ATS Patient Education Series © 2010 American Thoracic Society LIVER BONE www.thoracic.org ATS PATIENT INFORMATION SERIES How will my lung cancer be staged? ...

  10. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Españ ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  11. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) ...

  12. Screening for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Peter J.; Naidich, David P.; Bach, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer deaths largely because in the majority of patients it is at an advanced stage at the time it is discovered, when curative treatment is no longer feasible. This article examines the data regarding the ability of screening to decrease the number of lung cancer deaths. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of controlled studies that address the effectiveness of methods of screening for lung cancer. Results: Several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including a recent one, have demonstrated that screening for lung cancer using a chest radiograph does not reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. One large RCT involving low-dose CT (LDCT) screening demonstrated a significant reduction in lung cancer deaths, with few harms to individuals at elevated risk when done in the context of a structured program of selection, screening, evaluation, and management of the relatively high number of benign abnormalities. Whether other RCTs involving LDCT screening are consistent is unclear because data are limited or not yet mature. Conclusions: Screening is a complex interplay of selection (a population with sufficient risk and few serious comorbidities), the value of the screening test, the interval between screening tests, the availability of effective treatment, the risk of complications or harms as a result of screening, and the degree with which the screened individuals comply with screening and treatment recommendations. Screening with LDCT of appropriate individuals in the context of a structured process is associated with a significant reduction in the number of lung cancer deaths in the screened population. Given the complex interplay of factors inherent in screening, many questions remain on how to effectively implement screening on a broader scale. PMID:23649455

  13. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  14. small Cell Lung Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment response in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methodology: A single-center ..... groupings in the forthcoming (7th) edition of the TNM. Classification of ... overall survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol ...

  15. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  16. Lipoplatin monotherapy: A phase II trial of second-line treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaioli, A; Papi, M; Pasquini, E; Marangolo, M; Rudnas, B; Fantini, M; Nicoletti, S V L; Drudi, F; Panzini, I; Tamburini, E; Gianni, L; Pasini, G

    2009-02-01

    Lipoplatin is a liposome encapsulated form of cisplatin. phase i studies on lipoplatin have demonstrated that the compound has an excellent toxicity profile. therefore we performed a phase ii trial in heavily pre-treated patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSClC), performance status 0-2 in which the primary endpoint was response rate and secondary endpoints were safety and overall survival.Nineteen patients, average age 64 years old, with stage iV NSClC, were treated with lipoplatin 100 mg/m(2) every two weeks, as second line chemotherapy.We observed 1 partial remission (5.2%) and 3 stable diseases (15.9%). Time to progression (ttp) was 16 weeks and median overall survival (OS) was 31 weeks (7.2 months). We observed G1-G2 toxicity during chemotherapy, mainly gastrointestinal with nausea and vomiting (4 patients), asthenia (3 patients), mucositis (2 patients) and anemia (4 patients).Our phase ii study does not support a more extensive use of lipoplatin in phase III studies. An increase of dosage and a better selection of patients are mandatory to understand the real therapeutic activity of lipoplatin.

  17. Resveratrol inhibits Hexokinases II mediated glycolysis in non-small cell lung cancer via targeting Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ma, Xiaoqian; Li, Na; Liu, Huasheng; Dong, Qiong; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Cejun; Liu, Yin; Liang, Qi; Zhang, Shengwang; Xu, Chang; Song, Wei; Tan, Shiming; Rong, Pengfei; Wang, Wei

    2016-12-10

    Deregulation of glycolysis was often observed in human cancer cells. In the present study, we reported resveratrol, a small polyphenol, which has been intensively studied in various tumor models, has a profound anti-tumor effect on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) via regulation of glycolysis. Resveratrol impaired hexokinase II (HK2)-mediated glycolysis, and markedly inhibited anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of NSCLC cells. Exposure to resveratrol decreased EGFR and downstream kinases Akt and ERK1/2 activation. Moreover, we revealed that resveratrol impaired glucose metabolism by mainly inhibiting expression of HK2 mediated by the Akt signaling pathway, and exogenous overexpression of constitutively activated Akt1 in NSCLC cells substantially rescued resveratrol-induced glycolysis suppression. The in vivo data indicated that resveratrol obviously suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Our results suggest targeting HK2 or metabolic enzymes appears to be a new approach for clinical NSCLC prevention or treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human RNA polymerase II associated factor 1 complex promotes tumorigenesis by activating c-MYC transcription in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Xiuyi [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053 (China); Giroux-Leprieur, Etienne [ER2 GRC UPMC04 Theranoscan, Pierre et Marie Curie University, Tenon Hospital, 4 Rue de La Chine, 75020, Paris (France); Respiratory Diseases and Thoracic Oncology Department, Ambroise Pare Hospital – APHP, Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines University, 9 Avenue Charles de Gaulle, 92100, Boulogne-Billancourt (France); Wislez, Marie [ER2 GRC UPMC04 Theranoscan, Pierre et Marie Curie University, Tenon Hospital, 4 Rue de La Chine, 75020, Paris (France); Hu, Mu; Zhang, Yi [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053 (China); Shi, Huaiyin [Department of Pathology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Fu-xing Road #28, Beijing, 100853 (China); Du, Kaiqi, E-mail: kaiqidu_zhejiang@163.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Zhejiang Corps Hospital, Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Lei, E-mail: leiwang_hebei@163.com [Department of Human Anatomy, Hebei Medical University, Hebei Province (China)

    2015-10-02

    Human RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-associated factor 1 complex (hPAF1C) plays a crucial role in protein-coding gene transcription. Overexpression of hPAF1C has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various human cancers. However, the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis through hPAF1C remain to be elucidated. The current study suggested hPAF1C expression as a prognostic biomarker for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and patients with low hPAF1C expression levels had significantly better overall survival. Furthermore, the expression of hPAF1C was found to be positively correlated with c-MYC expression in patient tumor samples and in cancer cell lines. Mechanistic studies indicated that hPAF1C could promote lung cancer cell proliferation through regulating c-MYC transcription. These results demonstrated the prognostic value of hPAF1C in early-stage NSCLC and the role of hPAF1C in the transcriptional regulation of c-MYC oncogene during NSCLC tumorigenesis. - Highlights: • hPAF1C expression is a prognostic biomarker for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. • The expression of hPAF1C was positively correlated with c-MYC in tumor samples of patients and in several NSCLC cell lines. • hPAF1C could promote lung cancer cell proliferation through regulating c-MYC transcription.

  19. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  20. NELSON lung cancer screening study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhao (Yingru); X. Xie (Xueqian); H.J. de Koning (Harry); W.P. Mali (Willem); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON study) was designed to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk subjects will lead to a decrease in 10-year lung cancer mortality of at

  1. Lung Cancer Screening and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. van 't Westeinde (Susan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed major cancer worldwide and the leading cause of death from cancer. Lung cancer is divided into two subgroups: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for 10-20% and 75% of lung cancer cases, respectivel

  2. Galactose conjugated platinum(II) complex targeting the Warburg effect for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Li, Hong; Liu, Ran; Gao, Xiangqian; Zhang, Menghua; Liu, Pengxing; Fu, Zheng; Yang, Jinna; Zhang-Negrerie, Daisy; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-03-03

    Malignant neoplasms exhibit a higher rate of glycolysis than normal cells; this is known as the Warburg effect. To target it, a galactose-conjugated (trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)-2-chloromalonato-platinum(II) complex (Gal-Pt) was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in five human cancer cell lines and against two different xenograft tumour models. Gal-Pt exhibits much higher aqueous solubility (over 25 times) and improved cytotoxicity than oxaliplatin, especially in human colon (HT29) and lung (H460) cancer cell lines. The safety profile of Gal-Pt was investigated in vivo by exploring the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and animal mortality rate. The ratios of the animal lethal dosage values to the cytotoxicity in HT29 (LD50/IC50) showed that Gal-Pt was associated with an increased therapeutic index by over 30-fold compared to cisplatin and oxaliplatin. We evaluated in vivo antitumor activity by single agent intravenous treatment comparison studies of Gal-Pt (50 mg/kg as 65% MTD) and cisplatin (3 mg/kg, as 80% MTD) in a H460 lung cancer xenograft model, and with oxaliplatin (7 mg/kg, as 90% MTD) in a HT29 colon cancer xenograft model. The results show that Gal-Pt was more efficacious against H460 than cisplatin, and had superior potency in HT29 cells compared to oxaliplatin under nontoxic dosage conditions. The dependency between cytotoxicity of Gal-Pt and glucose transporters (GLUTs) was investigated by using quercetin as an inhibitor of GLUTs in HT29 cells. The cytotoxic potency of Gal-Pt was highly reduced by the inhibitor, suggesting that the uptake of Gal-Pt was regulated by glucose transporters. The GLUT mediated transportability and cellular uptake of Gal-Pt was also demonstrated using a fluorescent glucose bioprobe in HT29 competition assay.

  3. An Open-Label, Multicenter, Randomized, Phase II Study of Pazopanib in Combination with Pemetrexed in First-Line Treatment of Patients with Advanced-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Felip, Enriqueta; Besse, Benjamin;

    2013-01-01

    This randomized open-label phase II study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pazopanib in combination with pemetrexed compared with the standard cisplatin/pemetrexed doublet in patients with previously untreated, advanced, nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer.......This randomized open-label phase II study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pazopanib in combination with pemetrexed compared with the standard cisplatin/pemetrexed doublet in patients with previously untreated, advanced, nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer....

  4. A phase II study of STEALTH cisplatin (SPI-77) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E S; Lu, C; Khuri, F R; Tonda, M; Glisson, B S; Liu, D; Jung, M; Hong, W K; Herbst, R S

    2001-12-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy improves survival in appropriately selected patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, cisplatin-based regimens have well-known dose-related toxicities, particularly renal insufficiency and neurotoxicity. On the basis of prior preclinical and phase I studies, we initiated a phase II study of SPI-77 (STEALTH) Liposomal Cisplatin) in patients with stage IIIB and IV NSCLC who failed previous treatment with platinum. Disease in all subjects had progressed during therapy, failed to respond, or progressed within 3 months after discontinuing the platinum-based chemotherapy. Between January and June 1999, 13 patients were enrolled at our institution. Patient characteristics included: seven women, six men; median age, 61 years; median Karnofsky performance status, 80%; median number of prior chemotherapy regimens, two (range, 1-3). All patients had adequate hepatic and renal function. SPI-77 was administered at a dose of 260 mg/m(2) IV every 3 weeks. A median of two cycles (range 1-6) were given; the total number of cycles was 35. Among the 12 patients evaluable for response, two had (17%) stable disease and ten (83%) had progressive disease. The median survival was 24.3 weeks, and the median follow-up was 43.9 weeks. Toxicity could be evaluated in all subjects. Moderate anemia (46% of cycles, or=grade 3) with minimal granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia (26% of cycles grade 1; 0% of cycles, >or=grade 2) were the most notable manifestations of myelosuppression. Grade 3 nonhematological toxicities included dyspnea (8%), fatigue (8%), and pain (8%). There were no grade 4 toxicities. These data suggest that this liposomal cisplatin formulation does not have appreciable activity in this population of patients with NSCLC who had received prior platinum-based chemotherapy. The lack of encouraging results from SPI-77 use in other phase I and II studies resulted in early closure of this trial by the manufacturer.

  5. Nutrition aspects of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranganu, Andreea; Camporeale, Jayne

    2009-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer, and is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Notable carcinogens involved in the development of lung cancer include smoking, secondhand smoke, and radon. Lung cancer is divided into 2 major types: non-small-cell lung cancer, the most prevalent, and small-cell lung cancer. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination of the same. Medical nutrition therapy is often required for nutrition-related side effects of cancer treatment, which include but are not limited to anorexia, nausea and vomiting, and esophagitis. The best protection against lung cancer is avoidance of airborne carcinogens and increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Studies have shown that smokers taking large amounts of beta-carotene and vitamin A supplements had increased lung cancer incidence and mortality. However, ingestion of beta-carotene from foods, along with a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, has a protective role against lung disease. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by lung cancer patients is prevalent; therefore, clinicians should investigate whether complementary and alternative therapies are used by patients and advise them on the use of these therapies to avoid any potential side effects and interactions with conventional therapies. The article concludes with a case study of a patient with non-small-cell lung cancer and illustrates the use of medical nutrition therapy in relation to cancer treatment side effects.

  6. Probabilistic evaluation of target dose deterioration in dose painting by numbers for stage II/III lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanarosa, Davide; Witte, Marnix; Meijer, Gert; Shakirin, Georgy; Steenhuijsen, Jacco; Schuring, Danny; van Herk, Marcel; Lambin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Non-small cell lung cancer is typically irradiated with 60-66 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Local control could be improved by increasing dose to the more radiation-resistant areas (eg, based on the standardized uptake values of a pretreatment [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography s

  7. Etoposide in malignant pleural mesothelioma : Two phase II trials of the EORTC Lung Cancer Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahmoud, T; Postmus, PE; van Pottelsberghe, C; Mattson, K; Tammilehto, L; Splinter, TAW; Planting, AST; Sutedja, T; van Pawel, J; van Zandwijk, N; Baas, P; Roozendaal, KJ; Schrijver, M; Kirkpatrick, A; Van Glabbeke, M; Ardizzoni, A; Giaccone, G

    1997-01-01

    Intravenous and oral etoposide (VP 16-213) were tested in two sequential phase II trials in chemotherapy-naive patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. In the first trial, etoposide was given intravenously (i.v.) at a dose of 150 mg/m(2) on days 1, 3 and 5 every 3 weeks. The second trial invest

  8. Lung Cancer Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Pamela; Wistuba, Ignacio I

    2017-02-01

    The molecular characterization of lung cancer has changed the classification and treatment of these tumors, becoming an essential component of pathologic diagnosis and oncologic therapy decisions. Through the recognition of novel biomarkers, such as epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocations, it is possible to identify subsets of patients who benefit from targeted molecular therapies. The success of targeted anticancer therapies and new immunotherapy approaches has created a new paradigm of personalized therapy and has led to accelerated development of new drugs for lung cancer treatment. This article focuses on clinically relevant cancer biomarkers as targets for therapy and potential new targets for drug development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting lung cancer or dying from lung cancer varies by race ...

  10. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... the results are commented for local, regional, and national audits. Indicator results are supported by descriptive reports with details on diagnostics and treatment. CONCLUSION: DLCR has since its creation been used to improve the quality of treatment of lung cancer in Denmark and it is increasingly used...

  11. Topoisomerase II alpha expression and the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for postoperative patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to improve survival rates of postoperative patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Biomarkers could help select an appropriate chemotherapy for NSCLC patients or predict the efficacy of chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to explore the possible prognostic and predictive role of topoisomerase II alpha (TopIIα expression level in postoperative NSCLC patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Patients with stage I-III NSCLC, who underwent surgery in our hospital from January 2004 to December 2007 and who also received adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery, were analyzed in this study. Expression of TopIIα and Ki67 in paraffin-embedded tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC. The relationships between clinicopathological characteristics, chemotherapy regimens, the expression of biomarkers and disease free survival (DFS were analyzed. Results TopIIα and Ki67 were highly expressed in 22.5% and 36.4% of the 151 patients, respectively. Univariate survival analysis showed that male sex (P = 0.036, non-adenocarcinoma (P = 0.004, earlier pathological TNM stage (P = 0.001 or pathological N stage (P Conclusions High TopIIα expression was discovered to be correlated with better DFS for postoperative NSCLC patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy. The NVB-containing chemotherapy regimen was more effective than the TXT-containing regimen in improving DFS in patients with low TopIIα expression. TopIIα could be considered to be an independent prognostic biomarker of DFS in postoperative NSCLC patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy.

  12. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  13. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a foc

  14. Lung cancer: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pass, Harvey I

    2005-01-01

    "A comprehensive review of lung cancer, from screening, early detection, and prevention, to management strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy, as well...

  15. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  16. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  17. Stereotactic radiotherapy for stage I and II lung cancer: A study of 33 patients; Radiotherapie en conditions stereotaxiques dans les cancers bronchiques de stades I et II: resultats d'une serie de 33 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champeaux-Orange, E.; Wachter, T.; Bouscayrol, H. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, CHR d' Orleans-La Source, 14, avenue de l' Hopital, 45100 Orleans (France); Barillot, I. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S. Kaplan, hopital Bretonneau, CHRU de Tours, 2, boulevard Tonnelle, 37044 Tours cedex 9 (France); Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S. Kaplan, universite Francois-Rabelais, CHRU de Tours, 2, boulevard Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France)

    2011-06-15

    Purpose. - Surgery is the main treatment of early stage non small cell lung cancer. However, in inoperable patients, the treatment is usually conventional radiotherapy. Results are poor and acute toxicity is severe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy provides better results in terms of local control and toxicity. Our purpose was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with primary lung tumours treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy using a stereotactic body frame at the Orleans Regional Hospital. Patients and methods. - Between June 2000 and December 2007, 33 patients with stage I and II non small cell lung cancer were treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy. Breathing control was obtained by passive diaphragm control. Two CT-scans were performed 1 week apart to determine the accuracy of patient repositioning and define target volumes. Five or six fields were set up to achieve a conformal dose distribution. According to tumour size, a total of 50 or 40 Gy was delivered in 10 fractions. Results. - Mean patient age was 70 years. Median follow-up was 25 months. Ten patients with a complete response are still alive. Eight patients have died from local progression, eight from metastasis, and six from co-morbidity. Median disease-free survival was 22.6 months. No acute toxicity up to grade II (CTC AE 3.0) was observed. None of the patients still alive has developed any complications. Conclusion. - In patients who cannot undergo radical surgery, stereotactic body radiation therapy using a stereotactic body frame is well-tolerated and seems to be an efficient treatment method. (authors)

  18. A Randomized Phase II Study of Linsitinib (OSI-906) Versus Topotecan in Patients With Relapsed Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterson, Gregory A.; Dowlati, Afshin; Traynor, Anne M.; Horn, Leora; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ross, Helen J.; Hann, Christine L.; Abu Hejleh, Taher; Nieva, Jorge; Zhao, Xiuhua; Schell, Michael; Sullivan, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Lessons Learned Targeted therapy options for SCLC patients are limited; no agent, thus far, has resulted in a strategy promising enough to progress to phase III trials. Linsitinib, a potent insulin growth factor-1-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, may be one agent with activity against SCLC. Despite lack of a reliable predictive biomarker in this disease, which may have partly contributed to the negative outcome reported here, linsitinib, although safe, showed no clinical activity in unselected, relapsed SCLC patients. Background. Treatment of relapsed small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains suboptimal. Insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling plays a role in growth, survival, and chemoresistance in SCLC. Linsitinib is a potent IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor that potentially may be active against SCLC. Methods. In this phase II study, 8 eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:2 ratio to topotecan (1.5 mg/m2 intravenously or 2.3 mg/m2 orally, daily for 5 days for 4 cycles) or linsitinib (150 mg orally twice daily until progression). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Patients with relapsed SCLC, platinum sensitive or resistant, performance status (PS) 0–2, and adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function were enrolled. Patients with diabetes, cirrhosis, and those taking insulinotropic agents were excluded. Crossover to linsitinib was allowed at progression. Results. Fifteen patients received topotecan (8 resistant, 3 with PS 2) and 29 received linsitinib (16 resistant, 5 with PS 2). Two partial responses were observed with topotecan. Only 4 of 15 patients with topotecan and 1 of 29 with linsitinib achieved stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 3.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–3.6) and 1.2 (95% CI, 1.1–1.4) months for topotecan and linsitinib, respectively (p = .0001). Median survival was 5.3 (95% CI, 2.2–7.6) and 3.4 (95% CI, 1.8–5.6) months for topotecan and linsitinib, respectively (p = .71

  19. American Cancer Society Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A.; Church, Timothy R.; Ettinger, David S.; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K.; LaMonte, Samuel J.; Michaelson, James S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M. D.; Brawley, Otis W.; Smith, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from the National Cancer Institute’s National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation. PMID:23315954

  20. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lung cancer and your overall health. Radiation Therapy Radiation is a high-energy X-ray that can ... surgery, chemotherapy or both depending upon the circumstances. Radiation therapy works within cancer cells by damaging their ...

  1. Human RNA polymerase II associated factor 1 complex promotes tumorigenesis by activating c-MYC transcription in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiuyi; Giroux-Leprieur, Etienne; Wislez, Marie; Hu, Mu; Zhang, Yi; Shi, Huaiyin; Du, Kaiqi; Wang, Lei

    2015-10-02

    Human RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-associated factor 1 complex (hPAF1C) plays a crucial role in protein-coding gene transcription. Overexpression of hPAF1C has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various human cancers. However, the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis through hPAF1C remain to be elucidated. The current study suggested hPAF1C expression as a prognostic biomarker for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and patients with low hPAF1C expression levels had significantly better overall survival. Furthermore, the expression of hPAF1C was found to be positively correlated with c-MYC expression in patient tumor samples and in cancer cell lines. Mechanistic studies indicated that hPAF1C could promote lung cancer cell proliferation through regulating c-MYC transcription. These results demonstrated the prognostic value of hPAF1C in early-stage NSCLC and the role of hPAF1C in the transcriptional regulation of c-MYC oncogene during NSCLC tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Phase II study of SPI-77 (sterically stabilised liposomal cisplatin) in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    White, S. C.; Lorigan, P; MARGISON, G. P.; Margison, J M; Martin, F.; Thatcher, N.; Anderson, H; Ranson, M.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and tolerability of SPI-77 (sterically stabilised liposomal cisplatin) at three dose levels in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients had Stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and were chemo-naïve, and Eastern Oncology Cooperative Group 0–2. The first cohort received SPI-77 at 100 mg m−2, the second 200 mg m−2 and the final cohort 260 mg m−2. Patients had also pharmacokinetics and analysis of leucocyte platinum (Pt)-DNA adducts performed. Twenty-six pat...

  3. Epigenetic Therapy in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic dysregulation of gene function has been strongly implicated in carcinogenesis and is one of the mechanisms contributing to the development of lung cancer. The inherent reversibility of epigenetic alterations makes them viable therapeutic targets. Here, we review the therapeutic implications of epigenetic changes in lung cancer, and recent advances in therapeutic strategies targeting DNA methylation and histone acetylation.

  4. LUNG CANCER AND PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna; Ustamujic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Malignant diseases including lung cancer are the risk for development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Objective: To show the number of PTE in patients with lung cancer treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period: from 2012-2014. Material and methods: This is the retrospective study in which we present the number of various types of lung cancer treated in three-year period, number and per cent of PTE in different types of lung carcinoma, number and per cent of PTE of all diagnosed PTE in lung carcinoma according to the type of carcinoma. Results: In three-year period (from 2012 to 2014) 1609 patients with lung cancer were treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Clinical Centre of Sarajevo University. 42 patients: 25 men middle –aged 64.4 years and 17 women middle- aged 66.7 or 2.61% of all patients with lung cancer had diagnosed PTE. That was the 16. 7% of all patients with PTE treated in Clinic “Podhrastovi “in that three-year period. Of all 42 patients with lung cancer and diagnosed PTE 3 patients (7.14%) had planocellular cancer, 4 patients (9.53%) had squamocellular cancer, 9 (21.43%) had adenocarcinoma, 1 (2.38%) had NSCLC, 3 (7.14 %) had microcellular cancer, 1 (2.38%) had neuroendocrine cancer, 2 (4.76%) had large cell-macrocellular and 19 (45.24%) had histological non-differentiated lung carcinoma. Conclusion: Malignant diseases, including lung cancer, are the risk factor for development of PTE. It is important to consider the including anticoagulant prophylaxis in these patients and so to slow down the course of diseases in these patients. PMID:26622205

  5. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  6. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Zagà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210 is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226 and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210 and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties.

  7. Polonium and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226) and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210) and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties.

  8. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226) and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210) and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties. PMID:21772848

  9. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of selected platinum(IV) and dinuclear platinum(II) complexes against lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenijevic, Milos; Milovanovic, Marija; Jovanovic, Snezana; Arsenijevic, Natalija; Markovic, Bojana Simovic; Gazdic, Marina; Volarevic, Vladislav

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, cytotoxic effects of cisplatin, the most usually used chemotherapeutic agent, were compared with new designed platinum(IV) ([PtCl4(en)] (en = ethylenediamine) and [PtCl4(dach)]) (dach = (±)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane) and platinum(II) complexes ([{trans-Pt(NH3)2Cl}2(μ-pyrazine)](ClO4)2 (Pt1), [{trans-Pt(NH3)2Cl}2(μ-4,4'-bipyridyl)](ClO4)2DMF(Pt2),[{trans-Pt(NH3)2Cl}2(μ-1,2-bis(4pyridyl)ethane)](ClO4)2 (Pt3)), in vitro and in vivo against human and murine lung cancer cells, to determine anti-tumor potential of newly synthesized platinum-based drugs in the therapy of lung cancer. Results obtained by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide], Lactate dehydrogenase and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide assays showed that, among all tested complexes, [PtCl4(en)] had the highest cytotoxicity against human and murine lung carcinoma cells in vitro. [PtCl4(en)] showed significantly higher cytotoxicity then cisplatin in all tested concentrations, mainly by inducing apoptosis in lung cancer cells. [PtCl4(en)] was well tolerated in vivo. Clinical signs of [PtCl4(en)]-induced toxicity, such as changes in food, water consumption or body weight, nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity was not observed in [PtCl4(en)]-treated mice. [PtCl4(en)] managed to increase presence of CD45+ leukocytes, including F4/80+ macrophages, CD11c+ dendritic cells, CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) in the lungs, cytotoxic NK, NKT and CTLs in the spleens of tumor bearing mice, resulting with reduction of metastatic lesions in the lungs, indicating its potential to stimulate anti-tumor immune response in vivo. Due to its anti-tumor cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, and potential for stimulation of anti-tumor immune response, [PtCl4(en)] may be a good candidate for further testing in the field of medicinal chemistry.

  10. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is diagn

  11. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is diagn

  12. Novel indolizino[8,7-b]indole hybrids as anti-small cell lung cancer agents: Regioselective modulation of topoisomerase II inhibitory and DNA crosslinking activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sue-Ming; Christian, Wilson; Wu, Ming-Hsi; Chen, Tai-Lin; Lin, Yi-Wen; Suen, Ching-Shu; Pidugu, Hima Bindu; Detroja, Dilip; Shah, Anamik; Hwang, Ming-Jing; Su, Tsann-Long; Lee, Te-Chang

    2017-02-15

    A novel series of bis(hydroxymethyl)indolizino[8,7-b]indole hybrids composed of β-carboline (topoisomerase I/II inhibition) and bis(hydroxymethyl)pyrrole (DNA cross-linking) are synthesized for antitumor evaluation. Of tumor cell lines tested, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines are the most sensitive to the newly synthesized compounds. These hybrids induce cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, trigger tumor cell apoptotic death, and display diverse mechanisms of action involving topoisomerase II (Topo II) inhibition and induction of DNA cross-linking. Intriguingly, the substituent at N(11) (H or Me) plays a critical role in modulating Topo II inhibition and DNA cross-linking activities. N(11)-Me derivatives predispose to induce DNA crosslinks, whereas N(11)-H derivatives potently inhibit Topo II. Computational analysis implicates that N(11)-Me restrict the torsion angles of the two adjacent OH on pyrrole resulting in a favorable of DNA cross-linking. Among these hybrids, compound 17a with N(11)-H is more effective than cisplatin and etoposide, but as potent as irinotecan, against the growth of SCLC H526 cells in xenograft model.

  13. Association between environmental dust exposure and lung cancer in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Giuliano; Morini, Maria; Marconato, Laura; Marcato, Paolo Stefano; Zini, Eric

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the accumulation of black dust matter in lungs (anthracosis) and primary lung cancer in dogs. A retrospective study was carried out on material from 35 dogs with primary lung cancer and 160 controls. The amount, histological appearance and birefringence of anthracosis were assessed in pulmonary specimens by light microscopy, and the odds ratio (OR) calculated for dogs with primary lung cancer. The same factors were analysed to identify an association between tumour histotype, histological grade, and clinical stage. Papillary adenocarcinoma was most commonly diagnosed (45.7%). The majority of tumours were of histological grade II, and the lung cancer was more often localised (clinical stage I). An increased risk of lung cancer was observed in dogs with higher amounts of anthracosis (OR: 2.11, CI 95%: 1.20-3.70; P cancer in dogs.

  14. Audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance for lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a multi-institutional phase II randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Sean; O'Brien, Ricky; Makhija, Kuldeep; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Ludbrook, Jane; Rezo, Angela; Tse, Regina; Eade, Thomas; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val; Keall, Paul J

    2015-07-18

    There is a clear link between irregular breathing and errors in medical imaging and radiation treatment. The audiovisual biofeedback system is an advanced form of respiratory guidance that has previously demonstrated to facilitate regular patient breathing. The clinical benefits of audiovisual biofeedback will be investigated in an upcoming multi-institutional, randomised, and stratified clinical trial recruiting a total of 75 lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. To comprehensively perform a clinical evaluation of the audiovisual biofeedback system, a multi-institutional study will be performed. Our methodological framework will be based on the widely used Technology Acceptance Model, which gives qualitative scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are fundamental determinants for user acceptance. A total of 75 lung cancer patients will be recruited across seven radiation oncology departments across Australia. Patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio, with 2/3 of the patients being recruited into the intervention arm and 1/3 in the control arm. 2:1 randomisation is appropriate as within the interventional arm there is a screening procedure where only patients whose breathing is more regular with audiovisual biofeedback will continue to use this system for their imaging and treatment procedures. Patients within the intervention arm whose free breathing is more regular than audiovisual biofeedback in the screen procedure will remain in the intervention arm of the study but their imaging and treatment procedures will be performed without audiovisual biofeedback. Patients will also be stratified by treating institution and for treatment intent (palliative vs. radical) to ensure similar balance in the arms across the sites. Patients and hospital staff operating the audiovisual biofeedback system will complete questionnaires to assess their experience with audiovisual biofeedback. The objectives of this

  15. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the chest or to other ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the chest or to other ...

  17. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the chest or to other ...

  18. Guidance molecules in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nasarre, Patrick; Potiron, Vincent; Drabkin, Harry; Roche, Joëlle

    2010-01-01

    Guidance molecules were first described in the nervous system to control axon outgrowth direction. They are also widely expressed outside the nervous system where they control cell migration, tissue development and establishment of the vascular network. In addition, they are involved in cancer development, tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. This review is primarily focused on their functions in lung cancer and their involvement in lung development is also presented. Five guidance molecule fam...

  19. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  20. Multicenter Phase II Study of Whole-Body and Intracranial Activity With Ceritinib in Patients With ALK-Rearranged Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated With Chemotherapy and Crizotinib : Results From ASCEND-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crino, Lucio; Ahn, Myung-Ju; De Marinis, Filippo; Groen, Harry J. M.; Wakelee, Heather; Hida, Toyoaki; Mok, Tony; Spigel, David; Felip, Enriqueta; Nishio, Makoto; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Branle, Fabrice; Emeremni, Chetachi; Quadrigli, Massimiliano; Zhang, Jie; Shaw, Alice T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Phase I data (ASCEND-1) showed ceritinib efficacy in patients with ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), regardless of brain metastases status and with or without prior therapy with an inhibitor of the ALK protein. Data are presented from a phase II trial (ASCEND-2) in which cer

  1. RFS2000 (9-nitrocamptothecin) in advanced small cell lung cancer, a phase II study of the EORTC New Drug Development Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, C J A; de Jonge, M J A; Monfardini, S; Daugaard, G; Fiedler, W; Baron, B; Lacombe, D; Fumoleau, P

    2004-06-01

    Camptothecins have shown efficacy in terms of response rate in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). RFS2000 is a new camptothecin derivative, which has shown objective responses in various tumour types. The aim of this phase II study was to determine the objective response rate of RFS2000 in patients with sensitive and refractory SCLC. RFS2000 was given orally at 1.5 mg/m(2) per day for five consecutive days (five days on - two days off) on a continuous basis. Patients were evaluated weekly for toxicity and every six weeks for response. Thirty seven patients were included, 36 patients (14 with sensitive and 22 with refractory SCLC) were evaluable for toxicity, and 35 patients were evaluable for response. No objective responses were observed. Toxicity was acceptable, with myelosuppression, nausea/vomiting, and diarrhoea as the main toxicities. RFS2000 therefore has an acceptable toxicity profile but is not active as a single agent in SCLC.

  2. Nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu KG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available K Govind Babu,1 Kumar Prabhash,2 Ashok K Vaid,3 Bhawna Sirohi,3 Ravi B Diwakar,4 Raghunadha Rao,5 Madhuchanda Kar,6 Hemant Malhotra,7 Shona Nag,8 Chanchal Goswami,9 Vinod Raina,10 Ravi Mohan111Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, 2Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, 3Artemis Health Institute, Delhi, 4Bangalore Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, 5Nizam Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, 6B R Singh Hospital, Kolkata, 7Birla Cancer Centre, Jaipur, 8Jehangir Hospital, Pune, 9B P Poddar Hospital and Medical Research Ltd, Kolkata, 10Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, New Delhi, 11King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, IndiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy (docetaxel and carboplatin versus chemotherapy alone in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer.Methods: This multicenter, open-label, Phase II study randomized 110 patients to receive nimotuzumab plus chemotherapy (nimotuzumab group or chemotherapy alone (control group, and comprised concomitant, maintenance, and follow-up phases. Nimotuzumab 200 mg was administered once weekly for 13 weeks during the first two phases with four cycles of chemotherapy and docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and carboplatin (area under the curve 5 mg/mL*min every 3 weeks for a maximum of four cycles during the concomitant phase. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (sum of complete response and partial response. Secondary endpoints, ie, overall survival and progression-free survival, were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Efficacy was evaluated on the intent-to-treat and efficacy-evaluable sets. Safety was assessed from adverse event and serious adverse event data.Results: The objective response rate was significantly higher in the nimotuzumab group than in the control group in the intent-to-treat population (54% versus 34.5%; P=0.04. A complete response and partial response were achieved in 3

  3. Changing paradigm in treatment of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sundaram Viswanath; Abhishek Pathak; Amul Kapoor; Anvesh Rathore; Bhupendra Nath Kapur

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common and deadliest forms of cancer. It accounts for 13% of all new cancer cases and 19% of cancer-related deaths. In India, lung cancer constitutes 6.9% of all new cancer cases and 9.3% of all cancer cases. There has also been a dramatic rise worldwide in both the absolute and relative frequencies of lung cancer occurrence. In 1953 it became the most common cause of cancer mortality in men. By 1985, it became the leading cause of cancer deaths in women, causing almost twice as many deaths as breast cancer. The demographic proifle of lung cancer has changed greatly over the years; however, methods for diagnosing, screening, and managing lung cancer patients have improved. This is due to our growing understanding of the biology of lung cancer. It is now possible to further deifne lung cancer types beyond small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Moreover, new histology-based therapeutic modalities have been developed, and more new lung cancer biomarkers have been uncovered. Therefore, more detailed histological characterization of lung cancer samples is warranted in order to determine the best course of treatment for speciifc patients. This review article describes how these new molecular technologies are shaping the way lung cancer can be treated in future.

  4. EF5 and Motexafin Lutetium in Detecting Tumor Cells in Patients With Abdominal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage 0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Gastric Cancer; Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Colon Cancer; Stage II Gastric Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Rectal Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage

  5. Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 (MIC-1 as A Biomarker for Diagnosis 
and Prognosis of Stage I-II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning LIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Increased macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1, member of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β superfamily, was found in patients serum with epithelial tumors. Therefore, our aim was to delineate the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum MIC-1 in patients with stage I-II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods A total of 152 consecutive patients with stage I–II NSCLC were prospectively enrolled and underwent follow up after total resection of tumor. Serum MIC-1 level was detected in lung cancer patients by ELISA, 48 benign pulmonary disease patients and 105 healthy controls, and was correlated with clinical features and prognosis of patients. Results The level of MIC-1 of NSCLC patients was significantly higher than that of controls (P<0.001 and benign pulmonary disease patients (P<0.001. A threshold of 1,000 pg/mL could be used to diagnose early-stage NSCLC with 70.4% sensitivity and 99.0% specificity. The level of MIC-1 was associated with elder age (P=0.001, female (P=0.03 and T2 (P=0.022. A threshold of 1,465 pg/mL could identify patients with early poor outcome with 72.2% sensitivity and 66.1% specificity. The overall 3-year survival rate in patients with high level of MIC-1 (≥1,465 pg/mL was significantly lower than that of patients with low MIC-1 level (77.6% vs 94.8%. Multivariable Cox regression revealed that a high level of MIC-1 was an independent risk factor for compromised overall survival (HR=3.37, 95%CI: 1.09-10.42, P=0.035. Conclusion High level of serum MIC-1 could be served as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and poorer outcome in patients with early-stage NSCLC.

  6. Chemoprevention of lung cancer by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julie; You, Ming

    2006-02-01

    Tea is the second only to water as the most consumed beverage in the world. Both green and black teas have been studied for their health benefits for a variety of diseases, particularly cancer. Lung cancer is the predominant cause of cancer mortality in developed countries. Smokers' risk of lung cancer is 20 times that of persons who have never smoked. Epidemiological studies on the cancer-preventive effects of tea produce inconsistent results, which could in part be attributed to the lack of a universal standard for tea preparations. However, most animal studies indicate that tea has strong chemopreventive effects against lung tumorigenesis. The reported mechanisms for chemopreventive activity of green tea are antioxidation, induction of phase II enzymes, inhibition of TNFalpha expression and release, inhibition of cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by green tea are probably the two most significant factors. Future studies are needed to determine how green tea affects the genes associated with cell cycle regulation and apoptosis during the mouse lung carcinogenesis process.

  7. The Role of Proteasome Inhibition in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Escobar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer therapy with current available chemotherapeutic agents is mainly palliative. For these and other reasons there is now a great interest to find targeted therapies that can be effective not only palliating lung cancer or decreasing treatment-related toxicity, but also giving hope to cure these patients. It is already well known that the ubiquitin-proteasome system like other cellular pathways is critical for the proliferation and survival of cancer cells; thus, proteosome inhibition has become a very attractive anticancer therapy. There are several phase I and phase II clinical trials now in non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer using this potential target. Most of the trials use bortezomib in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. This paper tends to make a state-of-the-art review based on the available literature regarding the use of bortezomib as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer.

  8. Phase II study of SPI-77 (sterically stabilised liposomal cisplatin) in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S C; Lorigan, P; Margison, G P; Margison, J M; Martin, F; Thatcher, N; Anderson, H; Ranson, M

    2006-10-09

    To determine the efficacy and tolerability of SPI-77 (sterically stabilised liposomal cisplatin) at three dose levels in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients had Stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and were chemo-naïve, and Eastern Oncology Cooperative Group 0-2. The first cohort received SPI-77 at 100 mg m-2, the second 200 mg m-2 and the final cohort 260 mg m-2. Patients had also pharmacokinetics and analysis of leucocyte platinum (Pt)-DNA adducts performed. Twenty-six patients were treated, with 22 patients being evaluable for response. Only one response occurred at the 200 mg m-2 dose level for an overall response rate of 4.5% (7.1% at >or=200 mg m-2). No significant toxicity was noted including nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity aside from two patients with Grade 3 nausea. No routine antiemetics or hydration was used. The pharmacokinetic profile of SPI-77 was typical for a liposomally formulated drug, and the AUC appeared to be proportional to the dose of SPI-77. Plasma Pt levels and leucocyte DNA adduct levels did not appear to rise with successive doses. SPI-77 demonstrates only modest activity in patients with NSCLC.

  9. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  11. [Risk factors of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, L P; Liou, S H; Shen, C Y; Kao, S J; Chen, K T

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between various risk factors and lung cancer was evaluated in a case-control study. One hundred and forty-one cancer patients newly cytologically or pathologically diagnosed from May 1990 to July 1991 at Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH) were recruited as cases. Two control groups were also studied: 282 hospital controls two-to-one matched with cases on sex, age, hospital of admission and insurance status were selected from the TSGH Ophthalmologic Department, and 282 neighborhood controls two-to-one matched on sex, age, and residence were randomly selected from eligible neighbors. A comparison of interview data between cases and hospital controls based on multiple conditional logistic regression revealed that cigarette smoking, keeping doves as pet, occupational exposure to cotton dust and working as a cook were risk factors for lung cancer. An inverse association between incense burning and lung cancer was noted. The comparison between cases and neighborhood controls showed lung cancer was significantly associated with cigarette smoking, keeping doves, prior chronic bronchitis, occupational exposure to cotton dust, asbestos and radiation, low frequency of burning incense, and low intake of vitamin A derived from vegetables and fruits. There was no association between lung cancer and working as a cook when cases were compared with neighborhood controls.

  12. LUNG CANCER INCIDENCE IN OMSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Kosenok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer incidence in the Omsk region was studied. Advanced lung cancer was shown to be commonly detected in patients of the 30 to 49 age group. For this patient group, adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type of lung cancer. The highest incidence of lung cancer was observed in both men and women aged 45–47 years. Thus, to improve early detection of lung cancer, the optimal age for lung cancer screening should be in the age range of 40–50 years.

  13. A placebo-controlled, randomized phase II study of maintenance enzastaurin following whole brain radiation therapy in the treatment of brain metastases from lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Bjørn H; Ciuleanu, Tudor; Fløtten, Øystein;

    2012-01-01

    Enzastaurin is a protein kinase C inhibitor with anti-tumor activity. This study was designed to determine if maintenance enzastaurin improved the outcome of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in lung cancer (LC) patients with brain metastases (BMs).......Enzastaurin is a protein kinase C inhibitor with anti-tumor activity. This study was designed to determine if maintenance enzastaurin improved the outcome of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in lung cancer (LC) patients with brain metastases (BMs)....

  14. Phase II Trial of Improved Regimen with Gemcitabine in Patients 
with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu MIAO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Gemcitabine-platinum-combined with chemotherapy is the most common treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Gemcitabine is administered once a week in a general three-week schedule. In the present study, gemcitabine is administered on d1 and d5 to improve compliance, and the efficacy and safety of the improved regimen is evaluated in untreated patients with advanced NSCLC. Methods A total of 83 patients were enrolled between October 2007 and October 2009. In each cycle, gemcitabine was administered at a dose of 1,000 mg/m2-1,250 mg/m2 via a 30 min intravenous infusion on d1 and d5 followed by cisplatin at a dose of 75 mg/m2 or carboplatin (AUC=5 on d1 every three weeks. At least two cycles of chemotherapy were completed in each case, and clinical response and toxicity of the regimen were observed. Results The objective response rate was 37.3%. The median progression free survival and overall survival time were 6.1 months and 15.0 months, respectively. The one-year and two-year survival rates were 57.8% and 16.2%, respectively. Myelosuppression and gastrointestinal responses were the main toxicities. The incidence of grade 3/4 of leucopenia, hypohemia, and thrombocytopenia were 26.5%, 10.8% and 7.2%, respectively. A total of 27.5% of the patients in the cisplatin group had grade 3/4 gastrointestinal responses. Treatment related deaths were not observed in this study. Conclusion The regimen is active and well-tolerated in untreated patients with advanced NSCLC. Further randomized controlled studies are necessary.

  15. Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Aesun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kim, Byung-Woo; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2017-07-01

    The current study was undertaken to examine the trends in the lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survival after a diagnosis in Korea. Lung cancer incidence data according to the histologic type and mortality data were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Statistics Korea, respectively. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and the Joinpoint model and age-period-cohort analyses were used to describe the trends in the rates. The 5-year relative survival rates of lung cancer were also calculated. Although the number of new lung cancer cases increased between 1999 and 2012, the age-standardized incidence rate decreased by 0.9% per year in men, whereas the incidence in women increased by 1.7% per year over the same time. Until 2010, the most common histologic type in men was squamous cell carcinoma, then adenocarcinoma prevailed thereafter. Since 1999, the most frequent histological type in women was adenocarcinoma. The lung cancer mortality started to decrease in 2002, with a more apparent decline for the younger age groups in both men and women. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rates have improved significantly from 11.2% for men and 14.7% for women among patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1997 to 19.3% for men and 28.2% for women among patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2012, respectively. An improvement in survival rate was observed for all major histology groups. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Korea has changed over a short time span, with decreasing mortality and improving survival rates. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of these changes.

  16. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  17. Nationwide quality improvement in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik Winther; Green, Anders; Oesterlind, Kell

    2013-01-01

    To improve prognosis and quality of lung cancer care the Danish Lung Cancer Group has developed a strategy consisting of national clinical guidelines and a clinical quality and research database. The first edition of our guidelines was published in 1998 and our national lung cancer registry...... was opened for registrations in 2000. This article describes methods and results obtained by multidisciplinary collaboration and illustrates how quality of lung cancer care can be improved by establishing and monitoring result and process indicators....

  18. Comparison of Intracellular Stress Response of NCI-H526 Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) Cells to Platinum(II) Cisplatin and Platinum(IV) Oxoplatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Gerhard [Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster of Translational Oncology, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-08

    In attempts to develop an orally applicable platinum-based drug, platinum(IV) drugs which exhibit higher in vivo stability compared to the platinum(II) drug cisplatin were formulated. The first such chemotherapeutic agent, namely satraplatin, failed to receive approval. In the present work, we checked the initial cellular stress response of the chemosensitive NCI-H526 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells by determination of the relative phosphorylation of 46 specific phosphorylation sites of 38 selected proteins in a six hours response to cisplatin (platinum(II)) or oxoplatin (platinum(IV)), respectively. Oxoplatin is considered as prodrug of cisplatin, although several findings point to differences in intracellular effects. Cisplatin induced hyperphosphorylation of p38α MAPK and AMPKα1, whereas oxoplatin treatment resulted in increased phosphorylation of a large number of signaling proteins involved in stress response/drug resistance, including JNK, GSK-3α, AMPKα1, src kinases, STATs, CHK-2 and especially focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Cisplatin exerts markedly higher cytotoxicity upon four hours short-term exposure in comparison to oxoplatin and, correspondingly, the extended initial stress response to the platinum(IV) drug oxoplatin thus is expected to increase clinical drug resistance. Induction of a substantial stress response to any prodrug of a platinum-based compound may likewise limit the effectivity of its active metabolite(s), such contributing to the failure of selected derivatized platinum complexes.

  19. Comparison of Intracellular Stress Response of NCI-H526 Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC Cells to Platinum(II Cisplatin and Platinum(IV Oxoplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Hamilton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In attempts to develop an orally applicable platinum-based drug, platinum(IV drugs which exhibit higher in vivo stability compared to the platinum(II drug cisplatin were formulated. The first such chemotherapeutic agent, namely satraplatin, failed to receive approval. In the present work, we checked the initial cellular stress response of the chemosensitive NCI-H526 small cell lung cancer (SCLC cells by determination of the relative phosphorylation of 46 specific phosphorylation sites of 38 selected proteins in a six hours response to cisplatin (platinum(II or oxoplatin (platinum(IV, respectively. Oxoplatin is considered as prodrug of cisplatin, although several findings point to differences in intracellular effects. Cisplatin induced hyperphosphorylation of p38α MAPK and AMPKα1, whereas oxoplatin treatment resulted in increased phosphorylation of a large number of signaling proteins involved in stress response/drug resistance, including JNK, GSK-3α, AMPKα1, src kinases, STATs, CHK-2 and especially focal adhesion kinase (FAK. Cisplatin exerts markedly higher cytotoxicity upon four hours short-term exposure in comparison to oxoplatin and, correspondingly, the extended initial stress response to the platinum(IV drug oxoplatin thus is expected to increase clinical drug resistance. Induction of a substantial stress response to any prodrug of a platinum-based compound may likewise limit the effectivity of its active metabolite(s, such contributing to the failure of selected derivatized platinum complexes.

  20. Survival prognostic value of morphological and metabolic variables in patients with stage I and II non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domachevsky, L. [Rabin Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Petah Tikva (Israel); Beilinson Hospital, Petah Tikva (Israel); Groshar, D.; Bernstine, H. [Rabin Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Petah Tikva (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Galili, R. [Lady Davis-Carmel Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Haifa (Israel); Saute, M. [Rabin Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Petah Tiqva (Israel)

    2015-11-15

    The prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is important, as patients with resectable disease and poor prognostic variables might benefit from neoadjuvant therapy. The goal of this study is to evaluate SUVmax, SUVmax ratio, CT volume (CTvol), metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolisis (TLG) as survival prognostic markers. In addition, we defined two variables; MTV x SUVmax (MTVmax) and CTvol x SUVmax (CTvolmax) and assessed whether they can be used as prognostic markers. Patients with stage I-II NSCLC who underwent 18 F FDG PET/CT and surgery were evaluated. Cox proportional-hazard model was used to determine the association between variables and survival. Similar analysis was performed in cases with no lymph node (LN) involvement. One hundred and eighty-one patients were included (at the end of the study, 140 patients were alive). SUVmax with a cut-off value of 8.2 was significant survival prognostic factor regardless of LN involvement (P = 0.012). In cases with no LN involvement, SUVmax and CTvol (≥7.1 ml) were significant survival prognostic factors with P = 0.004 and 0.03, respectively. SUVmax may be a useful prognostic variable in stage I-II NSCLC while morphologic tumour volume might be useful in cases with no lymph node involvement. (orig.)

  1. Socioeconomic, Rural-Urban, and Racial Inequalities in US Cancer Mortality: Part I-All Cancers and Lung Cancer and Part II-Colorectal, Prostate, Breast, and Cervical Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Williams, Shanita D; Siahpush, Mohammad; Mulhollen, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial inequalities in US mortality from all cancers, lung, colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers. A deprivation index and rural-urban continuum were linked to the 2003-2007 county-level mortality data. Mortality rates and risk ratios were calculated for each socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial group. Weighted linear regression yielded relative impacts of deprivation and rural-urban residence. Those in more deprived groups and rural areas had higher cancer mortality than more affluent and urban residents, with excess risk being marked for lung, colorectal, prostate, and cervical cancers. Deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to cancer mortality, with deprivation showing stronger impacts. Socioeconomic inequalities existed for both whites and blacks, with blacks experiencing higher mortality from each cancer than whites within each deprivation group. Socioeconomic gradients in mortality were steeper in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. Mortality disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking and other cancer-risk factors, screening, and treatment.

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Female Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Hee Yim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is still a leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. The incidence of lung cancer in developed countries started to decrease mainly due to global anti-smoking campaigns. However, the incidence of lung cancer in women has been increasing in recent decades for various reasons. Furthermore, since the screening of lung cancer is not as yet very effective, clinically applicable molecular markers for early diagnosis are much required. Lung cancer in women appears to have differences compared with that in men, in terms of histologic types and susceptibility to environmental risk factors. This suggests that female lung cancer can be derived by carcinogenic mechanisms different from those involved in male lung cancer. Among female lung cancer patients, many are non-smokers, which could be studied to identify alternative carcinogenic mechanisms independent from smoking-related ones. In this paper, we reviewed molecular susceptibility markers and genetic changes in lung cancer tissues observed in female lung cancer patients, which have been validated by various studies and will be helpful to understand the tumorigenesis of lung cancer.

  3. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  4. Preferential elevation of Prx I and Trx expression in lung cancer cells following hypoxia and in human lung cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Chae, H Z; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y H; Hwangs, T S; Park, E M; Park, Y M

    2003-10-01

    Transient/chronic microenvironmental hypoxia that exists within a majority of solid tumors has been suggested to have a profound influence on tumor growth and therapeutic outcome. Since the functions of novel antioxidant proteins, peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and II, have been implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, it was of our special interest to probe a possible role of Prx I and II in the context of hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Since both Prx I and II use thioredoxin (Trx) as an electron donor and Trx is a substrate for thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), we investigated the regulation of Trx and TrxR as well as Prx expression following hypoxia. Here we show a dynamic change of glutathione homeostasis in lung cancer A549 cells and an up-regulation of Prx I and Trx following hypoxia. Western blot analysis of 10 human lung cancer and paired normal lung tissues also revealed an elevated expression of Prx I and Trx proteins in lung cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis of the lung cancer tissues confirmed an augmented Prx I and Trx expression in cancer cells with respect to the parenchymal cells in adjacent normal lung tissue. Based on these results, we suggest that the redox changes in lung tumor microenvironment could have acted as a trigger for the up-regulation of Prx I and Trx in lung cancer cells. Although the clinical significance of our finding awaits more rigorous future study, preferential augmentation of the Prx I and Trx in lung cancer cells may well represent an attempt of cancer cells to manipulate a dynamic redox change in tumor microenvironment in a manner that is beneficial for their proliferation and malignant progression.

  5. Volatile signature for the early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparri, Roberto; Santonico, Marco; Valentini, Claudia; Sedda, Giulia; Borri, Alessandro; Petrella, Francesco; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Pennazza, Giorgio; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Di Natale, Corrado; Paolesse, Roberto; Spaggiari, Lorenzo

    2016-02-09

    Exhaled breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Several independent researchers point out that the breath of lung cancer patients shows a characteristic VOC-profile which can be considered as lung cancer signature and, thus, used for diagnosis. In this regard, the analysis of exhaled breath with gas sensor arrays is a potential non-invasive, relatively low-cost and easy technique for the early detection of lung cancer. This clinical study evaluated the gas sensor array response for the identification of the exhaled breath of lung cancer patients. This study involved 146 individuals: 70 with lung cancer confirmed by computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography-(PET) imaging techniques and histology (biopsy) or with clinical suspect of lung cancer and 76 healthy controls. Their exhaled breath was measured with a gas sensor array composed of a matrix of eight quartz microbalances (QMBs), each functionalized with a different metalloporphyrin. The instrument produces, for each analyzed sample, a vector of signals encoding the breath (breathprint). Breathprints were analyzed with multivariate analysis in order to correlate the sensor signals to the disease. Breathprints of the lung cancer patients were differentiated from those of the healthy controls with a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 91%. Similar values were obtained in patients with and without metabolic comorbidities, such as diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia (sensitivity 85%, specificity 88% and sensitivity 76%, specificity 94%, respectively). The device showed a large sensitivity to lung cancer at stage I with respect to stage II/III/IV (92% and 58% respectively). The sensitivity for stage I did not change for patients with or without metabolic comorbidities (90%, 94%, respectively). Results show that this electronic nose can discriminate the exhaled breath of the lung cancer patients from those of the healthy controls. Moreover, the largest sensitivity is observed

  6. Towards gaining renewed balance in life after operable lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missel, Malene

    Background. Studies involving groups of patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) provide valuable knowledge on symptoms, quality of life and needs using questionnaires, but knowledge of the perspective of patients diagnosed with lung cancer and the significance of the illness...... and its treatment on their daily lives is scant. Moreover qualitative evidence on patient experiences of participation in rehabilitation is lacking. Objectives. To explore the lived experiences of patients with operable lung cancer in daily life at ‘four critical moments’ during a ‘standard’ illness...... cancer. Methods. Study participants were divided into three samples of patients with operable lung cancer referred for surgery at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, the Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen. Samples I and II involved an exploration of patients’ lived experiences during...

  7. A phase II study (ARCHER 1042) to evaluate prophylactic treatment of dacomitinib-induced dermatologic and gastrointestinal adverse events in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacouture, M E; Keefe, D M; Sonis, S; Jatoi, A; Gernhardt, D; Wang, T; Doherty, J P; Giri, N; Nadanaciva, S; O'Connell, J; Sbar, E; Piperdi, B; Garon, E B

    2016-09-01

    ARCHER 1042, a randomized phase II trial, explored the impact of prophylactic treatment on select dermatologic adverse events of interest (SDAEI), diarrhea, and mucositis associated with dacomitinib, an oral irreversible pan-human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) inhibitor, in development for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with advanced NSCLC treated with dacomitinib were enrolled in two cohorts. Cohort I patients were randomized 1:1 to receive oral doxycycline or placebo (4 weeks). Cohort II patients received oral VSL#3 probiotic plus topical alclometasone. Primary end points for Cohorts I and II were incidence of all grade and grade ≥2 SDAEI in the first 8 weeks of treatment and quality of life (QoL) assessed by the Skindex-16 survey. Additional primary end points for Cohort II were incidence of all grade and grade ≥2 diarrhea and mucositis in the first 8 weeks of treatment; QoL regarding diarrhea and mucositis incidence was assessed by the modified-Oral Mucositis Daily Questionnaire. Cohort I randomized 114 evaluable patients: 56 in the doxycycline arm, 58 in the placebo arm. Cohort II enrolled 59 evaluable patients. Doxycycline significantly reduced the incidence of grade ≥2 SDAEI by 50% (P = 0.016) compared with placebo. The incidence of all grade SDAEI was lower with doxycycline than with placebo but did not reach statistical significance. Doxycycline was associated with less deterioration in QoL compared with placebo. Alclometasone was associated with less deterioration in QoL compared with placebo but did not statistically significantly reduce the incidence of all grade or grade ≥2 SDAEI. VSL#3 did not reduce the incidence of all grade or grade ≥2 diarrhea and did not impact mucositis scores. Doxycycline was effective as a prophylactic treatment for dacomitinib-induced grade ≥2 SDAEI. Both doxycycline and alclometasone reduced the negative impact in patient-reported dermatologic AEs. The probiotic was not effective

  8. Sequential (gemcitabine/vinorelbine) and concurrent (gemcitabine) radiochemotherapy with FDG-PET-based target volume definition in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: first results of a phase I/II study

    OpenAIRE

    Stanzel Sven; Kaiser Hans J; Krohn Thomas; Reinartz Patrick; Pinkawa Michael; Piroth Marc; Gagel Bernd; Breuer Christian; Asadpour Branka; Schmachtenberg Axel; Eble Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) of gemcitabine every two weeks concurrent to radiotherapy, administered during an aggressive program of sequential and simultaneous radiochemotherapy for locally advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate the efficacy of this regime in a phase II study. Methods 33 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled in a combined radiochemotherapy protocol. 29 patien...

  9. Lung cancer: current diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Stefan; Wirtz, Hubert

    2009-12-01

    Much progress has been made in the treatment of lung cancer in the last ten years (adjuvant chemotherapy, targeted therapy, individualized therapy). Nonetheless, lung cancer is still the leading cause of death due to cancer and thus remains a major medical, scientific, and social problem. This review is based on national and international recommendations and selected articles from the literature. Cigarette smoking is the major pathogenic factor for lung cancer. Lung cancer can be divided into two major types that differ in their biological behavior, small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Whenever possible, the diagnosis should be confirmed by biopsy, the extent of disease should be documented in detail (international TNM classification/staging), and the patient's functional level should be assessed with a view toward treatment planning. Surgery for non-small cell lung cancer with curative intent is possible up to stage IIIA, while stage IIIB is the domain of radiotherapy. Surgery for small cell lung cancer with curative intent is possible for rare cases in early stages (T1N0 and T2N0, i.e., stage IA and IB). As long as small cell lung cancer is restricted to one side of the chest, simultaneous radiation therapy and chemotherapy are indicated. If a malignant pleural effusion or distant metastases are present, both lung cancers are treated palliatively with platinum-based chemotherapy.

  10. Estrogen, Estrogen Receptor and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Han Hsu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has been postulated as a contributor for lung cancer development and progression. We reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and prognostic implications of the estrogen receptors (ER in lung cancer, the effect and signaling pathway of estrogen on lung cancer, the hormone replacement therapy and lung cancer risk and survival, the mechanistic relationship between the ER and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and the relevant clinical trials combining the ER antagonist and the EGFR antagonist, to investigate the role of estrogen in lung cancer. Estrogen and its receptor have the potential to become a prognosticator and a therapeutic target in lung cancer. On the other hand, tobacco smoking aggravates the effect of estrogen and endocrine disruptive chemicals from the environment targeting ER may well contribute to the lung carcinogenesis. They have gradually become important issues in the course of preventive medicine.

  11. Treatment of Superior Lobe Central Lung Cancer with Lung Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulun YANG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Patients suffering from lung cancer often have poor quality of life after pneumonectomy. It has clinical significances to preserve maximum lobes of the “healthy” lung. The aim of this study is to report the applications of lung replantation in treatment of superior lobe central lung cancer. Methods Three lung cancer cases were included and analysed. The bronchus and margin of lower lung lobe were encroached by cancer. Pulmonary artery was invaded and surrounded by metastatic lymph node. Complete pneumonectomy, antegrade perfusion and retroperfusion with low-potassium dextran (LPD solution in vitro were performed. The retainable lower pulmonary lobe was selected from the isolated lung and superior pulmonary vein was replaced with inferior pulmonary veins. The bronchus and pulmonary artery were inosculated by turns. Results The operative cumulative time ranged from 220 min to 250 min. The isolated time of lobus inferior pulmonary ranged from 120 min to 150 min. The chest tube was pulled out after chest X-ray confirmed the reimplant lung full re-expansion. The patients were followed up for 4 months to 8 months and accomplished adjuvant chemotherapy for 3 or 4 periodicities. The patients had a sound quality of life. Conclusion Lung replantation removing the extensive tumor tissue and retaining the maximum pulmonary normal tissue is an useful method for treatment of lung cancer.

  12. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2-A Predictor of Outcome for Patients Irradiated for Stage II-III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Setter, Cornelia [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Dahl, Olav [Section of Oncology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Noack, Frank [Institute of Pathology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The prognostic value of the tumor cell expression of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. The present study investigated the effect of tumor cell expression of FGF-2 on the outcome of 60 patients irradiated for Stage II-III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: The effect of FGF-2 expression and 13 additional factors on locoregional control (LRC), metastasis-free survival (MFS), and overall survival (OS) were retrospectively evaluated. These additional factors included age, gender, Karnofsky performance status, histologic type, histologic grade, T and N category, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, surgery, chemotherapy, pack-years, smoking during radiotherapy, and hemoglobin during radiotherapy. Locoregional failure was identified by endoscopy or computed tomography. Univariate analyses were performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and the Wilcoxon test and multivariate analyses with the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: On univariate analysis, improved LRC was associated with surgery (p = .017), greater hemoglobin levels (p = .036), and FGF-2 negativity (p <.001). On multivariate analysis of LRC, surgery (relative risk [RR], 2.44; p = .037), and FGF-2 expression (RR, 5.06; p <.001) maintained significance. On univariate analysis, improved MFS was associated with squamous cell carcinoma (p = .020), greater hemoglobin levels (p = .007), and FGF-2 negativity (p = .001). On multivariate analysis of MFS, the hemoglobin levels (RR, 2.65; p = .019) and FGF-2 expression (RR, 3.05; p = .004) were significant. On univariate analysis, improved OS was associated with a lower N category (p = .048), greater hemoglobin levels (p <.001), and FGF-2 negativity (p <.001). On multivariate analysis of OS, greater hemoglobin levels (RR, 4.62; p = .002) and FGF-2 expression (RR, 3.25; p = .002) maintained significance. Conclusions: Tumor cell expression of FGF-2 appeared to be an independent negative predictor

  13. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  14. Lung cancer biomarkers in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Corradi, Massimo; Mazzone, Peter; Mutti, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Methods for early detection of lung cancer, such as computerized tomography scanning technology, often discover a large number of small lung nodules, posing a new problem to radiologists and chest physicians. The vast majority of these nodules will be benign, but there is currently no easy way to determine which nodules represent very early lung cancer. Adjuvant testing with PET imaging and nonsurgical biopsies has a low yield for these small indeterminate nodules, carries potential morbidity and is costly. Indeed, purely morphological criteria seem to be insufficient for distinguishing lung cancer from benign nodules at early stages with sufficient confidence, therefore false positives undergoing surgical resection frequently occur. A molecular approach to the diagnosis of lung cancer through the analysis of exhaled breath could greatly improve the specificity of imaging procedures. A biomarker-driven approach to signs or symptoms possibly due to lung cancer would represent a complementary tool aimed at ruling out (with known error probability) rather than diagnosing lung cancer. Volatile and nonvolatile components of the breath are being studied as biomarkers of lung cancer. Breath testing is noninvasive and potentially inexpensive. There is promise that an accurate lung cancer breath biomarker, capable of being applied clinically, will be developed in the near future. In this article, we summarize some of the rationale for breath biomarker development, review the published literature in this field and provide thoughts regarding future directions.

  15. Lung cancer: Biology and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemjabbar-Alaoui, Hassan; Hassan, Omer Ui; Yang, Yi-Wei; Buchanan, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women in the U.S. and worldwide. About 90% of lung cancer cases are caused by smoking and the use of tobacco products. However, other factors such as radon gas, asbestos, air pollution exposures, and chronic infections can contribute to lung carcinogenesis. In addition, multiple inherited and acquired mechanisms of susceptibility to lung cancer have been proposed. Lung cancer is divided into two broad histologic classes, which grow and spread differently: small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). Treatment options for lung cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Therapeutic-modalities recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer. Despite the improvements in diagnosis and therapy made during the past 25 years, the prognosis for patients with lung cancer is still unsatisfactory. The responses to current standard therapies are poor except for the most localized cancers. However, a better understanding of the biology pertinent to these challenging malignancies, might lead to the development of more efficacious and perhaps more specific drugs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent developments in lung cancer biology and its therapeutic strategies, and discuss the latest treatment advances including therapies currently under clinical investigation.

  16. Erlotinib dosing-to-rash: A phase II intrapatient dose escalation and pharmacologic study of erlotinib in previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. mita (Alain); K. Papadopoulos (K.); M.J.A. de Jonge (Maja); G. Schwartz (G.); J. Verweij (Jaap); A. Ricart (A.); Q.S.C. Chu (Q. S C); A.W. Tolcher (A. W.); L. Wood (Lori); S.W. McCarthy (Stanley); M. Hamilton; K.K. Iwata (Kenneth); B. Wacker; K. de Witte (Karel); E.K. Rowinsky (Eric Keith)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To evaluate the anticancer activity of erlotinib in patients with previously treated, advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose dose is increased to that associated with a maximal level of tolerable skin toxicity (i.e., target rash (TR)); to characterise the pharmacok

  17. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Adaptive Radiation for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of lung cancer radiotherapy are intra/inter-fraction tumor/organ anatomy/motion changes and the need to spare surrounding critical structures. Evolving radiotherapy technologies, such as four-dimensional (4D) image-based motion management, daily on-board imaging and adaptive radiotherapy based on volumetric images over the course of radiotherapy, have enabled us to deliver higher dose to target while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. The image-guided radiotherapy adapted to changes of motion and anatomy has made the radiotherapy more precise and allowed ablative dose delivered to the target using novel treatment approaches such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, and proton therapy in lung cancer, techniques used to be considered very sensitive to motion change. Future clinical trials using real time tracking and biological adaptive radiotherapy based on functional images are proposed. PMID:20814539

  19. Laryngeal metastasis from lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Umasankar Kalai; Karan Madan; Deepali Jain; Anant Mohan; Randeep Guleria

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the larynx are rare. The most common tumors metastasizing to the larynx are melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinoma metastasizing to the larynx has been rarely described. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old, chronic smoker, who incidentally had a laryngeal growth detected during flexible bronchoscopy examination for evaluation of suspected lung cancer. Histopathological examination of the laryngeal nodule and the biopsy obtained from the main bro...

  20. What You Need to Know about Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Lung Cancer This booklet is about lung cancer. Learning about medical care for your cancer can ... The anatomy of the lungs and basics about lung cancer Treatment for lung cancer, including taking part in ...

  1. Lung Cancer and Interstitial Lung Diseases: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Archontogeorgis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs represent a heterogeneous group of more than two hundred diseases of either known or unknown etiology with different pathogenesis and prognosis. Lung cancer, which is the major cause of cancer death in the developed countries, is mainly attributed to cigarette smoking and exposure to inhaled carcinogens. Different studies suggest a link between ILDs and lung cancer, through different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as inflammation, coagulation, dysregulated apoptosis, focal hypoxia, activation, and accumulation of myofibroblasts as well as extracellular matrix accumulation. This paper reviews current evidence on the association between lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pneumoconiosis.

  2. [Innovation in Surgery for Advanced Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Yasunori, Sohara; Endo, Shunsuke

    2016-07-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery can be one of less invasive surgical interventions for early stage lung cancer. Locally advanced lung cancer, however, cannot avoid aggressive procedures including pneumonectomy and/or extended combined resection of chest wall, aorta, esophagus, etc. for complete resection. Surgical approach even for advanced lung cancer can be less invasive by benefit from new anti-cancer treatment, innovated manipulations of bronchoplasty and angioplasty, and bench surgery( lung autotransplantation technique). We herein reviewed the strategy to minimize invasive interventions for locally advanced lung cancer, introducing 2 successful cases with advanced lung cancer. The 1st patient is a 62-year old man with centrally advanced lung cancer invading to mediastinum. Right upper sleeve lobectomy with one-stoma carinoplasty following induction chemoradiation therapy was successful. The operation time was 241 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 60 months after surgery. The 2nd is a 79-year old man with advanced lung cancer invading to the distal aortic arch. Left upper segmentectomy following thoracic endovascular aortic repair with stentgraft was successful with no extracorporeal circulation. The operation time was 170 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 30 months after surgery. The invasiveness of surgical interventions for local advanced lung cancer can be minimized by innovated device and new anti-cancer drugs.

  3. Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon – Part II – Influence from Combined Adaptive Response and Bystander Effects – A Microdose Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Bobby E.; Thompson, Richard E.; Beecher, Georgia C.

    2010-01-01

    In the prior Part I, the potential influence of the low level alpha radiation induced bystander effect (BE) on human lung cancer risks was examined. Recent analysis of adaptive response (AR) research results with a Microdose Model has shown that single low LET radiation induced charged particles traversals through the cell nucleus activates AR. We have here conducted an analysis based on what is presently known about adaptive response and the bystander effect (BE) and what new research is needed that can assist in the further evaluation human cancer risks from radon. We find that, at the UNSCEAR (2000) worldwide average human exposures from natural background and man-made radiations, the human lung receives about a 25% adaptive response protection against the radon alpha bystander damage. At the UNSCEAR (2000) minimum range of background exposure levels, the lung receives minimal AR protection but at higher background levels, in the high UNSCEAR (2000) range, the lung receives essentially 100% protection from both the radon alpha damage and also the endogenic, spontaneously occurring, potentially carcinogenic, lung cellular damage. PMID:22461760

  4. The New Lung Cancer Staging System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank C. Detterbeck,MD, FCCP; Daniel J. Boffa, MD; Lynn T, Tanoue, MD, FCCP

    2009-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) has conducted an extensive initiative to inform the revision of the lung cancer staging system. This involved development of an international database along with extensive analysis of a large population of patients and their prognoses. This article reviews the recommendations of the IASLC International Staging Committee for the definitions for the TNM descriptors and the stage grouping in the new non-small cell lung cancer staging system.

  5. Preoperative radiological approach for hilar lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Higashino, Takanori; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Takenaka, Daisuke [Kobe Ekisaikai Hospital (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    Recent advances in CT, MR, and nuclear medicine have made it possible to evaluate morphological and functional information in hilar lung cancer patients more accurately and quantitatively. In this review, we describe recent advances in the radiological approach to hilar lung cancer, focusing on mediastinal invasion, lymph node metastasis, and pulmonary functional imaging. We believe that further basic studies as well as clinical applications of newer MR techniques will play an important role in the management of patients with lung cancer. (author)

  6. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sriram

    Full Text Available Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778 regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements. Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001. Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001. Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care.

  7. Advances in Lung Stem Cells and Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing YIN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are emerging as a hot topic for cancer research. Lung CSCs share many characteristics with normal lung stem cells (SCs, including self-renewal and multi-potency for differentiation. Many molecular markers expressed in various types of CSCs were also found in lung CSCs, such as CD133, CD44, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2. Similarly, proliferation and expansion of lung CSCs are regulated not only by signal transduction pathways functioning in normal lung SCs, such as Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, but also by those acting in tumor cells, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K pathways. As CSC plays an critical role in tumor recurrence, metastasis and drug-resistance, understanding the difference between lung CSCs and normal lung SCs, identifying and targeting CSC markers or related signaling pathways may increase the efficacy of therapy on lung cancer and improved survival of lung cancer patients.

  8. Long-term outcome of phase I/II prospective study of dose-escalated proton therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joe Y; Zhang, Wencheng; Komaki, Ritsuko; Choi, Noah C; Chan, Shen; Gomez, Daniel; O'Reilly, Michael; Jeter, Melenda; Gillin, Michael; Zhu, Xiaorong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Mohan, Radhe; Swisher, Stephen; Hahn, Stephen; Cox, James D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this phase I/II study was to assess the long-term clinical benefits and toxicities of proton beam therapy for medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From June 2006 to September 2011, 35 patients with medically inoperable T1N0M0 (central or superior location, 12 patients) or T2-3N0M0 (any location, 23 patients) NSCLC were treated with 87.5Gy at 2.5Gy/fraction of proton therapy. Toxicities were scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The median follow-up time was 83.1months (95% CI: 69.2-97.1months). For all 35 patients, the 1, 3, and 5-year overall survival rates were 85.7%, 42.9%, and 28.1%, respectively. The 5-year local recurrence-free, regional recurrence-free, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 85.0%, 89.2%, and 54.4%, respectively. Different T stages had no effect on local and regional recurrence (p=0.499, p=1.00). However, with the increase in T stages, the distant metastasis rate increased significantly (p=0.006). The most common adverse effects were dermatitis (grade 2, 51.4%; grade 3, 2.9%) and radiation pneumonitis (grade 2, 11.4%; grade 3, 2.9%). Other grade 2 toxicities included esophagitis (2.9%), rib fracture (2.9%), heart toxicities (5.7%), and chest wall pain (2.9%). According to our long-term follow-up data, proton therapy with ablative doses is well tolerated and effective in medically inoperable early-stage NSCLC. Systemic therapy should be considered to reduce the rate of distant metastasis in cases of T2 and T3 lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vorinostat and bortezomib as third-line therapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a Wisconsin Oncology Network Phase II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Toby C.; Zhang, Chong; Kim, KyungMann; Kolesar, Jill M.; Oettel, Kurt R.; Blank, Jules H.; Robinson, Emily G.; Ahuja, Harish G.; Kirschling, Ron J.; Johnson, Peter H.; Huie, Michael S.; Wims, Mary E.; Larson, Martha M.; Hernan, Hilary R.; Traynor, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction The primary objective of this phase II trial was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of vorinostat and bortezomib as third-line therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods Eligibility criteria included recurrent/metastatic NSCLC, having received 2 prior systemic regimens, and performance status 0–2. Patients took vorinostat 400 mg PO daily days 1–14 and bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 IV day 1, 4, 8 and 11 in a 21-day cycle. Primary endpoint was 3-month progression free survival (3m-PFS), with a goal of at least 40 % of patients being free of progression at that time point. This study followed a two-stage minimax design. Results Eighteen patients were enrolled in the first stage. All patients had two prior lines of treatment. Patients received a median of two treatment cycles (range: 1–6) on study. There were no anti-tumor responses; stable disease was observed in 5 patients (27.8 %). Median PFS was 1.5 months, 3m-PFS rate 11.1 %, and median overall survival 4.7 months. The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were thrombocytopenia and fatigue. Two patients who had baseline taxane-related grade 1 peripheral neuropathy developed grade 3 neuropathy. The study was closed at its first interim analysis for lack of efficacy. Conclusions Bortezomib and vorinostat displayed minimal anti-tumor activity as third-line therapy in NSCLC. We do not recommend this regimen for further investigation in unselected patients. PMID:23728919

  10. Adaptive/nonadaptive proton radiation planning and outcomes in a phase II trial for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Eugene J; Lege, David; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D; Chang, Joe Y

    2012-12-01

    To analyze dosimetric variables and outcomes after adaptive replanning of radiation therapy during concurrent high-dose protons and chemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nine of 44 patients with stage III NSCLC in a prospective phase II trial of concurrent paclitaxel/carboplatin with proton radiation [74 Gy(RBE) in 37 fractions] had modifications to their original treatment plans after re-evaluation revealed changes that would compromise coverage of the target volume or violate dose constraints; plans for the other 35 patients were not changed. We compared patients with adaptive plans with those with nonadaptive plans in terms of dosimetry and outcomes. At a median follow-up of 21.2 months (median overall survival, 29.6 months), no differences were found in local, regional, or distant failure or overall survival between groups. Adaptive planning was used more often for large tumors that shrank to a greater extent (median, 107.1 cm(3) adaptive and 86.4 cm(3) nonadaptive; median changes in volume, 25.3% adaptive and 1.2% nonadaptive; Padaptive planning was 13 (range, 4-22). Adaptive planning generally improved sparing of the esophagus (median absolute decrease in V(70), 1.8%; range, 0%-22.9%) and spinal cord (median absolute change in maximum dose, 3.7 Gy; range, 0-13.8 Gy). Without adaptive replanning, target coverage would have been compromised in 2 cases (57% and 82% coverage without adaptation vs 100% for both with adaptation); neither patient experienced local failure. Radiation-related grade 3 toxicity rates were similar between groups. Adaptive planning can reduce normal tissue doses and prevent target misses, particularly for patients with large tumors that shrink substantially during therapy. Adaptive plans seem to have acceptable toxicity and achieve similar local, regional, and distant control and overall survival, even in patients with larger tumors, vs nonadaptive plans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Development of the lung cancer diagnostic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, You-Jiang; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2009-07-01

    To develop a lung cancer diagnosis system. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1883 patients with primary lung cancer or benign pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonia pseudotumor). SPSS11.5 software was used for data processing. For the relevant factors, a non-factor Logistic regression analysis was used followed by establishment of the regression model. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 system development platform and VB.Net corresponding language were used to develop the lung cancer diagnosis system. The non-factor multi-factor regression model showed a goodness-of-fit (R2) of the model of 0.806, with a diagnostic accuracy for benign lung diseases of 92.8%, a diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer of 89.0%, and an overall accuracy of 90.8%. The model system for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer has been established.

  12. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Westeinde, Susan C; van Klaveren, Rob J

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer with an estimated 342,000 deaths in 2008 (20% of total) is the most common cause of death from cancer, followed by colorectal cancer (12%), breast cancer (8%), and stomach cancer (7%) in Europe. In former smokers, the absolute lung cancer risk remains higher than in never-smokers; these data therefore call for effective secondary preventive measures for lung cancer in addition to smoking cessation programs. This review presents and discusses the most recent advances in the early detection and screening of lung cancer.An overview of randomized controlled computerized tomography-screening trials is given, and the role of bronchoscopy and new techniques is discussed. Finally, the approach of (noninvasive) biomarker testing in the blood, exhaled breath, sputum, and bronchoscopic specimen is reviewed.

  13. Suicide Risk Quadruples After Lung Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165864.html Suicide Risk Quadruples After Lung Cancer Diagnosis Doctors, loved ... have a strikingly higher-than-normal risk of suicide, a new study finds. While a cancer diagnosis ...

  14. Hypoxia in models of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Edward E; Vilalta, Marta; Cecic, Ivana K

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To efficiently translate experimental methods from bench to bedside, it is imperative that laboratory models of cancer mimic human disease as closely as possible. In this study, we sought to compare patterns of hypoxia in several standard and emerging mouse models of lung cancer...... to establish the appropriateness of each for evaluating the role of oxygen in lung cancer progression and therapeutic response. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Subcutaneous and orthotopic human A549 lung carcinomas growing in nude mice as well as spontaneous K-ras or Myc-induced lung tumors grown in situ......H2AX foci in vitro and in vivo. Finally, our findings were compared with oxygen electrode measurements of human lung cancers. RESULTS: Minimal fluoroazomycin arabinoside and pimonidazole accumulation was seen in tumors growing within the lungs, whereas subcutaneous tumors showed substantial trapping...

  15. Lung Cancer Clinical Trials: Advances in Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    New treatments for lung cancer and aspects of joining a clinical trial are discussed in this 30-minute Facebook Live event, hosted by NCI’s Dr. Shakun Malik, head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, and Janet Freeman-Daily, lung cancer patient activist and founding member of #LCSM.

  16. Aspects of palliative chemotherapy for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Egbert Frederik

    1990-01-01

    Lung carcinoma is the main cause of cancer related deaths among the male population in The Netherlands. In females this carcinoma is only surpassed by breast and colon cancer. In The Netherlands in 1987, 8.500 persons died due to lung carcinoma (1). It is anticipated that despite government-installe

  17. Transesophageal Ultrasonography for Lung Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Annema, Jouke; Vilmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Accurate mediastinal nodal staging is essential for patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer and is achieved by combined endobronchial ultrasound and transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Training requirements for EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for lung cancer staging...

  18. Aspects of palliative chemotherapy for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Egbert Frederik

    1990-01-01

    Lung carcinoma is the main cause of cancer related deaths among the male population in The Netherlands. In females this carcinoma is only surpassed by breast and colon cancer. In The Netherlands in 1987, 8.500 persons died due to lung carcinoma (1). It is anticipated that despite

  19. Transesophageal Ultrasonography for Lung Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Annema, Jouke; Vilmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Accurate mediastinal nodal staging is essential for patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer and is achieved by combined endobronchial ultrasound and transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Training requirements for EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for lung cancer staging...

  20. Advances of Hypoxia and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebing LI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the malignant tumors with fastest growing rates in incidence and mortality in our country, also with largest threat to human health and life. However, the exact mechanisms underlying lung cancer development remain unclear. The microenvironment of tumor hypoxia was discovered in 1955, but hypoxia in lung cancer tissues had not been successfully detected till 2006. Further studies show that hypoxia not only functions through the resistance to radiotherapy, but also regulates lung cancer development, invasion, metastasis, chemotherapy resistance and prognosis through an important oncogene HIF (hypoxia inducible factor, with its regulators PHD (prolyl hydroxylase domain and pVHL (product of von Hippel-Lindau gene. Therefore, hypoxia, HIF, PHD and pVHL should be considered as potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer pathogenesis and progression.

  1. Early diagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the detection of premalignant changes of bronchial mucosa and early stages of lung cancer frequent chest X-ray, spiral low dose computed tomography, fluorescence bronchoscopy, sputum cytology (also with automated systems with genetic and molecular changes in the sputum cells and bronchial mucosa were used. These screening methods of the high-risk groups for lung cancer achieved: earlier diagnosis of lung cancer in lower stage, higher operability, longer 5-year survival, but without mortality reduction.Conclusions: In the clinical practice we can examine higher risk groups for lung cancer in randomised control trials with multimodality approach: frequent chest low-dose fast spiral computed tomography, sputum cytology with genetic and molecular examinations and fluorescence bronchoscopy. Smoking cessation remains the best means to achieve mortality reduction from lung cancer.

  2. New Immunotherapy and Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Cos Escuín, Julio

    2017-08-17

    Recent research on the relationship between the immune system and cancer has revealed the molecular mechanisms by which cancer cells co-opt certain T cell receptors which block the cytotoxic response to defend themselves from the antitumor immune attack. These findings have helped identify specific targets (T cell receptors or their corresponding ligands) for the design of monoclonal antibodies that can unlock the immune response. These drugs, known as immune checkpoint inhibitors, have shown efficacy in metastatic melanoma and kidney cancer, and have been successfully tested in non-small cell lung cancer in recent trials. Immune checkpoint inhibitors were included in clinical practice as a second-line option after an initial chemotherapy (CT) regimen, and in the last year positive results have been reported from randomized trials in which they were compared in first line with standard CT. Responses have been surprising and durable, but less than 20%-25% in unselected patients, so it is essential that factors predicting efficacy be identified. One such biomarker is PD-L1, but the different methods used to detect it have produced mixed results. This non-systematic review discusses the results of the latest trials, the possibilities of incorporating these drugs in first-line regimens, the criteria for patient selection, adverse effects, and the prospects of combinations with conventional treatment modalities, such as CT, radiation therapy, and antiangiogenic agents. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

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    Lianhui Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs, as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted.

  4. Yin Yang gene expression ratio signature for lung cancer prognosis.

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    Wayne Xu

    Full Text Available Many studies have established gene expression-based prognostic signatures for lung cancer. All of these signatures were built from training data sets by learning the correlation of gene expression with the patients' survival time. They require all new sample data to be normalized to the training data, ultimately resulting in common problems of low reproducibility and impracticality. To overcome these problems, we propose a new signature model which does not involve data training. We hypothesize that the imbalance of two opposing effects in lung cancer cells, represented by Yin and Yang genes, determines a patient's prognosis. We selected the Yin and Yang genes by comparing expression data from normal lung and lung cancer tissue samples using both unsupervised clustering and pathways analyses. We calculated the Yin and Yang gene expression mean ratio (YMR as patient risk scores. Thirty-one Yin and thirty-two Yang genes were identified and selected for the signature development. In normal lung tissues, the YMR is less than 1.0; in lung cancer cases, the YMR is greater than 1.0. The YMR was tested for lung cancer prognosis prediction in four independent data sets and it significantly stratified patients into high- and low-risk survival groups (p = 0.02, HR = 2.72; p = 0.01, HR = 2.70; p = 0.007, HR = 2.73; p = 0.005, HR = 2.63. It also showed prediction of the chemotherapy outcomes for stage II & III. In multivariate analysis, the YMR risk factor was more successful at predicting clinical outcomes than other commonly used clinical factors, with the exception of tumor stage. The YMR can be measured in an individual patient in the clinic independent of gene expression platform. This study provided a novel insight into the biology of lung cancer and shed light on the clinical applicability.

  5. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening ...

  6. Lung cancer during pregnancy: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Mitrou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in males for decades, has recently become one of commonest causes for women too. As women delay the start of their family, the co-existence of cancer and pregnancy is increasingly observed. Nevertheless, lung cancer during pregnancy remains a rather uncommon condition with less than 70 cases published in recent years. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the commonest type accounting for about 85% of all cases. Overall survival rates are low. Chemotherapy and/or targeted treatment have been used with poor outcomes. The disease has been also found to affect the products of conception with no short- or long-term consequences for the neonate. This article is referring to a narrative review of lung cancers diagnosed in pregnant women around the world.

  7. The liquid biopsy in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Junaid; Yun, Jungmi W; Kompelli, Anvesh R; Moufarrej, Youmna E; Alexander, Jonathan S; Herrera, Guillermo A; Shackelford, Rodney E

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of lung cancer has significantly increased over the last century, largely due to smoking, and remains the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. This is often due to lung cancer first presenting at late stages and a lack of curative therapeutic options at these later stages. Delayed diagnoses, inadequate tumor sampling, and lung cancer misdiagnoses are also not uncommon due to the limitations of the tissue biopsy. Our better understanding of the tumor microenvironment and the systemic actions of tumors, combined with the recent advent of the liquid biopsy, may allow molecular diagnostics to be done on circulating tumor markers, particularly circulating tumor DNA. Multiple liquid biopsy molecular methods are presently being examined to determine their efficacy as surrogates to the tumor tissue biopsy. This review will focus on new liquid biopsy technologies and how they may assist in lung cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

  8. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  9. Ancillary Testing in Lung Cancer Diagnosis

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    William Dubinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathologic diagnosis of lung cancer historically has relied primarily on morphologic features of tumors in histologic sections. With the emergence of new targeted therapies, the pathologist is called upon increasingly to provide not only accurate typing of lung cancers, but also to provide prognostic and predictive information, based on a growing number of ancillary tests, that may have significant impact on patient management. This review provides an overview of ancillary tests currently used in the pathologic diagnosis of lung cancer, with a focus on immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnostics.

  10. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2011-06-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enhance the detoxification pathway of environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Although epidemiological studies have provided inconclusive results on the effect of green tea consumption against the development of esophageal and lung cancers in humans overall, the inverse association between green tea intake and risk of esophageal cancer risk is more consistently observed in studies with adequate control for potential confounders. Epidemiological studies also have demonstrated an inverse, albeit moderate, association between green tea consumption and lung cancer, especially in non-smokers. This article reviews data on the cancer-preventive activities of green tea extract and green tea polyphenols and possible mechanisms against the esophageal and lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals, and summarizes the current knowledge from epidemiological studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and esophageal and lung cancer risk in humans.

  11. Other cancers in lung cancer families are overwhelmingly smoking-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor.

  12. Regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings K

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a large number of epidemiological studies have examined the role of aspirin in the chemoprevention of colon cancer and other solid tumors, there is a limited body of research focusing on the association between aspirin and lung cancer risk. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the role of regular aspirin use in lung cancer etiology. Study participants included 868 cases with primary, incident lung cancer and 935 hospital controls with non-neoplastic conditions who completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Participants were classified as regular aspirin users if they had taken the drug at least once a week for at least one year. Results Results indicated that lung cancer risk was significantly lower for aspirin users compared to non-users (adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.41–0.78. Although there was no clear evidence of a dose-response relationship, we observed risk reductions associated with greater frequency of use. Similarly, prolonged duration of use and increasing tablet years (tablets per day × years of use was associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Risk reductions were observed in both sexes, but significant dose response relationships were only seen among male participants. When the analyses were restricted to former and current smokers, participants with the lowest cigarette exposure tended to benefit most from the potential chemopreventive effect of aspirin. After stratification by histology, regular aspirin use was significantly associated with reduced risk of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Conclusions Overall, results from this hospital-based case-control study suggest that regular aspirin use may be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer.

  13. Lung Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients

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    Jozicic Mirela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of malignancy has increased after solid organ transplantation, data on lung cancer in this group of patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who developed lung cancer after renal transplantation. Methods. Among a cohort of 1658 patients who received a transplant at our institution and were followedup between 1973 and 2014, five patients developed lung cancer. We analyzed risk factors, transplantation characteristics, treatment options and survival. Results. Lung cancer was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.3%. Time to diagnosis after the transplant procedure ranged from 26 to 156 months (mean 115 months. All of them had a smoking history. Tumors were classified as IIB (20%, IIIA (40%, and IV (40%. Histological types included adenocarcinoma (80% and there was one case of sarcomatoid carcinoma (20%. One patient had concomitant thyroid papillary carcinoma. Radiotherapy was applied in 2 patients, 2 underwent chemotherapy (erlotinib and combination of carboplatinum and etopozide in one patient each, and 2 died within one month after the diagnosis from disseminated malignant disease. Patients with stage IIIA survived 14 and 24 months after the diagnosis. The patient with sarcomatoid cancer underwent thoracotomy with a complete resection, lost his graft function and died 7 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion. Lung cancer is relatively rare malignancy in renal transplant recipients, but associated with high mortality. Smoking is a significant risk factor, thus smoking cessation should be promoted among renal transplant recipients, as well as regular screening for lung cancer.

  14. TGF-β1 Causes EMT by regulating N-Acetyl Glucosaminyl Transferases via Downregulation of Non Muscle Myosin II-A through JNK/P38/PI3K pathway in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Gao, Yingsheng; Gu, Ming; Wang, Lai; Khan, Sara; Naeem, Farah; Yousef, Bashir Alsiddig; Roy, Debmalya; Semukunzi, Herve; Yuan, Shengtao; Sun, Li

    2017-08-07

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major determinant of cancer metastasis and is closely linked with TGF-β1. Intracellular proteins, including E. Cadherin, N. Cadherin and Vimentin are directly related to EMT that affect cell migration and adhesion; on the other hand, non muscle myosin (NM) has a central role in cytokinesis, migration and adhesion. We aimed to explore the association of EMT and metastasis with TGF-β1 through regulation of non-muscle myosin II-A (NMII-A) and its interaction with Hexosamine Biosynthesis Pathway (HBP). Protein expression changes were assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescent staining while transcription level changes were assessed by qRT-PCR. EMT was assessed by phenotypic analysis, wound healing, proliferation and transwell migration assay in vitro while in vivo studies were conducted in BALB/c nude mice for lung orthotopic and tail vein metastasis models. We demonstrated that regulation of JNK/ P38/PI3K by TGF-β1 led to down expression of NMII-A which promoted EMT and lung cancer metastasis. This down expression of NMII-A conversely upregulated the expression of Core 2 N-acetyl Glucosaminyl Transferase mucin type (C2GnT-M) and further facilitated up and down regulation of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT) -V and -III respectively; moreover, NMII-A K.D cells showed 3 times more tendency to migrate towards brain in vivo. The study reports a novel pathway through which NMII-A negatively regulates EMT and metastasis via up regulation of C2GnT-M, GnT-V and down expression of GnT-III. These findings of lung cancer may further be required to study in other cancer types. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approa | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers.

  16. Surgical Results of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binay Thakur

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Earlier stage (pI-II, R0 resection and pathological pNo-1 has the best five year overall survival in Nepalese patients with NSCLC as well. Keywords: lung cancer; NSCLC; pulmonary resection.

  17. [Lung cancer screening and management of small pulmonary nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer. Most lung cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage, so survival after lung cancer is generally poor. Diagnosis of lung cancer at earlier stages may be associated with an increased survival rate. This indicates that the implementation of lung cancer screening programs at the population level by means of low dose computed tomography might helpful to improve the outcome and mortality of lung cancer patients. By means of rapid advances in imaging technologies over the last decades it became possible to detect small lung nodules as small as a couple of millimeters. This recent developments require management algorithms to guide the clinical management of suspicious and indeterminate lung nodules found in computer tomography during lung cancer screening or by incidental finding.This review will focus on both, the recent advances in lung cancer screening and the guidelines for the management of small pulmonary nodules.

  18. Alveolar Macrophage Polarisation in Lung Cancer

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    Saleh A. Almatroodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of alveolar macrophages in lung cancer is multifaceted and conflicting. Alveolar macrophage secretion of proinflammatory cytokines has been found to enhance antitumour functions, cytostasis (inhibition of tumour growth, and cytotoxicity (macrophage-mediated killing. In contrast, protumour functions of alveolar macrophages in lung cancer have also been indicated. Inhibition of antitumour function via secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 as well as reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and reduction of mannose receptor expression on alveolar macrophages may contribute to lung cancer progression and metastasis. Alveolar macrophages have also been found to contribute to angiogenesis and tumour growth via the secretion of IL-8 and VEGF. This paper reviews the evidence for a dual role of alveolar macrophages in lung cancer progression.

  19. Physical activity and lung cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lee W

    2011-01-01

    A lung cancer diagnosis and associated therapeutic management is associated with unique and varying degrees of adverse physical/functional impairments that dramatically reduce a patient's ability to tolerate exercise. Poor exercise tolerance predisposes to increased susceptibility to other common age-related diseases, poor quality of life (QOL), and likely premature death. Here we review the putative literature investigating the role of exercise as an adjunct therapy across the lung cancer continuum (i.e., diagnosis to palliation). The current evidence suggests that exercise training is a safe and feasible adjunct therapy for operable lung cancer patients both before and after pulmonary resection. Among patients with inoperable disease, feasibility and safety studies of carefully prescribed exercise training are warranted. Preliminary evidence in this area supports that exercise therapy may be an important consideration in multidisciplinary management of patients diagnosed with lung cancer.

  20. Exercise therapy across the lung cancer continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lee W; Eves, Neil D; Waner, Emily; Joy, Anil A

    2009-07-01

    A lung cancer diagnosis and associated therapeutic management are associated with unique and varying degrees of adverse physical/functional impairments that dramatically reduce patients' ability to tolerate exercise. Poor exercise capacity predisposes to increased susceptibility to other common age-related diseases, poor quality of life, and likely premature death. This article reviews the literature investigating the role of exercise as an adjunct therapy across the lung cancer continuum (ie, prevention to palliation). The current evidence suggests that exercise training is a safe and feasible adjunct therapy for patients with operable lung cancer both before and after pulmonary resection. Among patients with inoperable disease, feasibility and safety studies of carefully prescribed exercise training are warranted. Preliminary evidence in this area suggests that exercise therapy may be an important consideration in multidisciplinary management of patients diagnosed with lung cancer.

  1. [Chemoprevention of tobacco-related lung cancer by cruciferous vegetable].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maciej

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the world and the major cause of death from cancers. Around 80-90% of all human lung cancers are related to cigarette smoke. Tobacco smoke contains at least 60 carcinogens capable of causing tumors, 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are among the most prominent pulmonary carcinogens. Prevention is the most effective way to reduce lung cancer mortality. Chemoprevention is a cancer preventive strategy to inhibit, delay or reverse carcinogenesis using naturally occurring or synthetic chemical agents. A number of epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between cruciferous vegetable consumption and cancer, especially those of lung and stomach. Crucifers, such as broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts and cabbage, contain a family of secondary plant metabolites known as glucosinolates, which are unique to these vegetables. Upon hydrolysis, glucosinolates yield a number of breakdown products, mostly isothiocyanates, with supposed chemopreventive properties, as shown in animal experiments. It appears that significant portion of the chemopreventive effects of isothiocyanates may be associated with the inhibition of the metabolic activation of carcinogens by cytochrome P450s (Phase I), coupled with strong induction of phase II of detoxifying enzymes.

  2. A phase II study of weekly docetaxel-cisplatin as first-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Daniel; Hackenthal, Matthias; Graseck, Lutz; Schweisfurth, Hans; Schäper, Christoph; Krüll, Matthias; Temmesfeld-Wollbrück, Bettina; Suttorp, Norbert; Beinert, Thomas; Hellriegel, Klaus-Peter

    2009-09-01

    The combination of docetaxel and cisplatin is an effective first-line regimen in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, the recommended three-weekly schedule is associated with frequent neutropenia and infections. Because of the toxicity of cisplatin, patients may need to be hospitalized to ensure adequate hydration. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a weekly schedule of docetaxel and cisplatin. Patients with inoperable stage International Union Against Cancer IIIB (malignant effusion) or IV non-small cell lung cancer received docetaxel (35 mg/m(2), 30 minutes infusion) and cisplatin (25 mg/m(2), 30 minutes infusion) on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks for 4 to 6 cycles. Ondansetron (8 mg) and dexamethasone (8 mg) were given intravenously before chemotherapy. The patients received oral dexamethasone 2 x 4 mg daily from the day before until the day after chemotherapy. NK1-antagonists were given at the investigator's discretion. The majority of patients was treated in outpatient departments. Safety was assessed using CTCAE v3.0. The primary end point was response rate (RECIST). Forty-four patients were included. Twelve of 44 patients achieved an objective response (11 partial, 1 complete, intent-to-treat response rate 27%). Median time to progression was 4.4 months (95% confidence interval: 4.0-4.7) and median survival 9.6 months (95% confidence interval: 2.9-16.2). Patients received a median of three full cycles. Four patients (9%) required dose reductions. No cases of febrile neutropenia or grade 2 to 4 thrombocytopenia were observed. One patient (2%) experienced grade 3/4 nausea and vomiting. Weekly docetaxel-cisplatin demonstrated comparable efficacy with three-weekly schedules. Although the frequencies of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were low, non-neutropenic infections remained a problem. Because of relatively short hydration, the schedule can be safely administered in an outpatient setting.

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the chest or to other ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  6. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  7. Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Nianhong Lu, Caihong Liu, Jiangyuan Wang, Ying Ding, Qing Ai Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer has been described only rarely. Here, we report a case of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in a patient with squamous lung cancer. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a history of cough of 6 months' duration and chest pain of 1 week&...

  8. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  9. Lung Cancer Screening with Low Dose CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline, Chiles

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The announcement of the results of the NLST, showing a 20% reduction in lung-cancer specific mortality with LDCT screening in a high risk population, marked a turning point in lung cancer screening. This was the first time that a randomized controlled trial had shown a mortality reduction with an imaging modality aimed at early detection of lung cancer. Current guidelines endorse LDCT screening for smokers and former smokers ages 55 to 74, with at least a 30 pack year smoking history. Adherence to published algorithms for nodule follow-up is strongly encouraged. Future directions for screening research include risk stratification for selection of the screening population, and improvements in the diagnostic follow-up for indeterminate pulmonary nodules. As with screening for other malignancies, screening for lung cancer with LDCT has revealed that there are indolent lung cancers which may not be fatal. More research is necessary if we are to maximize the risk-benefit ratio in lung cancer screening. PMID:24267709

  10. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Neural Network Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Naresh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective identification of lung cancer at an initial stage is an important and crucial aspect of image processing. Several data mining methods have been used to detect lung cancer at early stage. In this paper, an approach has been presented which will diagnose lung cancer at an initial stage using CT scan images which are in Dicom (DCM format. One of the key challenges is to remove white Gaussian noise from the CT scan image, which is done using non local mean filter and to segment the lung Otsu’s thresholding is used. The textural and structural features are extracted from the processed image to form feature vector. In this paper, three classifiers namely SVM, ANN, and k-NN are applied for the detection of lung cancer to find the severity of disease (stage I or stage II and comparison is made with ANN, and k-NN classifier with respect to different quality attributes such as accuracy, sensitivity(recall, precision and specificity. It has been found from results that SVM achieves higher accuracy of 95.12% while ANN achieves 92.68% accuracy on the given data set and k-NN shows least accuracy of 85.37%. SVM algorithm which achieves 95.12% accuracy helps patients to take remedial action on time and reduces mortality rate from this deadly disease.

  11. Lung cancer screening: what do long-term smokers know and believe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Ceppa, DuyKhanh Pham; Hanna, Nasser; Rawl, Susan M

    2017-02-01

    To explore knowledge and beliefs of long-term smokers about lung cancer, associated risk factors and lung cancer screening. Qualitative study theoretically framed by the expanded Health Belief Model based on four focus group discussions. Content analysis was performed to identify themes of knowledge and beliefs about lung cancer, associated risk factors and lung cancer screening among long-term smokers' who had and had not been screened for lung cancer. Twenty-six long-term smokers were recruited; two groups (n = 9; n = 3) had recently been screened and two groups (n = 7; n = 7) had never been screened. While most agreed lung cancer is deadly, confusion or inaccurate information exists regarding the causes and associated risk factors. Knowledge related to lung cancer screening and how it is performed was low; awareness of long-term smoking's association with lung cancer risk remains suboptimal. Perceived benefits of screening identified include: (i) finding lung cancer early; (ii) giving peace of mind; and (iii) motivation to quit smoking. Perceived barriers to screening identified include: (i) inconvenience; (ii) distrust; and (iii) stigma. Perceived barriers to lung cancer screening, such as distrust and stigma, must be addressed as lung cancer screening becomes more widely implemented. Heightened levels of health-care system distrust may impact successful implementation of screening programmes. Perceived smoking-related stigma may lead to low levels of patient engagement with medical care and decreased cancer screening participation. It is also important to determine modifiable targets for intervention to enhance the shared decision-making process between health-care providers and their high-risk patients. ©2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sirolimus and Auranofin in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  13. A multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II controlled study of rh-endostatin (Endostar) in combination with chemotherapy in previously untreated extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shun; Li, Lu; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Gang; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Cheng; Guo, Shuliang; Zhang, Yiping; Song, Xiangqun; Yu, Yongfeng; Zhou, Caicun; Li, Wei; Liao, Meilin; Li, Baolan; Xu, Liyan; Chen, Ping; Hu, Chunhong; Hu, Chengping

    2015-01-01

    Based on promising efficacy in a single-arm study, a randomized phase II trial was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of adding rh-endostatin (Endostar) to first-line standard etoposide and carboplatin (EC) chemotherapy for treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. One hundred forty Chinese patients with pathologically confirmed, extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer were randomly assigned to EC alone or rh-endostatin + EC for 4-6 cycles, followed by single-agent rh-endostatin until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints included overall survival, Objective response rate (ORR), and quality of life. Median PFS was 6.4 months with rh-endostatin + EC (n = 69) and 5.9 months with EC (n = 69) (hazard ratio 0.8 [95% confidence interval 0.6-1.1]). PFS was significantly higher with rh-endostatin + EC than with EC (hazard ratio 0.4 [0.2-0.9; p = 0.020]) in female. Median overall survival was similar in both groups (12.1 versus 12.4 months, respectively [p = 0.82]). ORR was higher in the rh-endostatin + EC group (75.4%) than in the EC group (66.7%) (p = 0.348). The efficacy of rh-endostatin + EC relative to that of EC was reflected by greater improvements in patient-assessed quality of life scores after 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. There was no difference between each regimen in the incidence of nonhematological or Grade III-IV hematological toxicities. Addition of rh-endostatin to EC for the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer had an acceptable toxicity profile, but did not improve overall survival, PFS, and ORR.

  14. Lower lung cancer mortality in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi C; Lam, Tai H; Yew, Wing W; Chan, Wai M; Law, Wing S; Tam, Cheuk M

    2011-02-01

    Malignancy is the leading cause of death in Hong Kong, and lung cancer tops the list of all cancer deaths. A cohort of clients aged ≥65 years, enrolled at 18 elderly health centres in Hong Kong from 2000 to 2003, was followed up prospectively through linkage with the territory-wide death registry for causes of death until 31 December 2008, using the identity card number as unique identifier. All subjects with suspected cancer, significant weight loss of >5% within past 6 months or obstructive lung disease at the baseline were excluded. After a total of 423 061 person-years of follow-up, 932, 690 and 1433 deaths were caused by lung cancer, other tobacco-related malignancies and non-tobacco-related malignancies, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was independently (and negatively) associated with death from lung cancer after adjustment for other baseline variables, whereas there was only a minor or no effect for other smoking-related malignancies and non-tobacco-related malignancies. Obesity with BMI ≥30 [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.80] was associated with reduced lung cancer mortality, which was more prominent than the opposing effect of underweight (adjusted HR, 1.38, 95% CI 1.05-1.79). Consistent effects of BMI were observed after stratification into never-smokers and ever-smokers and in sensitivity analysis after excluding deaths within the first 3 years. Obesity was associated with lower lung cancer mortality in this prospective cohort analysis. As the effect was rather specific for lung cancer, further studies are indicated to explore the underlying mechanism.

  15. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  16. Mortality due to lung cancer in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Godoy, L; Rizo Rios, P; Sánchez Cervantes, F; Osornio-Vargas, A; García-Cuellar, C; Meneses García, A

    2007-11-01

    The highest mortality due to cancer worldwide for both genders corresponds to lung cancer (1,179,000 deaths). In Mexico, the crude mortality rate due to lung cancer was of 5.01 per 10(5) inhabitants in 1979. The most important risk factor is smoking. The present study was aimed at analyzing the mortality due to lung cancer in Mexico, assessing data from each of the states constituting the Mexican Republic during the 1998-2004 period. Data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI, for its initials in Spanish) corresponding to deaths due to lung cancer (1998-2004). We estimated the mean annual mortality rate (MAMR) for each of the 32 states of Mexico. We used the "World Population Standard". The MAMR was standardized according to age (ARS) direct method, and the standard error was determined by Poisson's approximation at a 95% confidence interval. To know the excess risk due to mortality, we calculated the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of ARS for each federal state, using the national rate as reference. In this period, 397,400 deaths due to malignant neoplasms were recorded, corresponding 45,578 (11.5%) to lung cancer; for men, 31,025 (68.1%) with MAMR of 8.9 and the respective ARS of 13.2 both x10(5) inhabitants. For women, results were 4553 (31.9%) deaths with MAMR of 4.1 and ARS of 5.4 both x10(5) inhabitants. The highest mortality rates due to lung cancer in both genders were observed in the north of Mexico, whereas for women this was observed in the central states. Although smoking is the main risk for lung cancer, there are other factors such as environmental pollution or exposure to toxicants that could be associated to this cancer. The years potentially lost due to lung cancer were 258,550 for men and 133,315 for women, with a total of 391,865 according to histopathology registry neoplasm malignant RHNM (1985-1995). Studies focused on the characterization and measurement of polluting agents would be a

  17. Plant Polyphenols as Chemopreventive Agents for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amararathna, Madumani; Johnston, Michael R.; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer may be prevented by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables as they are enriched with dietary antioxidant polyphenols, such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, lignans, stilbenes, and phenolic acids. Dietary polyphenols exert a wide range of beneficial biological functions beyond their antioxidative properties and are involved in regulation of cell survival pathways leading to anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic functions. There are sufficient evidence from in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies to suggest that the dietary intervention of polyphenols in cancer prevention, including the chemopreventive ability of dietary polyphenols, act against lung carcinogens. Cohort and epidemiological studies in selected risk populations have evaluated clinical effects of polyphenols. Polyphenols have demonstrated three major actions: antioxidative activity, regulation of phase I and II enzymes, and regulation of cell survival pathways against lung carcinogenesis. They have also shown an inverse association of lung cancer occurrences among high risk populations who consumed considerable amounts of fruits and vegetables in their daily diet. In in vitro cell culture experimental models, polyphenols bind with electrophilic metabolites from carcinogens, inactivate cellular oxygen radicals, prevent membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidative damage, and adduct formation. Further, polyphenols enhance the detoxifying enzymes such as the phase II enzymes, glutathione transferases and glucuronosyl transferases. PMID:27548149

  18. Plant Polyphenols as Chemopreventive Agents for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madumani Amararathna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer may be prevented by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables as they are enriched with dietary antioxidant polyphenols, such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, lignans, stilbenes, and phenolic acids. Dietary polyphenols exert a wide range of beneficial biological functions beyond their antioxidative properties and are involved in regulation of cell survival pathways leading to anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic functions. There are sufficient evidence from in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies to suggest that the dietary intervention of polyphenols in cancer prevention, including the chemopreventive ability of dietary polyphenols, act against lung carcinogens. Cohort and epidemiological studies in selected risk populations have evaluated clinical effects of polyphenols. Polyphenols have demonstrated three major actions: antioxidative activity, regulation of phase I and II enzymes, and regulation of cell survival pathways against lung carcinogenesis. They have also shown an inverse association of lung cancer occurrences among high risk populations who consumed considerable amounts of fruits and vegetables in their daily diet. In in vitro cell culture experimental models, polyphenols bind with electrophilic metabolites from carcinogens, inactivate cellular oxygen radicals, prevent membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidative damage, and adduct formation. Further, polyphenols enhance the detoxifying enzymes such as the phase II enzymes, glutathione transferases and glucuronosyl transferases.

  19. Lung cancer biomarkers: State of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide, with the highest incidence and mortality amongst all cancers. While the prognosis of lung cancer is generally grim, with 5-year survival rates of only 15%, there is hope, and evidence, that early detection of lung cancer can reduce mortality. Today, only computed tomography screening has shown to lead to early detection and reduction in mortality, but is limited by being anatomic in nature, unable to differentiate between inflammatory and neoplastic pathways, and therefore, susceptible to false positives. There is increasing interest in biomarkers for lung cancer, especially those that predict metastatic risk. Some biomarkers like DNA mutations and epigenetic changes potentially require tissue from the at-risk site; some like serum proteins and miRNAs are minimally invasive, but may not be specific to the lung. In comparison, emerging biomarkers from exhaled breath, like volatile organic compounds (VOC, and exhaled breath condensate, e.g., small molecules and nucleic acids, have the potential to combine the best of both. This mini review is intended to provide an overview of the field, briefly discussing the potential of what is known and highlighting the exciting recent developments, particularly with miRNAs and VOCs.

  20. Retinoids in lung cancer chemoprevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, S; Raffo, P; Isnardi, L; Palumbo, R

    1999-01-01

    In this review, we aim to synthesize the emerging picture of retinoids in lung cancer through a summary of ongoing investigations in biology, chemoprevention and therapy settings, in an attempt to clarify the possible role of these agents in such a disease. Early work in head and neck cancer has evidenced the capability of retinoids to interrupt field carcinogenesis by reversing premalignant lesions and decreasing the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs). At this time, the completed randomized trials in lung cancer have failed to demonstrate an evident chemopreventive effect of the tested agents on different study end points, although both a marginally significant benefit of retinol palmitate in time-to-development rates for smoke-related SPTs and a potential preventive effect of retinol supplementation against mesothelioma in selected populations of asbestos-exposed workers have been recently reported. Concerning the role of retinoids in lung cancer treatment, a moderate activity of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) or all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) as single agents has been reported in small series of advanced, mostly pretreated lung cancer patients. More encouraging findings derive from combination studies, in which retinoids, especially ATRA, are added to either alpha-interferon or chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Major recent advances have been made towards the understanding of retinoids mechanisms of action; at this regard, the role of RAR-beta basal or treatment-induced levels seems to be of particular interest as intermediate end point and/or independent prognostic factor, besides their known importance in lung carcinogenesis. Future research for chemopreventive and therapeutic programs with retinoids in lung cancer should be focused on the investigation of new generation compounds with a specificity for individual retinoid nuclear receptors. Such selective molecules may have a greater activity against lung cancer, with a more favourable toxicity profile, as

  1. Cutaneous metastasis from lung cancer. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratus, Giorgio; Tagliabue, Fabio; Mariani, Pierpaolo; Bottazzi, Enrico Coppola; Spinelli, Luisella; Novellino, Lorenzo

    2014-07-21

    Lung cancer is the most common neoplasm diagnosed worldwide. Metastatic presentation of the disease is frequent. Apart from the usual sites of metastatic disease (bone, adrenals, liver, brain), a particular site for metastases is represented by skin. The case we report is about a 66 year-old man with cutaneous metastasis from lung cancer. A 66 year-old man, with a previous history of abdominal aortic aneurism, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiopathy, diabetes mellitus, was admitted to our institution for left lower lobe lung cancer. After accurate preoperative staging, patient underwent a thoracotomic left lower lobectomy. Histological examination revealed a squamocellular carcinoma: G2-3, pT2bN0. Patient underwent oncological evaluation for the scheduled follow up. After 6 months patient went back to our observation for the appearance of a skin nodule, firm, dischromic, painful and ulcerated, localized in right iliac fossa. Biopsies demonstrated the nodule to be squamocellular carcinoma. Patient underwent a CT scan of the abdomen and thorax, which revealed the absence of infiltration of the deep fascial and muscular planes by the neoplasm. Patient underwent surgical removal of the lesion. Final histological examination confirmed the lesion to be metastasis of squamocellular lung cancer. Metastases from lung cancer occur in about 2,5-7,5% of cases. Median survival for these patients is 2,9 months. The most common type of neoplasm, according to Japanese Authors, is adenocarcinoma followed by squamocellular carcinoma. Some studies demonstrated the adequacy of surgery followed by chemotherapy, in case of single lesion. In case of multiple cutaneous metastases, many Authors suggest only chemotherapy, although the ideal scheme hasn't been discovered yet. Cutaneous metastases from lung cancer are rare; however the appearance of skin lesions, in patients with a positive oncological history, requires much attention. Accurate evaluation of the patient is

  2. Is obesity a preventive factor for lung cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollarova, H; Machova, L; Horakova, D; Cizek, L; Janoutova, G; Janout, V

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is a disease with multifactorial etiology, smoking playing the most important role among its risk factors. Some studies, however, indicate an inverse association between increased body-mass index (BMI) and the risk of lung cancer. In this paper, the association between BMI and lung cancer risk is analysed in two independent studies. In the first study, 751 lung cancer patients were compared to 30 058 controls. In the second study, 91 lung cancer patients were matched to 91 healthy controls. An inversed association was found between increased BMI and lung cancer risk. The inverse association remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking.

  3. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  4. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  5. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  6. Prof.Zhou Yiqiang'S Experience in Treatment of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宏宇; 王黎军

    2004-01-01

    @@ Bronchogenic carcinoma, the dominant form of malignant lung cancers, refers to canceration of the bronchial mucosa. Prof. Zhou accumulated a wealth of experience in treating complicated diseases with TCM measures and was especially skillful in treating lung cancers. His understandings about the art of treating lung cancers often brought about excellent results.

  7. Infectious complications in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinosoglou, K S; Karkoulias, K; Marangos, M

    2013-01-01

    Infections remain a part of the natural course of cancer. During the course of their disease, patients with lung cancer frequently present with an infection that can ultimately be fatal. Pathogenesis of infectious syndromes is usually determined by the underlying disease, as well as, the iatrogenic manipulations that occur during its management. Hence, lung cancer infections include lower respiratory tract infections in the context of COPD, aspiration, obstruction and opportunistic infections due to immunosuppression. Moreover, treatment-related infectious syndromes including post operative pneumonia, febrile neutropenia and superimposed infection following radiation/chemotherapy toxicity is common. Importantly, diagnosis of infection in the febrile lung cancer patient is challenging and requires a high index of suspicion in order to distinguish from other causes of fever, including malignant disease and pulmonary embolism. Prompt initiation of treatment is pivotal to avoid increased mortality. Careful consideration of infection pathogenesis can predict most likely pathogens and guide antibiotic management, thus, ensuring most favourable outcome.

  8. Lung cancer nanomedicine: potentials and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölükbas, Deniz Ali; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is by far the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Nanoparticle-based therapies enable targeted drug delivery for lung cancer treatment with increased therapeutic efficiency and reduced systemic toxicity. At the same time, nanomedicine has the potential for multimodal treatment of lung cancer that may involve 'all-in-one' targeting of several tumor-associated cell types in a timely and spatially controlled manner. Therapeutic approaches, however, are hampered by a translational gap between basic scientists, clinicians and pharma industry due to suboptimal animal models and difficulties in scale-up production of nanoagents. This calls for a disease-centered approach with interdisciplinary basic and clinical research teams with the support of pharma industries.

  9. Role of lymphangiogenesis in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Jankowska

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer represents one of the most frequent causes of death due to neoplastic disease in Poland and around the world. The high mortality which accompany neoplastic diseases used to be ascribed mainly to dissemination of cancerous cells. Studies on animal models suggest that tumour lymphangiogenesis represents the principal factor in the process of metastases formation. Lymphangiogenesis involves a process of formation of new lymphatic vessels from already existing lymphatic capillaries. Lymphangiogenesis is stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF and other, recently reported factors, such as, e.g., cyclooxygenase 2, fibroblast growth factor 2, angiopoetin-1 and the insulin-resembling growth factor. In lymphangiogenesis a key role is played by neutropilin 2 or podoplanin and this promoted development of studies on lymphangiogenesis. Activation of VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis increases motility and invasiveness of neoplastic cells, promotes development of metastases in several types of tumours such as, e.g., lung cancer, mammary carcinoma, cancers of the neck, prostate and large intestine. In recent years lymphangiogenesis provided topic of many studies. A positive correlation was detected between expressions of VEGF-C/D and VEGFR-3 in non-small cell lung cancer. In patients with lung cancer with high expression of VEGF-C a markedly abbreviated survival was noted. Positive correlation was detected between expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D on one hand and expression of LYVE-1 on the other in sentinel lymph nodes with metastases of neoplastic cells in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Also, high density of lymphatic vessels and high density of intraneoplastic microvessels proved to be independent poor prognostic indices in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Extensive hope is linked to studies on inhibitors of lymphangiogenesis, which may improve results of treatment also in tumour patients.

  10. Type II congenital cystic pulmonary malformation in an esophageal lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Blanca E; Furuya, María Elena Yuriko; Martínez-Muñiz, Irma; Vargas, Mario H; Flores-Salgado, Rosalinda

    2013-01-01

    A seven-month-old girl, born prematurely (birth weight 1000 g) from a twin pregnancy, was admitted to hospital due to recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. She experienced cough and respiratory distress during feeding. The right hemithorax was smaller than the left, with diminished breath sounds and dullness. Chest x-rays revealed decreased lung volume and multiple radiolucent images in the right lung, as well as overdistention of the left lung. An esophagogram revealed three bronchial branches arising from the lower one-third of the esophagus, corresponding to the right lung and ending in a cul-de-sac. A diagnosis of esophageal lung was established. On bronchography, the right lung was absent and the trachea only continued into the left main bronchus. Echocardiography and angiotomography revealed agenesis of the pulmonary artery right branch. The surgical finding was an esophageal right lung, which was removed; the histopathological diagnosis was type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung.

  11. Advances in Immunotherapies for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan HE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death of high morbidity and mortality with poor prognosis, which needs some more effective and less toxic therapies. The immunotherapies offer a novel approach for the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in both the adjuvant and palliative disease settings. A number of promising immunotherapies based on different mechanism have now been evaluated showing an increasing response rate. Moreover, further phase II/III clinical trials will be indicated to explore its value. These include checkpoint inhibitors (anti-CTLA4 antibody, anti-PD-1 antibody, anti-PD-L1 antibody, active vaccination (L-BLP25 liposome vaccine, Belagenpumatucel-L vaccine, MAGE-A3 protein vaccine and adoptive vaccination (CIK cells. The purpose of this paper will draw a summary on the theory, clinical trials, toxicity and problems to be solved of the immunotherapies in NSCLC.

  12. Metabolomics provide new insights on lung cancer staging and discrimination from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deja, Stanislaw; Porebska, Irena; Kowal, Aneta; Zabek, Adam; Barg, Wojciech; Pawelczyk, Konrad; Stanimirova, Ivana; Daszykowski, Michal; Korzeniewska, Anna; Jankowska, Renata; Mlynarz, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are widespread lung diseases. Cigarette smoking is a high risk factor for both the diseases. COPD may increase the risk of developing lung cancer. Thus, it is crucial to be able to distinguish between these two pathological states, especially considering the early stages of lung cancer. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools are required to properly determine lung cancer progression because this information directly impacts the type of the treatment prescribed. In this study, serum samples collected from 22 COPD and 77 lung cancer (TNM stages I, II, III, and IV) patients were analyzed. Then, a collection of NMR metabolic fingerprints was modeled using discriminant orthogonal partial least squares regression (OPLS-DA) and further interpreted by univariate statistics. The constructed discriminant models helped to successfully distinguish between the metabolic fingerprints of COPD and lung cancer patients (AUC training=0.972, AUC test=0.993), COPD and early lung cancer patients (AUC training=1.000, AUC test=1.000), and COPD and advanced lung cancer patients (AUC training=0.983, AUC test=1.000). Decreased acetate, citrate, and methanol levels together with the increased N-acetylated glycoproteins, leucine, lysine, mannose, choline, and lipid (CH3-(CH2)n-) levels were observed in all lung cancer patients compared with the COPD group. The evaluation of lung cancer progression was also successful using OPLS-DA (AUC training=0.811, AUC test=0.904). Based on the results, the following metabolite biomarkers may prove useful in distinguishing lung cancer states: isoleucine, acetoacetate, and creatine as well as the two NMR signals of N-acetylated glycoproteins and glycerol.

  13. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related death worldwide and poses a significant respiratory disease burden. Little is known about the provision of lung cancer care across Europe. The overall aim of the Task Force was to investigate current practice in lung cancer care across Europe....... The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility...... study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide...

  14. Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu NH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nianhong Lu, Caihong Liu, Jiangyuan Wang, Ying Ding, Qing Ai Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer has been described only rarely. Here, we report a case of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in a patient with squamous lung cancer. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a history of cough of 6 months' duration and chest pain of 1 week’s duration. Further examination revealed multiple swollen lymph nodes, palpable on the top of the right collarbone and without tenderness. The chest X-ray, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography scan confirmed squamous carcinoma of the right lung. The Wright-stained bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid cytology diagnosis was positive for T. gondii and tachyzoites were detected. All of them were of free type (ectocytic, without intracellular parasites. Serological examination revealed that the anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin (Ig M and IgG antibodies were positive. Unfortunately the patient did not continue treatment and was lost to follow-up. Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in patients with lung cancer. Prompt recognition of T. gondii infection among cancer patients with subsequent targeted treatment of toxoplasmosis could help alleviate symptoms and improve survival. Keywords: lung cancer, Toxoplasma gondii, bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid, tachyzoite

  15. Review on Immunotherapies for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha JIN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis, most cases are diagnosed at a very late stage. More effective medications or therapies should be developed to improve its prognosis. The advancement of tumor immunity and tumor immunosuppression facilitated the feasibility of immunotherapies for lung cancer. Ipilimumab, antibody to Programmed death-1 (PD-1, Toll-like receptor agonists, liposomal BLP25 (L- BLP25, belagenpumatucel-L, melanoma-associated antigen A3 (MAGE-A3 vaccine and talactoferrin have been proved to be effective for lung cancer through early clinical trials, most of the drugs have moved forward to phase III trials, so as to collect much higher level evidence to support the immunotherapies incorporated into the multidisciplinary treatment of lung cancer. The selection of target patients at appropriate stages, breaking down of tumor immunosuppression as well as the objective measurement of tumor response to the therapy are major challenges for the development of immunotherapies for lung cancer. The clarifying of the mechanism of immune escape led to the above drug development, and immune-senescence has already become the hotspot in this field.

  16. Lung cancer screening: Is there a future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary ER O′Brien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide with an average rate of 40-100/100,000 depending on the level of deprivation, and the rates are higher in smokers. The National Lung Screening Trial using three consecutive annual low-dose computed tomography scans is the first and largest screening study to show clear evidence of a significant reduction in lung cancer mortality in selected high-risk subjects. The many on-going European screening studies will generate information on the groups of subjects that may or may not benefit from screening (demographics, pack-years smoked, length of smoking, number of years from quitting etc. and the required frequency and duration of the intervention. Smoking cessation remains the most important tool for general improvement in health outcomes and in particular lung cancer prevention. Early intervention for investigations of symptoms that are considered mild or common could also change the outcome. Doctors and patients must become increasingly aware that these common symptoms are also potentially symptoms of lung cancer and are not ′normal′ even in smokers.

  17. Lung cancer in Asian women - the environment and genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.K. [University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (China). Queen Mary Hospital

    2005-09-15

    The mortality rate of lung cancer in Asian women has increased significantly in the past few decades. Environmental factors include tobacco smoke (active and environmental), other indoor pollutions (cooking oil vapours, coal burning, fungus spores), diet, and infections. Active tobacco smoking is not the major factor. Cooking oil vapours associated with high temperature wok cooking and indoor coal burning for heating and cooking in unvented homes, particularly in rural areas, are risk factors for Chinese women. Chronic benign respiratory diseases due to the fungus Microsporum canis probably accounts for the high incidence of lung cancer in northern Thai women at Sarapee. Diets rich in fruits, leafy green vegetables, and vitamin A are protective, while cured meat (Chinese sausage, pressed duck and cured pork), deep-fried cooking, and chili increased the risk. Tuberculosis is associated with lung cancer. Also, a Taiwanese study showed that the odds ratio of papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 infection in non-smoking female lung cancer patients was 10.1, strongly suggesting a causative role. Genetic factors have also been studied in Chinese women, including human leucocyte antigens, K-ras oncogene activation, p53 mutation, polymorphisms of phase I activating enzymes (cytochrome P450, N-acetyltransferase slow acetylator status), and phase II detoxifying enzymes (glutathione-S-transferases, N-acetyltransferase rapid acetylator status).

  18. Next-generation anthracycline for the management of small cell lung cancer: focus on amrubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Yamamoto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Michiko Yamamoto, Akira Takakura, Noriyuki MasudaDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, JapanAbstract: Amrubicin is a totally synthetic anthracycline anticancer agent that acts as a potent topoisomerase II inhibitor. Amrubicin has been approved in Japan for the treatment of lung cancer, and the results from clinical studies of amrubicin as a single agent or as part of combination regimens for lung cancer, particularly for small cell lung cancer, conducted in Japan and overseas have been promising. Amrubicin should be included among new treatment strategies especially for chemoresistant patients. Here, preclinical, pharmacological, and clinical data on the use of amrubicin for the treatment of small cell lung cancer are reviewed.Keywords: amrubicin, anthracycline, small-cell lung cancer, extensive disease

  19. The early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, T L

    2001-06-01

    Lung cancer is the most common fatal malignancy in both men and women, both in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Today, lung cancer is most often diagnosed on the basis of symptoms of advanced disease or when chest x-rays are taken for a variety of purposes unrelated to lung cancer detection. Unfortunately, in the United States no society or governmental agency recommends screening, even for patients with high risks, such as smokers with airflow obstruction or people with occupational exposures, including asbestos. The origins of this negative attitude toward lung cancer screening are found in 3 studies sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in the mid-1970s and conducted at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, the Mayo Clinic, and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center. These studies concluded that early identification of lung cancer through chest x-rays and cytologic diagnosis of sputum did not alter disease-specific mortality. However, patients with earlier stage disease were found through screening, which resulted in a higher resectability rate and improved survival in the screening group compared with a control group of patients receiving ordinary care. Patients in the control group often received annual chest x-rays during the course of this study, which was the standard of care at the time. Thus no true nonscreening control group resulted. The patients at highest risk were not enrolled in this study. No specific amount of pack-years of smoking intensity was required. Only men were screened. The studies were inadequately powered to show an improvement in mortality rate of less than 50%. Ninety percent of lung cancer occurs in smokers. The prevalence of lung cancer is 4 to 6 times greater when smokers have airflow obstruction than with normal airflow, when all other background factors, including smoking history, occupational risk, and family history, are the same. Screening heavy smokers (ie, > or = 30 pack-years) with airflow obstruction

  20. Predicting death from surgery for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Dowd, Emma L; Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Baldwin, David R

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current British guidelines advocate the use of risk prediction scores such as Thoracoscore to estimate mortality prior to radical surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A recent publication used the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) to produce a score to predict 90day mortality...... and external validation of NLCA score and validation of Thoracoscore were 0.68 (95% CI 0.63-0.72), 0.60 (95% CI 0.56-0.65) and 0.60 (95% CI 0.54-0.66) respectively. Post-hoc analysis was performed using NLCA records on 15554 surgical patients to derive summary tables for 30 and 90day mortality, stratified...... by procedure type, age and performance status. CONCLUSIONS: Neither score performs well enough to be advocated for individual risk stratification prior to lung cancer surgery. It may be that additional physiological parameters are required; however this is a further project. In the interim we propose the use...

  1. Narcissus, the Beam, and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    In the management of lung cancer, the rules of engagement of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) are not clearly defined. The potential for SABR to affect to an unprecedented level current protocols and in all disease stages emerges vehemently from the literature. However, in a time when the role of surgery is being reassessed, surgeons need to take a closer look at the evidence for the use of SABR in lung cancer patients and clearly define their indisputable role within the context of multidisciplinary teams. The myth of Narcissus exemplified in the absolute masterpiece by Caravaggio seems to represent an ideal metaphor to explain the ever-evolving interaction between surgery and SABR in lung cancer management.

  2. Socioeconomic position and survival after lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne O; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    with stepwise inclusion of possible mediators. RESULTS: For both low- and high-stage lung cancer, adjusted ORs for first-line treatment were reduced in patients with short education and low income, although the OR for education did not reach statistical significance in men with high-stage disease. Patients...... by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 13 045 patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010, with information on stage, histology, performance status and first-line treatment. We obtained age, gender, vital status, comorbid...... conditions and socioeconomic information (education, income and cohabitation status) from nationwide population-based registers. Associations between SEP and receipt of first-line treatment were analysed in multivariate logistic regression models and those with overall mortality in Cox regression models...

  3. History of Depression in Lung Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, M; Brønserud, M M; Jakobsen, E

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the influence of a history of depression in the process of diagnostic evaluation and the choice of treatment in lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis was based on all patients with non-small cell lung cancer who were registered in 2008-2014; in total, 27 234 patients....... To estimate the effect of depression on the diagnostic process and the choice of treatment in lung cancer we fitted a logistic regression model and a Cox regression model adjusting for age, gender, resection and stage. RESULTS: Depression in a patient's anamnesis had no significant effect on the delay...... in diagnostic evaluation (hazard ratio = 0.99 with 95% confidence interval 0.90; 1.09). Patients with a history of periodic depression had a 33% lower treatment rate (odds ratio = 0.66 with 95% confidence interval 0.51; 0.85) than patients without a history of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows...

  4. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the quadriceps in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving palliative chemotherapy: a randomized phase II study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Maddocks

    Full Text Available A reduced exercise capacity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Therapeutic exercise can be beneficial and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES of the quadriceps muscles may represent a practical approach. The primary aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of NMES of the quadriceps to patients with NSCLC used alongside palliative chemotherapy. Secondary aims explored aspects of safety and efficacy of NMES in this setting.Patients with advanced NSCLC due to receive first-line palliative chemotherapy were randomized to usual care with or without NMES. They were asked to undertake 30 minute sessions of NMES, ideally daily, but as a minimum, three times weekly. For NMES to be considered acceptable, it was predetermined that ≥80% of patients should achieve this minimum level of adherence. Qualitative interviews were held with a subset of patients to explore factors influencing adherence. Safety was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Quadriceps muscle strength, thigh lean mass, and physical activity level were assessed at baseline and after three cycles of chemotherapy.49 patients (28 male, median (IQR age 69 (64-75 years participated. Of 30 randomized to NMES, 18 were eligible for the primary endpoint, of whom 9 (50% [90% CI, 29 to 71] met the minimum level of adherence. Adherence was enhanced by incorporating sessions into a daily routine and hindered by undesirable effects of chemotherapy. There were no serious adverse events related to NMES, nor significant differences in quadriceps muscle strength, thigh lean mass or physical activity level between groups.NMES is not acceptable in this setting, nor was there a suggestion of benefit. The need remains to explore NMES in patients with cancer in other settings.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 42944026 www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN42944026.

  5. Does access to private healthcare influence potential lung cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 107, No 8 (2017) > ... Does access to private healthcare influence potential lung cancer cure rates? ... However, this has not been consistently shown looking at non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in ... from 32 Countries:.

  6. Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer Such testing could cut death rate by 20 ... the United States don't get screened for lung cancer even though they're at increased risk for ...

  7. Esophageal cancer developed 13 years after radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Atsushi; Matsuura, Masana; Noda, Masanobu; Katsumata, Yasushi; Maehara, Tadayuki; Tamura, Shizuo; Uzawa, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Toshitaka

    1988-05-01

    This paper reports on an autopsied case manifesting an esophageal cancer that had developed 13 years after radiotherapy for lung cancer. The patient was a 61-year-old man. He was found to have a squamous cell carcinoma of the right lower bronchus with a swelling of the mediastinal and left supraclavicular lymph nodes in July of 1973. He received 60 Gy of irradiation in the right lung, the mediastinum, and the left supraclavicular region. Later, after doing well until August of 1986, a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus was found at the upper intrathoracic site. Thus, he also received additional radiotherapy but died of pneumonia after this local recurrence 7 months later. At autopsy, no local recurrence of the primary lung cancer was found. The site of esophageal cancer was far from that of the primary lung cancer thought it was included in the previous treatment ports. This suggests the possibility that the primary esophageal cancer had been induded by therapeutic irradiation. So far as we know, this is the first report of esophageal cancer that may have developed after irradiation for lung cancer.

  8. [Esophageal cancer developing 13 years after radiotherapy of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, A; Matsuura, M; Noda, M; Katsumata, Y; Maehara, T; Tamura, S; Uzawa, T; Ishiko, T

    1988-05-01

    This paper reports on an autopsied case manifesting an esophageal cancer that had developed 13 years after radiotherapy for lung cancer. The patient was a 61-year-old man. He was found to have a squamous cell carcinoma of the right lower bronchus with a swelling of the mediastinal and left supraclavicular lymph nodes in July of 1973. He received 60 Gy of irradiation in the right lung, the mediastinum, and the left supraclavicular region. Later, after doing well until August of 1986, a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus was found at the upper intrathoracic site. Thus, he also received additional radiotherapy but died of pneumonia after this local recurrence 7 months later. At autopsy, no local recurrence of the primary lung cancer was found. The site of esophageal cancer was far from that of the primary lung cancer though it was included in the previous treatment ports. This suggests the possibility that the primary esophageal cancer had been induced by therapeutic irradiation. So far as we know, this is the first report of esophageal cancer that may have developed after irradiation for lung cancer.

  9. Nanomedicine for Treatment of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajid

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the primary cause of cancer-related death in both men and women in the United States and rest of the world. Due to diagnosis at an advanced stage, it is associated with a high mortality in a majority of patients. In recent years, enormous advances have occurred in the development and application of nanotechnology in the detection, diagnosis, and therapy of cancer. This progress has led to the development of the emerging field of "cancer nanomedicine." Nanoparticle-based therapeutic systems have gained immense popularity due to their bioavailability, in vivo stability, intestinal absorption, solubility, sustained and targeted delivery, and therapeutic effectiveness of several anticancer agents. Currently, a plethora of nanocarrier formulations are utilized including lipid-based, polymeric and branched polymeric, metal-based, magnetic, and mesoporous silica. In lung cancer, nanoparticle-based therapeutics is paving the way in the diagnosis, imaging, screening, and treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. The application and expansion of novel nanocarriers for drug delivery is an exciting and challenging research filed, in particular for the delivery of emerging cancer therapies. Some of the current progress and challenges in nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems for lung cancer treatment are discussed.

  10. Expression of PAH-DNA Adducts in Lung Tissues of Xuanwei Female Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun WANG

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The coal-fired pollution in Xuanwei area has been considered to be local main reason for high incidence of female lung cancer. The aim of this study is to explore the expression of PAH-DNA adducts in lung tissues of Xuanwei female lung cancer patients and to explore the relationship between the large number of coal-fired pollution PAHs materials and the high incidence of Xuanwei female lung cancer. Methods We totally collected each 20 cases of Xuanwei female lung cancer patients, Xuanwei male lung cancer patients, Non-Xuanwei female lung cancer patients and collect each 10 cases of Xuanwei, Non-Xuanwei female patients with benign lung lesions. The cancer tissues, adjacent cancer tissues and normal lung tissues were collected in lung cancer patients and only the normal tissues were collected in benign lung lesion patients. There were total 80 cases and 200 tissues. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression of PAHDNA adducts in each group. Image pro-plus 6.0 software was used to analyze the images and part quantified analysis. SPSS 13.0 statistical software was used to analyze the data. Results The positive expression of PAH-DNA adducts in lung cancer tissues, adjacent cancer tissues and normal lung tissues of Xuanwei female lung cancer patients were 90%, 80% and 65%. They were higher than the positive expression of PAH-DNA adducts in Xuanwei male lung cancer patients (35%, 30%, 30% and Non-Xuanwei female lung cancer patients (20%, 15%, 10%(P 0.05. Conclusion The expressions of PAHDNA adducts in lung tissues of Xuanwei female were higher than which in Xuanwei male and Non-Xuanwei female.

  11. [Multidisciplinary treatment of lung cancer in 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Hirokazu; Sagawa, M; Usuda, K; Ueno, M; Tanaka, M; Machida, Y; Sakuma, T

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Recently, big progress in the treatment of lung cancer has been achieved, such as new anti-cancer drugs, molecular targeted therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, etc. Multidisciplinary approach has been required to the therapy for lung cancer patients. In this paper, we introduce The 21st Century Multidisciplinary Center in Kanazawa Medical University, and the Hokuriku Training Program for Making Specialists in Cancer Treatment.

  12. [Adenocarcinoma of lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sung Ae; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2014-09-25

    Although hematogenous metastasis of cancer to the gastrointestinal track is rare, it sometime has been reported in patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, it is extremely rare for lung cancer to metastasize to the stomach, not to mention solitary gastric metastasis. Herein, the authors report a case of a 69-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with lung cancer with synchronous primary gastric cancer which proved to be lung cancer with solitary gastric metastasis after the operation.

  13. Small RNA combination therapy for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wen; Dahlman, James E.; Tammela, Tuomas; Khan, Omar F.; Sood, Sabina; Dave, Apeksha; Cai, Wenxin; Chirino, Leilani M.; Yang, Gillian R.; Bronson, Roderick; Crowley, Denise G.; Sahay, Gaurav; Schroeder, Avi; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs have enormous potential as cancer therapeutics, but their effective delivery to most solid tumors has been difficult. Here, we show that a new lung-targeting nanoparticle is capable of delivering miRNA mimics and siRNAs to lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and to tumors in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung cancer based on activation of oncogenic Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras) and loss of p53 function. Therapeutic delivery of miR-34a, a p53-regulated tumor suppressor miRNA, restored miR-34a levels in lung tumors, specifically down-regulated miR-34a target genes, and slowed tumor growth. The delivery of siRNAs targeting Kras reduced Kras gene expression and MAPK signaling, increased apoptosis, and inhibited tumor growth. The combination of miR-34a and siRNA targeting Kras improved therapeutic responses over those observed with either small RNA alone, leading to tumor regression. Furthermore, nanoparticle-mediated small RNA delivery plus conventional, cisplatin-based chemotherapy prolonged survival in this model compared with chemotherapy alone. These findings demonstrate that RNA combination therapy is possible in an autochthonous model of lung cancer and provide preclinical support for the use of small RNA therapies in patients who have cancer. PMID:25114235

  14. An Overview: Treatment of Lung Cancer on Researcher Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javeria Amin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers is defined as the uncontrolled cell divisions. Cell does not grow maturely and destined to uncontrolled cell growth. When these cells of lungs grow uncontrolled it is called lung cancer. Nowadays mortality rate due to lung cancer is increasing day by day. Many treatment and diagnoses are now a day’s available to deal with lung cancer. Here we disused different method for diagnosis the common types of lung cancer Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Small Cell Lung Cancer, Small Cell Lung Cancer Limited Stage, Small Cell Lung Cancer - Extensive Stage, Lung Adenocarcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma,Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC, Metastatic lung cancer.

  15. DETECTION OF GENE MUTATION IN SPUTUM OF LUNG CANCER PATIENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG He-long; WANG Wen-liang; CUI Da-xiang

    1999-01-01

    @@ Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor, which has ahigh incidence and mortality rate. Therefore, it is necessary to seek a new method for the diagnosis, especially the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The development of molecular biology makes the gene diagnosis of lung cancer possible.PCR-SSCP was applied to detect p53 gene mutation of lung cancer patients' sputum cells and we have achieved good results.

  16. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M;

    2011-01-01

    , the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference...

  17. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banat, G-Andre; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Wilhelm, Jochen; Weigert, Andreas; Olesch, Catherine; Ebel, Katharina; Stiewe, Thorsten; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Fink, Ludger; Savai, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    .... We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic...

  18. Estimating the asbestos-related lung cancer burden from mesothelioma mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, V; Peto, J; Byrnes, G; Straif, K; Boffetta, P

    2012-01-01

    Background: Quantifying the asbestos-related lung cancer burden is difficult in the presence of this disease's multiple causes. We explore two methods to estimate this burden using mesothelioma deaths as a proxy for asbestos exposure. Methods: From the follow-up of 55 asbestos cohorts, we estimated ratios of (i) absolute number of asbestos-related lung cancers to mesothelioma deaths; (ii) excess lung cancer relative risk (%) to mesothelioma mortality per 1000 non-asbestos-related deaths. Results: Ratios varied by asbestos type; there were a mean 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.5, 1.0) asbestos-related lung cancers per mesothelioma death in crocidolite cohorts (n=6 estimates), 6.1 (3.6, 10.5) in chrysotile (n=16), 4.0 (2.8, 5.9) in amosite (n=4) and 1.9 (1.4, 2.6) in mixed asbestos fibre cohorts (n=31). In a population with 2 mesothelioma deaths per 1000 deaths at ages 40–84 years (e.g., US men), the estimated lung cancer population attributable fraction due to mixed asbestos was estimated to be 4.0%. Conclusion: All types of asbestos fibres kill at least twice as many people through lung cancer than through mesothelioma, except for crocidolite. For chrysotile, widely consumed today, asbestos-related lung cancers cannot be robustly estimated from few mesothelioma deaths and the latter cannot be used to infer no excess risk of lung or other cancers. PMID:22233924

  19. SubSolid Nodules in lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.Th.

    2014-01-01

    With eight million deaths in 2012 lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the world, and the problem is still growing. As long as the goal of a total ban on smoking tobacco is not fulfilled, lung cancer screening as a means of secondary prevention has great potential. The aim of lung

  20. Lung Cancer Gene Signatures and Clinical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruprecht Kuner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microarrays have been used for more than two decades in preclinical research. The tumor transcriptional profiles were analyzed to select cancer-associated genes for in-deep functional characterization, to stratify tumor subgroups according to the histopathology or diverse clinical courses, and to assess biological and cellular functions behind these gene sets. In lung cancer—the main type of cancer causing mortality worldwide—biomarker research focuses on different objectives: the early diagnosis of curable tumor diseases, the stratification of patients with prognostic unfavorable operable tumors to assess the need for further therapy regimens, or the selection of patients for the most efficient therapies at early and late stages. In non-small cell lung cancer, gene and miRNA signatures are valuable to differentiate between the two main subtypes’ squamous and non-squamous tumors, a discrimination which has further implications for therapeutic schemes. Further subclassification within adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma has been done to correlate histopathological phenotype with disease outcome. Those tumor subgroups were assigned by diverse transcriptional patterns including potential biomarkers and therapy targets for future diagnostic and clinical applications. In lung cancer, none of these signatures have entered clinical routine for testing so far. In this review, the status quo of lung cancer gene signatures in preclinical and clinical research will be presented in the context of future clinical perspectives.

  1. Lung cancer in Asian women-the environment and genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wah Kit

    2005-09-01

    The mortality rate of lung cancer in Asian women has increased significantly in the past few decades. Environmental factors include tobacco smoke (active and environmental), other indoor pollutions (cooking oil vapours, coal burning, fungus spores), diet, and infections. Active tobacco smoking is not the major factor. The relative risk of lung cancer among non-smoking women ever exposed to environmental smoke from their husbands was 1.20 from a meta-analysis. Cooking oil vapours associated with high temperature wok cooking and indoor coal burning for heating and cooking in unvented homes, particularly in rural areas, are risk factors for Chinese women. Chronic benign respiratory diseases due to the fungus Microsporum canis probably accounts for the high incidence of lung cancer in northern Thai women at Sarapee. Diets rich in fruits, leafy green vegetables, and vitamin A are protective, while cured meat (Chinese sausage, pressed duck and cured pork), deep-fried cooking, and chili increased the risk. Tuberculosis is associated with lung cancer. Also, a Taiwanese study showed that the odds ratio of papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 infection in non-smoking female lung cancer patients was 10.1, strongly suggesting a causative role. Genetic factors have also been studied in Chinese women, including human leucocyte antigens, K-ras oncogene activation, p53 mutation, polymorphisms of phase I activating enzymes (cytochrome P450, N-acetyltransferase slow acetylator status), and phase II detoxifying enzymes (glutathione-S-transferases, N-acetyltransferase rapid acetylator status). New molecular screening technology would facilitate identification of molecular targets for future studies. The interaction between environmental and genetic factors should also be further elucidated.

  2. A phase II trial of erlotinib monotherapy for pretreated elderly patients with advanced EGFR wild-type non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemura, Hiroyuki; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Azuma, Keisuke; Hirai, Ken-ichiro; Sekine, Satoko; Oshima, Kengo; Kanazawa, Kenya; Tanino, Yoshinori; Inokoshi, Yayoi; Ishii, Taeko; Katsuura, Yutaka; Oishi, Akio; Ishida, Takashi; Munakata, Mitsuru

    2015-06-05

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which is an effective treatment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially those harboring activating EGFR mutations. A previous phase III trial suggested that patients with EGFR wild-type (EGFR-wt) NSCLC or elderly patients with disease progression after cytotoxic chemotherapy might benefit from erlotinib monotherapy. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of second- or third-line erlotinib monotherapy for elderly patients with EGFR-wt advanced or recurrent NSCLC. Pretreated patients aged ≥70 years with EGFR-wt stage IIIB/IV NSCLC or those with postoperative recurrence were enrolled and received oral erlotinib at a dose of 150 mg/day until disease progression. Primary outcome was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included the disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profile. This study was terminated early because of the results from a Japanese phase III trial (DELTA trial). Sixteen patients were enrolled between April 2010 and May 2013. The median age was 78 years (range 70-84 years). Six patients were female. Five patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0. Eleven (69%) patients had adenocarcinoma. Fifteen (94%) patients were treated with erlotinib as a second-line therapy. The ORR was 0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0-17.1]. DCR was 56.3% (95% CI 33.2-76.9). The median PFS and OS were 1.7 months (95% CI 1.3-2.2) and 7.2 months (95% CI 5.6-8.7), respectively. The most commonly occurring adverse events included acneiform eruption (31.3%) and skin rash (25.0%). One patient developed grade 3 interstitial lung disease, which improved following steroid therapy. In pretreated elderly patients with advanced or recurrent EGFR-wt NSCLC, daily oral erlotinib was well tolerated; however, administration of the drug should not

  3. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  4. Phase I/II study of docetaxel combined with resminostat, an oral hydroxamic acid HDAC inhibitor, for advanced non-small cell lung cancer in patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Yuichi; Hosomi, Yukio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Nogami, Naoyuki; Atagi, Shinji; Sasaki, Yasutsuna; Kato, Terufumi; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Seto, Takashi; Maemondo, Makoto; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Koyama, Ryo; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Okamura, Yuta; Nakamura, Osamu; Nishio, Makoto; Tamura, Tomohide

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To determine the recommended dose and efficacy/safety of docetaxel combined with resminostat (DR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with previous platinum-based chemotherapy. Materials and Methods A multicenter, open-label, phase I/II study was performed in Japanese patients with stage IIIB/IV or recurrent NSCLC and prior platinum-based chemotherapy. The recommended phase II dose was determined using a standard 3 + 3 dose design in phase I part. Resminostat was escalated from 400 to 600 mg/day and docetaxel fixed at 75 mg/m(2). In phase II part, the patients were randomly assigned to docetaxel alone (75 mg/m(2)) or DR therapy. Docetaxel was administered on day 1 and resminostat on days 1-5 in the DR group. Treatment was repeated every 21 days until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results A total of 117 patients (phase I part, 9; phase II part, 108) were enrolled. There was no dose-limiting toxicity in phase I part; the recommended dose for resminostat was 600 mg/day with 75 mg/m(2) of docetaxel. In phase II part, median PFS (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 4.2 (2.8-5.7) months with docetaxel group and 4.1 (1.5-5.4) months with DR group (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.354, 95% CI: 0.835-2.195; p = 0.209). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events significantly more common with DR group than docetaxel group were leukopenia, febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anorexia. Conclusion In Japanese NSCLC patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, DR therapy did not improve PFS compared with docetaxel alone and increased toxicity.

  5. Development of new therapeutic methods of lung cancer through team approach study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Ho; Zo, Jae Ill; Baek, Hee Jong; Jung, Jin Haeng; Lee, Jae Cheol; Ryoo, Baek Yeol; Kim, Mi Sook; Choi, Du Hwan; Park, Sun Young; Lee, Hae Young

    2000-12-01

    The aims of this study were to make the lung cancer clinics in Korea Cancer Center Hospital, and to establish new therapeutic methods of lung cancer for increasing the cure rate and survival rate of patients. Also another purpose of this study was to establish a common treatment method in our hospital. All patients who were operated in Korea Cancer Center Hospital from 1987 due to lung cancer were followed up and evaluated. And we have been studied the effect of postoperative adjuvant therapy in stage I, II, IIIA non-small cell lung cancer patients from 1989 with the phase three study form. Follow-up examinations were scheduled in these patients and interim analysis was made. Also we have been studied the effect of chemo-therapeutic agents in small cell lung cancer patients from 1997 with the phase two study form. We evaluated the results of this study. Some important results of this study were as follows. 1. The new therapeutic method (surgery + MVP chemotherapy) was superior to the standard therapeutic one in stage I Non-small cell lung cancer patients. So, we have to change the standard method of treatment in stage I NSCLC. 2. Also, this new therapeutic method made a good result in stage II NSCLC patients. And this result was reported in The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 3. However, this new therapeutic method was not superior to the standard treatment method (surgery only) in stage IIIA NSCLC patients. So, we must develop new chemo-therapeutic agents in the future for advanced NSCLC patients. 4. In the results of the randomized phase II studies about small cell lung cancer, there was no difference in survival between Etoposide + Carboplatin + Ifosfamide + Cisplatin group and Etoposide + Carboplatin + Ifosfamide + Cisplatin + Tamoxifen group in both the limited and extended types of small cell lung cancer patients.

  6. Pemetrexed combined with paclitaxel in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase I-II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, George P; Dimitroulis, John; Toubis, Michael; Katis, Costas; Karaindros, Dimitris; Stathopoulos, John; Koutandos, John

    2007-07-01

    Pemetrexed, a novel multi-targeted agent established for the treatment of mesothelioma, has been under investigation for other malignancies, and in recent years particularly for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present trial we investigated pemetrexed in combination with paclitaxel as front-line treatment in advanced or metastatic NSCLC. Our objectives were to determine the response rate, median and overall survival and toxicity. From April 2005 until May 2006, 51 patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC were enrolled and 48 were considered evaluable. There were 39 males and nine females, median age 62 years (range 37-81 years), one patient stage IIIA N(2), 23 patients, IIIB and 24, stage IV. All patients had a cytologically- or histologically-confirmed diagnosis. Pemetrexed was administered at a standard dose of 500mg/m(2) and paclitaxel at an escalating dose starting at 135mg/m(2), then 150mg/m(2) and ending at a dose of 175mg/m(2); the level was increased every three patients. Both agents were administered on day 1, repeated every 3 weeks for six courses. A 39.6% partial response rate was observed with a median survival of 14 months. Toxicity was mild with 8.3% grade 3 and 4 neutropenia and other very mild hematologic and non-hematologic adverse reactions. The combination of pemetrexed and paclitaxel at doses of 500mg/m(2) and 175mg/m(2), respectively, has been shown to be an effective combination with very limited toxicity.

  7. Phase II Study of Accelerated High-Dose Radiotherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Limited Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, Ritsuko, E-mail: rkomaki@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ettinger, David S. [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Glisson, Bonnie S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Langer, Corey J. [Thoracic Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sause, William T. [Radiation Center, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether high-dose thoracic radiation given twice daily during cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy for limited small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC) improves survival, acute esophagitis, and local control rates relative to findings from Intergroup trial 0096 (47%, 27%, and 64%). Patients and Methods: Patients were accrued over a 3-year period from 22 US and Canadian institutions. Patients with LSCLC and good performance status were given thoracic radiation to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks (daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 1-22, then twice-daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 23-33). Cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2} IV) was given on day 1 and etoposide (120 mg/m{sup 2} IV) on days 1-3 and days 22-24, followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide alone. Patients who achieved complete response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. Endpoints included overall and progression-free survival; severe esophagitis (Common Toxicity Criteria v 2.0) and treatment-related fatalities; response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors); and local control. Results: Seventy-two patients were accrued from June 2003 through May 2006; 71 were evaluable (median age 63 years; 52% female; 58% Zubrod 0). Median survival time was 19 months; at 2 years, the overall survival rate was 36.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.6%-47.7%), and progression-free survival 19.7% (95% CI 11.4%-29.6%). Thirteen patients (18%) experienced severe acute esophagitis, and 2 (3%) died of treatment-related causes; 41% achieved complete response, 39% partial response, 10% stable disease, and 6% progressive disease. The local control rate was 73%. Forty-three patients (61%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusions: The overall survival rate did not reach the projected goal; however, rates of esophagitis were lower, and local control higher, than projected. This treatment strategy is now one of three arms of a prospective trial of chemoradiation for LSCLC (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0538

  8. Interventional Analgesic Management of Lung Cancer Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Perez, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the four most prevalent cancers worldwide. Comprehensive patient care includes not only adherence to clinical guidelines to control and when possible cure the disease but also appropriate symptom control. Pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms in patients diagnosed with lung cancer; it can arise from local invasion of chest structures or metastatic disease invading bones, nerves, or other anatomical structures potentially painful. Pain can also be a consequence of therapeutic approaches like surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. Conventional medical management of cancer pain includes prescription of opioids and coadjuvants at doses sufficient to control the symptoms without causing severe drug effects. When an adequate pharmacological medical management fails to provide satisfactory analgesia or when it causes limiting side effects, interventional cancer pain techniques may be considered. Interventional pain management is devoted to the use of invasive techniques such as joint injections, nerve blocks and/or neurolysis, neuromodulation, and cement augmentation techniques to provide diagnosis and treatment of pain syndromes resistant to conventional medical management. Advantages of interventional approaches include better analgesic outcomes without experiencing drug-related side effects and potential for opioid reduction thus avoiding central side effects. This review will describe various pain syndromes frequently described in lung cancer patients and those interventional techniques potentially indicated for those cases. PMID:28261561

  9. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  10. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David; Beckett, Paul; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Gaga, Mina; Gamarra, Fernando; Grigoriu, Bogdan; Hansen, Niels C G; Hubbard, Richard; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Jakobsen, Erik; Jovanovic, Dragana; Konsoulova, Assia; Kollmeier, Jens; Massard, Gilbert; McPhelim, John; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Milroy, Robert; Paesmans, Marianne; Peake, Mick; Putora, Paul-Martin; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Schönfeld, Nicolas; Sitter, Helmut; Skaug, Knut; Spiro, Stephen; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Taright, Samya; Thomas, Michael; van Schil, Paul E; Vansteenkiste, Johan F; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2014-05-01

    Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related death worldwide and poses a significant respiratory disease burden. Little is known about the provision of lung cancer care across Europe. The overall aim of the Task Force was to investigate current practice in lung cancer care across Europe. The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide variation in content and scope, as well as methodological quality but at the same time there was relevant duplication. The feasibility study demonstrated that it is, in principle, feasible to collect prospective demographic and clinical data on patients with lung cancer. Legal obligations vary among countries. The European Initiative for Quality Management in Lung Cancer Care has provided the first comprehensive snapshot of lung cancer care in Europe.

  11. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...

  12. Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with d

  13. Current therapy of small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M; Lassen, U; Hansen, H H

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the most important recent clinical trials on the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Two randomized studies addressing the timing of thoracic radiotherapy in limited stage SCLC are discussed. In the smaller of the two studies (n = 103), a survival benefit was associated...

  14. Targeted Magnetic Hyperthermia for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    O R R EC TE D PR O O F 928 were evident. In contrast, MRI scans of treated mice showed 929 no signs of intra-thoracic lung cancer (Fig. 4). The...mice that received SPIO-loaded nanoemulsion 1010 (either targeted or non-targeted) appeared hypointense, in- 1011 dicating SPIO accumulation in these

  15. Treatment of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Ave., Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko, E-mail: rkomaki@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Brain metastases are not only the most common intracranial neoplasm in adults but also very prevalent in patients with lung cancer. Patients have been grouped into different classes based on the presence of prognostic factors such as control of the primary tumor, functional performance status, age, and number of brain metastases. Patients with good prognosis may benefit from more aggressive treatment because of the potential for prolonged survival for some of them. In this review, we will comprehensively discuss the therapeutic options for treating brain metastases, which arise mostly from a lung cancer primary. In particular, we will focus on the patient selection for combined modality treatment of brain metastases, such as surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with whole brain irradiation; the use of radiosensitizers; and the neurocognitive deficits after whole brain irradiation with or without SRS. The benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and its potentially associated neuro-toxicity for both small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are also discussed, along with the combined treatment of intrathoracic primary disease and solitary brain metastasis. The roles of SRS to the surgical bed, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, WBRT with an integrated boost to the gross brain metastases, as well as combining WBRT with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, are explored as well.

  16. Lung cancer in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Palacios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods: The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012 were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results: There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%, and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2, with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9 years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7% patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5% had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232, the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397, and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0% and 23 (38.3% cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3% cases with advanced stages (III and IV at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%, chemotherapy 14 (24.1%, surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%, radiotherapy 7 (12.1%, surgery 4 (6.9%, and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%. Forty-six (76.7% patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis

  17. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...... lung cancer. Ten of these had stage I disease. Eleven of 17 lung cancers at baseline were treated surgically, eight of these by video assisted thoracic surgery resection. CONCLUSIONS: Screening may facilitate minimal invasive treatment and can be performed with a relatively low rate of false......-positive screen results compared with previous studies on lung cancer screening....

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: from metabolism to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Chu, Chun; Carlin, Danielle J

    2015-05-01

    Excessive exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) often results in lung cancer, a disease with the highest cancer mortality in the United States. After entry into the lung, PAHs induce phase I metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases, i.e. CYP1A1/2 and 1B1, and phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases, UDP glucuronyl transferases, NADPH quinone oxidoreductases (NQOs), aldo-keto reductases (AKRs), and epoxide hydrolases (EHs), via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent and independent pathways. Humans can also be exposed to PAHs through diet, via consumption of charcoal broiled foods. Metabolism of PAHs through the CYP1A1/1B1/EH pathway, CYP peroxidase pathway, and AKR pathway leads to the formation of the active carcinogens diol-epoxides, radical cations, and o-quinones. These reactive metabolites produce DNA adducts, resulting in DNA mutations, alteration of gene expression profiles, and tumorigenesis. Mutations in xenobiotic metabolic enzymes, as well as polymorphisms of tumor suppressor genes (e.g. p53) and/or genes involved in gene expression (e.g. X-ray repair cross-complementing proteins), are associated with lung cancer susceptibility in human populations from different ethnicities, gender, and age groups. Although various metabolic activation/inactivation pathways, AhR signaling, and genetic susceptibilities contribute to lung cancer, the precise points at which PAHs induce tumor initiation remain unknown. The goal of this review is to provide a current state-of-the-science of the mechanisms of human lung carcinogenesis mediated by PAHs, the experimental approaches used to study this complex class of compounds, and future directions for research of these compounds.

  19. Screening study on new tumor marker periplakin for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqin Dai; Wei Li; Mian Kong; Yuzhen Zheng; Shuying Chen; Junye Wang; Linquan Zang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use lung cancer targeting binding polypeptide ZS-9 to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer and obtain ZS-9 specific ligand to confirm tumor marker of non small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Artificially synthesize biotin labeled peptide ZS-9, anchored ZS-9 in the enzyme label plate coupled by avidin, used ZS-9 as probe to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer, after screening, obtained bacteriophage clone specifically binding with anchored polypeptide ZS-9. Extracted plasmid of bacteriophage and performed sequencing after amplified by PCR. Results: It was demonstrated by bioinformatic analysis on the sequence of ligand binded by lung cancer specific peptide ZS-9 that the ligand was the cytoskeletal protein periplakin on the surface of lung cancer cells, suggesting that periplakin might be a new marker for non-small-cell lung cancer in lung cancer. Conclusion: Use specific lung cancer binding peptide to screen new tumor marker periplakin in lung cancer and further studies on its biologic functions in genesis and development of lung cancer are still needed.

  20. Acetylsalicylic Acid Compared to Placebo in Treating High-Risk Patients With Subsolid Lung Nodules | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies acetylsalicylic acid compared to placebo in treating high-risk patients with subsolid lung nodules. A nodule is a growth or lump that may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Chemoprevention is the use of drugs to keep cancer from forming or coming back. The use of acetylsalicylic acid may keep cancer from forming in patients with subsolid lung nodules. |

  1. Design paper: A phase II study of Bevacizumab and Erlotinib in patients with non-Squamous non-small cell lung cancer that is refractory or relapsed after 1-2 previous Treatment (BEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Young H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab is a promising regimen in advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We are conducting a single arm phase II trial which aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this regime as a second- or third-line chemotherapy. Methods Key eligibility criteria were histologically or cytologically confirmed non-squamous NSCLC, stage III/IV or recurrent NSCLC not indicated radical chemoradiation, prior one or two regimen of chemotherapy, age 20 years or more, and performance status of two or less. The primary endpoint is objective response rate. The secondary endpoints include overall survival, progression-free survival, disease control rate and incidence of adverse events. This trial plans to accrue 80 patients based on a two-stage design employing a binomial distribution with an alternative hypothesis response rate of 35% and a null hypothesis threshold response rate of 20%. A subset analysis according to EGFR mutation status is planned. Discussion We have presented the design of a single arm phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib in advanced non-squamous NSCLC patients. In particular we are interested in determining the merit of further development of this regimen and whether prospective patient selection using EGFR gene is necessary in future trials. Trial registration This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000004255 (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm.

  2. Radiation-induced esophagitis in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Baker, Alysa Fairchild Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Radiation-induced esophagitis is the most common local acute toxicity of radiotherapy (RT delivered for the curative or palliative intent treatment of lung cancer. Although concurrent chemotherapy and higher RT dose are associated with increased esophagitis risk, advancements in RT techniques as well as adherence to esophageal dosimetric constraints may reduce the incidence and severity. Mild acute esophagitis symptoms are generally self-limited, and supportive management options include analgesics, acid suppression, diet modification, treatment for candidiasis, and maintenance of adequate nutrition. Esophageal stricture is the most common late sequela from esophageal irradiation and can be addressed with endoscopic dilatation. Approaches to prevent or mitigate these toxicities are also discussed. Keywords: non–small cell lung cancer, acute, late, toxicity, stricture

  3. Stereotactic Irradiation of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the best stereotactic irradiation (STI) technique in treatment of small lung tumors, using dose-volume statistics. Methods: Dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the study phantom consisting of CT using the software of FOCUS-3D planning system. The beam was a 6MV X-ray from a Varian 2300C. The analysis data of Dose-volume statistics was from the technique used for: (1) 2- 12 arcs; (2) 20° - 45° separation angle of arcs; (3) 80° - 160° of gantry rotation. Then we studied the difference of DVH with various irradiation techniques and the influence of target positions and field size by calculated to the distribution of dose from 20%- 90% of the six targets in the lung with 3×3 cm2, 4′ 4 cm2 and 5′ 5 cm2 field size. Results: The volume irradiated pulmonary tissue was the smallest using a six non-coplanar 120° arcs with 30° separation between arcs in the hypothetical set up, the non-coplanar SRI was superiority than conventional one's. The six targets were chosen in the right lung, the volume was the largest in geometric center and was decreased in hilus, bottom, anterior chest wall, lateral wall and apex of the lung in such an order. The DVH had significant change with an increasing field size. Conclusion: the irradiation damage of normal pulmonary tissue was the lowest using the six non-coplanar 120° arcs with a 30° separation between arcs by <5×5 cm2 field and the position of target was not a restricting factor.

  4. Substrate stiffness regulates filopodial activities in lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Microenvironment stiffening plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis. While filopodia are generally thought to be one of the cellular mechanosensors for probing environmental stiffness, the effects of environmental stiffness on filopodial activities of cancer cells remain unclear. In this work, we investigated the filopodial activities of human lung adenocarcinoma cells CL1-5 cultured on substrates of tunable stiffness using a novel platform. The platform consists of an optical system called structured illumination nano-profilometry, which allows time-lapsed visualization of filopodial activities without fluorescence labeling. The culturing substrates were composed of polyvinyl chloride mixed with an environmentally friendly plasticizer to yield Young's modulus ranging from 20 to 60 kPa. Cell viability studies showed that the viability of cells cultured on the substrates was similar to those cultured on commonly used elastomers such as polydimethylsiloxane. Time-lapsed live cell images were acquired and the filopodial activities in response to substrates with varying degrees of stiffness were analyzed. Statistical analyses revealed that lung cancer cells cultured on softer substrates appeared to have longer filopodia, higher filopodial densities with respect to the cellular perimeter, and slower filopodial retraction rates. Nonetheless, the temporal analysis of filopodial activities revealed that whether a filopodium decides to extend or retract is purely a stochastic process without dependency on substrate stiffness. The discrepancy of the filopodial activities between lung cancer cells cultured on substrates with different degrees of stiffness vanished when the myosin II activities were inhibited by treating the cells with blebbistatin, which suggests that the filopodial activities are closely modulated by the adhesion strength of the cells. Our data quantitatively relate filopodial activities of lung cancer cells with environmental stiffness and

  5. Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingsheng Wang; Xiaoping Lin

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer incidence has increased rapidly in China over the last 20 years, especially in females. Among the 183 registered worldwide populations, lung cancer incidence in males was ranked as the 73rd, 74th, 127th and 23rd respectively for Shanghai, Tianjin, Qidong and Hong Kong, and in females the 52nd, 13th, 102nd and 23rd. The sex ratio (M/F) ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 for most areas. The ratio of squamous/ adenocarcinoma was 2.01 in males and 0.67 in females in Tianjin, 0.97 and 0.28 in Hong Kong, 1.00 and 0.61 in the US white population and 1.18 and 0.49 in US blacks. Much research on risk factors have been conducted and documented including the following: genetic predisposition/polymorphism, smoking/coal soot and DNA adduct, cytochrome p450-1A1 (CYP1A1), glutathione S-transferase-M (GST-M), viral infection/HPV infection, high background radiation, family history, tobacco consumption, mental health, prior lung diseases, coal soot indoor air pollution, cooking fume indoor air pollution, hormones, diet, occupational exposure, outdoor air pollution, socioeconomic level/education, alcohol consumption and their interactions(addition/synergy). Based on current information we should carefully devise a plan to control lung cancer that can be put into practice.

  6. Disseminated lung cancer presenting as a rectal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Mia M; Stamp, Inger M H; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, and approximately 50% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rectal mass and unintended weight loss are common manifestations of rectal cancer. Our case presented with a rectal mass, but workup revealed...... a metastatic lesion from lung cancer. Lung cancer metastases to the lower gastrointestinal tract imply reduced survival compared with the already poor mean survival of stage IV lung cancer. Despite relevant therapy, the patient died 5 months after referral....

  7. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B.; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau;

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using CT lung density as a surrogate parameter.In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed...

  8. The Utility of Exercise Testing in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Duc; Mazzone, Peter J; Ries, Andrew L; Malhotra, Atul; Fuster, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The harm associated with lung cancer treatment include perioperative morbidity and mortality and therapy-induced toxicities in various organs, including the heart and lungs. Optimal treatment therefore entails a need for risk assessment to weigh the probabilities of benefits versus harm. Exercise testing offers an opportunity to evaluate a patient's physical fitness/exercise capacity objectively. In lung cancer, it is most often used to risk-stratify patients undergoing evaluation for lung cancer resection. In recent years, its use outside this context has been described, including in nonsurgical candidates and lung cancer survivors. In this article we review the physiology of exercise testing and lung cancer. Then, we assess the utility of exercise testing in patients with lung cancer in four contexts (preoperative evaluation for lung cancer resection, after lung cancer resection, lung cancer prognosis, and assessment of efficiency of exercise training programs) after systematically identifying original studies involving the most common forms of exercise tests in this patient population: laboratory cardiopulmonary exercise testing and simple field testing with the 6-minute walk test, shuttle walk test, and/or stair-climbing test. Lastly, we propose a conceptual framework for risk assessment of patients with lung cancer who are being considered for therapy and identify areas for further studies in this patient population.

  9. Inflammation in the development of lung cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A

    2008-04-01

    The lung is a site for repeated or chronic inflammatory insults. Epidemiologic research has provided evidence to support the hypothesis that tissue damage caused by inflammation can initiate or promote the development of lung cancer, possibly in conjunction with tobacco use. For example, some studies suggest an increased risk of lung cancer among persons with lung infections, such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, or inflammatory lung diseases. Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein, an inflammation marker, are associated with heightened lung cancer risk. Recent studies also demonstrate increased lung cancer risk among immunosuppressed individuals infected with HIV. Other research indicates an association between genetic polymorphisms in the inflammation pathway, which might modulate the inflammatory response and lung cancer risk.

  10. Lung cancer symptoms and pulse oximetry in the prognostic assessment of patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Cecilia M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical oncologists continue to use performance status as a proxy for quality of life (QOL measures, as completion of QOL instruments is perceived as time consuming, may measure aspects of QOL not affected by cancer therapy, and interpretation may be unclear. The pulse oximeter is widely used in clinical practice to predict cardiopulmonary morbidity after lung resection in cancer patients, but little is known on its role outside the surgical setting. We evaluated whether the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale and pulse oximetry may contribute to the evaluation of lung cancer patients who received standard anticancer therapy. Methods We enrolled forty-one consecutive, newly diagnosed, patients with locally advanced or metastatic lung cancer in this study. We developed a survival model with the variables gender, age, histology, clinical stage, Karnofsky performance status, wasting, LCSS symptom scores, average symptom burden index, and pulse oximetry (SpO2. Results Patient and observer-rated scores were correlated, except for the fatigue subscale. The median SpO2 was 95% (range: 86 to 98, was unrelated to symptom scores, and was weakly correlated with observer cough scores. In a multivariate survival model, SpO2 > 90% and patient scores on the LCSS appetite and fatigue subscales were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion LCSS fatigue and appetite rating, and pulse oximetry should be studied further as prognostic factors in lung cancer patients.

  11. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li Rita; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Chang, Shen-Chih; Lazarus, Philip; Teare, M Dawn; Woll, Penella J; Orlow, Irene; Cox, Brian; Brhane, Yonathan; Liu, Geoffrey; Hung, Rayjean J

    2015-02-15

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled using random effects models. Subgroup analyses were done for sex, histology and tobacco smoking status. The shapes of dose-response associations were examined using restricted cubic spline regression. The overall pooled OR for habitual versus nonhabitual or never users was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.66-1.38). Compared to nonhabitual or never users, the summary OR was 0.88 (95%CI: 0.63-1.24) for individuals who smoked 1 or more joint-equivalents of cannabis per day and 0.94 (95%CI: 0.67-1.32) for those consumed at least 10 joint-years. For adenocarcinoma cases the ORs were 1.73 (95%CI: 0.75-4.00) and 1.74 (95%CI: 0.85-3.55), respectively. However, no association was found for the squamous cell carcinoma based on small numbers. Weak associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were observed in never tobacco smokers. Spline modeling indicated a weak positive monotonic association between cumulative cannabis use and lung cancer, but precision was low at high exposure levels. Results from our pooled analyses provide little evidence for an increased risk of lung cancer among habitual or long-term cannabis smokers, although the possibility of potential adverse effect for heavy consumption cannot be excluded. © 2014 UICC.

  12. Testing lung cancer drugs and therapies in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) investigators have designed a genetically engineered mouse for use in the study of human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC is a type of non-small cell lung carcinoma, one of the most common types of lung cancer, with

  13. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerman, Peter S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Voet, Douglas; Jing, Rui; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Stojanov, Petar; McKenna, Aaron; Lander, Eric S.; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Imielinski, Marcin; Helman, Elena; Hernandez, Bryan; Pho, Nam H.; Meyerson, Matthew; Chu, Andy; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Pleasance, Erin; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Stoll, Dominik; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Chuah, Eric; Coope, Robin J. N.; Corbett, Richard; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Hirst, Anhe Carrie; Hirst, Martin; Holt, Robert A.; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Karen; Nip, Ka Ming; Olshen, Adam; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Slobodan, Jared R.; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Varhol, Richard; Zeng, Thomas; Zhao, Yongjun; Jones, Steven J. M.; Marra, Marco A.; Saksena, Gordon; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Schumacher, Stephen E.; Tabak, Barbara; Carter, Scott L.; Pho, Nam H.; Nguyen, Huy; Onofrio, Robert C.; Crenshaw, Andrew; Ardlie, Kristin; Beroukhim, Rameen; Winckler, Wendy; Hammerman, Peter S.; Getz, Gad; Meyerson, Matthew; Protopopov, Alexei; Zhang, Jianhua; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Lee, Semin; Xi, Ruibin; Yang, Lixing; Ren, Xiaojia; Zhang, Hailei; Shukla, Sachet; Chen, Peng-Chieh; Haseley, Psalm; Lee, Eunjung; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Socci, Nicholas D.; Liang, Yupu; Schultz, Nikolaus; Borsu, Laetitia; Lash, Alex E.; Viale, Agnes; Sander, Chris; Ladanyi, Marc; Auman, J. Todd; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Shi, Yan; Liquori, Christina; Meng, Shaowu; Li, Ling; Turman, Yidi J.; Topal, Michael D.; Tan, Donghui; Waring, Scot; Buda, Elizabeth; Walsh, Jesse; Jones, Corbin D.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Singh, Darshan; Wu, Junyuan; Gulabani, Anisha; Dolina, Peter; Bodenheimer, Tom; Hoyle, Alan P.; Simons, Janae V.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Mose, Lisle E.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Balu, Saianand; O'Connor, Brian D.; Prins, Jan F.; Liu, Jinze; Chiang, Derek Y.; Hayes, D. Neil; Perou, Charles M.; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Pan, Fei; Van den Berg, David J.; Triche, Timothy; Herman, James G.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Laird, Peter W.; Getz, Gad; Noble, Michael; Voet, Doug; Saksena, Gordon; Gehlenborg, Nils; DiCara, Daniel; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhang, Hailei; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Liu, Spring Yingchun; Lawrence, Michael S.; Zou, Lihua; Sivachenko, Andrey; Lin, Pei; Stojanov, Petar; Jing, Rui; Cho, Juok; Nazaire, Marc-Danie; Robinson, Jim; Thorvaldsdottir, Helga; Mesirov, Jill; Park, Peter J.; Chin, Lynda; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sinha, Rileen; Ciriello, Giovanni; Cerami, Ethan; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Gao, Jianjiong; Aksoy, B. Arman; Weinhold, Nils; Ramirez, Ricardo; Taylor, Barry S.; Antipin, Yevgeniy; Reva, Boris; Shen, Ronglai; Mo, Qianxing; Seshan, Venkatraman; Paik, Paul K.; Ladanyi, Marc; Sander, Chris; Akbani, Rehan; Zhang, Nianxiang; Broom, Bradley M.; Casasent, Tod; Unruh, Anna; Wakefield, Chris; Cason, R. Craig; Baggerly, Keith A.; Weinstein, John N.; Haussler, David; Benz, Christopher C.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Zhu, Jingchun; Szeto, Christopher; Scott, Gary K.; Yau, Christina; Ng, Sam; Goldstein, Ted; Waltman, Peter; Sokolov, Artem; Ellrott, Kyle; Collisson, Eric A.; Zerbino, Daniel; Wilks, Christopher; Ma, Singer; Craft, Brian; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Auman, J. Todd; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Du, Ying; Cabanski, Christopher; Walter, Vonn; Singh, Darshan; Wu, Junyuan; Gulabani, Anisha; Bodenheimer, Tom; Hoyle, Alan P.; Simons, Janae V.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Mose, Lisle E.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Balu, Saianand; Marron, J. S.; Liu, Yufeng; Wang, Kai; Liu, Jinze; Prins, Jan F.; Hayes, D. Neil; Perou, Charles M.; Creighton, Chad J.; Zhang, Yiqun; Travis, William D.; Rekhtman, Natasha; Yi, Joanne; Aubry, Marie C.; Cheney, Richard; Dacic, Sanja; Flieder, Douglas; Funkhouser, William; Illei, Peter; Myers, Jerome; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Penny, Robert; Mallery, David; Shelton, Troy; Hatfield, Martha; Morris, Scott; Yena, Peggy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Paulauskis, Joseph; Meyerson, Matthew; Baylin, Stephen B.; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Akbani, Rehan; Azodo, Ijeoma; Beer, David; Bose, Ron; Byers, Lauren A.; Carbone, David; Chang, Li-Wei; Chiang, Derek; Chu, Andy; Chun, Elizabeth; Collisson, Eric; Cope, Leslie; Creighton, Chad J.; Danilova, Ludmila; Ding, Li; Getz, Gad; Hammerman, Peter S.; Hayes, D. Neil; Hernandez, Bryan; Herman, James G.; Heymach, John; Ida, Cristiane; Imielinski, Marcin; Johnson, Bruce; Jurisica, Igor; Kaufman, Jacob; Kosari, Farhad; Kucherlapati, Raju; Kwiatkowski, David; Ladanyi, Marc; Lawrence, Michael S.; Maher, Christopher A.; Mungall, Andy; Ng, Sam; Pao, William; Peifer, Martin; Penny, Robert; Robertson, Gordon; Rusch, Valerie; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Siegfried, Jill; Sinha, Rileen; Sivachenko, Andrey; Sougnez, Carrie; Stoll, Dominik; Stuart, Joshua; Thomas, Roman K.; Tomaszek, Sandra; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Travis, William D.; Vaske, Charles; Weinstein, John N.; Weisenberger, Daniel; Wheeler, David; Wigle, Dennis A.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wilks, Christopher; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Jianjua John; Jensen, Mark A.; Sfeir, Robert; Kahn, Ari B.; Chu, Anna L.; Kothiyal, Prachi; Wang, Zhining; Snyder, Eric E.; Pontius, Joan; Pihl, Todd D.; Ayala, Brenda; Backus, Mark; Walton, Jessica; Baboud, Julien; Berton, Dominique L.; Nicholls, Matthew C.; Srinivasan, Deepak; Raman, Rohini; Girshik, Stanley; Kigonya, Peter A.; Alonso, Shelley; Sanbhadti, Rashmi N.; Barletta, Sean P.; Greene, John M.; Pot, David A.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Bandarchi-Chamkhaleh, Bizhan; Boyd, Jeff; Weaver, JoEllen; Wigle, Dennis A.; Azodo, Ijeoma A.; Tomaszek, Sandra C.; Aubry, Marie Christine; Ida, Christiane M.; Yang, Ping; Kosari, Farhad; Brock, Malcolm V.; Rogers, Kristen; Rutledge, Marian; Brown, Travis; Lee, Beverly; Shin, James; Trusty, Dante; Dhir, Rajiv; Siegfried, Jill M.; Potapova, Olga; Fedosenko, Konstantin V.; Nemirovich-Danchenko, Elena; Rusch, Valerie; Zakowski, Maureen; Iacocca, Mary V.; Brown, Jennifer; Rabeno, Brenda; Czerwinski, Christine; Petrelli, Nicholas; Fan, Zhen; Todaro, Nicole; Eckman, John; Myers, Jerome; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Thorne, Leigh B.; Huang, Mei; Boice, Lori; Hill, Ashley; Penny, Robert; Mallery, David; Curley, Erin; Shelton, Candace; Yena, Peggy; Morrison, Carl; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Bartlett, Johnm. S.; Kodeeswaran, Sugy; Zanke, Brent; Sekhon, Harman; David, Kerstin; Juhl, Hartmut; Van Le, Xuan; Kohl, Bernard; Thorp, Richard; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Van Bang, Nguyen; Sussman, Howard; Phu, Bui Duc; Hajek, Richard; PhiHung, Nguyen; Khan, Khurram Z.; Muley, Thomas; Shaw, Kenna R. Mills; Sheth, Margi; Yang, Liming; Buetow, Ken; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; Eley, Greg; Ferguson, Martin; Dillon, Laura A. L.; Schaefer, Carl; Guyer, Mark S.; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Palchik, Jacqueline D.; Peterson, Jane; Sofia, Heidi J.; Thomson, Elizabeth; Meyerson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma is a common type of lung cancer, causing approximately 400,000 deaths per year worldwide. Genomic alterations in squamous cell lung cancers have not been comprehensively characterized, and no molecularly targeted agents have been specifically developed for its treatment.

  14. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerman, Peter S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Voet, Douglas; Jing, Rui; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Stojanov, Petar; McKenna, Aaron; Lander, Eric S.; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Imielinski, Marcin; Helman, Elena; Hernandez, Bryan; Pho, Nam H.; Meyerson, Matthew; Chu, Andy; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Pleasance, Erin; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Stoll, Dominik; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Chuah, Eric; Coope, Robin J. N.; Corbett, Richard; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Hirst, Anhe Carrie; Hirst, Martin; Holt, Robert A.; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Karen; Nip, Ka Ming; Olshen, Adam; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Slobodan, Jared R.; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Varhol, Richard; Zeng, Thomas; Zhao, Yongjun; Jones, Steven J. M.; Marra, Marco A.; Saksena, Gordon; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Schumacher, Stephen E.; Tabak, Barbara; Carter, Scott L.; Pho, Nam H.; Nguyen, Huy; Onofrio, Robert C.; Crenshaw, Andrew; Ardlie, Kristin; Beroukhim, Rameen; Winckler, Wendy; Hammerman, Peter S.; Getz, Gad; Meyerson, Matthew; Protopopov, Alexei; Zhang, Jianhua; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Lee, Semin; Xi, Ruibin; Yang, Lixing; Ren, Xiaojia; Zhang, Hailei; Shukla, Sachet; Chen, Peng-Chieh; Haseley, Psalm; Lee, Eunjung; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Socci, Nicholas D.; Liang, Yupu; Schultz, Nikolaus; Borsu, Laetitia; Lash, Alex E.; Viale, Agnes; Sander, Chris; Ladanyi, Marc; Auman, J. Todd; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Shi, Yan; Liquori, Christina; Meng, Shaowu; Li, Ling; Turman, Yidi J.; Topal, Michael D.; Tan, Donghui; Waring, Scot; Buda, Elizabeth; Walsh, Jesse; Jones, Corbin D.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Singh, Darshan; Wu, Junyuan; Gulabani, Anisha; Dolina, Peter; Bodenheimer, Tom; Hoyle, Alan P.; Simons, Janae V.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Mose, Lisle E.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Balu, Saianand; O'Connor, Brian D.; Prins, Jan F.; Liu, Jinze; Chiang, Derek Y.; Hayes, D. Neil; Perou, Charles M.; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Pan, Fei; Van den Berg, David J.; Triche, Timothy; Herman, James G.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Laird, Peter W.; Getz, Gad; Noble, Michael; Voet, Doug; Saksena, Gordon; Gehlenborg, Nils; DiCara, Daniel; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhang, Hailei; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Liu, Spring Yingchun; Lawrence, Michael S.; Zou, Lihua; Sivachenko, Andrey; Lin, Pei; Stojanov, Petar; Jing, Rui; Cho, Juok; Nazaire, Marc-Danie; Robinson, Jim; Thorvaldsdottir, Helga; Mesirov, Jill; Park, Peter J.; Chin, Lynda; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sinha, Rileen; Ciriello, Giovanni; Cerami, Ethan; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Gao, Jianjiong; Aksoy, B. Arman; Weinhold, Nils; Ramirez, Ricardo; Taylor, Barry S.; Antipin, Yevgeniy; Reva, Boris; Shen, Ronglai; Mo, Qianxing; Seshan, Venkatraman; Paik, Paul K.; Ladanyi, Marc; Sander, Chris; Akbani, Rehan; Zhang, Nianxiang; Broom, Bradley M.; Casasent, Tod; Unruh, Anna; Wakefield, Chris; Cason, R. Craig; Baggerly, Keith A.; Weinstein, John N.; Haussler, David; Benz, Christopher C.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Zhu, Jingchun; Szeto, Christopher; Scott, Gary K.; Yau, Christina; Ng, Sam; Goldstein, Ted; Waltman, Peter; Sokolov, Artem; Ellrott, Kyle; Collisson, Eric A.; Zerbino, Daniel; Wilks, Christopher; Ma, Singer; Craft, Brian; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Auman, J. Todd; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Du, Ying; Cabanski, Christopher; Walter, Vonn; Singh, Darshan; Wu, Junyuan; Gulabani, Anisha; Bodenheimer, Tom; Hoyle, Alan P.; Simons, Janae V.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Mose, Lisle E.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Balu, Saianand; Marron, J. S.; Liu, Yufeng; Wang, Kai; Liu, Jinze; Prins, Jan F.; Hayes, D. Neil; Perou, Charles M.; Creighton, Chad J.; Zhang, Yiqun; Travis, William D.; Rekhtman, Natasha; Yi, Joanne; Aubry, Marie C.; Cheney, Richard; Dacic, Sanja; Flieder, Douglas; Funkhouser, William; Illei, Peter; Myers, Jerome; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Penny, Robert; Mallery, David; Shelton, Troy; Hatfield, Martha; Morris, Scott; Yena, Peggy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Paulauskis, Joseph; Meyerson, Matthew; Baylin, Stephen B.; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Akbani, Rehan; Azodo, Ijeoma; Beer, David; Bose, Ron; Byers, Lauren A.; Carbone, David; Chang, Li-Wei; Chiang, Derek; Chu, Andy; Chun, Elizabeth; Collisson, Eric; Cope, Leslie; Creighton, Chad J.; Danilova, Ludmila; Ding, Li; Getz, Gad; Hammerman, Peter S.; Hayes, D. Neil; Hernandez, Bryan; Herman, James G.; Heymach, John; Ida, Cristiane; Imielinski, Marcin; Johnson, Bruce; Jurisica, Igor; Kaufman, Jacob; Kosari, Farhad; Kucherlapati, Raju; Kwiatkowski, David; Ladanyi, Marc; Lawrence, Michael S.; Maher, Christopher A.; Mungall, Andy; Ng, Sam; Pao, William; Peifer, Martin; Penny, Robert; Robertson, Gordon; Rusch, Valerie; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Siegfried, Jill; Sinha, Rileen; Sivachenko, Andrey; Sougnez, Carrie; Stoll, Dominik; Stuart, Joshua; Thomas, Roman K.; Tomaszek, Sandra; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Travis, William D.; Vaske, Charles; Weinstein, John N.; Weisenberger, Daniel; Wheeler, David; Wigle, Dennis A.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wilks, Christopher; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Jianjua John; Jensen, Mark A.; Sfeir, Robert; Kahn, Ari B.; Chu, Anna L.; Kothiyal, Prachi; Wang, Zhining; Snyder, Eric E.; Pontius, Joan; Pihl, Todd D.; Ayala, Brenda; Backus, Mark; Walton, Jessica; Baboud, Julien; Berton, Dominique L.; Nicholls, Matthew C.; Srinivasan, Deepak; Raman, Rohini; Girshik, Stanley; Kigonya, Peter A.; Alonso, Shelley; Sanbhadti, Rashmi N.; Barletta, Sean P.; Greene, John M.; Pot, David A.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Bandarchi-Chamkhaleh, Bizhan; Boyd, Jeff; Weaver, JoEllen; Wigle, Dennis A.; Azodo, Ijeoma A.; Tomaszek, Sandra C.; Aubry, Marie Christine; Ida, Christiane M.; Yang, Ping; Kosari, Farhad; Brock, Malcolm V.; Rogers, Kristen; Rutledge, Marian; Brown, Travis; Lee, Beverly; Shin, James; Trusty, Dante; Dhir, Rajiv; Siegfried, Jill M.; Potapova, Olga; Fedosenko, Konstantin V.; Nemirovich-Danchenko, Elena; Rusch, Valerie; Zakowski, Maureen; Iacocca, Mary V.; Brown, Jennifer; Rabeno, Brenda; Czerwinski, Christine; Petrelli, Nicholas; Fan, Zhen; Todaro, Nicole; Eckman, John; Myers, Jerome; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Thorne, Leigh B.; Huang, Mei; Boice, Lori; Hill, Ashley; Penny, Robert; Mallery, David; Curley, Erin; Shelton, Candace; Yena, Peggy; Morrison, Carl; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Bartlett, Johnm. S.; Kodeeswaran, Sugy; Zanke, Brent; Sekhon, Harman; David, Kerstin; Juhl, Hartmut; Van Le, Xuan; Kohl, Bernard; Thorp, Richard; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Van Bang, Nguyen; Sussman, Howard; Phu, Bui Duc; Hajek, Richard; PhiHung, Nguyen; Khan, Khurram Z.; Muley, Thomas; Shaw, Kenna R. Mills; Sheth, Margi; Yang, Liming; Buetow, Ken; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; Eley, Greg; Ferguson, Martin; Dillon, Laura A. L.; Schaefer, Carl; Guyer, Mark S.; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Palchik, Jacqueline D.; Peterson, Jane; Sofia, Heidi J.; Thomson, Elizabeth; Meyerson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma is a common type of lung cancer, causing approximately 400,000 deaths per year worldwide. Genomic alterations in squamous cell lung cancers have not been comprehensively characterized, and no molecularly targeted agents have been specifically developed for its treatment.

  15. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues and adenocar...

  16. Preoperative evaluation for lung cancer resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Angelis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Pataka, Athanasia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andreas; Arikas, Stamatis; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Tsiouda, Theodora; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Siminelakis, Stavros; Argyriou, Michael; Kotsakou, Maria; Kessis, George; Kolettas, Alexander; Beleveslis, Thomas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades lung cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide for both sexes. Even though cigarette smoking has been proved to be the main causative factor, many other agents (e.g., occupational exposure to asbestos or heavy metals, indoor exposure to radon gas radiation, particulate air pollution) have been associated with its development. Recently screening programs proved to reduce mortality among heavy-smokers although establishment of such strategies in everyday clinical practice is much more difficult and unknown if it is cost effective compared to other neoplasms (e.g., breast or prostate cancer). Adding severe comorbidities (coronary heart disease, COPD) to the above reasons as cigarette smoking is a common causative factor, we could explain the low surgical resection rates (approximately 20-30%) for lung cancer patients. Three clinical guidelines reports of different associations have been published (American College of Chest Physisians, British Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society/European Society of Thoracic Surgery) providing detailed algorithms for preoperative assessment. In the current mini review, we will comment on the preoperative evaluation of lung cancer patients. PMID:24672690

  17. Clinical significance of PHPT1 protein expression in lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU An-jian; XIA Xiang-hou; DU Song-tao; GU Jun-chao

    2010-01-01

    Background in our previous studies, we found the expression of 14-kD phosphohistidine phosphatase (PHPT1) was associated with lung cancer cells migration and invasion, and PHPT1 mRNA expression level in lung cancer tissues clinically correlated with lymph node metastasis. in the present study, we aimed to further investigate the expression of PHPT1 protein in lung cancer.Methods Expression of PHPT1 protein in tissue samples from 146 lung cancers and 30 normal tissues adjacent to lung cancers was assessed using immunohistochemical method. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze expression patterns of PHPT1 protein in these tissue types. Meanwhile, we studied the correlation between expression of PHPT1 protein and clinicopathological features in lung cancer.Results Significantly higher expression levels of PHPT1 protein were found in lung cancer samples (53.42%) than in normal tissues adjacent to lung cancer (23.33%) (P=0.003). Fisher's exact test showed that lung cancer stage positively correlated with expression of PHPT1 protein (P=0.02), and lung cancer samples with lymph node metastasis showed higher PHPT1 protein expression (P=0.016) than the samples without lymph node metastasis.Conclusions The results of this study agree with findings from our previous study of PHPT1 mRNA expression in lung cancer tissues, and strongly suggest that PHPT1 protein is closely associated with the carcinogenesis and metastasis of lung cancer. Thus, therapy targeting PHPT1 (inhibition or silencing) could be potentially benefited for lung cancer patients.

  18. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mie Grunnet; Sorensen, J B

    2012-01-01

    significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those....... Interestingly, an overweight of low stage (stage I-II) disease and adenocarcinoma (AC) patients were observed in this group. The remaining 7 studies (6 serum, 1 plasma) contained an overweight of patients with squamous carcinoma (SQ). One study found evidence for that a tumor marker index (TMI), based...

  19. Chapter 7: Description of miscan-lung, the erasmus mc lung cancer microsimulation model for evaluating cancer control interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Schultz (Frank); R. Boer (Rob); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe MISCAN-lung model was designed to simulate population trends in lung cancer (LC) for comprehensive surveillance of the disease, to relate past exposure to risk factors to (observed) LC incidence and mortality, and to estimate the impact of cancer-control interventions. MISCAN-lung

  20. Paeoniflorin inhibits macrophage-mediated lung cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Chen, Gang-Ling; Li, Ya-Juan; Chen, Yang; Lin, Fang-Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Alternatively activated macrophages are more frequently involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. A previous study showed that paeoniflorin, the major active constituent of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, can inhibit tumor growth and lung metastases of Lewis lung tumor-bearing mice. This study tried to investigate whether paeoniflorin inhibited lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 macrophage). Using a viability assay, the cytotoxicity of paeoniflorin on Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages were investigated. In vitro scratch wound and in vivo lung metastasis experiments were used to test the ability to inhibit the migration of paeoniflorin and the function of M2 macrophages. Flow cytometry was performed to test the cell cycle of Lewis lung cancer cells, and to test the M2 macrophages in peritoneal macrophages and subcutaneous transplantable tumor. It was found that paeoniflorin showed no inhibitory effect on the growth of Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages of mouse in vitro. Paeoniflorin could attenuate the migration of LLC stimulated by alternatively activated macrophages (stimulated for 24 h and 48 h, paeoniflorin 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P lung cancer cells (paeoniflorin 100 μmol·L(-1), P lung metastasis of Lewis lung cancer cells xenograft and decrease the numbers of M2 macrophages in subcutaneous xenograft tumour in vivo (paeoniflorin 20, 40 mg·kg(-1), P lung metastasis of Lewis lung cancer cells xenograft partly through inhibiting the alternative activation of macrophages.

  1. Lung cancer-a fractal viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Frances E; Cianci, Gianguido C; Cipriani, Nicole A; Hensing, Thomas A; Zhang, Hannah J; Chen, Chin-Tu; Murgu, Septimiu D; Vokes, Everett E; Vannier, Michael W; Salgia, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    Fractals are mathematical constructs that show self-similarity over a range of scales and non-integer (fractal) dimensions. Owing to these properties, fractal geometry can be used to efficiently estimate the geometrical complexity, and the irregularity of shapes and patterns observed in lung tumour growth (over space or time), whereas the use of traditional Euclidean geometry in such calculations is more challenging. The application of fractal analysis in biomedical imaging and time series has shown considerable promise for measuring processes as varied as heart and respiratory rates, neuronal cell characterization, and vascular development. Despite the advantages of fractal mathematics and numerous studies demonstrating its applicability to lung cancer research, many researchers and clinicians remain unaware of its potential. Therefore, this Review aims to introduce the fundamental basis of fractals and to illustrate how analysis of fractal dimension (FD) and associated measurements, such as lacunarity (texture) can be performed. We describe the fractal nature of the lung and explain why this organ is particularly suited to fractal analysis. Studies that have used fractal analyses to quantify changes in nuclear and chromatin FD in primary and metastatic tumour cells, and clinical imaging studies that correlated changes in the FD of tumours on CT and/or PET images with tumour growth and treatment responses are reviewed. Moreover, the potential use of these techniques in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of lung cancer are discussed.

  2. Discovery – Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The NLST

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  3. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  4. Targeted Magnetic Hyperthermia for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Muller, R.H., and Muller, B.W. 1992. Particle size, surface hydrophobicity and interaction with serum of parenteral fat emulsions and model drug...particularly suitable for the treatment of lung cancer since unlike the abdomen , the thoracic region, where the external AMF can be easily focused, is only...2, such as 1H of water or fat molecules, is placed in a time invariant magnetic field (Bo), the z-component of the nucle- ar magnetic moment can align

  5. Prognosis of Lung Cancer: Heredity or Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    body mass index ( BMI ), cigarettes per day, disease stage, treatment, education, and family history of lung cancer (we refer to...After adjusting for disease stage, pack-years of smoking, age at diagnosis , sex, education, baseline body mass index , health insurance status, and...disease, after adjusting for pack-years of smoking, education, body mass index , and age of diagnosis . DISCUSSION This survival analysis of

  6. Mental health of patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Τogas Κ.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer is a very common type of cancer. The psychological reactions of these patients haven't been studied yet. Aim: The examination of the mental health of lung cancer patients. Methods: A bibliographical review of relevant articles was conducted at the electronic data bases of Pubmed, Pcych Info and Scholar Google by key-words. The quest included researches and reviews which have been published in Greek and English language between 1990- 2013. Results: Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer and the main cause of death from cancer. The psychological reaction depends on the symptomatology, the co- morbidity, the cell type, the physical and social functionality, the therapy. The most important needs of the patients are the emotional ones as well as the need of information. The patients mention the highest levels of psychological discontent and stigmatization in comparison to other types of cancer. They show lots of psychological disorders, with depression to be the most common (11%- 44%. Very few researches have examine the confrontation strategies. Health professionals are the main source of information for the patients and the help that they provide is correlated with all the dimensions of the quality of life (except of the social ones. Oncologists don't recognize in a satisfying degree the patients with distress. Most of the patients use in a limited degree the mental health services. Important determinants of survival are the emotional distress, depression and the coping strategies. Different methods of psychotherapy can be applied in order to diminish the psychological distress. The behavioural interventions decrease nausea and sickness and the disturbance of pain and anxiety. The palliative and supportive care have to be applied as sooner as possible. Conclusion: The psychological reaction in lung cancer is complicated. There is need for appliance of psychotherapeutic interventions at the patients, in order to

  7. Type II Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation in an Esophageal Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Estela Martínez-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A seven-month-old girl, born prematurely (birth weight 1000 g from a twin pregnancy, was admitted to hospital due to recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. She experienced cough and respiratory distress during feeding. The right hemithorax was smaller than the left, with diminished breath sounds and dullness. Chest x-rays revealed decreased lung volume and multiple radiolucent images in the right lung, as well as overdistention of the left lung. An esophagogram revealed three bronchial branches arising from the lower one-third of the esophagus, corresponding to the right lung and ending in a cul-de-sac. A diagnosis of esophageal lung was established. On bronchography, the right lung was absent and the trachea only continued into the left main bronchus. Echocardiography and angiotomography revealed agenesis of the pulmonary artery right branch. The surgical finding was an esophageal right lung, which was removed; the histopathological diagnosis was type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung.

  8. Bullous lung diseases as a risk factor for lung cancer: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagorni-Obradović Ljudmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A possible association between lung cancer and bullous lung disease has been suggested and recently supported by the results of genetic studies. Case report. A previously healthy 43-year-old man, smoker, was diagnosed with bullous lung disease at the age of 31 years. He was followed up for 12 years when lung cancer (adenocarcinoma was found at the site. In the meantime, he was treated for recurrent respiratory infections. Conclusion. There is the need for active approach in following up the patients with pulmonary bulla for potential development of lung cancer.

  9. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray. Both chest X-rays and low-dose helical CT scans have been used to find lung cancer early, but the effects of these screening techniques on lung cancer mortality rates had not been determined. NLST enrolled 53,454 current or former heavy smokers from 33 sites and coordinating centers across the United States. | The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: participants who received low-dose helical CT scans had a 20% lower risk of dying from lung cancer than participants who received standard chest X-rays.

  10. Trends of lung cancer mortality in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano Ponce, E C; Tovar Guzman, V; Meneses Gonzalez, F; Rascon Pacheco, R A; Hernandez Avila, M

    1997-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is one of the most important public health problems in the world; 1,035,000 annual deaths are estimated each year and more than 80% of these are attributed to tobacco. The trend of lung cancer mortality in Mexico City from 1979 - 1993 was determined, as was the rate ratio of lung cancer mortality in 31 states in Mexico, taking Mexico City as a reference by means of a Poisson model. A strong linear regression model was used to evaluate the rate, where the dependent variable was LC mortality rate and the independent variable the year observed. In 15 years, 73,807 deaths from LC were reported, with an increase in mortality from 5.01 - 7.25 per 100,000 inhabitants. Mortality increases significantly after 60 years of age (B not equal to 0), ptax on cigarettes should be increased, smoking restricted in squares and public spaces, and the risks should be announced on cigarette packages, among other measures. With respect to other emergent risk factors, the sources of industrial pollution and toxic emissions should be regulated.

  11. Hyperspectral imaging of skin and lung cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherdeva, Larisa A.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Alonova, Marina V.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Moryatov, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of cancer control requires design of new approaches for instrumental diagnostics, as the accuracy of cancer detection on the first step of diagnostics in clinics is slightly more than 50%. In this study, we present a method of visualization and diagnostics of skin and lung tumours based on registration and processing of tissues hyperspectral images. In a series of experiments registration of hyperspectral images of skin and lung tissue samples is carried out. Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, nevi and benign tumours are studied in skin ex vivo and in vivo experiments; adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas are studied in ex vivo lung experiments. In a series of experiments the typical features of diffuse reflection spectra for pathological and normal tissues were found. Changes in tissues morphology during the tumour growth lead to the changes of blood and pigments concentration, such as melanin in skin. That is why tumours and normal tissues maybe differentiated with information about spectral response in 500-600 nm and 600 - 670 nm areas. Thus, hyperspectral imaging in the visible region may be a useful tool for cancer detection as it helps to estimate spectral properties of tissues and determine malignant regions for precise resection of tumours.

  12. Dietary Fat Intake and Lung Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jae Jeong; Yu, Danxia; Takata, Yumie

    2017-01-01

    . Results Among 1,445,850 participants, 18,822 incident cases were identified (mean follow-up, 9.4 years). High intakes of total and saturated fat were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (for highest v lowest quintile: HR, 1.07 and 1.14, respectively; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.15 and 1.07 to 1...... with lung cancer risk. Methods Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs in each cohort. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled by random- or fixed-effects meta-analysis. The first 2 years of follow-up were excluded to address potential influence of preclinical dietary changes.......40, respectively; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.88 and 1.17 to 1.67, respectively; P for trend for both risk of lung cancer (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.98 for highest v lowest...

  13. Ambient Air Pollution and Cancer Mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michelle C; Krewski, Daniel; Diver, W Ryan; Pope, C Arden; Burnett, Richard T; Jerrett, Michael; Marshall, Julian D; Gapstur, Susan M

    2017-08-21

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified both outdoor air pollution and airborne particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) for lung cancer. There may be associations with cancer at other sites; however, the epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of this study was to clarify whether ambient air pollution is associated with specific types of cancer other than lung cancer by examining associations of ambient air pollution with nonlung cancer death in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II). Analysis included 623,048 CPS-II participants who were followed for 22 y (1982-2004). Modeled estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter pollutant models including PM2.5 and NO2 and in three-pollutant models with O3. We observed no statistically significant positive associations with death from other types of cancer based on results from adjusted models. The results from this large prospective study suggest that ambient air pollution was not associated with death from most nonlung cancers, but associations with kidney, bladder, and colorectal cancer death warrant further investigation. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1249.

  14. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauczor, H.U.; Bonomo, L.; Gaga, M.; Nackaerts, K.; Peled, N.; Prokop, M.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Stackelberg, O. von; Sculier, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the Europea

  15. Optimization of nodule management in CT lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein Anne

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death. Through computed tomography (CT) screening, cancer can be detected at the earliest stage, with a much greater probability of cure. After the positive outcome of the US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), screening with low-dose CT in heavy

  16. Tangeretin sensitises human lung cancer cells to TRAIL- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2017; 16 (1): 17-29. ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); ... of cancer-related death worldwide [1]. Non-small cell lung cancer ... all cases, and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 15 % [2].

  17. Anthropometry and the risk of lung cancer in EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H.; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J.; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer,

  18. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer,

  19. Anthropometry and the risk of lung cancer in EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H.; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J.; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer,

  20. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  1. Interactions between household air pollution and GWAS-identified lung cancer susceptibility markers in the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia (FLCCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosgood, H Dean; Song, Minsun; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Yin, Zhihua; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Wang, Zhaoming; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Zheng, Wei; Caporaso, Neil; Burdette, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Berndt, Sonja I; Landi, Maria Teresa; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chang, Gee-Chen; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Wang, Chih-Liang; Hung, Jen-Yu; Lin, Chien-Chung; Perng, Reury-Perng; Chen, Chih-Yi; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Li, Yao-Jen; Yu, Chong-Jen; Chen, Yi-Song; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Kim, Christopher; Seow, Wei Jie; Bassig, Bryan A; Wu, Wei; Guan, Peng; He, Qincheng; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Qiuyin; Chow, Wong-Ho; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Lin, Dongxin; Wu, Chen; Wu, Yi-Long; Shin, Min-Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul; Matsuo, Keitaro; Chen, Kexin; Wong, Maria Pik; Lu, Dara; Jin, Li; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Tangchun; Shen, Hongbing; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Chang, I-Shou; Zhou, Baosen; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-03-01

    We previously carried out a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) on lung cancer among never smokers in the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia (FLCCA) (6,609 cases, 7,457 controls) that identified novel susceptibility loci at 10q25.2, 6q22.2, and 6p21.32, and confirmed two previously identified loci at 5p15.33 and 3q28. Household air pollution (HAP) attributed to solid fuel burning for heating and cooking, is the leading cause of the overall disease burden in Southeast Asia, and is known to contain lung carcinogens. To evaluate the gene-HAP interactions associated with lung cancer in loci independent of smoking, we analyzed data from studies participating in FLCCA with fuel use information available (n = 3; 1,731 cases; 1,349 controls). Coal use was associated with a 30% increased risk of lung cancer (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). Among the five a priori SNPs identified by our GWAS, two showed a significant interaction with coal use (HLA Class II rs2395185, p = 0.02; TP63 rs4488809 (rs4600802), p = 0.04). The risk of lung cancer associated with coal exposure varied with the respective alleles for these two SNPs. Our observations provide evidence that genetic variation in HLA Class II and TP63 may modify the association between HAP and lung cancer risk. The roles played in the cell cycle and inflammation pathways by the proteins encoded by these two genes provide biological plausibility for these interactions; however, additional replication studies are needed in other non-smoking populations.

  2. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors.

  3. Synchronous colorectal and lung cancer:Report of three cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of synchronous colorectal and lung cancer is relatively rare.We report three cases of patients with tumors located in the rectum,ascending colon,the lower lobe of the left lung,and the upper lobe of the right lung.Synchronous curative resection of the two lesions was performed in two patients,whereas colectomy was performed in an elderly patient with a poor lung function.Pathological examination showed the colorectal cancer was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and the lung cancer was a squamous cell carcinoma.Surgical treatment and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for the lung cancer were different from those for colorectal cancer with pulmonary metastasis.If possible,radical resection should be performed for each cancer when synchronicity is found.

  4. Surgical management of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamousa Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgery plays a major role in the management of patients with lung cancer. Surgery is not only the main curative treatment modality in patients with early-stage lung cancer but it also has a significant role in the initial workup for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. This article describes the surgical management of patients with lung cancer. Surgical resection for lung cancer is still regarded as the most effective method for controlling the primary tumor, provided it is resectable for cure and the risks of the procedure are low. The 5-year survival rare following complete resection (R0 of a lung cancer is stage dependent [Table 1]. [1-3] Incomplete resection (R1, R2 rarely, if ever, cures the patient.

  5. A Randomized Phase I/II Trial to Compare Weekly Usage with Triple Weekly Usage of Paclitaxel in Concurrent Radiochemotherapy for Patients with Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhui SHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Although the guidelines of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network of USA recommend that the standard therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LANSCLC is concurrent chemoradiotherapy. There is ongoing controversy about the treatment regimen which combines chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. The aim of this study is to compare weekly usage with triple weekly usage of paclitaxel in concurrent radiochemotherapy for patients with LANSCLC, and to obtain the best paclitaxel regimen in the concurrent radiochemotherapy. Methods From April 2006 to April 2009, some LANSCLC patients in multicenter were randomly divided into weekly usage (45 mg/m2, 1 times/week, a total of 270 mg/m2 in six weeks and triple weekly usage (15 mg/m2, 3 times/week, a total of 270 mg/m2 in six weeks group of paclitaxel by a random number table. All patients were treated with 3D radiotherapy, and 95% planning target volume (PTV received a prescription dose of (60-70 Gy/(30-35times/(6-7weeks, (1.8-2.0 Gy/fraction. Then the side effects, response and overall survival rate were compared between two groups of patients. Results Thirty-eight LANSCLC patients were enrolled. Weekly usage and triple weekly usage group were 20 and 18 patients, respectively. In the triple weekly usage group, the side effects were 12 patients had radiation esophagitis of I-II degree, 1 patient had radiation esophagitis of III degree, 2 patients had radiation pneumonitis of I degree, 1 patient had radiation pneumonitis of II degree, 1 patient had radiation pneumonitis of III degree and died of respiratory failure, 2 patients developed weight loss of I degree. In the weekly usage group, the side effects were 11 patients had radiation esophagitis of I-III degree, 6 patients had radiation pneumonitis of II-III degree, 2 patients developed weight loss of I degree, 6 patients developed leucopenia of III-IV degree. The response rate of two groups was 88.8% and 50

  6. Genetic evidence linking lung cancer and COPD: a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapo JD

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Young1,4, Raewyn J Hopkins1, Gregory D Gamble1, Carol Etzel2, Randa El-Zein2, James D Crapo31Department of Medicine and School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA; 4Synergenz Biosciences Ltd, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoke exposure accounts for nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. However, genetic factors may explain why 10%–30% of smokers develop these complications. This perspective reviews the evidence suggesting that COPD is closely linked to susceptibility to lung cancer and outlines the potential relevance of this observation. Epidemiological studies show that COPD is the single most important risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and predates lung cancer in up to 80% of cases. Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer, lung function, and COPD have identified a number of overlapping “susceptibility” loci. With stringent phenotyping, it has recently been shown that several of these overlapping loci are independently associated with both COPD and lung cancer. These loci implicate genes underlying pulmonary inflammation and apoptotic processes mediated by the bronchial epithelium, and link COPD with lung cancer at a molecular genetic level. It is currently possible to derive risk models for lung cancer that incorporate lung cancer-specific genetic variants, recently identified “COPD-related” genetic variants, and clinical variables. Early studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk stratification of smokers might help better target novel prevention and early diagnostic strategies in lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, association study, single nucleotide polymorphism, risk model

  7. Snail acetylation by histone acetyltransferase p300 in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Rui; Zhang, Yinjie; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex and dynamic molecular event in lung cancer metastasis that has not yet been thoroughly investigated. EMT transcriptional factors, such as Snail, play a central role in regulation of the EMT process. In this study, we sought to identify an association between p300 and Snail in lung cancer, as well as the engagement of p300 in Snail acetylation. Methods We transfected p300 small interfering RNA into lung cancer cells to detect S...

  8. Lung cancer screening: identifying the high risk cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Michael W.; Raji, Olaide Y; John K. Field

    2015-01-01

    Low dose computed tomography (LDCT) is a viable screening tool for early lung cancer detection and mortality reduction. In practice, the success of any lung cancer screening programme will depend on successful identification of individuals at high risk in order to maximise the benefit-harm ratio. Risk prediction models incorporating multiple risk factors have been recognised as a method of identifying individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. Identification of individuals at high ri...

  9. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B. [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  10. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  11. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. A Multicenter Phase II Study of Erlotinib and Sorafenib in Chemotherapy-Naive Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lind, Joline S. W.; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Thunnissen, Frederik B.; Bekers, Otto; Heideman, Danielle A. M.; Honeywell, Richard J.; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peters, Godefridus J.; Postmus, Pieter E.; van Suylen, Robert Jan; Smit, Egbert F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This multicenter, phase II study evaluates the efficacy and safety of erlotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, plus sorafenib, a multityrosine kinase inhibitor against vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, in patients with previously untreated advanced

  13. Global efforts inconquering lung cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYan; LiXu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer, the most prevalent and deadly malignancy in the world, poses a particularly critical healthcare challenge to China due to the rapidly increasing new cases and the unique cancer genetics in Chinese patient population. Sub-stantial progress has been made in molecular diagnosis and personalized treatment of the disease. The ifeld is now moving towards multiple new directions to include (1) new generation of targeted agents such as epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors to overcome resistance to their early generation counter-parts; and (2) deeper understanding of tumor genetics of each individual patient and consequently the application of biomarkers to guide personalized treatment as well as novel drug development including combination therapy. The increasing capacity in innovative cancer drug research and development is supported by extensive collaboration within China and globally, and across academia and industry, to build up expertise and infrastructure in early-phase clinical testing of novel drugs. With these combined efforts, new and better medicines will be available for lung can-cer patients in China in the near future.

  14. Epidemiology of lung cancer; Epidemiologie des Bronchialkarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Krebsepidemiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Lung cancer is by far the most common form of cancer worldwide and in Germany is now ''only'' still the commonest cause of death from cancer. The most important single risk factor is smoking but in selected population groups, for example in the professional area, other factors can also play a role which cannot be ignored and open up a corresponding potential for prevention. Effective early detection procedures are at present unknown. The most promising, however, is multislice computed tomography (MSCT) which for this reason is presently being tested for effectiveness in several large research projects. The results are not expected for some years. Until then the early detection of lung cancer with MSCT cannot be considered suitable for routine use but can only be justified within the framework of research studies. (orig.) [German] Lungenkrebs ist weltweit die bei weitem haeufigste Krebsart, in Deutschland aber mittlerweile ''nur'' noch die haeufigste Krebstodesursache. Der bedeutendste Einzelrisikofaktor ist das Rauchen, doch koennen in ausgewaehlten Bevoelkerungsgruppen, z. B. im beruflichen Bereich, auch andere Faktoren eine nicht zu vernachlaessigende Rolle spielen und ein entsprechendes Praeventionspotenzial eroeffnen. Wirksame Frueherkennungsverfahren sind derzeit nicht bekannt. Als aussichtsreich gilt aber die Mehrschichtcomputertomographie (MSCT), die daher gegenwaertig in mehreren grossen Forschungsvorhaben auf ihre Effektivitaet ueberprueft wird. Ergebnisse werden in einigen Jahren erwartet. Bis dahin ist Lungenkrebsfrueherkennung mit MSCT nicht fuer die Routineanwendung geeignet, sondern ausschliesslich im Rahmen von Studien zu rechtfertigen. (orig.)

  15. Glufosfamide administered by 1-hour infusion as a second-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer; a phase II trial of the EORTC-New Drug Development Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccone, G; Smit, E F; de Jonge, M; Dansin, E; Briasoulis, E; Ardizzoni, A; Douillard, J-Y; Spaeth, D; Lacombe, D; Baron, B; Bachmann, P; Fumoleau, P

    2004-03-01

    The activity of glufosfamide (beta-D-glucosylisophosphoramide mustard) was tested in a multicentre phase II clinical trial in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had received one prior line of platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients were treated with 5000 mg/m(2) glufosfamide by a 1-h intravenous (i.v.) infusion every 3 weeks following registration at the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Data Center. Patients were randomised between hydration and no hydration to evaluate the nephroprotective effects of forced diuresis. Patients experiencing >/= 35 micromol/l increase of serum creatinine compared with baseline values were taken off the treatment. The Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST) criteria were applied for the response assessment. Blood sampling was performed for a pharmacokinetic analysis. 39 patients from seven institutions were registered and a median of three cycles was given (range 0-6) cycles; 20 patients were randomised to the hydration arm. Haematological toxicity was mild, but treatment-related metabolic and electrolytic abnormalities and increases of serum creatinine occurred in several patients. Hydration did not have any significant influence on the plasma pharmacokinetics of glufosfamide and did not show any nephroprotective effect. Only one confirmed partial remission was observed (response rate 3%; 95% (Confidence Interval (CI) 0-14) and 18 cases with stable disease (49%) were recorded as assessed by an independent panel. Median survival of all patients treated was 5.8 months (95% CI 4.2-7.9). In conclusion, glufosfamide administered by a 1-h infusion every 3 weeks has modest activity in advanced NSCLC patients after one prior platinum-based chemotherapy.

  16. Squamous Cell Lung Cancer Presenting as a Malar Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Veerappan

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer metastasizing to the face has rarely been reported and is an even more unusual presentation. Case: This is the case of a 49-year-old man diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the face, scheduled for resection. Preoperative radiographs revealed a left upper lobe mass, found to be squamous cell carcinoma. Diagnosis was changed to Stage IV primary lung cancer. The patient did not undergo resection. Discussion: No previous cases of primary lung cancer presenting as a malar mass have been reported. Facial lesions can be the presenting feature of primary lung cancer. Discovery of the true primary lesion can alter therapy and prognosis.

  17. Advancements in radiotherapy for lung cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lujun Zhao; Luhua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death due to cancer in China. In recent years, great progress has been made in radiotherapy for lung cancer patients in China. The main advance-ments include the fol owing aspects:(1) stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for early stage non-smal cel lung cancer (NSCLC), (2) post-operative radiotherapy for NSCLC, (3) combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for local y advanced NSCLC, (4) improved radiotherapy for advanced NSCLC, and 5) prediction of radiation-induced lung toxicity.

  18. A population-based evaluation of the seventh edition of the TNM system for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, T-E; Rostad, H; Wentzel-Larsen, T;

    2010-01-01

    Our study describes the new seventh edition of the TNM system for lung cancer in a national population and its clinical implications. We classified 1,885 operated patients with lung cancer, reported to the Cancer Registry of Norway (Oslo, Norway) from 2001 to 2005, according to the sixth...... to stage II and 161 (48%) patients migrated from stage IIB to IIA. Stage migrations could change the treatment for up to 326 (17.3%) of the study patients. The seventh edition did not improve the overall predictive ability of the TNM system; however, the new classification implies changes in treatment...

  19. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Ina; Hume, Kelly R.; Yazinski, Stephanie A.; Peters, Rachel M.; Weiss, Robert S.; Webb, Watt W.

    2010-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading killer among all cancers for both men and women in the US, and is associated with one of the lowest 5-year survival rates. Current diagnostic techniques, such as histopathological assessment of tissue obtained by computed tomography guided biopsies, have limited accuracy, especially for small lesions. Early diagnosis of lung cancer can be improved by introducing a real-time, optical guidance method based on the in vivo application of multiphoton microscopy (MPM). In particular, we hypothesize that MPM imaging of living lung tissue based on twophoton excited intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation can provide sufficient morphologic and spectroscopic information to distinguish between normal and diseased lung tissue. Here, we used an experimental approach based on MPM with multichannel fluorescence detection for initial discovery that MPM spectral imaging could differentiate between normal and neoplastic lung in ex vivo samples from a murine model of lung cancer. Current results indicate that MPM imaging can directly distinguish normal and neoplastic lung tissues based on their distinct morphologies and fluorescence emission properties in non-processed lung tissue. Moreover, we found initial indication that MPM imaging differentiates between normal alveolar tissue, inflammatory foci, and lung neoplasms. Our long-term goal is to apply results from ex vivo lung specimens to aid in the development of multiphoton endoscopy for in vivo imaging of lung abnormalities in various animal models, and ultimately for the diagnosis of human lung cancer.

  20. Lung Cancer Detection Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhled S. AL-TARAWNEH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, image processing techniques are widely used in several medical areas for image improvement in earlier detection and treatment stages, where the time factor is very important to discover the abnormality issues in target images, especially in various cancer tumours such as lung cancer, breast cancer, etc. Image quality and accuracy is the core factors of this research, image quality assessment as well as improvement are depending on the enhancement stage where low pre-processing techniques is used based on Gabor filter within Gaussian rules. Following the segmentation principles, an enhanced region of the object of interest that is used as a basic foundation of feature extraction is obtained. Relying on general features, a normality comparison is made. In this research, the main detected features for accurate images comparison are pixels percentage and mask-labelling.

  1. Smoking and Lung Cancer: It's Never Too Late To Quit | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Smoking and Lung Cancer: It's Never Too Late to Quit Past Issues / ... Table of Contents Because most people who get lung cancer were smokers, you may feel that doctors and ...

  2. DNA hypermethylation analysis in sputum for the diagnosis of lung cancer: training validation set approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubers, A J; Heideman, D A M; Burgers, S A; Herder, G J M; Sterk, P J; Rhodius, R J; Smit, H J; Krouwels, F; Welling, A; Witte, B I; Duin, S; Koning, R; Comans, E F I; Steenbergen, R D M; Postmus, P E; Meijer, G A; Snijders, P J F; Smit, E F; Thunnissen, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer has the highest mortality of all cancers. The aim of this study was to examine DNA hypermethylation in sputum and validate its diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer. Methods: DNA hypermethylation of RASSF1A, APC, cytoglobin, 3OST2, PRDM14, FAM19A4 and PHACTR3 was analysed in sputum samples from symptomatic lung cancer patients and controls (learning set: 73 cases, 86 controls; validation set: 159 cases, 154 controls) by quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Three statistical models were used: (i) cutoff based on Youden's J index, (ii) cutoff based on fixed specificity per marker of 96% and (iii) risk classification of post-test probabilities. Results: In the learning set, approach (i) showed that RASSF1A was best able to distinguish cases from controls (sensitivity 42.5%, specificity 96.5%). RASSF1A, 3OST2 and PRDM14 combined demonstrated a sensitivity of 82.2% with a specificity of 66.3%. Approach (ii) yielded a combination rule of RASSF1A, 3OST2 and PHACTR3 (sensitivity 67.1%, specificity 89.5%). The risk model (approach iii) distributed the cases over all risk categories. All methods displayed similar and consistent results in the validation set. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the impact of DNA methylation markers in symptomatic lung cancer diagnosis. RASSF1A is validated as diagnostic marker in lung cancer. PMID:25719833

  3. A phase II study of erlotinib in combination with bevacizumab versus chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in the first-line treatment of advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciuleanu, T.; Tsai, C. -M.; Tsao, C. -J.; Milanowski, J.; Amoroso, D.; Heo, D. S.; Groen, H. J. M.; Szczesna, A.; Chung, C. -Y.; Chao, T. -Y.; Middleton, G.; Zeaiter, A.; Klingelschmitt, G.; Klughammer, B.; Thatcher, N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Molecularly targeted agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can provide similar efficacy to chemotherapy without chemotherapy-associated toxicities. Combining two agents with different modes of action could further increase the efficacy of these therapies. The TASK study evaluated

  4. Carboplatin and paclitaxol (Taxol) as an induction regimen for patients with biopsy-proven stage IIIA N2 non-small cell lung cancer. an EORTC phase II study (EORTC 08958).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Brien, ME; Splinter, T; Smit, E.F.; Biesma, B.; Krzakowski, M; Tjan-Heijnen, VC; Bochove, A Van; Stigt, J; Smid-Geirnaerdt, MJ; Debruyne, C.; Legrand, C; Giaccone, G.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the activity and toxicity of paclitaxel (Taxol)/carboplatin when used as induction chemotherapy in patients with stage IIIA N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prior to definitive local treatment within a large, ongoing comparative study (EORTC 08941). 52 elig

  5. Overexpression of adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 is associated with metastasis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min; Song, Xiaolian; Zhang, Guoliang; Peng, Aimei; Li, Xuan; Li, Ming; Liu, Yang; Wang, Changhui

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer ranks first in both prevalence and mortality rates among all types of cancer. Metastasis is the main cause of treatment failure. Biomarkers are critical to early diagnosis and prediction and monitoring of progressive lesions. Several biomarkers have been identified for lung cancer but none have been routinely used clinically. The present study assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) for lung cancer. CAP1 mRNA abundance and protein content were determined by real-time PCR and western blot analysis and/or immunostaining in biopsy specimens (24 neoplastic and 6 non-neoplastic) freshly collected at surgical lung resection, in 82 pathologically banked lung cancer specimens and in cultured non-invasive (95-C) and invasive (95-D) lung cancer cells. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to correlate immunoreactive CAP1 signal with cancer type and stage. In vitro cell migration was performed to determine the effect of RNA interference-mediated CAP1 gene silencing on invasiveness of 95-D cells. These analyses collectively demonstrated that: i) both CAP1 mRNA abundance and protein content were significantly higher in neoplastic compared to non-neoplastic specimens and in metastatic compared to non-metastatic specimens but not different between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma; ii) immunoreactive CAP1 signal was significantly stronger in metastatic specimens and 95-D cells compared to non-metastatic specimens and 95-C cells; and iii) RNA interference-mediated CAP1 gene silencing adequately attenuated the invasive capacity of 95-D cells in vitro. These findings suggest that overexpression of CAP1 in lung cancer cells, particularly at the metastatic stage, may have significant clinical implications as a diagnostic/prognostic factor for lung cancer.

  6. Lung cancer trends: smoking, obesity, and sex assessed in the Staten Island University's lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shilpi; Hassan, Samer; Bhatt, Vijaya R; Abdul Sater, Houssein; Dilawari, Asma

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of lung cancer in the United States decreased by 1.8% from 1991 to 2005 while it increased by 0.5% in females. We assessed whether nonsmokers afflicted with lung cancer at Staten Island University Hospital are disproportionately female in comparison to national averages. We also evaluated different factors including race, histology, and body mass index (BMI) in correlation with smoking history. A retrospective chart review was conducted from 2005 to 2011 on 857 patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to their smoking status: current or ever-smokers, and former or never-smokers. A chi-square test for categorical data and multivariate logistic regression analyses was used to study the relation between BMI and the other clinical and demographic data. Forty-nine percent of patients were men and 51% were women with a mean age at diagnosis of 67.8 years. Current smokers were most common (50.2%) followed by ever-smokers (18.2%), former smokers (15.8%) and never-smokers (15.6%). Forty eight percent had stage IV lung cancer upon presentation. Never-smokers with lung cancer were 24 times more likely to be females. However, the proportion of female former smokers (31.6%) was lower than the proportion of male former smokers (68.4%) (P=0.001). There was no significant association between American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, sex, race, and histological type in the two smoking groups. Current/ever-smokers tended to be younger at age of diagnosis (P=0.0003). BMI was lower in the current/ever-smokers (26.8 kg/m(2)) versus former/never-smokers (28.8) in males (P=0.0005). BMI was significantly higher in males (30.26) versus females (25.25) in the never-smoker category (P=0.004). Current smokers, compared to others, had a lower BMI in males (26.4 versus 28.3; P=0.0001) and females (25.5 versus 26.9; P=0.013) but the mean BMI for all groups was in the overweight/obese range. Our population of lung cancer patients although demographically

  7. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelsomino, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.gelsomino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Medical Oncology Unit 1, Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rossi, Giulio [Operative Unit of Pathology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico, Via del Pozzo 71, 41124 Modena (Italy); Tiseo, Marcello [Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Viale A. Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma (Italy)

    2014-10-13

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  8. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gelsomino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  9. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  10. Alpinetin inhibits lung cancer progression and elevates sensitization drug-resistant lung cancer cells to cis-diammined dichloridoplatium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lin Wu, Wei Yang, Su-ning Zhang, Ji-bin Lu Department of Thoracic Surgery, Sheng Jing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Objective: Alpinetin is a novel flavonoid that has demonstrated potent antitumor activity in previous studies. However, the efficacy and mechanism of alpinetin in treating lung cancer have not been determined. Methods: We evaluated the impact of different doses and durations of alpinetin treatment on the cell proliferation, the apoptosis of lung cancer cells, as well as the drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Results: This study showed that the alpinetin inhibited the cell proliferation, enhanced the apoptosis, and inhibited the PI3K/Akt signaling in lung cancer cells. Moreover, alpinetin significantly increased the sensitivity of drug-resistant lung cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic effect of cis-diammined dichloridoplatium. Taken together, this study demonstrated that alpinetin significantly suppressed the development of human lung cancer possibly by influencing mitochondria and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and sensitized drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Conclusion: Alpinetin may be used as a potential compound for combinatorial therapy or as a complement to other chemotherapeutic agents when multiple lines of treatments have failed to reduce lung cancer. Keywords: alpinetin, cell proliferation and apoptosis, drug resistance reversal, PI3K/Akt, lung cancer

  11. Quality of Cancer Care Among Foreign-Born and US-Born Patients With Lung or Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; He, Yulei; Ayanian, John Z.

    2010-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Disparities in care have been documented for foreign-born cancer patients in the United States. However, few data are available regarding patients with lung and colorectal cancer. In the current study, the authors assessed whether patient-reported quality and receipt of recommended...... and radiotherapy for stage II/III rectal cancer (AOR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12-0.99). Rates of other treatments did not differ significantly by nativity. CONCLUSIONS: Foreign-born cancer patients reported lower quality of care and were less likely to receive some cancer therapies than patients born in the Unites States...

  12. PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM FOLLOWING THORACOTOMY FOR LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-xu; LI Hou-wen; LI Yu; WANG Yu; XU Jie; YIN Hong-nian; ZHANG Lin; CHEN Dong-yi; ZHAO Hui-ru; HU Yong-xiao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with primary lung cancer in relation to thoracotomy, and to shed light on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this fatal disease after lung resection. Methods: A total of 1245 cases with primary lung cancer received thoracotomy in the past 13 years were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data of a total of 14 patients (1.1%) suffering from pulmonary thromboembolism and requiring cardiao-pulmonary resuscitation were collected and analyzed. Results: The diagnosis was established primarily by clinical findings in 9 cases (64.3%), including further confirmation of one case during operation, by pulmonary ventilation-perfusion scan in 2, by spiral CT angiography in 1, by pulmonary angiography in 1, and by autopsy in 1 case. Even using prompt resuscitation, 8 patients (57.1%) died within 48 h (mean 4 h) after the onset of the symptoms. Six cases eventually recovered. Of the 6 salvaged patients, they all received anticoagulation therapy with heparin intravenously and warfarin orally, including 3 cases of additional thrombolytic therapy with urokinase. Two cases with massive pulmonary emboli received emergency surgery, including one pulmonary embolectomy, and one bilobectomy after right upper lobectomy, with satisfactory results. Conclusion: Massive pulmonary embolism is an infrequent but fatal early postoperative complication after lung resection. The diagnosis should be based mainly on clinical findings in order to initiate the appropriate therapy immediately. The direct diagnostic techniques including radionuclide pulmonary scan, spiral CT angiography, and pulmonary angiography could be based on a careful evaluation of the expected benefits and risks of the various available treatments.

  13. Primary non-small cell lung cancer in a transplanted lung treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskan, F. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; University Hospital of Saarland, Homburg (Saar) (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.; Manapov, F. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-04-15

    The first case of primary lung cancer in a transplanted lung was described in 2001. Since then, only 5 cases of lung cancer in donated lung have been reported. We present one more patient with non-small cell cancer in the transplanted lung treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. In most cases of primary lung cancer in transplanted lung, rapid progression of the cancer was reported. Occurrence of the locoregional failure in our case could be explained by factors related to the treatment protocol and also to underlying immunosuppression.

  14. Periodical multiphasic screening and lung cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carel, R S

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of information gathered by multiphasic screening with respect to lung cancer detection and smoking cessation techniques. A cohort (follow-up) study is reported in which cancer incidence and factors affecting its occurrence are evaluated in a group of about 20,000 presumably healthy adults along a period of approximately 10 years following comprehensive multiphasic health examinations. Lung cancer occurrence is primarily related to smoking. The risk is higher in smokers and is dose-dependent; OR = 0.21, (CI = 0.08, .53) in never smokers, OR = 1.53 (CI = 0.8, 3.2) in past and current moderate smokers, OR = 4.92 (CI = 2.18, 11.11) in current heavy smokers. Moreover, smokers with compromised pulmonary function (FEVI/FVC periodical multiphasic health examinations could be utilized by health professionals to encourage smoking cessation and smoking prevention in the appropriate screenees. Various elements of the multiphasic test results could contribute to such prevention efforts. While every smoker should receive appropriate evaluation and consultation regarding nicotine dependence, smokers with reduced pulmonary function represent an extra high risk group to which special attention should be given.

  15. Personalized Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C.S. Cho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has long been recognized as an extremely heterogeneous disease, since its development is unique in every patient in terms of clinical characterizations, prognosis, response and tolerance to treatment. Personalized medicine refers to the use of markers to predict which patient will most likely benefit from a treatment. In lung cancer, the well-developed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and the newly emerging EML4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK are important therapeutic targets. This review covers the basic mechanism of EGFR and EML4-ALK activation, the predictive biomarkers, the mechanism of resistance, and the current targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The efficacy of EGFR and ALK targeted therapies will be discussed in this review by summarizing the prospective clinical trials, which were performed in biomarker-based selected patients. In addition, the revolutionary sequencing and systems strategies will also be included in this review since these technologies will provide a comprehensive understanding in the molecular characterization of cancer, allow better stratification of patients for the most appropriate targeted therapies, eventually resulting in a more promising personalized treatment. The relatively low incidence of EGFR and ALK in non-Asian patients and the lack of response in mutant patients limit the application of the therapies targeting EGFR or ALK. Nevertheless, it is foreseeable that the sequencing and systems strategies may offer a solution for those patients.

  16. Therapeutic Targeting of Nuclear Export Inhibition in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arjun; Saltarski, Jessica M; White, Michael A; Scaglioni, Pier P; Gerber, David E

    2017-09-01

    Intracellular compartmentalization and trafficking of molecules plays a critical role in complex and essential cellular processes. In lung cancer and other malignancies, aberrant nucleocytoplasmic transport of tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulators results in tumorigenesis and inactivation of apoptosis. Pharmacologic agents targeting this process, termed selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE), have demonstrated antitumor efficacy in preclinical models and human clinical trials. Exportin-1 (XPO1), which serves as the sole exporter of several tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulators, including retinoblastoma, adenomatous polyposis coli, p53, p73, p21, p27, forkhead box O, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, inhibitor of κB, topoisomerase II, and protease activated receptor 4-is the principal focus of development of SINE. The most extensively studied of the SINE to date, the exportin-1 inhibitor selinexor (KPT-330 [Karyopharm Therapeutics, Inc., Newton Centre, MA]), has demonstrated single-agent anticancer activity and synergistic effects in combination regimens against multiple cancer types, with principal toxicities of low-grade cytopenias and gastrointestinal effects. SINE may have particular relevance in KRAS-driven tumors, for which this treatment strategy demonstrates significant synthetic lethality. A multicenter phase 1/2 clinical trial of selinexor in previously treated advanced KRAS-mutant NSCLC is under way. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Assessment of nutritional status in patients with primary lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermiti Ben Abdallah, Fatma; Ben Saïd, Hanène; Chamkhi, Najiba; Ferchichi, Marwa; Chtourou, Amel; Taktak, Sofia; Ben Kheder, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Malnutrition is a common problem among patients with cancer, affecting up to 85% of patients with certain cancers and represents a risk factor for poor prognosis. aim: evaluate nutritional status in patients with lung cancer before and during treatment using nutritional risk index. it's a prospective study conducted in pneumology IV department in Abderahman Mami hospital, from January to May 2011. 30 male patients with a lung cancer were included. Nutritional status was assessed before and during treatment based on anthropometric measures, biological markers and nutritional risk index (NRI). Mean age of patients was 58 ± 12 years, ranging from 19 to 82 years. 29 patients had non small cell lung cancer and one patient had small cell cancer. Malnutrition was noted in 14 patients (47%) before treatment according to the NRI. It was noted in 23 patients (77%) after three cycles of chemotherapy with severe malnutrition in 8 patients. Relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the NRI was linear, but NRI tends to evaluate more objectively risk of malnutrition in patients with lung cancer. Nutritional assessment in patient with lung cancer should be performed systematically, early and repeatedly. Several markers can be used such as BMI and NRI. Nutritional support will reduce morbidity and improve quality of life in patients with lung cancer.

  18. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M;

    2011-01-01

    The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference, the e...

  19. Targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-Ching Tang

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent progress in molecular biology has enabled us to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying pathogenesis of human malignancy including lung cancer. Sequencing of human genome has identified many oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes,giving us a better understanding of the molecular events leading to the formation, progression, metastasis, and the development of drug resistance in human lung cancer. In addition, many signal transduction pathways have been discovered that play important roles in lung cancer. Novel strategy of anti-cancer drug development now involves the identification and development of targeted therapy that interrupts one or more than one pathways or cross-talk among different signal transduction pathways. In addition, efforts are underway that combine the traditional cytotoxic (non-targeted) agents with the biological (targeted) therapy to increase the response rate and survival in patients with lung cancer, especially advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

  20. Telomere length and the risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Choi, Yi Young; Lee, Won Kee; Choi, Jin Eun; Cha, Sung Ick; Kim, Yeon Jae; Kim, Chang Ho; Kam, Sin; Jung, Tae Hoon; Park, Jae Yong

    2008-07-01

    Telomeres play a key role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and stability. There is growing evidence that short telomeres induce chromosome instability and thereby promote the development of cancer. We investigated the association of telomere length and the risk of lung cancer. Relative telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 243 lung cancer patients and 243 healthy controls that were frequency-matched for age, sex and smoking status. Telomere length was significantly shorter in lung cancer patients than in controls (mean +/- standard deviation: 1.59 +/- 0.75 versus 2.16 +/- 1.10, P telomere length, the risk of lung cancer was found to increase as telomere length shortened (P(trend) telomere length was used as the cutoff between long and short telomeres, individuals with short telomeres were at a significantly higher risk of lung cancer than those with long telomeres (adjusted odds ratio = 3.15, 95% confidence interval = 2.12-4.67, P telomere length on the risk of lung cancer was more pronounced in patients with small cell carcinoma than in those with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (P = 0.001, test for homogeneity). These findings suggest that shortening of the telomeres may be a risk factor for lung cancer, and therefore, the presence of shortened telomeres may be used as a marker for susceptibility to lung cancer.

  1. Components Necessary for High-Quality Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles A.; Arenberg, Douglas; Detterbeck, Frank; Gould, Michael K.; Jaklitsch, Michael T.; Jett, James; Naidich, David; Vachani, Anil; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Silvestri, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with a low-dose chest CT scan can result in more benefit than harm when performed in settings committed to developing and maintaining high-quality programs. This project aimed to identify the components of screening that should be a part of all lung cancer screening programs. To do so, committees with expertise in lung cancer screening were assembled by the Thoracic Oncology Network of the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and the Thoracic Oncology Assembly of the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Lung cancer program components were derived from evidence-based reviews of lung cancer screening and supplemented by expert opinion. This statement was developed and modified based on iterative feedback of the committees. Nine essential components of a lung cancer screening program were identified. Within these components 21 Policy Statements were developed and translated into criteria that could be used to assess the qualification of a program as a screening facility. Two additional Policy Statements related to the need for multisociety governance of lung cancer screening were developed. High-quality lung cancer screening programs can be developed within the presented framework of nine essential program components outlined by our committees. The statement was developed, reviewed, and formally approved by the leadership of CHEST and the ATS. It was subsequently endorsed by the American Association of Throacic Surgery, American Cancer Society, and the American Society of Preventive Oncology. PMID:25356819

  2. Occupational Lung Cancer Surveillance in South Korea, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Won, Jong Uk; Moon, Jai Dong; Kim, Young-Chul; Koh, Sang Baek; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Soo Geun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Inah; Kim, Jung Il; Kim, Jung Won; Lee, Eui-cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Dong Mug; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The lung cancer mortality in Korea has increased remarkably during the last 20 years, and has been the first leading cause of cancer-related deaths since 2000. The aim of the current study was to examine the time trends of occupational lung cancer and carcinogens exposure during the period 2006-2009 in South Korea, by assessing the proportion of occupational burden. Methods We defined occupational lung cancer for surveillance, and developed a reporting protocol and reporting website for the surveillance of occupational lung cancer. The study patients were chosen from 9 participating university hospitals in the following 7 areas: Seoul, Incheon, Wonju, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju. Results The combined proportion of definite and probable occupational lung cancer among all lung cancers investigated in this study was 10.0%, 8.6%, 10.7%, and 15.8% in the years 2006 to 2009, respectively, with an average of 11.7% over the four-year study period. The main carcinogens were asbestos, crystalline silica, radon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust particles, chromium, and nickel. Conclusion We estimated that about 11.7% of the incident lung cancer was preventable. This reveals the potential to considerably reduce lung cancer by intervention in occupational fields. PMID:22953173

  3. Targeting lung cancer through inhibition of checkpoint kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Gussgard Syljuåsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of checkpoint kinases ATR, Chk1 and Wee1 are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical trials. Here, we review the basic principles behind the use of such inhibitors as anticancer agents, and particularly discuss their potential for treatment of lung cancer. As lung cancer is one of the most deadly cancers, new treatment strategies are highly needed. We discuss how checkpoint kinase inhibition in principle can lead to selective killing of lung cancer cells while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Several features of lung cancer may potentially be exploited for targeting through inhibition of checkpoint kinases, including mutated p53, low ERCC1 levels, amplified Myc, tumor hypoxia and presence of lung cancer stem cells. Synergistic effects have also been reported between inhibitors of ATR/Chk1/Wee1 and conventional lung cancer treatments, such as gemcitabine, cisplatin or radiation. Altogether, inhibitors of ATR, Chk1 and Wee1 are emerging as new cancer treatment agents, likely to be useful in lung cancer treatment. However, as lung tumors are very diverse, the inhibitors are unlikely to be effective in all patients, and more work is needed to determine how such inhibitors can be utilized in the most optimal ways.

  4. Risk Stratification for Second Primary Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Summer S; Rivera, Gabriel A; Tammemägi, Martin C; Plevritis, Sylvia K; Gomez, Scarlett L; Cheng, Iona; Wakelee, Heather A

    2017-09-01

    Purpose This study estimated the 10-year risk of developing second primary lung cancer (SPLC) among survivors of initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) and evaluated the clinical utility of the risk prediction model for selecting eligibility criteria for screening. Methods SEER data were used to identify a population-based cohort of 20,032 participants diagnosed with IPLC between 1988 and 2003 and who survived ≥ 5 years after the initial diagnosis. We used a proportional subdistribution hazards model to estimate the 10-year risk of developing SPLC among survivors of lung cancer LC in the presence of competing risks. Considered predictors included age, sex, race, treatment, histology, stage, and extent of disease. We examined the risk-stratification ability of the prediction model and performed decision curve analysis to evaluate the clinical utility of the model by calculating its net benefit in varied risk thresholds for screening. Results Although the median 10-year risk of SPLC among survivors of LC was 8.36%, the estimated risk varied substantially (range, 0.56% to 14.3%) when stratified by age, histology, and extent of IPLC in the final prediction model. The stratification by deciles of estimated risk showed that the observed incidence of SPLC was significantly higher in the tenth-decile group (12.5%) versus the first-decile group (2.9%; P risk thresholds (1% to 11.5%) at which the clinical net benefit of the risk model was larger than those in hypothetical all-screening or no-screening scenarios. Conclusion The risk stratification approach in SPLC can be potentially useful for identifying survivors of LC to be screened by computed tomography. More comprehensive environmental and genetic data may help enhance the predictability and stratification ability of the risk model for SPLC.

  5. DNA Methylation and Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youwei ZHANG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA methylation is a major form of epigenetic modification. Hypermethylation could affect the binding of transcription factors to DNA and change the structure of chromatin resulting in silence of tumor suppressor genes, which plays an important role in cancer initiation and progression. In recent years, the study of DNA methylation in lung cancer, mostly in non-small cell lung cancer, has made great progress and become a new target for early detection, risk assessment, prognosis and cancer therapy.

  6. Impact of fine particles in ambient air on lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Hoek; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pol ution and the particulate matter component of outdoor air pollution as class I carcinogen. Air pollution is consistently associated with lung cancer in epidemiologic and experimental studies. The IARC assessment is specifical y designed as hazard identification, and it does not quantify the magnitude of the cancer risk. This article addresses the magnitude of the lung cancer risk in the population due to ambient air pol ution exposure.

  7. Zosteriform skin metastasis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hao; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Wu, Po-Yuan

    2012-12-01

    Skin metastasis from internal organ malignancy has a 5% to about 10% incidence, and zosteriform metastasis is much rarer. We present the case of a 51-year-old male smoker initially given a diagnosis of right lower lung adenocarcinoma T2N3M0 who developed new-onset zosteriform skin metastasis over the right-side T3∼T5 dermatomes documented by skin biopsy specimen. The probable mechanism for this band-distributed skin metastasis is the retrograde flow of lymph after obstruction by cancer cells. Such a phenomenon may be demonstrated by lymphoscintigraphy.

  8. A phase Ib/II study of cabozantinib (XL184) with or without erlotinib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakelee, Heather A; Gettinger, Scott; Engelman, Jeffrey; Jänne, Pasi A; West, Howard; Subramaniam, Deepa S; Leach, Joseph; Wax, Michael; Yaron, Yifah; Miles, Dale R; Lara, Primo N

    2017-05-01

    Cabozantinib is a multi-kinase inhibitor that targets MET, AXL, and VEGFR2, and may synergize with EGFR inhibition in NSCLC. Cabozantinib was assessed alone or in combination with erlotinib in patients with progressive NSCLC and EGFR mutations who had previously received erlotinib. This was a phase Ib/II study (NCT00596648). The primary objectives of phase I were to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics and to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cabozantinib plus erlotinib in patients who failed prior erlotinib treatment. In phase II, patients with prior response or stable disease with erlotinib who progressed were randomized to single-agent cabozantinib 100 mg qd vs cabozantinib 100 mg qd and erlotinib 50 mg qd (phase I MTD), with a primary objective of estimating objective response rate (ORR). Sixty-four patients were treated in phase I. Doses of 100 mg cabozantinib plus 50 mg erlotinib, or 40 mg cabozantinib plus 150 mg erlotinib were determined to be MTDs. Diarrhea was the most frequent dose-limiting toxicity and the most frequent AE (87.5% of patients). The ORR for phase I was 8.2% (90% CI 3.3-16.5). In phase II, one patient in the cabozantinib arm (N = 15) experienced a partial response, for an ORR of 6.7% (90% CI 0.3-27.9), with no responses for cabozantinib plus erlotinib (N = 13). There was no evidence that co-administration of cabozantinib markedly altered erlotinib pharmacokinetics or vice versa. Despite responses with cabozantinib/erlotinib in phase I, there were no responses in the combination arm of phase II in patients with acquired resistance to erlotinib. Cabozantinib did not appear to re-sensitize these patients to erlotinib.

  9. Sequential (gemcitabine/vinorelbine and concurrent (gemcitabine radiochemotherapy with FDG-PET-based target volume definition in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: first results of a phase I/II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanzel Sven

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD of gemcitabine every two weeks concurrent to radiotherapy, administered during an aggressive program of sequential and simultaneous radiochemotherapy for locally advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and to evaluate the efficacy of this regime in a phase II study. Methods 33 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled in a combined radiochemotherapy protocol. 29 patients were assessable for evaluation of toxicity and tumor response. Treatment included two cycles of induction chemotherapy with gemcitabine (1200 mg/m2 and vinorelbine (30 mg/m2 at day 1, 8 and 22, 29 followed by concurrent radiotherapy (2.0 Gy/d; total dose 66.0 Gy and chemotherapy with gemcitabine every two weeks at day 43, 57 and 71. Radiotherapy planning included [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET based target volume definition. 10 patients were included in the phase I study with an initial gemcitabine dose of 300 mg/m2. The dose of gemcitabine was increased in steps of 100 mg/m2 until the MTD was realized. Results MTD was defined for the patient group receiving gemcitabine 500 mg/m2 due to grade 2 (next to grade 3 esophagitis in all patients resulting in a mean body weight loss of 5 kg (SD = 1.4 kg, representing 8% of the initial weight. These patients showed persisting dysphagia 3 to 4 weeks after completing radiotherapy. In accordance with expected complications as esophagitis, dysphagia and odynophagia, we defined the MTD at this dose level, although no dose limiting toxicity (DLT grade 3 was reached. In the phase I/II median follow-up was 15.7 months (4.1 to 42.6 months. The overall response rate after completion of therapy was 64%. The median overall survival was 19.9 (95% CI: [10.1; 29.7] months for all eligible patients. The median disease-free survival for all patients was 8.7 (95% CI: [2.7; 14.6] months. Conclusion

  10. Advances on Driver Oncogenes of Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HONG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Next to adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the lung is the most frequent histologic subtype in non-small cell lung cancer. Several molecular alterations have been defined as "driver oncogenes" responsible for both the initiation and maintenance of the malignancy. The squamous cell carcinoma of the lung has recently shown peculiar molecular characteristics which relate with both carcinogenesis and response to targeted drugs. So far, about 40% of lung squamous cell carcinoma has been found harbouring driver oncogenes, in which fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 plays important roles. In this review, we will report the mainly advances on some latest driver mutations of squamous cell lung cancer.

  11. CT imaging of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕岩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the CT characteristics of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. Methods One hundred and four patients of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer proved by histology,cytology or clinical underwent CT examination. All patients were divided into two groups,group

  12. Occupational lung cancer risk among men in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Balder, H.F.; Tielemans, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess male lung cancer risks for industrial sectors in the Netherlands and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer attributed to working in specific industrial sectors. Methods: Associations were studied among men aged 55-69 years (n = 58 279) from the prospective Netherlands Cohor

  13. Malnutrition in lung cancer: incidence, prognostic implications, and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, D L

    1982-01-01

    Malnutrition and weight loss are common in patients with lung cancer. Weight loss is an independent prognostic factor for survival in lung cancer treatment studies. Metabolic disturbances probably play a dominant role in weight loss in these patients rather than reduced food intake. The identification of the pertinent etiologic metabolic abnormalities and development of specific therapeutic intervention should be goals for future research.

  14. Reducing inequalities in lung cancer incidence through smoking policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Soerjomataram; J.J. Barendregt; C. Gartner; A. Kunst; H. Moller; M. Avendano

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Lower social class has higher lung cancer incidence, largely attributable to higher smoking prevalence among the lower social classes. We assessed the magnitude and time dimension of potential impact of targeted interventions on smoking on socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer. Met

  15. Analysis of intratumor heterogeneity unravels lung cancer evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Elza C de; McGranahan, Nicholas; Swanton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a disease with dismal outcome. We recently reported a detailed intratumor heterogeneity analysis in 7 non-small cell lung cancer samples, revealing spatially separated driver events as well as the temporal dynamics of mutational processes and demonstrating an important role for APOBEC-mediated heterogeneity later in disease evolution.

  16. Improving lung cancer survival; time to move on

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Heuvers (Marlies); J.P.J.J. Hegmans (Joost); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.G.J.V. Aerts (Joachim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: During the past decades, numerous efforts have been made to decrease the death rate among lung cancer patients. Nonetheless, the improvement in long-term survival has been limited and lung cancer is still a devastating disease.Discussion: With this article we would like to

  17. Advances and Implications in Nanotechnology for Lung Cancer Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sana; Osama, Khwaja; Jamal, Qazi Mohammad Sajid; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Sayeed, Usman; Khan, M Kalim A; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Akhtar, Salman

    2016-11-14

    Lung cancer is one of the most important chronic diseases in the field of respiratory medicine. Conventional treatment strategies for lung cancer include chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy. These current therapies lack specificity and are limited by undesirable toxicities in normal cells, as well as a high rate of recurrence.Nanotechnological intervention has greatly revolutionized the therapy of lung cancer by surmounting the current limitations in conventional therapies. Nanoparticles (NPs) achieve preferential accumulation in the tumor cells by employing two mechanisms: passive and active targeting. Several nanoscale drug delivery systems for lung cancer treatment are currently in clinical trials and few of them are already commercially available. Recently, the interest to develop pulmonary delivery system of nano-based drug formulations suitable for lung cancer has been also increased which have resulted in more effective and advanced treatment of Lung cancer. However, although nanotechnology based drug carriers for lung cancer treatment have established outstanding therapeutic potential at both preclinical and clinical Phases, but there are still many limitations to be solved. This review details the till date drug nanocarriers researches performed for lung cancer therapy.

  18. Social inequality in breast, lung and colorectal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether family factors shared by siblings explained the association between education and risk of lung, colorectal and breast cancer.......To examine whether family factors shared by siblings explained the association between education and risk of lung, colorectal and breast cancer....

  19. Establishment of a drug sensitivity panel using human lung cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsushita A

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available We established a drug sensitivity panel consisting of 24 human lung cancer cell lines. Using this panel, we evaluated 26 anti-cancer agents: three alkylators, three platinum compounds, four antimetabolites, one topoisomerase I inhibitor, five topoisomerase II inhibitors, seven antimitotic agents and three tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This panel showed the following: a Drug sensitivity patterns reflected their clinically-established patterns of action. For example, doxorubicin and etoposide were shown to be active against small cell lung cancer cell lines and mitomycin-C and 5-fluorouracil were active against non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, in agreement with clinical data. b Correlation analysis of the mean graphs derived from the logarithm of IC50 values of the drugs gave insight into the mechanism of each drug's action. Thus, two drug combinations with reverse or no correlation, such as the combination of cisplatin and vinorelbine, might be good candidates for the ideal two drug combination in the treatment of lung cancer, as is being confirmed in clinical trials. c Using cluster analysis of the cell lines in the panel with their drug sensitivity patterns, we could classify the cell lines into four groups depending on the drug sensitivity similarity. This classification will be useful to elucidate the cellular mechanism of action and drug resistance. Thus, our drug sensitivity panel will be helpful to explore new drugs or to develop a new combination of anti-cancer agents for the treatment of lung cancer.

  20. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  1. Myc Expression Drives Aberrant Lipid Metabolism in Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Z.; Ament, Z; Wilson, CH; Burkhart, DL; Ashmore, T; Koulman, A.; Littlewood, T; Evan, GI; Griffin, JL

    2016-01-01

    MYC-mediated pathogenesis in lung cancer continues to attract interest for new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we describe a transgenic mouse model of KRAS-driven lung adenocarcinoma that affords reversible activation of MYC, used here as a tool for lipidomic profiling of MYC-dependent lung tumors formed in this model. Advanced mass spectrometric imaging and surface analysis techniques were used to characterize the spatial and temporal changes in lipid composition in lung tissue. We fo...

  2. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy and Ablative Therapies for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Danish, Adnan; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    The treatment paradigm for early stage lung cancer and oligometastatic disease to the lung is rapidly changing. Ablative therapies, especially stereotactic body radiation therapy, are challenging the surgical gold standard and have the potential to be the standard for operable patients with early stage lung cancer who are high risk due to co- morbidities. The most commonly used ablative modalities include stereotactic body radiation therapy, microwave ablation, and radiofrequency ablation.

  3. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H P

    1985-07-01

    Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in all developed countries and many of the urban centres of the developing world. It is the most frequent cancer site in Singapore, accounting for 23.4% (623 cases) of all cancer deaths and nearly 5% of all causes in 1982. Based on incidence data for 1968-1977, among males, there was an average of about 330 cases diagnosed each year, giving an annual incidence rate of 30.7 per 100,000 and a proportion of 21% against all sites. Among females, there was an average of about 115 cases, with the incidence rate at 11.2 and the proportion 10.3% (ranking third behind breast and cervix). The risks among the Chinese were more than double those of the other ethnic groups. The Hokkien (73.2 per 100,000) and Teochew (67.0) males had one of the highest age-standardized incidence rates in the world. Most of the cases were of the epidermoid carcinoma type. Among the females, the Cantonese (28.5) had about double the risks compared to the other dialect groups, and the rate was among the highest in the world. Adenocarcinomas accounted for almost 50% of the cases. The relevant host and environmental factors associated with lung cancer are discussed. Without doubt, cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor. The ultimate solution to this problem must lie in an effective smoking control programme, besides much-needed improvements in early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  4. COPD in primary lung cancer patients: prevalence and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ytterstad E

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elinor Ytterstad,1 Per C Moe,2 Audhild Hjalmarsen3 1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Background: Previous studies have relied on international spirometry criteria to diagnose COPD in patients with lung cancer without considering the effect lung cancer might have on spirometric results. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of COPD and emphysema at the time of primary lung cancer diagnosis and to examine factors associated with survival.  Materials and methods: Medical records, pulmonary function tests, and computed tomography scans were used to determine the presence of COPD and emphysema in patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer at the University Hospital of North Norway in 2008–2010.  Results: Among the 174 lung cancer patients, 69% had COPD or emphysema (39% with COPD, 59% with emphysema; male:female ratio 101:73. Neither COPD nor emphysema were significantly associated with lung cancer mortality, whereas patients with non-small-cell lung cancer other than adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma had a risk of lung cancer mortality that was more than four times higher than that of patients with small-cell lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 4.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56–11.25. Females had a lower risk of lung cancer mortality than males (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.94, and patients aged ≥75 years had a risk that was twice that of patients aged <75 years (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.59–3.87. Low partial arterial oxygen pressure (4.0–8.4 kPa increased the risk of lung cancer mortality (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.29–3.96. So did low partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure (3.0–4.9 kPa among stage IV lung cancer patients (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.29–3.85. Several patients with respiratory failure had previously been diagnosed

  5. Association of Topoisomerase II (TOP2A) and Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Radiation Treatment Response and Prognosis of Lung Cancer in Han Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-Lu; Ren, Yang-Wu; Wang, He-Tong; Yu, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Xia

    2017-01-01

    Background Mutations of DNA topoisomerase II (TOP2A) are associated with chemotherapy resistance, whereas dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) negatively regulates members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily to control cell proliferation. This study assessed TOP2A and DUSP6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients for association with chemoradiotherapy responses and prognosis. Material/Methods A total of 140 Chinese patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled and subjected to genotyping of TOP2A rs471692 and DUSP6 rs2279574 using Taqman PCR. An independent sample t test was used to analyze differences in tumor regression after radiotherapy versus SNP risk factors. Kaplan-Meier curves analyzed overall survival, followed by the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard models. Results There were no significant associations of TOP2A rs471692 and DUSP6 rs2279574 polymorphisms or clinicopathological variables with response to chemoradiotherapy (p>0.05). Comparing overall survival of 87 patients with stage I–III NSCLC treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy to clinicopathological variables, the data showed that tumor regression, weight loss, clinical stage, and cigarette smoking were independent prognostic predictors (p=0.009, 0.043, 0.004, and 0.025, respectively). Tumor regression rate >0.34 was associated with patent survival versus tumor regression rate ≤0.34 (p=0.007). Conclusions TOP2A rs471692 and DUSP6 rs2279574 SNPs were not associated with chemoradiotherapy response, whereas tumor regression, weight loss, clinical stage, and cigarette smoking were independent prognostic predictors for these Chinese patients with NSCLC. PMID:28231233

  6. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine, E-mail: jmd12@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10033 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  7. Epidemiologic studies of particulate matter and lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Ge Li; Xiang Gao

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in air pollution, especially in China. European and American researchers conducted several cohort-based studies to examine the potential relationship between PM and lung cancer and found a positive association between PM and lung cancer mortality. In contrast, the results regarding PM and lung cancer risk remain inconsistent. Most of the previous studies had limitations such as misclassification of PM exposure and residual confounders, diminishing the impact of their findings. In addition, prospective studies on this topic are very limited in Chinese populations. This is an important problem because China has one of the highest concentrations of PM in the world and has had an increased mortality risk due to lung cancer. In this context, more prospective studies in Chinese populations are warranted to investigate the relationship between PM and lung cancer.

  8. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzel Woode

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  9. Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.

  10. Molecular markers as therapeutic targets in lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsin-Hui Tseng; Biao He

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is responsible for 29% of cancer deaths in the United States and has very low 5-year survival rates of approximately 11% in men and 15% in women.Although the early diagnosis of lung cancer may increase the survival rate with adequate treatment,advanced lung cancers are often metastasized and receive limited benefit from therapeutic regimens.As conventional treatments for lung cancer reach their limitations,researchers have attempted to discover novel drug therapies aimed at specific targets contributing to the progression of tumorigenesis.Recent advances in systems biology have enabled the molecular biology of lung carcinogenesis to be elucidated.Our understanding of the physiologic processes of tumor development provide a means to design more effective and specific drugs with less toxicity,thereby accelerating the delivery of new drug therapies to the patient's bedside.

  11. EGFR targeted therapy in lung cancer; an evolving story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bartholomew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific oncogenes with driver mutations, such as the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR 1 gene can lead to non-small-cell lung cancer formation. Identification of these oncogenes, their driver mutations and downstream effects allow the targeting of these pathways by drugs. Such personalised therapy has become an important strategy in combating lung cancer and highlights the need to test for these mutations. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs against EGFR, such as Erlotinib, are able to halt these tumour promoting properties in non-small-cell lung cancers. Third generation EGFR TKIs, such as Osimertinib, are focussing on resulting acquired TKI resistance. Here we report the clinical course of a patient with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who has undergone EGFR targeted therapy and been further challenged by TKI acquired resistance. Her extended survival and maintained quality of life are a consequence of these modern, genotype-targeted, personalised metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer therapies.

  12. Establishing of the Transplanted Animal Models for Human Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingli Zhang; Jinchang Wu

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide.Even with the applications of excision,radiotherapy,chemotherapy,and gene therapy,the 5 year survival rate is only 15% in the USA.Clinically relevant laboratory animal models of the disease could greatly facilitate understanding of the pathogenesis of lung cancer,its progression,invasion and metastasis.Transplanted lung cancer models are of special interest and are widely used today.Such models are essential tools in accelerating development of new therapies for lung cancer.In this communication we will present a brief overview of the hosts,sites and pathways used to establish transplanted animal lung tumor models.

  13. Personalized Radiation Therapy (PRT) for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Yue; Kong, Feng-Ming Spring

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews and discusses approaches and strategies of personalized radiation therapy (PRT) for lung cancers at four different levels: (1) clinically established PRT based on a patient's histology, stage, tumor volume and tumor locations; (2) personalized adaptive radiation therapy (RT) based on image response during treatment; (3) PRT based on biomarkers; (4) personalized fractionation schedule. The current RT practice for lung cancer is partially individualized according to tumor histology, stage, size/location, and combination with use of systemic therapy. During-RT PET-CT image guided adaptive treatment is being tested in a multicenter trial. Treatment response detected by the during-RT images may also provide a strategy to further personalize the remaining treatment. Research on biomarker-guided PRT is ongoing. The biomarkers include genomics, proteomics, microRNA, cytokines, metabolomics from tumor and blood samples, and radiomics from PET, CT, SPECT images. Finally, RT fractionation schedule may also be personalized to each individual patient to maximize therapeutic gain. Future PRT should be based on comprehensive considerations of knowledge acquired from all these levels, as well as consideration of the societal value such as cost and effectiveness.

  14. Antioxidants accelerate lung cancer progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Volkan I; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Larsson, Erik; Nilsson, Jonas A; Lindahl, Per; Bergo, Martin O

    2014-01-29

    Antioxidants are widely used to protect cells from damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The concept that antioxidants can help fight cancer is deeply rooted in the general population, promoted by the food supplement industry, and supported by some scientific studies. However, clinical trials have reported inconsistent results. We show that supplementing the diet with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E markedly increases tumor progression and reduces survival in mouse models of B-RAF- and K-RAS-induced lung cancer. RNA sequencing revealed that NAC and vitamin E, which are structurally unrelated, produce highly coordinated changes in tumor transcriptome profiles, dominated by reduced expression of endogenous antioxidant genes. NAC and vitamin E increase tumor cell proliferation by reducing ROS, DNA damage, and p53 expression in mouse and human lung tumor cells. Inactivation of p53 increases tumor growth to a similar degree as antioxidants and abolishes the antioxidant effect. Thus, antioxidants accelerate tumor growth by disrupting the ROS-p53 axis. Because somatic mutations in p53 occur late in tumor progression, antioxidants may accelerate the growth of early tumors or precancerous lesions in high-risk populations such as smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who receive NAC to relieve mucus production.

  15. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Proteomics in Patients with Suspected Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Cuco, Célia Marina; Lavareda, Carla; Miguel, Francisco; Ventura, Mafalda; Almeida, Sónia; Pinto, Paula; de Abreu, Tiago Tavares; Rodrigues, Luís Vaz; Seixas, Susana; Bárbara, Cristina; Azkargorta, Mikel; Elortza, Felix; Semedo, Júlio; Field, John K.; Mota, Leonor; Matthiesen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer configures as one of the deadliest types of cancer. The future implementation of early screening methods such as exhaled breath condensate analysis and low dose computed tomography (CT) as an alternative to current chest imaging based screening will lead to an increased burden on bronchoscopy units. New approaches for improvement of diagnosis in bronchoscopy units, regarding patient management, are likely to have clinical impact in the future. Diagnostic approaches to address mortality of lung cancer include improved early detection and stratification of the cancers according to its prognosis and further response to drug treatment. In this study, we performed a detailed mass spectrometry based proteome analysis of acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples on an observational prospective cohort consisting of 90 suspected lung cancer cases which were followed during two years. The thirteen new lung cancer cases diagnosed during the follow up time period clustered, based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data, with lung cancer cases at the time of BAL collection. Hundred and thirty-tree potential biomarkers were identified showing significantly differential expression when comparing lung cancer versus non-lung cancer. The regulated biomarkers showed a large overlap with biomarkers detected in tissue samples. PMID:28169345

  16. Double primary non-small cell lung cancer with synchronous small cell lung cancer N2 nodes: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gogakos, Apostolos S; Paliouras, Dimitrios; Rallis, Thomas; Chatzinikolaou, Fotios; Xirou, Persefoni; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Tsavlis,Drosos; Sachpekidis,Nikos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andreas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Barbetakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous multiple primary lung cancer (SMPLC) is rare and very hard to distinguish from metastatic disease. Recent studies indicate the presence of this entity in the lung, with no mention to the involvement of the mediastinum. An extremely rare case of a 68-year-old male with double primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the left upper lobe and N2 positive nodes for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is presented. Modern diagnostic criteria as well as aggressive curative strategies are ...

  17. Double primary non-small cell lung cancer with synchronous small cell lung cancer N2 nodes: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogakos, Apostolos S; Paliouras, Dimitrios; Rallis, Thomas; Chatzinikolaou, Fotios; Xirou, Persefoni; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Tsavlis, Drosos; Sachpekidis, Nikos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andreas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Barbetakis, Nikolaos

    2015-07-01

    Synchronous multiple primary lung cancer (SMPLC) is rare and very hard to distinguish from metastatic disease. Recent studies indicate the presence of this entity in the lung, with no mention to the involvement of the mediastinum. An extremely rare case of a 68-year-old male with double primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the left upper lobe and N2 positive nodes for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is presented. Modern diagnostic criteria as well as aggressive curative strategies are encouraged, in order to achieve better survival rates for such patients.

  18. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl;

    2008-01-01

    and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC......, adequate organ functions and performance status less than 3 were eligible. Topotecan (2.0 mg/m, intravenously) was administered on days 1 to 3 with cisplatin (50 mg/m, intravenously) on day 3 every 3 weeks for a total of six cycles. RESULTS: Forty-three patients received 219 cycles of chemotherapy. Median.......3-7.7), respectively. CONCLUSION: Three-day topotecan with cisplatin on day 3 is active and safe in extensive disease SCLC. An ongoing phase III randomized trial compares this combination to standard treatment Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  19. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-Andre Banat

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+, cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+, T-helper cells (CD4+, B cells (CD20+, macrophages (CD68+, mast cells (CD117+, mononuclear cells (CD11c+, plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+, B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+ and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+ compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition.

  20. An Overview: Treatment of Lung Cancer on Researcher Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Javeria Amin

    2015-01-01

    Cancers is defined as the uncontrolled cell divisions. Cell does not grow maturely and destined to uncontrolled cell growth. When these cells of lungs grow uncontrolled it is called lung cancer. Nowadays mortality rate due to lung cancer is increasing day by day. Many treatment and diagnoses are now a day’s available to deal with lung cancer. Here we disused different method for diagnosis the common types of lung cancer Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Small Cell Lung Cancer, Small Cell Lung Cance...

  1. TP53 Mutations in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Mogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is frequently mutated in human cancers. Abnormality of the TP53 gene is one of the most significant events in lung cancers and plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. Human lung cancers are classified into two major types, small cell lung cancer (SCLC and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The latter accounts for approximately 80% of all primary lung cancers, and the incidence of NSCLC is increasing yearly. Most clinical studies suggest that NSCLC with TP53 alterations carries a worse prognosis and may be relatively more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. A deep understanding of the role of TP53 in lung carcinogenesis may lead to a more reasonably targeted clinical approach, which should be exploited to enhance the survival rates of patients with lung cancer. This paper will focus on the role of TP53 in the molecular pathogenesis, epidemiology, and therapeutic strategies of TP53 mutation in NSCLC.

  2. [Advances of molecular targeted therapy in squamous cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Shucai

    2013-12-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) is one of the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer worldwide, about 400,000 persons die from squamous-cell lung cancer around the world, and its pathogenesis is closely linked with tobacco exposure. Unfortunately, squamous-cell lung cancer patients do not benefit from major advances in the development of targeted therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors that show exquisite activity in lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like-4 (EML4)-ALK fusions, respectively. Major efforts have been launched to characterize the genomes of squamous-cell lung cancers. Among the new results emanating from these efforts are amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene, the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) gene mutation as potential novel targets for the treatment of SQCLCs. Researchers find that there are many specific molecular targeted genes in the genome of squamous-cell lung cancer patients. These changes play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, squamous epithelium differentiation, may be the candidate targeted moleculars in SQCLCs. Here, we provide a review on these discoveries and their implications for clinical trials in squamous-cell lung cancer assessing the value of novel therapeutics addressing these targets.

  3. A Mathematical Model for MicroRNA in Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hye-Won; Crawford, Melissa; Fabbri, Muller; Nuovo, Gerard; Garofalo, Michela; Nana-Sinkam, S Patrick; Friedman, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Lack of early detection and limited options for targeted therapies are both contributing factors to the dismal statistics observed in lung cancer. Thus, advances in both of these areas are likely to lead to improved outcomes. MicroRNAs (miRs or miRNAs) represent a class of non-coding RNAs that have the capacity for gene regulation and may serve as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in lung cancer. Abnormal expression ...

  4. Exercise and relaxation intervention for patients with advanced lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Stage, M; Laursen, J

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer patients experience loss of physical capacity, dyspnea, pain, reduced energy and psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore feasibility, health benefits and barriers of exercise in former sedentary patients with advanced stage lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer ...... patients with advanced stages of disease, during treatment. The patients experienced physical, functional and emotional benefits. This study confirmed that supervised training in peer-groups was beneficial, even in a cancer population with full-blown symptom burden and poor prognosis....

  5. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  6. "Unique trend" and "contradictory trend" in discrimination of primary synchronous lung cancer and metastatic lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng; Xu, Huan; Liu, Lunxu; Zhou, Yubin; Chen, Dali; Du, Heng; Han, Zhaojie; Che, Guowei

    2013-10-09

    Distinguishing between multiple primary lung cancers and metastatic tumors is often difficult when the tumor histology is same. Since genomic instability is a common feature of cancer, we hypothesized that independently arising neoplasms in an individual patient would exhibit measurable genomic variation, enabling discrimination of tumor lineage and relatedness. The feasibility of analyzing genomic instability expression profiles to distinguish multiple primary lung cancers from metastatic tumors was evaluated. This study enrolled 13 patients, with multiple primary lung cancers demonstrating with the histology, who underwent surgery between April 2003 and December 2012 at the Department of the Thoracic Surgery at West China Hospital in Sichuan province of China and 10 patients who were diagnosed as metastasis disease during the same period for comparison purposes. Genomic DNA from lung cancers from individual patients was analyzed by six microsatellites (D2S1363, D6S1056, D7S1824, D10S1239, D15S822, and D22S689) with PCR to identify discordant allelic variation. The experiments were approved by the West China Hospital Ethics committee (No.2013 (33)) and all patients agreed to participate in the study and signed an informed consent form. All of the 10 patients with distant metastasis showed a consistent consequence that we called "unique trend" between primary tumor and distant metastasis. The "trend" is representive in this study, which means that all alleles corresponding to six microsatellite markers were detected in DNA from primary tumors but were reduced or not observed in DNA from metastatic tumors. In the group of synchronous lung tumor with different histological types, the result showed a "contradictory trend". Some alleles were detected in DNA from primary tumors but were reduced or not observed in DNA from metastatic tumors and other alleles corresponding to six microsatellite markers were detected in DNA from metastatic tumors but were reduced or not

  7. MicroRNA signatures as clinical biomarkers in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markou A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Athina Markou, Martha Zavridou, Evi S Lianidou Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells, Lab of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Abstract: Even if early lung cancer detection has been recently significantly improved, the invasive nature of current diagnostic procedures, and a relatively high percentage of false positives, is limiting the application of modern detection tools. The discovery and clinical evaluation of novel specific and robust non-invasive biomarkers for diagnosis of lung cancer at an early stage, as well as for better prognosis and prediction of therapy response, is very challenging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs can play an important role in the diagnosis and management of lung cancer patients, as important and reliable biomarkers for cancer detection and prognostic prediction, and even as promising as novel targets for cancer therapy. miRNAs are important in cancer pathogenesis, and deregulation of their expression levels has been detected not only in lung cancer but in many other human tumor types. Numerous studies strongly support the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers in non-small-cell lung cancer, and there is increasing evidence that altered miRNA expression is associated with tumor progression and survival. It is worth mentioning also that detection of miRNAs circulating in plasma or serum has enormous potential, because miRNAs serve as non-invasive biomarkers not only for the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease, but also as novel response and sensitivity predictors for cancer treatment. In this review, we summarize the current findings on the critical role of miRNAs in lung cancer tumorigenesis and highlight their potential as circulating biomarkers in lung cancer. Our review is based on papers that have been published after 2011, and includes the key words “miRNAs” and “lung cancer”. Keywords: non-small-cell lung carcinoma, miRNAs, tumor biomarkers, circulating miRNAs, liquid

  8. FGFR Signaling as a Target for Lung Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Arpita; Adjei, Alex A

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. Recently, molecular targeted therapies have shown promising results in the management of lung cancer. These therapies require a clear understanding of the relevant pathways that drive carcinogenesis and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling axis is one such pathway that plays a central role in normal cellular function. Alterations in this pathway have been found in many cancers. In this review article, we focus on the role of this pathway in lung cancer. We present the molecular structure of FGFR, the interaction of the receptor with its ligands (the fibroblast growth factors), its downstream signaling, and aberrations in the FGFR pathway. We also discuss clinical trials involving selective and multikinase FGFR inhibitors in lung cancer treatment.

  9. Antitumor Effects of Laminaria Extract Fucoxanthin on Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChengHan Mei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the most common type. Marine plants provide rich resources for anticancer drug discovery. Fucoxanthin (FX, a Laminaria japonica extract, has attracted great research interest for its antitumor activities. Accumulating evidence suggests anti-proliferative effects of FX on many cancer cell lines including NSCLCs, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we confirmed molecular mechanisms and in vivo anti-lung cancer effect of FX at the first time. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that FX arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis by modulating expression of p53, p21, Fas, PUMA, Bcl-2 and caspase-3/8. These results show that FX is a potent marine drug for human non-small-cell lung cancer treatment.

  10. Comparative effectiveness of combined therapy inhibiting EGFR and VEGF pathways in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of 16 phase II/III randomized trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shangli; Wu, Tongwei; Yan, Guangyue; Cheng, Sijin; Cui, Kang; Xi, Ying; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims Combined therapy inhibiting EGFR and VEGF pathways is becoming a promising therapy in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, with controversy. The study aims to compare the efficacy of combined inhibition therapy versus control therapy (including placebo, single EGFR inhibition and single VEGF inhibition) in patients with advanced NSCLC. Materials and Methods An adequate literature search in EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) was conducted. Phase II or III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared effectiveness between combined inhibition therapy and control therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC were eligible. The endpoint was overall response rate (ORR), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Sixteen phase II or III RCTs involving a total of 7,109 patients were included. The results indicated that the combined inhibition therapy significantly increased the ORR (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.36-1.87, panalysis, the combined inhibition therapy clearly increased the ORR (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.60-2.60, p<0.00001; I2 = 0%) and improved the PFS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.71-0.85, p<0.00001;I2 = 0%) when compared with the placebo, and similar results was detected when compared with the single EGFR inhibition in terms of ORR (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.12-1.74, p = 0.003; I2 = 30%) and PFS (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.67-0.81, p<0.0001; I2 = 50%). No obvious difference was found between the combined inhibition therapy and single VEGF inhibition in term of ORR, however, combined inhibition therapy significantly decreased the PFS when compared to the single VEGF inhibition therapy (HR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.34-2.17, p<0.0001; I2 = 50%). Besides, no significant difference was observed between the combined inhibition therapy and control therapy in term of OS (including placebo, single EGFR

  11. Association between gene expression profiles and clinical outcome of pemetrexed-based treatment in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: exploratory results from a phase II study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean A Fennell

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We report exploratory gene-expression profiling data from a single-arm Phase-II-study in patients with non-squamous (nsNSCLC treated with pemetrexed and cisplatin. Previously disclosed results indicated a significant association of low thymidylate-synthase (TS-expression with longer progression-free and overall survival (PFS/OS. METHODS: Treatment-naïve nsNSCLC patients (IIIB/IV received 4 cycles of pemetrexed/cisplatin; non-progressing patients continued on pemetrexed-maintenance. Diagnostic tissue-samples were used to assess TS-expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC and mRNA-expression array-profiling (1,030 lung cancer-specific genes. Cox proportional-hazard models were applied to explore the association between each gene and PFS/OS. Genes significantly correlated with PFS/OS were further correlated with TS-protein expression (Spearman-rank. Unsupervised clustering was applied to all evaluable samples (n = 51 for all 1,030 genes and an overlapping 870-gene subset associated with adenocarcinoma (ADC, n = 47. RESULTS: 51/70 tissue-samples (72.9% were evaluable; 9 of 1,030 genes were significantly associated with PFS/OS (unadjusted p < 0.01, genes: Chromosome 16 open reading frame 89, napsin A, surfactant protein B, aquaporin 4, TRAF2- and Nck-interacting kinase, Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1, Interleukin 1 receptor type II, NK2 homeobox 1, ABO glycosyl-transferase; expression for all except IL1R2 correlated negatively with nuclear TS-expression (statistically significant for 5/8 genes, unadjusted p<0.01. Cluster-analysis based on 1,030 genes revealed no clear trend regarding PFS/OS; the ADC-based cluster analysis identified 3 groups (n = 21/11/15 with median (95%CI PFS of 8.1(6.9,NE/2.4(1.2,NE/4.4(1.2,NE months and OS of 20.3(17.5,NE/4.3(1.4,NE/8.3(3.9,NE months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These exploratory gene-expression profiling results describe genes potentially linked to low TS-expression. Nine genes were

  12. Dummy run for a phase II study of stereotactic body radiotherapy of T1-T2 N0M0 medical inoperable non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djärv, Emma; Nyman, Jan; Baumann, Pia;

    2006-01-01

    In forthcoming multicentre studies on stereotactic body radiotherapy       (SBRT) compliance with volume and dose prescriptions will be mandatory to       avoid unnecessary heterogeneity bias. To evaluate compliance in a       multicentre setting we used two cases from an ongoing phase II study......,       prescribing doses and creating dose plans. Volumes and doses of the 12       dose plans were evaluated according to the study protocol. For the two       patients the GTV volume range was 24 to 39 cm3 and 26 to 41 cm3,       respectively. The PTV volume range was 90 to 116 cm3, and 112 to 155 cm3......,       respectively. For all plans the margin between CTV and PTV in all       directions followed in detail the protocol. The prescribed dose was for       all centres 45 Gy/3 fractions (isocentre dose about 66 Gy). The mean GTV       doses ranged from 63 to 67 Gy and from 63 to 68 Gy, respectively...

  13. Outcomes of lung cancers manifesting as nonsolid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Rowena; Wolf, Andrea; Tam, Kathleen; Taioli, Emanuela; Olkin, Ingram; Flores, Raja M; Yankelevitz, David F; Henschke, Claudia I

    2016-07-01

    This is a comprehensive review and re-analysis of available literature to assess the outcome of lung cancer presenting as nonsolid nodules (NSNs), a more indolent form of cancer. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles reporting on CT-detected lung cancers manifesting as NSNs published in English on or before July 17, 2015. Only studies including clinicopathologic data, lung cancer-specific survival, or overall survival were included. Data extraction was performed by three independent reviewers using prespecified criteria. Twenty-four articles from 5 countries met criteria and they included 704 subjects with 712 lung cancers manifesting as NSNs. Each article reported from 2 to 100 lung cancer cases with a median follow up of 18-51 months. All NSNs were Stage I adenocarcinoma without pathologic nodal involvement upon resection, except for one case in which the NSN progressed to become part-solid nodule after 6 years of follow-up. The five-year lung cancer-specific survival rate was 100%. These findings suggest an indolent course for lung cancers manifesting as NSNs.

  14. NK cell phenotypic modulation in lung cancer environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Jin

    Full Text Available Nature killer (NK cells play an important role in anti-tumor immunotherapy. But it indicated that tumor cells impacted possibly on NK cell normal functions through some molecules mechanisms in tumor microenvironment.Our study analyzed the change about NK cells surface markers (NK cells receptors through immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and real-time PCR, the killed function from mouse spleen NK cell and human high/low lung cancer cell line by co-culture. Furthermore we certificated the above result on the lung cancer model of SCID mouse.We showed that the infiltration of NK cells in tumor periphery was related with lung cancer patients' prognosis. And the number of NK cell infiltrating in lung cancer tissue is closely related to the pathological types, size of the primary cancer, smoking history and prognosis of the patients with lung cancer. The expression of NK cells inhibitor receptors increased remarkably in tumor micro-environment, in opposite, the expression of NK cells activated receptors decrease magnificently.The survival time of lung cancer patient was positively related to NK cell infiltration degree in lung cancer. Thus, the down-regulation of NKG2D, Ly49I and the up-regulation of NKG2A may indicate immune tolerance mechanism and facilitate metastasis in tumor environment. Our research will offer more theory for clinical strategy about tumor immunotherapy.

  15. Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.K.; White, N.W.; Chan-Yeung, M.M. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2004-07-01

    In Industrialized Countries, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer among males and it is growing among females. For both sexes, rates reflect smoking behaviours. The pattern appears to be different in Asia, particularly in China, where lung cancer rates in men reflect high smoking rates but high rates among non-smoking women appear to be related to other factors. The incidence of lung cancer is low in most African countries, but it is increasing. In addition to tobacco smoking, a number of aetiological factors have been identified for lung cancer: indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, cooking oil vapour, coal burning or radon, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Recent studies have shown that dietary factors may be important, with high consumption of vegetables and fruits being protective, while preserved foods and fatty foods are harmful, and certain infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus and Microsporum canis are associated with a high risk of lung cancer. Among non-smokers, the probable role of genetic predisposition in lung cancer by increasing the individual's susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is currently being studied actively. As the single most important cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoke and, with increased sales, a major epidemic is predicted for both Asia and Africa, all health care professionals, government health authorities and national and international health organizations must join in a concerted effort against tobacco. 135 refs.

  16. Application of serum SELDI proteomic patterns in diagnosis of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Bin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, no satisfactory biomarkers are available to screen for lung cancer. Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/ionization Time-of- Flight Mass Spectrometry ProteinChip system (SELDI-TOF-MS is one of the currently used techniques to identify biomarkers for cancers. The aim of this study is to explore the application of serum SELDI proteomic patterns to distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy individuals. Methods A total of 208 serum samples, including 158 lung cancer patients and 50 healthy individuals, were randomly divided into a training set (including 11 sera from patients with stages I/II lung cancer, 63 from patients with stages III/IV lung cancer and 20 from healthy controls and a blinded test set (including 43 sera from patients with stages I/II lung cancer, 41 from patients with stages III/IV lung cancer and 30 from healthy controls. All samples were analyzed by SELDI technology. The spectra were generated on weak cation exchange (WCX2 chips, and protein peaks clustering and classification analyses were made using Ciphergen Biomarker Wizard and Biomarker Pattern software, respectively. We additionally determined Cyfra21-1 and NSE in the 208 serum samples included in this study using an electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Results Five protein peaks at 11493, 6429, 8245, 5335 and 2538 Da were automatically chosen as a biomarker pattern in the training set. When the SELDI marker pattern was tested with the blinded test set, it yielded a sensitivity of 86.9%, a specificity of 80.0% and a positive predictive value of 92.4%. The sensitivities provided by Cyfra21-1 and NSE used individually or in combination were significantly lower than that of the SELDI marker pattern (P P Conclusion These results suggest that serum SELDI protein profiling can distinguish lung cancer patients, especially NSCLC patients, from normal subjects with relatively high sensitivity and specificity, and the SELDI-TOF-MS is a potential tool

  17. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis will increase the risk of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Junyao; Yang Ming; Li Ping; Su Zhenzhong; Gao Peng; Zhang Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the studies investigating the increased risk of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).Data sources Data cited in this review were obtained mainly from PubMed and Medline from 1999 to 2013 and highly regarded older publications were also included.Study selection We identified,retrieved and reviewed the information on the frequency,risk factors,anatomical features,histological types,clinical manifestations,computed tomography findings and underlying mechanisms of lung cancer in IPF patients.Results The prevalence rates of lung cancer in patients with IPF (4.8% to 48%) are much higher than patients without IPF (2.0% to 6.4%).The risk factors for lung cancer in IPF include smoking,male gender,and age.Lung cancers often occur in the peripheral lung zones where fibrotic changes are predominant.Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common types of lung cancer in patients with IPF.Radiologic features of these patients include peripherally located,ill-defined mass mimicking air-space disease.The underlying mechanisms of the development of lung cancer in patients with IPF have not been fully understood,but may include the inflammatory response,epithelial injury and/or abnormalities,aberrant fibroblast proliferation,epigenetic and genetic changes,reduced cell-to-cell communication,and activation of specific signaling pathways.Conclusions These findings suggest that IPF is associated with increased lung cancer risk.It is necessary to raise the awareness of lung cancer risk in IPF patients among physicians and patients.

  18. A qualitative study exploring why individuals opt out of lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Brandzel, Susan; Wernli, Karen J; Roth, Joshua A; Buist, Diana S M

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer screening with annual low-dose computed tomography is relatively new for long-term smokers in the USA supported by a US Preventive Services Task Force Grade B recommendation. As screening programs are more widely implemented nationally and providers engage patients about lung cancer screening, it is critical to understand behaviour among high-risk smokers who opt out to improve shared decision-making processes for lung cancer screening. The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons for screening-eligible patients' decisions to opt out of screening after receiving a provider recommendation. Semi-structured qualitative telephone interviews were performed with 18 participants who met lung cancer screening criteria for age, smoking and pack-year history in Washington State from November 2015 to January 2016. Two researchers with cancer screening and qualitative methodology expertise conducted data analysis using thematic content analytic procedures from audio-recorded interviews. Five primary themes emerged for reasons of opting out of lung cancer screening: (i) Knowledge Avoidance; (ii) Perceived Low Value; (iii) False-Positive Worry; (iv) Practical Barriers; and (v) Patient Misunderstanding. The participants in our study provided insight into why some patients make the decision to opt out of low-dose computed tomography screening, which provides knowledge that can inform intervention development to enhance shared decision-making processes between long-term smokers and their providers and decrease decisional conflict about screening.

  19. The Role of Sox Genes in Lung Morphogenesis and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhao Zhu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The human lung consists of multiple cell types derived from early embryonic compartments. The morphogenesis of the lung, as well as the injury repair of the adult lung, is tightly controlled by a network of signaling pathways with key transcriptional factors. Lung cancer is the third most cancer-related death in the world, which may be developed due to the failure of regulating the signaling pathways. Sox (sex-determining region Y (Sry box-containing family transcriptional factors have emerged as potent modulators in embryonic development, stem cells maintenance, tissue homeostasis, and cancerogenesis in multiple processes. Recent studies demonstrated that the members of the Sox gene family played important roles in the development and maintenance of lung and development of lung cancer. In this context, we summarize our current understanding of the role of Sox family transcriptional factors in the morphogenesis of lung, their oncogenic potential in lung cancer, and their potential impact in the diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted therapy of lung cancer.

  20. First line chemotherapy with planned sequential administration of gemcitabine followed by docetaxel in elderly advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients: a multicenter phase II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, C; Vasile, E; Antonuzzo, A; Di Marsico, R; Fabbri, A; Innocenti, F; Tartarelli, G; Amoroso, D; Andreuccetti, M; Dico, M Lo; Falcone, A

    2008-01-01

    This multicenter phase II study evaluated, in chemonaive patients with stage IIIB–IV NSCLC, age ⩾70 and with a performance status 0–2, the activity, efficacy and tolerability of planned sequential administration of gemcitabine 1200 mg m−2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks for three courses followed by three cycles of docetaxel 37.5 mg m−2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks, provided there was no evidence of disease progression. A total of 56 patients entered the study. According to intention-to-treat analysis, the objective response rate was 16.0% (95% CI 7.6–28.3%); 23 patients (41.0%) had stable disease and 24 patients (43%) had progressive disease. Five patients who had a stable disease after three courses of gemcitabine obtained a conversion to partial response by docetaxel. Median time to progression was 4.8 months (95% CI 3.6–6.0 months) and median duration of survival was 8.0 months (95% CI 5.6–10.5 months). The 1-year survival rate was 34%. No grade 4 haematological toxicity was observed and grade 3 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were reported in 5.4 and 3.6% of the patients, respectively. Grade 3/4 mucositis and grade 3 diarrhoea, both occurred in 3.6% of the patients and grade 3 asthenia was observed in 9% of patients. One patient reported a grade 4 skin toxicity. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Sequential gemcitabine and docetaxel is a well-tolerated and effective regimen in elderly advanced NSCLC patients. PMID:18212755

  1. Smoking and Lung Cancer: A Geo-Regional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zahraa Rahal; Shaza El Nemr; Ansam Sinjab; Hassan Chami; Arafat Tfayli; Humam Kadara

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents the most frequently diagnosed subtype of this morbid malignancy. NSCLC is causally linked to tobacco consumption with more than 500 million smokers worldwide at high risk for this fatal malignancy. We are currently lagging in our knowledge of the early molecular (e.g., genomic) effects of smoking in NSCLC pathogenesis that would constitute ideal markers for early detection. This ...

  2. Smoking and Lung Cancer Prevalence: Slovakian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rusnak, M.; Yashin, A. I.; Merinska, I.

    1986-01-01

    In the first decade of this century lung cancer was an uncommon tumor. This is in sharp contrast to the late 1970s and early 1980s: -- In 1977 the World Health Organization reported that in many countries death rates were either stationary or declining in both males and females, for cancers other than lung. The USA, Australia, Austria, Canada, Japan, Mexico, Sweden, Switzerland, and others were among the affected countries. -- In 1979 the American Cancer Society reported that the ov...

  3. Progesterone and estrogen receptor expression and activity in human non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in male and female patients in the US. Although it is clear that tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer, about half of all women with lung cancer worldwide are never-smokers. Despite a declining smoking population, the incidence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the predominant form of lung cancer, has reached epidemic proportions particularly in women. Emerging data suggest that factors other than tobacco, namely endogeno...

  4. A 30-year perspective on psychosocial issues in lung cancer: how lung cancer "Came out of the Closet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Talia; Weinberger, Mark; Schwerd, Arielle M; Holland, Jimmie

    2012-11-01

    Psychological responses to lung cancer have changed over the past 30 years as perceptions of the disease have changed. Previously seen as a fatal diagnosis, it is now regarded as a cancer whose treatment is increasingly effective as the science of the disease advances. The stigma of smoking is diminishing as more is learned about genetic factors and as more nonsmokers are diagnosed. Support groups are now widely available. The increasing social support and greater knowledge of lung cancer provide a more supportive environment in which patients cope with lung cancer today compared with 30 years ago.

  5. Trends in lung cancer incidence rates, Oklahoma 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana S Mowls

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and women in the United States. With cigarette smoking causing the majority of cases, patterns in lung cancer are often monitored to understand the impact of anti-tobacco efforts. The purpose of this research was to investigate trends in lung cancer incidence rates for the period 2005-2010 in Oklahoma.Data on Oklahoma's incident cases of lung cancer (2005-2010 were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER system. Annual percent change (APC was calculated by linear regression to characterize trends in lung cancer incidence rates over time for the overall population, by gender, by age group, and by age group within gender. Rates were considered to increase or decrease if the p-value for trend was <0.05.From 2005 through 2010, lung cancer incidence rates declined from 81.96 to 68.19 per 100,000 population, with an APC of -3.58% (p-value: 0.0220. When subgroups were examined, declines were observed among all males (APC: -4.25%; p-value: 0.0270, males <65 years (APC: -5.32%; p-value: 0.0008, females <65 years (APC: -4.85%; p-value: 0.0044, and persons aged 55-64 years (APC: -6.38%; p-value: 0.0017.Declines in lung cancer incidence rates occurred during 2005-2010 among the overall population and within select demographic groups in Oklahoma. Although trends were stable for several demographic groups, rates of lung cancer incidence were lower in 2010 compared to 2005. Continued evidence-based tobacco control efforts are needed to ensure further reductions in lung cancer incidence rates in the state of Oklahoma.

  6. Cancer mortality and wood dust exposure among participants in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellman, S D; Demers, P A; Colin, D; Boffetta, P

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified wood duct as a human carcinogen, based on very strong evidence of a carcinogenic risk of sino-nasal cancer. Excesses of other cancers, including lung and stomach, have been reported among persons employed in wood industries or occupationally exposed to wood dust, but not as consistently. We investigated such possible associations using the mortality experience of 362,823 men enrolled in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982 and followed up for 6 years. Within this group, 45,399 men (12.5%) reported either employment in a wood-related occupation or exposure to wood dust or both. Among woodworkers, a small but significant excess risk was found for all cases of death (RR 1.17 (95% CI 1.11-1.24)) and for total malignancies (RR 1.17 (1.05-1.30)). Among men who reported exposure to wood dust, there was an elevated risk of total mortality (Rr 1.07 (1.03-1.11)), total malignancies (RR 1.08 (1.01-1.15)), and lung cancer (RR 1.17 (1.04-1.31)). Among woodworkers, a significant trend (P = 0.02) of increasing risk of lung cancer with increasing duration of exposure was observed. An unexpected, significantly increased mortality from prostate cancer was observed in both wood-employed and wood-exposed, and a twofold increased risk of fatal brain cancer was seen among the former. Lung cancer mortality was especially high among woodworkers who also reported exposure to asbestos or formaldehyde, and it appears that exposure to these known carcinogens may partly explain the observed increased risks. Excess sino-nasal cancer was not observed, but the number of cases was small.

  7. Neuropeptides as lung cancer growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Terry W; Moreno, Paola; Jensen, Robert T

    2015-10-01

    This manuscript is written in honor of the Festschrift for Abba Kastin. I met Abba at a Society for Neuroscience meeting and learned that he was Editor-in-Chief of the Journal Peptides. I submitted manuscripts to the journal on "Neuropeptides as Growth Factors in Cancer" and subsequently was named to the Editorial Advisory Board. Over the past 30 years I have published dozens of manuscripts in Peptides and reviewed hundreds of submitted manuscripts. It was always rewarding to interact with Abba, a consummate professional. When I attended meetings in New Orleans I would sometimes go out to dinner with him at the restaurant "Commanders Palace". When I chaired the Summer Neuropeptide Conference we were honored to have him receive the Fleur Strand Award one year in Israel. I think that his biggest editorial contribution has been the "Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides." I served as a Section Editor on "Cancer/Anticancer Peptides" and again found that it was a pleasure working with him. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which bombesin-like peptides, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal peptide regulate the growth of lung cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Expression of BCRP Gene in the Normal Lung Tissue and Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of novel multidrugresistance transporter (BCRP gene) from human MCF-7/AdrVp breast cancer cells in normal lung tissue and non-small lung cancer tissue. Methods: RNA was extracted immediately from fresh normal lung tissue and viable tumor tissue harvested from surgically resected specimens of non-small cell lung cancer patients. cDNA of BCRP gene was prepared by RT-PCR and was then amplified by PCR. cDNA products from those specimens were transferred to blotting membrane through electrophoresis and transferring technique and southern blot hybridization was eventually performed to detect the expression of BCRP gene. Results: RNA were extracted from 8 tumor tissue alone and 12 pairs of tumor tissue and normal lung tissue harvested from the same lung. Four patients' RNA samples with poor quality due to degrading were discarded. cDNA products of BCRP gene were obtained by RT-PCR and were then amplified by PCR in the remain 16 patients' RNA samples. Through southern blot hybridization, BCRP gene was found to be slightly expressed in various amounts in all normal lung tissue (10/10) and only in a half of tumor tissue samples (8/16). Conclusion: BCRP gene is slightly expressed in different amount in all normal lung tissue and only in a half of tumor tissue of non-small cell lung cancer patients. It is possible to induce it's overexpression and to develop multidrug resistance during chemotherapy if using anthracycline anticancer drugs.

  9. Angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in lungs of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Ales; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND.: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Angiogenesis is crucial process in cancer growth and progression. This prospective study evaluated expression of two central regulatory molecules: angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS.: Clinical data, blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from 23 patients with primary lung carcinoma were collected. BAL fluid was taken from part of the lung with malignancy, and from corresponding healthy side of the lung. VEGF and angiogenin concentrations were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dilution of bronchial secretions in the BAL fluid was calculated from urea concentration ratio between serum and BAL fluid. RESULTS.: We found no statistical correlation between angiogenin concentrations in serum and in bronchial secretions from both parts of the lung. VEGF concentrations were greater in bronchial secretions in the affected side of the lung than on healthy side. Both concentrations were greater than serum VEGF concentration. VEGF concentration in serum was in positive correlation with tumour size (p = 0,003) and with metastatic stage of disease (p = 0,041). There was correlation between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from healthy side of the lung and between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from part of the lung with malignancy. CONCLUSION.: Angiogenin and VEGF concentrations in systemic, background and local samples of patients with lung cancer are affected by different mechanisms. Pro-angiogenic activity of lung cancer has an important influence on the levels of angiogenin and VEGF.

  10. [Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqun; Wan, Xia; Chen, Gongbo; Ma, Xiangyun; Ning, Bofu; Yang, Gonghuan

    2017-08-20

    Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors), and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney. Only 20% families in high lung cancer area now use 2 tons or

  11. Decreased Level of Klotho Contributes to Drug Resistance in Lung Cancer Cells: Involving in Klotho-Mediated Cell Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, TianJun; Ren, Hui; Thakur, Asmitanand; Yang, Tian; Li, Yang; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Ting; Chen, MingWei

    2016-12-01

    Klotho is originally discovered as an anti-aging gene and recently identified as a tumor suppressor in various human cancers. Drug resistance is a major obstacle to affect the treatment of chemotherapy. In the present study, we explore the role of klotho on drug resistance in human lung cancers and investigate the mechanism of klotho on drug resistance in lung cancer cells. First, we detected a panel of six human lung cancer cell lines, including H460, SK-MES-1, cisplatin (DDP)-resistant A549/DDP, its parental subline A549, docetaxel (DTX)-resistant SPC-A-1/DTX, and SPC-A-1 by western blotting analysis. The results showed that klotho level was significantly decreased in chemotherapeutic drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Next, klotho was overexpressed in drug-resistant cancer cell lines and the results showed that overexpression of klotho significantly inhibited cell proliferation of A549/DDP and SPC-A-1/DTX. Conversely, knockdown of the expression of klotho significantly promoted cell growth of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of klotho had synergistic effects with cisplatin to inhibit the proliferation of drug-resistant lung cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The molecular mechanism was explored by western blotting analysis and the results revealed that the levels of beclin 1 and LC3-II were obviously increased, suggesting cell autophagy enhanced in drug-resistant cancer cells. Importantly, overexpression of klotho would inhibit cell autophagy in A549/DDP cells. All the results demonstrated that the levels of klotho were significantly decreased, which was accompanied by the increased cell autophagy in drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Overexpression of klotho would inhibit cell autophagy in drug-resistant lung cancers, which may probably contribute to reverse drug resistance in lung cancer cells.

  12. Lung cancer brain metastases – the role of neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Aleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is mostly common occurring oncological disease in the developed countries. Currently lung cancers are subdivided into nonsmall-cell (adenocarcinoma, large-cell, squamous cell and small-cell. The difference in the clinical and morphological picture leads to the necessity of choosing therapeutic approaches to patients of various groups.Lung cancer should be referred to encephalotropic diseases since metastatic lesion of the central nervous system is sufficiently common complication. Successes of complex treatment of primary tumor result in increase of total longlivety currently ther is ageing of patients suffering lung cancer. These factors increase the risk of metastatic lesions of the brain.Interest to the problem of neurosurgical treatment of patients suffering lung cancer is determined by frequency of lesion, varicosity of morphological variants of the disease, requiring various algorithms of treatment and diagnosis.The main role of neurosurgical intervention in cerebral metastases of lung cancer consist in creation of the paled of carrying out combined therapy. Ideally, a neurosurgical operation should be carried out with clearcut observance of oncological principles of ablasty.Adequate comprehensive approach to treatment or patients with cerebral metastases of various forms of lung cancer with the developed of optimal tactics of and stages of treatment would make it possible to increase duration and quality of life of patients.

  13. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  14. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group

  15. Socioeconomic position and surgery for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard Starr, Laila; Osler, Merete; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine possible associations between socioeconomic position and surgical treatment of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: In a register-based clinical cohort study, patients with early-stage (stages I-IIIa) NSCLC were identified in the Danish Lung Cancer...... in a health care system with free, equal access to health services, disadvantaged groups are less likely to receive surgery for lung cancer....... was associated with greater odds for no surgery in stage I and stage II patients as was living alone for stage I patients. Comorbidity, a short diagnostic interval and small diagnostic volume were all associated with higher odds for not undergoing surgery; but these factors did not appear to explain...

  16. Smoking Behavior and Lung Cancer in a Biracial Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizment, Anna E.; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Lubin, Jay H.; Woodward, Mark; Folsom, Aaron R.; Huxley, Rachel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the U.S., the incidence of lung cancer varies by race, with rates being highest among black men. There are marked differences in smoking behavior between blacks and whites, but little is known regarding how these differences contribute to the racial disparities in lung cancer. Purpose To compare the lung cancer risk associated with smoking in 14,610 blacks and whites in the prospective cohort Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Methods Smoking characteristics were ascertained at baseline and three follow-up visits in 1990–1992, 1993–1995, and 1996–1998 (response rates were 93%, 86%, and 80%, respectively), as well as from annual telephone interviews. Data were analyzed in the fall of 2012. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% CIs for lung cancer. Results Over 20 years of follow-up (1987–2006), 470 incident cases of lung cancer occurred. Lung cancer incident rates were highest in black men and lowest in black women. However, there was no evidence to support racial differences in the associations of smoking status, intensity, or age at initiation with lung cancer risk (all pinteraction≥0.25). The hazard ratio for those who started smoking at age ≤12 versus >22 years was 3.03 (95% CI=1.62, 5.67). Prolonged smoking cessation (≥10 years) was associated with a decrease in lung cancer risk, with equivalent benefits in whites and blacks, 84% and 74%, respectively (pinteraction=0.25). Conclusions Smoking confers similar lung cancer risk in blacks and whites. PMID:24842739

  17. Progression and metastasis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Helmut H

    2016-03-01

    Metastasis in lung cancer is a multifaceted process. In this review, we will dissect the process in several isolated steps such as angiogenesis, hypoxia, circulation, and establishment of a metastatic focus. In reality, several of these processes overlap and occur even simultaneously, but such a presentation would be unreadable. Metastasis requires cell migration toward higher oxygen tension, which is based on changing the structure of the cell (epithelial-mesenchymal transition), orientation within the stroma and stroma interaction, and communication with the immune system to avoid attack. Once in the blood stream, cells have to survive trapping by the coagulation system, to survive shear stress in small blood vessels, and to find the right location for extravasation. Once outside in the metastatic locus, tumor cells have to learn the communication with the "foreign" stroma cells to establish vascular supply and again express molecules, which induce immune tolerance.

  18. The dynamic histopathologic spectrum of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesner, R

    1981-01-01

    The APUD concept has postulated that pulmonary carcinoids and small cell carcinomas arise from the neural crest. In development from hypothesis to tautology is traced, and evidence is presented that all pulmonary epithelial tumors arise from the primitive endoderm. Morphologic studies show that a dynamic spectrum exists. Not only do various cell types appear within a single section, but cell types may change from biopsy to autopsy with or without chemotherapy. The spectrum is sustained at the ultramicroscopic level in regard to organelles such as desmosomes, tonofibrils, and dense core granules. Secretory products such as ACTH and L-dopa decarboxylase also show that all lung cancers are related. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that small cell carcinomas in uranium miners occur after prolonged squamous cell dysplasia, and that carcinoids occur independently of external carcinogens, but show transitions to other tumors. Finally, experimental evidence indicates that the K cells, to which carcinoids are most closely related, are of local origin.

  19. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  20. Advances in target therapy in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Sculier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we have reviewed and analysed recent literature, published in 2013 and early 2014, in the context of pre-existing data. Considered target therapies were tyrosine kinase inhibitors of active epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (e.g. erlotinib, gefinitib and afatinib, anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements (e.g. crizotinib or angiogenesis (drugs under development, or monoclonal antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor (e.g. bevacizumab or epidermal growth factor receptors (e.g. cetuximab. The therapeutic project has to consider tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the case of nonsmall cell lung cancer with active epidermal growth factor receptor mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement. However, these drugs should not be used in the absence of the targeted genetic abnormalities.

  1. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Grigoryevskaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.

  2. Pneumonia, lung cancer or Medlar's core?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Luciani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of 57-year-old previously healthy man with six-months medical history of significant chronic cough and recurring episodes of fever. Cytology, bacteria, fungi and acid fast bacilli in the sputum were negative. CT scan, initially interpreted as suspected lung cancer, detected by chest x-ray, revealed pneumonia. Bronchoscopy is frequently necessary for the diagnosis as well as the treatment as a routine practice and in this case was applied. Our patient underwent to fiberoptic rigid bronchoscopy in the right upper lobe in general anaesthesia. Unexpectedly, a vegetal FB, Medlar's core instead a tumor, was removed. After two-months follow-up the patient was found healthy without any old or other symptoms.

  3. Staging Lung Cancer: Current Controversies and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyad Karmy-Jones

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A consistent approach to staging is required for the rational management of lung cancer. This paper was prepared at the request of the Standards Committee of the Canadian Thoracic Society, and reviews and discusses the relative merits of the available methods of staging. Whichever methods are chosen by a particular institution, the following points must be stressed. No patient can be considered automatically "unresectable" when chest radiography and/ or computed tomography demonstrate adenopathy or only suggest local invasion. Clinical and/or radiographical evidence suggesting extensive local or metastatic disease should be evaluated as completely as possible before subjecting the patient to a possible "nontherapeutic" thoracotomy. Finally, in some cases thoracotomy is required to decide whether the lesion is "completely" resectable.

  4. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification.We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information......High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...

  5. Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avrum E. Spira...W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...bodily fluids, which may be used for the early detection of lung cancer among military personnel and veterans. Over the course of the fifth year of

  6. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colella, Sara; Vilmann, Peter; Konge, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the role of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and esophageal ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the pretherapeutic assessment of patients with proven or suspected lung cancer. EUS-FNA and EBUS-TBNA have been shown to have...... a good diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. In the future, these techniques in combination with positron emission tomography/computed tomographic may replace surgical staging in patients with suspected and proven lung cancer, but until then surgical staging remains the gold...

  7. Radiologic diagnosis of abestos-ralated lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeung Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Asbestos was previously widely used due to its many favorable characteristics, such as durability, flexibility, and inexpensiveness. Asbestos has been prohibited in Korea since 2009, however, asbestos-related diseases remain an important public health issue because of its long latency time. Lung cancer is one of the most harmful asbestos-related diseases and patients with asbestos-related lung cancer receive compensation by law. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases is based on a detailed interview regarding the asbestos exposure, in addition to clinical, radiological, pathological, and laboratory data. This review provides a radiologic diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer.

  8. Emerging applications of nanoparticles for lung cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Uday Kumar; Bhushan, Bharat; Dubey, Poornima; Matai, Ishita; Sachdev, Abhay; Packirisamy, Gopinath

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, most of them being active tobacco smokers. Non small cell lung cancer accounts for around 85% to 90% of deaths, whereas the rest is contributed by small cell lung cancer. The extreme lethality of lung cancer arises due to lack of suitable diagnostic procedures for early detection of lung cancer and ineffective conventional therapeutic strategies. In course with desperate attempts to address these issues independently, a multifunctional nanotherapeutic or diagnostic system is being sought as a favorable solution. The manifestation of physiochemical properties of such nanoscale systems is tuned favorably to come up with a versatile cancer cell targeted diagnostic and therapeutic system. Apart from this, the aspect of being at nanoscale by itself confers the system with an advantage of passive accumulation at the site of tumor. This review provides a broad perspective of three major subclasses of such nanoscale therapeutic and diagnostic systems which include polymeric nanoparticles-based approaches, metal nanoparticles-based approaches, and bio-nanoparticles-based approaches. This review work also serves the purpose of gaining an insight into the pros and cons of each of these approaches with a prospective improvement in lung cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

  9. Quantification of plasma DNA as a screening tool for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广顺; 侯爱荣; 李龙芸; 高燕宁; 程书钧

    2004-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that circulating DNA may be a potential tumor marker for lung cancer, but most of these studies are conducted between healthy controls and lung cancer patients, with few or no benign lung disease patients included. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of plasma DNA quantification in discriminating lung cancer from the healthy and benign lung disease.Results Plasma DNA values were significantly increased in lung cancer patients, especially in those with metastases, and in benign lung disease patients compared with that in the healthy individuals (P<0.001, respectively). The values in lung cancer patients were significantly increased compared with that in the benign lung disease patients (P<0.001). The area under the curve was 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.99] for the healthy versus lung cancer, 0.73 (95% CI 0.64-0.83) for lung cancer versus benign lung disease, and 0.86 (95% CI 0.80-0.91) for lung cancer versus the healthy and benign lung disease.Conclusions Plasma DNA quantification has a strong power to discriminate lung cancer from the healthy and from the healthy and benign lung disease, less power to discriminate lung cancer from benign lung disease. Plasma DNA quantification may be useful as a screening tool for lung cancer.

  10. Tracking the Evolution of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Wilson, Gareth A.; McGranahan, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Background Among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), data on intratumor heterogeneity and cancer genome evolution have been limited to small retrospective cohorts. We wanted to prospectively investigate intratumor heterogeneity in relation to clinical outcome and to determine...... as a prognostic predictor. (Funded by Cancer Research UK and others; TRACERx ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01888601 .)....

  11. Tuberculosis and subsequent risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E.A.; Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Pfeiffer, R.M.; Yu, Y.Y.; He, X.Z.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Rockville, MD (USA). Infectious and Immunoepidemiology Branch

    2009-03-15

    Tobacco and indoor air pollution from smoky coal are major causes of lung cancer in rural Xuanwei County, China. Tuberculosis has been suggested to increase lung cancer risk, but data from prior studies are limited. We conducted an analysis of data from a retrospective cohort study of 42,422 farmers in Xuanwei. In 1992, interviewers administered a standardized questionnaire that included lifetime medical history, including tuberculosis. Subjects were followed from 1976, with deaths from lung cancer ascertained through 1996. We used proportional hazards regression to assess the association between tuberculosis and subsequent lung cancer mortality. Tuberculosis was reported by 246 subjects (0.6%), and 2,459 (5.8%) died from lung cancer during follow-up. Lung cancer mortality was substantially higher in subjects with tuberculosis than in those without (25 vs. 3.1 per 1,000 person-years). The association was especially pronounced in the first 5 years after tuberculosis diagnosis (hazard ratios (HRs) ranging 6.7-13) but remained strong 5-9.9 years (HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-9.1) and 10+ years (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-7.3) after tuberculosis. These associations were similar among men and women and among smoky coal users (70.5% of subjects). Adjustment for demographic characteristics, lung disease and tobacco use did not affect results. In Xuanwei, China, tuberculosis is an important risk factor for lung cancer. The increased lung cancer risk, persisting years after a tuberculosis diagnosis, could reflect the effects of chronic pulmonary inflammation and scarring arising from tuberculosis.

  12. Tuberculosis and subsequent risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A.; Shen, Min; Chapman, Robert S.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Yu, Ying-Ying; He, Xingzhou; Lan, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco and indoor air pollution from smoky coal are major causes of lung cancer in rural Xuanwei County, China. Tuberculosis has been suggested to increase lung cancer risk, but data from prior studies are limited. We conducted an analysis of data from a retrospective cohort study of 42,422 farmers in Xuanwei. In 1992, interviewers administered a standardized questionnaire that included lifetime medical history, including tuberculosis. Subjects were followed from 1976, with deaths from lung cancer ascertained through 1996. We used proportional hazards regression to assess the association between tuberculosis and subsequent lung cancer mortality. Tuberculosis was reported by 246 subjects (0.6%), and 2459 (5.8%) died from lung cancer during follow-up. Lung cancer mortality was substantially higher in subjects with tuberculosis than in those without (25 vs. 3.1 per 1000 person-years). The association was especially pronounced in the first five years after tuberculosis diagnosis (hazard ratios [HRs] ranging 6.7–13) but remained strong 5–9.9 years (HR 3.4, 95%CI 1.3–9.1) and 10+ years (HR 3.0, 95%CI 1.3–7.3) after tuberculosis. These associations were similar among men and women, and among smoky coal users (70.5% of subjects). Adjustment for demographic characteristics, lung disease, and tobacco use did not affect results. In Xuanwei, China, tuberculosis is an important risk factor for lung cancer. The increased lung cancer risk, persisting years after a tuberculosis diagnosis, could reflect the effects of chronic pulmonary inflammation and scarring arising from tuberculosis. PMID:19058197

  13. Radon and lung cancer; Radon et cancer du poumon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysson, H; Billon, S.; Catelinois, O.; Gambard, J.P.; Laurier, D.; Rogel, A.; Tirmarche, M

    2004-12-01

    Radon is a natural radioactive gas that tends to accumulate in indoor environments; its concentration is highest in areas with granite sub-soils. Epidemiologic studies of uranium miners and animal data demonstrate the radon inhalation increases the risk of lung cancer. The objective of this paper is to present the available data on the French population's exposure to radon and the current epidemiologic knowledge of its effects, from cohort studies of uranium miners and indoor radon case-control studies.

  14. Cavitary Lung Cancer Lined with Normal Bronchial Epithelium and Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Taichiro; Maeshima, Arafumi; Oyamada, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    Reports of cavitary lung cancer are not uncommon, and the cavity generally contains either dilated bronchi or cancer cells. Recently, we encountered a surgical case of cavitary lung cancer whose cavity tended to enlarge during long-term follow-up, and was found to be lined with normal bronchial epithelium and adenocarcinoma cells.

  15. Screening for second primary lung cancer after treatment of laryngeal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritoe, S.C.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Janssen, M.L.H.; Festen, J.; Joosten, F.B.M.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: As a result of smoking, patients who have received curative treatment for laryngeal cancer run a high risk of developing lung cancer. Therefore, these patients enter a screening program that aims to detect lung cancer at an asymptomatic stage. The study evaluated whether

  16. The potential role of lung microbiota in lung cancer attributed to household coal burning exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosgood, H. Dean; Sapkota, Amy R.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Rohan, Thomas; Hu, Wei; Xu, Jun; Vermeulen, Roel; He, Xingzhou; White, James Robert; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria influence site-specific disease etiology and the host's ability to metabolize xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Lung cancer in Xuanwei, China has been attributed to PAH-rich household air pollution from burning coal. This study seeks to explore the role of lung m

  17. The potential role of lung microbiota in lung cancer attributed to household coal burning exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosgood, H. Dean; Sapkota, Amy R.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Rohan, Thomas; Hu, Wei; Xu, Jun; Vermeulen, Roel; He, Xingzhou; White, James Robert; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria influence site-specific disease etiology and the host's ability to metabolize xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Lung cancer in Xuanwei, China has been attributed to PAH-rich household air pollution from burning coal. This study seeks to explore the role of lung

  18. Factors associated with dropout in a lung cancer high-risk cohort - the Liverpool lung project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MARCUS, MICHAEL W; RAJI, OLAIDE Y; CHEN, YING; DUFFY, STEPHEN W; FIELD, JOHN K

    2014-01-01

    ... of participants who drop out and those still active in the study differ significantly. The study aimed to investigate factors associated with dropout in a 5-year follow-up of individuals at 'high-risk' of lung cancer...

  19. High prevalence of lung cancer in a surgical cohort of lung cancer patients a decade after smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosenifar Zab

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to assess the prevalence of smoking at time of lung cancer diagnosis in a surgical patient cohort referred for cardiothoracic surgery. Methods Retrospective study of lung cancer patients (n = 626 referred to three cardiothoracic surgeons at a tertiary care medical center in Southern California from January 2006 to December 2008. Relationships among years of smoking cessation, smoking status, and tumor histology were analyzed with Chi-square tests. Results Seventy-seven percent (482 had a smoking history while 11.3% (71 were current smokers. The length of smoking cessation to cancer diagnosis was Conclusions In a surgical lung cancer cohort, the majority of patients were smoking abstinent greater than one decade before the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  20. The 10 Pillars of Lung Cancer Screening: Rationale and Logistics of a Lung Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintelmann, Florian J; Bernheim, Adam; Digumarthy, Subba R; Lennes, Inga T; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Gilman, Matthew D; Sharma, Amita; Flores, Efren J; Muse, Victorine V; Shepard, Jo-Anne O

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the National Lung Screening Trial data released in 2011, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force made lung cancer screening (LCS) with low-dose computed tomography (CT) a public health recommendation in 2013. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) currently reimburse LCS for asymptomatic individuals aged 55-77 years who have a tobacco smoking history of at least 30 pack-years and who are either currently smoking or had quit less than 15 years earlier. Commercial insurers reimburse the cost of LCS for individuals aged 55-80 years with the same smoking history. Effective care for the millions of Americans who qualify for LCS requires an organized step-wise approach. The 10-pillar model reflects the elements required to support a successful LCS program: eligibility, education, examination ordering, image acquisition, image review, communication, referral network, quality improvement, reimbursement, and research frontiers. Examination ordering can be coupled with decision support to ensure that only eligible individuals undergo LCS. Communication of results revolves around the Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) from the American College of Radiology. Lung-RADS is a structured decision-oriented reporting system designed to minimize the rate of false-positive screening examination results. With nodule size and morphology as discriminators, Lung-RADS links nodule management pathways to the variety of nodules present on LCS CT studies. Tracking of patient outcomes is facilitated by a CMS-approved national registry maintained by the American College of Radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  1. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederer, Juergen; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Schiebler, Mark L; van Beek, Edwin J R; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3-4mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60-90% for lesions of 5-8mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience with multi-center, multi-vendor and multi-platform implementation of this technology. All of the required prerequisites have now been achieved to allow for a dedicated prospective large scale MRI based lung cancer screening trial to investigate the outcomes from using MRI rather than CT for lung cancer screening. This is driven by the hypothesis that MRI would reach a similarly high sensitivity for the detection of early lung cancer with fewer false positive exams (better specificity) than LDCT. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the potential role of lung MRI for the early

  2. Risk factors associated with lung cancer in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, Moira; Koo, L C; Ho, J C-M; Tsang, K W-T; Chau, W-S; Chiu, S-W; Ip, M S-M; Lam, W-K

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with lung cancer in Hong Kong. Three hundred and thirty-one histologically or cytologically proven consecutive cases of lung cancer and the same number of in- and out-patients without cancer matched for age and sex were recruited for this study using a detailed questionnaire completed by a trained interviewer. Smoking was the most important risk factor associated with lung cancer but the attributable risk (AR) was estimated to be 45.8% in men and 6.2% in women, considerably lower compared with those estimated in early 1980s. In addition, among women, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at work+/-at home and lack of education, were independent risk factors for lung cancer with adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.60, (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52-8.51) and OR 2.41 (95% CI 1.27-4.55), respectively. Among men, exposure to insecticide/pesticide/herbicide, ETS exposure at work or at home, and a family history of lung cancer and were independent risk factors with adjusted OR 3.29 (95% CI 1.22-8.9, OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.24-4.76 and OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.43-3.94, respectively). Exposure to incense burning and frying pan fumes were not significant risk factors in both sexes. A moderate or high consumption of fat in the diet was associated with increased risk in men but decreased risk in women. The results of this study suggested that as the prevalence of smoking declined, the influence of smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer decreased even further. Moreover, the contribution of other environmental, occupational and socioeconomic factors may be more apparent as etiological factors for lung cancer in a population with relatively high lung cancer incidence but low AR from active smoking.

  3. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Łobaszewski, Jakub

    2016-04-01

    Over the last century, lung cancer from the rarest of diseases became the biggest cancer killer of men worldwide and in some parts of the world also of women (North America, East Asia, Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand). In 2012 over 1.6 million of people died due to lung cancer. The cause-effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer occurrence has been proven in many studies, both ecological and clinical. In global perspective one can see the increasing tobacco consumption trend followed by ascending trends of lung cancer mortality, especially in developing countries. In some more developed countries, where the tobacco epidemics was on the rise since the beginning of the 20th century and peaked in its mid, in male population lung cancer incidence trend reversed or leveled off. Despite predicted further decline of incidence rates, the absolute number of deaths will continue to grow in these countries. In the remaining parts of the world the tobacco epidemics is still evolving what brings rapid increase of the number of new lung cancer cases and deaths. Number of lung cancer deaths worldwide is expected to grow up to 3 million until 2035. The figures will double both in men (from 1.1 million in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2035) and women (from 0.5 million in 2012 to 0.9 million in 2035) and the two-fold difference between sexes will persist. The most rapid increase is expected in Africa region (AFRO) and East Mediterranean region (EMRO). The increase of the absolute number of lung cancer deaths in more developed countries is caused mostly by population aging and in less developed countries predominantly by the evolving tobacco epidemic.

  4. SIRT1 gene polymorphisms and risk of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Lv, Shuangyan Lin, Fang Peng Department of Pathology, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang, China Objective: Lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, is influenced by a wide variety of environmental and genetic risk factors. The silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1 gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 10 (10q21.3 and has been shown to play crucial roles in lung cancer development in previous studies. In this study, we determined whether variation in the SIRT1 gene is associated with lung cancer in Chinese population.Methods: The case–control study comprised 246 controls and 257 non-small cell lung cancer patients, comprising 79 squamous cell carcinoma patients and 124 adenocarcinoma patients. All subjects were from Zhejiang, China. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms of SIRT1 gene were analyzed: rs12778366 (C/T, lies in the 5′ upstream, rs3758391 (C/T, lies in the 5′ upstream, rs2273773 (C/T, lies in the coding and rs4746720 (C/T, lies in the 3′ untranslated region.Results: No significant difference of allele and genotype frequencies was observed between the different groups. Haplotype association analysis carried out on the four single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the case–control cohort also did not reveal a significant association with lung cancer (P>0.05.Conclusion: The results suggest the tested SIRT1 gene polymorphisms may not contribute to lung cancer. Further studies are warranted to demonstrate the functional roles of the SIRT1 polymorphism in lung cancer. Keywords: SIRT1, SNP, non-small cell lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma

  5. [Radiotherapy promises: focus on lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, Anaïs; Durand-Labrunie, Jérôme; Leroy, Thomas; Pannier, Diane; Wagner, Antoine; Rault, Erwan; Lartigau, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a key cancer treatment, which greatly modified its practice in recent years thanks to medical imaging and technical improvements. The systematic use of computed tomography (CT) for treatment planning, the imaging fusion/co-registration between CT/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT/positron emission tomography (PET) improve target identification/selection and delineation. New irradiation techniques such as image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), stereotactic radiotherapy or hadron therapy offer a more diverse therapeutic armamentarium to patients together with lower toxicity. Radiotherapy, as well as medical oncology, tends to offer a personalized treatment to patients thanks to the IGRT, which takes into account the inter- or intra-fraction anatomic variations. IGRT leads to adaptive radiotherapy (ART) with a new planification in the treatment course in order to decrease toxicity and improve tumor control. The use of systemic therapies with radiations needs to be studied in order to improve efficiency without increasing toxicities from these multimodal approaches. Finally, radiotherapy advances were impacted by radiotherapy accidents like Epinal. They led to an increased quality control with the intensification of identity control, the emergence of in vivo dosimetry or the experience feedback committee in radiotherapy. We will illustrate through the example of lung cancer.

  6. Randomized Phase II trial of paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by gemcitabine switch-maintenance therapy versus gemcitabine and carboplatin followed by gemcitabine continuation-maintenance therapy in previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Seigo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, maintenance chemotherapy is increasingly being recognized as a new treatment strategy to improve the outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, the optimal maintenance strategy is still controversial. Gemcitabine is a promising candidate for single-agent maintenance therapy because of little toxicity and good tolerability. We have conducted a randomized phase II study to evaluate the validity of single-agent maintenance chemotherapy of gemcitabine and to compare continuation- and switch-maintenance. Methods Chemonaïve patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC were randomly assigned 1:1 to either arm A or B. Patients received paclitaxel (200 mg/m2, day 1 plus carboplatin (AUC 6 mg/mL/min, day 1 every 3 weeks in arm A, or gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2, days 1 and 8 plus carboplatin (AUC 5 mg/mL/min, day1 every 3 weeks in arm B. Non-progressive patients following 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy received maintenance gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2, days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks. (Trial registration: UMIN000008252 Results The study was stopped because of delayed accrual at interim analysis. Of the randomly assigned 50 patients, 49 except for one in arm B were evaluable. Median progression-free survival (PFS was 4.6 months for arm A vs. 3.5 months for arm B (HR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.45–2.27; p = 0.95 and median overall survival (OS was 15.0 months for arm A vs. 14.8 months for arm B (HR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.40–1.51; p = 0.60, showing no difference between the two arms. The response rate, disease control rate, and the transit rate to maintenance phase were 36.0% (9/25, 64.0% (16/25, and 48% (12/25 for arm A vs. 16.7% (4/24, 50.0% (12/24, and 33% (8/24 for arm B, which were also statistically similar between the two arms (p = 0.13, p = 0.32, and p = 0.30, respectively. Both induction regimens were tolerable, except that more patients experienced peripheral neuropathy in arm A. Toxicities during

  7. CT screening for lung cancer brings forward early disease. The Randomised Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger; Ashraf, Haseem

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe effects of low-dose CT screening on disease stage shift, mortality and overdiagnosis are unclear. Lung cancer findings and mortality rates are reported at the end of screening in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial.Methods4104 men and women, healthy heavy smokers/former smokers...... increase and/or volume doubling time15 mm were referred for diagnostic workup. In the control group, lung cancers were diagnosed and treated outside the study by the usual clinical practice.ResultsParticipation rates were high in both groups (screening: 95.5%; control: 93.0%; p...

  8. Lung metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastases to the lung; Metastatic cancer to the lung; Lung cancer - metastases ... Metastatic tumors in the lungs are cancers that developed at other places in the body (or other parts of the lungs). They then spread through ...

  9. The role of carotenoids on the risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Kenneth R

    2003-02-01

    Smoking prevention and cessation remain the primary methods of reducing the incidence of lung cancer. The limited success of efforts towards smoking cessation have led to increasing interest in the role of nutrition in lung cancer prevention. One class of nutrients that has attracted attention as potential chemopreventive agents is the carotenoids, especially beta-carotene, due to their antioxidant properties. In vitro, carotenoids exert antioxidant functions and inhibit carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation, inhibit plasma membrane lipid oxidation, and cause upregulated expression of connexin 43. These in vitro results suggest that carotenoids have intrinsic cancer chemopreventive action in humans. Many cohort and case-control study data have shown an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer, although several more recent studies have cast doubt on these findings. Different effects of various dietary nutrients on lung cancer risk have been observed. Several prospective intervention trials were undertaken to examine the effect of supplementation on the risk of lung cancer. Some of these studies demonstrated an increased incidence and mortality from lung cancer in those receiving supplementation. Many hypotheses have emerged as to the reasons for these findings.

  10. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-07-15

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and other confounders (for BMI of 30.0-34.9 versus 18.5-25.0, hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.84). The strength of the association declined with increasing follow-up time. Conversely, after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were significantly positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs. the lowest, hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.50). Given the decline of the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer over time, the association is likely at least partly due to weight loss resulting from preclinical lung cancer that was present at baseline. Residual confounding by smoking could also have influenced our findings.

  11. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and risk of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a risk factor for distal stomach cancer, and a few small studies have suggested that H. pylori may be a potential risk factor for lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study of 350 lung adenocarcinoma cases, 350 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 700 controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC cohort of male Finnish smokers. Controls were one-to-one matched by age and date of baseline serum draw. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori whole-cell and cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA antigens, we calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs for associations between H. pylori seropositivity and lung cancer risk using conditional logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was detected in 79.7% of cases and 78.5% of controls. After adjusting for pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.75-1.6 or squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.77-1.7. Results were similar for CagA-negative and CagA-positive H. pylori seropositivity. Despite earlier small studies suggesting that H. pylori may contribute to lung carcinogenesis, H. pylori seropositivity does not appear to be associated with lung cancer.

  12. Flavonoids as Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Agents Against Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Cabrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to study the relationship between flavonoids and lung cancer, proposing that their regular consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against lung cancer. An extensive search of the scientific literature was performed in the following electronic specialized databases (PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, SciELO Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, including studies in animals, cells, and humans, in order to establish the effect of flavonoids in the prevention and development of lung cancer. Although in vitro and animal studies show the potential ability of flavonoids to act against different types of cancers, especially against lung cancers, the diverse results reported within epidemiological studies, together with the lack of experiments in humans, are the major factors in limiting making dietary recommendations based on scientific evidence for the management of patients with lung cancer. Therefore, the authors of the present study recommend following the dietary health practice guidelines which promotes the consumption of food enriched in flavonoids and reflects the current state of knowledge of an effective and appropriate diet in lung cancer patients.Erratum in: Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet. 2013;17(2:91-92Link: http://www.renhyd.org/index.php/renhyd/article/view/6/17

  13. Association of Inorganics Accumulation with the Activation of NF-κB Signaling Pathway and the iNOS Expression of Lung Tissue in Xuanwei Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiapeng YANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Indoor air pollution induces asthma, leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and may promote lung cancer. Our previous studies found that the accumulation of inorganic particulate matter that is due to indoor air pollution can lead to damage to alveolar cells and activation of signaling pathway, and ultimately provoke tumorigenesis. The aim of this study is to explore the accumulation of inorganics and activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS signaling pathway of lung tissue in Xuanwei lung cancer patients. Methods From December 2013 to November 2014, 48 cases Xuanwei patients with lung cancer who underwent surgical treatment from the Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University were enrolled in this study and compared with lung cancer patients from other regions. The ultrastructure of postoperative specimens was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM to explore the occurrence of inorganic particles. Serum cytokines were analyzed. Then, the expression levels of NF-κB-p65 protein and iNOS protein in postoperative specimens was explored by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Finally, 8-OHdG accumulation in lung cancer tissues and urine was measured. Results A large number of nanoscale inorganics were observed in alveolar type II cells and macrophages located in adjacent tissues of lung cancer with Xuanwei patients. Silicon (Si content was found in inorganic elemental analysis. The serum interleukin (IL-1β levels (31.50±19.16 pg/mL of Xuanwei lung-cancer patients were remarkably higher than those from other regions (11.33±6.94 pg/mL (P<0.01, with statistically significant difference. The pathological tissues of Xuanwei lung-cancer patients express NF-κB-p65, and iNOS expression were significantly higher than those of patients from non-Xuanwei regions. No significant difference was found between cancerous and normal adjacent tissues. Xuanwei lung-cancer

  14. Image-guided radiotherapy and motion management in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine

    2015-01-01

    In this review, image guidance and motion management in radiotherapy for lung cancer is discussed. Motion characteristics of lung tumours and image guidance techniques to obtain motion information are elaborated. Possibilities for management of image guidance and motion in the various steps...

  15. Crizotinib for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III clinical trial that compared crizotinib versus chemotherapy in previously treated patients with advanced lung cancer whose tumors have an EML4-ALK fusion gene.

  16. Lung cancer screening: Computed tomography or chest radiographs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edwin; JR; van; Beek; Saeed; Mirsadraee; John; T; Murchison

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortalitydue to malignancy. The vast majority of cases of lung cancer are smoking related and the most effective way of reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality is by smoking cessation. In the Western world, smoking cessation policies have met with limited success. The other major means of reducing lung cancer deaths is to diagnose cases at an earlier more treatable stage employing screening programmes using chest radiographs or low dose computed tomography. In many countries smoking is still on the increase, and the sheer scale of the problem limits the affordability of such screening programmes. This short review article will evaluate the current evidence and potential areas of research which may benefit policy making across the world.

  17. Residential Radon Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study of lung cancer and residential radon exposure in which investigators carried out both standard year-long air measurements and CR-39 alpha detector measurements (call surface monitors)

  18. Effects of Smoking Cessation on lung cancer chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Vassias

    2017-05-01

    Smoking cessation leads to better quality of life, longer overall survival and less toxicity from chemotherapy treatment. Lung cancer patients that smoke must attend quitting smoking session organized by specialists.

  19. Perioperative Rehabilitation in Operable Lung Cancer Patients (PROLUCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Maja S.; Trier, Karen; Vibe-Petersen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be associated with significant morbidity, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. Objectives: The safety and feasibility of a preoperative and early postoperative rehabilitation program...

  20. Trial Yields Positive Data on Pembrolizumab for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from an early phase clinical trial may point to a biomarker that identifies patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer most likely to respond to the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda®).

  1. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  2. ALCHEMIST: Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALCHEMIST represents three integrated, precision medicine trials that are designed to identify people with early-stage lung cancer who have tumors that harbor certain uncommon genetic changes and evaluate whether drug treatments targeted against those mol

  3. Hippocampal-Sparing Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ren; Kong, Wei; Shang, Jun; Zhe, Hong; Wang, Yan-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Brain metastases occur in 20% to 40% of lung cancer patients. Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has long been considered the treatment of choice for many patients with lung cancer, because of its wide availability, ease of delivery, and effectiveness in prolonging survival. However, WBRT is also associated with several side effects, such as decline in memory and other cognitive functions. There exists significant preclinical and clinical evidence that radiation-induced injury to the hippocampus correlates with neurocognitive decline of patients who receive WBRT. Technological advances in treatment planning and delivery facilitate the use of hippocampal-sparing (HS) WBRT as prophylactic cranial irradiation or the primary treatment modality for lung cancer patients with brain metastases. In this review, we provide a detailed and comprehensive discussion of the safety profile, techniques for hippocampus-sparing, and the clinical evidence of HS-WBRT for lung cancer patients.

  4. Residential Radon Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study of lung cancer and residential radon exposure in which investigators carried out both standard year-long air measurements and CR-39 alpha detector measurements (call surface monitors)

  5. A population-based evaluation of the seventh edition of the TNM system for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, T-E; Rostad, H; Wentzel-Larsen, T

    2010-01-01

    Our study describes the new seventh edition of the TNM system for lung cancer in a national population and its clinical implications. We classified 1,885 operated patients with lung cancer, reported to the Cancer Registry of Norway (Oslo, Norway) from 2001 to 2005, according to the sixth and the ......Our study describes the new seventh edition of the TNM system for lung cancer in a national population and its clinical implications. We classified 1,885 operated patients with lung cancer, reported to the Cancer Registry of Norway (Oslo, Norway) from 2001 to 2005, according to the sixth...... and the seventh edition of the TNM system. We compared survival differences adjusting for known prognostic factors. Furthermore, we evaluated the overall predictive ability of both editions using Harrell's concordance index. Survival curves by stage for each of the editions were similar; however, a better...... to stage II and 161 (48%) patients migrated from stage IIB to IIA. Stage migrations could change the treatment for up to 326 (17.3%) of the study patients. The seventh edition did not improve the overall predictive ability of the TNM system; however, the new classification implies changes in treatment...

  6. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope III, C.A.; Burnett, R.T.; Thun, M.J.; Calle, E.E.; Krewski, D.; Ito, K.; Thurston, G.D. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States)

    2003-03-06

    A study was conducted to the relationship between long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution and all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Vital status and cause of death data were collected by the American Cancer Society as part of the Cancer Prevention II study, an ongoing prospective mortality study, which enrolled approximately 1.2 million adults in 1982. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing individual risk factor data (age, sex, race, weight, height, smoking history, education, marital status, diet, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposures). The risk factor data for approximately 500 000 adults were linked with air pollution data for metropolitan areas throughout the United States and combined with vital status and cause of death data through December 31, 1998. Fine particulate and sulfur oxide-related pollution were found to be associated with all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Each 10-{mu}g/m{sup 3} elevation in fine particulate air pollution was associated with approximately a 4%, 6%, and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Measures of coarse particle fraction and total suspended particles were not consistently associated with mortality. It was concluded that long-term exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Cetuximab in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillio, Guido; Montanino, Agnese; Costanzo, Raffaele; Sandomenico, Claudia; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; Di Maio, Massimo; Daniele, Gennaro; Giordano, Pasqualina; Bryce, Jane; Normanno, Nicola; Rocco, Gaetano; Perrone, Francesco; Morabito, Alessandro

    2012-02-01

    Cetuximab is a chimeric human-mouse anti-EGF receptor monoclonal antibody. In Phase I studies, no dose-limiting toxicities were observed with cetuximab as a single agent or combined with chemotherapy; pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses supported 250 mg/m(2) weekly administration. Skin toxicity, diarrhea and fatigue were the most common toxicities. The positive results obtained in Phase II trials in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer prompted two randomized Phase III trials evaluating cetuximab in addition to first-line chemotherapy. Both trials showed a small benefit in overall survival for the experimental treatment, which was considered insufficient by the EMA for marketing approval. However, a subgroup analysis of the FLEX Phase III trial recently demonstrated a larger survival benefit from the experimental treatment in patients with high immunohistochemical EGF receptor expression. This finding, if confirmed prospectively, could represent a new opportunity for positioning cetuximab into the standard treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

  8. Lung Cancer, Questions to Ask Your Health Professional | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Past Issues / ... 2013 Table of Contents Tests What type of lung cancer do I have? Has the cancer spread from ...

  9. Oral mucosa and lung cancer: Are genetic changes in the oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-03

    Feb 3, 2016 ... Aim: To compare genetic aberrations in the oral epithelium of lung cancer patients with those without cancer. Subjects and ... to lung cancer, although other risk factors (such as genetic ..... NSCLC/adenocarcinoma. 6 (12.0).

  10. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH;

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their ......Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  11. 4. DNA REPAIR CAPACITY IN LUNG CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The ability for DNA repair is an important host factor which influences the individual susceptibility to genotoxic carcinogen exposures. It has been shown in different case-control studies that DNA repair capacity (DRC) can be reduced in lung cancer patients.We have used an alkaline comet assay to measure the cellular DRC in peri-pheral blood lymphocytes of lung cancer patients and tumor-free control

  12. Endobronchial Photoacoustic Microscopy for Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    optical absorber which is important for PA imaging. To image the lymph node, the dye or absorber is necessary to generate the acoustic signals for...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Photoacoustic imaging, photoacoustic microscopy, lung cancer 14. ABSTRACT This research is aimed at developing a new endoscopic...imaging approach, called “photoacoustic microscopy (PAM)”, for lung cancer staging. The project will develop imaging hardware and conduct phantom

  13. Association between green tea consumption and lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Liang, Wenbin; Hirayama, Fumi; Binns, Colin W

    2010-07-01

    Green tea is a popular beverage and its health benefits are well known. However, inconsistent results have been reported in observational studies concerning the association between green tea consumption and the lung cancer risk. In this commentary, several methodological issues underlying the measurement of tea exposure are highlighted. The recommendations should be useful for designing and planning prospective cohort studies to ascertain the protective effect of green tea against lung cancer.

  14. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catterina Ferreccio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.

  15. Treatment strategies for lung cancer brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakade, Masaharu; Kohno, Keijirou; Watanabe, Hiroyoshi [Osaka Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Forty-one patients suffered initial relapses with brain metastasis after surgery for non-small lung cancer at our hospital between 1978 and 1995. These patients were a total of 8.4% of all cases of surgical removal, and had an average relapse period of 8.6 months {+-} 8.0 months after surgery on the primary lesions. Of these, surgical removal of metastasized lesions was performed on 18 patients (43%), in which the 5-year post-operative survival rate was 35.7%, and the median survival time was good at 28 months. It was found that the survival period was significantly extended in the group whose relapse period was less than one year after surgery on the primary lesions, and in the group who received cranial irradiation post-operatively on the metastasized brain lesion. Following surgery on the metastasized lesion, second relapses occurred in nine patients, and six patients suffered from second relapses in the brain, of which four did not receive cranial irradiation post-operatively. Cases of radiotherapy in patients of 70 years of age or more frequently manifested post-radiotherapy subacute neuropathy. From the above, it is thought that the following procedures should be adopted: Periodic examination for brain metastasis during the 24 months following surgery for non-small cell lung carcinoma for purposes of early detection; in cases where brain metastasis is detected, if no metastasis is identified in other organs, a policy of surgical removal should be adopted where possible; and, in cases of 70 years of age or less following surgery on the metastasized lesion, cranial irradiation should be considered. (author)

  16. KLF4 regulates adult lung tumor-initiating cells and represses K-Ras-mediated lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T; Chen, X; Zhang, W; Liu, J; Avdiushko, R; Napier, D L; Liu, A X; Neltner, J M; Wang, C; Cohen, D; Liu, C

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women worldwide. To identify novel factors that contribute to lung cancer pathogenesis, we analyzed a lung cancer database from The Cancer Genome Atlas and found that Krüppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4) expression is significantly lower in patients' lung cancer tissue than in normal lung tissue. In addition, we identified seven missense mutations in the KLF4 gene. KLF4 is a transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation as well as the self-renewal of stem cells. To understand the role of KLF4 in the lung, we generated a tamoxifen-induced Klf4 knockout mouse model. We found that KLF4 inhibits lung cancer cell growth and that depletion of Klf4 altered the differentiation pattern in the developing lung. To understand how KLF4 functions during lung tumorigenesis, we generated the K-ras(LSL-G12D/+);Klf4(fl/fl) mouse model, and we used adenovirus-expressed Cre to induce K-ras activation and Klf4 depletion in the lung. Although Klf4 deletion alone or K-ras mutation alone can trigger lung tumor formation, Klf4 deletion combined with K-ras mutation significantly enhanced lung tumor formation. We also found that Klf4 deletion in conjunction with K-ras activation caused lung inflammation. To understand the mechanism whereby KLF4 is regulated during lung tumorigenesis, we analyzed KLF4 promoter methylation and the profiles of epigenetic factors. We found that Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and that HDAC inhibitors induced expression of KLF4 and inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, suggesting that KLF4 is probably repressed by histone acetylation and that HDACs are valuable drug targets for lung cancer treatment.

  17. Survey and Analysis of Awareness of Lung Cancer Prevention and Control in a LDCT Lung Cancer Screening Project in Tianjin Dagang Oilfield of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua REN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that increase of the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control could enhance participation of lung cancer screening of lung cancer high risk group. The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control and the effect of individual characteristics on lung cancer awareness, and to provide evidence for comprehensive lung cancer prevention in high risk areas of lung cancer. Methods Staffs of Tianjin Dagang Oil Field who participate low dose CT (LDCT lung cancer screening by cluster sampling or according to voluntary principle were surveyed, data of lung cancer awareness were collected by questionnaire. Results A total of 1,633 valid questionnaires were collected. The average age of respondents was 60.08±6.58. Most participants were males (82.2% while female only accounted for 17.8%. The proportions of awareness about lung cancer in China, risk factors, screening methods and the knowledge of health examination were 64.5%, 77.1%, 43.7%, 49.6% respectively. Result of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that education level, smoking (pack-year, age, prior tuberculosis were the influencing factors of lung cancer awareness with adjusted Ors for education and age level as of 0.567 (95%CI: 0.439-0.733 and 1.373 (95%CI: 1.084-1.739 respectively. 80.3% of the participants can accept health examination once a year, while the ability to pay the medical expenses was not high. The influencing factors of health examination willingness were gender, age, income, the knowledge of lung cancer. Conclusion Education level and smoking affect the awareness of lung cancer prevention and control, health education for lung cancer should be conducted especially in population with low education level. Comprehensive lung cancer control in high risk areas should combined lung cancer screening, tobacco control and health education.

  18. Telomerase activity and the risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Choi, Jin Eun; Jung, Deuk Kju; Choi, Yi Young; Kang, Hyo Gyoung; Lee, Won-Kee; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lim, Jeong-Ok; Park, Jae Yong

    2012-02-01

    Telomerase play a key role in the maintenance of telomere length and chromosome integrity. We have evaluated the association between telomerase activity and the risk of lung cancer in peripheral blood. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured by a PCR-designed telomeric repeat amplification protocol in 63 lung cancer patients and 190 healthy controls that were matched for age, gender, and smoking status. Telomerase activity was significantly lower in the lung cancer patients than in controls (mean ± standard deviation; 1.32 ± 1.65 vs 2.60 ± 3.09, P lung cancer increased as telomerase activity reduced (P(trend) = 1 × 10(-4)). Moreover, when the subjects were categorized based on the median value of telomerase activity, subjects with low telomerase activity were at a significantly increased risk of lung cancer compared to subjects with high telomerase activity (adjusted odds ratio = 3.05, 95% confidence interval = 1.60-5.82, P = 7 × 10(-4)). These findings suggest that telomerase activity may affect telomere maintenance, thereby contributing to susceptibility to lung cancer.

  19. Pleiotropic Analysis of Lung Cancer and Blood Triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Verena; Marconett, Crystal N; Shi, Jianxin; Hua, Xing; Wheeler, William; Yang, Chenchen; Song, Lei; Dale, Anders M; Laplana, Marina; Risch, Angela; Witoelar, Aree; Thompson, Wesley K; Schork, Andrew J; Bettella, Francesco; Wang, Yunpeng; Djurovic, Srdjan; Zhou, Beiyun; Borok, Zea; van der Heijden, Henricus F M; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Swinkels, Dorine; Aben, Katja K; McKay, James; Hung, Rayjean J; Bikeböller, Heike; Stevens, Victoria L; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Han, Younghun; Wei, Yongyue; Panadero, Maria Angeles; Mayordomo, Jose I; Christiani, David C; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Andreassen, Ole A; Houlston, Richard; Amos, Christopher I; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Mills, Ian G; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiologically related traits may share genetic risk factors, and pleiotropic analysis could identify individual loci associated with these traits. Because of their shared epidemiological associations, we conducted pleiotropic analysis of genome-wide association studies of lung cancer (12 160 lung cancer case patients and 16 838 control subjects) and cardiovascular disease risk factors (blood lipids from 188 577 subjects, type 2 diabetes from 148 821 subjects, body mass index from 123 865 subjects, and smoking phenotypes from 74 053 subjects). We found that 6p22.1 (rs6904596, ZNF184) was associated with both lung cancer (P = 5.50x10(-6)) and blood triglycerides (P = 1.39x10(-5)). We replicated the association in 6097 lung cancer case patients and 204 657 control subjects (P = 2.40 × 10(-4)) and in 71 113 subjects with triglycerides data (P = .01). rs6904596 reached genome-wide significance in lung cancer meta-analysis (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 1.21 ,: Pcombined = 5.20x10(-9)). The large sample size provided by the lipid GWAS data and the shared genetic risk factors between the two traits contributed to the uncovering of a hitherto unidentified genetic locus for lung cancer. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  20. Expression of ER and AR in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuling WANG

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Epidemiology of lung cancer differs between sexes and it might be partially explained by different sex hormone levels in women and men. There are some epidemiological data indicating that gender is a significant, independent prognostic factor in lung cancer. The aim of this study is to determine expression of ER (estrogen receptor and AR (androgen receptor in lung cancer, and evaluate the relationship between their expression and clinical or pathologic characteristics. Methods Immunohistochemistry assay was used to detect expression of ER and AR. Results Positive expression of ER and AR were 14.3%(15/105 and 20%(21/105. Positive expression of ER had no relationship with age, gender, pathology, histological differentiation, TNM staging, size of tumor and lymph node metastasis. Although age, gender, pathology, histological differentiation and size of tumor had no effect on the expression of AR, positive rate of AR in staging III lung cancer was significantly higher than that in staging I lung cancer. The different AR expression was significant between N0 and N2 lymph node metastasis ( Chisquare= 4.7828,P=0.0287. Conclusion The expression of ER has no relationship with biological behavior. Positive expression of AR may be correlated with the progression and the lymph node metastasis of lung cancer.

  1. Advances of Molecular Targeted Therapy in Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC is one of the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer worldwide, about 400,000 persons die from squamous-cell lung cancer around the world, and its pathogenesis is closely linked with tobacco exposure. Unfortunately, squamous-cell lung cancer patients do not benefit from major advances in the development of targeted therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors that show exquisite activity in lungadenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like-4 (EML4-ALK fusions, respectively. Major efforts have been launched to characterize the genomes of squamous-cell lung cancers. Among the new results emanating from these efforts are amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 gene, the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2 gene mutation as potential novel targets for the treatment of SQCLCs. Researchers find that there are many specific molecular targeted genes in the genome of squamous-cell lung cancer patients. These changes play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, squamous epithelium differentiation, may be the candidate targeted moleculars in SQCLCs. Here, we provide a review on these discoveries and their implications for clinical trials in squamous-cell lungcancer assessing the value of novel therapeutics addressing these targets.

  2. Use of quantitative lung scintigraphy to predict postoperative pulmonary function in lung cancer patients undergoing lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Thida; Laroche, Clare M; Groves, Ashley M; White, Carol; Wells, Francis C; Ritchie, Andrew J; Tasker, Angela D

    2004-10-01

    In patients with non-small cell lung cancer, the only realistic chance of cure is surgical resection. However, in some of these patients there is such poor respiratory reserve that surgery can result in an unacceptable quality of life. In order to identify these patients, various pulmonary function tests and scintigraphic techniques have been used. The current American College of Physicians and British Thoracic Society guidelines do not recommend the use of quantitative ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy to predict postoperative function in lung cancer patients undergoing lobectomy. These guidelines may have been influenced by previous scintigraphic studies performed over a decade ago. Since then there have been advances in both surgical techniques and scintigraphic techniques, and the surgical population has become older and more female represented. We prospectively performed spirometry and quantitative ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy on 61 consecutive patients undergoing lobectomy for lung cancer. Spirometry was repeated one-month postsurgery. Both a simple segment counting technique alone and scintigraphy were used to predict the postoperative lung function. There was statistically significant correlation (p lung function using both the simple segment counting technique and the scintigraphic techniques. However, the correlation using simple segment counting was of negligible difference compared to scintigraphy. In keeping with current American Chest Physician and British Thoracic Society guidelines, our results suggest that quantitative ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy is not necessary in the preoperative assessment of lung cancer patients undergoing lobectomy. The simple segmenting technique can be used to predict postoperative lung function in lobectomy patients.

  3. Racial and ethnic differences in beliefs about lung cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Sirisha; Lin, Jenny J; Nelson, Judith E; Powell, Charles A; Salazar-Schicchi, John; Berman, Andrew R; Keller, Steven M; Smith, Cardinale B; Lurslurchachai, Linda; Halm, Ethan A; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2012-11-01

    Disparities in lung cancer treatment and palliative care are well documented. However,the mechanisms underlying these disparities are not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated racial and ethnic differences in beliefs and attitudes about lung cancer treatment and palliative care among patients receiving a new diagnosis of lung cancer. Patients were recruited from four medical centers in New York City and surveyed about their beliefs regarding lung cancer care, including disease-directed treatments, palliative and end-of-life care, and fatalistic and spiritual beliefs. We used univariate and multiple regression analyses to compare the distribution of beliefs among minority (black and Hispanic) and nonminority patients. Of the 335 patients, 21% were black, 20% were Hispanic, and 59% were nonminority. Beliefs about chemotherapy and radiotherapy were similar across the three groups ( P > .05),whereas black patients were more likely to believe that surgery might cause lung cancer to spread( P =.008). Fatalistic beliefs potentially affecting cancer treatment were more common among both minority groups ( P ≤ .02). No signifi cant differences were found in attitudes toward clinician communication about cancer prognosis ( P > .05). However, both blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have misconceptions about advance directives and hospice care ( P ≤ .02). Similarities and differences in beliefs about disease-directed treatment were observed between minority and nonminority patients with lung cancer. Minority patients hold more fatalistic views about the disease and misperceptions about advance care planning and hospice care. Further research is needed to assess the impact of these beliefs on decisions about lung cancer care and patient outcomes.

  4. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Beliefs About Lung Cancer Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Sirisha; Lin, Jenny J.; Nelson, Judith E.; Powell, Charles A.; Salazar-Schicchi, John; Berman, Andrew R.; Keller, Steven M.; Smith, Cardinale B.; Lurslurchachai, Linda; Halm, Ethan A.; Leventhal, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Disparities in lung cancer treatment and palliative care are well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying these disparities are not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated racial and ethnic differences in beliefs and attitudes about lung cancer treatment and palliative care among patients receiving a new diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods: Patients were recruited from four medical centers in New York City and surveyed about their beliefs regarding lung cancer care, including disease-directed treatments, palliative and end-of-life care, and fatalistic and spiritual beliefs. We used univariate and multiple regression analyses to compare the distribution of beliefs among minority (black and Hispanic) and nonminority patients. Results: Of the 335 patients, 21% were black, 20% were Hispanic, and 59% were nonminority. Beliefs about chemotherapy and radiotherapy were similar across the three groups (P > .05), whereas black patients were more likely to believe that surgery might cause lung cancer to spread (P = .008). Fatalistic beliefs potentially affecting cancer treatment were more common among both minority groups (P ≤ .02). No significant differences were found in attitudes toward clinician communication about cancer prognosis (P > .05). However, both blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have misconceptions about advance directives and hospice care (P ≤ .02). Conclusions: Similarities and differences in beliefs about disease-directed treatment were observed between minority and nonminority patients with lung cancer. Minority patients hold more fatalistic views about the disease and misperceptions about advance care planning and hospice care. Further research is needed to assess the impact of these beliefs on decisions about lung cancer care and patient outcomes. PMID:22700777

  5. Lung Cancer Presenting as a Soft-Tissue Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Baldeo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft-tissue metastasis refers to the growth of cancer cells, originating from internal cancer, in soft tissues. In most cases, soft-tissue metastases develop after initial diagnosis of the primary internal malignancy and late in the course of the disease. In very rare cases, they may occur at the same time or before the primary cancer has been detected. In our cases, the soft-tissue metastases and the primary lung cancer were diagnosed at the same time.

  6. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends...... in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...... measures covered the first year as well as the first full five-year period after diagnosis and comprised absolute mortality rate (per 100 patient years), absolute survival, and the relative survival. All outcomes were estimated for the overall patient population as well as after stratification...

  7. DART-bid: dose-differentiated accelerated radiation therapy, 1.8 Gy twice daily. High local control in early stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehentmayr, Franz; Wurstbauer, Karl; Deutschmann, Heinz; Sedlmayer, Felix [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversitaet, Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria); Fussl, Christoph; Kopp, Peter; Dagn, Karin; Fastner, Gerd [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Porsch, Peter; Studnicka, Michael [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Pneumologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria)

    2014-09-23

    While surgery is considered standard of care for early stage (I/II), non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radiotherapy is a widely accepted alternative for medically unfit patients or those who refuse surgery. International guidelines recommend several treatment options, comprising stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for small tumors, conventional radiotherapy ≥ 60 Gy for larger sized especially centrally located lesions or continuous hyperfractionated accelerated RT (CHART). This study presents clinical outcome and toxicity for patients treated with a dose-differentiated accelerated schedule using 1.8 Gy bid (DART-bid). Between April 2002 and December 2010, 54 patients (median age 71 years, median Karnofsky performance score 70 %) were treated for early stage NSCLC. Total doses were applied according to tumor diameter: 73.8 Gy for < 2.5 cm, 79.2 Gy for 2.5-4.5 cm, 84.6 Gy for 4.5-6 cm, 90 Gy for > 6 cm. The median follow-up was 28.5 months (range 2-108 months); actuarial local control (LC) at 2 and 3 years was 88 %, while regional control was 100 %. There were 10 patients (19 %) who died of the tumor, and 18 patients (33 %) died due to cardiovascular or pulmonary causes. A total of 11 patients (20 %) died intercurrently without evidence of progression or treatment-related toxicity at the last follow-up, while 15 patients (28 %) are alive. Acute esophagitis ≤ grade 2 occurred in 7 cases, 2 patients developed grade 2 chronic pulmonary fibrosis. DART-bid yields high LC without significant toxicity. For centrally located and/or large (> 5 cm) early stage tumors, where SBRT is not feasible, this method might serve as radiotherapeutic alternative to present treatment recommendations, with the need of confirmation in larger cohorts. (orig.) [German] Die Standardbehandlung fuer nichtkleinzellige Bronchialkarzinome (NSCLC) im Stadium I/II ist die Operation, wobei Radiotherapie fuer Patienten, die nicht operabel sind oder die Operation ablehnen, als Alternative

  8. Pneumonectomy combined with partial atrial resection for the treatment of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张临友; 李刚; 谭佩林

    2000-01-01

    @@ The number of patients with lung cancer is increasing rapidly,cancers involving the lung are best treated by complete,en bloc resection.When they extend into the left atrium,lung cancers are recognized to be inoperable.Introduction of the techniques of cardiovascular surgery has made possible en bloc resection of the lung with part of the involved left atrium.

  9. Smoky coal, tobacco smoking, and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Christopher; Chapman, Robert S.; Hu, Wei; He, Xingzhou; Hosgood, H. Dean; Liu, Larry Z.; Lai, Hong; Chen, Wei; Silverman, Debra T.; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Linwei; Bassig, Bryan; Shen, Min; Zhang, Yawei; Ma, Shuangge; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Lung cancer rates in Xuanwei are the highest in China. In-home use of smoky coal has been associated with lung cancer risk, and the association of smoking and lung cancer risk strengthened after stove improvement. Here, we explored the differential association of tobacco use and lung can

  10. Sirolimus and Gold Sodium Thiomalate in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model. Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells. PMID:26396176

  12. MicroRNAs – important molecules in lung cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eLeidinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA are important regulators of gene expression. They are involved in many physiological processes ensuring the cellular homeostasis of human cells. Alterations of the miRNA expression have increasingly been associated with pathophysiological changes of cancer cells making miRNAs currently to one of the most analyzed molecules in cancer research. Here we provide an overview of miRNAs in lung cancer. Specifically, we address biological functions of miRNAs in lung cancer cells, miRNA signatures generated from tumor tissue and from patients’ body fluids, the potential of miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for lung cancer, and its role as therapeutical target.

  13. Some pathoanatomical points on radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, Masanobu; Miwa, Atsuo (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-09-01

    For the improvement of radiotherapy for lung cancer the authors have pointed out some pathoanatomical points to be considered before the treatment of choice. Besides the well-known side effects like radiation pneumonitis and pleuritis, cavity formation within the lung with or without infection and hemorrhage, opportunistic infection of the lung or the whole body, DIC and stress ulcer in the aged are demonstrated on 6 cases. The problem of sporadic remaining of cancer cells in the periphery of the radiation field, which may be due to respiratory movement, is also picked up.

  14. Novel agents in the management of lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, B

    2012-01-31

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Survival remains poor as approximately 80% of cases present with advanced stage disease. However, new treatments are emerging which offer hope to patients with advanced disease. Insights into cell biology have identified numerous intracellular and extracellular peptides that are pivotal in cancer cell signalling. Disrupting the function of these peptides inhibits intracellular signal transduction and diminishes uncontrolled proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and tumour angiogenesis. The most widely studied signalling pathway is the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) pathway. EGF signalling can be disrupted at numerous points. Blockade of the cell surface receptor is achieved by the monoclonal antibody cetuximab; intracellular tyrosine kinase activity is inhibited by erlotinib. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) regulates another pathway important for tumour growth. Inhibition of VEGF impairs angiogenesis and disrupts metastatic spread. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF and blocks interaction with its cell surface receptor. Clinical trials have demonstrated that disruption of these signalling pathways can improve survival in advanced lung cancer. New compounds including folate antimetabolites such as pemetrexed, proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib, modified glutathione analogues such as TLK286, and other agents such as epothilones and other small molecules are currently being evaluated in patients with lung cancer. As more and more signalling peptides are targeted for manipulation, it is hoped that a new era is dawning in the treatment of advanced stage lung cancer. This review will focus on emerging new therapies in the management of lung cancer.

  15. Mass Spectrometry–based Proteomic Profiling of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Sebahat; Chaurand, Pierre; Massion, Pierre P.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to further our understanding of lung cancer biology and to identify new candidate biomarkers to be used in the management of lung cancer, we need to probe these tissues and biological fluids with tools that address the biology of lung cancer directly at the protein level. Proteins are responsible of the function and phenotype of cells. Cancer cells express proteins that distinguish them from normal cells. Proteomics is defined as the study of the proteome, the complete set of proteins produced by a species, using the technologies of large-scale protein separation and identification. As a result, new technologies are being developed to allow the rapid and systematic analysis of thousands of proteins. The analytical advantages of mass spectrometry (MS), including sensitivity and high-throughput, promise to make it a mainstay of novel biomarker discovery to differentiate cancer from normal cells and to predict individuals likely to develop or recur with lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the progress made in clinical proteomics as it applies to the management of lung cancer. We will focus our discussion on how MS approaches may advance the areas of early detection, response to therapy, and prognostic evaluation. PMID:19349484

  16. Overview of KRAS-Driven Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Clare; Downward, Julian

    2015-01-01

    KRAS, the most frequently mutated oncogene in non-small cell lung cancer, has been utilized extensively to model human lung adenocarcinomas. The results from such studies have enhanced considerably an understanding of the relationship between KRAS and the development of lung cancer. Detailed in this overview are the features of various KRAS-driven genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of non-small cell lung cancer, their utilization, and the potential of these models for the study of lung cancer biology.

  17. CLPTM1L polymorphism and lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Bian, Xiaonian; Zhao, Qiuliang

    2015-01-01

    The association of Cleft Lip and Palate Transmembrane Protein 1 (CLPTM1L) rs31489 polymorphism with risk of lung cancer has been evaluated in many studies; however, the results from these studies are controversial. Thus, further analysis on association between CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer is needed among a larger study population. A literature search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct, SpringerLink, EBSCO, Wanfang, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases was carried out to identify studies investigating the association between lung cancer risk and CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism. The strength of the association between CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism and lung cancer risk was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the overall analysis, there was significant association between CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism and lung cancer risk under an allele model (OR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18; P < 0.00001; I(2) = 57%). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity was performed. Stratified analysis by ethnicity showed that a statistically increased cancer risk was found in the Caucasian population (OR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10-1.21; P < 0.00001; I(2) = 22%), but there was no significant association between lung cancer risk and CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism in the Asian population (OR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.08; P = 0.37; I(2) = 15%). In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrates that CLPTM1L rs31489 polymorphism significantly modified the risk of lung cancer.

  18. Cancer of the lung in iron ore (haematite) miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J. T.; Doll, R.; Faulds, J. S.; Leiper, J.

    1970-01-01

    Boyd, J. T., Doll, R., Faulds, J. S., and Leiper, J.(1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 97-105. Cancer of the lung in iron ore (haematite) miners. The mortality of Cumberland iron-ore miners has been studied by examining the death certificates of 5 811 men resident in two local authority areas (Ennerdale R.D. and Whitehaven M.B.) who died between 1948 and 1967. Comparison of the iron miners' experience with (1) that of other local men and (2) the relevant national experience has provided an assessment of the suspected occupational risk of lung cancer associated with haematite mining. During the 20-year period there were 42 deaths attributed to lung cancer among iron mine employees resident in the study area: 36 of these occurred in miners working underground, which was significantly greater than that expected from local non-mining (20·6 deaths) or national (21·5 deaths) experience. In contrast to these findings, there was no evidence of any excess mortality from lung cancer among surface workers and, for iron miners as a whole, mortality from other cancers was close to the national experience. A parallel analysis of mortality among coal miners showed a deficit of deaths from lung cancer in line with other studies. The patterns of other respiratory mortality in the two local mining groups were also in line with previous experience, and confirmed the existence of a substantial silicotic hazard associated with haematite mining in Cumberland. These findings strengthen previous necropsy evidence and indicate that West Cumberland iron-ore miners who work underground experience an occupational hazard of lung cancer. They suggest that the miners suffer a lung cancer mortality about 70% higher than `normal'. The risk may be due to radioactivity in the air of the mines (average radon concentration of 100 p Ci/litre) or to a carcinogenic effect of iron oxide. PMID:5448525

  19. Predictive Factors of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Soliman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiation-induced lung toxicity is an important dose-limiting toxicity in lung cancer radiotherapy, for which there are no generally accepted predictive factors. This study seeks to identify risk factors associated with the development of severe radiation-induced lung toxicity using clinical and dosimetric parameters. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 54 patients with histologically proven stage III non-small cell lung cancer treated with three dimensional-conformal radiotherapy at Alexandria Main University Hospital between January 2008 and December 2011. The original treatment plans for those patients were restored and imported to a treatment planning system. Lung dose–volume histograms and various dosimetric parameters were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: The following grades of radiation-induced lung toxicity were observed in patients - grade 0: 17 (31.5%, grade 1: 5 (9.3%, grade 2: 13 (24.1%, grade 3: 15 (27.8%, and grade 5: 4 (7.4%. A total of 19 (35.2% patients developed grade ≥3 and were considered to have an event. Univariate analysis showed that age, presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and location of the primary tumor had significant associations with severe radiation-induced lung toxicity. Other dosimetric variables such as tumor side, histology, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, smoking, and gender showed no significant correlations with severe radiation-induced lung toxicity. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.001 and location of the primary tumor (P=0.010 were the only predictive factors for severe radiation-induced lung toxicity. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lower lung lobe tumors have a high risk of severe radiationinduced lung toxicity when treated with combined chemoradiotherapy. These easily obtained

  20. Lung cancer after internal alpha-exposure of the lung from incorporated plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhail, S.

    2004-07-01

    Several epidemiological studies among workers of first Russian nuclear complex Mayak which produced weapon-grade plutonium showed significant increase of lung cancer mortality. The estimated shape of the dose-response was linear with both alpha and gamma dose but risk coefficients for gamma-exposure are on the edge of the significance level. This study was performed in the cohort of male Mayak nuclear workers initially hired in 1948-1958 with known levels of plutonium exposure. Number of observed lung cancer cases available for analyses in this cohort was 217. The relative risk of death from lung cancer among smokers was 10.7 (5.5-25.2) comparatively to non-smokers. This is in good correspondence with results of other studies. The excess relative risk per one Gray was 63. (4.1-9.7) for internal alpha-exposure and 0.18 (0.01-0.5) for external gamma-exposure. According to a model this gives 16:112:60:29 cases of lung cancer attributed to background, smoking, internal alpha-and external gamma-exposure, correspondingly. The relative risks of death from lung cancer were also estimated in a nested case-control study with lung cancer deaths as cases. Controls were selected from the cohort and matched for birth year to account for trend in lung cancer mortality with time. The analyses with nested case-control approach gave relative risks for smoking 14.7 (6.8-38.9). Relative risk of lung cancer among non-smokers after accumulating 0.34 Gy of alpha-exposure to lung was 3.7 (1.7-9.0). It should be emphasized that in fact after accumulation 0.3-0.4 Gy of absorbed dose 3-4 fold increase in lung cancer mortality was observed. This dose is very close to the dose which would be produced after intake of plutonium in quantities which are permissible today. (Author)