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Sample records for ii comparing substructure

  1. DISSECTING GALAXY FORMATION. II. COMPARING SUBSTRUCTURE IN PURE DARK MATTER AND BARYONIC MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    We compare the substructure evolution in pure dark matter (DM) halos with those in the presence of baryons, hereafter PDM and BDM models, respectively. The prime halos have been analyzed in the previous work. Models have been evolved from identical initial conditions which have been constructed by means of the constrained realization method. The BDM model includes star formation and feedback from stellar evolution onto the gas. A comprehensive catalog of subhalo populations has been compiled and individual and statistical properties of subhalos analyzed, including their orbital differences. We find that subhalo population mass functions in PDM and BDM are consistent with a single power law, M α sbh , for each of the models in the mass range of ∼2 x 10 8 M sun -2 x 10 11 M sun . However, we detect a nonnegligible shift between these functions, the time-averaged α ∼ -0.86 for the PDM and -0.98 for the BDM models. Overall, α appears to be a nearly constant in time, with variations of ±15%. Second, we find that the radial mass distribution of subhalo populations can be approximated by a power law, R γ sbh with a steepening that occurs at the radius of a maximal circular velocity, R vmax , in the prime halos. Here we find that γ sbh ∼ -1.5 for the PDM and -1 for the BDM models, when averaged over time inside R vmax . The slope is steeper outside this region and approaches -3. We detect little spatial bias (less than 10%) between the subhalo populations and the DM distribution of the main halos. Also, the subhalo population exhibits much less triaxiality in the presence of baryons, in tandem with the shape of the prime halo. Finally, we find that, counter-intuitively, the BDM population is depleted at a faster rate than the PDM one within the central 30 kpc of the prime halo. The reason for this is that although the baryons provide a substantial glue to the subhalos, the main halo exhibits the same trend. This assures a more efficient tidal disruption of the

  2. Jet substructure in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David W

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.

  3. Jet Substructure Without Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods. In preparation for the LHC, the past several years have seen extensive work on various aspects of collider searches. With the excellent resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors as a catalyst, one area that has undergone significant development is jet substructure physics. The use of jet substructure techniques, which probe the fine-grained details of how energy is distributed in jets, has two broad goals. First, measuring more than just the bulk properties of jets allows for additional probes of QCD. For example, jet substructure measurements can be compared against precision perturbative QCD calculations or used to tune Monte Carlo event generators. Second, jet substructure allows for additional handles in event discrimination. These handles could play an important role at the LHC in discriminating between signal and background events in a wide variety of particle searches. For example, Monte Carlo studies indicate that jet substructure techniques allow for efficient reconstruction of boosted heavy objects such as the W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons, the top quark, and the Higgs boson.

  4. Jet substructure with analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal [University of Manchester, Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Fregoso, Alessandro; Powling, Alexander [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Marzani, Simone [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    We consider the mass distribution of QCD jets after the application of jet-substructure methods, specifically the mass-drop tagger, pruning, trimming and their variants. In contrast to most current studies employing Monte Carlo methods, we carry out analytical calculations at the next-to-leading order level, which are sufficient to extract the dominant logarithmic behaviour for each technique, and compare our findings to exact fixed-order results. Our results should ultimately lead to a better understanding of these jet-substructure methods which in turn will influence the development of future substructure tools for LHC phenomenology. (orig.)

  5. Jet substructure measurements at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Aparajita; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A review is given of recent Run II measurements of jet substructure at CMS and ATLAS, as well of the most relevant measurements from Run I. Quark and gluon discrimination, jet mass and other substructure observable are discussed together with prospects for future measurements with new insight from theory.

  6. Substructure of Highly Boosted Massive Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alon, Raz [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2012-10-01

    Modern particle accelerators enable researchers to study new high energy frontiers which have never been explored before. This realm opens possibilities to further examine known fields such as Quantum Chromodynamics. In addition, it allows searching for new physics and setting new limits on the existence of such. This study examined the substructure of highly boosted massive jets measured by the CDF II detector. Events from 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider were collected out of a total integrated luminosity of 5.95 fb$^{-1}$. They were selected to have at least one jet with transverse momentum above 400 GeV/c. The jet mass, angularity, and planar flow were measured and compared with predictions of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, and were found to be consistent with the theory. A search for boosted top quarks was conducted and resulted in an upper limit on the production cross section of such top quarks.

  7. Comparative analysis of Carnaval II Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Bastos, W. dos

    1981-01-01

    The Carnaval II cross sections library from the french fast reactor calculation system is evaluated in two ways: 1 0 ) a comparative analysis of the calculations system for fast reactors at IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear) using a 'benchmark' model is done; 2 0 ) a comparative analysis in relation to the french system itself is also done, using calculations realized with two versions of the french library: the SETR-II and the CARNAVAL IV, the first one being anterior and the second one posterior to the Carnaval II version, the one used by IEN. (Author) [pt

  8. Substructure in clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitchett, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Optical observations suggesting the existence of substructure in clusters of galaxies are examined. Models of cluster formation and methods used to detect substructure in clusters are reviewed. Consideration is given to classification schemes based on a departure of bright cluster galaxies from a spherically symmetric distribution, evidence for statistically significant substructure, and various types of substructure, including velocity, spatial, and spatial-velocity substructure. The substructure observed in the galaxy distribution in clusters is discussed, focusing on observations from general cluster samples, the Virgo cluster, the Hydra cluster, Centaurus, the Coma cluster, and the Cancer cluster. 88 refs

  9. SHARP - II. Mass structure in strong lenses is not necessarily dark matter substructure: a flux ratio anomaly from an edge-on disc in B1555+375

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsueh, J. -W; Fassnacht, C. D.; Vegetti, S.; McKean, J. P.; Spingola, C.; Auger, M. W.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Lagattuta, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational lens flux-ratio anomalies provide a powerful technique for measuring dark matter substructure in distant galaxies. However, before using these flux-ratio anomalies to test galaxy formation models, it is imperative to ascertain that the given anomalies are indeed due to the presence of

  10. Urban structures and substructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mierzejewska Lidia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In urban geography, a traditional but always important research problem has been the spatial-functional structure of towns and changes that occur in this field. Two approaches can be distinguished here: the sociological and the geographical. The former follows in the steps of the so-called Chicago school, i.e. Park, Burgess and Hoyt, and the other of Ullman and Harris. It seems, however, that those two approaches do not exhaust the range of spatial-structural studies which may be conducted in modern towns since there are areas within them endowed with specific properties that can be called their substructures. This paper will present the general characteristics of such substructures and identify factors responsible for their appearance and development. It will also propose an empirical research pattern. The term ‘substructures’ is taken to denote relatively autonomous, highly uniform wholes standing out in the spatial-functional structure of a town, distinguished on the basis of spatial relations generated by people. While structural elements of towns in the approach of the Chicago school or that of Harris and Ullman can be identified with structural regions, urban substructures show a similarity to functional regions in their organisation, structure and operation. Thus, towns with identified substructures have a polycentric spatial- functional structure, favourable in terms of both the level of service of their inhabitants and their sustainable development.

  11. Sub-structure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available in Conventional Sub-structure Element Concrete Volume (m 3 ) kgCO2/m 3 (see footnote) Total CO2 (kg) Foundations 1 3.69 209 2 771 Foundation walls 3 1.79 174 4 311 Concrete slab 5 4.09 250 6 1022 Total 9.57 2104 Raft foundations...

  12. The wave-based substructuring approach for the efficient description of interface dynamics in substructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, S.; Pluymers, B.; Ragnarsson, P.; Hadjit, R.; Desmet, W.

    2010-04-01

    enables efficient structural modification predictions of the global modes, so that efficient vibro-acoustic design modification, optimization and robust design become possible. The results show that wave-based substructuring offers a clear benefit for vehicle design modifications, by improving both the speed of component reduction processes and the efficiency and accuracy of design iteration predictions, as compared to conventional substructuring approaches.

  13. Characterising the Decays of High-pt Top Quarks and Addressing Naturalness with Jet Substructure in ATLAS Runs I and II

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00397460

    The coupling of the Standard Model top quark to the Higgs boson is O(1), which leads to large quantum corrections in the perturbative expansion of the Higgs boson mass. Possible solutions to this so-called naturalness problem include supersymmetric models with gluinos and stop squarks whose masses are at the electroweak scale, O(1 TeV). If supersymmetry is realised in nature at this scale, these particles are expected to be accessible with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A search for gluino pair production with decays mediated by stop- and sbottom-squark loops in the initial 14.8 ifb of the ATLAS run 2 dataset is presented in terms of a pair of simplified models, which targets extreme regions of phase space using jet substructure techniques. No excess is observed and limits are set which greatly extend the previous exclusion region of this search, up to 1.9 TeV (1.95 TeV) for gluinos decaying through light stop (sbottom) squarks to the lightest neutralinos. A performance study of top tagging algorithms in ...

  14. Galaxy Clusters: Substructure and Mass Systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Ying

    2010-07-01

    We calibrate the X-ray measured hydrostatic equilibrium (H.E.) mass and assess the origin of the H.E. mass systematics using 2-D spectrally measured X-ray properties. We obtained that the average X-ray mass derived from H.E. using XMM-Newton data is lower compared to the weak lensing mass from Subaru data for relaxed clusters in a sample of 12 clusters at z~0.2. This is comparable to the expectation of numerical simulations because of the non-thermal pressure support due to turbulence and bulk motions. The gas mass to weak lensing mass ratio shows no dependence on the cluster morphology, which indicates that the gas mass may be a good mass proxy regardless of the cluster dynamical state. To understand the origin of the systematics of the H.E. mass, we investigated 4 nearby clusters, for which the substructure is quantified by the radial fluctuations in the spectrally measured 2-D maps by a cumulative/differential scatter profile relative to the mean profile within/at a given radius. The amplitude of and the discontinuity in the scatter complements 2-D substructure diagnostics, e.g. indicating the most disturbed radial range. There is a tantalizing link between the substructure identified using the scatter of the entropy and pressure fluctuations and the deviation of the H.E. mass relative to the expected mass based on the representative scaling relation, e.g., M-Mgas, particularly at r500-the radius within which the over-density, Δ, is 500 with respect to the critical density. This indicates that at larger radii, the systematic error of the H.E. mass may well be caused by substructure.

  15. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Péter; Kovács, Péter

    2015-05-26

    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results.

  16. Star formation and substructure in galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and substructure in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Several past studies of individual galaxy clusters have suggested that cluster mergers enhance cluster SF, while others find no such relationship. The SF fraction in multi-component clusters (0.228 ± 0.007) is higher than that in single-component clusters (0.175 ± 0.016) for galaxies with M r 0.1 <−20.5. In both single- and multi-component clusters, the fraction of star-forming galaxies increases with clustercentric distance and decreases with local galaxy number density, and multi-component clusters show a higher SF fraction than single-component clusters at almost all clustercentric distances and local densities. Comparing the SF fraction in individual clusters to several statistical measures of substructure, we find weak, but in most cases significant at greater than 2σ, correlations between substructure and SF fraction. These results could indicate that cluster mergers may cause weak but significant SF enhancement in clusters, or unrelaxed clusters exhibit slightly stronger SF due to their less evolved states relative to relaxed clusters.

  17. THE SEGUE K GIANT SURVEY. III. QUANTIFYING GALACTIC HALO SUBSTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janesh, William; Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Rockosi, Constance [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Starkenburg, Else [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Xue, Xiang Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lee, Young Sun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5–125 kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration project. Using a position–velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a model of a smooth stellar halo, we quantify the amount of substructure in the halo, divided by distance and metallicity. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured. We also confirm earlier work using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius, and additionally find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity. Comparing to resampled BHB stars, we find that K giants and BHBs have similar amounts of substructure over equivalent ranges of Galactocentric radius. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify members of individual groups, we find that a large fraction (∼33%) of grouped stars are associated with Sgr, and identify stars belonging to other halo star streams: the Orphan Stream, the Cetus Polar Stream, and others, including previously unknown substructures. A large fraction of sample K giants (more than 50%) are not grouped into any substructure. We find also that the Sgr stream strongly dominates groups in the outer halo for all except the most metal-poor stars, and suggest that this is the source of the increase of substructure with Galactocentric radius and metallicity.

  18. Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Baumgärtel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several binaural audio signal enhancement algorithms were evaluated with respect to their potential to improve speech intelligibility in noise for users of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs. 50% speech reception thresholds (SRT50 were assessed using an adaptive procedure in three distinct, realistic noise scenarios. All scenarios were highly nonstationary, complex, and included a significant amount of reverberation. Other aspects, such as the perfectly frontal target position, were idealized laboratory settings, allowing the algorithms to perform better than in corresponding real-world conditions. Eight bilaterally implanted CI users, wearing devices from three manufacturers, participated in the study. In all noise conditions, a substantial improvement in SRT50 compared to the unprocessed signal was observed for most of the algorithms tested, with the largest improvements generally provided by binaural minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR beamforming algorithms. The largest overall improvement in speech intelligibility was achieved by an adaptive binaural MVDR in a spatially separated, single competing talker noise scenario. A no-pre-processing condition and adaptive differential microphones without a binaural link served as the two baseline conditions. SRT50 improvements provided by the binaural MVDR beamformers surpassed the performance of the adaptive differential microphones in most cases. Speech intelligibility improvements predicted by instrumental measures were shown to account for some but not all aspects of the perceptually obtained SRT50 improvements measured in bilaterally implanted CI users.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Effects of Laser Modalities on Shear Bond Strengths of Veneering Porcelains to Laser Sintered Substructures: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorler, Oguzhan; Saygin, Aysegul Goze

    2017-06-01

    Laser modalities and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) have a potential to enhance micromechanical bonding between dental super- and infrastructures. However, the effect of different manufacturing methods on the metal-ceramic bond strength needs further evaluation. We investigated the effect of surface treatment with Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and Ho:YAG lasers on the shear bond strength (SBS) of high-fusion dental porcelains (Vita and G-Ceram) to infrastructures prepared with DMLS in vitro settings. Study specimens (n = 128) were randomly divided into study subsets (n = 8), considering treatment types applied on the surface of infrastructures, including sandblasting and selected laser modalities; infrastructure types as direct laser sintered (DLS) and Ni-Cr based; and superstructure porcelains as Vita and G-Ceram. The SBS test was performed to assess the effectiveness of surface modifications that were also examined with a stereo microscope. Considering laser procedure types, the highest SBS values were obtained by Er:YAG laser, followed by, with a decreasing efficiency, Ho:YAG laser and sandblasting procedures, and Nd:YAG laser procedure (p laser decreases the bonding of Vita and G-Ceram in all the infrastructures compared with sandblasting. Considering porcelains, the highest SBS values were obtained by Vita (p laser procedures caused surface irregularities as revealed by the stereo microscopic examination. In current experimental settings, Er:YAG laser applied to DLS infrastructure veneered with Vita porcelain increases bonding strength more distinctly, and Nd:YAG laser applied to Ni-Cr-based infrastructure veneered with G-Ceram porcelain alters bonding strength unfavorably.

  20. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  1. A Modal-Based Substructure Method Applied to Nonlinear Rotordynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut J. Holl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The discretisation of rotordynamic systems usually results in a high number of coordinates, so the computation of the solution of the equations of motion is very time consuming. An efficient semianalytic time-integration method combined with a substructure technique is given, which accounts for nonsymmetric matrices and local nonlinearities. The partitioning of the equation of motion into two substructures is performed. Symmetric and linear background systems are defined for each substructure. The excitation of the substructure comes from the given excitation force, the nonlinear restoring force, the induced force due to the gyroscopic and circulatory effects of the substructure under consideration and the coupling force of the substructures. The high effort for the analysis with complex numbers, which is necessary for nonsymmetric systems, is omitted. The solution is computed by means of an integral formulation. A suitable approximation for the unknown coordinates, which are involved in the coupling forces, has to be introduced and the integration results in Green's functions of the considered substructures. Modal analysis is performed for each linear and symmetric background system of the substructure. Modal reduction can be easily incorporated and the solution is calculated iteratively. The numerical behaviour of the algorithm is discussed and compared to other approximate methods of nonlinear structural dynamics for a benchmark problem and a representative example.

  2. A Comparison of Reduced Order Modeling Techniques Used in Dynamic Substructuring [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettgen, Dan [Wisc; Seeger, Benjamin [Stuttgart; Tai, Wei Che [Washington; Baek, Seunghun [Michigan; Dossogne, Tilan [Liege; Allen, Matthew S [Wisc; Kuether, Robert J.; Brake, Matthew Robert; Mayes, Randall L.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental dynamic substructuring is a means whereby a mathematical model for a substructure can be obtained experimentally and then coupled to a model for the rest of the assembly to predict the response. Recently, various methods have been proposed that use a transmission simulator to overcome sensitivity to measurement errors and to exercise the interface between the substructures; including the Craig-Bampton, Dual Craig-Bampton, and Craig-Mayes methods. This work compares the advantages and disadvantages of these reduced order modeling strategies for two dynamic substructuring problems. The methods are first used on an analytical beam model to validate the methodologies. Then they are used to obtain an experimental model for structure consisting of a cylinder with several components inside connected to the outside case by foam with uncertain properties. This represents an exceedingly difficult structure to model and so experimental substructuring could be an attractive way to obtain a model of the system.

  3. On jet substructure methods for signal jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester,Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Powling, Alexander [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester,Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Siodmok, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); CERN, PH-TH,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-08-17

    We carry out simple analytical calculations and Monte Carlo studies to better understand the impact of QCD radiation on some well-known jet substructure methods for jets arising from the decay of boosted Higgs bosons. Understanding differences between taggers for these signal jets assumes particular significance in situations where they perform similarly on QCD background jets. As an explicit example of this we compare the Y-splitter method to the more recently proposed Y-pruning technique. We demonstrate how the insight we gain can be used to significantly improve the performance of Y-splitter by combining it with trimming and show that this combination outperforms the other taggers studied here, at high p{sub T}. We also make analytical estimates for optimal parameter values, for a range of methods and compare to results from Monte Carlo studies.

  4. QUANTIFYING KINEMATIC SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE MILKY WAY'S STELLAR HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Xiangxiang; Zhao Gang; Luo Ali; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F.; Koposov, Sergey E.; Kang, Xi; Liu, Chao; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Bullock, James S.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Morrison, Heather; Rockosi, Constance; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2011-01-01

    We present and analyze the positions, distances, and radial velocities for over 4000 blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the Milky Way's halo, drawn from SDSS DR8. We search for position-velocity substructure in these data, a signature of the hierarchical assembly of the stellar halo. Using a cumulative 'close pair distribution' as a statistic in the four-dimensional space of sky position, distance, and velocity, we quantify the presence of position-velocity substructure at high statistical significance among the BHB stars: pairs of BHB stars that are close in position on the sky tend to have more similar distances and radial velocities compared to a random sampling of these overall distributions. We make analogous mock observations of 11 numerical halo formation simulations, in which the stellar halo is entirely composed of disrupted satellite debris, and find a level of substructure comparable to that seen in the actually observed BHB star sample. This result quantitatively confirms the hierarchical build-up of the stellar halo through a signature in phase (position-velocity) space. In detail, the structure present in the BHB stars is somewhat less prominent than that seen in most simulated halos, quite possibly because BHB stars represent an older sub-population. BHB stars located beyond 20 kpc from the Galactic center exhibit stronger substructure than at r gc < 20 kpc.

  5. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. XI. TEMPERATURES AND SUBSTRUCTURE OF GALACTIC CLUMPS BASED ON 350 μM OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merello, Manuel; Evans II, Neal J. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, 4-181 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-95748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Battersby, Cara; Dunham, Michael M., E-mail: manuel@astro.as.utexas.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We present 107 maps of continuum emission at 350 μm from Galactic molecular clumps. Observed sources were mainly selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) catalog, with three additional maps covering star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy. The higher resolution of the SHARC-II images (8.″5 beam) compared with the 1.1 mm images from BGPS (33″ beam) allowed us to identify a large population of smaller substructures within the clumps. A catalog is presented for the 1386 sources extracted from the 350 μm maps. The color temperature distribution of clumps based on the two wavelengths has a median of 13.3 K and mean of 16.3 ± 0.4 K, assuming an opacity law index of 1.7. For the structures with good determination of color temperatures, the mean ratio of gas temperature, determined from NH{sub 3} observations, to dust color temperature is 0.88 and the median ratio is 0.76. About half the clumps have more than 2 substructures and 22 clumps have more than 10. The fraction of the mass in dense substructures seen at 350 μm compared to the mass of their parental clump is ∼0.19, and the surface densities of these substructures are, on average, 2.2 times those seen in the clumps identified at 1.1 mm. For a well-characterized sample, 88 structures (31%) exceed a surface density of 0.2 g cm{sup −2}, and 18 (6%) exceed 1.0 g cm{sup −2}, thresholds for massive star formation suggested by theorists.

  6. Type Classes for Lightweight Substructural Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear and substructural types are powerful tools, but adding them to standard functional programming languages often means introducing extra annotations and typing machinery. We propose a lightweight substructural type system design that recasts the structural rules of weakening and contraction as type classes; we demonstrate this design in a prototype language, Clamp. Clamp supports polymorphic substructural types as well as an expressive system of mutable references. At the same time, it adds little additional overhead to a standard Damas-Hindley-Milner type system enriched with type classes. We have established type safety for the core model and implemented a type checker with type inference in Haskell.

  7. Inspection of Asian Lacquer Substructures by Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Fukunaga, Kaori; Kohzuma, Yoshei

    2017-01-01

    Lacquering is considered one of the most representative Asian artistic techniques. While the decorative part of lacquerwares is the lacquer itself, their substructures serve as the backbone of the object itself. Very little is known about these hidden substructures. Since lacquerwares are mostly...... by inspecting the substructures of Asian lacquerwares by means of THz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Three different kinds of Asian lacquerwares were examined by THz-TDI, and the outcomes have been compared with those obtained by standard X-radiography. THz-TDI provides unique information on lacquerwares...

  8. Inspection of Asian Lacquer Substructures by Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Fukunaga, Kaori; Kohzuma, Yoshei; Kiriyama, Kyoko; Matsuda, Kazutaka; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2017-04-01

    Lacquering is considered one of the most representative Asian artistic techniques. While the decorative part of lacquerwares is the lacquer itself, their substructures serve as the backbone of the object itself. Very little is known about these hidden substructures. Since lacquerwares are mostly composed of organic materials, such as urushi, wood, carbon black, and fabrics which are very X-ray transparent, standard X-ray radiography has some problems in achieving clear X-ray radiographic images. Therefore, we wanted to contribute to the understanding of the lacquer manufacturing technique by inspecting the substructures of Asian lacquerwares by means of THz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Three different kinds of Asian lacquerwares were examined by THz-TDI, and the outcomes have been compared with those obtained by standard X-radiography. THz-TDI provides unique information on lacquerwares substructures, aiding in the comprehension of the manufacturing technology yielding to these precious artefacts.

  9. Nonlinear seismic response analysis of embedded reactor buildings based on the substructure approach in time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Nakai, S.; Watanabe, T.

    1985-01-01

    A practical method for elasto-plastic seismic response analysis is described under considerations of nonlinear material law of a structure and dynamic soil-structure interaction. The method is essentially based on the substructure approach of time domain analysis. Verification of the present method is carried out for typical BWR-MARK II type reactor building which is embedded in a soil, and the results are compared with those of the frequency response analysis which gives good accuracy for linear system. As a result, the present method exhibits sufficient accuracy. Furthermore, elasto-plastic analyses considering the soil-structure interaction are made as an application of the present method, and nonlinear behaviors of the structure and embedment effects are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Nonlinear seismic response analysis of an embedded reactor building based on the substructure approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Ichikawa, T.; Nakai, S.; Watanabe, T.

    1987-01-01

    A practical method to calculate the elasto-plastic seismic response of structures considering the dynamic soil-structure interaction is presented. The substructure technique in the time domain is utilized in the proposed method. A simple soil spring system with the coupling effects which are usually evaluated by the impedance matrix is introduced to consider the soil-structure interaction for embedded structures. As a numerical example, the response of a BWR-MARK II type reactor building embedded in the layered soil is calculated. The accuracy of the present method is verified by comparing its numerical results with exact solutions. The nonlinear behaivor and the soil-structure interaction effects on the response of the reactor building are also discussed in detail. It is concluded that the present method is effective for the aseismic design considering both the material nonlinearity of the nuclear reactor building and the dynamic soil-structure interaction. (orig.)

  11. The importance of calorimetry for highly-boosted jet substructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Evan [Brown U.; Freytsis, Marat [Oregon U.; Hinzmann, Andreas [Hamburg U.; Narain, Meenakshi [Brown U.; Thaler, Jesse [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Tran, Nhan [Fermilab; Vernieri, Caterina [Fermilab

    2017-09-25

    Jet substructure techniques are playing an essential role in exploring the TeV scale at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), since they facilitate the efficient reconstruction and identification of highly-boosted objects. Both for the LHC and for future colliders, there is a growing interest in using jet substructure methods based only on charged-particle information. The reason is that silicon-based tracking detectors offer excellent granularity and precise vertexing, which can improve the angular resolution on highly-collimated jets and mitigate the impact of pileup. In this paper, we assess how much jet substructure performance degrades by using track-only information, and we demonstrate physics contexts in which calorimetry is most beneficial. Specifically, we consider five different hadronic final states - W bosons, Z bosons, top quarks, light quarks, gluons - and test the pairwise discrimination power with a multi-variate combination of substructure observables. In the idealized case of perfect reconstruction, we quantify the loss in discrimination performance when using just charged particles compared to using all detected particles. We also consider the intermediate case of using charged particles plus photons, which provides valuable information about neutral pions. In the more realistic case of a segmented calorimeter, we assess the potential performance gains from improving calorimeter granularity and resolution, comparing a CMS-like detector to more ambitious future detector concepts. Broadly speaking, we find large performance gains from neutral-particle information and from improved calorimetry in cases where jet mass resolution drives the discrimination power, whereas the gains are more modest if an absolute mass scale calibration is not required.

  12. Spatial Substructure in the M87 Globular Cluster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuting; Zhang, Yunhao; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric; Lim, Sungsoon

    2018-01-01

    Based on the observation of Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) project, we obtained the u,g,r,i,z and Ks band photometric information of all the objects in the 2 degree × 2 degree area (Pilot Region) around M87, the major subcluster of Virgo. By adapting an Extreme Deconvolution method, which classifies objects into Globular Clusters (GCs), galaxies and foreground stars with their color and morphology data, we got a purer-than-ever GC distribution map with a depth to gmag=25 in Pilot Region. After masking galaxy GCs, smoothing with a 10arcmin Gaussian kernel and performing a flat field correction, we show the GC density map of M87, and got a good sersic fitting of GC radial distribution with a sersic index~2.2 in the central ellipse part (45arcmin semi major axis area of M87). We quantitatively compared our GC sample with a substructure-free mock data set, which was generated from the smoothed density map as well as the sersic fitting, by calculating the 2 point correlation function (TPCF) value in different parts of the map. After separately performing such comparison with mocks based on different galaxy masking radii which vary from 4 times g band effective radius to 10, we found signals of remarkable spatial enhancement in certain directions in the central ellipse of M87, as well as halo substructures shown as lumpiness and holes in the outer region. We present the estimated scales of these substructures from the TPCF results, and, managed to locate them with a statistical analysis of the pixelized GC map. Apart from all results listed above, we discuss the constant, extra-galactic substructure signal at a scale of ~3kpc, which does not diminish with masking sizes, as the evidence of merging and accretion history of M87.

  13. Small but mighty: Dark matter substructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Keeton, Charles; Moustakas, Leonidas

    2018-01-01

    The fundamental properties of dark matter, such as its mass, self-interaction, and coupling to other particles, can have a major impact on the evolution of cosmological density fluctuations on small length scales. Strong gravitational lenses have long been recognized as powerful tools to study the dark matter distribution on these small subgalactic scales. In this talk, we discuss how gravitationally lensed quasars and extended lensed arcs could be used to probe non minimal dark matter models. We comment on the possibilities enabled by precise astrometry, deep imaging, and time delays to extract information about mass substructures inside lens galaxies. To this end, we introduce a new lensing statistics that allows for a robust diagnostic of the presence of perturbations caused by substructures. We determine which properties of mass substructures are most readily constrained by lensing data and forecast the constraining power of current and future observations.

  14. Comparative Pharmacokinetics Study of Icariin and Icariside II in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To explore the pharmacokinetic properties of icariin (ICA and icariside II (ICA II following intragastric and intravenous administration in rats, a rapid and sensitive method by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ICA and ICA II in rat plasma. The quantification was performed by using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions m/z 677.1/531.1 for ICA, 515.1/369.1 for ICA II and 463.1/301.1 for diosmetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (IS. The assay showed linearity over the concentration range of 1.03–1032 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients of 0.9983 and 0.9977. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 15%. The lower limit of quantification for both ICA and ICA II was 1.03 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery of ICA and ICA II was more than 86.2%. The LC-MS/MS method has been successfully used in the pharmacokinetic studies of ICA and ICA II in rats. The results indicated that 91.2% of ICA was transformed into ICA II after oral administration by rats, whereas only 0.4% of ICA was transformed into ICA II after intravenous administration. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of ICA and ICA II after oral administration revealed that the Cmax and AUC0–t of ICA II were 3.8 and 13.0 times higher, respectively, than those of ICA. However, after intravenous administration, the Cmax and AUC0–t of ICA II were about only 12.1% and 4.2% of those of ICA. These results suggest that ICA and ICA II have distinct pharmacokinetic properties, and the insights obtained facilitate future pharmacological action studies.

  15. A note on the substructural hierarchy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2016), s. 102-110 ISSN 0942-5616 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : substructural hierarchy * full Lambek calculus * extension variables Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/malq.201500066

  16. Fracture behaviour of zirconia FPDs substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, W; Sjögren, G

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of superficial flaws after machining and to identify fracture initiation and propagation in three-unit heat-treated machined fixed partial dentures (FPDs) substructures made of hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) after loaded to fracture. Four three-unit HIPed Y-TZP-based FPDs substructures were examined. To evaluate the occurrence of superficial flaws after machining, the surfaces were studied utilizing a fluorescent penetrant method. After static loading to fracture, characteristic fracture features on both mating halves of the fractured specimens were studied using a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope. Grinding grooves were clearly visible on the surfaces of the machined FPDs substructures, but no other flaws could be seen with the fluorescent penetrant method. After loading to fracture, the characteristic fracture features of arrest lines, compression curl, fracture mirror, fracture origin, hackle and twist hackle were detected. These findings indicated that the decisive fracture was initiated at the gingival embrasure of the pontic in association with a grinding groove. Thus, in three-unit heat-treated machined HIPed Y-TZP FPDs substructures, with the shape studied in this study, the gingival embrasure of the pontic seems to be a weak area providing a location for tensile stresses when they are occlusally loaded. In this area, fracture initiation may be located to a grinding groove.

  17. THE UNORTHODOX ORBITS OF SUBSTRUCTURE HALOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludlow, Aaron D.; Navarro, Julio F.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina

    2009-01-01

    We use a suite of cosmological N-body simulations to study the properties of substructure halos (subhalos) in galaxy-sized cold dark matter halos. We extend prior work on the subject by considering the whole population of subhalos physically associated with the main system. These are defined as

  18. STRATUL DUBLU ELECTRIC AL MONTMORILONITULUI. II. ANALIZE COMPARATIVE ALE MODELELOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile RUSU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A fost analizată relaţia potenţial – distanţa de la suprafaţa solidului în volumul soluţiei în modelul Gouy-Chapman, modelul Stern şi modelul modificat Gouy-Chapman. Modelările efectuate conform modelului Stern pentru H-montmo­rilonit şi Al-montmorilonit intercalat cu oligomeri de aluminiu evidenţiază particularităţile stratului dublu electric în proximitatea suprafeţei bazale şi a suprafeţei laterale a montmorilonitului. Dinamica potenţialului în volumul soluţiei prin modelul modificat Gouy-Chapman devine identică modelului Stern, în condiţiile atribuirii caracteristicilor stratului compact din modelul Stern.EDL FOR MONTMORILLONITE. II. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MODELS The relationship potential - the distance from the surface of the solid towards the solution by the Gouy-Chapman model, the Stern model, and the modified Gouy-Chapman model were analyzed. Modeling performed according to the Stern model for H-montmorillonite and pillared Al-montmorillonite highlights the peculiarities of the double electric layer close to the basal and edge surfaces. The potential dynamics in the solution by the modified Gouy-Chapman model becomes identical to the Stern model if the main characteristics of Stern layer are attributed.

  19. Analysis of substructural variation in families of enzymatic proteins with applications to protein function prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fofanov Viacheslav Y

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural variations caused by a wide range of physico-chemical and biological sources directly influence the function of a protein. For enzymatic proteins, the structure and chemistry of the catalytic binding site residues can be loosely defined as a substructure of the protein. Comparative analysis of drug-receptor substructures across and within species has been used for lead evaluation. Substructure-level similarity between the binding sites of functionally similar proteins has also been used to identify instances of convergent evolution among proteins. In functionally homologous protein families, shared chemistry and geometry at catalytic sites provide a common, local point of comparison among proteins that may differ significantly at the sequence, fold, or domain topology levels. Results This paper describes two key results that can be used separately or in combination for protein function analysis. The Family-wise Analysis of SubStructural Templates (FASST method uses all-against-all substructure comparison to determine Substructural Clusters (SCs. SCs characterize the binding site substructural variation within a protein family. In this paper we focus on examples of automatically determined SCs that can be linked to phylogenetic distance between family members, segregation by conformation, and organization by homology among convergent protein lineages. The Motif Ensemble Statistical Hypothesis (MESH framework constructs a representative motif for each protein cluster among the SCs determined by FASST to build motif ensembles that are shown through a series of function prediction experiments to improve the function prediction power of existing motifs. Conclusions FASST contributes a critical feedback and assessment step to existing binding site substructure identification methods and can be used for the thorough investigation of structure-function relationships. The application of MESH allows for an automated

  20. AN EXAMINATION OF THE OPTICAL SUBSTRUCTURE OF GALAXY CLUSTERS HOSTING RADIO SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, Joshua D.; Blanton, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    Using radio sources from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey, and optical counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have identified a large number of galaxy clusters. The radio sources within these clusters are driven by active galactic nuclei, and our cluster samples include clusters with bent, and straight, double-lobed radio sources. We also included a single-radio-component comparison sample. We examine these galaxy clusters for evidence of optical substructure, testing the possibility that bent double-lobed radio sources are formed as a result of large-scale cluster mergers. We use a suite of substructure analysis tools to determine the location and extent of substructure visible in the optical distribution of cluster galaxies, and compare the rates of substructure in clusters with different types of radio sources. We found no preference for significant substructure in clusters hosting bent double-lobed radio sources compared to those with other types of radio sources.

  1. COMPAR: system to compare multigroup cross sections generated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 AND XLACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaf, J.; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1987-11-01

    A system, composed by the computer programs COMPAR and its interfaces, developed for comparing multigroup cross sections calculated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 and XLACS, is presented. (author)

  2. COMPAR: A system for comparing multigroup cross-sections generated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 and XLACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaf, J.; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1988-02-01

    A system consisting of the COMPAR computer program and its interfaces which was developed for comparing multigroup cross-sections generated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 and XLACS is presented. (author). 13 refs

  3. The gamma-ray-flux PDF from galactic halo substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Samuel K.; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2009-01-01

    One of the targets of the recently launched Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a diffuse gamma-ray background from dark-matter annihilation or decay in the Galactic halo. N-body simulations and theoretical arguments suggest that the dark matter in the Galactic halo may be clumped into substructure, rather than smoothly distributed. Here we propose the gamma-ray-flux probability distribution function (PDF) as a probe of substructure in the Galactic halo. We calculate this PDF for a phenomenological model of halo substructure and determine the regions of the substructure parameter space in which the PDF may be distinguished from the PDF for a smooth distribution of dark matter. In principle, the PDF allows a statistical detection of substructure, even if individual halos cannot be detected. It may also allow detection of substructure on the smallest microhalo mass scales, ∼ M ⊕ , for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Furthermore, it may also provide a method to measure the substructure mass function. However, an analysis that assumes a typical halo substructure model and a conservative estimate of the diffuse background suggests that the substructure PDF may not be detectable in the lifespan of Fermi in the specific case that the WIMP is a neutralino. Nevertheless, for a large range of substructure, WIMP annihilation, and diffuse background models, PDF analysis may provide a clear signature of substructure

  4. An online substructure identification method for local structural health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Jilin; Ou, Jinping; Jankowski, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a substructure isolation method, which uses time series of measured local response for online monitoring of substructures. The proposed monitoring process consists of two key steps: construction of the isolated substructure, and its identification. The isolated substructure is an independent virtual structure, which is numerically isolated from the global structure by placing virtual supports on the interface. First, the isolated substructure is constructed by a specific linear combination of time series of its measured local responses. Then, the isolated substructure is identified using its local natural frequencies extracted from the combined responses. The substructure is assumed to be linear; the outside part of the global structure can have any characteristics. The method has no requirements on the initial state of the structure, and so the process can be carried out repetitively for online monitoring. Online isolation and monitoring is illustrated in a numerical example with a frame model, and then verified in a cantilever beam experiment. (paper)

  5. Smart variations: Functional substructures for part compatibility

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2013-05-01

    As collections of 3D models continue to grow, reusing model parts allows generation of novel model variations. Naïvely swapping parts across models, however, leads to implausible results, especially when mixing parts across different model families. Hence, the user has to manually ensure that the final model remains functionally valid. We claim that certain symmetric functional arrangements (sFarr-s), which are special arrangements among symmetrically related substructures, bear close relation to object functions. Hence, we propose a purely geometric approach based on such substructures to match, replace, and position triplets of parts to create non-trivial, yet functionally plausible, model variations. We demonstrate that starting even from a small set of models such a simple geometric approach can produce a diverse set of non-trivial and plausible model variations. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Towards an understanding of jet substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Mrinal; Marzani, Simone; Salam, Gavin P

    2013-01-01

    We present first analytic, resummed calculations of the rates at which widespread jet substructure tools tag QCD jets. As well as considering trimming, pruning and the mass-drop tagger, we introduce modified tools with improved analytical and phenomenological behaviours. Most taggers have double logarithmic resummed structures. The modified mass-drop tagger is special in that it involves only single logarithms, and is free from a complex class of terms known as non-global logarithms. The modification of pruning brings an improved ability to discriminate between the different colour structures that characterise signal and background. As we outline in an extensive phenomenological discussion, these results provide valuable insight into the performance of existing tools and help lay robust foundations for future substructure studies.

  7. Tagging partially reconstructed objects with jet substructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freytsis, Marat, E-mail: freytsis@uoregon.edu [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Volansky, Tomer [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Walsh, Jonathan R. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    We present a new tagger which aims at identifying partially reconstructed objects, in which only some of the constituents are collected in a single jet. As an example, we focus on top decays in which either part of the hadronically decaying W or the b jet is soft or falls outside of the top jet cone. We construct an observable to identify remnant substructure from the decay and employ aggressive jet grooming to reject QCD backgrounds. The tagger is complementary to existing ones and works well in the intermediate boost regime where jet substructure techniques usually fail. It is anticipated that a similar tagger can be used to identify non-QCD hadronic jets, such as those expected from hidden valleys.

  8. Tagging partially reconstructed objects with jet substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytsis, Marat; Volansky, Tomer; Walsh, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new tagger which aims at identifying partially reconstructed objects, in which only some of the constituents are collected in a single jet. As an example, we focus on top decays in which either part of the hadronically decaying W or the b jet is soft or falls outside of the top jet cone. We construct an observable to identify remnant substructure from the decay and employ aggressive jet grooming to reject QCD backgrounds. The tagger is complementary to existing ones and works well in the intermediate boost regime where jet substructure techniques usually fail. It is anticipated that a similar tagger can be used to identify non-QCD hadronic jets, such as those expected from hidden valleys.

  9. Tagging partially reconstructed objects with jet substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytsis, Marat; Volansky, Tomer; Walsh, Jonathan R.

    2017-06-01

    We present a new tagger which aims at identifying partially reconstructed objects, in which only some of the constituents are collected in a single jet. As an example, we focus on top decays in which either part of the hadronically decaying W or the b jet is soft or falls outside of the top jet cone. We construct an observable to identify remnant substructure from the decay and employ aggressive jet grooming to reject QCD backgrounds. The tagger is complementary to existing ones and works well in the intermediate boost regime where jet substructure techniques usually fail. It is anticipated that a similar tagger can be used to identify non-QCD hadronic jets, such as those expected from hidden valleys.

  10. Galactic densities, substructure and the initial power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, J.S.; Zentner, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Although the currently favored cold dark matter plus cosmological constant model for structure formation assumes an n = 1 scale-invariant initial power spectrum, most inflation models produce at least mild deviations from n = 1. Because the lever arm from the CMB normalization to galaxy scales is long, even a small 'tilt' can have important implications for galactic observations. Here we calculate the COBS-normalized power spectra for several well-motivated models of inflation and compute implications for the substructure content and central densities of galaxy halos. Using an analytic model, normalized against N-body simulations, we show that while halos in the standard (n = 1) model are overdense by a factor of ∼ 6 compared to observations, several of our example inflation+LCDM models predict halo densities well within the range of observations, which prefer models with n ∼ 0.85. We go on to use a semi-analytic model (also normalized against N-body simulations) to follow the merger histories of galaxy-sized halos and track the orbital decay, disruption, and evolution of the merging substructure. Models with n ∼ 0.85 predict a factor of ∼ 3 fewer subhalos at a fixed circular velocity than the standard n 1 case. Although this level of reduction does not resolve the 'dwarf satellite problem', it does imply that the level of feedback required to match the observed number of dwarfs is sensitive to the initial power spectrum. Finally, the fraction of galaxy-halo mass that is bound up in substructure is consistent with limits imposed by multiply imaged quasars for all models considered: f sat > 0.01 even for an effective tilt of n ∼ 0.8. We conclude that, at their current level, lensing constraints of this kind do not provide an interesting probe of the primordial power spectrum

  11. Vector boson tagged jets and jet substructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitev Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In these proceedings, we report on recent results related to vector boson-tagged jet production in heavy ion collisions and the related modification of jet substructure, such as jet shapes and jet momentum sharing distributions. Z0-tagging and γ-tagging of jets provides new opportunities to study parton shower formation and propagation in the quark-gluon plasma and has been argued to provide tight constrains on the energy loss of reconstructed jets. We present theoretical predictions for isolated photon-tagged and electroweak boson-tagged jet production in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC, addressing the modification of their transverse momentum and transverse momentum imbalance distributions. Comparison to recent ATLAS and CMS experimental measurements is performed that can shed light on the medium-induced radiative corrections and energy dissipation due to collisional processes of predominantly quark-initiated jets. The modification of parton splitting functions in the QGP further implies that the substructure of jets in heavy ion collisions may differ significantly from the corresponding substructure in proton-proton collisions. Two such observables and the implication of tagging on their evaluation is also discussed.

  12. Composite Octet Searches with Jet Substructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yang; /SLAC; Shelton, Jessie; /Yale U.

    2012-02-14

    Many new physics models with strongly interacting sectors predict a mass hierarchy between the lightest vector meson and the lightest pseudoscalar mesons. We examine the power of jet substructure tools to extend the 7 TeV LHC sensitivity to these new states for the case of QCD octet mesons, considering both two gluon and two b-jet decay modes for the pseudoscalar mesons. We develop both a simple dijet search using only the jet mass and a more sophisticated jet substructure analysis, both of which can discover the composite octets in a dijet-like signature. The reach depends on the mass hierarchy between the vector and pseudoscalar mesons. We find that for the pseudoscalar-to-vector meson mass ratio below approximately 0.2 the simple jet mass analysis provides the best discovery limit; for a ratio between 0.2 and the QCD-like value of 0.3, the sophisticated jet substructure analysis has the best discovery potential; for a ratio above approximately 0.3, the standard four-jet analysis is more suitable.

  13. MAPPING THE GALACTIC HALO. VIII. QUANTIFYING SUBSTRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Van Woerden, Hugo; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Frey, Lucy; Oravetz, Dan; Mateo, Mario; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Shectman, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the amount of kinematic substructure in the Galactic halo using the final data set from the Spaghetti project, a pencil-beam high-latitude sky survey. Our sample contains 101 photometrically selected and spectroscopically confirmed giants with accurate distance, radial velocity, and metallicity information. We have developed a new clustering estimator: the '4distance' measure, which when applied to our data set leads to the identification of one group and seven pairs of clumped stars. The group, with six members, can confidently be matched to tidal debris of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Two pairs match the properties of known Virgo structures. Using models of the disruption of Sagittarius in Galactic potentials with different degrees of dark halo flattening, we show that this favors a spherical or prolate halo shape, as demonstrated by Newberg et al. using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. One additional pair can be linked to older Sagittarius debris. We find that 20% of the stars in the Spaghetti data set are in substructures. From comparison with random data sets, we derive a very conservative lower limit of 10% to the amount of substructure in the halo. However, comparison to numerical simulations shows that our results are also consistent with a halo entirely built up from disrupted satellites, provided that the dominating features are relatively broad due to early merging or relatively heavy progenitor satellites.

  14. Identifying a new particle with jet substructures

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Hak; Kim, Doojin; Kim, Minho; Kong, Kyoungchul; Park, Myeonghun

    2017-01-01

    We investigate a potential of measuring properties of a heavy resonance X, exploiting jet substructure techniques. Motivated by heavy higgs boson searches, we focus on the decays of X into a pair of (massive) electroweak gauge bosons. More specifically, we consider a hadronic Z boson, which makes it possible to determine properties of X at an earlier stage. For $m_X$ of O(1) TeV, two quarks from a Z boson would be captured as a "merged jet" in a significant fraction of events. The use of the merged jet enables us to consider a Z-induced jet as a reconstructed object without any combinatorial ambiguity. We apply a conventional jet substructure method to extract four-momenta of subjets from a merged jet. We find that jet substructure procedures may enhance features in some kinematic observables formed with subjets. Subjet momenta are fed into the matrix element associated with a given hypothesis on the nature of X, which is further processed to construct a matrix element method (MEM)-based observable. For both ...

  15. Identifying a new particle with jet substructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chengcheng; Kim, Doojin; Kim, Minho; Postech, Pohang

    2017-01-01

    Here, we investigate a potential of determining properties of a new heavy resonance of mass O(1)TeV which decays to collimated jets via heavy Standard Model intermediary states, exploiting jet substructure techniques. Employing the Z gauge boson as a concrete example for the intermediary state, we utilize a "merged jet" defined by a large jet size to capture the two quarks from its decay. The use of the merged jet bene ts the identification of a Z-induced jet as a single, reconstructed object without any combinatorial ambiguity. We also find that jet substructure procedures may enhance features in some kinematic observables formed with subjet four-momenta extracted from a merged jet. This observation motivates us to feed subjet momenta into the matrix elements associated with plausible hypotheses on the nature of the heavy resonance, which are further processed to construct a matrix element method (MEM)-based observable. For both moderately and highly boosted Z bosons, we demonstrate that the MEM in combination with jet substructure techniques can be a very powerful tool for identifying its physical properties. Finally, we discuss effects from choosing different jet sizes for merged jets and jet-grooming parameters upon the MEM analyses.

  16. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimala, R., E-mail: vimararagu@yahoo.co.in [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Das, Nilanjana [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-08-30

    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q{sub max} 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q{sub max} 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  17. Two innovative solutions based on fibre concrete blocks designed for building substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderka, J.; Hájek, P.

    2017-09-01

    Using of fibers in a high-strength concrete allows reduction of the dimensions of small precast concrete elements, which opens up new ways of solution for traditional construction details in buildings. The paper presents two innovative technical solutions for building substructure: The special shaped plinth block from fibre concrete and the fibre concrete elements for new technical solution of ventilated floor. The main advantages of plinth block from fibre concrete blocks (compared with standard plinth solutions) is: easier and faster assembly, higher durability and thanks to the air cavity between the vertical part of the block, the building substructure reduced moisture level of structures under the waterproofing layer and a comprehensive solution to the final surface of building plinth as well as the surface of adjacent terrain. The ventilated floor based on fibre concrete precast blocks is an attractive structural alternative for tackling the problem of increased moisture in masonry in older buildings, lacking a functional waterproof layer in the substructure.

  18. THEORY AND SIMULATIONS OF REFRACTIVE SUBSTRUCTURE IN RESOLVED SCATTER-BROADENED IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gwinn, Carl R., E-mail: mjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    At radio wavelengths, scattering in the interstellar medium distorts the appearance of astronomical sources. Averaged over a scattering ensemble, the result is a blurred image of the source. However, Narayan and Goodman and Goodman and Narayan showed that for an incomplete average, scattering introduces refractive substructure in the image of a point source that is both persistent and wideband. We show that this substructure is quenched but not smoothed by an extended source. As a result, when the scatter-broadening is comparable to or exceeds the unscattered source size, the scattering can introduce spurious compact features into images. In addition, we derive efficient strategies to numerically compute realistic scattered images, and we present characteristic examples from simulations. Our results show that refractive substructure is an important consideration for ongoing missions at the highest angular resolutions, and we discuss specific implications for RadioAstron and the Event Horizon Telescope.

  19. Soil and gas and radon entry potentials for substructure surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.; Sextro, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on measurement techniques and parameters that describe the potential for areas of a building substructure to have high soil gas and radon entry rates which have been developed. Flows and pressures measured at test holes in substructure surfaces while the substructure was intentionally depressurized were used in a highly simplified electrical circuit to model the substructure/soil network. Data from four New Jersey houses indicate that the soil was a factor of two to six times more resistant to soil gas flow than substructure surfaces, concrete slab floors, including perimeter gaps, cracks, and other penetrations, were approximately five times more resistant to soil gas movement than hollow block walls, and radon entry potentials were highest for slab floors. These indices of entry potential may be useful for characterizing the relative leakiness of below-grade substructure surfaces and for determining the selection and placement of radon control systems

  20. A composite experimental dynamic substructuring method based on partitioned algorithms and localized Lagrange multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbiati, Giuseppe; La Salandra, Vincenzo; Bursi, Oreste S.; Caracoglia, Luca

    2018-02-01

    Successful online hybrid (numerical/physical) dynamic substructuring simulations have shown their potential in enabling realistic dynamic analysis of almost any type of non-linear structural system (e.g., an as-built/isolated viaduct, a petrochemical piping system subjected to non-stationary seismic loading, etc.). Moreover, owing to faster and more accurate testing equipment, a number of different offline experimental substructuring methods, operating both in time (e.g. the impulse-based substructuring) and frequency domains (i.e. the Lagrange multiplier frequency-based substructuring), have been employed in mechanical engineering to examine dynamic substructure coupling. Numerous studies have dealt with the above-mentioned methods and with consequent uncertainty propagation issues, either associated with experimental errors or modelling assumptions. Nonetheless, a limited number of publications have systematically cross-examined the performance of the various Experimental Dynamic Substructuring (EDS) methods and the possibility of their exploitation in a complementary way to expedite a hybrid experiment/numerical simulation. From this perspective, this paper performs a comparative uncertainty propagation analysis of three EDS algorithms for coupling physical and numerical subdomains with a dual assembly approach based on localized Lagrange multipliers. The main results and comparisons are based on a series of Monte Carlo simulations carried out on a five-DoF linear/non-linear chain-like systems that include typical aleatoric uncertainties emerging from measurement errors and excitation loads. In addition, we propose a new Composite-EDS (C-EDS) method to fuse both online and offline algorithms into a unique simulator. Capitalizing from the results of a more complex case study composed of a coupled isolated tank-piping system, we provide a feasible way to employ the C-EDS method when nonlinearities and multi-point constraints are present in the emulated system.

  1. CHEMTRAN and the Interconversion of Chemical Substructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Charles E.

    1973-01-01

    The need for the interconversion of chemical substructure systems is discussed and CHEMTRAN, a new service, designed especially for creating interconversion programs, is introduced. (7 references) (Author)

  2. A Search for Starless Core Substructure in Ophiuchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Helen

    2017-06-01

    Density substructure is expected in evolved starless cores: a single peak to form a protostar, or multiple peaks from fragmentation. Searches for this substructure have had mixed success. In an ALMA survey of Ophiuchus, we find two starless cores with signs of substructure, consistent with simulation predictions. A similar survey in Chameleon (Dunham et al. 2016) had no detections, despite expecting at least two. Our results suggest that Chamleon may lack a more evolved starless cores. Future ALMA observations will better trace the influence of environment on core substructure formation.

  3. Universal parametrization for quark and lepton substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Keiichi; Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1994-01-01

    A universal parametrization for possible quark and lepton substructure is advocated in terms of quark and lepton form factors. It is emphasized that the lower bounds on compositeness scale, Λ c , to be determined experimentally strongly depend on their definitions in composite models. From the recent HERA data, it is estimated to be Λ c > 50 GeV, 0.4 TeV and 10 TeV, depending on the parametrizations with a single-pole form factor, a contact interaction and a logarithmic form factor, respectively. (author)

  4. Jacket Substructure Fatigue Mitigation through Active Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanis, Tomas; Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    to the fatigue design loads on the braces of the jacket. Since large wind turbines of 10MW rating have low rotor speeds (p), the modal frequencies of the sub structures approach 3p at low wind speeds, which leads to a modal coupling and resonance. Therefore an active control system is developed which provides...... sufficient structural damping and consequently a fatigue reduction at the substructure. The resulting reduction in fatigue design loads on the jacket structure based on the active control system is presented....

  5. Substructure based modeling of nickel single crystals cycled at low plastic strain amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong

    subroutine DISP and URDFIL of ABAQUS, respectively, while constitutive formulations of the FEM model are coded and implemented in UMAT. The results of the simulations are compared to experiments. This model verified the validity of Winter's two-phase model and Taylor's uniform stress assumption, explored substructure evolution and "intrinsic" behavior in substructures and successfully simulated the process of PSB band formation and propagation.

  6. NVU dynamics. II. Comparing to four other dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Toxværd, Søren; Schrøder, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    -potential-energy hypersurface. Here, simulations of NVU dynamics are compared to results for four other dynamics, both deterministic and stochastic. First, NVU dynamics is compared to the standard energy-conserving Newtonian NVE dynamics by simulations of the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones liquid, its WCA version (i.......e., with cut-off's at the pair potential minima), and the Lennard-Jones Gaussian liquid. We find identical results for all quantities probed: radial distribution functions, incoherent intermediate scattering functions, and mean-square displacement as function of time. Arguments are presented...... on the constant-potential-energy hypersurface, and to Nos-Hoover NVT dynamics. If time is scaled for the two stochastic dynamics to make single-particle diffusion constants identical to that of NVE dynamics, the simulations show that all five dynamics are equivalent at low temperatures except at short times....

  7. Comparative study of adsorption properties of Turkish fly ashes II. The case of chromium (VI) and cadmium (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Belgin

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this paper was to compare the removal of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from an aqueous solution using two different Turkish fly ashes; Afsin-Elbistan and Seyitomer as adsorbents. The influence of four parameters (contact time, solution pH, initial metal concentration in solution and ash quality) on the removal at 20±2 deg. C was studied. Fly ashes were found to have a higher adsorption capacity for the adsorption of Cd(II) as compared to Cr(VI) and both Cr(VI) and Cd(II) required an equilibrium time of 2 h. The adsorption of Cr(VI) was higher at pH 4.0 for Afsin-Elbistan fly ash (25.46%) and pH 3.0 for Seyitomer fly ash (30.91%) while Cd(II) was adsorbed to a greater extent (98.43% for Afsin-Elbistan fly ash and 65.24% for Seyitomer fly ash) at pH 7.0. The adsorption of Cd(II) increased with an increase in the concentrations of these metals in solution while Cr(VI) adsorption decreased by both fly ashes. The lime (crystalline CaO) content in fly ash seemed to be a significant factor in influencing Cr(VI) and Cd(II) ions removal. The linear forms of the Langmuir and Freundlich equations were utilised for experiments with metal concentrations of 55±2 mg/l for Cr(VI) and 6±0.2 mg/l for Cd(II) as functions of solution pH (3.0-8.0). The adsorption of Cr(VI) on both fly ashes was not described by both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms while Cd(II) adsorption on both fly ashes satisfied only the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption capacities of both fly ashes were nearly three times less than that of activated carbon for the removal of Cr(VI) while Afsin-Elbistan fly ash with high-calcium content was as effective as activated carbon for the removal of Cd(II). Therefore, there are possibilities for use the adsorption of Cd(II) ions onto fly ash with high-calcium content in practical applications in Turkey

  8. Neutronics comparative analysis between MNSR and slowpoke-II reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Khattab, K.

    1999-01-01

    Neutronics analysis of both MNSR and Slowpoke reactors were made. Calculations including flux distribution, power estimation, excess and shutdown reactivity margins, flooding effects of irradiation sites, and initial investigation of fuel conversion from high to low enriched uranium were discussed. A neutronic 3-D model, dedicated mainly for the MNSR, has been developed to perform such neutronic calculations for both reactors. Well-known cell and core calculation codes such as WIMSD4 and CITATIONS have been used. It was found out that it is possible to lower the fuel enrichment of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) to 20% using U O 2 as fuel instead of U Al 4 . The number of fuel elements required for the new core is 199. The use of double thickness of the bottom reflector in Slowpoke reactor made it possible to load the reactor with lower enriched fuel compared to MNSR. Values of reactivity flooding effects for single or combination of inner irradiation sites were obtained accurately. Results show good agreement with reported data for MNSR. (author)

  9. Rape in World War II film: comparing narrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzadevych, Tetyana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show how the filmmaker’s genre of choice shapes the main discourse of the film. The author compares Helke Sander’s documentary Liberators Take Liberties (1991-1992 and Max Farberbock’s narrative feature A Woman in Berlin (2008 both dealing with the dramatic effect of the end of WWII, in particular with the instances of German women having been raped by the Allied troops, a theme first publicized in the anonymous diary A Woman in Berlin (1953. There is a clear connection between the book and the two films, but if Sander focuses on the rape itself and on the extraordinary female experience of war, Farberbock is more concerned with cross-national revenge. The author looks closer at the genre elements, particularly at the genres of the diary, the (feminist documentary, and the narrative film. Then, the author draws some parallels between the Helke Sander film and the diary A Woman of Berlin and discusses the documentaries within the feminist framework inspired by Sander’s accomplishments.

  10. Single-case synthesis tools II: Comparing quantitative outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kathleen N; Pustejovsky, James E; Ledford, Jennifer R; Barton, Erin E; Severini, Katherine E; Lloyd, Blair P

    2018-03-07

    Varying methods for evaluating the outcomes of single case research designs (SCD) are currently used in reviews and meta-analyses of interventions. Quantitative effect size measures are often presented alongside visual analysis conclusions. Six measures across two classes-overlap measures (percentage non-overlapping data, improvement rate difference, and Tau) and parametric within-case effect sizes (standardized mean difference and log response ratio [increasing and decreasing])-were compared to determine if choice of synthesis method within and across classes impacts conclusions regarding effectiveness. The effectiveness of sensory-based interventions (SBI), a commonly used class of treatments for young children, was evaluated. Separately from evaluations of rigor and quality, authors evaluated behavior change between baseline and SBI conditions. SBI were unlikely to result in positive behavior change across all measures except IRD. However, subgroup analyses resulted in variable conclusions, indicating that the choice of measures for SCD meta-analyses can impact conclusions. Suggestions for using the log response ratio in SCD meta-analyses and considerations for understanding variability in SCD meta-analysis conclusions are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Full Vehicle Vibration and Noise Analysis Based on Substructure Power Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhien Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining substructure and power flow theory, in this paper an external program is written to control MSC. Nastran solution process and the substructure frequency response are also formulated accordingly. Based on a simple vehicle model, characteristics of vibration, noise, and power flow are studied, respectively. After being compared with the result of conventional FEM (finite element method, the new method is confirmed to be feasible. When it comes to a vehicle with the problem of low-frequency noise, finite element models of substructures for vehicle body and chassis are established, respectively. In addition, substructure power flow method is also employed to examine the transfer characteristics of multidimensional vibration energy for the whole vehicle system. By virtue of the adjustment stiffness of drive shaft support and bushes at rear suspension lower arm, the vehicle interior noise is decreased by about 3 dB when the engine speed is near 1050 rpm and 1650 rpm in experiment. At the same time, this method can increase the computation efficiency by 78%, 38%, and 98% when it comes to the optimization of chassis structure, body structure, and vibration isolation components, respectively.

  12. MS2Analyzer: A Software for Small Molecule Substructure Annotations from Accurate Tandem Mass Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Systematic analysis and interpretation of the large number of tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) obtained in metabolomics experiments is a bottleneck in discovery-driven research. MS/MS mass spectral libraries are small compared to all known small molecule structures and are often not freely available. MS2Analyzer was therefore developed to enable user-defined searches of thousands of spectra for mass spectral features such as neutral losses, m/z differences, and product and precursor ions from MS/MS spectra in MSP/MGF files. The software is freely available at http://fiehnlab.ucdavis.edu/projects/MS2Analyzer/. As the reference query set, 147 literature-reported neutral losses and their corresponding substructures were collected. This set was tested for accuracy of linking neutral loss analysis to substructure annotations using 19 329 accurate mass tandem mass spectra of structurally known compounds from the NIST11 MS/MS library. Validation studies showed that 92.1 ± 6.4% of 13 typical neutral losses such as acetylations, cysteine conjugates, or glycosylations are correct annotating the associated substructures, while the absence of mass spectra features does not necessarily imply the absence of such substructures. Use of this tool has been successfully demonstrated for complex lipids in microalgae. PMID:25263576

  13. Design of chemical space networks using a Tanimoto similarity variant based upon maximum common substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bijun; Vogt, Martin; Maggiora, Gerald M; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Chemical space networks (CSNs) have recently been introduced as an alternative to other coordinate-free and coordinate-based chemical space representations. In CSNs, nodes represent compounds and edges pairwise similarity relationships. In addition, nodes are annotated with compound property information such as biological activity. CSNs have been applied to view biologically relevant chemical space in comparison to random chemical space samples and found to display well-resolved topologies at low edge density levels. The way in which molecular similarity relationships are assessed is an important determinant of CSN topology. Previous CSN versions were based on numerical similarity functions or the assessment of substructure-based similarity. Herein, we report a new CSN design that is based upon combined numerical and substructure similarity evaluation. This has been facilitated by calculating numerical similarity values on the basis of maximum common substructures (MCSs) of compounds, leading to the introduction of MCS-based CSNs (MCS-CSNs). This CSN design combines advantages of continuous numerical similarity functions with a robust and chemically intuitive substructure-based assessment. Compared to earlier version of CSNs, MCS-CSNs are characterized by a further improved organization of local compound communities as exemplified by the delineation of drug-like subspaces in regions of biologically relevant chemical space.

  14. Substructures developed during creep and cyclic tests of type 304 stainless steel (heat 9T2796)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Bhargava, R.K.; Sikka, V.K.; Moteff, J.

    1977-09-01

    Substructures developed in tested specimens of a reference heat of type 304 stainless steel (heat 9T2796) are examined. Data include dislocation densities, cell and subgrain sizes, and carbide precipitate sizes. Testing conditions range for temperatures from 482 to 649 0 C, for stresses from 28 to 241 MPa, and for times from 4 to 15,000 hr. As expected, it is observed that temperature, stress, and time have strong influences on substructure. The change in the dislocation density is too small to measure for conditions which produce less than 1 percent monotonic strain. No cells form, and the major alteration of substructure is the precipitation of M 23 C 6 carbides on grain boundaries, on twin boundaries, and on some dislocations. At stresses ranging from 69 to 172 MPa and at temperatures ranging from 482 to 593 0 C, the dislocation density increases with increasing stress and is generally higher than expected from studies made at higher temperatures. Dislocations are arranged in fine networks stabilized by carbides. At stresses above 172 MPa and temperatures to 649 0 C, the dislocation density is too great to measure. Cells develop which are finer in size than cells developed at similar stresses but at higher temperatures. Dislocation densities and cell sizes for cyclic specimens are comparable to data for creep-tested specimens. On the basis of the observed substructures, recommendations are made regarding further studies which would assist in the development of constitutive equations for high-temperature inelastic analysis of reactor components

  15. Comparative study of poloidal field systems for the torus II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvaque, L.; Ghazal, S.; Leloup, C.; Pariente, M.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92

    1976-11-01

    Three types of transformer for the TORUS II experiment are compared: a saturated iron core transformer with an entire magnetic circuit, an air core transformer and a saturated iron core transformer restricted to the central limb [fr

  16. Social-group identity and population substructure in admixed populations in New Mexico and Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E Healy

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between continental-level genetic ancestry and racial and ethnic identity in an admixed population in New Mexico with the goal of increasing our understanding of how racial and ethnic identity influence genetic substructure in admixed populations. Our sample consists of 98 New Mexicans who self-identified as Hispanic or Latino (NM-HL and who further categorized themselves by race and ethnic subgroup membership. The genetic data consist of 270 newly-published autosomal microsatellites from the NM-HL sample and previously published data from 57 globally distributed populations, including 13 admixed samples from Central and South America. For these data, we 1 summarized the major axes of genetic variation using principal component analyses, 2 performed tests of Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, 3 compared empirical genetic ancestry distributions to those predicted under a model of admixture that lacked substructure, 4 tested the hypotheses that individuals in each sample had 100%, 0%, and the sample-mean percentage of African, European, and Native American ancestry. We found that most NM-HL identify themselves and their parents as belonging to one of two groups, conforming to a region-specific narrative that distinguishes recent immigrants from Mexico from individuals whose families have resided in New Mexico for generations and who emphasize their Spanish heritage. The "Spanish" group had significantly lower Native American ancestry and higher European ancestry than the "Mexican" group. Positive FIS values, PCA plots, and heterogeneous ancestry distributions suggest that most Central and South America admixed samples also contain substructure, and that this substructure may be related to variation in social identity. Genetic substructure appears to be common in admixed populations in the Americas and may confound attempts to identify disease-causing genes and to understand the social causes of variation in health outcomes

  17. Substructure and electrical resistivity analyses of pure tungsten sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trybus, C.L.; Sellers, C.H.; Anderl, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The substructure of pure tungsten sheet (0.025 mm thick) is examined and quantified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dislocation populations and arrangements are evaluated for as-worked and various annealed conditions of the tungsten sheet. The worked (rolled) tungsten substructure was nonhomogeneous, consisting of areas of very high and low dislocation densities. These results are correlated to resistivity measurements of the tungsten sheet following thermal cycling to 1200 degrees C to determine the substructural changes as a function of temperature. The comparison between the two characterization techniques is used to examine the relationship between structural and electronic properties in tungsten. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Substructuring by Lagrange multipliers for solids and plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandel, J.; Tezaur, R. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Farhat, C. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We present principles and theoreretical foundation of a substructuring method for large structural problems. The algorithm is preconditioned conjugate gradients on a subspace for the dual problem. The preconditioning is proved asymptotically optimal and the method is shown to be parallel scalable, i.e., the condition number is bounded independently of the number of substructures. For plate problems, a special modification is needed that retains continuity of the displacement solution at substructure crosspoints, resulting in an asymptically optimal method. The results are confirmed by numerical experiments.

  19. Comparative validity of MMPI-2 and MCMI-II personality disorder classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, E A

    1996-06-01

    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) overlapping and nonoverlapping scales were demonstrated to perform comparably to their original MMPI forms. They were then evaluated for convergent and discriminant validity with the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II) personality disorder scales. The MMPI-2 and MCMI-II personality disorder scales demonstrated convergent and discriminant coefficients similar to their original forms. However, the MMPI-2 personality scales classified significantly more of the sample as Dramatic, whereas the MCMI-II diagnosed more of the sample as Anxious. Furthermore, single-scale and 2-point code type classification rates were quite low, indicating that at the level of the individual, the personality disorder scales are not measuring comparable constructs. Hence, each instrument is providing similar and unique information, justifying their continued use together for the purpose of diagnosing personality disorders.

  20. Comparative familial aggregation of bipolar disorder in patients with bipolar I and bipolar II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon B; Romano, Mia; Graham, Rebecca K; Ricciardi, Tahlia

    2018-05-01

    We sought to quantify the prevalence and differential prevalence of a bipolar disorder among family members of patients with a bipolar I or II disorder. The sample comprised 1165 bipolar and 1041 unipolar patients, with the former then sub-typed as having either a bipolar I or II condition. Family history data was obtained via an online self-report tool. Prevalence of a family member having a bipolar disorder (of either sub-type) was distinctive (36.8%). Patients with a bipolar I disorder reported a slightly higher family history (41.2%) compared to patients with a bipolar II disorder (36.3%), and with both significantly higher than the rate of bipolar disorder in family members of unipolar depressed patients (18.5%). Findings support the view that bipolar disorder is heritable. The comparable rates in the two bipolar sub-types support the positioning of bipolar II disorder as a valid condition with strong genetic underpinnings.

  1. Rapid bridge construction technology : precast elements for substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this research was to propose an alternate system of precast bridge substructures which can : substitute for conventional cast in place systems in Wisconsin to achieve accelerated construction. : Three types of abutment modules (hollow wal...

  2. A sub-structure method for multidimensional integral transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavenoky, A.; Stankovski, Z.

    1983-03-01

    A new method has been developed for fine structure burn-up calculations of very heterogeneous large size media. It is a generalization of the well-known surface-source method, allowing coupling actual two-dimensional heterogeneous assemblies, called sub-structures. The method has been applied to a rectangular medium, divided into sub-structures, containing rectangular and/or cylindrical fuel, moderator and structure elements. The sub-structures are divided into homogeneous zones. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within it (linear or flat flux expansion in the rectangular zones, flat flux in the others). The coupling of the sub-structures is performed by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. The accuracies and computing times achieved are illustrated by numerical results on two benchmark problems

  3. Modeling of rail track substructure linear elastic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Most analyses of rail dynamics neglect contribution of the soil, or treat it in a very simple manner such as using spring elements. This can cause accuracy issues in examining dynamics for passenger comfort, derailment, substructure analysis, or othe...

  4. Boosted Higgs boson tagging using jet substructures

    CERN Document Server

    Shvydkin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Searching BSM particles via the Higgs boson final state has now become common. The mass of desired BSM particle is more than 1 TeV, thereby its decay products are highly Lorentz-boosted. Hence the jets from b quark-antiquark pair - which the Higgs boson mostly decays into - are very closed to each other, and merged into one jet, that is typically reconstructed using large jet sizes (∆R = 0.8). In this work regression technique is applied to AK8 jets (which defined by anti-kT algorithm, using ΔR = 0.8). The regression makes use of boosted jets with substructure information, coupled with the pecularities of a b quark decay, like the presence of a soft lepton (SL) inside the jet. It has allowed to improve the resolution of the mass reconstruction and transverse momentum of the Higgs boson. This application results in improvement of the mass reconstruction by 3-4 percent. These result may be improved firstly by making more careful pileup rejection. Then it is possible to combine base regression train for dif...

  5. Sub-structure formation in starless cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, C.; Galli, D.; Verdini, A.; Del Zanna, L.; Landi, S.

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by recent observational searches of sub-structure in starless molecular cloud cores, we investigate the evolution of density perturbations on scales smaller than the Jeans length embedded in contracting isothermal clouds, adopting the same formalism developed for the expanding Universe and the solar wind. We find that initially small amplitude, Jeans-stable perturbations (propagating as sound waves in the absence of a magnetic field) are amplified adiabatically during the contraction, approximately conserving the wave action density, until they either become non-linear and steepen into shocks at a time tnl, or become gravitationally unstable when the Jeans length decreases below the scale of the perturbations at a time tgr. We evaluate analytically the time tnl at which the perturbations enter the non-linear stage using a Burgers' equation approach, and we verify numerically that this time marks the beginning of the phase of rapid dissipation of the kinetic energy of the perturbations. We then show that for typical values of the rms Mach number in molecular cloud cores, tnl is smaller than tgr, and therefore density perturbations likely dissipate before becoming gravitational unstable. Solenoidal modes grow at a faster rate than compressible modes, and may eventually promote fragmentation through the formation of vortical structures.

  6. Searches for new physics using jet grooming and substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Models predicting the production and decay of supersymmetric (SUSY) particles often have promising search channels involving decays through heavy intermediate states such as top quarks and heavy bosons. However, unlike in most exotics scenarios these heavy states are only moderately boosted which can make traditional substructure techniques less useful and motivates the development of alternative techniques. The results of several SUSY analyses using substructure techniques are presented.

  7. Blooming Trees: Substructures and Surrounding Groups of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Heng; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Serra, Ana Laura; Baldi, Marco

    2018-06-01

    We develop the Blooming Tree Algorithm, a new technique that uses spectroscopic redshift data alone to identify the substructures and the surrounding groups of galaxy clusters, along with their member galaxies. Based on the estimated binding energy of galaxy pairs, the algorithm builds a binary tree that hierarchically arranges all of the galaxies in the field of view. The algorithm searches for buds, corresponding to gravitational potential minima on the binary tree branches; for each bud, the algorithm combines the number of galaxies, their velocity dispersion, and their average pairwise distance into a parameter that discriminates between the buds that do not correspond to any substructure or group, and thus eventually die, and the buds that correspond to substructures and groups, and thus bloom into the identified structures. We test our new algorithm with a sample of 300 mock redshift surveys of clusters in different dynamical states; the clusters are extracted from a large cosmological N-body simulation of a ΛCDM model. We limit our analysis to substructures and surrounding groups identified in the simulation with mass larger than 1013 h ‑1 M ⊙. With mock redshift surveys with 200 galaxies within 6 h ‑1 Mpc from the cluster center, the technique recovers 80% of the real substructures and 60% of the surrounding groups; in 57% of the identified structures, at least 60% of the member galaxies of the substructures and groups belong to the same real structure. These results improve by roughly a factor of two the performance of the best substructure identification algorithm currently available, the σ plateau algorithm, and suggest that our Blooming Tree Algorithm can be an invaluable tool for detecting substructures of galaxy clusters and investigating their complex dynamics.

  8. Structural analysis and optimization procedure of the TFTR device substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driesen, G.

    1975-10-01

    A structural evaluation of the TFTR device substructure is performed in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed design concept as well as to establish a design optimization procedure for minimizing the material and fabrication cost of the substructure members. A preliminary evaluation of the seismic capability is also presented. The design concept on which the analysis is based is consistent with that described in the Conceptual Design Status Briefing report dated June 18, 1975

  9. Evolution of the degree of substructures in simulated galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boni, Cristiano; Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Dolag, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    We study the evolution of substructure in the mass distribution with mass, redshift and radius in a sample of simulated galaxy clusters. The sample, containing 1226 objects, spans the mass range M200 = 1014 - 1.74 × 1015 M⊙ h-1 in six redshift bins from z = 0 to z = 1.179. We consider three different diagnostics: 1) subhalos identified with SUBFIND; 2) overdense regions localized by dividing the cluster into octants; 3) offset between the potential minimum and the center of mass. The octant analysis is a new method that we introduce in this work. We find that none of the diagnostics indicate a correlation between the mass of the cluster and the fraction of substructures. On the other hand, all the diagnostics suggest an evolution of substructures with redshift. For SUBFIND halos, the mass fraction is constant with redshift at Rvir, but shows a mild evolution at R200 and R500. Also, the fraction of clusters with at least a subhalo more massive than one thirtieth of the total mass is less than 20%. Our new method based on the octants returns a mass fraction in substructures which has a strong evolution with redshift at all radii. The offsets also evolve strongly with redshift. We also find a strong correlation for individual clusters between the offset and the fraction of substructures identified with the octant analysis. Our work puts strong constraints on the amount of substructures we expect to find in galaxy clusters and on their evolution with redshift.

  10. RESONANT CLUMPING AND SUBSTRUCTURE IN GALACTIC DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Matthew; Smith, Martin C.; Shen, Juntai; Evans, N. Wyn

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method to extract resonant orbits from N-body simulations, exploiting the fact that they close in frames rotating with a constant pattern speed. Our method is applied to the N-body simulation of the Milky Way by Shen et al. This simulation hosts a massive bar, which drives strong resonances and persistent angular momentum exchange. Resonant orbits are found throughout the disk, both close to the bar and out to the very edges of the disk. Using Fourier spectrograms, we demonstrate that the bar is driving kinematic substructure even in the very outer parts of the disk. We identify two major orbit families in the outskirts of the disk, one of which makes significant contributions to the kinematic landscape, namely, the m:l = 3:−2 family, resonating with the bar. A mechanism is described that produces bimodal distributions of Galactocentric radial velocities at selected azimuths in the outer disk. It occurs as a result of the temporal coherence of particles on the 3:−2 resonant orbits, which causes them to arrive simultaneously at pericenter or apocenter. This resonant clumping, due to the in-phase motion of the particles through their epicycle, leads to both inward and outward moving groups that belong to the same orbital family and consequently produce bimodal radial velocity distributions. This is a possible explanation of the bimodal velocity distributions observed toward the Galactic anticenter by Liu et al. Another consequence is that transient overdensities appear and dissipate (in a symmetric fashion), resulting in a periodic pulsing of the disk’s surface density

  11. RESONANT CLUMPING AND SUBSTRUCTURE IN GALACTIC DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloy, Matthew [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Smith, Martin C.; Shen, Juntai [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Evans, N. Wyn, E-mail: matthewmolloy@gmail.com, E-mail: msmith@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: jshen@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: nwe@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We describe a method to extract resonant orbits from N-body simulations, exploiting the fact that they close in frames rotating with a constant pattern speed. Our method is applied to the N-body simulation of the Milky Way by Shen et al. This simulation hosts a massive bar, which drives strong resonances and persistent angular momentum exchange. Resonant orbits are found throughout the disk, both close to the bar and out to the very edges of the disk. Using Fourier spectrograms, we demonstrate that the bar is driving kinematic substructure even in the very outer parts of the disk. We identify two major orbit families in the outskirts of the disk, one of which makes significant contributions to the kinematic landscape, namely, the m:l = 3:−2 family, resonating with the bar. A mechanism is described that produces bimodal distributions of Galactocentric radial velocities at selected azimuths in the outer disk. It occurs as a result of the temporal coherence of particles on the 3:−2 resonant orbits, which causes them to arrive simultaneously at pericenter or apocenter. This resonant clumping, due to the in-phase motion of the particles through their epicycle, leads to both inward and outward moving groups that belong to the same orbital family and consequently produce bimodal radial velocity distributions. This is a possible explanation of the bimodal velocity distributions observed toward the Galactic anticenter by Liu et al. Another consequence is that transient overdensities appear and dissipate (in a symmetric fashion), resulting in a periodic pulsing of the disk’s surface density.

  12. Fast and accurate protein substructure searching with simulated annealing and GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stivala Alex D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Searching a database of protein structures for matches to a query structure, or occurrences of a structural motif, is an important task in structural biology and bioinformatics. While there are many existing methods for structural similarity searching, faster and more accurate approaches are still required, and few current methods are capable of substructure (motif searching. Results We developed an improved heuristic for tableau-based protein structure and substructure searching using simulated annealing, that is as fast or faster and comparable in accuracy, with some widely used existing methods. Furthermore, we created a parallel implementation on a modern graphics processing unit (GPU. Conclusions The GPU implementation achieves up to 34 times speedup over the CPU implementation of tableau-based structure search with simulated annealing, making it one of the fastest available methods. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of a GPU to the protein structural search problem.

  13. Development and Demonstration of a Magnesium-Intensive Vehicle Front-End Substructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Stephen D. [United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC, Southfield, MI (United States); Forsmark, Joy H. [United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC, Southfield, MI (United States); Osborne, Richard [United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This project is the final phase (designated Phase III) of an extensive, nine-year effort with the objectives of developing a knowledge base and enabling technologies for the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of magnesium-intensive automotive front-end substructures intended to partially or completely replace all-steel comparators, providing a weight savings approaching 50% of the baseline. Benefits of extensive vehicle weight reduction in terms of fuel economy increase, extended vehicle range, vehicle performance and commensurate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are well known. An exemplary vehicle substructure considered by the project is illustrated in Figure 1, along with the exterior vehicle appearance. This unibody front-end “substructure” is one physical objective of the ultimate design and engineering aspects established at the outset of the larger collective effort.

  14. Jet Substructure Measurements Sensitive to Soft QCD effects with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Asquith, Lily; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Calculations of jet substructure observables which are accurate beyond leading-logarithmic accuracy have recently become available. Such observables are significant not only for probing a new regime of QCD at a hadron collider, but also for improving the understanding of jet substructure properties that are used in many studies at the Large Hadron Collider. In this talk, we discuss first measurement of jet substructure quantities at a hadron collider, calculated at next-to-next-to-leading-logarithm accuracy. The soft drop mass is measured in dijet events with the ATLAS detector at 13 TeV, unfolded to particle-level and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we present a measurement of the splitting scales in the kt jet-clustering algorithm for final states containing a Z-boson candidate at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV.  The data are also corrected for detector effects and are compared to state-of-the-art Monte Carlo predictions.

  15. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  16. Transpiration cooling assisted ablative thermal protection of aerospace substructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Iqbal, N.; Haider, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Ablatives are heat-shielding materials used to protect aerospace substructures. These materials are sacrificial in nature and provide protection primarily through the large endothermic transformation during exposure to hyper thermal environment such as encountered in re-entry modules. The performance of certain ablatives was reported in terms of their TGA/DTA in Advanced Materials-97 (pp 57-65). The focus of this earlier research resided in the consolidation of interface between the refractory inclusion and the host polymeric matrix to improve thermal resistance. In the present work we explore the scope of transpiration cooling in ablative performance through flash evaporation of liquid incorporated in the host EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) matrix. The compression-molded specimens were exposed separately to plasma flame (15000 C) and oxyacetylene torch (3000 C) and the back face transient temperature is recorded in situ employing a thermocouple/data logger system. Both head on impingement (HOI) and parallel flow (PF) through a central cavity in the ablator were used. It is observed that transpiration cooling is effective and yields (a) rapid thermal equilibrium in the specimen, (b) lower back face temperature and (c) lower ablation rate, compared to conventional ablatives. SEM/EDS analysis is presented to amplify the point. (author)

  17. Discovery of New Retrograde Substructures: The Shards of ω Centauri?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeong, G. C.; Evans, N. W.; Belokurov, V.; Sanders, J. L.; Koposov, S. E.

    2018-06-01

    We use the SDSS-Gaia catalogue to search for substructure in the stellar halo. The sample comprises 62 133 halo stars with full phase space coordinates and extends out to heliocentric distances of ˜10 kpc. As actions are conserved under slow changes of the potential, they permit identification of groups of stars with a common accretion history. We devise a method to identify halo substructures based on their clustering in action space, using metallicity as a secondary check. This is validated against smooth models and numerical constructed stellar halos from the Aquarius simulations. We identify 21 substructures in the SDSS-Gaia catalogue, including 7 high significance, high energy and retrograde ones. We investigate whether the retrograde substructures may be material stripped off the atypical globular cluster ω Centauri. Using a simple model of the accretion of the progenitor of the ω Centauri, we tentatively argue for the possible association of up to 5 of our new substructures (labelled Rg1, Rg3, Rg4, Rg6 and Rg7) with this event. This sets a minimum mass of 5× 108M⊙ for the progenitor, so as to bring ω Centauri to its current location in action - energy space. Our proposal can be tested by high resolution spectroscopy of the candidates to look for the unusual abundance patterns possessed by ω Centauri stars.

  18. DETECTION OF LENSING SUBSTRUCTURE USING ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE DUSTY GALAXY SDP.81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Morningstar, Warren; Blandford, Roger D.; Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Department of Physics, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Dalal, Neal; Wen, Di; Kemball, Athol; Vieira, Joaquin D. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana IL 61801 (United States); Marrone, Daniel P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Carlstrom, John E. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Fassnacht, Christopher D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holder, Gilbert P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Marshall, Philip J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94305 (United States); Murray, Norman [CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2016-05-20

    We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a M = 10{sup 8.96±0.12} M {sub ⊙} subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of 6.9 σ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter (DM) subhalos down to M ∼ 2 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}, pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies between the observed population of luminous galaxies and predicted DM subhalos. We find hints of additional substructure, warranting further study using the full SDP.81 data set (including, for example, the spectroscopic imaging of the lensed carbon monoxide emission). We compare the results of this search to the predictions of ΛCDM halos, and find that given current uncertainties in the host halo properties of SDP.81, our measurements of substructure are consistent with theoretical expectations. Observations of larger samples of gravitational lenses with ALMA should be able to improve the constraints on the abundance of galactic substructure.

  19. DETECTION OF LENSING SUBSTRUCTURE USING ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE DUSTY GALAXY SDP.81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Morningstar, Warren; Blandford, Roger D.; Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Wechsler, Risa H.; Dalal, Neal; Wen, Di; Kemball, Athol; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Carlstrom, John E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Holder, Gilbert P.; Marshall, Philip J.; Murray, Norman

    2016-01-01

    We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a M = 10 8.96±0.12 M ⊙ subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of 6.9 σ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter (DM) subhalos down to M ∼ 2 × 10 7 M ⊙ , pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies between the observed population of luminous galaxies and predicted DM subhalos. We find hints of additional substructure, warranting further study using the full SDP.81 data set (including, for example, the spectroscopic imaging of the lensed carbon monoxide emission). We compare the results of this search to the predictions of ΛCDM halos, and find that given current uncertainties in the host halo properties of SDP.81, our measurements of substructure are consistent with theoretical expectations. Observations of larger samples of gravitational lenses with ALMA should be able to improve the constraints on the abundance of galactic substructure.

  20. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  1. CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  2. CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  3. Close Stellar Encounters in Young, Substructured, Dissolving Star Clusters: Statistics and Effects on Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-06-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  4. Indirect Inverse Substructuring Method for Multibody Product Transport System with Rigid and Flexible Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a new frequency response function- (FRF- based indirect inverse substructuring method without measuring system-level FRFs in the coupling DOFs for the analysis of the dynamic characteristics of a three-substructure coupled product transport system with rigid and flexible coupling. By enforcing the dynamic equilibrium conditions at the coupling coordinates and the displacement compatibility conditions, a closed-form analytical solution to inverse substructuring analysis of multisubstructure coupled product transport system is derived based on the relationship of easy-to-monitor component-level FRFs and the system-level FRFs at the coupling coordinates. The proposed method is validated by a lumped mass-spring-damper model, and the predicted coupling dynamic stiffness is compared with the direct computation, showing exact agreement. The method developed offers an approach to predict the unknown coupling dynamic stiffness from measured FRFs purely. The suggested method may help to obtain the main controlling factors and contributions from the various structure-borne paths for product transport system.

  5. A Comparative Observational Study of YSO Classification in Four Small Star-forming H ii Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung-Ju; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kerton, C. R., E-mail: sjkang@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: kerton@iastate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We have developed a new young stellar object (YSO) identification and classification technique using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. We compare this new technique with previous WISE YSO detection and classification methods that used either infrared colors or spectral energy distribution slopes. In this study, we also use the new technique to detect and examine the YSO population associated with four small H ii regions: KR 7, KR 81, KR 120, and KR 140. The relatively simple structure of these regions allows us to effectively use both spatial and temporal constraints to identify YSOs that are potential products of triggered star formation. We are also able to identify regions of active star formation around these H ii regions that are clearly not influenced by the H ii region expansion, and thus demonstrate that star formation is on-going on megayear timescales in some of these molecular clouds.

  6. Natural draft cooling tower with shell disconnected from the substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diver, Marius

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the analysis of results of a research done by Electricite de France, concerning a new type of cooling tower. The traditional structure (i.e. a hyperbolic shell supported by X shaped or diagonal columns) is replaced by two independent structures: the shell, becoming a self-contained structure, the lower rim being stiffened by an annular beam; the substructure, resting on the soil. This new type of cooling tower has an improved thermal performance due to the increase of the area of air entrance. Bearing pads are provided between the lower ring beam of the shell and the substructure. Any differential settlement can be coped with by jacking. The water distribution structure can be laid out so as to benefit from advantages offered by the presence of the stiff ring and columns of the substructure [fr

  7. A Comparative Study on the Sorption Characteristics of Pb(II and Hg(II onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muthulakshmi Andal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption equilibrium and kinetics of Pb(II and Hg(II on coconut shell carbon (CSC were investigated by batch equilibration method. The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of Pb(II and Hg(II on the activated carbon of coconut shell wastes were studied. Maximum adsorption of Pb(II occurred at pH 4.5 and Hg(II at pH 6. The sorptive mechanism followed the pseudo second order kinetics. The equilibrium data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The equilibration data fitted well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The Langmuir adsorption capacity for Pb(II was greater than Hg(II. The mean free energy of adsorption calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm model indicated that the adsorption of metal ions was found to be by chemical ion exchange. Thermodynamic parameter showed that the sorption process of Pb(II onto SDC was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under studied conditions. A comparison was evaluated for the two metals.

  8. Gas expulsion in highly substructured embedded star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, J. P.; Fellhauer, M.; Smith, R.; Domínguez, R.; Dabringhausen, J.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the response of initially substructured, young, embedded star clusters to instantaneous gas expulsion of their natal gas. We introduce primordial substructure to the stars and the gas by simplistically modelling the star formation process so as to obtain a variety of substructure distributed within our modelled star-forming regions. We show that, by measuring the virial ratio of the stars alone (disregarding the gas completely), we can estimate how much mass a star cluster will retain after gas expulsion to within 10 per cent accuracy, no matter how complex the background structure of the gas is, and we present a simple analytical recipe describing this behaviour. We show that the evolution of the star cluster while still embedded in the natal gas, and the behaviour of the gas before being expelled, is crucial process that affect the time-scale on which the cluster can evolve into a virialized spherical system. Embedded star clusters that have high levels of substructure are subvirial for longer times, enabling them to survive gas expulsion better than a virialized and spherical system. By using a more realistic treatment for the background gas than our previous studies, we find it very difficult to destroy the young clusters with instantaneous gas expulsion. We conclude that gas removal may not be the main culprit for the dissolution of young star clusters.

  9. New Developments for Jet Substructure Reconstruction in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo based studies showcasing several developments for jet substructure reconstruction in CMS. This include Quark/Gluon tagging algorithms using Boosted Decision Trees and Deep Neural Networks, the XCone jet clustering algorithm and the Boosted Event Shape Tagger (BEST).

  10. Face-based selection of corners in 3D substructuring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šístek, Jakub; Čertíková, M.; Burda, P.; Novotný, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 10 (2012), s. 1799-1811 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : domain decomposition * iterative substructuring * BDDC Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378475411001820

  11. Evaluation of a timber column bent substructure after more than 60 years in-service

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Xiping Wang; Douglas R. Rammer; William J. Nelson

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes both the field evaluation and laboratory testing of two timber-column-bent bridge substructures. These substructures served as intermediate pier supports for the East Deer Park Drive Bridge located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. A field evaluation of the bridge substructure was conducted in September 2008. Nondestructive testing was performed with a...

  12. Evolutionarily conserved substrate substructures for automated annotation of enzyme superfamilies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranyee A Chiang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of enzymes affects how well a species can adapt to new environmental conditions. During enzyme evolution, certain aspects of molecular function are conserved while other aspects can vary. Aspects of function that are more difficult to change or that need to be reused in multiple contexts are often conserved, while those that vary may indicate functions that are more easily changed or that are no longer required. In analogy to the study of conservation patterns in enzyme sequences and structures, we have examined the patterns of conservation and variation in enzyme function by analyzing graph isomorphisms among enzyme substrates of a large number of enzyme superfamilies. This systematic analysis of substrate substructures establishes the conservation patterns that typify individual superfamilies. Specifically, we determined the chemical substructures that are conserved among all known substrates of a superfamily and the substructures that are reacting in these substrates and then examined the relationship between the two. Across the 42 superfamilies that were analyzed, substantial variation was found in how much of the conserved substructure is reacting, suggesting that superfamilies may not be easily grouped into discrete and separable categories. Instead, our results suggest that many superfamilies may need to be treated individually for analyses of evolution, function prediction, and guiding enzyme engineering strategies. Annotating superfamilies with these conserved and reacting substructure patterns provides information that is orthogonal to information provided by studies of conservation in superfamily sequences and structures, thereby improving the precision with which we can predict the functions of enzymes of unknown function and direct studies in enzyme engineering. Because the method is automated, it is suitable for large-scale characterization and comparison of fundamental functional capabilities of both characterized

  13. Evolutionarily conserved substrate substructures for automated annotation of enzyme superfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ranyee A; Sali, Andrej; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2008-08-01

    The evolution of enzymes affects how well a species can adapt to new environmental conditions. During enzyme evolution, certain aspects of molecular function are conserved while other aspects can vary. Aspects of function that are more difficult to change or that need to be reused in multiple contexts are often conserved, while those that vary may indicate functions that are more easily changed or that are no longer required. In analogy to the study of conservation patterns in enzyme sequences and structures, we have examined the patterns of conservation and variation in enzyme function by analyzing graph isomorphisms among enzyme substrates of a large number of enzyme superfamilies. This systematic analysis of substrate substructures establishes the conservation patterns that typify individual superfamilies. Specifically, we determined the chemical substructures that are conserved among all known substrates of a superfamily and the substructures that are reacting in these substrates and then examined the relationship between the two. Across the 42 superfamilies that were analyzed, substantial variation was found in how much of the conserved substructure is reacting, suggesting that superfamilies may not be easily grouped into discrete and separable categories. Instead, our results suggest that many superfamilies may need to be treated individually for analyses of evolution, function prediction, and guiding enzyme engineering strategies. Annotating superfamilies with these conserved and reacting substructure patterns provides information that is orthogonal to information provided by studies of conservation in superfamily sequences and structures, thereby improving the precision with which we can predict the functions of enzymes of unknown function and direct studies in enzyme engineering. Because the method is automated, it is suitable for large-scale characterization and comparison of fundamental functional capabilities of both characterized and uncharacterized

  14. Management of peripheral arterial disease patients: comparing the ACC/AHA and TASC-II guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Emile; Giri, Jay

    2008-09-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular events. Despite this, PAD is often undiagnosed and, therefore, undertreated. The purpose of this review is to highlight and provide clinical insight into the similarities and differences between the available PAD treatment guidelines developed by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II (TASC II) working group. Recommendations from the ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic) and TASC II Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial users for personal Disease, initiated in 2004 and published in 2007, were compared. Supplemental information was obtained by searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases using relevant terms. Unintentional bias may have been introduced into the manuscript by not performing a systematic review of the literature with pre-defined search terms. While some variation exists in the content of the recommendations, both documents agree on the need for aggressive management of patients with PAD. In spite of these recommendations, there is a general lack of adherence to the current guidelines-a critical concern considering the high morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. However, the results of ongoing clinical trials may serve to increase awareness of the importance of aggressive management of PAD.

  15. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of lineages I, II, and III strains of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hain Torsten

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that causes infections with a high-mortality rate and has served as an invaluable model for intracellular parasitism. Here, we report complete genome sequences for two L. monocytogenes strains belonging to serotype 4a (L99 and 4b (CLIP80459, and transcriptomes of representative strains from lineages I, II, and III, thereby permitting in-depth comparison of genome- and transcriptome -based data from three lineages of L. monocytogenes. Lineage III, represented by the 4a L99 genome is known to contain strains less virulent for humans. Results The genome analysis of the weakly pathogenic L99 serotype 4a provides extensive evidence of virulence gene decay, including loss of several important surface proteins. The 4b CLIP80459 genome, unlike the previously sequenced 4b F2365 genome harbours an intact inlB invasion gene. These lineage I strains are characterized by the lack of prophage genes, as they share only a single prophage locus with other L. monocytogenes genomes 1/2a EGD-e and 4a L99. Comparative transcriptome analysis during intracellular growth uncovered adaptive expression level differences in lineages I, II and III of Listeria, notable amongst which was a strong intracellular induction of flagellar genes in strain 4a L99 compared to the other lineages. Furthermore, extensive differences between strains are manifest at levels of metabolic flux control and phosphorylated sugar uptake. Intriguingly, prophage gene expression was found to be a hallmark of intracellular gene expression. Deletion mutants in the single shared prophage locus of lineage II strain EGD-e 1/2a, the lma operon, revealed severe attenuation of virulence in a murine infection model. Conclusion Comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of L. monocytogenes strains from three lineages implicate prophage genes in intracellular adaptation and indicate that gene loss and decay may have led to the emergence

  16. Floating substructure flexibility of large-volume 10MW offshore wind turbine platforms in dynamic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Michael; Hansen, Anders Melchior; Bredmose, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Designing floating substructures for the next generation of 10MW and larger wind turbines has introduced new challenges in capturing relevant physical effects in dynamic simulation tools. In achieving technically and economically optimal floating substructures, structural flexibility may increase to the extent that it becomes relevant to include in addition to the standard rigid body substructure modes which are typically described through linear radiation-diffraction theory. This paper describes a method for the inclusion of substructural flexibility in aero-hydro-servo-elastic dynamic simulations for large-volume substructures, including wave-structure interactions, to form the basis of deriving sectional loads and stresses within the substructure. The method is applied to a case study to illustrate the implementation and relevance. It is found that the flexible mode is significantly excited in an extreme event, indicating an increase in predicted substructure internal loads. (paper)

  17. Stick-slip substructure in rapid tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-10-15

    The peeling of adhesive tape is known to proceed with a stick-slip mechanism and produces a characteristic ripping sound. The peeling also produces light and when peeled in a vacuum, even X-rays have been observed, whose emissions are correlated with the slip events. Here we present direct imaging of the detachment zone when Scotch tape is peeled off at high speed from a solid surface, revealing a highly regular substructure, during the slip phase. The typical 4-mm-long slip region has a regular substructure of transverse 220 μm wide slip bands, which fracture sideways at speeds over 300 m/s. The fracture tip emits waves into the detached section of the tape at ∼100 m/s, which promotes the sound, so characteristic of this phenomenon.

  18. Towards an understanding of the correlations in jet substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.; Arce, A.; Asquith, L.; Backovic, M.; Barillari, T.; Menke, S.; Berta, P.; Bertolini, D.; Buckley, A.; Ferrando, J.; Pollard, C.; Butterworth, J.; Cooper, B.; Camacho Toro, R.C.; Picazio, A.; Caudron, J.; El Hedri, S.; Masetti, L.; Chien, Y.T.; Hornig, A.; Lee, C.; Cogan, J.; Nachman, B.; Nef, P.; Schwartzman, A.; Strauss, E.; Swiatlowski, M.; Curtin, D.; Debenedetti, C.; Dolen, J.; Rappoccio, S.; Eklund, M.; Embry, T.; Johns, K.; Lampl, W.; Leone, R.; Loch, P.; O'Grady, F.T.; Rutherfoord, J.; Veatch, J.; Ellis, S.D.; Ferencek, D.; Fleischmann, S.; Freytsis, M.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Schwartz, M.D.; Giulini, M.; Sosa Corral, D.E.; Han, Z.; Soper, D.; Hare, D.; Mishra, K.; Tran, N.V.; Harris, P.; Potter-Landua, B.; Potter, C.; Thomas, C.; Young, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hoing, R.; Kogler, R.; Marchesini, I.; Usai, E.; Jankowiak, M.; Kasieczka, G.; Larkoski, A.J.; Marzani, S.; Thaler, J.; Lou, H.K.; Low, M.; Miller, D.W.; Maksimovic, P.; McCarthy, R.; Ovcharova, A.; Rojo, J.; Tseng, J.; Salam, G.P.; Schabinger, R.M.; Shuve, B.; Sinervo, P.; Spannowsky, M.; Thompson, E.; Valery, L.; Vos, M.; Waalewijn, W.; Wacker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. This is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging. (orig.)

  19. Observations of Cluster Substructure using Weakly Lensed Sextupole Moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, John

    2003-08-01

    Since dark matter clusters and groups may have substructure, we have examined the sextupole content of Hubble images looking for a curvature signature in background galaxies that would arise from galaxy-galaxy lensing. We describe techniques for extracting and analyzing sextupole and higher weakly lensed moments. Indications of substructure, via spatial clumping of curved background galaxies, were observed in the image of CL0024 and then surprisingly in both Hubble deep fields. We estimate the dark cluster masses in the deep field. Alternatives to a lensing hypothesis appear improbable, but better statistics will be required to exclude them conclusively. Observation of sextupole moments would then provide a means to measure dark matter structure on smaller length scales than heretofore.

  20. Towards an understanding of the correlations in jet substructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Arce, A. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Asquith, L. [University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Backovic, M. [CP3, Universite catholique du Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Barillari, T.; Menke, S. [Max-Planck-Institute fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Berta, P. [Charles University in Prague, FMP, Prague (Czech Republic); Bertolini, D. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Buckley, A.; Ferrando, J.; Pollard, C. [University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Butterworth, J.; Cooper, B. [University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Camacho Toro, R.C.; Picazio, A. [University of Geneva, Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Caudron, J.; El Hedri, S.; Masetti, L. [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Chien, Y.T.; Hornig, A.; Lee, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cogan, J.; Nachman, B.; Nef, P.; Schwartzman, A.; Strauss, E.; Swiatlowski, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Curtin, D. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Debenedetti, C. [University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Dolen, J.; Rappoccio, S. [University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Eklund, M.; Embry, T.; Johns, K.; Lampl, W.; Leone, R.; Loch, P.; O' Grady, F.T.; Rutherfoord, J.; Veatch, J. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Ellis, S.D. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ferencek, D. [Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Fleischmann, S. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Freytsis, M.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Schwartz, M.D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Giulini, M.; Sosa Corral, D.E. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Han, Z.; Soper, D. [University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Hare, D.; Mishra, K.; Tran, N.V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Harris, P.; Potter-Landua, B.; Potter, C.; Thomas, C.; Young, C. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hinzmann, A. [Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Hoing, R.; Kogler, R.; Marchesini, I.; Usai, E. [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Jankowiak, M. [New York University, New York, NY (United States); Kasieczka, G. [ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Larkoski, A.J.; Marzani, S.; Thaler, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lou, H.K. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Low, M.; Miller, D.W. [University of Chicago, Zurich, IL (United States); Maksimovic, P. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McCarthy, R. [YITP, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ovcharova, A. [University of California, Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Rojo, J.; Tseng, J. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Salam, G.P. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); LPTHE, UPMC Univ. Paris 6 and CNRS UMR, Paris (France); Schabinger, R.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Shuve, B. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, ON (Canada); Sinervo, P. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Spannowsky, M. [University of Durham, IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom); Thompson, E. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Valery, L. [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Aubiere Cedex (France); Vos, M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, IFIC/CSIC-UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Waalewijn, W. [University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wacker, J. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. This is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging. (orig.)

  1. Stick-slip substructure in rapid tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Nguyen, H. D.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    The peeling of adhesive tape is known to proceed with a stick-slip mechanism and produces a characteristic ripping sound. The peeling also produces light and when peeled in a vacuum, even X-rays have been observed, whose emissions are correlated with the slip events. Here we present direct imaging of the detachment zone when Scotch tape is peeled off at high speed from a solid surface, revealing a highly regular substructure, during the slip phase. The typical 4-mm-long slip region has a regular substructure of transverse 220 μm wide slip bands, which fracture sideways at speeds over 300 m/s. The fracture tip emits waves into the detached section of the tape at ∼100 m/s, which promotes the sound, so characteristic of this phenomenon.

  2. Power spectrum of dark matter substructure in strong gravitational lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Rivero, Ana; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Dvorkin, Cora

    2018-01-01

    Studying the smallest self-bound dark matter structure in our Universe can yield important clues about the fundamental particle nature of dark matter. Galaxy-scale strong gravitational lensing provides a unique way to detect and characterize dark matter substructures at cosmological distances from the Milky Way. Within the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, the number of low-mass subhalos within lens galaxies is expected to be large, implying that their contribution to the lensing convergence field is approximately Gaussian and could thus be described by their power spectrum. We develop here a general formalism to compute from first principles the substructure convergence power spectrum for different populations of dark matter subhalos. As an example, we apply our framework to two distinct subhalo populations: a truncated Navarro-Frenk-White subhalo population motivated by standard CDM, and a truncated cored subhalo population motivated by self-interacting dark matter (SIDM). We study in detail how the subhalo abundance, mass function, internal density profile, and concentration affect the amplitude and shape of the substructure power spectrum. We determine that the power spectrum is mostly sensitive to a specific combination of the subhalo abundance and moments of the mass function, as well as to the average tidal truncation scale of the largest subhalos included in the analysis. Interestingly, we show that the asymptotic slope of the substructure power spectrum at large wave number reflects the internal density profile of the subhalos. In particular, the SIDM power spectrum exhibits a characteristic steepening at large wave number absent in the CDM power spectrum, opening the possibility of using this observable, if at all measurable, to discern between these two scenarios.

  3. Prismatic substructure in metals; Prizmaticna substruktura kod metala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosavljevic, Dj [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-11-15

    The first step was the study of impurities behaviour during solidification of metals under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. Impurities distribution and their structural shapes are dependent on conditions of solidification. These conditions are directly related to temperature and concentration issues on the solidification surface. Theoretical and experimental evaluated in this paper show the significance of subcooling in formation of cellular sub-structure.

  4. Substructure formation in iron-nickel monocrystals at cellular growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapova, E.V.; Tagirova, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Substructural perfection of Fe-31 wt.% Ni alloy crystals prepared by the Bridgeman method is investigated. Characteristics of banded and cellular structures at different morphology of crystallization front corresponding to the rates of growth (7.0-24.7)x10 -4 cm/s are determined. Position of disorientation axis of banded fragments is shown to depend on orientation of a groWing crystal and its strong fragmentation results in formation of finer cellular structure

  5. THE PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF A VAST STELLAR SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE OUTSKIRTS OF M33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnachie, Alan W.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Irwin, Michael J.; Dubinski, John; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Dotter, Aaron; Ibata, Rodrigo; Lewis, Geraint F.

    2010-01-01

    We have surveyed approximately 40 deg 2 surrounding M33 with Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope MegaCam/MegaPrime in the g and i filters out to a maximum projected radius from this galaxy of 50 kpc, as part of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS). Our observations are deep enough to resolve the top ∼4 mag of the red giant branch population in this galaxy. We have previously shown that the disk of M33 is surrounded by a large, irregular, low surface brightness substructure. Here, we quantify the stellar populations and structure of this feature using the PAndAS data. We show that the stellar populations of this feature are consistent with an old population with ([Fe/H]) ∼ -1.6 dex and an interquartile range in metallicity of ∼0.5 dex. We construct a surface brightness map of M33 that traces this feature to μ V ≅ 33 mag arcsec -2 . At these low surface brightness levels, the structure extends to projected radii of ∼40 kpc from the center of M33 in both the northwest and southeast quadrants of the galaxy. Overall, the structure has an 'S-shaped' appearance that broadly aligns with the orientation of the H I disk warp. We calculate a lower limit to the integrated luminosity of the structure of -12.7 ± 0.5 mag, comparable to a bright dwarf galaxy such as Fornax or Andromeda II and slightly less than 1% of the total luminosity of M33. Further, we show that there is tentative evidence for a distortion in the distribution of young stars near the edge of the H I disk that occurs at similar azimuth to the warp in H I. The data also hint at a low-level, extended stellar component at larger radius that may be an M33 halo component. We revisit studies of M33 and its stellar populations in light of these new results and discuss possible formation scenarios for the vast stellar structure. Our favored model is that of the tidal disruption of M33 in its orbit around M31.

  6. Correlation between the sub-structure parameters and the manufacturing technologies of metal threads in historical textiles using X-ray line profile analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csiszar, Gabor; Ungar, Tamas [Eoetvoes University Budapest, Department of Materials Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Jaro, Marta [Hungarian National Museum, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-06-15

    Micro-structure can talk when documentation is missing. In ancient Roman or medieval periods, kings, queens, or just rich people decorated their clothes or even their horse covers richly with miniature jewels or metal threads. The origin or the fabrication techniques of these ancient threads is often unknown. Thirteen thread samples made of gold or gilt silver manufactured during the last sixteen hundred years are investigated for the micro-structure in terms of dislocation density, crystallite size, and planar defects. In a few cases, these features are compared with sub-structure of similar metallic threads prepared in modern, twentieth century workshops. The sub-structure is determined by X-ray line profile analysis, using high resolution diffractograms with negligible instrumental broadening. On the basis of the sub-structure parameters, we attempt to assess the metal-threads manufacturing procedures on samples stemming from the fourth century A.D. until now. (orig.)

  7. Coefficient of Friction at the Fingertips in Type II Diabetics Compared to Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, Beatriz H; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2017-07-01

    Clinical observations suggest that type II diabetes patients are more susceptible to skin changes, which may be associated with reduced coefficient of friction at the fingertips. Reduced coefficient of friction may explain recent reports of fine motor dysfunction in diabetic patients. Coefficient of friction was evaluated using slip force evaluation in a cross-sectional cohort of diabetic patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Covariates of tactile sensation, disease duration, glycated hemoglobin, and clinical diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy were also assessed. A significant decrease in fingertip coefficient of friction in the diabetic group was found as compared to controls. Health state covariates did not alter the strength of between-group differences in statistical analyses. This finding of between-group differences for fingertip frictional properties suggests that causative factors of reported manual motor dysfunction lie in both the distal and proximal portions of the nervous system.

  8. Periodontal status among type II diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in Chennai, India: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kesavan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontitis is referred to as the sixth complication of diabetes mellitus. If left untreated, periodontitis can lead to tooth loss, thereby compromising a patient's ability to maintain a proper diet and affecting the quality of life. Aim: To assess the periodontal status among type II diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among diabetics and nondiabetic population attending a government hospital in Chennai city. The WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997 was used to assess the periodontal status. The final sample size of the study was 1000 which included 500 diabetics and 500 nondiabetics. Results: This study showed a significant association between the diabetic status and periodontal disease. The severity of periodontal disease was high among diabetics when compared to nondiabetics. The mean number of sextants with shallow pockets was 0.76 ± 1.20 among diabetics and 0.49 ± 0.86 among nondiabetics (P < 0.0001. The mean number of sextants with Loss of Attachment score of 1 (4–5 mm was 0.67 ± 1.05 among diabetics and 0.32 ± 0.70 among nondiabetics. Conclusion: Periodontal disease was more frequent and severe in diabetic patients as compared to nondiabetics although there are a number of questions need to be answered in future research.

  9. Reheating effects in the matter power spectrum and implications for substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Sigurdson, Kris

    2011-01-01

    The thermal and expansion history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis is unknown. We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations through the transition from an early matter era to radiation domination. We treat reheating as the perturbative decay of an oscillating scalar field into relativistic plasma and cold dark matter. After reheating, we find that subhorizon perturbations in the decay-produced dark matter density are significantly enhanced, while subhorizon radiation perturbations are instead suppressed. If dark matter originates in the radiation bath after reheating, this suppression may be the primary cutoff in the matter power spectrum. Conversely, for dark matter produced nonthermally from scalar decay, enhanced perturbations can drive structure formation during the cosmic dark ages and dramatically increase the abundance of compact substructures. For low reheat temperatures, we find that as much as 50% of all dark matter is in microhalos with M > or approx. 0.1M + at z≅100, compared to a fraction of ∼10 -10 in the standard case. In this scenario, ultradense substructures may constitute a large fraction of dark matter in galaxies today.

  10. An Impulse Based Substructuring approach for impact analysis and load case simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixen, Daniel J.; van der Valk, Paul L. C.

    2013-12-01

    In the present paper we outline the basic theory of assembling substructures for which the dynamics are described as Impulse Response Functions. The assembly procedure computes the time response of a system by evaluating per substructure the convolution product between the Impulse Response Functions and the applied forces, including the interface forces that are computed to satisfy the interface compatibility. We call this approach the Impulse Based Substructuring method since it transposes to the time domain the Frequency Based Substructuring approach. In the Impulse Based Substructuring technique the Impulse Response Functions of the substructures can be gathered either from experimental tests using a hammer impact or from time-integration of numerical submodels. In this paper the implementation of the method is outlined for the case when the impulse responses of the substructures are computed numerically. A simple bar example is shown in order to illustrate the concept. The Impulse Based Substructuring allows fast evaluation of impact response of a structure when the impulse response of its components is known. It can thus be used to efficiently optimize designs of consumer products by including impact behavior at the early stage of the design, but also for performing substructured simulations of complex structures such as offshore wind turbines.

  11. Dynamic analysis of clustered building structures using substructures methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leimbach, K.R.; Krutzik, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic substructure approach to the building cluster on a common base mat starts with the generation of Ritz-vectors for each building on a rigid foundation. The base mat plus the foundation soil is subjected to kinematic constraint modes, for example constant, linear, quadratic or cubic constraints. These constraint modes are also imposed on the buildings. By enforcing kinematic compatibility of the complete structural system on the basis of the constraint modes a reduced Ritz model of the complete cluster is obtained. This reduced model can now be analyzed by modal time history or response spectrum methods

  12. Mechanical strenght and niobium and niobium-base alloys substructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, W.A.; Andrade, A.H.P. de

    1986-01-01

    Niobium and some of its alloys have been used in several fields of technological applications such as the aerospace, chemical and nuclear industries. This is due to its excelent mechanical stringth at high temperatures and reasonable ductility at low temperatures. In this work, we review the main features of the relationship mechanical strength - substructure in niobium and its alloys, taking into account the presence of impurities, the influence of initial thermal and thermo - mechanical treatments as well as the irradiation by energetic particles. (Author) [pt

  13. Dislocation-Disclination Substructures Formed in FCC Polycrystals Under Large Plastic Deformations: Evolution and Association with Flow Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, É. V.; Koneva, N. A.; Trishkina, L. I.

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of dislocation substructures formed in polycrystalline Cu-Al and Cu-Mn alloys undergoing large plastic deformations is studied, using transmission electron microscopy. Microband and fragmented substructures are examined. The Al and Mn alloying element concentrations for which the substructures are formed have been found. The mechanisms involved in the formation of the substructures during the substructural evolution in the alloys subjected to deformation have been revealed. Parameters describing the substructures under study have been measured. The dependence of the parameters on the flow stress has been established.

  14. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  15. Comparative Analysis between preoperative Radiotherapy and postoperative Radiotherapy in Clinical Stage I and II Endometrial Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol; Chung, Eun Ji; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Woo Cheol; Chang, Sei Kyung; Oh, Young Taek; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : To obtain the optical treatment method in patients with endometrial carcinoma(clinical stage FIGO I, II) by comparative analysis between preoperative radiotherapy(pre-op R) and postoperative radiotherapy(post-op RT). Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of 62 endometrial carcinoma patients referred to the Yonsei Cancer Center for radiotherapy between 1985 and 1991 was undertaken. Of 62 patients, 19 patients(Stage I; 12 patients, Stage II; 7 patients) received pre-op RT before TAH(Total Abdominal Hysterectomy) and BSO(Bilateral Salphingoophorectomy) (Group 1) and 43 patients( Stage 1; 32 patients, Stage 2; 11 patients) received post-op RT after TAH and BSO (Group 2). Pre-op irradiation was given 4-6 weeks prior to surgery and post-op RT was administered on 4-5 weeks following surgery. All patients exept 1 patient(Group2; ICR alone) received external irradiation. Seventy percent(13/19) of pre-op RT group and 54 percent(23/42) of post-op RT group received external pelvic irradiation and intracavitary radiation therapy(ICR). External radiation dose was 39.6-55Gy(median 45Gy) in 5-6 week through opposed AP/PA fields or 4-field box technique treating daily, five days per week, 180cGy per fraction. ICR doses were prescribed to point A(20-39.6 Gy, median 39Gy) in Group 1 and 0.5cm depth from vaginal surface (18-30 Gy, median 21Gy) in Group2. Results : The overall 5 year survival rate was 95%. No survival difference between pre-op and post-op RT group.(89.3% vs 97.7%, p>0.1) There was no survival difference by stage, grade and histology between two groups. The survival rate was not affected by presence of residual tumor of surgical specimen after pre-op RT in Group 1(p>0.1), but affected by presence of lymph node metastasis in post-op RT group(p<0.5). The complication rate of pre-op RT group was higher than post-op RT.(16% vs 5%) Conclusion : Post-op radiotherapy offers the advantages of accurate surgical-pathological staging and low complication rate

  16. Residuated lattices an algebraic glimpse at substructural logics

    CERN Document Server

    Galatos, Nikolaos; Kowalski, Tomasz; Ono, Hiroakira

    2007-01-01

    The book is meant to serve two purposes. The first and more obvious one is to present state of the art results in algebraic research into residuated structures related to substructural logics. The second, less obvious but equally important, is to provide a reasonably gentle introduction to algebraic logic. At the beginning, the second objective is predominant. Thus, in the first few chapters the reader will find a primer of universal algebra for logicians, a crash course in nonclassical logics for algebraists, an introduction to residuated structures, an outline of Gentzen-style calculi as well as some titbits of proof theory - the celebrated Hauptsatz, or cut elimination theorem, among them. These lead naturally to a discussion of interconnections between logic and algebra, where we try to demonstrate how they form two sides of the same coin. We envisage that the initial chapters could be used as a textbook for a graduate course, perhaps entitled Algebra and Substructural Logics. As the book progresses the f...

  17. Replaceable Substructures for Efficient Part-Based Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Han; Vimont, Ulysse; Wand, Michael; Cani, Marie Paule; Hahmann, Stefanie; Rohmer, Damien; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2015-01-01

    A popular mode of shape synthesis involves mixing and matching parts from different objects to form a coherent whole. The key challenge is to efficiently synthesize shape variations that are plausible, both locally and globally. A major obstacle is to assemble the objects with local consistency, i.e., all the connections between parts are valid with no dangling open connections. The combinatorial complexity of this problem limits existing methods in geometric and/or topological variations of the synthesized models. In this work, we introduce replaceable substructures as arrangements of parts that can be interchanged while ensuring boundary consistency. The consistency information is extracted from part labels and connections in the original source models. We present a polynomial time algorithm that discovers such substructures by working on a dual of the original shape graph that encodes inter-part connectivity. We demonstrate the algorithm on a range of test examples producing plausible shape variations, both from a geometric and from a topological viewpoint. © 2015 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Replaceable Substructures for Efficient Part-Based Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Han

    2015-05-01

    A popular mode of shape synthesis involves mixing and matching parts from different objects to form a coherent whole. The key challenge is to efficiently synthesize shape variations that are plausible, both locally and globally. A major obstacle is to assemble the objects with local consistency, i.e., all the connections between parts are valid with no dangling open connections. The combinatorial complexity of this problem limits existing methods in geometric and/or topological variations of the synthesized models. In this work, we introduce replaceable substructures as arrangements of parts that can be interchanged while ensuring boundary consistency. The consistency information is extracted from part labels and connections in the original source models. We present a polynomial time algorithm that discovers such substructures by working on a dual of the original shape graph that encodes inter-part connectivity. We demonstrate the algorithm on a range of test examples producing plausible shape variations, both from a geometric and from a topological viewpoint. © 2015 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Substructure boosts to dark matter annihilation from Sommerfeld enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2009-01-01

    The recently introduced Sommerfeld enhancement of the dark matter annihilation cross section has important implications for the detection of dark matter annihilation in subhalos in the Galactic halo. In addition to the boost to the dark matter annihilation cross section from the high densities of these subhalos with respect to the main halo, an additional boost caused by the Sommerfeld enhancement results from the fact that they are kinematically colder than the Galactic halo. If we further believe the generic prediction of the cold dark matter paradigm that in each subhalo there is an abundance of substructure which is approximately self-similar to that of the Galactic halo, then I show that additional boosts coming from the density enhancements of these small substructures and their small velocity dispersions enhance the dark matter annihilation cross section even further. I find that very large boost factors (10 5 to 10 9 ) are obtained in a large class of models. The implications of these boost factors for the detection of dark matter annihilation from dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Galactic halo are such that, generically, they outshine the background gamma-ray flux and are detectable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  20. Design and Analysis of Jacket Substructures for Offshore Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Wen Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on investigating various existing types of offshore jacket substructures along with a proposed twisted-tripod jacket type (modified jacket (MJ-structures. The architectures of the three-leg structure, as well as the patented twisted jacket structure motivated the design of the proposed MJ-structures. The dimensions of the structures were designed iteratively using static stress analysis to ensure that all structures had a similar level of load-carrying capability. The numerical global buckling analyses were performed for all structures after the validation by the scaled-down experiments. The local buckling strength of all compressive members was analyzed using the NORSOK standard. The results showed that the proposed MJ-structures possess excellent structural behavior and few structural nodes and components competitive with the patented twisted jacket structures, while still maintaining the advantages of low material usage similar to the three-leg jacket structures. This study provides alternatives for the initial selection and design of offshore wind turbine substructures for green energy applications.

  1. A phase II randomized trial comparing radiotherapy with concurrent weekly cisplatin or weekly paclitaxel in patients with advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geara, Fady B; Shamseddine, Ali; Khalil, Ali; Abboud, Mirna; Charafeddine, Maya; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2010-01-01

    This is a prospective comparison of weekly cisplatin to weekly paclitaxel as concurrent chemotherapy with standard radiotherapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Between May 2000 and May 2004, 31 women with FIGO stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer or with postsurgical pelvic recurrence were enrolled into this phase II study and randomized to receive on a weekly basis either 40 mg/m 2 Cisplatin (group I; 16 patients) or 50 mg/m 2 paclitaxel (group II; 15 patients) concurrently with radiotherapy. Median total dose to point A was 74 Gy (range: 66-92 Gy) for group I and 66 Gy (range: 40-98 Gy) for group II. Median follow-up time was 46 months. Patient and tumor characteristics were similar in both groups. The mean number of chemotherapy cycles was also comparable with 87% and 80% of patients receiving at least 4 doses in groups I and II, respectively. Seven patients (44%) of group I and 8 patients (53%) of group II developed tumor recurrence. The Median Survival time was not reached for Group I and 53 months for group II. The proportion of patients surviving at 2 and 5 years was 78% and 54% for group I and 73% and 43% for group II respectively. This small prospective study shows that weekly paclitaxel does not provide any clinical advantage over weekly cisplatin for concurrent chemoradiation for advanced carcinoma of the cervix

  2. Comparative Study on Adsorption of Mn(II from Aqueous Solutions on Various Activated Carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Mn(II on indigenously prepared activated carbons (IPAC from Bombax malabaricum, Pithecelobium dulse, Ipomea batatas and Peltaforum ferraginium have been studied. The effects of various experimental parameters have been investigated using batch adsorption technique. The extent of Mn(II removal increased with decrease in initial concentration of the Mn(II, particle size of the adsorbent and increased with increase in contact time, amount of adsorbent used and the initial pH of the solution. Adsorption data were modeled using Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms and first order kinetic equations. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be first order with regard to intra-particle diffusion rate. The results indicate that such carbons could be employed as low cost adsorbents in waste water treatment for the removal of Mn(II.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Zeiner

    Full Text Available Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a. We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-07-19

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  5. Influence of solidification parameters on the cellular sub-structure of tin and some tin alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosavljevic, Dj.

    1965-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to obtain qualitative data on sub-structure of samples solidified in contact with the cooler. The objective of experiments was to study micro segregation phenomena by investigating the substructure in the solidified sample obtained under experimental conditions which are similar to real solidification conditions

  6. Misoriented dislocation substructures and the fracture of polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, N. A.; Trishkina, L. I.; Cherkasova, T. V.; Kozlov, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of the dislocation substructure in polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys with various grain sizes is studied during deformation to failure. A relation between the fracture of the alloys and the forming misorientation dislocation substructures is revealed. Microcracks in the alloy are found to form along grain boundaries and the boundaries of misoriented dislocation cells and microtwins.

  7. Floating substructure flexibility of large-volume 10MW offshore wind turbine platforms in dynamic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Michael; Hansen, Anders Melchior; Bredmose, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    to the extent that it becomes relevant to include in addition to the standard rigid body substructure modes which are typically described through linear radiation-diffraction theory. This paper describes a method for the inclusion of substructural flexibility in aero-hydro-servo-elastic dynamic simulations...

  8. Substructuring in the implicit simulation of single point incremental sheet forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadoush, A.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a direct substructuring method to reduce the computing time of implicit simulations of single point incremental forming (SPIF). Substructuring is used to divide the finite element (FE) mesh into several non-overlapping parts. Based on the hypothesis that plastic deformation is

  9. Exploring a heavy charged Higgs using jet substructure in a fully hadronic channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the type-II Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM-II a charged Higgs search strategy is presented for the dominant production mode gb→tH± at the 14 TeV LHC. We consider the decay process which includes t→bW± and H±→AW±, and a fully hadronic final state consisting of bbb¯+jets+X. Dictated by the b→sγ constraints which render MH±>480 GeV we study two scenarios in which the charged Higgs mass is 750 GeV and the pseudoscalar Higgs mass is 200 GeV and 500 GeV. In this mass scheme highly boosted final state objects are expected and handled with jet substructure techniques which also acts to suppress the standard model background. A detailed detector analysis is performed, followed by a multivariate analysis involving many kinematic variables to optimize signal to background significance. Finally the LHC search sensitivities for the two scenarios are presented for various integrated luminosities.

  10. Boosting the charged Higgs search prospects using jet substructure at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jinmian [Center of Excellence for Particle Physics at Terascale, University of Adelaide,Adelaide, 5005 South (Australia); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul, 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Patrick, Riley; Sharma, Pankaj; Williams, Anthony G. [Center of Excellence for Particle Physics at Terascale, University of Adelaide,Adelaide, 5005 South (Australia)

    2016-11-28

    Charged Higgs bosons are predicted in variety of theoretically well-motivated new physics models with extended Higgs sectors. In this study, we focus on a type-II two Higgs doublet model (2HDM-II) and consider a heavy charged Higgs with its mass ranging from 500 GeV to 1 TeV as dictated by the b→sγ constraints which render M{sub H{sup ±}}>480 GeV. We study the dominant production mode H{sup ±}t associated production with H{sup ±}→W{sup ±}A being the dominant decay channel when the pseudoscalar A is considerably lighter. For such a heavy charged Higgs, both the decay products W{sup ±} and A are relatively boosted. In such a scenario, we apply the jet substructure analysis of tagging the fat pseudoscalar and W jets in order to eliminate the standard model background efficiently. We perform a detailed detector simulation for the signal and background processes at the 14 TeV LHC. We introduce various kinematical cuts to determine the signal significance for a number of benchmark points with charged Higgs boson mass from 500 GeV to 1 TeV in the W{sup ±}A decay channel. Finally we perform a multivariate analysis utilizing a boosted decision tree algorithm to optimize these significances.

  11. A model for Quick Load Analysis for monopile-type offshore wind turbine substructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe; Castillo, Laura Garcia; Fejerskov, Morten

    2016-01-01

    A model for Quick Load Analysis, QuLA, of an offshore wind turbine substructure is presented. The aerodynamic rotor loads and damping are precomputed for a load-based configuration. The dynamic structural response is represented by the first global fore-aft mode only and is computed...... in the frequency domain using the equation of motion. The model is compared against the state of the art aeroelastic code, Flex5, and both life time fatigue and extreme loads are considered in the comparison. In general there is good similarity between the two models. Some derivation for the sectional forces...... are explained in terms of the model simplifications. The difference in the sectional moments are found to be within 14% for the fatigue load case and 10% for the extreme load condition....

  12. The LabelHash algorithm for substructure matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Drew H

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing number of proteins with known structure but unknown function. Determining their function would have a significant impact on understanding diseases and designing new therapeutics. However, experimental protein function determination is expensive and very time-consuming. Computational methods can facilitate function determination by identifying proteins that have high structural and chemical similarity. Results We present LabelHash, a novel algorithm for matching substructural motifs to large collections of protein structures. The algorithm consists of two phases. In the first phase the proteins are preprocessed in a fashion that allows for instant lookup of partial matches to any motif. In the second phase, partial matches for a given motif are expanded to complete matches. The general applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated with three different case studies. First, we show that we can accurately identify members of the enolase superfamily with a single motif. Next, we demonstrate how LabelHash can complement SOIPPA, an algorithm for motif identification and pairwise substructure alignment. Finally, a large collection of Catalytic Site Atlas motifs is used to benchmark the performance of the algorithm. LabelHash runs very efficiently in parallel; matching a motif against all proteins in the 95% sequence identity filtered non-redundant Protein Data Bank typically takes no more than a few minutes. The LabelHash algorithm is available through a web server and as a suite of standalone programs at http://labelhash.kavrakilab.org. The output of the LabelHash algorithm can be further analyzed with Chimera through a plugin that we developed for this purpose. Conclusions LabelHash is an efficient, versatile algorithm for large-scale substructure matching. When LabelHash is running in parallel, motifs can typically be matched against the entire PDB on the order of minutes. The algorithm is able to identify

  13. E-learning interventions are comparable to user's manual in a randomized trial of training strategies for the AGREE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durocher Lisa D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practice guidelines (PGs are systematically developed statements intended to assist in patient and practitioner decisions. The AGREE II is the revised tool for PG development, reporting, and evaluation, comprised of 23 items, two global rating scores, and a new User's Manual. In this study, we sought to develop, execute, and evaluate the impact of two internet interventions designed to accelerate the capacity of stakeholders to use the AGREE II. Methods Participants were randomized to one of three training conditions. 'Tutorial'--participants proceeded through the online tutorial with a virtual coach and reviewed a PDF copy of the AGREE II. 'Tutorial + Practice Exercise'--in addition to the Tutorial, participants also appraised a 'practice' PG. For the practice PG appraisal, participants received feedback on how their scores compared to expert norms and formative feedback if scores fell outside the predefined range. 'AGREE II User's Manual PDF (control condition'--participants reviewed a PDF copy of the AGREE II only. All participants evaluated a test PG using the AGREE II. Outcomes of interest were learners' performance, satisfaction, self-efficacy, mental effort, time-on-task, and perceptions of AGREE II. Results No differences emerged between training conditions on any of the outcome measures. Conclusions We believe these results can be explained by better than anticipated performance of the AGREE II PDF materials (control condition or the participants' level of health methodology and PG experience rather than the failure of the online training interventions. Some data suggest the online tools may be useful for trainees new to this field; however, this requires further study.

  14. Comparative Study of Optical and RF Communication Systems for a Mars Mission - Part II. Unified Value Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Layland, J.; Lesh, J.; Wilson, K.; Sue, M.; Rascoe, D.; Lansing, F.; Wilhelm, M.; Harcke, L.; Chen, C.; hide

    1997-01-01

    In this Par-II report of the Advanced Communications Benefits study, two critical metrics for comparing the benefits of utilizing X-band, Ka-band and Optical frequencies for supporting generic classes of Martian exploration missions have been evaluated.

  15. Automated measurement of serum thyroxine with the ''AIRA II,'' as compared with competitive protein binding and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.V.R.

    1978-01-01

    Two conventional serum thyroxine assays, run in separate laboratories, one by competitive protein binding and one by radioimmunoassay, were used to evaluate the automated ARIA II (Becton Dickinson Immunodiagnostics) serum thyroxine assay. Competitive protein binding as compared to ARIA II with 111 clinical serum samples gave a slope of 1.04 and a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The radioimmunoassay comparison to ARIA II with 53 clinical serum samples gave a slope of 1.05 and a correlation coefficient of 0.92. The ARIA II inter-assay coefficient of variation for 10 replicates of low, medium, and high thyroxine serum samples was 6.2, 6.0, and 2.9%, respectively, with an inter-assay coefficient of variation among 15 different assays of 15.5, 10.1, and 7.9%. The automated ARIA II, with a 2.2-min cycle per sample, gives results that compare well with those by manual methodology

  16. Spin effects from quark and lepton substructure at future machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckl, R.

    1985-01-01

    If quarks and leptons are composite on a distance scale Λ -1 the physics at energies larger than Λ will provide plenty of evidence for the new level of substructure. However, already at energies below Λ compositeness should become manifest in deviations from the standard model due to form factors, residual interactions and, possibly, new ''light'' states. I discuss the virtue of polarized lepton and hadron beams in searching for new interactions and exemplify the production of excited fermions and bosons focussing on spin properties. The detailed of the contact interactions and the spin of the excited fermions and bosons can give important clues on the basic preon structure and dynamics. Phenomenological studies show that polarization asymmetries and angular distributions of decay products probe most sensitively the chiral properties of contact interactions and the spin of new states. Thus, polarized beams and good angular coverage are of great advantage

  17. Magnetic field influence on substructure formed by electric spark treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Rahbari, G.; Ivanov, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The substructure of surface layer (about 10 microns thick) has been studied by x-ray line broadening technique in the samples of plain carbon steel (0.45%C) after electric spark doping with and without magnetic field (MF). The applied spark pulse energy was 0.12 J and MF induction varied from 0 to 0.08 T. The electrode material was the same as that of the treated sample. It has been observed that the MF reduces the tensile residual surface stresses from 660 ± 15MPa (no MF) to 260 ± 15MPa (B=0.053 T). The analysis of x-ray line broadening has revealed only the existence of microstrains, which are dependent of the MF magnitude. The microstrains have been related to the randomly distributed dislocation with the density of about 3x10 sup 11 cm sup -2

  18. An algebraic substructuring using multiple shifts for eigenvalue computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jin Hwan; Jung, Sung Nam; Byun, Do Young; Bai, Zhaojun

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic substructuring (AS) is a state-of-the-art method in eigenvalue computations, especially for large-sized problems, but originally it was designed to calculate only the smallest eigenvalues. Recently, an updated version of AS has been introduced to calculate the interior eigenvalues over a specified range by using a shift concept that is referred to as the shifted AS. In this work, we propose a combined method of both AS and the shifted AS by using multiple shifts for solving a considerable number of eigensolutions in a large-sized problem, which is an emerging computational issue of noise or vibration analysis in vehicle design. In addition, we investigated the accuracy of the shifted AS by presenting an error criterion. The proposed method has been applied to the FE model of an automobile body. The combined method yielded a higher efficiency without loss of accuracy in comparison to the original AS

  19. Decorrelated Jet Substructure Tagging using Adversarial Neural Networks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    We describe a strategy for constructing a neural network jet substructure tagger which powerfully discriminates boosted decay signals while remaining largely uncorrelated with the jet mass. This reduces the impact of systematic uncertainties in background modeling while enhancing signal purity, resulting in improved discovery significance relative to existing taggers. The network is trained using an adversarial strategy, resulting in a tagger that learns to balance classification accuracy with decorrelation. As a benchmark scenario, we consider the case where large-radius jets originating from a boosted Z' decay are discriminated from a background of nonresonant quark and gluon jets. We show that in the presence of systematic uncertainties on the background rate, our adversarially-trained, decorrelated tagger considerably outperforms a conventionally trained neural network, despite having a slightly worse signal-background separation power. We generalize the adversarial training technique to include a paramet...

  20. ATLAS Standard Model Measurements Using Jet Grooming and Substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Ucchielli, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Boosted topologies allow to explore Standard Model processes in kinematical regimes never tested before. In such LHC challenging environments, standard reconstruction techniques quickly hit the wall. Targeting hadronic final states means to properly reconstruct energy and multiplicity of the jets in the event. In order to be able to identify the decay product of boosted objects, i.e. W bosons, $t\\bar{t}$ pairs or Higgs produced in association with $t\\bar{t}$ pairs, ATLAS experiment is currently exploiting several algorithms using jet grooming and jet substructure. This contribution will mainly cover the following ATLAS measurements: $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross section production and jet mass using the soft drop procedure. Standard Model measurements offer the perfect field to test the performances of new jet tagging techniques which will become even more important in the search for new physics in highly boosted topologies.”

  1. Comparative study of the influence of antimony oxide additives (III) and nickel hydroxide (II) on electrochemical behavior of cadmium electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadnikova, N.V.; Lvova, L.A.; Ryabskaya, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative study of the influence of additives indicated that with partial or complete replacement in the active mass of the cadmium electrode of nickel hydroxide (II) by antimony oxide (III), the electrochemical characteristics do not significantly change. During prolonged storage of charged cadmium electrodes the presence of nickel hydroxide (II) and intermetal compound (IMC) of cadmium with nickel is formed and the specific surface increases. In the case of adding antimony (III) formation of noticeable quantities of IMC of cadmium with antimony is not observed. The specific surface is reduced during storage.

  2. Comparative study of copper(II)-curcumin complexes as superoxide dismutase mimics and free radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Atanu; Mishra, Beena; Kunwar, Amit; Kadam, Ramakant M; Shen, Liang; Dutta, Sabari; Padhye, Subhash; Satpati, Ashis K; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Indira Priyadarsini, K

    2007-04-01

    Two stoichiometrically different copper(II) complexes of curcumin (stoichiometry, 1:1 and 1:2 for copper:curcumin), were examined for their superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, free radical-scavenging ability and antioxidant potential. Both the complexes are soluble in lipids and DMSO. The formation constants of the complexes were determined by voltammetry. EPR spectra of the complexes in DMSO at 77K showed that the 1:2 Cu(II)-curcumin complex is square planar and the 1:1 Cu(II)-curcumin complex is distorted orthorhombic. Cu(II)-curcumin complex (1:1) with larger distortion from square planar structure shows higher SOD activity. These complexes inhibit gamma-radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes and react with DPPH acting as free radical scavengers. One-electron oxidation of the two complexes by radiolytically generated azide radicals in Tx-100 micellar solutions produced phenoxyl radicals, indicating that the phenolic moiety of curcumin in the complexes participates in free radical reactions. Depending on the structure, these two complexes possess different SOD activities, free radical neutralizing abilities and antioxidant potentials. In addition, quantum chemical calculations with density functional theory have been performed to support the experimental observations.

  3. A Comparative Study on SN II Progenitors for the Synthesis of Li and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    these two elements for SN II progenitors with 8, 10 and 20 solar masses. The process considered ... explain their origin. Interaction of ... universe expansion rate either due to cosmological term or due to increased 'grav- itational constant' ..... elevate Li production or to suppress B production in early solar system events. The.

  4. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XIX. TOMOGRAPHY OF MILKY WAY SUBSTRUCTURES IN THE NGVS FOOTPRINT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhorst, Deborah; Starkenburg, Else; Navarro, Julio F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1, Canada (Canada); McConnachie, Alan W.; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen D. J. [National Research Council, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [CEA/IRFU/SAP, Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Guhathakurta, Puragra, E-mail: dml@uvic.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a deep u*giz survey targeting the Virgo Cluster of galaxies at 16.5 Mpc. This survey provides high-quality photometry over an ∼100 deg{sup 2} region straddling the constellations of Virgo and Coma Berenices. This sightline through the Milky Way is noteworthy in that it intersects two of the most prominent substructures in the Galactic halo: the Virgo overdensity (VOD) and Sagittarius stellar stream (close to its bifurcation point). In this paper, we use deep u*gi imaging from the NGVS to perform tomography of the VOD and Sagittarius stream using main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars as a halo tracer population. The VOD, whose centroid is known to lie at somewhat lower declinations (α ∼ 190°, δ ∼ −5°) than is covered by the NGVS, is nevertheless clearly detected in the NGVS footprint at distances between ∼8 and 25 kpc. By contrast, the Sagittarius stream is found to slice directly across the NGVS field at distances between 25 and 40 kpc, with a density maximum at ≃35 kpc. No evidence is found for new substructures beyond the Sagittarius stream, at least out to a distance of ∼90 kpc—the largest distance to which we can reliably trace the halo using MSTO stars. We find clear evidence for a distance gradient in the Sagittarius stream across the ∼30° of sky covered by the NGVS and its flanking fields. We compare our distance measurements along the stream with those predicted by leading stream models.

  5. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XIX. TOMOGRAPHY OF MILKY WAY SUBSTRUCTURES IN THE NGVS FOOTPRINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhorst, Deborah; Starkenburg, Else; Navarro, Julio F.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Liu, Chengze; Peng, Eric W.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2016-01-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a deep u*giz survey targeting the Virgo Cluster of galaxies at 16.5 Mpc. This survey provides high-quality photometry over an ∼100 deg 2 region straddling the constellations of Virgo and Coma Berenices. This sightline through the Milky Way is noteworthy in that it intersects two of the most prominent substructures in the Galactic halo: the Virgo overdensity (VOD) and Sagittarius stellar stream (close to its bifurcation point). In this paper, we use deep u*gi imaging from the NGVS to perform tomography of the VOD and Sagittarius stream using main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars as a halo tracer population. The VOD, whose centroid is known to lie at somewhat lower declinations (α ∼ 190°, δ ∼ −5°) than is covered by the NGVS, is nevertheless clearly detected in the NGVS footprint at distances between ∼8 and 25 kpc. By contrast, the Sagittarius stream is found to slice directly across the NGVS field at distances between 25 and 40 kpc, with a density maximum at ≃35 kpc. No evidence is found for new substructures beyond the Sagittarius stream, at least out to a distance of ∼90 kpc—the largest distance to which we can reliably trace the halo using MSTO stars. We find clear evidence for a distance gradient in the Sagittarius stream across the ∼30° of sky covered by the NGVS and its flanking fields. We compare our distance measurements along the stream with those predicted by leading stream models

  6. Prognostic relevance of gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma: gemistocytic component and MR imaging features compared to non-gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin [Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Ho Sung; Lee, Ji Ye; Jung, Seung Chai; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Soo Jeong [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To determine if gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma (GemA) and its MR imaging characteristics are associated with a shorter time-to-progression (TTP) compared with non-gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma (non-GemA). We enrolled 78 patients who were followed up more than 5 years (29 pathologically proven GemA and 49 non-GemA) during a 10-year period. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) and clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and MR imaging features were analyzed as possible prognostic factors of high-grade transformation, and multivariate analysis of TTP was performed using Cox proportional modeling. GemA showed more frequent high-grade features than non-GemA, including diffusion restriction (P <.001), increased choline/creatine (P =.02), and increased choline/NAA ratio (P =.015). Patients with GemA had a significantly shorter median TTP (53.1 vs 68 months; P <.001). A gemistocytic histopathology (hazard ratio = 3.42; P =.015) and low ADC (hazard ratio = 3.61; P =.001) were independently associated with a shorter TTP. GemA can present with MR imaging findings mimicking high-grade glioma at initial diagnosis and transforms to high-grade disease earlier than non-GemA. Low ADC on DWI might be useful in stratifying the risk of progression in patients with grade II astrocytoma. (orig.)

  7. Reduction of fatigue loads on jacket substructure through blade design optimization for multimegawatt wind turbines at 50 m water depths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NJOMO WANDJI, Wilfried; Pavese, Christian; Natarajan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the reduction of the fore-aft damage equivalent moment at the tower base for multi-megawatt offshore wind turbines mounted on jacket type substructures at 50 m water depths. The study investigates blade design optimization of a reference 10 MW wind turbine under standard wind...... conditions of onshore sites. The blade geometry and structure is optimized to yield a design that minimizes tower base fatigue loads without significant loss of power production compared to that of the reference setup. The resulting blade design is then mounted on a turbine supported by a jacket and placed...

  8. Dislocation Substructures Formed After Fracture of Deformed Polycrystalline Cu-Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, N. A.; Trishkina, L. I.; Cherkasova, T. V.

    2017-08-01

    The paper deals with the dislocation substructure of polycrystalline FCC alloys modified by plastic deformation at a distance from the area of the specimen fracture. Observations are performed using the transmission electron microscopy. Cu-Al alloys with grain size ranging from 10 to 240 μm are studied in this paper. The parameters of the dislocation substructure are measured and their variation is determined by the increasing distance from the fracture area. It is shown how the grain size influences these processes. The different dislocation substructures which determine the specimen fracture at a mesocscale level are found herein.

  9. Jet Substructure at the Tevatron and LHC: New results, new tools, new benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Altheimer, A; Asquith, L; Brooijmans, G; Butterworth, J; Campanelli, M; Chapleau, B; Cholakian, A E; Chou, J P; Dasgupta, M; Davison, A; Dolen, J; Ellis, S D; Essig, R; Fan, J J; Field, R; Fregoso, A; Gallicchio, J; Gershtein, Y; Gomes, A; Haas, A; Halkiadakis, E; Halyo, V; Hoeche, S; Hook, A; Hornig, A; Huang, P; Izaguirre, E; Jankowiak, M; Kribs, G; Krohn, D; Larkoski, A J; Lath, A; Lee, C; Lee, S J; Loch, P; Maksimovic, P; Martinez, M; Miller, D W; Plehn, T; Prokofiev, K; Rahmat, R; Rappoccio, S; Safonov, A; Salam, G P; Schumann, S; Schwartz, M D; Schwartzman, A; Seymour, M; Shao, J; Sinervo, P; Son, M; Soper, D E; Spannowsky, M; Stewart, I W; Strassler, M; Strauss, E; Takeuchi, M; Thaler, J; Thomas, S; Tweedie, B; Vasquez Sierra, R; Vermilion, C K; Villaplana, M; Vos, M; Wacker, J; Walker, D; Walsh, J R; Wang, L-T; Wilbur, S; Yavin, I; Zhu, W

    2012-01-01

    In this report we review recent theoretical progress and the latest experimental results in jet substructure from the Tevatron and the LHC. We review the status of and outlook for calculation and simulation tools for studying jet substructure. Following up on the report of the Boost 2010 workshop, we present a new set of benchmark comparisons of substructure techniques, focusing on the set of variables and grooming methods that are collectively known as "top taggers". To facilitate further exploration, we have attempted to collect, harmonise, and publish software implementations of these techniques.

  10. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: tveach@asu.edu, E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu, E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

  11. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio ∼4: 1 occurring ∼200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and Hα narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 μm [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous Hα sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter Hα source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation

  12. Exploring Milkyway Halo Substructures with Large-Area Sky Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ting [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, our understanding of the Milky Way has been improved thanks to large data sets arising from large-area digital sky surveys. The stellar halo is now known to be inhabited by a variety of spatial and kinematic stellar substructures, including stellar streams and stellar clouds, all of which are predicted by hierarchical Lambda Cold Dark Matter models of galaxy formation. In this dissertation, we first present the analysis of spectroscopic observations of individual stars from the two candidate structures discovered using an M-giant catalog from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey. The follow-up observations show that one of the candidates is a genuine structure which might be associated with the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure, while the other one is a false detection due to the systematic photometric errors in the survey or dust extinction in low Galactic latitudes. We then presented the discovery of an excess of main sequence turn-off stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first-year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) – a five-year, 5,000 deg2 optical imaging survey in the Southern Hemisphere. The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l ~ 285° and b ~ -60° and the Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9σ. The EriPhe overdensity has a cloud-like morphology and the extent is at least ~ 4 kpc by ~ 3 kpc in projection, with a heliocentric distance of about d ~ 16 kpc. The EriPhe overdensity is morphologically similar to the previously-discovered Virgo overdensity and Hercules-Aquila cloud. These three overdensities lie along a polar plane separated by ~ 120° and may share a common origin. In addition to the scientific discoveries, we also present the work to improve the photometric calibration in DES using auxiliary calibration systems, since the photometric errors can cause false detection in first the halo substructure. We present a detailed description of the two

  13. Comparing M31 and Milky Way satellites: The extended star formation histories of Andromeda II and Andromeda XVI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Vía Láctea s/n., E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); McConnachie, Alan; Stetson, Peter B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Bernard, Edouard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Cassisi, Santi [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Cole, Andrew A. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Irwin, Mike [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universit de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universit, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Mayer, Lucio [Institut für Theoretische Physik, University of Zurich, Zürich (Switzerland); Navarro, Julio F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    We present the first comparison between the lifetime star formation histories (SFHs) of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites. Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we obtained deep optical imaging of Andromeda II (And II; M{sub V} = –12.0; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 6.7) and Andromeda XVI (And XVI; M{sub V} = –7.5; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 4.9) yielding color-magnitude diagrams that extend at least 1 mag below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, and are similar in quality to those available for the MW companions. And II and And XVI show strikingly similar SFHs: both formed 50%-70% of their total stellar mass between 12.5 and 5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 5-0.5) and both were abruptly quenched ∼5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 0.5). The predominance of intermediate age populations in And XVI makes it qualitatively different from faint companions of the MW and clearly not a pre-reionization fossil. Neither And II nor And XVI appears to have a clear analog among MW companions, and the degree of similarity in the SFHs of And II and And XVI is not seen among comparably faint-luminous pairs of MW satellites. These findings provide hints that satellite galaxy evolution may vary substantially among hosts of similar stellar mass. Although comparably deep observations of more M31 satellites are needed to further explore this hypothesis, our results underline the need for caution when interpreting satellite galaxies of an individual system in a broader cosmological context.

  14. Pd-nanoparticles cause increased toxicity to kiwifruit pollen compared to soluble Pd(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranza, Anna; Leopold, Kerstin; Maier, Marina; Taddei, Anna Rita; Scoccianti, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, endpoints including in vitro pollen performance (i.e., germination and tube growth) and lethality were used as assessments of nanotoxicity. Pollen was treated with 5-10 nm-sized Pd particles, similar to those released into the environment by catalytic car exhaust converters. Results showed Pd-nanoparticles altered kiwifruit pollen morphology and entered the grains more rapidly and to a greater extent than soluble Pd(II). At particulate Pd concentrations well below those of soluble Pd(II), pollen grains experienced rapid losses in endogenous calcium and pollen plasma membrane damage was induced. This resulted in severe inhibition and subsequent cessation of pollen tube emergence and elongation at particulate Pd concentrations as low as 0.4 mg L -1 . Particulate Pd emissions related to automobile traffic have been increasing and are accumulating in the environment. This could seriously jeopardize in vivo pollen function, with impacts at an ecosystem level. - Nanoparticulate Pd - which resembles emissions from automobile catalysts - affects pollen to a higher extent than soluble Pd.

  15. Pd-nanoparticles cause increased toxicity to kiwifruit pollen compared to soluble Pd(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, Anna, E-mail: anna.speranza@unibo.i [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Leopold, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.leopold@lrz.tu-muenchen.d [Arbeitsgruppe fuer Analytische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Maier, Marina, E-mail: marina.maier@ch.tum.d [Arbeitsgruppe fuer Analytische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Taddei, Anna Rita, E-mail: artaddei@unitus.i [CIME, Universita della Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Scoccianti, Valeria, E-mail: valeria.scoccianti@uniurb.i [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Uomo, dell' Ambiente e della Natura, Universita di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , Urbino (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    In the present study, endpoints including in vitro pollen performance (i.e., germination and tube growth) and lethality were used as assessments of nanotoxicity. Pollen was treated with 5-10 nm-sized Pd particles, similar to those released into the environment by catalytic car exhaust converters. Results showed Pd-nanoparticles altered kiwifruit pollen morphology and entered the grains more rapidly and to a greater extent than soluble Pd(II). At particulate Pd concentrations well below those of soluble Pd(II), pollen grains experienced rapid losses in endogenous calcium and pollen plasma membrane damage was induced. This resulted in severe inhibition and subsequent cessation of pollen tube emergence and elongation at particulate Pd concentrations as low as 0.4 mg L{sup -1}. Particulate Pd emissions related to automobile traffic have been increasing and are accumulating in the environment. This could seriously jeopardize in vivo pollen function, with impacts at an ecosystem level. - Nanoparticulate Pd - which resembles emissions from automobile catalysts - affects pollen to a higher extent than soluble Pd.

  16. Analysis of the state of the art of precast concrete bridge substructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Precasting of bridge substructure components holds potential for accelerating the construction of bridges,reducing : impacts to the traveling public on routes adjacent to construction sites, improving bridge durability and hence service : life, and r...

  17. A finite element based substructuring procedure for design analysis of large smart structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, U; Raja, S; Dwarakanathan, D

    2009-01-01

    A substructuring based design analysis procedure is presented for large smart structural system using the Craig–Bampton method. The smart structural system is distinctively characterized as an active substructure, modelled as a design problem, and a passive substructure, idealized as an analysis problem. Furthermore, a novel thought has been applied by introducing the electro–elastic coupling into the reduction scheme to solve the global structural control problem in a local domain. As an illustration, a smart composite box beam with surface bonded actuators/sensors is considered, and results of the local to global control analysis are presented to show the potential use of the developed procedure. The present numerical scheme is useful for optimally designing the active substructures to study their locations, coupled structure–actuator interaction and provide a solution to the global design of large smart structural systems

  18. Jet substructure and probes of CP violation in Vh production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbole, R.M. [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Sir C.V. Raman Road, Bangalore 560012 (India); Miller, D.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Glasgow,University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mohan, K.A. [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Sir C.V. Raman Road, Bangalore 560012 (India); White, C.D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Glasgow,University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    We analyse the hVV (V=W,Z) vertex in a model independent way using Vh production. To that end, we consider possible corrections to the Standard Model Higgs Lagrangian, in the form of higher dimensional operators which parametrise the effects of new physics. In our analysis, we pay special attention to linear observables that can be used to probe CP violation in the same. By considering the associated production of a Higgs boson with a vector boson (W or Z), we use jet substructure methods to define angular observables which are sensitive to new physics effects, including an asymmetry which is linearly sensitive to the presence of CP odd effects. We demonstrate how to use these observables to place bounds on the presence of higher dimensional operators, and quantify these statements using a log likelihood analysis. Our approach allows one to probe separately the hZZ and hWW vertices, involving arbitrary combinations of BSM operators, at the Large Hadron Collider.

  19. Quark substructure approach to 4He charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.; Alberg, M.A.; Pepin, S.; Stancu, F.; Carlson, J.; Koepf, W.

    1997-01-01

    We present a study of the 4 He charge distribution based on realistic nucleonic wave functions and incorporation of quark substructure. Any central depression of the proton point density seen in modern four-body calculations is too small by itself to lead to a correct description of the charge distribution of 4 He if folded with a fixed proton size parameter, as is usually done. We utilize six-quark structures calculated in the chromodielectric model for N-N interactions to find a swelling of the proton size as the internucleon distance decreases. This swelling is a result of the short-range dynamics in the N-N system. Using the independent pair approximation, the corresponding charge distribution of the proton is folded with the two-nucleon distribution generated from Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of the 4 He nucleonic wave function. We obtain a reasonably good fit to the experimental charge distribution of 4 He. Meson-exchange currents have not been included. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Solving the Mystery of Galaxy Bulges and Bulge Substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Understanding galaxy bulges is crucial for understanding galaxy evolution and the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Recent studies have shown that at least some - perhaps most - disk-galaxy bulges are actually composite structures, with both classical-bulge (spheroid) and pseudobulge (disky) components; this calls into question the standard practice of using simple, low-resolution bulge/disk decompositions to determine spheroid and SMBH mass functions. We propose WFC3 optical and near-IR imaging of a volume- and mass-limited sample of local disk galaxies to determine the full range of pure-classical, pure-pseudobulge, and composite-bulge frequencies and parameters, including stellar masses for classical bulges, disky pseudobulges, and boxy/peanut-shaped bulges. We will combine this with ground-based spectroscopy to determine the stellar-kinematic and population characteristics of the different substructures revealed by our WFC3 imaging. This will help resolve growing uncertainties about the status and nature of bulges and their relation to SMBH masses, and will provide an essential local-universe reference for understanding bulge (and SMBH) formation and evolution.

  1. Revealing dark matter substructure with anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of gamma-ray emission from Galactic dark matter annihilation is likely to be detected as a contribution to the diffuse gamma-ray background. I show that dark matter substructure in the halo of the Galaxy induces characteristic anisotropies in the diffuse background that could be used to determine the small-scale dark matter distribution. I calculate the angular power spectrum of the emission from dark matter substructure for several models of the subhalo population, and show that...

  2. Observation of lateral substructures in EAS by measurement of the time distribution of atmospheric Cerenkov light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosia, G.; Navarra, G.; Saavedra, O.

    1975-01-01

    The lateral structure of EAS is derived from the arrival time distribution of atmospheric Cerenkov light assuming a strict correlation between time structure and lateral particle distribution. Results of the Pic du Midi experiment are presented. Substructures in the time distribution of the Cerenkov light can be related to structures in the lateral density distribution of electrons. The frequency (a few %) of substructures can be explained within conventional models of high energy interactions. (orig.) [de

  3. A NEW METHOD TO QUANTIFY X-RAY SUBSTRUCTURES IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Lima Neto, Gastao B.; Lagana, Tatiana F. [Departamento de Astronomia, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-20

    We present a new method to quantify substructures in clusters of galaxies, based on the analysis of the intensity of structures. This analysis is done in a residual image that is the result of the subtraction of a surface brightness model, obtained by fitting a two-dimensional analytical model ({beta}-model or Sersic profile) with elliptical symmetry, from the X-ray image. Our method is applied to 34 clusters observed by the Chandra Space Telescope that are in the redshift range z in [0.02, 0.2] and have a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) greater than 100. We present the calibration of the method and the relations between the substructure level with physical quantities, such as the mass, X-ray luminosity, temperature, and cluster redshift. We use our method to separate the clusters in two sub-samples of high- and low-substructure levels. We conclude, using Monte Carlo simulations, that the method recuperates very well the true amount of substructure for small angular core radii clusters (with respect to the whole image size) and good S/N observations. We find no evidence of correlation between the substructure level and physical properties of the clusters such as gas temperature, X-ray luminosity, and redshift; however, analysis suggest a trend between the substructure level and cluster mass. The scaling relations for the two sub-samples (high- and low-substructure level clusters) are different (they present an offset, i.e., given a fixed mass or temperature, low-substructure clusters tend to be more X-ray luminous), which is an important result for cosmological tests using the mass-luminosity relation to obtain the cluster mass function, since they rely on the assumption that clusters do not present different scaling relations according to their dynamical state.

  4. Validation of the LOD score compared with APACHE II score in prediction of the hospital outcome in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwannimit, Bodin

    2008-01-01

    The Logistic Organ Dysfunction score (LOD) is an organ dysfunction score that can predict hospital mortality. The aim of this study was to validate the performance of the LOD score compared with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in a mixed intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary referral university hospital in Thailand. The data were collected prospectively on consecutive ICU admissions over a 24 month period from July1, 2004 until June 30, 2006. Discrimination was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The calibration was assessed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H statistic. The overall fit of the model was evaluated by the Brier's score. Overall, 1,429 patients were enrolled during the study period. The mortality in the ICU was 20.9% and in the hospital was 27.9%. The median ICU and hospital lengths of stay were 3 and 18 days, respectively, for all patients. Both models showed excellent discrimination. The AUROC for the LOD and APACHE II were 0.860 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.838-0.882] and 0.898 (95% Cl = 0.879-0.917), respectively. The LOD score had perfect calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H chi-2 = 10 (p = 0.44). However, the APACHE II had poor calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H chi-2 = 75.69 (p < 0.001). Brier's score showed the overall fit for both models were 0.123 (95%Cl = 0.107-0.141) and 0.114 (0.098-0.132) for the LOD and APACHE II, respectively. Thus, the LOD score was found to be accurate for predicting hospital mortality for general critically ill patients in Thailand.

  5. Comparative evaluation of microleakage in class II cavities restored with Ceram X and Filtek P-90: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Bogra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polymerization shrinkage in composite resins is responsible for microleakage. Methacrylate-based composite resins have linear reactive groups resulting in high polymerization shrinkage. A recently introduced composite resin Filtek P90 is based on siloxanes and oxiranes which polymerize by cationic "ring opening" polymerization resulting in reduced polymerization shrinkage. Objectives: Aim of this study was to compare microleakage in class II cavities restored with a nanoceramic restorative (Ceram X and a silorane composite (Filtek P90. Materials and Methods: Standardized class II box type cavities were prepared on mesial (Groups Ia and IIa and distal (Groups Ib and IIb surfaces of twenty extracted permanent molar teeth with gingival floor ending 1 mm coronal and apical to the cementoenamel junction, respectively. The teeth in Group Ia and Ib were restored with Ceram X and Group IIa and IIb with Filtek P90. The specimens were thermocycled and microleakage evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: Mean microleakage score of group la and lb was 1 ± 2.260 and 2.8 ± 1.229, respectively. And that of group Ila and llb was 0.2 ± .869 and 0.3 ± .588, respectively. When groups I and II were compared, results were statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that silorane-based composite may be a better substitute for methacrylate-based composites.

  6. Systematic benchmark of substructure search in molecular graphs - From Ullmann to VF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich Hans-Christian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Searching for substructures in molecules belongs to the most elementary tasks in cheminformatics and is nowadays part of virtually every cheminformatics software. The underlying algorithms, used over several decades, are designed for the application to general graphs. Applied on molecular graphs, little effort has been spend on characterizing their performance. Therefore, it is not clear how current substructure search algorithms behave on such special graphs. One of the main reasons why such an evaluation was not performed in the past was the absence of appropriate data sets. Results In this paper, we present a systematic evaluation of Ullmann’s and the VF2 subgraph isomorphism algorithms on molecular data. The benchmark set consists of a collection of 1235 SMARTS substructure expressions and selected molecules from the ZINC database. The benchmark evaluates substructures search times for complete database scans as well as individual substructure-molecule pairs. In detail, we focus on the influence of substructure formulation and size, the impact of molecule size, and the ability of both algorithms to be used on multiple cores. Conclusions The results show a clear superiority of the VF2 algorithm in all test scenarios. In general, both algorithms solve most instances in less than one millisecond, which we consider to be acceptable. Still, in direct comparison, the VF2 is most often several folds faster than Ullmann’s algorithm. Additionally, Ullmann’s algorithm shows a surprising number of run time outliers.

  7. Improving substructure identification accuracy of shear structures using virtual control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyu; Yang, Yang; Wang, Tingqiang; Li, Hui

    2018-02-01

    Substructure identification is a powerful tool to identify the parameters of a complex structure. Previously, the authors developed an inductive substructure identification method for shear structures. The identification error analysis showed that the identification accuracy of this method is significantly influenced by the magnitudes of two key structural responses near a certain frequency; if these responses are unfavorable, the method cannot provide accurate estimation results. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to improve the substructure identification accuracy by introducing a virtual control system (VCS) into the structure. A virtual control system is a self-balanced system, which consists of some control devices and a set of self-balanced forces. The self-balanced forces counterbalance the forces that the control devices apply on the structure. The control devices are combined with the structure to form a controlled structure used to replace the original structure in the substructure identification; and the self-balance forces are treated as known external excitations to the controlled structure. By optimally tuning the VCS’s parameters, the dynamic characteristics of the controlled structure can be changed such that the original structural responses become more favorable for the substructure identification and, thus, the identification accuracy is improved. A numerical example of 6-story shear structure is utilized to verify the effectiveness of the VCS based controlled substructure identification method. Finally, shake table tests are conducted on a 3-story structural model to verify the efficacy of the VCS to enhance the identification accuracy of the structural parameters.

  8. Analysis and application of European genetic substructure using 300 K SNP information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available European population genetic substructure was examined in a diverse set of >1,000 individuals of European descent, each genotyped with >300 K SNPs. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analyses (PCA showed the largest division/principal component (PC differentiated northern from southern European ancestry. A second PC further separated Italian, Spanish, and Greek individuals from those of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry as well as distinguishing among northern European populations. In separate analyses of northern European participants other substructure relationships were discerned showing a west to east gradient. Application of this substructure information was critical in examining a real dataset in whole genome association (WGA analyses for rheumatoid arthritis in European Americans to reduce false positive signals. In addition, two sets of European substructure ancestry informative markers (ESAIMs were identified that provide substantial substructure information. The results provide further insight into European population genetic substructure and show that this information can be used for improving error rates in association testing of candidate genes and in replication studies of WGA scans.

  9. Substructural Regularization With Data-Sensitive Granularity for Sequence Transfer Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shichang; Liu, Hongbo; Meng, Jiana; Chen, C L Philip; Yang, Yu

    2018-06-01

    Sequence transfer learning is of interest in both academia and industry with the emergence of numerous new text domains from Twitter and other social media tools. In this paper, we put forward the data-sensitive granularity for transfer learning, and then, a novel substructural regularization transfer learning model (STLM) is proposed to preserve target domain features at substructural granularity in the light of the condition of labeled data set size. Our model is underpinned by hidden Markov model and regularization theory, where the substructural representation can be integrated as a penalty after measuring the dissimilarity of substructures between target domain and STLM with relative entropy. STLM can achieve the competing goals of preserving the target domain substructure and utilizing the observations from both the target and source domains simultaneously. The estimation of STLM is very efficient since an analytical solution can be derived as a necessary and sufficient condition. The relative usability of substructures to act as regularization parameters and the time complexity of STLM are also analyzed and discussed. Comprehensive experiments of part-of-speech tagging with both Brown and Twitter corpora fully justify that our model can make improvements on all the combinations of source and target domains.

  10. An algebraic sub-structuring method for large-scale eigenvalue calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Gao, W.; Bai, Z.; Li, X.; Lee, L.; Husbands, P.; Ng, E.

    2004-01-01

    We examine sub-structuring methods for solving large-scale generalized eigenvalue problems from a purely algebraic point of view. We use the term 'algebraic sub-structuring' to refer to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to provide approximate solutions to the original problem. We are interested in the question of which spectral components one should extract from each sub-structure in order to produce an approximate solution to the original problem with a desired level of accuracy. Error estimate for the approximation to the smallest eigenpair is developed. The estimate leads to a simple heuristic for choosing spectral components (modes) from each sub-structure. The effectiveness of such a heuristic is demonstrated with numerical examples. We show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve a generalized eigenvalue problem arising from the simulation of an accelerator structure. One interesting characteristic of this application is that the stiffness matrix produced by a hierarchical vector finite elements scheme contains a null space of large dimension. We present an efficient scheme to deflate this null space in the algebraic sub-structuring process

  11. Ceramide content is higher in type I compared to type II fibers in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Larsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese......, and control subjects, were performed. A fasting blood sample was obtained and plasma insulin and glucose determined. A muscle biopsy was obtained from deltoideus and vastus lateralis, and fiber-type ceramide content was determined by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Insulin sensitivity estimated by Quicki...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...

  12. The influence of peak stress on the mechanical behavior and the substructural evolution in shock-prestrained zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerreta, E.; Gray, G.T. III; Henrie, B.L.; Brown, D.W.; Hixson, R.S.; Rigg, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    The post shock mechanical behavior and substructure evolution of zirconium (Zr) under shock prestrained at 5.8 and 8 GPa, above and below the pressure induced α-ω phase transition, has been quantified. The reload yield stress of Zr shock prestrained to 8 GPa was found to exhibit enhanced shock hardening when compared to the flow stress measured quasi-statically at an equivalent strain. In contrast, the reload yield behavior of Zr specimens shocked to 5.8 GPa did not exhibit enhanced shock hardening. The microstructure of the as-annealed and shock prestrained materials were examined. The presence of a reduced available glide distance due to a relatively more well developed dislocation substructure and increased twinning over quasi-static specimens deformed to comparable strains correlates with the increased yield stresses after shock prestraining at 8 GPa. Additionally, the retention of ∼ 40% by volume metastable high-pressure ω-phase in specimens shocked to 8 GPa and its absence in the 5.8 GPa specimen, is thought to contribute to the increased yield stress in the 8 GPa specimens

  13. Nuclear substructure reorganization during late stageerythropoiesis is selective and does not involve caspase cleavage ofmajor nuclear substructural proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Sharon Wald; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Koury, MarkJ.; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2005-04-06

    Enucleation, a rare feature of mammalian differentiation, occurs in three cell types: erythroblasts, lens epithelium and keratinocytes. Previous investigations suggest that caspase activation functions in lens epithelial and keratinocyte enucleation, as well as in early erythropoiesis encompassing BFU-E differentiation to proerythroblast. To determine whether caspase activation contributes to later erythropoiesis and whether nuclear substructures other than chromatin reorganize, we analyzed distributions of nuclear subcompartment proteins and assayed for caspase-induced cleavage of subcompartmental target proteins in mouse erythroblasts. We found that patterns of lamin B in the filamentous network interacting with both the nuclear envelope and DNA, nuclear matrix protein NuMA, and splicing factors Sm and SC35 persisted during nuclear condensation, consistent with effective transcription of genes expressed late in differentiation. Thus nuclear reorganization prior to enucleation is selective, allowing maintenance of critical transcriptional processes independent of extensive chromosomal reorganization. Consistent with these data, we found no evidence for caspase-induced cleavage of major nuclear subcompartment proteins during late erythropoiesis, in contrast to what has been observed in early erythropoiesis and in lens epithelial and keratinocyte differentiation. These findings imply that nuclear condensation and extrusion during terminal erythroid differentiation involve novel mechanisms that do not entail major activation of apoptotic machinery.

  14. Comparative clinical characteristics of depression in bipolar affective disorders types I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the clinical features of depression within bipolar affective disorders types I and II (BADI and BADII.Patients and methods. An examination was made in 100 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI, 37 with BADII, and 38 with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD (a comparison group. The patients' status was evaluated in accordance with the ICD-10 and DSM-V affective disorder criteria, by using a specially developed questionnaire.Results. BAD-related depression has features distinguishing it from RDD: sexual preference (men; an earlier age of disease onset; a shorter duration, but a higher frequency of exacerbations; a greater tendency for the continuum; a more marked decrease in social and family adaptation; development in people with predominantly hyperthymic premorbid; more frequently a family history of affective disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism; high comorbidity with metabolic diseases and psychoactive substance abuse; worse health more commonly in autumn and winter; a predominant anxious affect and an obviously decreasing interest in the structure of depression; a higher incidence of atypical sleep, appetite, and weight disorders; high suicidal activity; higher motor retardation (in BADI; relatively small involvement of somatic complaints in BAD I and frequent panic attacks in BADII.Conclusion. Knowledge of the specific features of BAD-related depression will be able to make a more accurate differential diagnosis and to perform more effective treatment in these patients.

  15. Jet substructure using semi-inclusive jet functions in SCET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ringer, Felix; Vitev, Ivan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-11-25

    We propose a new method to evaluate jet substructure observables in inclusive jet measurements, based upon semi-inclusive jet functions in the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET). As a first example, we consider the jet fragmentation function, where a hadron h is identified inside a fully reconstructed jet. We introduce a new semi-inclusive fragmenting jet function G{sub i}{sup h}(z=ω{sub J}/ω,z{sub h}=ω{sub h}/ω{sub J},ω{sub J},R,μ), which depends on the jet radius R and the large light-cone momenta of the parton ‘i’ initiating the jet (ω), the jet (ω{sub J}), and the hadron h (ω{sub h}). The jet fragmentation function can then be expressed as a semi-inclusive observable, in the spirit of actual experimental measurements, rather than as an exclusive one. We demonstrate the consistency of the effective field theory treatment and standard perturbative QCD calculations of this observable at next-to-leading order (NLO). The renormalization group (RG) equation for the semi-inclusive fragmenting jet function G{sub i}{sup h}(z,z{sub h},ω{sub J},R,μ) are also derived and shown to follow exactly the usual timelike DGLAP evolution equations for fragmentation functions. The newly obtained RG equations can be used to perform the resummation of single logarithms of the jet radius parameter R up to next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL{sub R}) accuracy. In combination with the fixed NLO calculation, we obtain NLO+NLL{sub R} results for the hadron distribution inside the jet. We present numerical results for pp→(jet h)X in the new framework, and find excellent agreement with existing LHC experimental data.

  16. Jet substructure using semi-inclusive jet functions in SCET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Ringer, Felix; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method to evaluate jet substructure observables in inclusive jet measurements, based upon semi-inclusive jet functions in the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET). As a first example, we consider the jet fragmentation function, where a hadron h is identified inside a fully reconstructed jet. We introduce a new semi-inclusive fragmenting jet function G_i"h(z=ω_J/ω,z_h=ω_h/ω_J,ω_J,R,μ), which depends on the jet radius R and the large light-cone momenta of the parton ‘i’ initiating the jet (ω), the jet (ω_J), and the hadron h (ω_h). The jet fragmentation function can then be expressed as a semi-inclusive observable, in the spirit of actual experimental measurements, rather than as an exclusive one. We demonstrate the consistency of the effective field theory treatment and standard perturbative QCD calculations of this observable at next-to-leading order (NLO). The renormalization group (RG) equation for the semi-inclusive fragmenting jet function G_i"h(z,z_h,ω_J,R,μ) are also derived and shown to follow exactly the usual timelike DGLAP evolution equations for fragmentation functions. The newly obtained RG equations can be used to perform the resummation of single logarithms of the jet radius parameter R up to next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL_R) accuracy. In combination with the fixed NLO calculation, we obtain NLO+NLL_R results for the hadron distribution inside the jet. We present numerical results for pp→(jet h)X in the new framework, and find excellent agreement with existing LHC experimental data.

  17. Discovering Higgs Bosons of the MSSM using Jet Substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam; Roy, Tuhin S.; Spannowsky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present a qualitatively new approach to discover Higgs bosons of the MSSM at the LHC using jet substructure techniques applied to boosted Higgs decays. These techniques are ideally suited to the MSSM, since the lightest Higgs boson overwhelmingly decays to b(bar b) throughout the entire parameter space, while the heavier neutral Higgs bosons, if light enough to be produced in a cascade, also predominantly decay to b(bar b). The Higgs production we consider arises from superpartner production where superpartners cascade decay into Higgs bosons. We study this mode of Higgs production for several superpartner hierarchies: m # tilde q#,m # tilde g# > m # tilde W#, # tilde B# > m h + μ; m(tilde q);m # tilde q#,m # tilde g# > m # tilde W#, # tilde B# > m h,H,A + μ; and m # tilde q#,m # tilde g# > m # tilde W# > m h + μ with m # tilde B# ∼ μ. In these cascades, the Higgs bosons are boosted, with pT > 200 GeV a large fraction of the time. Since Higgs bosons appear in cascades originating from squarks and/or gluinos, the cross section for events with at least one Higgs boson can be the same order as squark/gluino production. Given 10 fb -1 of 14 TeV LHC data, with m # tilde q# ∼< 1 TeV, and one of the above superpartner mass hierarchies, our estimate of S√ B of the Higgs signal is sufficiently high that the b(bar b) mode can become the discovery mode of the lightest Higgs boson of the MSSM.

  18. Discovering Higgs bosons of the MSSM using jet substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribs, Graham D.; Roy, Tuhin S.; Spannowsky, Michael; Martin, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We present a qualitatively new approach to discover Higgs bosons of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) at the LHC using jet substructure techniques applied to boosted Higgs decays. These techniques are ideally suited to the MSSM, since the lightest Higgs boson overwhelmingly decays to bb throughout the entire parameter space, while the heavier neutral Higgs bosons, if light enough to be produced in a cascade, also predominantly decay to bb. The Higgs production we consider arises from superpartner production where superpartners cascade decay into Higgs bosons. We study this mode of Higgs production for several superpartner hierarchies: m q -tilde, m g -tilde>m W -tilde ,B -tilde>m h +μ; m q -tilde, m g -tilde>m W -tilde ,B -tilde>m h,H,A +μ; and m q -tilde, m g -tilde>m W -tilde>m h +μ with m B -tilde≅μ. In these cascades, the Higgs bosons are boosted, with p T >200 GeV a large fraction of the time. Since Higgses appear in cascades originating from squarks and/or gluinos, the cross section for events with at least one Higgs can be the same order as squark/gluino production. Given 10 fb -1 of 14 TeV LHC data, with m q -tilde < or approx. 1 TeV, and one of the above superpartner mass hierarchies, our estimate of S/√(B) of the Higgs signal is sufficiently high that the bb mode can become the discovery mode of the lightest Higgs boson of the MSSM.

  19. Comparing the utility of DSM-5 Section II and III antisocial personality disorder diagnostic approaches for capturing psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Maples, Jessica L; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The current study compares the 2 diagnostic approaches (Section II vs. Section III) included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in terms of their relations with psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors (EBs). The Section III approach to ASPD, which is more explicitly trait-based than the Section II approach, also includes a psychopathy specifier (PS) that was created with the goal of making the diagnosis of ASPD more congruent with psychopathy. In a community sample of individuals currently receiving mental health treatment (N = 106), ratings of the 2 DSM-5 diagnostic approaches were compared in relation to measures of psychopathy, as well as indices of EBs. Both DSM-5 ASPD approaches were significantly related to the psychopathy scores, although the Section III approach accounted for almost twice the amount of variance when compared with the Section II approach. Relatively little of this predictive advantage, however, was due to the PS, as these traits manifested little evidence of incremental validity in relation to existing psychopathy measures and EBs, with the exception of a measure of fearless dominance. Overall, the DSM-5 Section III diagnostic approach for ASPD is more convergent with the construct of psychopathy, from which ASPD was originally derived. These improvements, however, are due primarily to the new trait-based focus in the Section III ASPD diagnosis rather than the assessment of personality dysfunction or the inclusion of additional "psychopathy-specific" traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Substructure method in high-speed monorail dynamic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, I. I.

    2008-12-01

    combined schemes modeling a strained elastic compound moving structure and a monorail elevated track. The problems of development of methods for dynamic analysis of monorails are very topical, especially because of increasing speeds of the rolling stock motion. These structures are studied in [16-18]. In the present paper, the above problem is solved by using the method for the moving load analysis and a step procedure of integration with respect to time, which were proposed in [9, 19], respectively. Further, these components are used to enlarge the possibilities of the substructure method in problems of dynamics. In the approach proposed for moving load analysis of structures, for a substructure (having the shape of a boundary element or a superelement) we choose an object moving at a constant speed (a monorail rolling stock); in this case, we use rod boundary elements of large length, which are gathered in a system modeling these objects. In particular, sets of such elements form a model of a monorail rolling stock, namely, carriage hulls, wheeled carts, elements of the wheel spring suspension, models of continuous beams of monorail ways and piers with foundations admitting emergency subsidence and unilateral links. These specialized rigid finite elements with linear and nonlinear links, included into the set of earlier proposed finite elements [14, 19], permit studying unsteady vibrations in the "monorail train-elevated track" (MTET) system taking into account various irregularities on the beam-rail, the pier emergency subsidence, and their elastic support by the basement. In this case, a high degree of the structure spatial digitization is obtained by using rods with distributed parameters in the analysis. The displacements are approximated by linear functions and trigonometric Fourier series, which, as was already noted, permits increasing the number of degrees of freedom of the system under study simultaneously preserving the order of the resolving system of

  1. Study of a 900 MW PWR by a substructuring method - Spectral response to a seismic excitation and comparison with a beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, G.; Bianchini-Burlot, B.; Bosselut, D.; Jacquart, G.; Viallet, E.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents a three dimensional Finite Element Model (FEM) of a 900 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) which is described at first: its modal behaviour is computed by a sub-structuring method based upon a Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) method. All the substructures taken into account in the model are described. One model with equivalent beams is also described. Then, different approaches to take into account the fluid/structure interaction in the different models are investigated. Results of the modal analysis of each model are compared to each other and with experimental measures. This modal analysis is then used to compute the non linear and linear response of the PWR due to a seismic excitation. (author)

  2. Comparative clinical evaluation of removable partial dentures made of two different materials in Kennedy Applegate class II partially edentulous situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundal, Maninder; Madan, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Cast Chromium Cobalt alloy has been the material of choice for fabricating Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs) but has certain drawbacks. Newer materials like the flexible Nylon based Super Polyamide have been introduced to overcome these drawbacks. The present study has compared the above two materials for nine clinical parameters. The study was carried out on 30 patients presenting with a Kennedy Applegate class II partially edentulous situation who were divided into two equal groups and clinically assessed. Statistically significant results were obtained in favor of flexible RPDs, in the parameters of 'aesthetics' and 'overall patient satisfaction'. Both groups showed more or less similar values for 'frequency of fracture of the prosthesis during usage' with the incidence being slightly higher for patients wearing the cast RPDs. The clinical parameters of 'oral soft tissue tolerance', 'gingival health', 'periodontal health' and 'adaptability in areas with undercut' were statistically at par for all the 30 patients thus suggesting the comparable biocompatibility of the two materials. The highlight of this study was the relative ease in fabrication of the flexible RPDs as compared to the cast RPDs. Based on the favorable clinical results of this study, it can be summarized that the flexible RPDs is a viable alternative to cast RPDs in Kennedy Applegate class II partially edentulous situation in the short term.

  3. Correlation of substructure with mechanical properties of plastically deformed reactor structural materials. Progress report, January 1, 1974--December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moteff, J.

    1976-01-01

    Ratio of the subgrain boundary dislocations to those contributing to creep deformation was found to be independent of applied stress and creep strain after the steady-state creep stage is reached. The observed cell or subgrain sizes are correlated with flow stress in Type 304 ss, and the deformation rate-stress relation obeys the equation epsilon =β lambda 3 (sigma/sub T//E)/sub n/ exp (-Q/sub c//RT), where lambda = subgrain size, sigma/sub T/ = effective true stress, E = Young modulus, and Q/sub c/ = 85 kcal/mole. Well-developed subgrains were observed in TEM on 304 ss tested in creep at 704 0 C. Role of twin boundary-grain boundary intersections in microcracking behavior of 304 ss deformed in slow tension and creep at 650 0 C was investigated. Grain shape analysis show that intragranular deformation becomes more predominant in the grains with the larger intercept distances, and that grain boundary sliding becomes important as the strain rate decreases. RT mechanical properties of austenitic ss are enhanced by subgrains formed during high-temperature deformation. The substructural development during high-temperature low-cycle fatigue of 304 ss was studied using TEM. Fatigue properties of Incoloy 800 tested in bend and push-pull modes are being compared. Effects of hold time on fatigue substructure and fracture of 304 ss are being studied. 31 figures, 53 references

  4. Mass-stiffness substructuring of an elastic metasurface for full transmission beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Lee, Jun Kyu; Seung, Hong Min; Kim, Yoon Young

    2018-03-01

    The metasurface concept has a significant potential due to its novel wavefront-shaping functionalities that can be critically useful for ultrasonic and solid wave-based applications. To achieve the desired functionalities, elastic metasurfaces should cover full 2π phase shift and also acquire full transmission within subwavelength scale. However, they have not been explored much with respect to the elastic regime, because the intrinsic proportionality of mass-stiffness within the continuum elastic media causes an inevitable trade-off between abrupt phase shift and sufficient transmission. Our goal is to engineer an elastic metasurface that can realize an inverse relation between (amplified) effective mass and (weakened) stiffness in order to satisfy full 2π phase shift as well as full transmission. To achieve this goal, we propose a continuum elastic metasurface unit cell that is decomposed into two substructures, namely a mass-tuning substructure with a local dipolar resonator and a stiffness-tuning substructure composed of non-resonant multiply-perforated slits. We demonstrate analytically, numerically, and experimentally that this unique substructured unit cell can satisfy the required phase shift with high transmission. The substructuring enables independent tuning of the elastic properties over a wide range of values. We use a mass-spring model of the proposed continuum unit cell to investigate the working mechanism of the proposed metasurface. With the designed metasurface consisting of substructured unit cells embedded in an aluminum plate, we demonstrate that our metasurface can successfully realize anomalous steering and focusing of in-plane longitudinal ultrasonic beams. The proposed substructuring concept is expected to provide a new principle for the design of general elastic metasurfaces that can be used to efficiently engineer arbitrary wave profiles.

  5. The angular power spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray background as a probe of Galactic dark matter substructure

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter annihilation in Galactic substructure produces diffuse gamma-ray emission of remarkably constant intensity across the sky, and in general this signal dominates over the smooth halo signal at angles greater than a few tens of degrees from the Galactic Center. The large-scale isotropy of the emission from substructure suggests that it may be difficult to extract this Galactic dark matter signal from the extragalactic gamma-ray background. I show that dark matter substructure induces...

  6. COSA II Further benchmark exercises to compare geomechanical computer codes for salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, M.J.S.; Knowles, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    Project COSA (COmputer COdes COmparison for SAlt) was a benchmarking exercise involving the numerical modelling of the geomechanical behaviour of heated rock salt. Its main objective was to assess the current European capability to predict the geomechanical behaviour of salt, in the context of the disposal of heat-producing radioactive waste in salt formations. Twelve organisations participated in the exercise in which their solutions to a number of benchmark problems were compared. The project was organised in two distinct phases: The first, from 1984-1986, concentrated on the verification of the computer codes. The second, from 1986-1988 progressed to validation, using three in-situ experiments at the Asse research facility in West Germany as a basis for comparison. This document reports the activities of the second phase of the project and presents the results, assessments and conclusions

  7. Therapeutic songwriting in music therapy, Part II: Comparing the literature with practice across diverse clinical populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Felicity; Wigram, Tony; Stott, Dave

    2009-01-01

      A growing body of literature on therapeutic songwriting with diverse clinical populations indicates that clinicians employ a wide range of approaches. The purpose of this research was to establish trends in the clinical practice of songwriting as implemented across a range of clinical populations....... Responses to a 21-question on-line survey were obtained from 419 professional music therapists practicing in 29 countries which focused on approaches to songwriting within their practice with a single clinical population. Results suggest that in general, the literature provides good representation for what...... is occurring in clinical practice. Generally, songs were composed with individual clients in single sessions, with lyrics created prior to the music. Clinicians had a significant role in creating the music with improvised and pre-determined musical structures being equally employed.  Chi-square or comparable...

  8. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Racanella, Gaia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marras, Roberto [Unicalce S.p.A., R and D Department, Via Tonio da Belledo 30, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Rigamonti, Lucia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  9. Evaluation and comparison of the marginal adaptation of two different substructure materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Tahir; Ulku, Sabiha Zelal; Zengingul, Ali Ihsan; Guven, Sedat; Eratilla, Veysel; Sumer, Ebru

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the amount of marginal gap with two different substructure materials using identical margin preparations. Twenty stainless steel models with a chamfer were prepared with a CNC device. Marginal gap measurements of the galvano copings on these stainless steel models and Co-Cr copings obtained by a laser-sintering method were made with a stereomicroscope device before and after the cementation process and surface properties were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A dependent t-test was used to compare the mean of the two groups for normally distributed data, and two-way variance analysis was used for more than two data sets. Pearson's correlation analysis was also performed to assess relationships between variables. According to the results obtained, the marginal gap in the galvano copings before cementation was measured as, on average, 24.47 ± 5.82 µm before and 35.11 ± 6.52 µm after cementation; in the laser-sintered Co-Cr structure, it was, on average, 60.45 ± 8.87 µm before and 69.33 ± 9.03 µm after cementation. A highly significant difference (Pcementation were within the clinically acceptable level. The smallest marginal gaps occurred with the use of galvano copings.

  10. DARK MATTER SUBSTRUCTURE DETECTION USING SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF LENSED DUSTY GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezaveh, Yashar; Holder, Gilbert; Dalal, Neal; Kuhlen, Michael; Marrone, Daniel; Murray, Norman; Vieira, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how strong lensing of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) by foreground galaxies can be used as a probe of dark matter halo substructure. We find that spatially resolved spectroscopy of lensed sources allows dramatic improvements to measurements of lens parameters. In particular, we find that modeling of the full, three-dimensional (angular position and radial velocity) data can significantly facilitate substructure detection, increasing the sensitivity of observables to lower mass subhalos. We carry out simulations of lensed dusty sources observed by early ALMA (Cycle 1) and use a Fisher matrix analysis to study the parameter degeneracies and mass detection limits of this method. We find that even with conservative assumptions, it is possible to detect galactic dark matter subhalos of ∼10 8 M ☉ with high significance in most lensed DSFGs. Specifically, we find that in typical DSFG lenses, there is a ∼55% probability of detecting a substructure with M > 10 8 M ☉ with more than 5σ detection significance in each lens, if the abundance of substructure is consistent with previous lensing results. The full ALMA array, with its significantly enhanced sensitivity and resolution, should improve these estimates considerably. Given the sample of ∼100 lenses provided by surveys such as the South Pole Telescope, our understanding of dark matter substructure in typical galaxy halos is poised to improve dramatically over the next few years.

  11. DARK MATTER SUBSTRUCTURE DETECTION USING SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF LENSED DUSTY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hezaveh, Yashar; Holder, Gilbert [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Dalal, Neal [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kuhlen, Michael [Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marrone, Daniel [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Murray, Norman [CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Vieira, Joaquin [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    We investigate how strong lensing of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) by foreground galaxies can be used as a probe of dark matter halo substructure. We find that spatially resolved spectroscopy of lensed sources allows dramatic improvements to measurements of lens parameters. In particular, we find that modeling of the full, three-dimensional (angular position and radial velocity) data can significantly facilitate substructure detection, increasing the sensitivity of observables to lower mass subhalos. We carry out simulations of lensed dusty sources observed by early ALMA (Cycle 1) and use a Fisher matrix analysis to study the parameter degeneracies and mass detection limits of this method. We find that even with conservative assumptions, it is possible to detect galactic dark matter subhalos of {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} with high significance in most lensed DSFGs. Specifically, we find that in typical DSFG lenses, there is a {approx}55% probability of detecting a substructure with M > 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} with more than 5{sigma} detection significance in each lens, if the abundance of substructure is consistent with previous lensing results. The full ALMA array, with its significantly enhanced sensitivity and resolution, should improve these estimates considerably. Given the sample of {approx}100 lenses provided by surveys such as the South Pole Telescope, our understanding of dark matter substructure in typical galaxy halos is poised to improve dramatically over the next few years.

  12. Substructure identification for shear structures: cross-power spectral density method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongyu; Johnson, Erik A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a substructure identification method for shear structures is proposed. A shear structure is divided into many small substructures; utilizing the dynamic equilibrium of a one-floor substructure, an inductive identification problem is formulated, using the cross-power spectral densities between structural floor accelerations and a reference response, to estimate the parameters of that one story. Repeating this procedure, all story parameters of the shear structure are identified from top to bottom recursively. An identification error analysis is performed for the proposed substructure method, revealing how uncertain factors (e.g. measurement noise) in the identification process affect the identification accuracy. According to the error analysis, a smart reference selection rule is designed to choose the optimal reference response that further enhances the identification accuracy. Moreover, based on the identification error analysis, explicit formulae are developed to calculate the variances of the parameter identification errors. A ten-story shear structure is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed substructure method. The simulation results show that the method, combined with the reference selection rule, can very accurately identify structural parameters despite large measurement noise. Furthermore, the proposed formulae provide good predictions for the variances of the parameter identification errors, which are vital for providing accurate warnings of structural damage. (paper)

  13. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential

  14. Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies II: Speech Intelligibility of Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgärtel, Regina M; Hu, Hongmei; Krawczyk-Becker, Martin; Marquardt, Daniel; Herzke, Tobias; Coleman, Graham; Adiloğlu, Kamil; Bomke, Katrin; Plotz, Karsten; Gerkmann, Timo; Doclo, Simon; Kollmeier, Birger; Hohmann, Volker; Dietz, Mathias

    2015-12-30

    Several binaural audio signal enhancement algorithms were evaluated with respect to their potential to improve speech intelligibility in noise for users of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs). 50% speech reception thresholds (SRT50) were assessed using an adaptive procedure in three distinct, realistic noise scenarios. All scenarios were highly nonstationary, complex, and included a significant amount of reverberation. Other aspects, such as the perfectly frontal target position, were idealized laboratory settings, allowing the algorithms to perform better than in corresponding real-world conditions. Eight bilaterally implanted CI users, wearing devices from three manufacturers, participated in the study. In all noise conditions, a substantial improvement in SRT50 compared to the unprocessed signal was observed for most of the algorithms tested, with the largest improvements generally provided by binaural minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming algorithms. The largest overall improvement in speech intelligibility was achieved by an adaptive binaural MVDR in a spatially separated, single competing talker noise scenario. A no-pre-processing condition and adaptive differential microphones without a binaural link served as the two baseline conditions. SRT50 improvements provided by the binaural MVDR beamformers surpassed the performance of the adaptive differential microphones in most cases. Speech intelligibility improvements predicted by instrumental measures were shown to account for some but not all aspects of the perceptually obtained SRT50 improvements measured in bilaterally implanted CI users. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Comparative studies on P-vanillin and O-vanillin of 2-hydrazinyl-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide and their Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, T. A.; El-Reash, G. M. Abu; El-Tabai, M. N.

    2018-05-01

    Synthesis of complexes derived from hydrazones derived from both P-vanillin (H2L1) and its isomer O-vanillin (H2L2) of 2-hydrazinyl-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide that coordinated with high magnetic metal ions of both Mn(II) and Co(II) were performed and characterized by different physicochemical methods, elemental analysis, (1H NMR, IR, and UV-visible spectra), also thermal analysis (TG and DTG) techniques and magnetic measurements. The molecular structures of the ligands and their Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes were optimized theoretically and the quantum chemical parameters were calculated. IR spectra suggest that the H2L1 behaved in a mononegative bidentate manner with both but H2L2 coordinated as mononegative tridentate with both Mn(II) and Co(II). The electronic spectra of the complexes as well as their magnetic moments suggested octahedral geometries for all the isolated complexes. The calculated values of binding energies indicated the stability of complexes is higher than that of ligand. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps in complexes were calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger equations. Moreover, the prepared ligands and their Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes were individually tested against a panel of gram positive Bacillus Subtilis and negative Escherichia coli microscopic organisms. Additionally cytotoxicity assay of two human tumor cell lines namely; hepatocellular carcinoma (liver) HePG-2, and mammary gland (breast) MCF-7 were tested.

  16. Genetic admixture and population substructure in Guanacaste Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoming Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The population of Costa Rica (CR represents an admixture of major continental populations. An investigation of the CR population structure would provide an important foundation for mapping genetic variants underlying common diseases and traits. We conducted an analysis of 1,301 women from the Guanacaste region of CR using 27,904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped on a custom Illumina InfiniumII iSelect chip. The program STRUCTURE was used to compare the CR Guanacaste sample with four continental reference samples, including HapMap Europeans (CEU, East Asians (JPT+CHB, West African Yoruba (YRI, as well as Native Americans (NA from the Illumina iControl database. Our results show that the CR Guanacaste sample comprises a three-way admixture estimated to be 43% European, 38% Native American and 15% West African. An estimated 4% residual Asian ancestry may be within the error range. Results from principal components analysis reveal a correlation between genetic and geographic distance. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD measured by the number of tagging SNPs required to cover the same region in the genome in the CR Guanacaste sample appeared to be weaker than that observed in CEU, JPT+CHB and NA reference samples but stronger than that of the HapMap YRI sample. Based on the clustering pattern observed in both STRUCTURE and principal components analysis, two subpopulations were identified that differ by approximately 20% in LD block size averaged over all LD blocks identified by Haploview. We also show in a simulated association study conducted within the two subpopulations, that the failure to account for population stratification (PS could lead to a noticeable inflation in the false positive rate. However, we further demonstrate that existing PS adjustment approaches can reduce the inflation to an acceptable level for gene discovery.

  17. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of (PLAGH)2[ZnCl4] and comparative analysis of photoluminescence properties with tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radanović, Mirjana M.; Jelić, Miodrag G.; Romčević, Nebojša Ž.; Boukos, Nikos; Vojinović-Ješić, Ljiljana S.; Leovac, Vukadin M.; Hadžić, Branka B.; Bajac, Branimir M.; Nađ, Laslo F.; Chandrinou, Chrysoula; Baloš, Sebastian S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New zinc(II) complex with pyridoxalaminoguanidine was synthesized. • The enhancement of the photoluminescence due to the compound formation was achieved. • Very high photoluminescence of Zn(II) compound was noticed. • Comparative analysis of photoluminescence with tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) was provided. - Abstract: The first compound of zinc(II) containing pyridoxalaminoguanidine has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, conductometric measurements and X-ray crystallography. Single crystals of the compound were obtained in the reaction of methanolic solution of zinc(II) chloride and pyridoxalaminoguanidine hydrochloride. In this compound the coordination of chelate ligand is absent and tetrachlorido complex of zinc(II) with pyridoxalaminuguanidinium cation as contraion is obtained. Photoluminescence spectra were measured. Lorentzian multipeak technique was used to determine peak wavelengths and their intensities. Photoluminescence spectroscopy upon 325, 488 and 514 nm laser excitation light was used to obtain results. This novel compound of zinc(II) was compared to the well-known organic light emitting diode material—ruthenium(II) complex with bypiridine i.e., tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), under the same circumstances and the identical experimental setup. A scheme of energy levels and transitions is proposed to explain the obtained experimental results

  18. Not-for-profit versus for-profit health care providers--Part II: Comparing and contrasting their records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Trujillo, Antonio J; Liberman, Aaron; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2006-01-01

    The debate over which health care providers are most capably meeting their responsibilities in serving the public's interest continues unabated, and the comparisons of not-for-profit (NFP) versus for-profit (FP) hospitals remain at the epicenter of the discussion. From the perspective of available factual information, which of the two sides to this debate is correct? This article is part II of a 2-part series on comparing and contrasting the performance records of NFP health care providers with their FP counterparts. Although it is demonstrated that both NFP and FP providers perform virtuous and selfless feats on behalf of America's public, it is also shown that both camps have been accused of being involved in potentially willful clinical and administrative missteps. Part I provided the background information (eg, legal differences, perspectives on social responsibility, and types of questionable and fraudulent behavior) required to adequately understand the scope of the comparison issue. Part II offers actual comparisons of the 2 organizational structures using several disparate factors such as specific organizational behaviors, approach to the health care priorities of cost and quality, and business-focused goals of profits, efficiency, and community benefit.

  19. Investigation Of Failure Mechanisms In A Wind Turbine Blade Root Sub-Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Jens Jakob; Hallett, S.R.; Lindgaard, Esben

    2017-01-01

    and realistic results at the fraction of the cost of a full-scale test. Therefore, this work focuses on testing of sub-structures from the root end of wind turbine blades at the transition from the thick root laminate to the thinner main laminate. Some wind turbine blade manufacturers include pre-cured tapered...... beams in the root to reduce the time required to place the large quantity of material in the mould and to decrease manufacturing defects in these elements. However, this entails the risk of introducing other manufacturing defects during the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding process such as resin...... pockets and fibre wrinkles. Through this work it is sought to determine the effect that these manufacturing defects can have on the strength properties of the sub-structure. The sub-structures used in this work are cut out from actual wind turbine blades, meaning that the manufacturing defects...

  20. Improving jet substructure in ATLAS using unified track and calorimeter information

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Jet substructure techniques play a critical role in ATLAS in searches for new physics, are increasingly important in measurements of the Standard Model, and are being utilized in the trigger. To date, ATLAS has mostly focused on the use of calorimeter-based jet substructure, which works well for jets initiated by particles with low to moderate boost, but which lacks the angular resolution needed to resolve the desired substructure in the highly-boosted regime. We will present a novel approach designed to mitigate the calorimeter angular resolution limitations, thus providing superior performance to prior methods. Similar to previous methods, the superior angular resolution of the tracker is combined with information from the calorimeters. However, the new method is fundamentally different, as it correlates low-level objects as tracks and individual energy deposits in the calorimeter, before running any jet finding algorithms. The resulting objects are used as inputs to jet reconstruction, and in turn result i...

  1. Improving jet substructure performance in ATLAS with unified tracking and calorimeter inputs

    CERN Document Server

    Jansky, Roland; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Jet substructure techniques play a critical role in ATLAS in searches for new physics, and are being utilized in the trigger. They become increasingly important in detailed studies of the Standard Model, among them the inclusive search for the Higgs boson produced with high transverse momentum decaying to a bottom-antibottom quark pair. To date, ATLAS has mostly focused on the use of calorimeter-based jet substructure, which works well for jets initiated by particles with low to moderate boost, but which lacks the angular resolution needed to resolve the desired substructure in the highly-boosted regime. We will present a novel approach designed to mitigate the calorimeter angular resolution limitations, thus providing superior performance to prior methods. Similar to previous methods, the superior angular resolution of the tracker is combined with information from the calorimeters. However, the new method is fundamentally different, as it correlates low-level objects as tracks and individual energy deposits ...

  2. Improving jet substructure performance in ATLAS using Track-CaloClusters

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Jet substructure techniques play a critical role in ATLAS in searches for new physics, are increasingly important in measurements of the Standard Model, and are being utilized in the trigger. To date, ATLAS has mostly focused on the use of calorimeter-based jet substructure, which works well for jets initiated by particles with low to moderate boost, but which lacks the angular resolution needed to resolve the desired substructure in the highly-boosted regime. We present a novel approach designed to mitigate the calorimeter angular resolution limitations, thus providing superior performance to prior methods. Similarly to the previously developed combined mass technique, the superior angular resolution of the tracker is combined with information from the calorimeters. However, the new method is fundamentally different, as it correlates low-level objects such as tracks and individual energy deposits in the calorimeter, before running any jet finding algorithms. The resulting objects are used as inputs to jet re...

  3. Structural optimization of the fibre-reinforced composite substructure in a three-unit dental bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li; Fok, Alex S L

    2009-06-01

    Failures of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) made of fibre-reinforced composites (FRC) have been reported in many clinical and in vitro studies. The types of failure include debonding at the composite-tooth interface, delamination of the veneering material from the FRC substructure and fracture of the pontic. The design of the FRC substructure, i.e. the position and orientation of the fibres, will affect the fracture resistance of the FPD. The purpose of this study was to find an optimal arrangement of the FRC substructure, by means of structural optimization, which could minimize the failure-initiating stresses in a three-unit FPD. A structural optimization method mimicking biological adaptive growth was developed for orthotropic materials such as FRC and incorporated into the finite element (FE) program ABAQUS. Using the program, optimization of the fibre positions and directions in a three-unit FPD was carried out, the aim being to align the fibre directions with those of the maximum principal stresses. The optimized design was then modeled and analyzed to verify the improvements in mechanical performance of the FPD. Results obtained from the optimization suggested that the fibres should be placed at the bottom of the pontic, forming a U-shape substructure that extended into the connectors linking the teeth and the pontic. FE analyses of the optimized design indicated stress reduction in both the veneering composite and at the interface between the veneer and the FRC substructure. The optimized design obtained using FE-based structural optimization can potentially improve the fracture resistance of FPDs by reducing some of the failure-initiating stresses. Optimization methods can therefore be a useful tool to provide sound scientific guidelines for the design of FRC substructures in FPDs.

  4. Earthquake analysis of structures including structure-soil interaction by a substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, A.K.; Guttierrez, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A general substructure method for analysis of response of nuclear power plant structures to earthquake ground motion, including the effects of structure-soil interaction, is summarized. The method is applicable to complex structures idealized as finite element systems and the soil region treated as either a continuum, for example as a viscoelastic halfspace, or idealized as a finite element system. The halfspace idealization permits reliable analysis for sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no rigid boundary such as soil-rock interface. For sites where layers of soft soil are underlain by rock at shallow depth, finite element idealization of the soil region is appropriate; in this case, the direct and substructure methods would lead to equivalent results but the latter provides the better alternative. Treating the free field motion directly as the earthquake input in the substructure method eliminates the deconvolution calculations and the related assumption -regarding type and direction of earthquake waves- required in the direct method. The substructure method is computationally efficient because the two substructures-the structure and the soil region- are analyzed separately; and, more important, it permits taking advantage of the important feature that response to earthquake ground motion is essentially contained in the lower few natural modes of vibration of the structure on fixed base. For sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no obvious rigid boundary such as a soil-rock interface, numerical results for earthquake response of a nuclear reactor structure are presented to demonstrate that the commonly used finite element method may lead to unacceptable errors; but the substructure method leads to reliable results

  5. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume II. Waste form data, process descriptions, and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Thornhill, R.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains supporting information for the comparative assessment of the transuranic waste forms and processes summarized in Volume I. Detailed data on the characterization of the waste forms selected for the assessment, process descriptions, and cost information are provided. The purpose of this volume is to provide additional information that may be useful when using the data in Volume I and to provide greater detail on particular waste forms and processes. Volume II is divided into two sections and two appendixes. The first section provides information on the preparation of the waste form specimens used in this study and additional characterization data in support of that in Volume I. The second section includes detailed process descriptions for the eight processes evaluated. Appendix A lists the results of MCC-1 leach test and Appendix B lists additional cost data. 56 figures, 12 tables

  6. Acceptability of a low-fat vegan diet compares favorably to a step II diet in a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Lanou, Amy J

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the acceptability of a low-fat vegan diet, as compared with a more typical fat-modified diet, among overweight and obese adults. Through newspaper advertisements, 64 overweight, postmenopausal women were recruited, 59 of whom completed the study. The participants were assigned randomly to a low-fat vegan diet or, for comparison, to a National Cholesterol Education Program Step II (NCEP) diet. At baseline and 14 weeks later, dietary intake, dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger, as well as the acceptability and perceived benefits and adverse effects of each diet were assessed. Dietary restraint increased in the NCEP group (P vegan group. Disinhibition and hunger scores fell in each group (P vegan group participants rated their diet as less easy to prepare than their usual diets (P vegan diet is high and not demonstrably different from that of a more moderate low-fat diet among well-educated, postmenopausal women in a research environment.

  7. Substructure evolution of Zircaloy-4 during creep and implications for the Modified Jogged-Screw model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, B.M., E-mail: morrow@lanl.gov [The Ohio State University, 2041 College Rd., 477 Watts Hall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS G755, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kozar, R.W.; Anderson, K.R. [Bettis Laboratory, Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corp., West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States); Mills, M.J., E-mail: millsmj@mse.osu.edu [The Ohio State University, 2041 College Rd., 477 Watts Hall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Several specimens of Zircaloy-4 were creep tested at a single stress-temperature condition, and interrupted at different accumulated strain levels. Substructural observations were performed using bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF STEM). The dislocation substructure was characterized to ascertain how creep strain evolution impacts the Modified Jogged-Screw (MJS) model, which has previously been utilized to predict steady-state strain rates in Zircaloy-4. Special attention was paid to the evolution of individual model parameters with increasing strain. Results of model parameter measurements are reported and discussed, along with possible extensions to the MJS model.

  8. VARIATION OF SUBSTRUCTURES OF PEARLITIC HEAT RESISTANT STEEL AFTER HIGH TEMPERATURE AGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.C.Yang; K.Chen; H.X.Feng; H.Wang

    2004-01-01

    The observations of dislocations, substructures and other microstructural details were conducted mainly by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for 12Cr1Mo V pearlitic heat-resistant steel. It is shown that during the high temperature long-term aging, the disordered and jumbled phasetransformed dislocations caused by normalized cooling are recovered and rearranged into cell substructures, and then the dislocation density is reduced gradually. Finally a low density linear dislocation configuration and a stabler dislocation network are formed and ferritic grains grow considerably.

  9. On mechanism of substructure formation in SmS during isomorphic phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptekar', I.L.; Ivanov, V.I.; Tonkov, E.Yu.; Shmyt'ko, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray diffraction study of substructure characteristics of SmS samples subjected to treatment at different temrerature and pressure in media with different viscosity ( graphite, silicon oil) for realization of P-M-P transformations ( p-semiconductor phase, M - high pressure phase) is performed. It is assumed that with M - phase formation P - matrix volume relaxation delays, therefore the new phase particles occupy smaller volume than the initial matrix which causes the M - phase disorientation. The difference between the phase transformation rate and deformation rate under the pressure in media with various viscosity results in arising different substructural characteristics

  10. Performance of Jet Substructure Techniques and Boosted Object Identification in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lacey, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS has implemented and commissioned many new jet substructure techniques to aid in the identification and interpretation of hadronic final states originating from Lorentz-boosted heavy particles produced at the LHC. These techniques include quantum jets, jet charge, jet shapes, quark/gluon, boosted boson and top quark tagging, along with grooming methods such as pruning, trimming, and filtering. These techniques have been validated using the large 2012 ATLAS dataset. Presented here is a summary of the state of the art jet substructure and tagging techniques developed in ATLAS, their performance and recent results.

  11. Feedback components of a U20Pu10Zr-fueled compared to a U10Zr-fueled EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Calculated feedback components of the regional contributions of the power reactivity decrements (PRDs) and of the temperature coefficients of reactivity of a U20Pu10Zr-fueled and of a U10Zr-fueled Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are compared. The PRD components are also separated into power-to-flow dependent and solely power dependent parts. The effects of these values upon quantities useful for indicating the comparative potential inherent safety characteristics of these EBR-II loadings are presented

  12. MANIFESTĂRI ALE CONFLICTULUI MUNCĂ-FAMILIE LA ANGAJAȚII DIN DOMENIUL PUBLIC/PRIVAT: DIMENSIUNI COMPARATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica ȘAITAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Una dintre preocupările constante ale cercetărilor organizaționale recente este legată de investigarea problematicii privind conflictul muncă-familie, ce apare ca urmare a incapacității persoanei de a integra în mod optim solicitările rolului familial şi cele ale rolului profesional, având preponderent drept consecințe stări emoționale, cognitive și comportamentale negative. Din această perspectivă, studiul de față prezintă rezultatele comparative privind felul în care este trăit conflictul muncă-familie la angajații din Republica Moldova (în total – 355 de subiecți, 184 de angajați în domeniul public și 171 de angajați în domeniul privat și consecințele acestuia la nivel afectiv (epuizare emoțională, cognitiv (percepția suportului organizațional și percepția satisfacției de viață și comportamental (angajamentul de rol, flexibilitate muncă-familie.MANIFESTATIONS OF THE WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT TO PUBLIC/PRIVATE EMPLOYEES: COMPARATIVE DIMENSIONSOne of the constant concerns of recent organizational research is related to the investigation of the problem of work-family conflict, which arises as a result of the inability of the person to optimally integrate the demands of the family role and those of the professional role, having mainly as a consequence of negative emotional, cognitive and behavioral states. From this perspective, the present study presents comparative results on the way in which the labor-family conflict is experienced by employees in the Republic of Moldova (total – 355 subjects, 184 employees in the public domain and 171 employees in the private domain and its consequences at the affective level (emotional exhaustion, cognitive level (the perception of the organizational support and the perception of life satisfaction and behavioral level (role commitment, work-family flexibility.

  13. Revealing dark matter substructure with anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M, E-mail: jsg@kicp.uchicago.edu [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The majority of gamma-ray emission from galactic dark matter annihilation is likely to be detected as a contribution to the diffuse gamma-ray background. I show that dark matter substructure in the halo of the Galaxy induces characteristic anisotropies in the diffuse background that could be used to determine the small-scale dark matter distribution. I calculate the angular power spectrum of the emission from dark matter substructure for several models of the subhalo population and show that features in the power spectrum can be used to infer the presence of substructure. The shape of the power spectrum is largely unaffected by the subhalo radial distribution and mass function, and for many scenarios I find that a measurement of the angular power spectrum by Fermi will be able to constrain the abundance of substructure. An anti-biased subhalo radial distribution is shown to produce emission that differs significantly in intensity and large-scale angular dependence from that of a subhalo distribution which traces the smooth dark matter halo, potentially impacting the detectability of the dark matter signal for a variety of targets and methods.

  14. Substructures in DAFT/FADA survey clusters based on XMM and optical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durret, F.; DAFT/FADA Team

    2014-07-01

    The DAFT/FADA survey was initiated to perform weak lensing tomography on a sample of 90 massive clusters in the redshift range [0.4,0.9] with HST imaging available. The complementary deep multiband imaging constitutes a high quality imaging data base for these clusters. In X-rays, we have analysed the XMM-Newton and/or Chandra data available for 32 clusters, and for 23 clusters we fit the X-ray emissivity with a beta-model and subtract it to search for substructures in the X-ray gas. This study was coupled with a dynamical analysis for the 18 clusters with at least 15 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range, based on a Serna & Gerbal (SG) analysis. We detected ten substructures in eight clusters by both methods (X-rays and SG). The percentage of mass included in substructures is found to be roughly constant with redshift, with values of 5-15%. Most of the substructures detected both in X-rays and with the SG method are found to be relatively recent infalls, probably at their first cluster pericenter approach.

  15. Substructure method of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H. G.; Joe, Y. H. [Industrial Development Research Center, Univ. of Incheon, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    Substructure method has been preferably adopted for soil-structure interaction analysis because of its simplicity and economy in practical application. However, substructure method has some limitation in application and does not always give reliable results especially for embedded structures or layered soil conditions. The objective of this study to validate the reliability of the soil-structure interaction analysis results by the proposed substructure method using lumped-parameter model and suggest a method of seismic design of nuclear power plant structures with specific design conditions. In this study, theoretic background and modeling technique of soil-structure interaction phenomenon have been reviewed and an analysis technique based on substructure method using lumped-parameter model has been suggested. The practicality and reliability of the proposed method have been validated through the application of the method to the seismic analysis of the large-scale seismic test models. A technical guide for practical application and evaluation of the proposed method have been also provided through the various type parametric.

  16. DASS: efficient discovery and p-value calculation of substructures in unordered data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollunder, Jens; Friedel, Maik; Beyer, Andreas; Workman, Christopher T; Wilhelm, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Pattern identification in biological sequence data is one of the main objectives of bioinformatics research. However, few methods are available for detecting patterns (substructures) in unordered datasets. Data mining algorithms mainly developed outside the realm of bioinformatics have been adapted for that purpose, but typically do not determine the statistical significance of the identified patterns. Moreover, these algorithms do not exploit the often modular structure of biological data. We present the algorithm DASS (Discovery of All Significant Substructures) that first identifies all substructures in unordered data (DASS(Sub)) in a manner that is especially efficient for modular data. In addition, DASS calculates the statistical significance of the identified substructures, for sets with at most one element of each type (DASS(P(set))), or for sets with multiple occurrence of elements (DASS(P(mset))). The power and versatility of DASS is demonstrated by four examples: combinations of protein domains in multi-domain proteins, combinations of proteins in protein complexes (protein subcomplexes), combinations of transcription factor target sites in promoter regions and evolutionarily conserved protein interaction subnetworks. The program code and additional data are available at http://www.fli-leibniz.de/tsb/DASS

  17. Revealing dark matter substructure with anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2008-01-01

    The majority of gamma-ray emission from galactic dark matter annihilation is likely to be detected as a contribution to the diffuse gamma-ray background. I show that dark matter substructure in the halo of the Galaxy induces characteristic anisotropies in the diffuse background that could be used to determine the small-scale dark matter distribution. I calculate the angular power spectrum of the emission from dark matter substructure for several models of the subhalo population and show that features in the power spectrum can be used to infer the presence of substructure. The shape of the power spectrum is largely unaffected by the subhalo radial distribution and mass function, and for many scenarios I find that a measurement of the angular power spectrum by Fermi will be able to constrain the abundance of substructure. An anti-biased subhalo radial distribution is shown to produce emission that differs significantly in intensity and large-scale angular dependence from that of a subhalo distribution which traces the smooth dark matter halo, potentially impacting the detectability of the dark matter signal for a variety of targets and methods

  18. Updating failure probability of a welded joint in offshore wind turbine substructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Quang A.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rigo, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The operation and maintenance cost of offshore wind turbine substructures contributes significantly in the cost of a kWh. That cost may be lowered by application of reliability- and risk based maintenance strategies and reliability updating based on inspections performed during the design lifetim...

  19. Morality as the Substructure of Social Justice: Religion in Education as a Case in Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Ferdinand J.

    2011-01-01

    Moral issues and principles do not only emerge in cases of conflict among, for instance, religious communities or political parties; indeed they form the moral substructure of notions of social justice. During periods of conflict each opponent claims justice for his/her side and bases the claim on certain principles. In this article, reference is…

  20. Substructure analysis techniques and automation. [to eliminate logistical data handling and generation chores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennrich, C. W.; Konrath, E. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A basic automated substructure analysis capability for NASTRAN is presented which eliminates most of the logistical data handling and generation chores that are currently associated with the method. Rigid formats are proposed which will accomplish this using three new modules, all of which can be added to level 16 with a relatively small effort.

  1. Precast concrete elements for accelerated bridge construction : laboratory testing of precast substructure components, Boone County bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Vol. 1-1: In July 2006, construction began on an accelerated bridge project in Boone County, Iowa that was composed of precast substructure : elements and an innovative, precast deck panel system. The superstructure system consisted of full-depth dec...

  2. Ring and jet study on the azimuthal substructure of pions at CERN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structures in the emission of secondary charged hadrons coming from 32S–Ag/Br interactions at 200 A GeV/c. Nuclear photographic emulsion technique has been employed to collect the experimental data. The presence of such substructures, ...

  3. Microdistribution of phases and substructure of the composite electrolytic self-lubricating copper-molybdenite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribysh, I.Z.; Bakakin, G.N.; Borzyak, A.G.; Sajfullin, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of MoS 2 particles on the substructure of a copper matrix was studied, and their location in the composition was established. It is shown that the presence of molybdenite causes a variation in the conditions of electrical crystallization of copper. The optimum composition has been found, which is used as a self-lubricating coating for friction machine parts

  4. Prefabricated floor panels composed of fiber reinforced concrete and a steel substructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus H.; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study on prefabricated composite and modular floor deck panels composed of relatively thin fiber reinforced concrete slabs connected to steel substructures. The study focuses on the design, manufacturing, structural improvements and behavior of the floor systems during...

  5. Removal of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution: A comparative study of raw attapulgite clay and a reusable waste–struvite/attapulgite obtained from nutrient-rich wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Xuejiang, E-mail: wangxj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ma, Jinxing, E-mail: jinxing.ma@unsw.edu.au [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Xia, Peng; Zhao, Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Both nutrient recovery and Cd(II) removal were achieved by MAP/APT. • The nutrient recovery process was used as a novel method of modification. • Compared with raw APT, MAP/APT enhanced Cd(II) adsorption capacity. • Cd(II) adsorption mechanisms from aqueous solution were extensively investigated. - Abstract: In this study, raw attapulgite (APT) and a novel adsorbent, struvite/attapulgite (MAP/APT) obtained from nutrient-rich wastewater treated by MgO modified APT, were applied as the absorbent for Cd(II) ion removal from aqueous solution. The two adsorbents were characterized by BET, SEM-EDS, XRD, FT-IR. Raw APT and MAP/APT separately presented the maximum Cd(II) adsorption capacities of 10.38 mg/g and 121.14 mg/g at pH of 5.45. The Cd(II) adsorption on raw APT and MAP/APT could be well fitted by Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. Pseudo-second order equation was able to properly describe the kinetics of Cd(II) adsorption by raw APT and MAP/APT. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that Cd(II) adsorption onto raw APT and MAP/APT were spontaneous and endothermic. An economic evaluation revealed that the treatment costs of the adsorption process by raw APT and MPA/APT were 0.013 $ per 1000 mg Cd and 0.004 $ per 1000 mg Cd, respectively.

  6. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  7. Assessment of First- and Second-Order Wave-Excitation Load Models for Cylindrical Substructures: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra, Brandon; Wendt, Fabian; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason

    2017-03-09

    The hydrodynamic loads on an offshore wind turbine's support structure present unique engineering challenges for offshore wind. Two typical approaches used for modeling these hydrodynamic loads are potential flow (PF) and strip theory (ST), the latter via Morison's equation. This study examines the first- and second-order wave-excitation surge forces on a fixed cylinder in regular waves computed by the PF and ST approaches to (1) verify their numerical implementations in HydroDyn and (2) understand when the ST approach breaks down. The numerical implementation of PF and ST in HydroDyn, a hydrodynamic time-domain solver implemented as a module in the FAST wind turbine engineering tool, was verified by showing the consistency in the first- and second-order force output between the two methods across a range of wave frequencies. ST is known to be invalid at high frequencies, and this study investigates where the ST solution diverges from the PF solution. Regular waves across a range of frequencies were run in HydroDyn for a monopile substructure. As expected, the solutions for the first-order (linear) wave-excitation loads resulting from these regular waves are similar for PF and ST when the diameter of the cylinder is small compared to the length of the waves (generally when the diameter-to-wavelength ratio is less than 0.2). The same finding applies to the solutions for second-order wave-excitation loads, but for much smaller diameter-to-wavelength ratios (based on wavelengths of first-order waves).

  8. THE PERILS OF CLUMPFIND: THE MASS SPECTRUM OF SUBSTRUCTURES IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2009-01-01

    We study the mass spectrum of substructures in the Perseus Molecular Cloud Complex traced by 13 CO(1-0), finding that dN/dM ∝ M -2.4 for the standard Clumpfind parameters. This result does not agree with the classical dN/dM ∝ M -1.6 . To understand this discrepancy, we study the robustness of the mass spectrum derived using the Clumpfind algorithm. Both two- and three-dimensional Clumpfind versions are tested, using 850 μm dust emission and 13 CO spectral-line observations of Perseus, respectively. The effect of varying threshold is not important, but varying stepsize produces a different effect for two- and three-dimensional cases. In the two-dimensional case, where emission is relatively isolated (associated with only the densest peaks in the cloud), the mass spectrum variability is negligible compared to the mass function fit uncertainties. In the three-dimensional case, however, where the 13 CO emission traces the bulk of the molecular cloud (MC), the number of clumps and the derived mass spectrum are highly correlated with the stepsize used. The distinction between 'two dimension' and 'three dimension' here is more importantly also a distinction between 'sparse' and 'crowded' emission. In any 'crowded' case, Clumpfind should not be used blindly to derive mass functions. Clumpfind's output in the 'crowded' case can still offer a statistical description of emission useful in intercomparisons, but the clump-list should not be treated as a robust region decomposition suitable to generate a physically meaningful mass function. We conclude that the 13 CO mass spectrum depends on the observations resolution, due to the hierarchical structure of the MC.

  9. Subspace orthogonalization for substructuring preconditioners for nonsymmetric systems of linear equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, G. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    For nonselfadjoint elliptic boundary value problems which are preconditioned by a substructuring method, i.e., nonoverlapping domain decomposition, the author introduces and studies the concept of subspace orthogonalization. In subspace orthogonalization variants of Krylov methods the computation of inner products and vector updates, and the storage of basis elements is restricted to a (presumably small) subspace, in this case the edge and vertex unknowns with respect to the partitioning into subdomains. The author investigates subspace orthogonalization for two specific iterative algorithms, GMRES and the full orthogonalization method (FOM). This is intended to eliminate certain drawbacks of the Arnoldi-based Krylov subspace methods mentioned above. Above all, the length of the Arnoldi recurrences grows linearly with the iteration index which is therefore restricted to the number of basis elements that can be held in memory. Restarts become necessary and this often results in much slower convergence. The subspace orthogonalization methods, in contrast, require the storage of only the edge and vertex unknowns of each basis element which means that one can iterate much longer before restarts become necessary. Moreover, the computation of inner products is also restricted to the edge and vertex points which avoids the disturbance of the computational flow associated with the solution of subdomain problems. The author views subspace orthogonalization as an alternative to restarting or truncating Krylov subspace methods for nonsymmetric linear systems of equations. Instead of shortening the recurrences, one restricts them to a subset of the unknowns which has to be carefully chosen in order to be able to extend this partial solution to the entire space. The author discusses the convergence properties of these iteration schemes and its advantages compared to restarted or truncated versions of Krylov methods applied to the full preconditioned system.

  10. Hubble space telescope/advanced camera for surveys confirmation of the dark substructure in A520

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, M. J.; Hoekstra, H.; Mahdavi, A.; Babul, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a weak-lensing study of the cluster A520 based on Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data. The excellent data quality provides a mean source density of ∼109 arcmin –2 , which improves both resolution and significance of the mass reconstruction compared to a previous study based on Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images. We take care in removing instrumental effects such as the charge trailing due to radiation damage of the detector and the position-dependent point-spread function. This new ACS analysis confirms the previous claims that a substantial amount of dark mass is present between two luminous subclusters where we observe very little light. The centroid of the dark peak in the current ACS analysis is offset to the southwest by ∼1' with respect to the centroid from the WFPC2 analysis. Interestingly, this new centroid is in better agreement with the location where the X-ray emission is strongest, and the mass-to-light ratio estimated with this centroid is much higher (813 ± 78 M ☉ /L R☉ ) than the previous value; the aperture mass with the WFPC2 centroid provides a consistent mass. Although we cannot provide a definite explanation for the dark peak, we discuss a revised scenario, wherein dark matter with a more conventional range (σ DM /m DM < 1 cm 2 g –1 ) of self-interacting cross-section can lead to the detection of this dark substructure. If supported by detailed numerical simulations, this hypothesis opens up the possibility that the A520 system can be used to establish a lower limit of the self-interacting cross-section of dark matter.

  11. Comparative in vivo analysis of recombinant type II feline coronaviruses with truncated and completed ORF3 region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Bálint

    Full Text Available Our previous in vitro comparative study on a feline coronavirus (FCoV pair, differing only in the intactness of their ORF3abc regions, showed that the truncated ORF3abc plays an important role in the efficient macrophage/monocyte tropism of type II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV. In the present study, we describe a challenge experiment with the same recombinant FCoVs in order to gain data on the in vivo characteristics on these viruses. While parent virus FIPV DF-2 developed feline infectious peritonitis in all the infected cats, its recombinant virus PBFIPV-DF-2, differing only in seven nucleotides, proved to be surprisingly low virulent, although caused an acute febrile episode similarly to the original FIPV DF-2. PBFIPV-DF-2 infection induced significantly lower virus neutralization titers than its parent virus, and lacked the second phase of viremia and development of fatal course of the disease. The recombinant PBFIPV-DF-2-R3i with completed ORF3abc gained biological properties that differentiate between the feline enteric coronavirus (FECV and FIPV biotypes such as intensive replication in the gut, absence of viremia and weak or no serological response. Using reverse genetic approaches our study is the first experimental proof that ORF3abc is indeed responsible for the restriction of FECV replication to the intestine in vivo.

  12. Comparative In Vivo Analysis of Recombinant Type II Feline Coronaviruses with Truncated and Completed ORF3 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Ádám; Farsang, Attila; Zádori, Zoltán; Belák, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Our previous in vitro comparative study on a feline coronavirus (FCoV) pair, differing only in the intactness of their ORF3abc regions, showed that the truncated ORF3abc plays an important role in the efficient macrophage/monocyte tropism of type II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). In the present study, we describe a challenge experiment with the same recombinant FCoVs in order to gain data on the in vivo characteristics on these viruses. While parent virus FIPV DF-2 developed feline infectious peritonitis in all the infected cats, its recombinant virus PBFIPV-DF-2, differing only in seven nucleotides, proved to be surprisingly low virulent, although caused an acute febrile episode similarly to the original FIPV DF-2. PBFIPV-DF-2 infection induced significantly lower virus neutralization titers than its parent virus, and lacked the second phase of viremia and development of fatal course of the disease. The recombinant PBFIPV-DF-2-R3i with completed ORF3abc gained biological properties that differentiate between the feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and FIPV biotypes such as intensive replication in the gut, absence of viremia and weak or no serological response. Using reverse genetic approaches our study is the first experimental proof that ORF3abc is indeed responsible for the restriction of FECV replication to the intestine in vivo. PMID:24586385

  13. Effect of Soil-Structure Interaction on Seismic Performance of Long-Span Bridge Tested by Dynamic Substructuring Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyun Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the limitations of testing facilities and techniques, the seismic performance of soil-structure interaction (SSI system can only be tested in a quite small scale model in laboratory. Especially for long-span bridge, a smaller tested model is required when SSI phenomenon is considered in the physical test. The scale effect resulting from the small scale model is always coupled with the dynamic performance, so that the seismic performance of bridge considering SSI effect cannot be uncovered accurately by the traditional testing method. This paper presented the implementation of real-time dynamic substructuring (RTDS, involving the combined use of shake table array and computational engines for the seismic simulation of SSI. In RTDS system, the bridge with soil-foundation system is divided into physical and numerical substructures, in which the bridge is seen as physical substructures and the remaining part is seen as numerical substructures. The interface response between the physical and numerical substructures is imposed by shake table and resulting reaction force is fed back to the computational engine. The unique aspect of the method is to simulate the SSI systems subjected to multisupport excitation in terms of a larger physical model. The substructuring strategy and the control performance associated with the real-time substructuring testing for SSI were performed. And the influence of SSI on a long-span bridge was tested by this novel testing method.

  14. Boosted objects and jet substructure at the LHC. Report of BOOST2012, held at IFIC Valencia, 23rd-27th of July 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altheimer, A.; Thompson, E.N.; Arce, A.; Bjergaard, D.; Asquith, L.; Backus Mayes, J.; Hook, A.; Izaguirre, E.; Jankowiak, M.; Larkoski, A.; Nef, P.; Schwartzman, A.; Swiatlowski, M.; Wacker, J.; Kuutmann, E.B.; Berger, J.; Bryngemark, L.; Buckley, A.; Debenedetti, C.; Butterworth, J.; Campanelli, M.; Davison, A.; Cacciari, M.; Carli, T.; Roeck, A. de; Chala, M.; Chapleau, B.; Chen, C.; Chou, J.P.; Cornelissen, T.; Fleischmann, S.; Curtin, D.; Dasgupta, M.; Almeida Dias, F. de; De Cosa, A.; Doglioni, C.; Guescini, F.; Ellis, S.D.; Hornig, A.; Scholtz, J.; Fassi, F.; Hoz, S.G. de la; Kaci, M.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Rodrigo, G.; Salt, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Villaplana, M.; Vos, M.; Ferrando, J.; Kar, D.; Nordstrom, K.; Freytsis, M.; Gonzalez Silva, M.L.; Han, Z.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Schwartz, M.D.; Juknevich, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Plehn, T.; Schaetzel, S.; Takeuchi, M.; Kogler, R.; Loch, P.; Marzani, S.; Spannowsky, M.; Masetti, L.; Mateu, V.; Stewart, I.; Thaler, J.; Miller, D.W.; Mishra, K.; Tran, N.V.; Penwell, J.; Pilot, J.; Rappoccio, S.; Rizzi, A.; Safonov, A.; Salam, G.P.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidt, A.; Segala, M.; Son, M.; Soyez, G.; Strom, D.; Vermilion, C.; Walsh, J.

    2014-01-01

    This report of the BOOST2012 workshop presents the results of four working groups that studied key aspects of jet substructure. We discuss the potential of first-principle QCD calculations to yield a precise description of the substructure of jets and study the accuracy of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo tools. Limitations of the experiments' ability to resolve substructure are evaluated, with a focus on the impact of additional (pile-up) proton proton collisions on jet substructure performance in future LHC operating scenarios. A final section summarizes the lessons learnt from jet substructure analyses in searches for new physics in the production of boosted top quarks. (orig.)

  15. Boosted objects and jet substructure at the LHC. Report of BOOST2012, held at IFIC Valencia, 23rd-27th of July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altheimer, A.; Thompson, E.N. [Columbia University, Nevis Laboratory, Irvington, NY (United States); Arce, A.; Bjergaard, D. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Asquith, L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States); Backus Mayes, J.; Hook, A.; Izaguirre, E.; Jankowiak, M.; Larkoski, A.; Nef, P.; Schwartzman, A.; Swiatlowski, M.; Wacker, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kuutmann, E.B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany); Berger, J. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Bryngemark, L. [Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Buckley, A.; Debenedetti, C. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Butterworth, J.; Campanelli, M.; Davison, A. [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Cacciari, M. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Carli, T.; Roeck, A. de [LPTHE, UPMC Univ. Paris 6 et CNRS UMR, Paris (France); Chala, M. [CAFPE and Univ. of Granada, Granada (Spain); Chapleau, B. [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Chen, C. [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Chou, J.P. [Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Cornelissen, T.; Fleischmann, S. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Curtin, D. [YITP, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Dasgupta, M. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Almeida Dias, F. de [UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); De Cosa, A. [INFN, Naples (Italy); University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Doglioni, C.; Guescini, F. [University of Geneva, Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Ellis, S.D.; Hornig, A.; Scholtz, J. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Fassi, F.; Hoz, S.G. de la; Kaci, M.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Rodrigo, G.; Salt, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Villaplana, M.; Vos, M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, IFIC/CSIC-UVEG, Valencia (Spain); Ferrando, J.; Kar, D.; Nordstrom, K. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Freytsis, M. [University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gonzalez Silva, M.L. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Han, Z.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Schwartz, M.D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Juknevich, J. [Weizmann Institute, Rehovot (Israel); Kasieczka, G.; Plehn, T.; Schaetzel, S.; Takeuchi, M. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Kogler, R. [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Loch, P. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Marzani, S.; Spannowsky, M. [IPPP, University of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom); Masetti, L. [Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Mateu, V.; Stewart, I.; Thaler, J. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Miller, D.W. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Mishra, K.; Tran, N.V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Penwell, J. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Pilot, J. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Rappoccio, S. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Rizzi, A. [INFN, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Safonov, A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Salam, G.P. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); LPTHE, UPMC Univ. Paris 6 et CNRS UMR, Paris (France); Schioppa, M. [INFN, Rende (IT); University of Calabria, Rende (IT); Schmidt, A. [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (DE); Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (DE); Segala, M. [Brown University, Richmond, RI (US); Son, M. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (US); Soyez, G. [CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Strom, D. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (US); Vermilion, C. [University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (US); Walsh, J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (US)

    2014-03-15

    This report of the BOOST2012 workshop presents the results of four working groups that studied key aspects of jet substructure. We discuss the potential of first-principle QCD calculations to yield a precise description of the substructure of jets and study the accuracy of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo tools. Limitations of the experiments' ability to resolve substructure are evaluated, with a focus on the impact of additional (pile-up) proton proton collisions on jet substructure performance in future LHC operating scenarios. A final section summarizes the lessons learnt from jet substructure analyses in searches for new physics in the production of boosted top quarks. (orig.)

  16. Improving corrosion resistance of post-tensioned substructures emphasizing high performance grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schokker, Andrea Jeanne

    The use of post-tensioning in bridges can provide durability and structural benefits to the system while expediting the construction process. When post-tensioning is combined with precast elements, traffic interference can be greatly reduced through rapid construction. Post-tensioned concrete substructure elements such as bridge piers, hammerhead bents, and straddle bents have become more prevalent in recent years. Chloride induced corrosion of steel in concrete is one of the most costly forms of corrosion each year. Coastal substructure elements are exposed to seawater by immersion or spray, and inland bridges may also be at risk due to the application of deicing salts. Corrosion protection of the post-tensioning system is vital to the integrity of the structure because loss of post-tensioning can result in catastrophic failure. Documentation for durability design of the grout, ducts, and anchorage systems is very limited. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion protection measures for post-tensioned concrete substructures by designing and testing specimens representative of typical substructure elements using state-of-the-art practices in aggressive chloride exposure environments. This was accomplished through exposure testing of twenty-seven large-scale beam specimens and ten large-scale column specimens. High performance grout for post-tensioning tendon injection was also developed through a series of fresh property tests, accelerated exposure tests, and a large-scale pumping test to simulate field conditions. A high performance fly ash grout was developed for applications with small vertical rises, and a high performance anti-bleed grout was developed for applications involving large vertical rises such as tall bridge piers. Long-term exposure testing of the beam and column specimens is ongoing, but preliminary findings indicate increased corrosion protection with increasing levels of post-tensioning, although traditional

  17. Global Profiling and Novel Structure Discovery Using Multiple Neutral Loss/Precursor Ion Scanning Combined with Substructure Recognition and Statistical Analysis (MNPSS): Characterization of Terpene-Conjugated Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Lin, Xiong-hao; Ji, Shuai; Zhang, Zheng-xiang; Bo, Tao; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2016-01-05

    To fully understand the chemical diversity of an herbal medicine is challenging. In this work, we describe a new approach to globally profile and discover novel compounds from an herbal extract using multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning combined with substructure recognition and statistical analysis. Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.) was used as an example. This approach consists of three steps: (i) multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning to obtain substructure information; (ii) targeted identification of new compounds by extracted ion current and substructure recognition; and (iii) untargeted identification using total ion current and multivariate statistical analysis to discover novel structures. Using this approach, 846 terpecurcumins (terpene-conjugated curcuminoids) were discovered from turmeric, including a number of potentially novel compounds. Furthermore, two unprecedented compounds (terpecurcumins X and Y) were purified, and their structures were identified by NMR spectroscopy. This study extended the application of mass spectrometry to global profiling of natural products in herbal medicines and could help chemists to rapidly discover novel compounds from a complex matrix.

  18. Pretreatment of furfural industrial wastewater by Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate processes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C W; Wang, D; Tang, Q

    2014-01-01

    The Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate (PDS) processes have been applied for the treatment of actual furfural industrial wastewater in this paper. Through the comparative study of the three processes, a suitable pretreatment technology for actual furfural wastewater treatment was obtained, and the mechanism and dynamics process of this technology is discussed. The experimental results show that Fenton technology has a good and stable effect without adjusting pH of furfural wastewater. At optimal conditions, which were 40 mmol/L H₂O₂ initial concentration and 10 mmol/L Fe²⁺ initial concentration, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate can reach 81.2% after 90 min reaction at 80 °C temperature. The PDS process also has a good performance. The COD removal rate could attain 80.3% when Na₂S₂O₈ initial concentration was 4.2 mmol/L, Fe²⁺ initial concentration was 0.1 mol/L, the temperature remained at 70 °C, and pH value remained at 2.0. The electro-Fenton process was not competent to deal with the high-temperature furfural industrial wastewater and only 10.2% COD was degraded at 80 °C temperature in the optimal conditions (2.25 mA/cm² current density, 4 mg/L Na₂SO₄, 0.3 m³/h aeration rate). For the Fenton, electro-Fenton and PDS processes in pretreatment of furfural wastewater, their kinetic processes follow the pseudo first order kinetics law. The pretreatment pathways of furfural wastewater degradation are also investigated in this study. The results show that furfural and furan formic acid in furfural wastewater were preferentially degraded by Fenton technology. Furfural can be degraded into low-toxicity or nontoxic compounds by Fenton pretreatment technology, which could make furfural wastewater harmless and even reusable.

  19. Comparative study of Hg(II) adsorption by thiol- and hydroxyl-containing bifunctional montmorillonite and vermiculite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Lytuong [College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); QuangBinh University, QuangBinh (Viet Nam); Wu, Pingxiao, E-mail: pppxwu@scut.edu.cn [College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-Remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions (China); Zhu, Yajie; Liu, Shuai; Zhu, Nengwu [College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel adsorbents were prepared by functionalization with BAL to remove Hg(II). • Thiol and hydroxyl groups contributed to the enhancement of Hg(II) removal. • BAL-Vm showed the most adsorption capacity of Hg(II). • The adsorption mechanism was discussed based on the adsorption behaviors. - Abstract: A novel approach to prepare adsorbents for Hg(II) uptake from aqueous media based on the grafting of dimercaprol (BAL), containing thiol and hydroxyl groups, onto the natural montmorillonite and vermiculite was investigated concerning the evaluation of the adsorption capacity. The kinetic study showed that the adsorption process abided by pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption behavior of Hg(II) onto the obtained samples fitted well with Langmuir isotherm model, exhibiting an enhanced maximum adsorption capacity of 8.57 and 3.21 mg g{sup −1} for BAL-Vm and BAL-Mt, respectively. The feasibility of Hg(II) uptake onto the the samples was studied thermodynamically and the calculated coefficients such as ΔH, ΔS and ΔG indicated a physical and spontaneous process. The pH values and coexisting cations had a great influence on Hg(II) removal, confirming the optimal pH value of 4.0–5.0 and the negative correlation between the ionic strength and the adsorption capacity of Hg(II). In general, BAL-Vm possessed a higher efficiency of Hg(II) uptake than BAL-Mt, contrary to that of the pristine clays. The pristine and functionalized materials were investigated by XRD, FTIR, BET, SEM and zeta potential analysis to gain in-depth insight into the structure and surface morphology. The results showed that BAL was successful grafted on montmorillonite and vermiculite surface, providing plentiful adsorption sites as chelating ligands. The mechanisms of Hg(II) adsorption on these samples could be further explained as ion exchange and electrostatic attraction for Vm and Mt, and formation of complexes for BAL-Vm and BAL-Mt.

  20. Comparative study of Hg(II) adsorption by thiol- and hydroxyl-containing bifunctional montmorillonite and vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Lytuong; Wu, Pingxiao; Zhu, Yajie; Liu, Shuai; Zhu, Nengwu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel adsorbents were prepared by functionalization with BAL to remove Hg(II). • Thiol and hydroxyl groups contributed to the enhancement of Hg(II) removal. • BAL-Vm showed the most adsorption capacity of Hg(II). • The adsorption mechanism was discussed based on the adsorption behaviors. - Abstract: A novel approach to prepare adsorbents for Hg(II) uptake from aqueous media based on the grafting of dimercaprol (BAL), containing thiol and hydroxyl groups, onto the natural montmorillonite and vermiculite was investigated concerning the evaluation of the adsorption capacity. The kinetic study showed that the adsorption process abided by pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption behavior of Hg(II) onto the obtained samples fitted well with Langmuir isotherm model, exhibiting an enhanced maximum adsorption capacity of 8.57 and 3.21 mg g −1 for BAL-Vm and BAL-Mt, respectively. The feasibility of Hg(II) uptake onto the the samples was studied thermodynamically and the calculated coefficients such as ΔH, ΔS and ΔG indicated a physical and spontaneous process. The pH values and coexisting cations had a great influence on Hg(II) removal, confirming the optimal pH value of 4.0–5.0 and the negative correlation between the ionic strength and the adsorption capacity of Hg(II). In general, BAL-Vm possessed a higher efficiency of Hg(II) uptake than BAL-Mt, contrary to that of the pristine clays. The pristine and functionalized materials were investigated by XRD, FTIR, BET, SEM and zeta potential analysis to gain in-depth insight into the structure and surface morphology. The results showed that BAL was successful grafted on montmorillonite and vermiculite surface, providing plentiful adsorption sites as chelating ligands. The mechanisms of Hg(II) adsorption on these samples could be further explained as ion exchange and electrostatic attraction for Vm and Mt, and formation of complexes for BAL-Vm and BAL-Mt.

  1. 3D Representative Volume Element Reconstruction of Fiber Composites via Orientation Tensor and Substructure Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Chen, Wei; Xu, Hongyi; Jin, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    To provide a seamless integration of manufacturing processing simulation and fiber microstructure modeling, two new stochastic 3D microstructure reconstruction methods are proposed for two types of random fiber composites: random short fiber composites, and Sheet Molding Compounds (SMC) chopped fiber composites. A Random Sequential Adsorption (RSA) algorithm is first developed to embed statistical orientation information into 3D RVE reconstruction of random short fiber composites. For the SMC composites, an optimized Voronoi diagram based approach is developed for capturing the substructure features of SMC chopped fiber composites. The proposed methods are distinguished from other reconstruction works by providing a way of integrating statistical information (fiber orientation tensor) obtained from material processing simulation, as well as capturing the multiscale substructures of the SMC composites.

  2. Seasonal variations of radon concentrations in single-family houses with different sub-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal variations of indoor radon concentrations have been studied in 70 single-family houses selected according to the type of sub-structure and the type of soil underneath the house. Five categories of sub-structure were included - slab-on-grade, crawl space, basement, and combinations...... of basement with slab-on-grade or crawl space. Half of the houses are located on clayey till and the other half on glaciofluvial gravel. In each house radon was measured in a living room and a bedroom, in the basement if present, and in the crawl space if present and accessible. The measurements were made...... with track detectors on a quarterly basis throughout a year. For living rooms and bedrooms the seasonal variations range from being highly significant for the slab-on-grade houses to being insignificant for the crawl space houses. For basements and crawl spaces the geometric mean radon concentrations do...

  3. Performance of large-R jets and jet substructure reconstruction with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the application of techniques to study jet substructure. The performance of modified jet algorithms for a variety of jet types and event topologies is investigated. Properties of jets subjected to the mass-drop filtering, trimming and pruning algorithms are found to have a reduced sensitivity to multiple proton-proton interactions and exhibit improved stability at high luminosity. Monte Carlo studies of the signal-background discrimination with jet grooming in new physics searches based on jet invariant mass and jet substructure properties are also presented. The application of jet trimming is shown to improve the robustness of large-R jet measurements, reduce sensitivity to the superfluous effects due to the intense environment of the high luminosity LHC, and improve the physics potential of searches for heavy boosted objects. The analyses presented in this note use the full 2011 ATLAS dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 \\pm 0.2 fb−1 .

  4. Comparative examinations of serum pepsinogen I, II and gastric area using computed radiography in the atrophic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsu, Yoshimitsu; Ogura, Yasuharu; Yamazaki, Kouichi [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The relationship between serum PG I, PG II levels and extent of atrophic gastritis was examined. The subjects were 64 patients (male: 32, female: 32, 51.9 years old on average) with established diagnosis of either atrophic gastritis or normal. In the X-ray gastric examination, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was used to obtain clear-cut images of the gastric area. Concerning the serum PG I level, patients in the group with atrophic gastritis showed lower levels than those of the people in the group with no atrophic change, but the variation was wide, and no definite tendency was seen in the relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG I levels. Concerning the serum PG II level, as the atrophic change progresses, the serum PG II level tended to increase gradually. A significant reduction in the PG I/II ratio was seen in the group with atrophic changes (p<0.01) in comparison with the group with no atrophic changes, and the PG I/II value tended to decrease. In conclusion, as a relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG levels had a wide variation, we considered it to be difficult to understand the presence and extent of the atrophic gastritis by measuring serum PG levels. (author).

  5. Comparative examinations of serum pepsinogen I, II and gastric area using computed radiography in the atrophic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsu, Yoshimitsu; Ogura, Yasuharu; Yamazaki, Kouichi

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between serum PG I, PG II levels and extent of atrophic gastritis was examined. The subjects were 64 patients (male: 32, female: 32, 51.9 years old on average) with established diagnosis of either atrophic gastritis or normal. In the X-ray gastric examination, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was used to obtain clear-cut images of the gastric area. Concerning the serum PG I level, patients in the group with atrophic gastritis showed lower levels than those of the people in the group with no atrophic change, but the variation was wide, and no definite tendency was seen in the relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG I levels. Concerning the serum PG II level, as the atrophic change progresses, the serum PG II level tended to increase gradually. A significant reduction in the PG I/II ratio was seen in the group with atrophic changes (p<0.01) in comparison with the group with no atrophic changes, and the PG I/II value tended to decrease. In conclusion, as a relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG levels had a wide variation, we considered it to be difficult to understand the presence and extent of the atrophic gastritis by measuring serum PG levels. (author)

  6. Thinking outside the ROCs: Designing Decorrelated Taggers (DDT) for jet substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Dolen, James; Marzani, Simone; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Tran, Nhan

    2016-01-01

    We explore the scale-dependence and correlations of jet substructure observables to improve upon existing techniques in the identification of highly Lorentz-boosted objects. Modified observables are designed to remove correlations from existing theoretically well-understood observables, providing practical advantages for experimental measurements and searches for new phenomena. We study such observables in $W$ jet tagging and provide recommendations for observables based on considerations beyond signal and background efficiencies.

  7. Comparison of Shade of Ceramic with Three Different Zirconia Substructures using Spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Syed Rashid; Shiddi, Ibraheem F Al

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed how changing the Zirconia (Zr) substructure affected the color samples after they have been overlaid by the same shade of veneering ceramic. Three commercial Zr materials were tested in this study: Prettau(®) Zirconia (ZirKonZahn, Italy), Cercon (Dentsply, Germany) and InCoris ZI (Sirona, Germany). For each system, 15 disk-shaped specimens (10 × 1 mm) were fabricated. Three shades of A1, A2 and A3.5 of porcelain (IPS e.MaxCeram, IvoclarVivadent, USA) were used for layering the specimens. Five specimens from each type of Zr were layered with same shade of ceramic. Color measurements were recorderd by a spectrophotometer Color-Eye(®) 7000A (X-Rite, Grand Rapids, MI). Mean values of L, a, b color coordinates and ΔE were recorded and comparisons were made. Differences in the ΔE were recorded for the same porcelain shade with different Zr substructures and affected the color of the specimens (p < 0.01, ANOVA). The maximum difference between the ΔE values for the A1, A2 and A3.5 shades with three types of Zr substructures was found to be 1.59, 1.69 and 1.45 respectively. Multiple comparisons of the ΔE with PostHoc Tukey test revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the three types of Zr, except between Type 2 Zr and Type 3 Zr for the Shade A1. The mean values of L, a, b and ΔE for the Prettau(®) Zirconia substructure were found to be the least among the three types. The brand of Zr used influences the final color of the all ceramic Zr based restorations and this has clinical significance.

  8. Substructuring preconditioners for an h-p domain decomposition method with interior penalty mortaring

    KAUST Repository

    Antonietti, P. F.; Ayuso Dios, Blanca; Bertoluzza, S.; Pennacchio, M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose and study an iterative substructuring method for an h-p Nitsche-type discretization, following the original approach introduced in Bramble et al. Math. Comp. 47(175):103–134, (1986) for conforming methods. We prove quasi-optimality with respect to the mesh size and the polynomial degree for the proposed preconditioner. Numerical experiments assess the performance of the preconditioner and verify the theory. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Italia.

  9. Observation of the substructure in the electron bunch on the ACO storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergher, M.; Velghe, M.; Mialocq, J.P.

    1984-09-01

    In the future, one interesting point of the SRFEL at Orsay will be the microtemporal analysis of the laser beam correlated with that of the electron bunch. In a first time, we have only analysed the temporal structure of the electron bunch with an Electrophotonic streak camera. The first results seem to indicate that the bunch is not an homogeneous bunch but presents a substructure. We discuss with details this data

  10. AFM friction and adhesion mapping of the substructures of human hair cuticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James R.; Tsibouklis, John; Nevell, Thomas G.; Breakspear, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Using atomic force microscopy, values of the microscale friction coefficient, the tip (silicon nitride) - surface adhesion force and the corresponding adhesion energy, for the substructures that constitute the surface of human hair (European brown hair) have been determined from Amonton plots. The values, mapped for comparison with surface topography, corresponded qualitatively with the substructures’ plane surface characteristics. Localised maps and values of the frictional coefficient, extracted avoiding scale edge effects, are likely to inform the formulation of hair-care products and treatments.

  11. Thinking outside the ROCs: Designing decorrelated taggers (DDT) for jet substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolen, James; Harris, Philip; Marzani, Simone; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Tran, Nhan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we explore the scale-dependence and correlations of jet substructure observables to improve upon existing techniques in the identification of highly Lorentz-boosted objects. Modified observables are designed to remove correlations from existing theoretically well-understood observables, providing practical advantages for experimental measurements and searches for new phenomena. We study such observables in W jet tagging and provide recommendations for observables based on considerations beyond signal and background efficiencies

  12. Substructuring preconditioners for an h-p domain decomposition method with interior penalty mortaring

    KAUST Repository

    Antonietti, P. F.

    2014-05-13

    We propose and study an iterative substructuring method for an h-p Nitsche-type discretization, following the original approach introduced in Bramble et al. Math. Comp. 47(175):103–134, (1986) for conforming methods. We prove quasi-optimality with respect to the mesh size and the polynomial degree for the proposed preconditioner. Numerical experiments assess the performance of the preconditioner and verify the theory. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Italia.

  13. DISCOVERY OF SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE SCATTER-BROADENED IMAGE OF SGR A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwinn, C. R. [Physics Department, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Kovalev, Y. Y.; Soglasnov, V. A. [Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya Str. 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Johnson, M. D., E-mail: cgwinn@physics.ucsb.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    We have detected substructure within the smooth scattering disk of the celebrated Galactic center radio source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We observed this structure at 1.3 cm wavelength with the Very Long Baseline Array together with the Green Bank Telescope, on baselines of up to 3000 km, long enough to completely resolve the average scattering disk. Such structure is predicted theoretically as a consequence of refraction by large-scale plasma fluctuations in the interstellar medium. Along with the much-studied θ{sub d}∝λ{sup 2} scaling of angular broadening θ{sub d} with observing wavelength λ, our observations indicate that the spectrum of interstellar turbulence is shallow with an inner scale larger than 300 km. The substructure is consistent with an intrinsic size of about 1 mas at 1.3 cm wavelength, as inferred from deconvolution of the average scattering. Further observations of the substructure can set stronger constraints on the properties of scattering material and on the intrinsic size of Sgr A*. These constraints will guide our understanding of the effects of scatter broadening and the emission physics near the black hole in images with the Event Horizon Telescope at millimeter wavelengths.

  14. A substructure method to compute the 3D fluid-structure interaction during blowdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilbaud, D.; Axisa, F.; Gantenbein, F.; Gibert, R.J.

    1983-08-01

    The waves generated by a sudden rupture of a PWR primary pipe have an important mechanical effect on the internal structures of the vessel. This fluid-structure interaction has a strong 3D aspect. 3D finite element explicit methods can be applied. These methods take into account the non linearities of the problem but the calculation is heavy and expensive. We describe in this paper another type of method based on a substructure procedure: the vessel, internals and contained fluid are axisymmetrically described (AQUAMODE computer code). The pipes and contained fluid are monodimensionaly described (TEDEL-FLUIDE Computer Code). These substructures are characterized by their natural modes. Then, they are connected to another (connection of both structural and fluid nodes) the TRISTANA Computer Code. This method allows to compute correctly and cheaply the 3D fluid-structure effects. The treatment of certain non linearities is difficult because of the modal characterization of the substructures. However variations of contact conditions versus time can be introduced. We present here some validation tests and comparison with experimental results of the litterature

  15. Some sub-structures of many-particle correlation in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C; Chao, W; Li, K

    1977-01-01

    The coherent structures of two phonons were proposed as the sub-structure ..cap alpha..' of four-particle clusters for the light nuclei. In the same way the sub-structure ..beta../sup +/ of four-hole clusters can also be given. Based on this the sub-structures between particle clusters and hole clusters in /sup 16/O and /sup 18/O were chosen as examples for investigation. It is found that there is a very strong repulsive force between them. Therefore the loose structure between particle cluster and hole cluster is of the lowest energy state. In this way, the deformations of these states were explained from the microscopic structures. Moreover, these structures can coherently strengthen the E2 transition. Further in order to study the particle correlation in the medium nuclei, the L-S coupling coherent structure is extended to the pseudo L-S coupling coherent structure and the expressions are given in the j-j coupling representation. Some preliminary analyses are made for the nuclei around /sup 56/Ni by using these structures.

  16. Automatic identification of mobile and rigid substructures in molecular dynamics simulations and fractional structural fluctuation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Martínez

    Full Text Available The analysis of structural mobility in molecular dynamics plays a key role in data interpretation, particularly in the simulation of biomolecules. The most common mobility measures computed from simulations are the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD and Root Mean Square Fluctuations (RMSF of the structures. These are computed after the alignment of atomic coordinates in each trajectory step to a reference structure. This rigid-body alignment is not robust, in the sense that if a small portion of the structure is highly mobile, the RMSD and RMSF increase for all atoms, resulting possibly in poor quantification of the structural fluctuations and, often, to overlooking important fluctuations associated to biological function. The motivation of this work is to provide a robust measure of structural mobility that is practical, and easy to interpret. We propose a Low-Order-Value-Optimization (LOVO strategy for the robust alignment of the least mobile substructures in a simulation. These substructures are automatically identified by the method. The algorithm consists of the iterative superposition of the fraction of structure displaying the smallest displacements. Therefore, the least mobile substructures are identified, providing a clearer picture of the overall structural fluctuations. Examples are given to illustrate the interpretative advantages of this strategy. The software for performing the alignments was named MDLovoFit and it is available as free-software at: http://leandro.iqm.unicamp.br/mdlovofit.

  17. Earthquake analysis of structures including structure-soil interaction by a substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, A.K.; Guttierrez, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A general substructure method for analysis of response of nuclear power plant structures to earthquake ground motion, including the effects of structure-soil interaction, is summarized. The method is applicable to complex structures idealized as finite element systems and the soil region treated as either a continuum, for example as a viscoelastic halfspace, or idealized as a finite element system. The halfspace idealization permits reliable analysis for sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no rigid boundary such as soil-rock interface. For sites where layers of soft soil are underlain by rock at shallow depth, finite element idealization of the soil region is appropriate; in this case, the direct and substructure methods would lead to equivalent results but the latter provides the better alternative. Treating the free field motion directly as the earthquake input in the substructure eliminates the deconvolution calculations and the related assumption-regarding type and direction of earthquake waves-required in the direct method. (Auth.)

  18. Factorization for groomed jet substructure beyond the next-to-leading logarithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frye, Christopher; Larkoski, Andrew J.; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Yan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Jet grooming algorithms are widely used in experimental analyses at hadron colliders to remove contaminating radiation from within jets. While the algorithms perform a great service to the experiments, their intricate algorithmic structure and multiple parameters has frustrated precision theoretic understanding. In this paper, we demonstrate that one particular groomer called soft drop actually makes precision jet substructure easier. In particular, we derive a factorization formula for a large class of soft drop jet substructure observables, including jet mass. The essential observation that allows for this factorization is that, without the soft wide-angle radiation groomed by soft drop, all singular contributions are collinear. The simplicity and universality of the collinear limit in QCD allows us to show that to all orders, the normalized differential cross section has no contributions from non-global logarithms. It is also independent of process, up to the relative fraction of quark and gluon jets. In fact, soft drop allows us to define this fraction precisely. The factorization theorem also explains why soft drop observables are less sensitive to hadronization than their ungroomed counterparts. Using the factorization theorem, we resum the soft drop jet mass to next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. This requires calculating some clustering effects that are closely related to corresponding effects found in jet veto calculations. We match our resummed calculation to fixed order results for both e + e − → dijets and pp→Z+j events, producing the first jet substructure predictions (groomed or ungroomed) to this accuracy for the LHC.

  19. RIA Quick, AUSRIA II-125, AUSAB. Comparative study on isolated and simultaneous radioimmunoassay of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Urbankova, J [Institut fuer Haematologie und Bluttransfusion, Prag (Czechoslovakia)

    1983-01-01

    The surface antigen of hepatitis B (HBsAg) and the antibodies against HBsAg can be determined separately by the radioimmunoassay (RIA) test kits AUSRIA II-125 and AUSAB, respectively. Using the test kit RIA Quick (IMMUNO, Wien) it is possible to perform both the determinations in one preparation simultaneously. The sensitivity of RIA Quick for HBsAg corresponds to that of AUSRIA II-125 and for HBsAB it is considerably lower than that of AUSAB. RIA Quick is of excellent technical design and is by a quarter cheaper than the kits for isolated determination of HBsAg and HBsAb.

  20. In silico prediction of ROCK II inhibitors by different classification approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuipu; Wu, Qihui; Luo, Yunxia; Ma, Huili; Shen, Jiangang; Zhang, Yongbin; Yang, Lei; Chen, Yunbo; Wen, Zehuai; Wang, Qi

    2017-11-01

    ROCK II is an important pharmacological target linked to central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this research is to generate ROCK II inhibitor prediction models by machine learning approaches. Firstly, four sets of descriptors were calculated with MOE 2010 and PaDEL-Descriptor, and optimized by F-score and linear forward selection methods. In addition, four classification algorithms were used to initially build 16 classifiers with k-nearest neighbors [Formula: see text], naïve Bayes, Random forest, and support vector machine. Furthermore, three sets of structural fingerprint descriptors were introduced to enhance the predictive capacity of classifiers, which were assessed with fivefold cross-validation, test set validation and external test set validation. The best two models, MFK + MACCS and MLR + SubFP, have both MCC values of 0.925 for external test set. After that, a privileged substructure analysis was performed to reveal common chemical features of ROCK II inhibitors. Finally, binding modes were analyzed to identify relationships between molecular descriptors and activity, while main interactions were revealed by comparing the docking interaction of the most potent and the weakest ROCK II inhibitors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on ROCK II inhibitors utilizing machine learning approaches that provides a new method for discovering novel ROCK II inhibitors.

  1. Evaluation of Cerebral Cortex Function in Clients with Bipolar Mood Disorder I (BMD I Compared With BMD II Using QEEG Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaleghi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early diagnosis of type I and type II bipolar mood disorder is very challenging particularly in adolescence. Hence, we aimed to investigate the cerebral cortex function in these patients, using quantitative electroencephalography analysis to obtain significant differences between them.Methods: Thirty- eight adolescents (18 patients with bipolar disorder I and 20 with BMD II participated in this study. We recorded the electroencephalogram signals based on 10-20 international system by 21 electrodes in eyes open and eyes closed condition resting conditions. Forty seconds segments were selected from each recorded signals with minimal noise and artifacts. Periodogram Welch was used to estimate power spectrum density from each segment. Analysis was performed in five frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma, and we assessed power, mean, entropy, variance and skewness of the spectrums, as well as mean of the thresholded spectrum and thresholded spectrogram. We only used focal montage for comparison. Eventually, data were analyzed by independent Mann-Whitney test and independent t test.Results: We observed significant differences in some brain regions and in all frequency bands. There were significant differences in prefrontal lobe, central lobe, left parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe between BMD I and BMD II (P < 0.05. In patients with BMD I, spectral entropy was compared to patients with BMD II. The most significant difference was observed in the gamma frequency band. Also, the power and entropy of delta frequency band was larger in the left parietal lobe in the BMD I patients compared to BMD II patients (P < 0.05. In the temporal lobe, significant differences were observed in the spectrum distribution of beta and gamma frequency bands (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The QEEG and entropy measure are simple and available tools to help detect cerebral cortex deficits and distinguish BMD I from BMD II.

  2. Structure and substructure analysis of DAFT/FADA galaxy clusters in the [0.4-0.9] redshift range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Adami, C.; Durret, F.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Ulmer, M. P.; Clowe, D.; LeBrun, V.; Martinet, N.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Basa, S.; Benoist, C.; Biviano, A.; Cappi, A.; Cypriano, E. S.; Gavazzi, R.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Jullo, E.; Just, D.; Limousin, M.; Márquez, I.; Mazure, A.; Murphy, K. J.; Plana, H.; Rostagni, F.; Russeil, D.; Schirmer, M.; Slezak, E.; Tucker, D.; Zaritsky, D.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The DAFT/FADA survey is based on the study of ~90 rich (masses found in the literature >2 × 1014 M⊙) and moderately distant clusters (redshifts 0.4 DAFT/FADA survey for which XMM-Newton and/or a sufficient number of galaxy redshifts in the cluster range are available, with the aim of detecting substructures and evidence for merging events. These properties are discussed in the framework of standard cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. Methods: In X-rays, we analysed the XMM-Newton data available, fit a β-model, and subtracted it to identify residuals. We used Chandra data, when available, to identify point sources. In the optical, we applied a Serna & Gerbal (SG) analysis to clusters with at least 15 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts available in the cluster range. We discuss the substructure detection efficiencies of both methods. Results: XMM-Newton data were available for 32 clusters, for which we derive the X-ray luminosity and a global X-ray temperature for 25 of them. For 23 clusters we were able to fit the X-ray emissivity with a β-model and subtract it to detect substructures in the X-ray gas. A dynamical analysis based on the SG method was applied to the clusters having at least 15 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range: 18 X-ray clusters and 11 clusters with no X-ray data. The choice of a minimum number of 15 redshifts implies that only major substructures will be detected. Ten substructures were detected both in X-rays and by the SG method. Most of the substructures detected both in X-rays and with the SG method are probably at their first cluster pericentre approach and are relatively recent infalls. We also find hints of a decreasing X-ray gas density profile core radius with redshift. Conclusions: The percentage of mass included in substructures was found to be roughly constant with redshift values of 5-15%, in agreement both with the general CDM framework and with the results of numerical simulations. Galaxies in substructures

  3. Measurement of jet substructure observables in $\\mathrm{t \\bar t}$ events from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A measurement of differential jet substructure observables is presented using $\\mathrm{t \\bar t}$ lepton+jets events from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $35.9~\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$. Multiple jet substructure variables, such as the particle multiplicity, width, eccentricity, $p_\\mathrm{T}$ dispersion, N-subjettiness ratios, generalized angularities, and energy correlation functions, are measured for inclusive jets, as well as for identified bottom, light-quark, and gluon jets from the $\\mathrm{t \\bar t}$ final state. The results are unfolded to the stable-particle level and compared to predictions from POWHEG interfaced with PYTHIA 8 and HERWIG 7.1, as well as from SHERPA 2 and DIRE. A reasonable agreement between the data and the Monte Carlo predictions is found. From a comparison of the jet width distribution to the prediction, it is shown that a lower value of the effective strong coupling in t...

  4. Highly Tissue Substructure-Specific Effects of Human Papilloma Virus in Mucosa of HIV-Infected Patients Revealed by Laser-Dissection Microscopy-Assisted Gene Expression Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarth, Nicole; Szubin, Richard; Dolganov, Greg M.; Watnik, Mitchell R.; Greenspan, Deborah; Da Costa, Maria; Palefsky, Joel M.; Jordan, Richard; Roederer, Mario; Greenspan, John S.

    2004-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) causes focal infections of epithelial layers in skin and mucosa. HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) appear to be at increased risk of developing HPV-induced oral warts. To identify the mechanisms that allow long-term infection of oral epithelial cells in these patients, we used a combination of laser-dissection microscopy (LDM) and highly sensitive and quantitative, non-biased, two-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR to study pathogen-induced alterations of specific tissue subcompartments. Expression of 166 genes was compared in three distinct epithelial and subepithelial compartments isolated from biopsies of normal mucosa from HIV-infected and non-infected patients and of HPV32-induced oral warts from HIV-infected patients. In contrast to the underlying HIV infection and/or HAART, which did not significantly elaborate tissue substructure-specific effects, changes in oral warts were strongly tissue substructure-specific. HPV 32 seems to establish infection by selectively enhancing epithelial cell growth and differentiation in the stratum spinosum and to evade the immune system by actively suppressing inflammatory responses in adjacent underlying tissues. With this highly sensitive and quantitative method tissue-specific expression of hundreds of genes can be studied simultaneously in a few cells. Because of its large dynamic measurement range it could also become a method of choice to confirm and better quantify results obtained by microarray analysis. PMID:15331396

  5. Comparative assessment of gastrointestinal irritant potency in man of tin(II) chloride and tin migrated from packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J; Boisset, Michel; Blunden, Steve; Davies, Scot; Ong, Teng Jin; Taverne, Jean-Pierre

    2003-12-01

    Tin is present in low concentrations in most canned foods and beverages, the highest levels being found in products packaged in unlacquered or partially lacquered tinplate cans. A limited number of case-reports of acute gastrointestinal disorders after consumption of food containing 100-500 mg/kg tin have been reported, but these reports suffer many insufficiencies. Controlled clinical studies on acute effects of tin migrated from packaging suggest a threshold concentration for adverse effects (AEs) of >730 mg/kg. Two separate randomised, single-centre, double-blind, crossover studies, enabling comparison of the tolerability of tin added as tin(II) chloride at concentrations of soup in 24 volunteers (Study 2) were carried out. Distribution studies were conducted to get insight in the acute AEs of low molecular weight (clear dose-response relationship was only observed when tin was added as tin(II) chloride in tomato juice. No clinically significant AEs were reported in Study 2 and comparison of the incidence of tin-related AEs showed no difference between the dose levels (including control). Tin species of low molecular weight in supernatant represented 31-32% of total tin in canned tomato soup versus 56-61% in juice freshly spiked with tin(II) chloride. Differences in the incidence of AEs following administration of tomato juice with 161 and 264 mg of tin per kg and tomato soup with 201 and 267 mg of tin per kg likely results from differences in the concentration of low molecular weight tin species and in the nature of tin complexes formed. The results of this work demonstrate that tin levels up to 267 mg/kg in canned food cause no AEs in healthy adults and support the currently proposed tin levels of 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg for canned beverages and canned foods, respectively, as safe levels for adults in the general population.

  6. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Neutrophilic Iron(II Oxidizer Genomes for Candidate Genes in Extracellular Electron Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaomei He

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular electron transfer (EET is recognized as a key biochemical process in circumneutral pH Fe(II-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB. In this study, we searched for candidate EET genes in 73 neutrophilic FeOB genomes, among which 43 genomes are complete or close-to-complete and the rest have estimated genome completeness ranging from 5 to 91%. These neutrophilic FeOB span members of the microaerophilic, anaerobic phototrophic, and anaerobic nitrate-reducing FeOB groups. We found that many microaerophilic and several anaerobic FeOB possess homologs of Cyc2, an outer membrane cytochrome c originally identified in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The “porin-cytochrome c complex” (PCC gene clusters homologous to MtoAB/PioAB are present in eight FeOB, accounting for 19% of complete and close-to-complete genomes examined, whereas PCC genes homologous to OmbB-OmaB-OmcB in Geobacter sulfurreducens are absent. Further, we discovered gene clusters that may potentially encode two novel PCC types. First, a cluster (tentatively named “PCC3” encodes a porin, an extracellular and a periplasmic cytochrome c with remarkably large numbers of heme-binding motifs. Second, a cluster (tentatively named “PCC4” encodes a porin and three periplasmic multiheme cytochromes c. A conserved inner membrane protein (IMP encoded in PCC3 and PCC4 gene clusters might be responsible for translocating electrons across the inner membrane. Other bacteria possessing PCC3 and PCC4 are mostly Proteobacteria isolated from environments with a potential niche for Fe(II oxidation. In addition to cytochrome c, multicopper oxidase (MCO genes potentially involved in Fe(II oxidation were also identified. Notably, candidate EET genes were not found in some FeOB, especially the anaerobic ones, probably suggesting EET genes or Fe(II oxidation mechanisms are different from the searched models. Overall, based on current EET models, the search extends our understanding of bacterial EET and

  7. Anteroposterior condylar position: a comparative study between subjects with normal occlusion and patients with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio; Campos, Marcio José da Silva; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2013-10-29

    The present study aimed to determine and compare the anteroposterior position of the condyle in the mandibular fossa between groups of asymptomatic subjects with normal occlusion and asymptomatic subjects with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions. Thirty persons with normal occlusion, 30 with Class I malocclusion, 30 with Class II Division 1, and 30 with Class III had computed tomography scans of their temporomandibular joints. The anterior joint space/posterior joint space (AJS/PJS) ratio was determined for the right and left joints. The paired t test was used to analyze the AJS/PJS ratio between both sides for each group. The ANOVA test was applied to verify the differences between the groups for the measurements of the right and left sides. In case the ANOVA test confirmed significance, the Dunnett's t test was performed to compare the groups of malocclusion with that of normal occlusion. The paired t test between the AJS/PJS relationships in the right and left sides showed the following p values: Class I (0.168), Class II Division 1 (0.662), Class III (0.991), and normal occlusion (0.390). The ANOVA test showed a p value of 0.445 for the comparisons of the right side and 0.040 for the left side. The Dunnett's t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the Class II group and the normal occlusion group (p value of 0.026) in the joints of the left side. Bilateral symmetry and lack of condyle centralization were common characteristics among all groups. The greatest condylar decentralization was observed in the Class II group, whereas the least condylar decentralization was found in the normal occlusion group.

  8. Factorization for groomed jet substructure beyond the next-to-leading logarithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Christopher; Larkoski, Andrew J.; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Yan, Kai [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Jet grooming algorithms are widely used in experimental analyses at hadron colliders to remove contaminating radiation from within jets. While the algorithms perform a great service to the experiments, their intricate algorithmic structure and multiple parameters has frustrated precision theoretic understanding. In this paper, we demonstrate that one particular groomer called soft drop actually makes precision jet substructure easier. In particular, we derive a factorization formula for a large class of soft drop jet substructure observables, including jet mass. The essential observation that allows for this factorization is that, without the soft wide-angle radiation groomed by soft drop, all singular contributions are collinear. The simplicity and universality of the collinear limit in QCD allows us to show that to all orders, the normalized differential cross section has no contributions from non-global logarithms. It is also independent of process, up to the relative fraction of quark and gluon jets. In fact, soft drop allows us to define this fraction precisely. The factorization theorem also explains why soft drop observables are less sensitive to hadronization than their ungroomed counterparts. Using the factorization theorem, we resum the soft drop jet mass to next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. This requires calculating some clustering effects that are closely related to corresponding effects found in jet veto calculations. We match our resummed calculation to fixed order results for both e{sup +}e{sup −}→ dijets and pp→Z+j events, producing the first jet substructure predictions (groomed or ungroomed) to this accuracy for the LHC.

  9. Convergence properties of halo merger trees; halo and substructure merger rates across cosmic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Gregory B.; Mutch, Simon J.; Croton, Darren J.; Wyithe, Stuart

    2017-12-01

    We introduce GBPTREES: an algorithm for constructing merger trees from cosmological simulations, designed to identify and correct for pathological cases introduced by errors or ambiguities in the halo finding process. GBPTREES is built upon a halo matching method utilizing pseudo-radial moments constructed from radially sorted particle ID lists (no other information is required) and a scheme for classifying merger tree pathologies from networks of matches made to-and-from haloes across snapshots ranging forward-and-backward in time. Focusing on SUBFIND catalogues for this work, a sweep of parameters influencing our merger tree construction yields the optimal snapshot cadence and scanning range required for converged results. Pathologies proliferate when snapshots are spaced by ≲0.128 dynamical times; conveniently similar to that needed for convergence of semi-analytical modelling, as established by Benson et al. Total merger counts are converged at the level of ∼5 per cent for friends-of-friends (FoF) haloes of size np ≳ 75 across a factor of 512 in mass resolution, but substructure rates converge more slowly with mass resolution, reaching convergence of ∼10 per cent for np ≳ 100 and particle mass mp ≲ 109 M⊙. We present analytic fits to FoF and substructure merger rates across nearly all observed galactic history (z ≤ 8.5). While we find good agreement with the results presented by Fakhouri et al. for FoF haloes, a slightly flatter dependence on merger ratio and increased major merger rates are found, reducing previously reported discrepancies with extended Press-Schechter estimates. When appropriately defined, substructure merger rates show a similar mass ratio dependence as FoF rates, but with stronger mass and redshift dependencies for their normalization.

  10. The nonlinear response of the complex structural system in nuclear reactors using dynamic substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Z.C.; Xie, G.; Du, Q.H.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the existence of nonlinear characteristics in practical engineering structures, such as large steam turbine-foundation system and offshore platform, it is necessary to predict nonlinear dynamic responses for these very large and complex structural systems subjected extreme load. Due to the limited storage and high executing cost of computers, there are still some difficulties in the analysis for such systems although the traditional finite element methods provide basic available methods to the problems. The dynamic substructure methods, which were developed as a branch of general structural dynamics in the past more than 20 years and have been widely used from aircraft, space vehicles to other mechanical and civil engineering structures, present a powerful method to the analysis of very large structural systems. The key to success is due to the considerable reduction in the number of degrees of freedom while not changing the physical essence of the problems investigated. The dynamic substructure method has been extended to nonlinear system and applicated to the analysis of nonlinear dynamic response of an offshore platform by Z.C. Zheng, et al. (1983, 1985a, b, c). In this paper, the method is presented to analyze dynamic responses of the systems contained intrinsic nonlinearities and with nonlinear attachments and nonlinear supports of nuclear structural systems. The efficiency of the method becomes more clear for nonlinear dynamic problems due to the adoption of iterating processes. For simplicity, the analysis procedure is demonstrated briefly. The generalized substructure method of nonlinear systems is similar to linear systems, only the nonlinear terms are treated as pseudo-forces. Interface coordinates are classified into two categories, the connecting interface coordinates which connect with each other directly in the global system and the linking interface coordinates which link to each other through attachments. (orig./GL)

  11. Halo substructure in the SDSS-Gaia catalogue: streams and clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeong, G. C.; Evans, N. W.; Belokurov, V.; Amorisco, N. C.; Koposov, S. E.

    2018-04-01

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-Gaia Catalogue to identify six new pieces of halo substructure. SDSS-Gaia is an astrometric catalogue that exploits SDSS data release 9 to provide first epoch photometry for objects in the Gaia source catalogue. We use a version of the catalogue containing 245 316 stars with all phase-space coordinates within a heliocentric distance of ˜10 kpc. We devise a method to assess the significance of halo substructures based on their clustering in velocity space. The two most substantial structures are multiple wraps of a stream which has undergone considerable phase mixing (S1, with 94 members) and a kinematically cold stream (S2, with 61 members). The member stars of S1 have a median position of (X, Y, Z) = (8.12, -0.22, 2.75) kpc and a median metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.78. The stars of S2 have median coordinates (X, Y, Z) = (8.66, 0.30, 0.77) kpc and a median metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.91. They lie in velocity space close to some of the stars in the stream reported by Helmi et al. By modelling, we estimate that both structures had progenitors with virial masses ≈1010M⊙ and infall times ≳ 9 Gyr ago. Using abundance matching, these correspond to stellar masses between 106 and 107M⊙. These are somewhat larger than the masses inferred through the mass-metallicity relation by factors of 5 to 15. Additionally, we identify two further substructures (S3 and S4 with 55 and 40 members) and two clusters or moving group (C1 and C2 with 24 and 12) members. In all six cases, clustering in kinematics is found to correspond to clustering in both configuration space and metallicity, adding credence to the reliability of our detections.

  12. The Comparative Reliability and Feasibility of the Past-Year Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Comparison of the Paper and Web Versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Siou, Geraldine; Csizmadi, Ilona; Boucher, Beatrice A; Akawung, Alianu K; Whelan, Heather K; Sharma, Michelle; Al Rajabi, Ala; Vena, Jennifer E; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Koushik, Anita; Massarelli, Isabelle; Rondeau, Isabelle; Robson, Paula J

    2017-02-13

    Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-version reliability, feasibility and acceptability of the paper and web Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (CDHQ-II) in a sub-sample of 648 adults (aged 39-81 years) recruited from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) paper, web, paper; or (2) web, paper, web over a six-week period. With few exceptions, no statistically significant differences in mean nutrient intake were found in the intra- and inter-version reliability analyses. The majority of participants indicated future willingness to complete the CDHQ-II online, and 59% indicated a preference for the web over the paper version. Findings indicate that, in this population of adults drawn from an existing cohort, the CDHQ-II may be administered in paper or web modalities (increasing flexibility for questionnaire delivery), and the nutrient estimates obtained with either version are comparable. We recommend that other studies explore the feasibility and reliability of different modes of administration of dietary assessment instruments prior to widespread implementation.

  13. The Comparative Reliability and Feasibility of the Past-Year Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Comparison of the Paper and Web Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Siou, Geraldine; Csizmadi, Ilona; Boucher, Beatrice A.; Akawung, Alianu K.; Whelan, Heather K.; Sharma, Michelle; Al Rajabi, Ala; Vena, Jennifer E.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Koushik, Anita; Massarelli, Isabelle; Rondeau, Isabelle; Robson, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-version reliability, feasibility and acceptability of the paper and web Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (CDHQ-II) in a sub-sample of 648 adults (aged 39–81 years) recruited from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) paper, web, paper; or (2) web, paper, web over a six-week period. With few exceptions, no statistically significant differences in mean nutrient intake were found in the intra- and inter-version reliability analyses. The majority of participants indicated future willingness to complete the CDHQ-II online, and 59% indicated a preference for the web over the paper version. Findings indicate that, in this population of adults drawn from an existing cohort, the CDHQ-II may be administered in paper or web modalities (increasing flexibility for questionnaire delivery), and the nutrient estimates obtained with either version are comparable. We recommend that other studies explore the feasibility and reliability of different modes of administration of dietary assessment instruments prior to widespread implementation. PMID:28208819

  14. On substructuring algorithms and solution techniques for the numerical approximation of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, M. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Substructuring methods are in common use in mechanics problems where typically the associated linear systems of algebraic equations are positive definite. Here these methods are extended to problems which lead to nonpositive definite, nonsymmetric matrices. The extension is based on an algorithm which carries out the block Gauss elimination procedure without the need for interchanges even when a pivot matrix is singular. Examples are provided wherein the method is used in connection with finite element solutions of the stationary Stokes equations and the Helmholtz equation, and dual methods for second-order elliptic equations.

  15. Chemical composition of stars in kinematical substructures of the galactic disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbaneva T.I.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd , Sm and Eu abundances were found in LTE approach, and the abundance of Ba was computed in NLTE approximation for 280 FGK dwarfs in the region of metallicity of − 1<[Fe]< + 0.3. The selection of stars belonging to thin and thick disks and the stream Hercules was made on kinematic criteria. The analysis of enrichment of the different substructures of the Galaxy with α-element (Mg, Si, the iron peak (Ni and neutron-capture elements was carried out.

  16. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF AN EVOLVING FLARE RIBBON SUBSTRUCTURE SUGGESTING ORIGIN IN CURRENT SHEET WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, S. R.; Longcope, D. W.; Qiu, J. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We present imaging and spectroscopic observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph of the evolution of the flare ribbon in the SOL2014-04-18T13:03 M-class flare event, at high spatial resolution and time cadence. These observations reveal small-scale substructure within the ribbon, which manifests as coherent quasi-periodic oscillations in both position and Doppler velocities. We consider various alternative explanations for these oscillations, including modulation of chromospheric evaporation flows. Among these, we find the best support for some form of wave localized to the coronal current sheet, such as a tearing mode or Kelvin–Helmholtz instability.

  17. Soil-structure interaction analysis of NPP containments: substructure and frequency domain methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venancio-Filho, F.; Almeida, M.C.F.; Ferreira, W.G.; De Barros, F.C.P.

    1997-01-01

    Substructure and frequency domain methods for soil-structure interaction are addressed in this paper. After a brief description of mathematical models for the soil and of excitation, the equations for dynamic soil-structure interaction are developed for a rigid surface foundation and for an embedded foundation. The equations for the frequency domain analysis of MDOF systems are provided. An example of soil-structure interaction analysis with frequency-dependent soil properties is given and examples of identification of foundation impedance functions and soil properties are presented. (orig.)

  18. Substructural evolution during cyclic torsion of drawn low carbon steel bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, E.C.S.; Aguilar, M.T.P.; Monteiro, W.A.; Cetlin, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    Strain softening effects have been previously observed in drawn low carbon steel bars as a result of cyclic torsion experiments. In this paper, the substructural aspects related to the phenomenon have been investigated. Single pass drawn bars were subjected to a quarter, to a half, to a full torsion cycle and to 10 such cycles. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the development of extended microbands crossing the former dislocation arrangement of the drawn metal, which evolves to a rectangular shaped subgrains structure as torsion deformation is conducted

  19. Exclusive processes: Tests of coherent QCD phenomena and nucleon substructure at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1994-07-01

    Measurements of exclusive processes such as electroproduction, photoproduction, and Compton scattering are among the most sensitive probes of proton structure and coherent phenomena in quantum chromodynamics. The continuous electron beam at CEBAF, upgraded in laboratory energy to 10--12 GeV, will allow a systematic study of exclusive, semi-inclusive, and inclusive reactions in a kinematic range well-tuned to the study of fundamental nucleon and nuclear substructure. I also discuss the potential at CEBAF for studying novel QCD phenomena at the charm production threshold, including the possible production of nuclear-bound quarkonium

  20. Mechanical properties and related substructure of TiNi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, P.; Kneissl, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical properties of binary near equiatomic TiNi shape memory alloys were investigated after different types of mechanical and heat treatments. The changes of deformation behaviour are explained on the basis of substructure differences after work hardening. The ''elastic moduli'' of both the high-temperature phase B2 and the martensite B19' as well as the ''easy stage of deformation'' are dependent on the work hardening intensity and these changes are related to the mobility of B2/B19' interfaces. The martensite changes its morphology after work hardening. In contrast to a twinned martensite, typical for annealed alloys, the internally slipped martensite was detected after work hardening. (orig.)

  1. Simulations of Fractal Star Cluster Formation. I. New Insights for Measuring Mass Segregation of Star Clusters with Substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jincheng; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lin, Congping; Zhang, Yiwei

    2017-01-01

    We compare the existent methods, including the minimum spanning tree based method and the local stellar density based method, in measuring mass segregation of star clusters. We find that the minimum spanning tree method reflects more the compactness, which represents the global spatial distribution of massive stars, while the local stellar density method reflects more the crowdedness, which provides the local gravitational potential information. It is suggested to measure the local and the global mass segregation simultaneously. We also develop a hybrid method that takes both aspects into account. This hybrid method balances the local and the global mass segregation in the sense that the predominant one is either caused by dynamical evolution or purely accidental, especially when such information is unknown a priori. In addition, we test our prescriptions with numerical models and show the impact of binaries in estimating the mass segregation value. As an application, we use these methods on the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) observations and the Taurus cluster. We find that the ONC is significantly mass segregated down to the 20th most massive stars. In contrast, the massive stars of the Taurus cluster are sparsely distributed in many different subclusters, showing a low degree of compactness. The massive stars of Taurus are also found to be distributed in the high-density region of the subclusters, showing significant mass segregation at subcluster scales. Meanwhile, we also apply these methods to discuss the possible mechanisms of the dynamical evolution of the simulated substructured star clusters.

  2. Simulations of Fractal Star Cluster Formation. I. New Insights for Measuring Mass Segregation of Star Clusters with Substructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jincheng; Puzia, Thomas H. [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Lin, Congping; Zhang, Yiwei, E-mail: yujc.astro@gmail.com, E-mail: tpuzia@gmail.com, E-mail: congpinglin@gmail.com, E-mail: yiweizhang831129@gmail.com [Center for Mathematical Science, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 4370074 (China)

    2017-05-10

    We compare the existent methods, including the minimum spanning tree based method and the local stellar density based method, in measuring mass segregation of star clusters. We find that the minimum spanning tree method reflects more the compactness, which represents the global spatial distribution of massive stars, while the local stellar density method reflects more the crowdedness, which provides the local gravitational potential information. It is suggested to measure the local and the global mass segregation simultaneously. We also develop a hybrid method that takes both aspects into account. This hybrid method balances the local and the global mass segregation in the sense that the predominant one is either caused by dynamical evolution or purely accidental, especially when such information is unknown a priori. In addition, we test our prescriptions with numerical models and show the impact of binaries in estimating the mass segregation value. As an application, we use these methods on the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) observations and the Taurus cluster. We find that the ONC is significantly mass segregated down to the 20th most massive stars. In contrast, the massive stars of the Taurus cluster are sparsely distributed in many different subclusters, showing a low degree of compactness. The massive stars of Taurus are also found to be distributed in the high-density region of the subclusters, showing significant mass segregation at subcluster scales. Meanwhile, we also apply these methods to discuss the possible mechanisms of the dynamical evolution of the simulated substructured star clusters.

  3. Enclomiphene citrate stimulates testosterone production while preventing oligospermia: a randomized phase II clinical trial comparing topical testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehle, Ronald D; Fontenot, Gregory K; Wike, Jenny; Hsu, Kuang; Nydell, Jennifer; Lipshultz, Larry

    2014-09-01

    To determine the effect of enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism. Phase II clinical trial. Community dwelling men making visits to physician offices. Men with secondary hypogonadism. Oral administration of enclomiphene citrate or 1% topical T gel. Luteinizing hormone, FSH, T, and semen analysis. Treatment with enclomiphene citrate resulted in increased morning serum T, E2, and LH levels similar to those obtained with a topical T gel in men with secondary hypogonadism. Follicle-stimulating hormone and LH were increased with enclomiphene, and sperm counts were conserved. Enclomiphene citrate reverses the two hallmarks of secondary hypogonadism, namely, low serum total T and low or inappropriately normal LH while preserving sperm production. NCT01270841 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01270841). Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The dormant and the fully competent oocyte: comparing the transcriptome of human oocytes from primordial follicles and in metaphase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Borup, Rehannah; Vikeså, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Oocytes become enclosed in primordial follicles during fetal life and remain dormant there until activation followed by growth and meiotic resumption. Current knowledge about the molecular pathways involved in oogenesis is incomplete. This study identifies the specific transcriptome of the human...... oocyte in the quiescent state and at the pinnacle of maturity at ovulation. In silico bioinformatic comparisons were made between the transcriptome of human oocytes from dormant primordial follicles and that of human metaphase II (MII) oocytes and granulosa cells and unique gene expression profiles were...... identified as well as functional and pathway enrichments associated with the oocytes from the two developmental hallmarks. A total of 729 genes were highly enriched in oocytes from primodial follicles and 1456 genes were highly enriched in MII oocytes (>10-fold, P...

  5. Dosimetric comparison to the heart and cardiac substructure in a large cohort of esophageal cancer patients treated with proton beam therapy or Intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yutaka; Xu, Cai; Yang, Jinzhong; Komaki, Ritsuko; Lin, Steven H

    2017-10-01

    To compare heart and cardiac substructure radiation exposure using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. proton beam therapy (PBT) for patients with mid- to distal esophageal cancer who received chemoradiation therapy. We identified 727 esophageal cancer patients who received IMRT (n=477) or PBT (n=250) from March 2004 to December 2015. All patients were treated to 50.4Gy with IMRT or to 50.4 cobalt Gray equivalents with PBT. IMRT and PBT dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the whole heart, atria, ventricles, and four coronary arteries were compared. For PBT patients, passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT; n=237) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT; n=13) DVHs were compared. Compared with IMRT, PBT resulted in significantly lower mean heart dose (MHD) and heart V5, V10, V20, V30, and V40as well as lower radiation exposure to the four chambers and four coronary arteries. Compared with PSPT, IMPT resulted in significantly lower heart V20, V30, and V40 but not MHD or heart V5 or V10. IMPT also resulted in significantly lower radiation doses to the left atrium, right atrium, left main coronary artery, and left circumflex artery, but not the left ventricle, right ventricle, left anterior descending artery, or right coronary artery. Factors associated with lower MHD included PBT (Pheart and cardiac substructures than IMRT. Long-term studies are necessary to determine how this cardiac sparing effect impacts the development of coronary artery disease and other cardiac complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CBCT evaluation of the upper airway morphological changes in growing patients of class II division 1 malocclusion with mandibular retrusion using twin block appliance: a comparative research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after Twin Block (TB treatment in growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion compared with untreated Class II patients by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty growing patients who have completed TB treatment were recruited into TB group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the patients with the same diagnosis and without TB treatment. CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 data of TB group and control data were collected. After three-dimensional (3D reconstruction and registration of T1 and T2 data, the morphological changes of upper airway during TB treatment were measured. The statistical differences between T1 and T2 data of TB group as well as T2 and control data were accessed by t-test. RESULTS: During the TB treatment, the mandible moved advanced by 3.52 ± 2.14 mm in the horizontal direction and 3.77 ± 2.10 mm in the vertical direction. The hyoid bone was in a more forward and inferior place. The upper airway showed a significant enlargement in nasopharynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx. In addition, the nasopharynx turned more circular, and the oropharynx became more elliptic in transverse shape. However, the transverse shape of the hypopharynx showed no significant difference. After comparison between T2 and control data, only the horizontal movement of the hyoid bone, the volumetric expansion of the oropharynx and hypopharynx, and changes of the oropharyngeal transverse shape showed significant difference. CONCLUSION: Compared to the untreated Class II patients, the upper airway of growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion showed a significant enlargement in the oropharynx and hypopharynx as well as a more elliptic transverse shape in the oropharynx, and the hyoid bone moved to an anterior position after TB

  7. The Substructure of the Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore calculate how the intensity scales from a low-resolution (AIA) pixels to high-resolution (Hi-C) pixels for both the dynamic events and "background" emission (meaning, the steady emission over the 5 minutes of data acquisition time). We find there is no evidence of substructure in the background corona; the intensity scales smoothly from low-resolution to high-resolution Hi-C pixels. In transient events, however, the intensity observed with Hi-C is, on average, 2.6 times larger than observed with AIA. This increase in intensity suggests that AIA is not resolving these events. This result suggests a finely structured dynamic corona embedded in a smoothly varying background.

  8. Facile approach to the fabrication of a micropattern possessing nanoscale substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Jiang, Xuesong; Yin, Jie

    2007-12-04

    On the basis of the combined technologies of photolithography and reaction-induced phase separation (RIPS), a facile approach has been successfully developed for the fabrication of a micropattern possessing nanoscale substructure on the thin film surface. This approach involves three steps. In the first step, a thin film was prepared by spin coating from a solution of a commercial random copolymer, polystyrene-r-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-r-PMMA) and a commercial crosslinker, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). In the second step, photolithograph was performed with the thin film using a 250 W high-pressure mercury lamp to produce the micropattern. Finally, the resulting micropattern was annealed at 200 degrees C for a certain time, and reaction-induced phase separation occurred. After soaking in chloroform for 4 h, nanoscale substructure was obtained. The whole processes were traced by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and the results supported the proposed structure.

  9. Nuclear sub-structure in 112–122Ba nuclei within relativistic mean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuyan, M.; Patra, S.K.; Arumugam, P.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2011-01-01

    Working within the framework of relativistic mean field theory, we study for the first time the clustering structure (nuclear sub-structure) of 112–122 Ba nuclei in an axially deformed cylindrical coordinate. We calculate the individual neutrons and protons density distributions for Ba-isotopes. From the analysis of the clustering configurations in total (neutrons-plus-protons) density distributions for various shapes of both the ground and excited states, we find different sub-structures inside the Ba nuclei considered here. The important step, carried out here for the first time, is the counting of number of protons and neutrons present in the clustering region(s). 12 C is shown to constitute the cluster configuration in prolate-deformed ground-states of 112–116 Ba and oblate-deformed first excited states of 118–122 Ba nuclei. Presence of other lighter clusters such as 2 H, 3 H and nuclei in the neighborhood of N = Z, 14 N, 34–36 Cl, 36 Ar and 42 Ca are also indicated in the ground and excited states of these nuclei. Cases with no cluster configuration are shown for 112–116 Ba in their first and second excited states. All these results are of interest for the observed intermediate-mass-fragments and fusion–fission processes, and the so far unobserved evaporation residues from the decaying Ba* compound nuclei formed in heavy ion reactions. (author)

  10. Deformation behavior of a 16-8-2 GTA weld as influenced by its solidification substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulds, J.R.; Moteff, J.; Sikka, V.K.; McEnerney, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Weldment sections from formed and welded type 316 stainless steel pipe are characterized with respect to some time-independent (tensile) and time-dependent (creep) mechanical properties at temperatures between 25 0 C and 649 0 C. The GTA weldment, welded with 16-8-2 filler metal, is sectioned from pipe in the formed + welded + solution annealed + straightened condition, as well as in the same condition with an additional re-solution treatment. Detailed room temperature microhardness measurements on these sections before and after reannealing enable a determination of the different recovery characteristics of weld and base metal. The observed stable weld metal solidification dislocation substructure in comparison with the base metal random dislocation structure, in fact, adequately explains weld/base metal elevated temperature mechanical behavior differences from this recovery characteristic standpoint. The weld metal substructure is the only parameter common to the variety of austenitic stainless steel welds exhibiting the consistent parent/weld metal deformation behavior differences described. As such, it must be considered the key to understanding weldment mechanical behavior

  11. Dynamic Analysis of Jacket Substructure for Offshore Wind Turbine Generators under Extreme Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jeng Lai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop dynamic analysis technologies regarding the design of offshore wind turbine generators (OWTGs, a special project called Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4 was conducted by IEA (International Energy Agency in 2010. A similar project named INER-OC4 has been performed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER to develop the OWTG technologies of Taiwan. Since the jacket substructure will be applied to Taiwan OWTGs before 2020, the INER-OC4 project has been devoted to the design and analysis of jacket support structure. In this work, the preliminary result of INER-OC4 is presented. A simplified analysis procedure for jacket support structure has been proposed. Both of the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW OWTG FAST model and OC4 jacket substructure model have been built and analyzed under severe design load cases (DLCs of IEC (International Electrotechnical commission 61400-3. Simulation results of six severe DLCs are performed in this work and the results are in agreement with the requirements of API (American Petroleum Institute and NORSOK (Norwegian Petroleum Industry standards.

  12. Substructure hybrid testing of reinforced concrete shear wall structure using a domain overlapping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Pan, Peng; Gong, Runhua; Wang, Tao; Xue, Weichen

    2017-10-01

    An online hybrid test was carried out on a 40-story 120-m high concrete shear wall structure. The structure was divided into two substructures whereby a physical model of the bottom three stories was tested in the laboratory and the upper 37 stories were simulated numerically using ABAQUS. An overlapping domain method was employed for the bottom three stories to ensure the validity of the boundary conditions of the superstructure. Mixed control was adopted in the test. Displacement control was used to apply the horizontal displacement, while two controlled force actuators were applied to simulate the overturning moment, which is very large and cannot be ignored in the substructure hybrid test of high-rise buildings. A series of tests with earthquake sources of sequentially increasing intensities were carried out. The test results indicate that the proposed hybrid test method is a solution to reproduce the seismic response of high-rise concrete shear wall buildings. The seismic performance of the tested precast high-rise building satisfies the requirements of the Chinese seismic design code.

  13. Detailed Analysis of Japanese Population Substructure with a Focus on the Southwest Islands of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kishino, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Sadao; Ando, Ryosuke; Niimura, Hideshi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Horita, Mikako; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kuriyama, Nagato; Mikami, Haruo; Takashima, Naoyuki; Mastuo, Keitaro; Guang, Yin; Wakai, Kenji; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Uncovering population structure is important for properly conducting association studies and for examining the demographic history of a population. Here, we examined the Japanese population substructure using data from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC), which covers all but the northern region of Japan. Using 222 autosomal loci from 4502 subjects, we investigated population substructure by estimating FST among populations, testing population differentiation, and performing principal component analysis (PCA) and correspondence analysis (CA). All analyses revealed a low but significant differentiation between the Amami Islanders and the mainland Japanese population. Furthermore, we examined the genetic differentiation between the mainland population, Amami Islanders and Okinawa Islanders using six loci included in both the Pan-Asian SNP (PASNP) consortium data and the J-MICC data. This analysis revealed that the Amami and Okinawa Islanders were differentiated from the mainland population. In conclusion, we revealed a low but significant level of genetic differentiation between the mainland population and populations in or to the south of the Amami Islands, although genetic variation between both populations might be clinal. Therefore, the possibility of population stratification must be considered when enrolling the islander population of this area, such as in the J-MICC study. PMID:22509376

  14. Polyamorphism and substructure of short-range order in amorphous boron films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palatnik, L.S.; Nechitajlo, A.A.; Koz'ma, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The structure and substructure of boron amorphous films are studied in detail. Amorphous condensate of Bsup(a) boron is built of the same (but only disorientedly located) 12 B icosahedrons as boron crystalline modifications: B 105 -equilibrium β-rhombic, metastable: B 50 -tetragonal, B 12 -α-rhombohedral Coordination number for Bsup(a) (Z 1 =6.4) is lower than in B 105 (Z 1 =6.6) but higher than in B 50 modification (Z 1 =6.1). In crystalline modifications B 105 , B 50 , B 12 coordination numbers ω in first coordination spheres of icosahedrons are equal to ν 105 =6+4.6=10.6; ν 50 =10+3=14; ν 12 =6 respectively. Both amorphous modifications of boron Bsub(1)sup(a) and Bsub(15)sup(a) are analogs to B 50 in respect of the short-range order of icosahedron location. The difference between them is in ''substructure'' of short-range order: part of boron atoms (approximately 12%) do not occupy the vertices (so that vacancies appear) and enter the emptinesses between icosahedrons. In other words, the structure B 50 is the model basis of both amorphous phases [ru

  15. Motion and deformation estimation from medical imagery by modeling sub-structure interaction and constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2012-09-13

    This paper presents a novel medical image registration algorithm that explicitly models the physical constraints imposed by objects or sub-structures of objects that have differing material composition and border each other, which is the case in most medical registration applications. Typical medical image registration algorithms ignore these constraints and therefore are not physically viable, and to incorporate these constraints would require prior segmentation of the image into regions of differing material composition, which is a difficult problem in itself. We present a mathematical model and algorithm for incorporating these physical constraints into registration / motion and deformation estimation that does not require a segmentation of different material regions. Our algorithm is a joint estimation of different material regions and the motion/deformation within these regions. Therefore, the segmentation of different material regions is automatically provided in addition to the image registration satisfying the physical constraints. The algorithm identifies differing material regions (sub-structures or objects) as regions where the deformation has different characteristics. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on the analysis of cardiac MRI which includes the detection of the left ventricle boundary and its deformation. The experimental results indicate the potential of the algorithm as an assistant tool for the quantitative analysis of cardiac functions in the diagnosis of heart disease.

  16. RINGED SUBSTRUCTURE AND A GAP AT 1 au IN THE NEAREST PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Bai, Xue-Ning; Öberg, Karin I.; Ricci, Luca [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Birnstiel, Tilman [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Carpenter, John M. [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura-Santiago de Chile (Chile); Pérez, Laura M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Hughes, A. Meredith [Department of Astronomy, Wesleyan University, Van Vleck Observatory, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06457 (United States); Isella, Andrea, E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We present long baseline Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the 870 μm continuum emission from the nearest gas-rich protoplanetary disk, around TW Hya, that trace millimeter-sized particles down to spatial scales as small as 1 au (20 mas). These data reveal a series of concentric ring-shaped substructures in the form of bright zones and narrow dark annuli (1–6 au) with modest contrasts (5%–30%). We associate these features with concentrations of solids that have had their inward radial drift slowed or stopped, presumably at local gas pressure maxima. No significant non-axisymmetric structures are detected. Some of the observed features occur near temperatures that may be associated with the condensation fronts of major volatile species, but the relatively small brightness contrasts may also be a consequence of magnetized disk evolution (the so-called zonal flows). Other features, particularly a narrow dark annulus located only 1 au from the star, could indicate interactions between the disk and young planets. These data signal that ordered substructures on ∼au scales can be common, fundamental factors in disk evolution and that high-resolution microwave imaging can help characterize them during the epoch of planet formation.

  17. Search for vector-like quarks using jet substructure techniques with the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowatschin, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, a search for pair produced vector-like T quarks in pp collision data from the LRC at √(s)=13 TeV is presented. The data were collected with the CMS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of up to 2.6 fb"-"1. Vector-like quarks are hypothetical new particles predicted by many extensions of the Standard Model in which the Higgs boson is a composite state of an unknown strong interaction. Vector-like T quarks are assumed to decay via three different decay modes to either bW, tZ or tH, with branching fractions that are not fixed and can vary depending on the particular model featuring vector-like quarks. This search focuses on decays of the T anti T system in which at least one muon or electron is present in the final state, and in which at least one of the T quarks decays to a top quark and a Higgs boson. As the T quarks are expected to be quite heavy, their decay products are significantly Lorentz-boasted in the reference frame of the T anti T system. The subsequent decay products of the Higgs boson are then emitted with a very small angle between them. This search is optimised for the main decay channel of the Higgs boson to two bottom quarks and attempts to reconstruct the two b quarks within a single jet with a large cone size. Dedicated jet substructure techniques, in combination with algorithms to identify jets originating from the fragmentation of a b quark, are then used to reconstruct the entire H→b anti b decay. The event categories of this search are also combined with the categories of a search for pair-produced T quarks that focuses on the T→bW decay. This approach provides a high sensitivity to T anti T production for many different combinations of branching fractions to the three possible decay modes. No excess of the data above the expected background contribution from the Standard Model is observed in any of the final event categories. Upper limits on the T anti T production cross section are calculated at 95

  18. Search for vector-like quarks using jet substructure techniques with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowatschin, Dominik

    2017-07-03

    In this thesis, a search for pair produced vector-like T quarks in pp collision data from the LRC at √(s)=13 TeV is presented. The data were collected with the CMS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of up to 2.6 fb{sup -1}. Vector-like quarks are hypothetical new particles predicted by many extensions of the Standard Model in which the Higgs boson is a composite state of an unknown strong interaction. Vector-like T quarks are assumed to decay via three different decay modes to either bW, tZ or tH, with branching fractions that are not fixed and can vary depending on the particular model featuring vector-like quarks. This search focuses on decays of the T anti T system in which at least one muon or electron is present in the final state, and in which at least one of the T quarks decays to a top quark and a Higgs boson. As the T quarks are expected to be quite heavy, their decay products are significantly Lorentz-boasted in the reference frame of the T anti T system. The subsequent decay products of the Higgs boson are then emitted with a very small angle between them. This search is optimised for the main decay channel of the Higgs boson to two bottom quarks and attempts to reconstruct the two b quarks within a single jet with a large cone size. Dedicated jet substructure techniques, in combination with algorithms to identify jets originating from the fragmentation of a b quark, are then used to reconstruct the entire H→b anti b decay. The event categories of this search are also combined with the categories of a search for pair-produced T quarks that focuses on the T→bW decay. This approach provides a high sensitivity to T anti T production for many different combinations of branching fractions to the three possible decay modes. No excess of the data above the expected background contribution from the Standard Model is observed in any of the final event categories. Upper limits on the T anti T production cross section are calculated at 95

  19. A ruthenium(II) complex inhibits tumor growth in vivo with fewer side-effects compared with cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Quan; Zhang, Ping-Yu; Ji, Liang-Nian; Chao, Hui

    2015-05-01

    The antitumor activity of a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex, Δ-[Ru(bpy)2(HPIP)](ClO4)2 (Δ-Ru1, where bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, HPIP=2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), was evaluated. The in vivo experiments showed that Δ-Ru1 inhibited the growth of a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa) xenotransplanted into nude mice with efficiency similar to that of cisplatin. Histopathology examination of the tumors from treated xenograft models was consistent with apoptosis in tumor cells. Importantly, in striking contrast with cisplatin, Δ-Ru1 did not cause any detectable side effects on the kidney, liver, peripheral neuronal system, or the hematological system at the pharmacologically effective dose. The preclinical studies reported here provide support for the clinical use of Δ-Ru1 as an exciting new drug candidate with lower toxicity than cisplatin, endowed with proapoptotic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Older driver estimates of driving exposure compared to in-vehicle data in the Candrive II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michelle M; Smith, Glenys A; Cull, Andrew W; Myers, Anita M; Bédard, Michel; Gélinas, Isabelle; Mazer, Barbara L; Marshall, Shawn C; Naglie, Gary; Rapoport, Mark J; Tuokko, Holly A; Vrkljan, Brenda H

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on older adults' driving practices have relied on self-reported information. With technological advances it is now possible to objectively measure the everyday driving of older adults in their own vehicles over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of older drivers to accurately estimate their kilometers driven over one year relative to objectively measured driving exposure. A subsample (n = 159 of 928; 50.9% male) of Candrive II participants (age ≥ 70 years of age) was used in these analyses based on strict criteria for data collected from questionnaires as well as an OttoView-CD Autonomous Data Logging Device installed in their vehicle, over the first year of the prospective cohort study. Although there was no significant difference overall between the self-reported and objectively measured distance categories, only moderate agreement was found (weighted kappa = 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.67). Almost half (45.3%) chose the wrong distance category, and some people misestimated their distance driven by up to 20,000 km. Those who misjudged in the low mileage group (≤5000 km) consistently underestimated, whereas the reverse was found for those in the high distance categories (≥ 20,000); that is, they always overestimated their driving distance. Although self-reported driving distance categories may be adequate for studies entailing broad group comparisons, caution should be used in interpreting results. Use of self-reported estimates for individual assessments should be discouraged.

  1. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP2-05: Can Automatic Delineation of Cardiac Substructures On Noncontrast CT Be Used for Cardiac Toxicity Analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y; Liao, Z; Jiang, W; Gomez, D; Williamson, R; Court, L; Yang, J [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using an automatic segmentation tool to delineate cardiac substructures from computed tomography (CT) images for cardiac toxicity analysis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients after radiotherapy. Methods: A multi-atlas segmentation tool developed in-house was used to delineate eleven cardiac substructures including the whole heart, four heart chambers, and six greater vessels automatically from the averaged 4DCT planning images for 49 NSCLC patients. The automatic segmented contours were edited appropriately by two experienced radiation oncologists. The modified contours were compared with the auto-segmented contours using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean surface distance (MSD) to evaluate how much modification was needed. In addition, the dose volume histogram (DVH) of the modified contours were compared with that of the auto-segmented contours to evaluate the dosimetric difference between modified and auto-segmented contours. Results: Of the eleven structures, the averaged DSC values ranged from 0.73 ± 0.08 to 0.95 ± 0.04 and the averaged MSD values ranged from 1.3 ± 0.6 mm to 2.9 ± 5.1mm for the 49 patients. Overall, the modification is small. The pulmonary vein (PV) and the inferior vena cava required the most modifications. The V30 (volume receiving 30 Gy or above) for the whole heart and the mean dose to the whole heart and four heart chambers did not show statistically significant difference between modified and auto-segmented contours. The maximum dose to the greater vessels did not show statistically significant difference except for the PV. Conclusion: The automatic segmentation of the cardiac substructures did not require substantial modification. The dosimetric evaluation showed no statistically significant difference between auto-segmented and modified contours except for the PV, which suggests that auto-segmented contours for the cardiac dose response study are feasible in the clinical

  2. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP2-05: Can Automatic Delineation of Cardiac Substructures On Noncontrast CT Be Used for Cardiac Toxicity Analysis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y; Liao, Z; Jiang, W; Gomez, D; Williamson, R; Court, L; Yang, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using an automatic segmentation tool to delineate cardiac substructures from computed tomography (CT) images for cardiac toxicity analysis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients after radiotherapy. Methods: A multi-atlas segmentation tool developed in-house was used to delineate eleven cardiac substructures including the whole heart, four heart chambers, and six greater vessels automatically from the averaged 4DCT planning images for 49 NSCLC patients. The automatic segmented contours were edited appropriately by two experienced radiation oncologists. The modified contours were compared with the auto-segmented contours using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean surface distance (MSD) to evaluate how much modification was needed. In addition, the dose volume histogram (DVH) of the modified contours were compared with that of the auto-segmented contours to evaluate the dosimetric difference between modified and auto-segmented contours. Results: Of the eleven structures, the averaged DSC values ranged from 0.73 ± 0.08 to 0.95 ± 0.04 and the averaged MSD values ranged from 1.3 ± 0.6 mm to 2.9 ± 5.1mm for the 49 patients. Overall, the modification is small. The pulmonary vein (PV) and the inferior vena cava required the most modifications. The V30 (volume receiving 30 Gy or above) for the whole heart and the mean dose to the whole heart and four heart chambers did not show statistically significant difference between modified and auto-segmented contours. The maximum dose to the greater vessels did not show statistically significant difference except for the PV. Conclusion: The automatic segmentation of the cardiac substructures did not require substantial modification. The dosimetric evaluation showed no statistically significant difference between auto-segmented and modified contours except for the PV, which suggests that auto-segmented contours for the cardiac dose response study are feasible in the clinical

  3. A comparative evaluation of microleakage of restorations using silorane-based dental composite and methacrylate-based dental composites in Class II cavities: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambai Sampath Kumar Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the microleakage of restorations using low shrinkage silorane-based dental composite and methacrylate-based dental composites in Class II cavity at the occlusal and gingival margins. Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular molars were collected and divided into three experimental groups and one negative control group. Class II slot cavity was prepared on the mesial surface. Experimental groups were restored with Group I: silorane-based microhybrid composite, Group II: methacrylate-based nanohybrid composite, and Group III: Methacrylate-based microhybrid composite, respectively. Group IV: negative control. The samples were thermocycled, root apices were sealed with sticky wax and coated with nail varnish except 1 mm around the restoration. This was followed by immersion in 2% Rhodamine-B dye solution under vacuum at room temperature for 24 h. Then, the samples were sectioned longitudinally in the mesiodistal direction and evaluated under stereomicroscope ×40 magnification. Scoring was done according to the depth of dye penetration in to the cavity. Statistical analysis of the data was done. Results: The results were that no statistically significant difference in the microleakage at the occlusal margin for all the restorative materials, whereas at the gingival margin, silorane-based microhybrid composite showed less microleakage than the methacrylate-based nano- and micro-hybrid composites. Conclusion: In general, silorane-based microhybrid composite had less microleakage among the other materials used in this in vitro study.

  4. Influence of solidification parameters on the cellular sub-structure of tin and some tin alloys; Uticaj nekih parametara ocvrscavanja na celularnu substrukturu kalaja i nekih njegovih legura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosavljevic, Dj [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-11-15

    This paper describes an attempt to obtain qualitative data on sub-structure of samples solidified in contact with the cooler. The objective of experiments was to study micro segregation phenomena by investigating the substructure in the solidified sample obtained under experimental conditions which are similar to real solidification conditions.

  5. One year of adjuvant tamoxifen compared with chemotherapy and tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with stage II breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Elversang, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    We report the long-term results of a randomised trial comparing tamoxifen with tamoxifen plus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF) in postmenopausal high-risk breast cancer patients. In addition, we analyse the prognostic and predictive value of centrally assessed subtypes....

  6. Apical Periodontitis and Endodontic Treatment in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Comparative Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Leena

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients compared with nondiabetic patients and to examine the effect of glycemic control on the prevalence of AP. Radiographs of a group of DM patients were compared with those of a matched nondiabetic group to identify AP. The diabetic group was subdivided according to the level of glycemic control into two subgroups: A well-controlled DM and a poorly controlled DM. The periapical index score was used to assess the periapical status. All groups were compared in regard to the presence of AP lesions, the number of end-odontically treated teeth (ET), and the percentage of failure of endodontically treated teeth (AP/ET ratio). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for all the analyses; p ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The prevalence of AP was higher in diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (13.5 vs 11.9% respectively). Diabetic group had more teeth with endodontic treatment ET compared with nondiabetic group (4.18 vs 1.82% respectively); this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001) along with higher AP/ET ratio (27.7 vs 19.3 respectively). The poorly controlled DM group had a higher prevalence of AP lesions compared with the well-controlled DM group (18.29 vs 9.21 respectively). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001); they also had a higher percentage of ET (5.55 vs 3.13% respectively) and AP/ ET ratio (32.0 vs 21.8% respectively). This survey demonstrates a higher prevalence of AP in DM patients compared with nondiabetic group, with an increased prevalence of persistent chronic AP. Compared with a well-controlled diabetic group, a poor glycemic control may be associated with a higher prevalence of AP and increased rate of endodontic failures. Counseling diabetic patients, particularly those with poor glycemic control, about the risk of

  7. Modelling the Frequency of Operational Risk Losses under the Basel II Capital Accord: A Comparative study of Poisson and Negative Binomial Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Toni O.

    2013-01-01

    2013 dissertation for MSc in Finance and Risk Management. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. \\ud \\ud This study investigated the two major methods of modelling the frequency of\\ud operational losses under the BCBS Accord of 1998 known as Basel II Capital\\ud Accord. It compared the Poisson method of modelling the frequency of\\ud losses to that of the Negative Binomial. The frequency of operational losses\\ud was investigated using a cross section of se...

  8. THE PROPAGATION OF UNCERTAINTIES IN STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS MODELING. II. THE CHALLENGE OF COMPARING GALAXY EVOLUTION MODELS TO OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, Charlie; Gunn, James E.; White, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Models for the formation and evolution of galaxies readily predict physical properties such as star formation rates, metal-enrichment histories, and, increasingly, gas and dust content of synthetic galaxies. Such predictions are frequently compared to the spectral energy distributions of observed galaxies via the stellar population synthesis (SPS) technique. Substantial uncertainties in SPS exist, and yet their relevance to the task of comparing galaxy evolution models to observations has received little attention. In the present work, we begin to address this issue by investigating the importance of uncertainties in stellar evolution, the initial stellar mass function (IMF), and dust and interstellar medium (ISM) properties on the translation from models to observations. We demonstrate that these uncertainties translate into substantial uncertainties in the ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared colors of synthetic galaxies. Aspects that carry significant uncertainties include the logarithmic slope of the IMF above 1 M sun , dust attenuation law, molecular cloud disruption timescale, clumpiness of the ISM, fraction of unobscured starlight, and treatment of advanced stages of stellar evolution including blue stragglers, the horizontal branch, and the thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch. The interpretation of the resulting uncertainties in the derived colors is highly non-trivial because many of the uncertainties are likely systematic, and possibly correlated with the physical properties of galaxies. We therefore urge caution when comparing models to observations.

  9. Comparative analysis of the anterior and posterior length and deflection angle of the cranial base, in individuals with facial Pattern I, II and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Thiesen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the variations in the anterior cranial base (S-N, posterior cranial base (S-Ba and deflection of the cranial base (SNBa among three different facial patterns (Pattern I, II and III. METHOD: A sample of 60 lateral cephalometric radiographs of Brazilian Caucasian patients, both genders, between 8 and 17 years of age was selected. The sample was divided into 3 groups (Pattern I, II and III of 20 individuals each. The inclusion criteria for each group were the ANB angle, Wits appraisal and the facial profile angle (G'.Sn.Pg'. To compare the mean values obtained from (SNBa, S-N, S-Ba each group measures, the ANOVA test and Scheffé's Post-Hoc test were applied. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference for the deflection angle of the cranial base among the different facial patterns (Patterns I, II and III. There was no significant difference for the measures of the anterior and posterior cranial base between the facial Patterns I and II. The mean values for S-Ba were lower in facial Pattern III with statistically significant difference. The mean values of S-N in the facial Pattern III were also reduced, but without showing statistically significant difference. This trend of lower values in the cranial base measurements would explain the maxillary deficiency and/or mandibular prognathism features that characterize the facial Pattern III.OBJETIVO: o presente estudo avaliou as variações da base craniana anterior (S-N, base craniana posterior (S-Ba, e ângulo de deflexão da base do crânio (SNBa entre três diferentes padrões faciais (Padrão I, II e III. MÉTODOS: selecionou-se uma amostra de 60 telerradiografias em norma lateral de pacientes brasileiros leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 8 anos e 17 anos. A amostra foi dividida em três grupos (Padrão I, II e III, sendo cada grupo constituído de 20 indivíduos. Os critérios de seleção dos indivíduos para cada grupo

  10. Objectives and methodology of Romanian SEPHAR II Survey. Project for comparing the prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors in two East-European countries: Romania and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorobantu, Maria; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Darabont, Roxana; Ghiorghe, Silviu; Badila, Elisabeta; Dana, Minca; Dobreanu, Minodora; Baila, Ilarie; Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2015-08-12

    Comparing results of representative surveys conducted in different East-European countries could contribute to a better understanding and management of cardiovascular risk factors, offering grounds for the development of health policies addressing the special needs of this high cardiovascular risk region of Europe. The aim of this paper was to describe the methodology on which the comparison between the Romanian survey SEPHAR II and the Polish survey NATPOL 2011 results is based. SEPHAR II, like NATPOL 2011, is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a representative sample of the adult Romanian population (18 to 80 years) and encompasses two visits with the following components: completing the study questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood and urine samples. From a total of 2223 subjects found at 2860 visited addresses, 2044 subjects gave written consent but only 1975 subjects had eligible data for the analysis, accounting for a response rate of 69.06%. Additionally we excluded 11 subjects who were 80 years of age (NATPOL 2011 included adult subjects up to 79 years). Therefore, the sample size included in the statistical analysis is 1964. It has similar age groups and gender structure as the Romanian population aged 18-79 years from the last census available at the moment of conducting the survey (weight adjustments for epidemiological analyses range from 0.48 to 8.7). Sharing many similarities, the results of SEPHAR II and NATPOL 2011 surveys can be compared by a proper statistical method offering crucial information regarding cardiovascular risk factors in a high-cardiovascular risk European region.

  11. The Australian Vietnam Veterans Health Study: II. self-reported health of veterans compared with the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, B I; Marshall, R P; Grayson, D A; Schureck, R J; Dobson, M; Ffrench, M; Pulvertaft, B; Meldrum, L; Bolton, J; Vennard, J

    1996-04-01

    Self-reported physical health status of Australian Vietnam veterans was determined 20-25 years after the war and its relation to combat was investigated. An epidemiological cohort study of a simple random sample of Army veterans posted to Vietnam between 1964 and 1972 was conducted with personal interviews using the Australian Bureau of Statistics Health Interview Survey questionnaire to compare veterans with the Australian population and a 21-item combat exposure index used to measure the relationship of combat to physical health. Veterans reported greater health service usage and more recent health actions than population expectations. They also reported excess health problems in almost all recent illness disease categories except endocrine conditions and cardiovascular conditions; only 6 of 37 chronic disease groups were not elevated compared to the population. Adjustment for non-response changed estimates only slightly. Combat exposure was significantly related to reports of recent and chronic mental disorders, recent hernia and chronic ulcer, recent eczema and chronic rash, deafness, chronic infective and parasitic disease, chronic back disorders and symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions. Combat exposure may have significantly increased reports of only some health problems. A general position to complain as a result of psychological conditions due to combat is not consistent with the lack of relationship between combat and reports of physical conditions.

  12. Preoperative Quantitative MR Tractography Compared with Visual Tract Evaluation in Patients with Neuropathologically Confirmed Gliomas Grades II and III: A Prospective Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Anna F.; Nilsson, Markus; Latini, Francesco; Mårtensson, Johanna; Zetterling, Maria; Berntsson, Shala G.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Lätt, Jimmy; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Low-grade gliomas show infiltrative growth in white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor tractography can noninvasively assess white matter tracts. The aim was to preoperatively assess tumor growth in white matter tracts using quantitative MR tractography (3T). The hypothesis was that suspected infiltrated tracts would have altered diffusional properties in infiltrated tract segments compared to noninfiltrated tracts. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were included after written informed consent and underwent preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in this prospective review-board approved study. Major white matter tracts in both hemispheres were tracked, segmented, and visually assessed for tumor involvement in thirty-four patients with gliomas grade II or III (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas) on postoperative neuropathological evaluation. Relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) and mean diffusivity (rMD) in tract segments were calculated and compared with visual evaluation and neuropathological diagnosis. Results. Tract segment infiltration on visual evaluation was associated with a lower rFA and high rMD in a majority of evaluated tract segments (89% and 78%, resp.). Grade II and grade III gliomas had similar infiltrating behavior. Conclusion. Quantitative MR tractography corresponds to visual evaluation of suspected tract infiltration. It may be useful for an objective preoperative evaluation of tract segment involvement

  13. Development of new methodologies to assess the structural integrity of the grouted joint of a 10MW wind turbine substructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Benjamin; Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2018-01-01

    Monopiles are currently the most commonly used substructure in the offshore wind market due to their ease of installation in shallow to medium waters. The monopile and the transition piece are connected by a grouted joint. Fatigue and corrosion are two of the most important degradation mechanisms...

  14. What (if anything) can few-body strange systems teach us about quark-gluon hadronic substructure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltman, K.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss expectation, relevant to the proposed (π,K) program at PILAC, for the effects of hadronic quark-gluon substructure on the physics of few-body strangeness -1 systems, in the context of QCD-inspired models used previously to describe the hadron spectrum and short distance nucleon-nucleon scattering. 50 refs., 2 tabs

  15. The response to estrogen deprivation on cartilage collagen degradation markers; CTX-II is unique compared to other markers of collagen turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine; Sondergaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The urinary level of type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II is increased in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen deprivation induces cartilage breakdown. Here we investigate whether this response to estrogen holds true for other type...... II collagen turnover markers known to be affected in osteoarthritis, and whether it relates to its presence in specific areas of cartilage tissue. METHODS: The type II collagen degradation markers CTX-II and Helix-II were measured in body fluids of pre- and postmenopausal women and of ovariectomized...... rats receiving estrogen or not. Levels of PIIANP, a marker of type II collagen synthesis, were also measured in rats. Rat knee cartilage was analyzed for immunoreactivity of CTX-II and PIIANP and for type II collagen expression. RESULTS: As expected, urinary levels of CTX-II are significantly increased...

  16. Plastic deformation of uranium dioxide: observation of the sub-structures of dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamo, A.; Lefebvre, J.M.; Soullard, J.

    1978-01-01

    Single crystals of uranium dioxide were deformed in compression at imposed strain rates in the temperature range of 700 0 C to 1400 0 C. The crystals were oriented to promote slip over one or two slip systems of the family [100] and also on the [110] system. Thin films of the deformed specimens were examined by transmission electron microscopy. When [100] single glide system operates, the dislocation substructure consist of numerous dipoles, their edge components lying along directions. For the [100] double glide system the grain boundaries and dislocation hexagonal network are observed, the complexity of which increases with the nominal strain. Dislocation arrangments consisting of extensive cellular networks of tangling dislocations and hexagonal netting were detected for [110] system. The auxillary role of [111] planes on the dislocation cross slip from [100] and [110] system was demonstrated. Weak beam images suggest that dissociation of dislocations can occur. (Auth.)

  17. Gamma-ray signatures of annihilation to charged leptons in dark matter substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistler, Matthew D.; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Because of their higher concentrations and small internal velocities, Milky Way subhalos can be at least as important as the smooth halo in accounting for the GeV positron excess via dark matter annihilation. After showing how this can be achieved in various scenarios, including in Sommerfeld models, we demonstrate that, in this case, the diffuse inverse-Compton emission resulting from electrons and positrons produced in substructure leads to a nearly-isotropic signal close to the level of the isotropic GeV gamma-ray background seen by Fermi. Moreover, we show that HESS cosmic-ray electron measurements can be used to constrain multi-TeV internal bremsstrahlung gamma rays arising from annihilation to charged leptons.

  18. Morphology and substructure of lath martensites in dilute Zr--Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Banerjee, S.

    2000-01-01

    The morphology and substructure of lath martensites formed in β quenched dilute Zr--Nb alloys are described. The laths are arranged in a nearly parallel manner within any given colony or packet. Packets of alternately twin related laths and clusters of three mutually twin related lath martensite variants have been observed and the twinning plane is of {1 anti 101} H type. With increasing niobium content a continuous transition from large colonies of lath martensites, through smaller lath colonies, to individual plates of the acicular martensites occurs. The lath-lath interface consists of regularly spaced parallel arrays of dislocations of type. The habit plane traces of lath martensite lie close to {334} type poles and the operating lattice invariant shear mode is { anti 1101} H H shear system. This result is consistent with results predicted by the phenomenological theory. The preferred two and three habit plane variant grouping clustering is explained on the basis of self-accommodation effects. (orig.)

  19. The Substructure of a Flux Transfer Event Observed by the MMS Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K.-J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Gershman, D.; Avanov, L.; Paterson, W. R.; Dorelli, J. C.; Ergun, R. E.; Russel, C. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    On 15 August 2015, MMS (Magnetospheric Multiscale mission), skimming the dusk magnetopause, detected an isolated region of an increased magnetic strength and bipolar Bn, indicating a flux transfer event (FTE). The four spacecraft in a tetrahedron allowed for investigations of the shape and motion of the FTE. In particular, high-resolution particle data facilitated our exploration of FTE substructures and their magnetic connectivity inside and surrounding the FTE. Combined field and plasma observations suggest that the core fields are open, magnetically connected to the northern magnetosphere from which high-energy particles leak; ion "D" distributions characterize the axis of flux ropes that carry old-opened field lines; counter streaming electrons superposed by parallel-heated components populate the periphery surrounding the FTE; and the interface between the core and draped regions contains a separatrix of newlyopened magnetic field lines that emanate from the X line above the FTE.

  20. Guided Iterative Substructure Search (GI-SSS) - A New Trick for an Old Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weskamp, Nils

    2016-07-01

    Substructure search (SSS) is a fundamental technique supported by various chemical information systems. Many users apply it in an iterative manner: they modify their queries to shape the composition of the retrieved hit sets according to their needs. We propose and evaluate two heuristic extensions of SSS aimed at simplifying these iterative query modifications by collecting additional information during query processing and visualizing this information in an intuitive way. This gives the user a convenient feedback on how certain changes to the query would affect the retrieved hit set and reduces the number of trial-and-error cycles needed to generate an optimal search result. The proposed heuristics are simple, yet surprisingly effective and can be easily added to existing SSS implementations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Orientation dependence of shock-induced twinning and substructures in a copper bicrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Fang; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Addessio, Francis L.; Sencer, Bulent H.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Gray, George T. III

    2010-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments have been conducted to assess the role of shock stress and orientation dependence on substructure evolution and deformation twinning of a [1 0 0]/[011-bar] copper bicrystal. Transmission electron microscopy of the post-shock specimens revealed that well-defined dislocation cell structures developed in both grains and the average cell size decreased with increasing shock pressure from 5 to 10 GPa. Twinning occurred in the [1 0 0] grain, but not the [011-bar] grain, at the 10 GPa shock pressure. The stress and orientation dependence of incipient twinning can be predicted by the stress and orientation conditions required to dissociate slip dislocations into glissile twinning dislocations. The dynamic widths between the two partials are calculated considering the three-dimensional deviatoric stress state induced by the shock as calculated using plane-strain plate impact simulations and the relativistic and drag effects on dislocations moving at high speeds.

  2. Definition of a concrete bio-decontamination process in nuclear substructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jestin, A.

    2005-05-01

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high-importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those micro-organisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  3. Tidal stripping stellar substructures around four metal-poor globular clusters in the galactic bulge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Minhee; Jung, DooSeok; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spatial density configuration of stars around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642, and NGC 6723) in the Galactic bulge region using wide-field deep J, H, and K imaging data obtained with the Wide Field Camera near-infrared array on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. A statistical weighted filtering algorithm for the stars on the color–magnitude diagram is applied in order to sort cluster member candidates from the field star contamination. In two-dimensional isodensity contour maps of the clusters, we find that all four of the globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of tidally stripped stellar features beyond the tidal radius in the form of tidal tails or small density lobes/chunks. The orientations of the extended stellar substructures are likely to be associated with the effect of dynamic interaction with the Galaxy and the cluster's space motion. The observed radial density profiles of the four globular clusters also describe the extended substructures; they depart from theoretical King and Wilson models and have an overdensity feature with a break in the slope of the profile at the outer region of clusters. The observed results could imply that four globular clusters in the Galactic bulge region have experienced strong environmental effects such as tidal forces or bulge/disk shocks of the Galaxy during the dynamical evolution of globular clusters. These observational results provide further details which add to our understanding of the evolution of clusters in the Galactic bulge region as well as the formation of the Galaxy.

  4. Exploring halo substructure with giant stars. XIV. The nature of the Triangulum-Andromeda stellar features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, Allyson A.; Johnston, Kathryn V. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, Mail Code 5246, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Majewski, Steven R.; Damke, Guillermo; Richardson, Whitney; Beaton, Rachael [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Rocha-Pinto, Helio J., E-mail: asheffield@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: kvj@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: srm4n@virginia.edu, E-mail: gjd3r@virginia.edu, E-mail: wwr2u@virginia.edu, E-mail: rlb9n@virginia.edu, E-mail: helio@astro.ufrj.br [Observatório do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-09-20

    As large-scale stellar surveys have become available over the past decade, the ability to detect and characterize substructures in the Galaxy has increased dramatically. These surveys have revealed the Triangulum-Andromeda (TriAnd) region to be rich with substructures in the distance range 20-30 kpc, and the relation of these features to each other, if any, remains unclear. An exploration using Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometry reveals not only the faint sequence in M giants detected by Rocha-Pinto et al. spanning the range 100° < l < 160° and –50° < b < –15°, but, in addition, a second, brighter and more densely populated sequence. These sequences are likely associated with the distinct main sequences (MSs) discovered (and labeled TriAnd1 and TriAnd2) by Martin et al. in an optical survey in the direction of M31, where TriAnd2 is the optical counterpart of the fainter red giant branch (RGB)/asymptotic giant branch sequence of Rocha-Pinto et al. Here, the age, distance, and metallicity ranges for TriAnd1 and TriAnd2 are estimated by simultaneously fitting isochrones to the 2MASS RGB tracks and the optical MS/MS turn-off features. The two populations are clearly distinct in age and distance: the brighter sequence (TriAnd1) is younger (6-10 Gyr) and closer (distance of ∼15-21 kpc), whereas the fainter sequence (TriAnd2) is older (10-12 Gyr) and at an estimated distance of ∼24-32 kpc. A comparison with simulations demonstrates that the differences and similarities between TriAnd1 and TriAnd2 can simultaneously be explained if they represent debris originating from the disruption of the same dwarf galaxy, but torn off during two distinct pericentric passages.

  5. Comparative biochemical composition in gonad and adductor muscle of triploid and diploid catarina scallop (Argopecten ventricosus Sowerby II, 1842).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Verdugo, C A.; Racotta, I S.; Ibarra, A M.

    2001-05-15

    Biochemical components of gonad and adductor muscle for diploid and triploid catarina scallop, Argopecten ventricosus, were evaluated and compared at four periods in 1 year (January, April, June, and October). Two comparisons were done. The first one compared an untreated control (diploid) vs. a triploidy-treated group for which the percentage of triploids was 57%. The second comparison was done on a group derived from within the triploidy-treated group, separating diploids (internal control) from triploids ('putative triploids'). Regardless of which comparison, in the gonad diploid scallops had larger concentrations of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and acylglycerols than triploid scallops. This reflects the maturation processes in diploid scallops vs. the sterility seen in most triploid scallops, and it is particularly supported by the consistently larger concentration of acylglycerols in gonads of diploids than in triploids. The gonad index of the internal control (diploid) group was significantly larger than that seen in the putative triploid group at all sampling periods but October, when none of the gonad biochemical components were different between ploidy groups.Triploid scallops had a significantly larger muscle index than diploids from April to October. This can be caused by a larger gain in muscle tissue in triploids than diploids from January to June. However, there were no consistent differences in any of the biochemical components evaluated in adductor muscle of diploids and triploids. The use of freshly ingested food rather than reserve mobilization from muscle in diploids is suggested by these results. Nutrients derived from ingested food are apparently used for muscle growth in triploids, whereas in diploids those nutrients serve primarily for gonad development. The importance of freshly ingested food for maintenance and growth is suggested because the decline in biochemical components seen in October in both muscle and gonad was paired with a

  6. Direction Modulated Brachytherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer. II: Comparative Planning Study With Intracavitary and Intracavitary–Interstitial Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Yup [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Safigholi, Habib; Soliman, Abraam [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ravi, Ananth [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Leung, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Scanderbeg, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Liu, Zhaowei [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Owrangi, Amir [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Song, William Y., E-mail: william.song@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To perform a comprehensive comparative planning study evaluating the utility of the proposed direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator against standard applicators, in the setting of image guided adaptive brachytherapy of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A detailed conceptual article was published in 2014. The proposed DMBT tandem applicator has 6 peripheral grooves of 1.3-mm width, along a 5.4-mm-thick nonmagnetic tungsten alloy rod of density 18.0 g/cm{sup 3}, capable of generating directional dose profiles. We performed a comparative planning study with 45 cervical cancer patients enrolled consecutively in the prospective observational EMBRACE study. In all patients, MRI-based planning was performed while utilizing various tandem-ring (27 patients) and tandem-ring-needles (18 patients) applicators, in accordance with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie–European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology recommendations. For unbiased comparisons, all cases were replanned with an in-house–developed inverse optimization code while enforcing a uniform set of constraints that are reflective of the clinical practice. All plans were normalized to the same high-risk clinical target volume D90 values achieved in the original clinical plans. Results: In general, if the standard tandem was replaced with the DMBT tandem while maintaining all other planning conditions the same, there was consistent improvement in the plan quality. For example, among the 18 tandem-ring-needles cases, the average D2cm{sup 3} reductions achieved were −2.48% ± 11.03%, −4.45% ± 5.24%, and −5.66% ± 6.43% for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, respectively. An opportunity may also exist in avoiding use of needles altogether for when the total number of needles required is small (approximately 2 to 3 needles or less), if DMBT tandem is used. Conclusions: Integrating the novel DMBT tandem onto both intracavitary and intracavitary

  7. A comparative gene analysis with rice identified orthologous group II HKT genes and their association with Na(+) concentration in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyarathna, H A Chandima K; Oldach, Klaus H; Francki, Michael G

    2016-01-19

    Although the HKT transporter genes ascertain some of the key determinants of crop salt tolerance mechanisms, the diversity and functional role of group II HKT genes are not clearly understood in bread wheat. The advanced knowledge on rice HKT and whole genome sequence was, therefore, used in comparative gene analysis to identify orthologous wheat group II HKT genes and their role in trait variation under different saline environments. The four group II HKTs in rice identified two orthologous gene families from bread wheat, including the known TaHKT2;1 gene family and a new distinctly different gene family designated as TaHKT2;2. A single copy of TaHKT2;2 was found on each homeologous chromosome arm 7AL, 7BL and 7DL and each gene was expressed in leaf blade, sheath and root tissues under non-stressed and at 200 mM salt stressed conditions. The proteins encoded by genes of the TaHKT2;2 family revealed more than 93% amino acid sequence identity but ≤52% amino acid identity compared to the proteins encoded by TaHKT2;1 family. Specifically, variations in known critical domains predicted functional differences between the two protein families. Similar to orthologous rice genes on chromosome 6L, TaHKT2;1 and TaHKT2;2 genes were located approximately 3 kb apart on wheat chromosomes 7AL, 7BL and 7DL, forming a static syntenic block in the two species. The chromosomal region on 7AL containing TaHKT2;1 7AL-1 co-located with QTL for shoot Na(+) concentration and yield in some saline environments. The differences in copy number, genes sequences and encoded proteins between TaHKT2;2 homeologous genes and other group II HKT gene families within and across species likely reflect functional diversity for ion selectivity and transport in plants. Evidence indicated that neither TaHKT2;2 nor TaHKT2;1 were associated with primary root Na(+) uptake but TaHKT2;1 may be associated with trait variation for Na(+) exclusion and yield in some but not all saline environments.

  8. Comparative study of heat transfer from Nb-Ti and Nb_{3}Sn coils to He II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco La China

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In superconducting magnets, the energy deposited or generated in the coil must be evacuated to prevent temperature rise and consequent transition of the superconductor to the resistive state. The main barrier to heat extraction is represented by the electric insulation wrapped around superconducting cables. In the LHC, insulation improvement is a key point in the development of interaction region magnets and injector chain fast-pulsed magnets for luminosity upgrade; the high heat load of these magnets, in fact, is not compatible with the use of current insulation schemes. We review the standard insulation schemes for Nb-Ti and Nb_{3}Sn technology from the thermal point of view. We implement, in an analytical model, the strongly nonlinear thermal resistances of the different coil components including the permeability to superfluid helium of Nb-Ti insulations, measured during the LHC main dipole development. We use such a model to compare Nb-Ti and Nb_{3}Sn technologies by taking into account their specific operating margin in different working conditions. Finally, we propose an insulation scheme to enhance the heat transfer capability of Nb-Ti coils.

  9. Comparative Study of Heat Transfer from Nb-Ti and Nb$_3$Sn coils to He II

    CERN Document Server

    La China, M

    2008-01-01

    In superconducting magnets, the energy deposited or generated in the coil must be evacuated to prevent temperature rise and consequent transition of the superconductor to the resistive state. The main barrier to heat extraction is represented by the electric insulation wrapped around superconducting cables. In the LHC, insulation improvement is a key point in the development of interaction region magnets and injector chain fast-pulsed magnets for luminosity upgrade; the high heat load of these magnets, in fact, is not compatible with the use of current insulation schemes. We review the standard insulation schemes for Nb-Ti and Nb$_{3}$Sn technology from the thermal point of view. We implement, in an analytical model, the strongly nonlinear thermal resistances of the different coil components including the permeability to superfluid helium of Nb-Ti insulations, measured during the LHC main dipole development. We use such a model to compare Nb-Ti and Nb$_{3}$Sn technologies by taking into account their specific...

  10. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research II. Secondary lichen compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meessen, J; Sánchez, F J; Sadowsky, A; de la Torre, R; Ott, S; de Vera, J-P

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  11. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research II. Secondary Lichen Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Sadowsky, A.; de la Torre, R.; Ott, S.; de Vera, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  12. The substructure of immunoglobulin G resolved to 25 kDa using amplitude modulation AFM in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Neil H.

    2005-01-01

    Amplitude modulation (or tapping-mode) atomic force microscopy (AM AFM or TM AFM) in air can reveal sub-molecular details of isolated multi-subunit proteins, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, on atomically flat support surfaces such as mica [A. San Paulo, R. Garcia, Biophys. J. 78(3) (2000) 1599]. This is achieved by controlling the microscope imaging parameters (e.g. cantilever drive frequency and set-point amplitude) to keep the AFM tip predominantly in the attractive force regime. Under these conditions, the 50 kDa F c and F ab subunits can be resolved when the molecule has the appropriate orientation on the surface. The presence of a water layer on hydrophilic mica is an important factor affecting imaging contrast, a consequence of capillary neck formation between tip and surface [L. Zitzler, S. Herminghaus, F. Mugele, Phys. Rev. B 66(15) (2002) 155436]. Desiccation of samples to remove surface bound water layers can yield reproducible imaging of the IgG substructure [N.H. Thomson, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 217(3) (2004) 193]. This approach has also given higher resolution than previously achieved, down to about 25 kDa, and these data are detailed here. These subdomains are formed as two immunoglobulin folds from the light and heavy peptide chains of the IgG crossover. This result has been validated by comparing the AFM images with X-ray crystallography data from the protein data bank. These data show that the AFM can obtain 25 kDa resolution on isolated protein molecules with commercially available silicon tips, but, as expected for a local probe technique, resolution is highly dependent on the macromolecular orientation on the support surface

  13. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XXXII. A Search for Globular Cluster Substructures in the Virgo Galaxy Cluster Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powalka, Mathieu; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Longobardi, Alessia; Peng, Eric W.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Durrell, Patrick; Eigenthaler, Paul; Ferrarese, Laura; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Hudelot, Patrick; Liu, Chengze; Mei, Simona; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hongxin

    2018-03-01

    Substructure in globular cluster (GC) populations around large galaxies is expected in galaxy formation scenarios that involve accretion or merger events, and it has been searched for using direct associations between GCs and structure in the diffuse galaxy light, or with GC kinematics. Here, we present a search for candidate substructures in the GC population around the Virgo cD galaxy M87 through the analysis of the spatial distribution of the GC colors. The study is based on a sample of ∼1800 bright GCs with high-quality u, g, r, i, z, K s photometry, selected to ensure a low contamination by foreground stars or background galaxies. The spectral energy distributions of the GCs are associated with formal estimates of age and metallicity, which are representative of its position in a 4D color space relative to standard single stellar population models. Dividing the sample into broad bins based on the relative formal ages, we observe inhomogeneities that reveal signatures of GC substructures. The most significant of these is a spatial overdensity of GCs with relatively young age labels, of diameter ∼0.°1 (∼30 kpc), located to the south of M87. The significance of this detection is larger than about 5σ after accounting for estimates of random and systematic errors. Surprisingly, no large Virgo galaxy is present in this area that could potentially host these GCs. But candidate substructures in the M87 halo with equally elusive hosts have been described based on kinematic studies in the past. The number of GC spectra available around M87 is currently insufficient to clarify the nature of the new candidate substructure.

  14. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of (PLAGH){sub 2}[ZnCl{sub 4}] and comparative analysis of photoluminescence properties with tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radanović, Mirjana M. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Jelić, Miodrag G., E-mail: jelicmgm@uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Romčević, Nebojša Ž. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia); Boukos, Nikos [National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Institute of Materials Science, Athens (Greece); Vojinović-Ješić, Ljiljana S.; Leovac, Vukadin M. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Hadžić, Branka B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia); Bajac, Branimir M. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Novi Sad (Serbia); Nađ, Laslo F. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Chandrinou, Chrysoula [National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Institute of Materials Science, Athens (Greece); Baloš, Sebastian S. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • New zinc(II) complex with pyridoxalaminoguanidine was synthesized. • The enhancement of the photoluminescence due to the compound formation was achieved. • Very high photoluminescence of Zn(II) compound was noticed. • Comparative analysis of photoluminescence with tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) was provided. - Abstract: The first compound of zinc(II) containing pyridoxalaminoguanidine has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, conductometric measurements and X-ray crystallography. Single crystals of the compound were obtained in the reaction of methanolic solution of zinc(II) chloride and pyridoxalaminoguanidine hydrochloride. In this compound the coordination of chelate ligand is absent and tetrachlorido complex of zinc(II) with pyridoxalaminuguanidinium cation as contraion is obtained. Photoluminescence spectra were measured. Lorentzian multipeak technique was used to determine peak wavelengths and their intensities. Photoluminescence spectroscopy upon 325, 488 and 514 nm laser excitation light was used to obtain results. This novel compound of zinc(II) was compared to the well-known organic light emitting diode material—ruthenium(II) complex with bypiridine i.e., tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), under the same circumstances and the identical experimental setup. A scheme of energy levels and transitions is proposed to explain the obtained experimental results.

  15. Comparative Study on the Efficiency of the Photodynamic Inactivation of Candida albicans Using CdTe Quantum Dots, Zn(II Porphyrin and Their Conjugates as Photosensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osnir S. Viana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of fluorescent II-VI semiconductor quantum dots (QDs as active photosensitizers in photodymanic inactivation (PDI is still being evaluated. In the present study, we prepared 3 nm size CdTe QDs coated with mercaptosuccinic acid and conjugated them electrostatically with Zn(II meso-tetrakis (N-ethyl-2-pyridinium-2-yl porphyrin (ZnTE-2-PyP or ZnP, thus producing QDs-ZnP conjugates. We evaluated the capability of the systems, bare QDs and conjugates, to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and applied them in photodynamic inactivation in cultures of Candida albicans by irradiating the QDs and testing the hypothesis of a possible combined contribution of the PDI action. Tests of in vitro cytotoxicity and phototoxicity in fibroblasts were also performed in the presence and absence of light irradiation. The overall results showed an efficient ROS production for all tested systems and a low cytotoxicity (cell viability >90% in the absence of radiation. Fibroblasts incubated with the QDs-ZnP and subjected to irradiation showed a higher cytotoxicity (cell viability <90% depending on QD concentration compared to the bare groups. The PDI effects of bare CdTe QD on Candida albicans demonstrated a lower reduction of the cell viability (~1 log10 compared to bare ZnP which showed a high microbicidal activity (~3 log10 when photoactivated. The QD-ZnP conjugates also showed reduced photodynamic activity against C. albicans compared to bare ZnP and we suggest that the conjugation with QDs prevents the transmembrane cellular uptake of the ZnP molecules, reducing their photoactivity.

  16. Preclinical activity of the type II CD20 antibody GA101 (obinutuzumab) compared with rituximab and ofatumumab in vitro and in xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Sylvia; Herting, Frank; Mundigl, Olaf; Waldhauer, Inja; Weinzierl, Tina; Fauti, Tanja; Muth, Gunter; Ziegler-Landesberger, Doris; Van Puijenbroek, Erwin; Lang, Sabine; Duong, Minh Ngoc; Reslan, Lina; Gerdes, Christian A; Friess, Thomas; Baer, Ute; Burtscher, Helmut; Weidner, Michael; Dumontet, Charles; Umana, Pablo; Niederfellner, Gerhard; Bacac, Marina; Klein, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We report the first preclinical in vitro and in vivo comparison of GA101 (obinutuzumab), a novel glycoengineered type II CD20 monoclonal antibody, with rituximab and ofatumumab, the two currently approved type I CD20 antibodies. The three antibodies were compared in assays measuring direct cell death (AnnexinV/PI staining and time-lapse microscopy), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP), and internalization. The models used for the comparison of their activity in vivo were SU-DHL4 and RL xenografts. GA101 was found to be superior to rituximab and ofatumumab in the induction of direct cell death (independent of mechanical manipulation required for cell aggregate disruption formed by antibody treatment), whereas it was 10 to 1,000 times less potent in mediating CDC. GA101 showed superior activity to rituximab and ofatumumab in ADCC and whole-blood B-cell depletion assays, and was comparable with these two in ADCP. GA101 also showed slower internalization rate upon binding to CD20 than rituximab and ofatumumab. In vivo, GA101 induced a strong antitumor effect, including complete tumor remission in the SU-DHL4 model and overall superior efficacy compared with both rituximab and ofatumumab. When rituximab-pretreated animals were used, second-line treatment with GA101 was still able to control tumor progression, whereas tumors escaped rituximab treatment. Taken together, the preclinical data show that the glyoengineered type II CD20 antibody GA101 is differentiated from the two approved type I CD20 antibodies rituximab and ofatumumab by its overall preclinical activity, further supporting its clinical investigation. ©2013 AACR.

  17. Demographics and Outcomes of Stage I-II Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery Compared with Wide Local Excision in the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Babu; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Truong, Minh Tam; Sahni, Debjani

    2018-02-03

    The optimal surgical approach (wide local excision (WLE) vs. Mohs micrographic surgery (MOHS)) for treating Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is yet to be determined. To compare survival outcomes in patients with early stage MCC treated with MOHS versus WLE. A retrospective review of all cases in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of MCC of clinical Stage I-II MCC treated with WLE or MOHS was performed. 1,795 cases of Stage I-II MCC were identified who underwent WLE (N=1,685) or MOHS (N=110). There was no difference in residual tumor on surgical margins between the two treatment groups (p=0.588). On multivariate analysis, there was no difference in overall survival between the treatment modalities (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.72-1.45, p=0.897). There was no difference in overall survival between the two groups on propensity score matched analysis. Disease specific survival was not reported as this data in not available in the NCDB. MOHS appears to be as effective as WLE in treating early stage MCC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Randomized Phase II Trial Comparing Obinutuzumab (GA101) With Rituximab in Patients With Relapsed CD20(+) Indolent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehn, L. H.; Goy, A.; Offner, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Obinutuzumab (GA101), a novel glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, demonstrated responses in single-arm studies of patients with relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This is the first prospective, randomized study comparing safety and efficacy of obinutuzumab...... with rituximab in relapsed indolent lymphoma. The primary end point of this study was the overall response rate (ORR) in patients with follicular lymphoma after induction and safety in patients with indolent lymphoma. Patients and Methods A total of 175 patients with relapsed CD20(+) indolent lymphoma requiring...... maintenance therapy every 2 months for up to 2 years. Results Among patients with follicular lymphoma (n = 149), ORR seemed higher for obinutuzumab than rituximab (44.6% v 33.3%; P = .08). This observation was also demonstrated by a blinded independent review panel that measured a higher ORR for obinutuzumab...

  19. First attempts towards the early detection of fatigued substructures using cyclic-loaded 20 MnMoNi 5 5 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobmann, G.; Seibold, A.

    1992-01-01

    Materials subjected to cyclic loading undergo substructural changes which may affect service life. The low alloy, fine-grained structural steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5 is used to demonstrate how substructural changes detected using TEM techniques are a function of the number of cycles undergone. For a given cyclic loading the usage factor η=N/N f =0.5 can be derived. Initial investigations using nondestructive examination methods have indicated that substructural changes and magnetic variables can be correlated. (orig.)

  20. Biosynthesis of micro- and nanocrystals of Pb (II), Hg (II) and Cd (II) sulfides in four Candida species: a comparative study of in vivo and in vitro approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Lucio-Hernández, Daniela; Martínez-Ángeles, Isabel; Demitri, Nicola; Polentarutti, Maurizio; Rosales-Hoz, María J; Moreno, Abel

    2017-03-01

    Nature produces biominerals (biogenic minerals) that are synthesized as complex structures, in terms of their physicochemical properties. These biominerals are composed of minerals and biological macromolecules. They are produced by living organisms and are usually formed through a combination of chemical, biochemical and biophysical processes. Microorganisms like Candida in the presence of heavy metals can biomineralize those metals to form microcrystals (MCs) and nanocrystals (NCs). In this work, MCs and NCs of PbS, HgS or HgCl 2 as well as CdS are synthesized both in vitro (gels) and in vivo by four Candida species. Our in vivo results show that, in the presence of Pb 2+ , Candida cells are able to replicate and form extracellular PbS MCs, whereas in the presence of Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ , they did synthesize intercellular MCs from HgS or HgCl 2 and CdS NCs respectively. The MCs and NCs biologically obtained in Candida were compared with those PbS, HgS and CdS crystals synthetically obtained in vitro through the gel method (grown either in agarose or in sodium metasilicate hydrogels). This is, to our knowledge, the first time that the biosynthesis of the various MCs and NCs (presented in several species of Candida) has been reported. This biosynthesis is differentially regulated in each of these pathogens, which allows them to adapt and survive in different physiological and environmental habitats. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. The response to oestrogen deprivation of the cartilage collagen degradation marker, CTX-II, is unique compared with other markers of collagen turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine C B; Sondergaard, Lene V

    2009-01-01

    The urinary level of the type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II is increased in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomised rats, suggesting that oestrogen deprivation induces cartilage breakdown. Here we investigate whether this response to oestrogen is also true for other type II collagen tu...

  2. Crystal substructure and physical properties of the superconducting phase Bi4(Sr,Cr)6Cu4O16μ/sub x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarascon, J.M.; Le Page, Y.; Barboux, P.; Bagley, B.G.; Greene, L.H.; McKinnon, W.R.; Hull, G.W.; Giroud, M.; Hwang, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    We have isolated a high-T/sub c/ phase in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system of composition Bi 4 (Sr,Ca) 6 Cu 4 O 16 μ/sub x/. The crystal substructure has a tetragonal unit cell (a = 3.817 A, c = 30.6 A) with similarities to both the oxygen-defect perovskites YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 √/sub x/ and the K 2 NiF 4 structure of La 2 CuO 4 . The oxygen content, determined by titration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments, corresponds to a formal oxidation state Cu(2.15). Oxygen can be reversibly depleted in an argon ambient in an amount corresponding to the reduction of the Cu(III) into Cu(II). The compound has a metalliclike resistance above its T/sub c/ near 85 K. Processing this precursor compound by heating to temperatures near its melting point (885 0 C) produces a sharp resistivity drop near 110 K that we show by ac susceptibility and Meissner effect is due to a superconducting transition

  3. Development of an expert system for the simulation model for casting metal substructure of a metal-ceramic crown design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Ivan; Hadzistevic, Miodrag; Vukelic, Djordje; Potran, Michal; Brajlih, Tomaz

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the integrated CAD/CAE systems are favored solutions for the design of simulation models for casting metal substructures of metal-ceramic crowns. The worldwide authors have used different approaches to solve the problems using an expert system. Despite substantial research progress in the design of experts systems for the simulation model design and manufacturing have insufficiently considered the specifics of casting in dentistry, especially the need for further CAD, RE, CAE for the estimation of casting parameters and the control of the casting machine. The novel expert system performs the following: CAD modeling of the simulation model for casting, fast modeling of gate design, CAD eligibility and cast ability check of the model, estimation and running of the program code for the casting machine, as well as manufacturing time reduction of the metal substructure. The authors propose an integration method using common data model approach, blackboard architecture, rule-based reasoning and iterative redesign method. Arithmetic mean roughness values was determinated with constant Gauss low-pass filter (cut-off length of 2.5mm) according to ISO 4287 using Mahr MARSURF PS1. Dimensional deviation between the designed model and manufactured cast was determined using the coordinate measuring machine Zeiss Contura G2 and GOM Inspect software. The ES allows for obtaining the castings derived roughness grade number N7. The dimensional deviation between the simulation model of the metal substructure and the manufactured cast is 0.018mm. The arithmetic mean roughness values measured on the casting substructure are from 1.935µm to 2.778µm. The realized developed expert system with the integrated database is fully applicable for the observed hardware and software. Values of the arithmetic mean roughness and dimensional deviation indicate that casting substructures are surface quality, which is more than enough and useful for direct porcelain veneering. The

  4. Outcome assessment of lingual and labial appliances compared with cephalometric analysis, peer assessment rating, and objective grading system in Angle Class II extraction cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Toru; Terao, Fumie; Aonuma, Tomo; Kataoka, Tomoki; Sugawara, Yasuyo; Yamashiro, Takashi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2015-05-01

    To validate our hypothesis that there would be significant differences in treatment outcomes, including cephalometric values, degree of root resorption, occlusal indices, and functional aspect, between cases treated with labial and lingual appliances. Twenty-four consecutively treated Class II cases with extractions and lingual appliance were compared with 25 matched cases treated with extraction and labial appliance. Orthodontic treatment outcomes were evaluated by cephalometric analysis, peer assessment rating, and an objective grading system (OGS). Additionally, functional analysis was also performed in both groups after orthodontic treatment. Statistical comparison was performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test within the groups, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare between the labial and lingual groups. The only significant difference between the groups was that the interincisal angle was larger in the lingual group than in the labial group. OGS evaluation showed that control over root angulation was significantly worse in the lingual group than in the labial group. There was no significant difference between groups in the amount of root resorption or in functional evaluation. Generally, lingual appliances offer comparable treatment results to those obtained with labial appliances. However, care should be taken with lingual appliances because they are more prone to produce uprighted incisors and root angulation.

  5. Stent thrombosis: insights on outcomes, predictors and impact of dual antiplatelet therapy interruption from the SPIRIT II, SPIRIT III, SPIRIT IV and COMPARE trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedhi, Elvin; Stone, Gregg W; Kereiakes, Dean J; Serruys, Patrick W; Parise, Helen; Fahy, Martin; Simonton, Charles A; Sudhir, Krishnankutty; Sood, Poornima; Smits, Pieter C

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that EES may reduce ST compared to PES, but no individual trial has been adequately powered for this endpoint. The incidence of stent thrombosis, as well as the impact of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) discontinuation during the first two years following everolimus-eluting stent (EES) and paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) deployment were therefore analysed from a pooled, patient-level database derived from four randomised clinical trials. Data from the SPIRIT II, SPIRIT III, SPIRIT IV and COMPARE trials (n=6,789 patients) were analysed. Two-year ST rates were determined using time-to-event methods and compared with the log-rank test. ST rates were also determined after DAPT discontinuation. EES compared to PES significantly reduced the two-year rates of ST (0.7% versus 2.3%, p=0.0001), including the interval rates of ST up to 30 days (0.2% versus 1.0%, p<0.0001), between 31 days and one year (0.2% versus 0.6%, p=0.02), and after one year (0.3% versus 0.8%, p=0.001). EES also reduced the two-year composite rate of cardiac death or MI (4.0% versus 6.6%, p=0.0001). Increased rates of ST after DAPT discontinuation beyond six months were observed in the PES cohort, but not in the EES cohort. In this large pooled analysis from four randomised trials, treatment with EES compared to PES significantly reduced the rates of ST through two years of follow-up, with a concomitant reduction in cardiac death or MI. DAPT discontinuation beyond six months may be safe with EES.

  6. Substructuring of multibody systems for numerical transfer path analysis in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acri, Antonio; Offner, Guenter; Nijman, Eugene; Rejlek, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Noise legislations and the increasing customer demands determine the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) development of modern commercial vehicles. In order to meet the stringent legislative requirements for the vehicle noise emission, exact knowledge of all vehicle noise sources and their acoustic behavior is required. Transfer path analysis (TPA) is a fairly well established technique for estimating and ranking individual low-frequency noise or vibration contributions via the different transmission paths. Transmission paths from different sources to target points of interest and their contributions can be analyzed by applying TPA. This technique is applied on test measurements, which can only be available on prototypes, at the end of the designing process. In order to overcome the limits of TPA, a numerical transfer path analysis methodology based on the substructuring of a multibody system is proposed in this paper. Being based on numerical simulation, this methodology can be performed starting from the first steps of the designing process. The main target of the proposed methodology is to get information of noise sources contributions of a dynamic system considering the possibility to have multiple forces contemporary acting on the system. The contributions of these forces are investigated with particular focus on distribute or moving forces. In this paper, the mathematical basics of the proposed methodology and its advantages in comparison with TPA will be discussed. Then, a dynamic system is investigated with a combination of two methods. Being based on the dynamic substructuring (DS) of the investigated model, the methodology proposed requires the evaluation of the contact forces at interfaces, which are computed with a flexible multi-body dynamic (FMBD) simulation. Then, the structure-borne noise paths are computed with the wave based method (WBM). As an example application a 4-cylinder engine is investigated and the proposed methodology is applied on the

  7. Fold-recognition and comparative modeling of human α2,3-sialyltransferases reveal their sequence and structural similarities to CstII from Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Petety V

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3-D structure of none of the eukaryotic sialyltransferases (SiaTs has been determined so far. Sequence alignment algorithms such as BLAST and PSI-BLAST could not detect a homolog of these enzymes from the protein databank. SiaTs, thus, belong to the hard/medium target category in the CASP experiments. The objective of the current work is to model the 3-D structures of human SiaTs which transfer the sialic acid in α2,3-linkage viz., ST3Gal I, II, III, IV, V, and VI, using fold-recognition and comparative modeling methods. The pair-wise sequence similarity among these six enzymes ranges from 41 to 63%. Results Unlike the sequence similarity servers, fold-recognition servers identified CstII, a α2,3/8 dual-activity SiaT from Campylobacter jejuni as the homolog of all the six ST3Gals; the level of sequence similarity between CstII and ST3Gals is only 15–20% and the similarity is restricted to well-characterized motif regions of ST3Gals. Deriving template-target sequence alignments for the entire ST3Gal sequence was not straightforward: the fold-recognition servers could not find a template for the region preceding the L-motif and that between the L- and S-motifs. Multiple structural templates were identified to model these regions and template identification-modeling-evaluation had to be performed iteratively to choose the most appropriate templates. The modeled structures have acceptable stereochemical properties and are also able to provide qualitative rationalizations for some of the site-directed mutagenesis results reported in literature. Apart from the predicted models, an unexpected but valuable finding from this study is the sequential and structural relatedness of family GT42 and family GT29 SiaTs. Conclusion The modeled 3-D structures can be used for docking and other modeling studies and for the rational identification of residues to be mutated to impart desired properties such as altered stability, substrate

  8. Puzzle-based versus traditional lecture: comparing the effects of pedagogy on academic performance in an undergraduate human anatomy and physiology II lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzik, Lucas; Deeter, Anthony; Parker, Jamie; Yukech, Christine

    2015-06-23

    A traditional lecture-based pedagogy conveys information and content while lacking sufficient development of critical thinking skills and problem solving. A puzzle-based pedagogy creates a broader contextual framework, and fosters critical thinking as well as logical reasoning skills that can then be used to improve a student's performance on content specific assessments. This paper describes a pedagogical comparison of traditional lecture-based teaching and puzzle-based teaching in a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. Using a single subject/cross-over design half of the students from seven sections of the course were taught using one type of pedagogy for the first half of the semester, and then taught with a different pedagogy for the second half of the semester. The other half of the students were taught the same material but with the order of the pedagogies reversed. Students' performance on quizzes and exams specific to the course, and in-class assignments specific to this study were assessed for: learning outcomes (the ability to form the correct conclusion or recall specific information), and authentic academic performance as described by (Am J Educ 104:280-312, 1996). Our findings suggest a significant improvement in students' performance on standard course specific assessments using a puzzle-based pedagogy versus a traditional lecture-based teaching style. Quiz and test scores for students improved by 2.1 and 0.4% respectively in the puzzle-based pedagogy, versus the traditional lecture-based teaching. Additionally, the assessments of authentic academic performance may only effectively measure a broader conceptual understanding in a limited set of contexts, and not in the context of a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. In conclusion, a puzzle-based pedagogy, when compared to traditional lecture-based teaching, can effectively enhance the performance of students on standard course specific assessments, even when the assessments only test a limited

  9. Distribution of distances between dislocations in different types of dislocation substructures in deformed Cu-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trishkina, L., E-mail: trishkina.53@mail.ru; Zboykova, N.; Koneva, N., E-mail: koneva@tsuab.ru; Kozlov, E. [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya St., Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, T. [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya St., Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 50 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the investigation was the determination of the statistic description of dislocation distribution in each dislocation substructures component forming after different deformation degrees in the Cu-Al alloys. The dislocation structures were investigated by the transmission diffraction electron microscopy method. In the work the statistic description of distance distribution between the dislocations, dislocation barriers and dislocation tangles in the deformed Cu-Al alloys with different concentration of Al and test temperature at the grain size of 100 µm was carried out. It was established that the above parameters influence the dislocation distribution in different types of the dislocation substructures (DSS): dislocation chaos, dislocation networks without disorientation, nondisoriented and disoriented cells, in the walls and inside the cells. The distributions of the distances between dislocations in the investigated alloys for each DSS type formed at certain deformation degrees and various test temperatures were plotted.

  10. Influence of ausforming on substructures and shape memory behavior in Fe-28Mn-6Si-5Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Ji, W.; Han, M.; Jia, D.; Liu, W.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of ausforming (deformation of austenite at temperatures above Md) on shape memory effect (SME) and the substructures in Fe-28Mn-6Si-5Cr (wt.%) alloy were studied, intending to reveal the dominating factor for SME in terms of microstructural characteristics in comparison with the case of thermo-mechanical training. It was found that the SME in the studied alloy could be effectively improved by ausforming at 700 C for 9% tensile strain, in the process of which the oriented stacking faults and dislocations were evolved and regularly distributed in austenite. The improvement of SME by ausforming, as well as thermo-mechanical training, is attributed to the restored substructures in austenite; while there is no closely correspondent relation between SME and the strength of austenite matrix. (orig.)

  11. Distribution of distances between dislocations in different types of dislocation substructures in deformed Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trishkina, L.; Cherkasova, T.; Zboykova, N.; Koneva, N.; Kozlov, E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was the determination of the statistic description of dislocation distribution in each dislocation substructures component forming after different deformation degrees in the Cu-Al alloys. The dislocation structures were investigated by the transmission diffraction electron microscopy method. In the work the statistic description of distance distribution between the dislocations, dislocation barriers and dislocation tangles in the deformed Cu-Al alloys with different concentration of Al and test temperature at the grain size of 100 µm was carried out. It was established that the above parameters influence the dislocation distribution in different types of the dislocation substructures (DSS): dislocation chaos, dislocation networks without disorientation, nondisoriented and disoriented cells, in the walls and inside the cells. The distributions of the distances between dislocations in the investigated alloys for each DSS type formed at certain deformation degrees and various test temperatures were plotted.

  12. Long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence compared with non-sexual war trauma in female World War II survivors: a matched pairs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwert, Philipp; Glaesmer, Heide; Eichhorn, Svenja; Grundke, Elena; Pietrzak, Robert H; Freyberger, Harald J; Klauer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence experienced at the end of World War II (WWII) with non-sexual WWII trauma (e.g., being exposed to shell shock or physical violence). A total of 27 elderly wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects who were drawn from a larger sample of subjects over 70 years of age who had experienced WWII-related trauma. A modified version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess trauma characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 was used to assess current psychopathology. Additionally, measures of posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and social acknowledgement as a trauma survivor (Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire) were used to assess two mediating variables in post-trauma conditions of rape victims. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence reported greater severity of PTSD-related avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as anxiety, compared with female long-term survivors of non-sexual WWII trauma. The vast majority (80.9 %) of these women also reported severe sexual problems during their lifetimes relative to 19.0 % of women who experienced non-sexual war trauma. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence also reported greater posttraumatic growth, but less social acknowledgement as trauma survivors, compared to survivors of non-sexual war trauma. The results were consistent with emerging neurobiological research, which suggests that different traumas may be differentially associated with long-term posttraumatic sequelae in sexual assault survivors than in other survivor groups and highlights the need to treat (or better prevent) deleterious effects of conflict-related sexual violence in current worldwide crisis zones.

  13. Coadministration of alloxan and nicotinamide in rats produces biochemical changes in blood and pathological alterations comparable to the changes in type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattam, K K; Raghavendran, Hrb; Murali, M R; Savatey, H; Kamarul, T

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, thirty six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups and were injected with varying doses of alloxan (Ax) and nicotinamide (NA). The serum levels of glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were measured weekly up to 4 weeks. Elevated levels of glucose were observed in all groups on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, except in groups a and f (control). The serum insulin levels were significantly elevated in groups b and c on day 7, when compared with that in group f, whereas a decrease in the serum insulin levels was observed in groups d and e on days 21 and 28. The adiponectin levels showed inconsistencies on days 7 and 14. However, significant decrease in the adiponectin levels was observed on days 21 and 28. Histological section of the pancreas showed mild (group a), moderate (group b) to severe (groups c, d, and e) degenerative changes. Concomitant fatty changes in the liver and inflammatory infiltration of the kidney were markedly observed in all the treated groups, when compared to control. These results suggested that the use of selective combination of Ax120 + NA50 injection demonstrated type II diabetes mellitus in rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Searching for dwarf spheroidal galaxies and other galactic dark matter substructures with the Fermi large area telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drlica-Wagner, Alex [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-08-01

    Over the past century, it has become clear that about a quarter of the known universe is composed of an invisible, massive component termed ''dark matter''. Some of the most popular theories of physics beyond the Standard Model suggest that dark matter may be a new fundamental particle that could self-annihilate to produce γ rays. Nearby over-densities in the dark matter halo of our Milky Way present some of the most promising targets for detecting the annihilation of dark matter. We used the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to search for γ rays produced by dark matter annihilation in Galactic dark matter substructures. We searched for γ-ray emission coincident with Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies, which trace the most massive Galactic dark matter substructures. We also sought to identify nearby dark matter substructures that lack all astrophysical tracers and would be detectable only through γ-ray emission from dark matter annihilation. We found no conclusive evidence for γ-ray emission from dark matter annihilation, and we set stringent and robust constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section. While γ-ray searches for dark matter substructure are currently the most sensitive and robust probes of dark matter annihilation, they are just beginning to intersect the theoretically preferred region of dark matter parameter space. Thus, we consider future prospects for increasing the sensitivity of γ-ray searches through improvements to the LAT instrument performance and through upcoming wide- field optical surveys.

  15. X-ray and optical substructures of the DAFT/FADA survey clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Durret, F.; Adami, C.; Lima Neto, G. B.

    2013-04-01

    We have undertaken the DAFT/FADA survey with the double aim of setting constraints on dark energy based on weak lensing tomography and of obtaining homogeneous and high quality data for a sample of 91 massive clusters in the redshift range 0.4-0.9 for which there were HST archive data. We have analysed the XMM-Newton data available for 42 of these clusters to derive their X-ray temperatures and luminosities and search for substructures. Out of these, a spatial analysis was possible for 30 clusters, but only 23 had deep enough X-ray data for a really robust analysis. This study was coupled with a dynamical analysis for the 26 clusters having at least 30 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range. Altogether, the X-ray sample of 23 clusters and the optical sample of 26 clusters have 14 clusters in common. We present preliminary results on the coupled X-ray and dynamical analyses of these 14 clusters.

  16. On the sound insulation of acoustic metasurface using a sub-structuring approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Lu, Zhenbo; Cheng, Li; Cui, Fangsen

    2017-08-01

    The feasibility of using an acoustic metasurface (AMS) with acoustic stop-band property to realize sound insulation with ventilation function is investigated. An efficient numerical approach is proposed to evaluate its sound insulation performance. The AMS is excited by a reverberant sound source and the standardized sound reduction index (SRI) is numerically investigated. To facilitate the modeling, the coupling between the AMS and the adjacent acoustic fields is formulated using a sub-structuring approach. A modal based formulation is applied to both the source and receiving room, enabling an efficient calculation in the frequency range from 125 Hz to 2000 Hz. The sound pressures and the velocities at the interface are matched by using a transfer function relation based on ;patches;. For illustration purposes, numerical examples are investigated using the proposed approach. The unit cell constituting the AMS is constructed in the shape of a thin acoustic chamber with tailored inner structures, whose stop-band property is numerically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The AMS is shown to provide effective sound insulation of over 30 dB in the stop-band frequencies from 600 to 1600 Hz. It is also shown that the proposed approach has the potential to be applied to a broad range of AMS studies and optimization problems.

  17. The End-Of-Substructure Card for the ATLAS ITk Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Goettlicher, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The End-Of-Substructure Card (EoS) is the interface between the building block of the ITk Strip Tracker (staves and petals) and the outside world. In the ITk the modules consisting of the silicon sensor itself and the hybrids with the readout ASICS are placed on a common structure called a stave (in the barrel) and petal (in the end-cap). All module use a common bus-tape co-cured to carbon-fiber based structure to distribute power and signals. The data lines and command lines are then connected from the bus-tape to EoS. The power, both low and high voltage, are also distributed via the bus tape and coonected to the EoS. All these connections will be made using wire-bonds. The card concept is build around using the lpGBT chip set and the VTRx optical link, both common developments for the LHC Upgrades. The command signals will be coming in on a 10 Gbit/s link and will be de-multiplexed by the lpGBt and send to the stave/petal. The incoming data from the sensor, which depending on the type of stave or petal wil...

  18. Dark matter substructure in numerical simulations: a tale of discreteness noise, runaway instabilities, and artificial disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Frank C.; Ogiya, Go

    2018-04-01

    To gain understanding of the complicated, non-linear, and numerical processes associated with the tidal evolution of dark matter subhaloes in numerical simulation, we perform a large suite of idealized simulations that follow individual N-body subhaloes in a fixed, analytical host halo potential. By varying both physical and numerical parameters, we investigate under what conditions the subhaloes undergo disruption. We confirm the conclusions from our more analytical assessment in van den Bosch et al. that most disruption is numerical in origin; as long as a subhalo is resolved with sufficient mass and force resolution, a bound remnant survives. This implies that state-of-the-art cosmological simulations still suffer from significant overmerging. We demonstrate that this is mainly due to inadequate force softening, which causes excessive mass loss and artificial tidal disruption. In addition, we show that subhaloes in N-body simulations are susceptible to a runaway instability triggered by the amplification of discreteness noise in the presence of a tidal field. These two processes conspire to put serious limitations on the reliability of dark matter substructure in state-of-the-art cosmological simulations. We present two criteria that can be used to assess whether individual subhaloes in cosmological simulations are reliable or not, and advocate that subhaloes that satisfy either of these two criteria be discarded from further analysis. We discuss the potential implications of this work for several areas in astrophysics.

  19. Association of systemic lupus erythematosus clinical features with European population genetic substructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alonso-Perez

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with a very varied spectrum of clinical manifestations that could be partly determined by genetic factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between prevalence of 11 clinical features and age of disease onset with European population genetic substructure. Data from 1413 patients of European ancestry recruited in nine countries was tested for association with genotypes of top ancestry informative markers. This analysis was done with logistic regression between phenotypes and genotypes or principal components extracted from them. We used a genetic additive model and adjusted for gender and disease duration. Three clinical features showed association with ancestry informative markers: autoantibody production defined as immunologic disorder (P = 6.8×10(-4, oral ulcers (P = 6.9×10(-4 and photosensitivity (P = 0.002. Immunologic disorder was associated with genotypes more common in Southern European ancestries, whereas the opposite trend was observed for photosensitivity. Oral ulcers were specifically more common in patients of Spanish and Portuguese self-reported ancestry. These results should be taken into account in future research and suggest new hypotheses and possible underlying mechanisms to be investigated. A first hypothesis linking photosensitivity with variation in skin pigmentation is suggested.

  20. Association of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Clinical Features with European Population Genetic Substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaza, Manuel; Witte, Torsten; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Marchini, Maurizio; Migliaresi, Sergio; Kovacs, Attila; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Bijl, Marc; Santos, Maria Jose; Ruzickova, Sarka; Pullmann, Rudolf; Carreira, Patricia; Skopouli, Fotini N.; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a very varied spectrum of clinical manifestations that could be partly determined by genetic factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between prevalence of 11 clinical features and age of disease onset with European population genetic substructure. Data from 1413 patients of European ancestry recruited in nine countries was tested for association with genotypes of top ancestry informative markers. This analysis was done with logistic regression between phenotypes and genotypes or principal components extracted from them. We used a genetic additive model and adjusted for gender and disease duration. Three clinical features showed association with ancestry informative markers: autoantibody production defined as immunologic disorder (P = 6.8×10−4), oral ulcers (P = 6.9×10−4) and photosensitivity (P = 0.002). Immunologic disorder was associated with genotypes more common in Southern European ancestries, whereas the opposite trend was observed for photosensitivity. Oral ulcers were specifically more common in patients of Spanish and Portuguese self-reported ancestry. These results should be taken into account in future research and suggest new hypotheses and possible underlying mechanisms to be investigated. A first hypothesis linking photosensitivity with variation in skin pigmentation is suggested. PMID:22194982

  1. Toward interplay between substructure evolution, dislocation configuration, and yield strength in a microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatsurya, P.K.C.; Misra, R.D.K.; Mulholland, M.D.; Manohar, M.; Hartmann, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    We focus our attention here on the directional dependence of yield strength in high strength microalloyed steel using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The primary objective is to study the interplay between substructural evolution, notably cell size, dense dislocation walls (DDWs), dislocation tangle zones (DTZs), lamellar boundaries, crystallographic texture, and yield strength. The study elucidates for the first time the strong impact of thermo-mechanical deformation-induced dislocation and lamellar structures, which are likely to modify the slip pattern, leading to directional dependence of yield strength. Majority of the dislocations tend to pile along the {110} slip planes as dense dislocation walls. At low strains, grains are first divided into cell blocks that are nearly dislocation-free. At higher strains and with progress in thermo-mechanical processing dislocation tangled zones and lamellar boundaries develop. It is hypothesized that the differences in dislocation configurations, dislocations cells and cell blocks, and lamellar boundaries synergistically contribute to directional dependence of the yield strength in the high strength ferrous alloy. The presumption is envisaged on the basis of observations that the microstructural constituents were similar in the entire plane of the hot rolled strip and the crystallographic texture was weak

  2. Determining the Thickness and the Sub-Structure Details of the Magnetopause from MMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuzzo, R.; Belmont, G.; Rezeau, L.

    2017-12-01

    The magnetopause thickness, like its mean location, is a notion that can have different meanings depending which parameters are considered (magnetic field or plasma properties). In any case, all the determinations have been done, up to now, considering the magnetopause boundary as a structure strictly stationary and 1D (or with a simple curvature). These determinations have shown to be very sensitive to the accuracy of the normal direction, because it affects the projection of the quantities of interest in studying geometrical sensitive phenomena such as the magnetic reconnection. Furthermore, the 1D stationary assumptions are likely to be rarely verified at the real magnetopause. The high quality measurements of MMS and their high time resolution now allow investigating the magnetopause structure in its more delicate features and with an unequal spatio-temporal accuracy. We make use here of the MDD tool developed by [Shi et al., 2005], which gives the dimensionality of the gradients from the four-point measurements of MMS and allows estimating the direction of the local normal when defined. Extending this method to various quantities, we can draw their profiles as functions of a physical abscissa (length instead of time) along a sensible normal. This procedure allows answering quantitatively the questions concerning the locations and the thicknesses of the different sub-structures encountered inside the "global magnetopause" [Rezeau, 2017, paper submitted to JGR-Space Physics].

  3. Influence of fractal substructures of the percolating cluster on transferring processes in macroscopically disordered environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, B. P.

    2017-11-01

    The presented work belongs to the issue of searching for the effective kinetic properties of macroscopically disordered environments (MDE). These properties characterize MDE in general on the sizes which significantly exceed the sizes of macro inhomogeneity. The structure of MDE is considered as a complex of interpenetrating percolating and finite clusters consolidated from homonymous components, topological characteristics of which influence on the properties of the whole environment. The influence of percolating clusters’ fractal substructures (backbone, skeleton of backbone, red bonds) on the transfer processes during crossover (a structure transition from fractal to homogeneous condition) is investigated based on the offered mathematical approach for finding the effective conductivity of MDEs and on the percolating cluster model. The nature of the change of the critical conductivity index t during crossover from the characteristic value for the area close to percolation threshold to the value corresponded to homogeneous condition is demonstrated. The offered model describes the transfer processes in MDE with the finite conductivity relation of «conductive» and «low conductive» phases above and below percolation threshold and in smearing area (an analogue of a blur area of the second-order phase transfer).

  4. Differential association with cellular substructures of pseudorabies virus DNA during early and late phases of replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Porat, T.; Veach, R.A.; Blankenship, M.L.; Kaplan, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus DNA synthesis can be divided into two phases, early and late, which can be distinguished from each other on the basis of the structures of the replicating DNA. The two types of replicating virus DNA can also be distinguished from each other on the basis of the cellular substructures with which each is associated. Analysis by electron microscopic autoradiography showed that during the first round of replication, nascent virus DNA was found in the vicinity of the nuclear membrane; during later rounds of replication the nascent virus DNA was located centrally within the nucleus. The degree of association of virus DNA synthesized at early and late phases with the nuclear matrix fractions also differed; a larger proportion of late than of early nascent virus DNA was associated with this fraction. While nascent cellular DNA only was associated in significant amounts with the nuclear matrix fraction, a large part (up to 40%) of all the virus DNA remained associated with this fraction. However, no retention of specific virus proteins in this fraction was observed. Except for two virus proteins, which were preferentially extracted from the nuclear matrix, approximately 20% of all virus proteins remained in the nuclear matrix fraction. The large proportion of virus DNA associated with the nuclear fraction indicated that virus DNA may be intimately associated with some proteins

  5. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  6. Analysis of random response of structure with uncertain parameters. Combination of substructure synthesis method and hierarchy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsubo, Takuzo; Kawamura, Shozo; Mori, Hiroyuki.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the method to obtain the random response of a structure with uncertain parameters is proposed. The proposed method is a combination of the substructure synthesis method and the hierarchy method. The concept of the proposed method is that the hierarchy equation of each substructure is obtained using the hierarchy method, and the hierarchy equation of the overall structure is obtained using the substructure synthesis method. Using the proposed method, the reduced order hierarchy equation can be obtained without analyzing the original whole structure. After the calculation of the mean square value of response, the reliability analysis can be carried out based on the first passage problem and Poisson's excursion rate. As a numerical example of structure, a simple piping system is considered. The damping constant of the support is considered as the uncertainty parameter. Then the random response is calculated using the proposed method. As a result, the proposed method is useful to analyze the random response in terms of the accuracy, computer storage and calculation time. (author)

  7. Comparative effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers on laboratory parameters in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Yayoi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs and calcium channel blockers (CCBs are widely used antihypertensive drugs. Many clinical studies have demonstrated and compared the organ-protection effects and adverse events of these drugs. However, few large-scale studies have focused on the effect of these drugs as monotherapy on laboratory parameters. We evaluated and compared the effects of ARB and CCB monotherapy on clinical laboratory parameters in patients with concomitant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and July 31, 2011, to identify cohorts of new ARB users (n = 601 and propensity-score matched new CCB users (n = 601, with concomitant mild to moderate hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We used a multivariate-adjusted regression model to adjust for differences between ARB and CCB users, and compared laboratory parameters including serum levels of triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, non-fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, sodium, potassium, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and white blood cell (WBC, red blood cell (RBC and platelet (PLT counts up to 12 months after the start of ARB or CCB monotherapy. Results We found a significant reduction of serum TC, HbA1c, hemoglobin and hematocrit and RBC count and a significant increase of serum potassium in ARB users, and a reduction of serum TC and hemoglobin in CCB users, from the baseline period to the exposure period. The reductions of RBC count, hemoglobin and hematocrit in ARB users were significantly greater than those in CCB users. The increase of serum potassium in ARB users was significantly greater than that in CCB users. Conclusions Our study suggested that hematological adverse effects and

  8. Comparing the dependability and associations with functioning of the DSM-5 Section III trait model of personality pathology and the DSM-5 Section II personality disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Michael; Ruggero, Camilo J; Kotov, Roman; Liu, Keke; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-07-01

    Two competing models of personality psychopathology are included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-5 ; American Psychiatric Association, 2013); the traditional personality disorder (PD) model included in Section II and an alternative trait-based model included in Section III. Numerous studies have examined the validity of the alternative trait model and its official assessment instrument, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012). However, few studies have directly compared the trait-based model to the traditional PD model empirically in the same dataset. Moreover, to our knowledge, only a single study (Suzuki, Griffin, & Samuel, 2015) has examined the dependability of the PID-5, which is an essential component of construct validity for traits (Chmielewski & Watson, 2009; McCrae, Kurtz, Yamagata, & Terracciano, 2011). The current study directly compared the dependability of the DSM-5 traits, as assessed by the PID-5, and the traditional PD model, as assessed by the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4+), in a large undergraduate sample. In addition, it evaluated and compared their associations with functioning, another essential component of personality pathology. In general, our findings indicate that most DSM-5 traits demonstrate high levels of dependability that are superior to the traditional PD model; however, some of the constructs assessed by the PID-5 may be more state like. The models were roughly equivalent in terms of their associations with functioning. The current results provide additional support for the validity of PID-5 and the DSM-5 Section III personality pathology model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Amodiaquine analogues containing NO-donor substructures: synthesis and their preliminary evaluation as potential tools in the treatment of cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinaria, Massimo; Guglielmo, Stefano; Rolando, Barbara; Giorgis, Marta; Aragno, Cristina; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Parapini, Silvia; Taramelli, Donatella; Martins, Yuri C; Carvalho, Leonardo J M

    2011-05-01

    The synthesis and physico-chemical properties of novel compounds obtained by conjugation of amodiaquine with moieties containing either furoxan or nitrooxy NO-donor substructures are described. The synthesised compounds were tested in vitro against both the chloroquine sensitive, D10 and the chloroquine resistant, W-2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Most of the compounds showed an antiplasmodial activity comparable to that of the parent drug. By comparing the activities of simple related structures devoid of the ability to release NO, it appears that the contribution of NO to the antiplasmodial action in vitro is marginal. All the compounds were able to relax rat aorta strips with a NO-dependent mechanism, thus showing their capacity to release NO in the vessels. A preliminary in vivo study using Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected mice showed a trend for prolonged survival of mice with cerebral malaria treated with compound 40, which is potent and fast amodiaquine-derived NO-donor, when compared with amodiaquine alone or with compound 31, a milder NO-donor. The two compounds showed in vivo antiplasmodial activity similar to that of amodiaquine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Study comparing human papillomavirus (HPV) real-time multiplex PCR and Hybrid Capture II INNO-LiPA v2 HPV genotyping PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftner, Thomas; Germ, Liesje; Swoyer, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    methods has not been well characterized. Clinically, cytology is used to establish possible HPV infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of HPV multiplex PCR assays compared to those of the testing scheme of the Hybrid Capture II (HCII) assay followed by an HPV PCR/line hybridization assay...... (HCII-LiPA v2). SurePath residual samples were split into two aliquots. One aliquot was subjected to HCII testing followed by DNA extraction and LiPA v2 genotyping. The second aliquot was shipped to a second laboratory, where DNA was extracted and HPV multiplex PCR testing was performed. Comparisons...... were evaluated for 15 HPV types common in both assays. A slightly higher proportion of samples tested positive by the HPV multiplex PCR than by the HCII-LiPA v2 assay. The sensitivities of the multiplex PCR assay relative to those of the HCII-LiPA v2 assay for HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, for example...

  11. Genetic variation of the MHC class II DRB genes in the Japanese weasel, Mustela itatsi, endemic to Japan, compared with the Siberian weasel, Mustela sibirica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Y; Abramov, A V; Kosintsev, P A; Lin, L-K; Watanabe, S; Yamazaki, K; Kaneko, Y; Masuda, R

    2015-12-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that play a critical role in vertebrate immune system and are highly polymorphic. To further understand the molecular evolution of the MHC genes, we compared MHC class II DRB genes between the Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi), a species endemic to Japan, and the Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), a closely related species on the continent. We sequenced a 242-bp region of DRB exon 2, which encodes antigen-binding sites (ABS), and found 24 alleles from 31 M. itatsi individuals and 17 alleles from 21 M. sibirica individuals, including broadly distributed, species-specific and/or geographically restricted alleles. Our results suggest that pathogen-driven balancing selection have acted to maintain the diversity in the DRB genes. For predicted ABS, nonsynonymous substitutions exceeded synonymous substitutions, also indicating positive selection, which was not seen at non-ABS. In a Bayesian phylogenetic tree, two M. sibirica DRB alleles were basal to the rest of the sequences from mustelid species and may represent ancestral alleles. Trans-species polymorphism was evident between many mustelid DRB alleles, especially between M. itatsi and M. sibirica. These two Mustela species divided about 1.7 million years ago, but still share many MHC alleles, indicative of their close phylogenetic relationship. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian Adriatic coast. Changes after World War II and perspectives for its future reorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kajinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the changes in the organisation of the Catholic Church in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia after World War II. A detailed analysis of the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the Rijeka Diocese, Archdiocese and Metropolitan Archdiocese, ecclesiastical union of the Istrian region in Croatia, the abolition of the Zadar Metropolitan Archdiocese, the raising of the Split-Makarska Diocese to an Archdiocese, and the establishment of the Split Metropolitan Archdiocese. The principles upon which the Church reorganisation in the spatial sense are considered, and presents new insights, particularly for the Croatian dimension. The second part of the paper gives a comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, with other countries. Examples were selected based on compatibility of different factors, with consideration to the historical context of events and their causes. To that aim, specific examples of the church administration in France and Italy are given. Using these examples and documents of church archives and official records and documents of the Catholic Church, this paper gives a final overview of the possibilities for the reorganisation of the church administration on the Croatian Adriatic coast.

  13. Comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian Adriatic coast. Changes after World War II and perspectives for its future reorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kajinić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the changes in the organisation of the Catholic Church in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia after World War II. A detailed analysis of the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the Rijeka Diocese, Archdiocese and Metropolitan Archdiocese, ecclesiastical union of the Istrian region in Croatia, the abolition of the Zadar Metropolitan Archdiocese, the raising of the Split-Makarska Diocese to an Archdiocese, and the establishment of the Split Metropolitan Archdiocese. The principles upon which the Church reorganisation in the spatial sense are considered, and presents new insights, particularly for the Croatian dimension. The second part of the paper gives a comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, with other countries. Examples were selected based on compatibility of different factors, with consideration to the historical context of events and their causes. To that aim, specific examples of the church administration in France and Italy are given. Using these examples and documents of church archives and official records and documents of the Catholic Church, this paper gives a final overview of the possibilities for the reorganisation of the church administration on the Croatian Adriatic coast.

  14. Comparative ranking of 0. 1-10 MW/sub e/ solar thermal electric power systems. Volume II. Supporting data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, J.P.; Brown, K.C.; Finegold, J.G.; Gresham, J.B.; Herlevich, F.A.; Kriz, T.A.

    1980-07-01

    This report is part of a two-volume set summarizing the results of a comparative ranking of generic solar thermal concepts designed specifically for electric power generation. The original objective of the study was to project the mid-1990 cost and performance of selected generic solar thermal electric power systems for utility applications and to rank these systems by criteria that reflect their future commercial acceptance. This study considered plants with rated capacities of 1-10 MW/sub e/, operating over a range of capacity factors from the no-storage case to 0.7 and above. Later, the study was extended to include systems with capacities from 0.1 to 1 MW/sub e/, a range that is attractive to industrial and other nonutility applications. Volume I summarizes the results for the full range of capacities from 0.1 to 1.0 MW/sub e/. Volume II presents data on the performance and cost and ranking methodology.

  15. Advanced pulse oximeter signal processing technology compared to simple averaging. II. Effect on frequency of alarms in the postanesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheineck-Leyssius, A T; Kalkman, C J

    1999-05-01

    To determine the effect of a new pulse oximeter (Nellcor Symphony N-3000, Pleasanton, CA) with signal processing technique (Oxismart) on the incidence of false alarms in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Prospective study. Nonuniversity hospital. 603 consecutive ASA physical status I, II, and III patients recovering from general or regional anesthesia in the PACU. We compared the number of alarms produced by a recently developed "third"-generation pulse oximeter (Nellcor Symphony N-3000) with Oxismart signal processing technique and a conventional pulse oximeter (Criticare 504, Waukesha, WI). Patients were randomly assigned to either a Nellcor pulse oximeter or a Criticare with the signal averaging time set at either 12 or 21 seconds. For each patient the number of false (artifact) alarms was counted. The Nellcor generated one false alarm in 199 patients and 36 (in 31 patients) "loss of pulse" alarms. The conventional pulse oximeter with the averaging time set at 12 seconds generated a total of 32 false alarms in 17 of 197 patients [compared with the Nellcor, relative risk (RR) 0.06, confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.25] and a total of 172 "loss of pulse" alarms in 79 patients (RR 0.39, CI 0.28 to 0.55). The conventional pulse oximeter with the averaging time set at 21 seconds generated 12 false alarms in 11 of 207 patients (compared with the Nellcor, RR 0.09, CI 0.02 to 0.48) and a total of 204 "loss of pulse" alarms in 81 patients (RR 0.40, CI 0.28 to 0.56). The lower incidence of false alarms of the conventional pulse oximeter with the longest averaging time compared with the shorter averaging time did not reach statistical significance (false alarms RR 0.62, CI 0.3 to 1.27; "loss of pulse" alarms RR 0.98, CI 0.77 to 1.3). To date, this is the first report of a pulse oximeter that produced almost no false alarms in the PACU.

  16. Estudo Comparativo dos Resultados Maternos e Perinatais entre Pacientes com Diabetes Pré-gestacional Tipo I e Tipo II Comparative Study of Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes among Patients with Pregestational Type I and Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Monte de Carvalho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar a evolução da gestação, controle metabólico e resultados perinatais de pacientes diabéticas pré-gestacionais e fazer um estudo comparativo entre os resultados de pacientes com diabetes insulino-dependente e não-insulino-dependente. Métodos: análise retrospectiva de prontuários de 57 pacientes com diagnóstico de diabetes pré-gestacional que iniciaram pré-natal no Serviço de Medicina Materno-Fetal da Maternidade-Escola Assis Chateaubriand da Universidade Federal do Ceará, no período de janeiro 1995 a dezembro de 1998. As 57 grávidas incluídas no estudo foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo I, composto de 28 pacientes portadoras de diabetes insulino-dependente (tipo I, e grupo II, com 29 gestantes com diabetes não-insulino-dependente (tipo II controladas com dieta ou com hipoglicemiante oral antes da gestação. Resultados: não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos em relação à necessidade de internamento para controle glicêmico (39,2% x 27,5% e complicações maternas, tais como: hipertensão arterial crônica (14,2% x 27,5%, doença hipertensiva específica da gravidez (14,2% x 17,2%, amniorrexe prematura (3,5% x 10,3%, infecção do trato urinário (10,7% x 6,8% e trabalho de parto prematuro (3,5% x 6,8%. Foi observado, porém, maior número de episódios de hipoglicemia materna entre as pacientes insulino-dependentes (35,7% x 3,4%. Os resultados perinatais foram semelhantes. Observamos elevados índices de malformações e morbimortalidade perinatal. Conclusão: não houve diferença na incidência de intercorrências clínicas e obstétricas entre as pacientes insulino-dependentes e não-insulino-dependentes, excluindo-se hipoglicemia materna.Purpose: to evaluate the evolution of gestation, metabolic control and perinatal outcome of pregestational diabetic patients and to perform a comparative study of the results of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes (type I and

  17. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECTRAL ENERGETICS BETWEEN THE NCEP reanalysisII in current climate AND MODEL ECHAM5 in future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, A. F.; Veiga, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Saltzman (1957) starting Lorenz Cycle (1955) derived a set of equations that show the energy contained in the basic state and the disturbed atmosphere, decomposing in various fields disturbance wave type, so as to quantify and analyze the energy of these disorders according to their number or wavelength. Based on the methodology Saltzman, this paper aims a comparative study between the energy of the disturbed state between the NCEP reanalysis-II for the current weather conditions and model ECHAM5 scenarios for future conditions of increased concentration of greenhouse gases (RCP26, RCP45 and RCP85), considering the terms of the generation of available potential energy to nth wave due to diabatic heating, represented by (Gn), the potential energy of nth wave (Pn) and kinetic energy of nth wave (Kn), as well as the conversion of energy between kinetic energy and potential energy nth wave of nth wave, given by (Cn). Two data sets were used in the calculation of the aforementioned terms. For the data set of NCEP and ECHAM5 were used variables, temperature (T), orthogonal wind components (u, v, w) and geopotential height (L), considering daily shared values on a regular grid with spatial resolutions of 2,5 x 2.5 and 1.875 x 1.875 graus, distributed on 12 and 15 levels of pressure (1000.0, 925.0, 850.0, 700.0, 600.0, 500.0, 400.0, 300.0, 250.0, 200.0, 150.0, 100.0 hPa), (1000.0, 850.0, 700.0, 500.0, 250.0, 150.0, 100.0, 70.0, 50.0, 30.0, 10.0, 3.0, 1.0, 0.3, 0.1 hPa) for the period of 1979-1999 and 2090-2100, respectively. The results show that most of the kinetic energy of disturbance to nth waves is concentrated in the first 15 wave numbers, both for the weather-NCEP II as to ECHAM5, having more significant increase in the profile and having a RCP85 energy cascade. This increase in kinetic energy was expected due to the increased energy in the system. For Pn, increasing the potential energy is also expected in view of the increased diabatic heating, but the energy jump

  18. Probing deformation substructure by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and dislocation dynamics modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hofmann, Felix; Song, Xu; Eve, Sophie; Collins, Steve P

    2010-09-01

    Materials characterization at the nano-scale is motivated by the desire to resolve the structural aspects and deformation behavior at length scales relevant to those mechanisms that define the novel and unusual properties of nano-structured materials. A range of novel techniques has recently become accessible with the help of synchrotron X-ray beams that can be focused down to spot sizes of less than a few microns on the sample. The unique combination of tunability (energy selection), parallelism and brightness of synchrotron X-ray beams allows their use for high resolution diffraction (determination of crystal structure and transformations, analysis of dislocation sub-structures, orientation and texture analysis, strain mapping); small angle X-ray scattering (analysis of nano-scale voids and defects; orientation analysis) and imaging (radiography and tomography). After a brief review of the state-of-the-art capabilities for monochromatic and white beam synchrotron diffraction, we consider the usefulness of these techniques for the task of bridging the gap between experiment and modeling. Namely, we discuss how the experiments can be configured to provide information relevant to the validation and improvement of modeling approaches, and also how the results of various simulations can be post-processed to improve the possibility of (more or less) direct comparison with experiments. Using the example of some recent experiments carried out on beamline 116 at Diamond Light Source near Oxford, we discuss how such experimental results can be interpreted in view and in conjunction with numerical deformation models, particularly those incorporating dislocation effects, e.g., finite-element based pseudo-continuum strain gradient formulations, and discrete dislocation simulations. Post-processing of FE and discrete dislocation simulations is described, illustrating the kind of information that can be extracted from comparisons between modeling and experimental data.

  19. Examining Coherency Scales, Substructure, and Propagation of Whistler Mode Chorus Elements With Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. L.; Lee, J. H.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Jaynes, A. N.; Leonard, T.; Wilder, F. D.; Ergun, R. E.; Baker, D. N.; Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Strangeway, R. J.; Hartley, D. P.; Kletzing, C. A.; Breuillard, H.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Torbert, R. B.; Allen, R. C.; Burch, J. L.; Santolik, O.

    2017-11-01

    Whistler mode chorus waves are a naturally occurring electromagnetic emission observed in Earth's magnetosphere. Here, for the first time, data from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission were used to analyze chorus waves in detail, including the calculation of chorus wave normal vectors, fi>k. A case study was examined from a period of substorm activity around the time of a conjunction between the MMS constellation and NASA's Van Allen Probes mission on 07 April 2016. Chorus wave activity was simultaneously observed by all six spacecraft over a broad range of L shells (5.5 flat or falling frequency following the peak, and all the elements exhibited complex and well-organized substructure observed consistently at all four MMS spacecraft at separations up to 70 km (60 km perpendicular and 38 km parallel to the background magnetic field). The waveforms in field-aligned coordinates also demonstrated that these waves were all phase coherent, allowing for the direct calculation of fi>k. Error estimates on calculated fi>k revealed that the plane wave approximation was valid for six of the eight elements and most of the subelements. The wave normal vectors were within 20-30° from the direction antiparallel to the background field for all elements and changed from subelement to subelement through at least two of the eight elements. The azimuthal angle of fi>k in the perpendicular plane was oriented earthward and was oblique to that of the Poynting vector, which has implications for the validity of cold plasma theory.

  20. Determination of the accuracy for targeted irradiations of cellular substructures at SNAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebenwirth, C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, C. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Drexler, S.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich (Germany); Girst, S.; Reindl, J. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Walsh, D.W.M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Dollinger, G. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Friedl, A.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich (Germany); and others

    2015-04-01

    In the last 10 years the ion microbeam SNAKE, installed at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, has been successfully used for radiobiological experiments by utilizing pattern irradiation without targeting single cells. Now for targeted irradiation of cellular substructures a precise irradiation device was added to the live cell irradiation setup at SNAKE. It combines a sub-micrometer single ion irradiation facility with a high resolution optical fluorescence microscope. Most systematic errors can be reduced or avoided by using the same light path in the microscope for beam spot verification as well as for and target recognition. In addition online observation of the induced cellular responses is possible. The optical microscope and the beam delivering system are controlled by an in-house developed software which integrates the open-source image analysis software, CellProfiler, for semi-automatic target recognition. In this work the targeting accuracy was determined by irradiation of a cross pattern with 55 MeV carbon ions on nucleoli in U2OS and HeLa cells stably expressing a GFP-tagged repair protein MDC1. For target recognition, nuclei were stained with Draq5 and nucleoli were stained with Syto80 or Syto83. The damage response was determined by live-cell imaging of MDC1-GFP accumulation directly after irradiation. No systematic displacement and a random distribution of about 0.7 μm (SD) in x-direction and 0.8 μm (SD) in y-direction were observed. An independent analysis after immunofluorescence staining of the DNA damage marker yH2AX yielded similar results. With this performance a target with a size similar to that of nucleoli (i.e. a diameter of about 3 μm) is hit with a probability of more than 80%, which enables the investigation of the radiation response of cellular subcompartments after targeted ion irradiation in the future.

  1. Determination of the accuracy for targeted irradiations of cellular substructures at SNAKE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebenwirth, C.; Greubel, C.; Drexler, S.E.; Girst, S.; Reindl, J.; Walsh, D.W.M.; Dollinger, G.; Friedl, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 10 years the ion microbeam SNAKE, installed at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, has been successfully used for radiobiological experiments by utilizing pattern irradiation without targeting single cells. Now for targeted irradiation of cellular substructures a precise irradiation device was added to the live cell irradiation setup at SNAKE. It combines a sub-micrometer single ion irradiation facility with a high resolution optical fluorescence microscope. Most systematic errors can be reduced or avoided by using the same light path in the microscope for beam spot verification as well as for and target recognition. In addition online observation of the induced cellular responses is possible. The optical microscope and the beam delivering system are controlled by an in-house developed software which integrates the open-source image analysis software, CellProfiler, for semi-automatic target recognition. In this work the targeting accuracy was determined by irradiation of a cross pattern with 55 MeV carbon ions on nucleoli in U2OS and HeLa cells stably expressing a GFP-tagged repair protein MDC1. For target recognition, nuclei were stained with Draq5 and nucleoli were stained with Syto80 or Syto83. The damage response was determined by live-cell imaging of MDC1-GFP accumulation directly after irradiation. No systematic displacement and a random distribution of about 0.7 μm (SD) in x-direction and 0.8 μm (SD) in y-direction were observed. An independent analysis after immunofluorescence staining of the DNA damage marker yH2AX yielded similar results. With this performance a target with a size similar to that of nucleoli (i.e. a diameter of about 3 μm) is hit with a probability of more than 80%, which enables the investigation of the radiation response of cellular subcompartments after targeted ion irradiation in the future

  2. A Map of the Local Velocity Substructure in the Milky Way Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, Alan N.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Smith, R. Fiona [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Carlin, Jeffrey L. [LSST, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We confirm, quantify, and provide a table of the coherent velocity substructure of the Milky Way disk within 2 kpc of the Sun toward the Galactic anticenter, with a 0.2 kpc resolution. We use the radial velocities of ∼340,000 F-type stars obtained with the Guoshoujing Telescope (also known as the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope, LAMOST), and proper motions derived from the PPMXL catalog. The PPMXL proper motions have been corrected to remove systematic errors by subtracting the average proper motions of galaxies and QSOs that have been confirmed in the LAMOST spectroscopic survey, and that are within 2.°5 of the star’s position. We provide the resulting table of systematic offsets derived from the PPMXL proper motion measurements of extragalactic objects identified in the LAMOST spectroscopic survey. Using the corrected phase-space stellar sample, we find statistically significant deviations in the bulk disk velocity of 20 km s{sup −1} or more in the three-dimensional velocities of Galactic disk stars. The bulk velocity varies significantly over length scales of half a kiloparsec or less. The rotation velocity of the disk increases by 20 km s{sup −1} from the Sun’s position to 1.5 kpc outside the solar circle. Disk stars in the second quadrant, within 1 kpc of the Sun, are moving radially toward the Galactic center and vertically toward a point a few tenths of a kiloparsec above the Galactic plane; looking down on the disk, the stars appear to move in a circular streaming motion with a radius of the order of 1 kpc.

  3. Revealing the sub-structures of the magnetic reconnection separatrix via particle-in-cell simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M.; Deng, X. H.; Pang, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Yao, M.; Huang, S. Y.; Yuan, Z. G.; Li, H. M.; Wang, D. D.; Wang, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic separatrix is an important boundary layer separating the inflow and outflow regions in magnetic reconnection. In this article, we investigate the sub-structures of the separatrix region by using two-and-half dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation. The separatrix region can be divided into two sub-regions in terms of the ion and electron frozen-in conditions. Far from the neutral sheet, ions and electrons are magnetized in magnetic fields. Approaching the neutral sheet, ion frozen-in condition is broken in a narrow region (∼c/ω pi ) at the edge of a density cavity, while electrons are frozen-in to magnetic fields. In this region, electric field E z is around zero, and the convective term –(v i × B) is balanced by the Hall term in the generalized Ohm’s law because ions carry the perpendicular current. Inside the density cavity, both ion and electron frozen-in conditions are broken. The region consists of two sub-ion or electron-scale layers, which contain intense electric fields. Formation of the two sub-layers is due to the complex electron flow pattern around the separatrix region. In the layer, E z is balanced by a combination of Hall term and the divergence of electron pressure tensor, with the Hall term being dominant. Our preliminary simulation result shows that the separatrix region in guide field reconnection also contains two sub-regions: the inner region and the outer region. However, the inner region contains only one current layer in contrast with the case without guide field.

  4. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF Ly α BLOB 1: HALO SUBSTRUCTURE ILLUMINATED FROM WITHIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geach, J. E. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Narayanan, D. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, PA 19041 (United States); Matsuda, Y.; Ao, Y.; Kubo, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hayes, M. [Stockholm University, Dept. of Astronomy and Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden); Mas-Ribas, Ll.; Dijkstra, M. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Steidel, C. C. [California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2 (Canada); Feldmann, R. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Avison, A. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Manchester (United Kingdom); Agertz, O. [Dept. of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH, Surrey (United Kingdom); Birkinshaw, M.; Bremer, M. N. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Farrah, D. [Dept. of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Harrison, C. M. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Dept. of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Michałowski, M. J., E-mail: j.geach@herts.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-20

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) 850 μ m continuum observations of the original Ly α Blob (LAB) in the SSA22 field at z = 3.1 (SSA22-LAB01). The ALMA map resolves the previously identified submillimeter source into three components with a total flux density of S {sub 850} = 1.68 ± 0.06 mJy, corresponding to a star-formation rate of ∼150 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup -1}. The submillimeter sources are associated with several faint ( m ≈ 27 mag) rest-frame ultraviolet sources identified in Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) clear filter imaging ( λ ≈ 5850 Å). One of these companions is spectroscopically confirmed with the Keck Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration to lie within 20 projected kpc and 250 km s{sup -1} of one of the ALMA components. We postulate that some of these STIS sources represent a population of low-mass star-forming satellites surrounding the central submillimeter sources, potentially contributing to their growth and activity through accretion. Using a high-resolution cosmological zoom simulation of a 10{sup 13} M {sub ⊙} halo at z = 3, including stellar, dust, and Ly α radiative transfer, we can model the ALMA+STIS observations and demonstrate that Ly α photons escaping from the central submillimeter sources are expected to resonantly scatter in neutral hydrogen, the majority of which is predicted to be associated with halo substructure. We show how this process gives rise to extended Ly α emission with similar surface brightness and morphology to observed giant LABs.

  5. Copper(II) 12-metallacrown-4 complexes of alpha-, beta- and gamma-aminohydroxamic acids: a comparative thermodynamic study in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegoni, Matteo; Remelli, Maurizio; Bacco, Dimitri; Marchiò, Luciano; Dallavalle, Francesco

    2008-05-28

    A complete thermodynamic study of the protonation and Cu(II) complex formation equilibria of a series of alpha- and beta-aminohydroxamic acids in aqueous solution was performed. The thermodynamic parameters obtained for the protonation of glycine-, (S)-alpha-alanine-, (R,S)-valine-, (S)-leucine-, beta-alanine- and (R)-aspartic-beta-hydroxamic acids were compared with those previously reported for gamma-amino- and (S)-glutamic-gamma-hydroxamic acids. The enthalpy/entropy parameters calculated for the protonation microequilibria of these three types of ligands are in very good agreement with the literature values for simple amines and hydroxamic acids. The pentanuclear complexes [Cu5L4H(-4)]2+ contain the ligands acting as (NH2,N-)-(O,O-) bridging bis-chelating and correspond to 12-metallacrown-4 (12-MC-4) which are formed by self-assembly between pH 4 and 6 with alpha-aminohydroxamates (HL), while those with beta- and gamma-derivatives exist in a wider pH range (4-11). The stability order of these metallomacrocycles is beta- > alpha- > gamma-aminohydroxamates. The formation of 12-MC-4 with alpha-aminohydroxamates is entropy-driven, and that with beta-derivatives is enthalpy-driven, while with gamma-GABAhydroxamate both effects occur. These results are interpreted on the basis of specific enthalpies or entropy contributions related to chelate ring dimensions, charge neutralization and solvation-desolvation effects. The enthalpy/entropy parameters of 12-MC-4 with alpha-aminohydroxamic acids considered are also dependent on the optical purity of the ligands. Actually, that with (R,S)-valinehydroxamic acid presents an higher entropy and a lower enthalpy value than those of enantiopure ligands, although the corresponding stabilities are almost equivalent. Moreover, DFT calculations are in agreement with a more exothermic enthalpy found for metallacrowns with enantiomerically pure ligands.

  6. CLASH-VLT: INSIGHTS ON THE MASS SUBSTRUCTURES IN THE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER MACS J0416.1–2403 THROUGH ACCURATE STRONG LENS MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, C.; Suyu, S. H.; Umetsu, K.; Rosati, P.; Caminha, G. B.; Mercurio, A.; Balestra, I.; Munari, E.; Nonino, M.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Lombardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Coe, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Postman, M.; Zitrin, A.; Halkola, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1–2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log (M * /M ☉ ) ≅ 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of a set of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.''3 by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of two cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components, parameterized with dual pseudo-isothermal total mass profiles. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ∼5%, including the systematic uncertainties estimated from six distinct mass models. We emphasize that the use of multiple-image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and knowledge of cluster membership based on extensive spectroscopic information is key to constructing robust high-resolution mass maps. We also produce magnification maps over the central area that is covered with HST observations. We investigate the galaxy contribution, both in terms of total and stellar mass, to the total mass budget of the cluster. When compared with the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations, our results point to a lack of massive subhalos in the inner regions of simulated clusters with total masses similar to that of MACS J0416.1–2403. Our findings of the location and shape of the cluster dark-matter halo density profiles and on the cluster substructures provide intriguing

  7. CLASH-VLT: INSIGHTS ON THE MASS SUBSTRUCTURES IN THE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER MACS J0416.1–2403 THROUGH ACCURATE STRONG LENS MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Suyu, S. H.; Umetsu, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Rosati, P.; Caminha, G. B. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mercurio, A. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Balestra, I.; Munari, E.; Nonino, M.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143, Trieste (Italy); Lombardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Gobat, R. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universitè Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Coe, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Postman, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Zitrin, A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Halkola, A., E-mail: grillo@dark-cosmology.dk; and others

    2015-02-10

    We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1–2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≅ 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of a set of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.''3 by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of two cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components, parameterized with dual pseudo-isothermal total mass profiles. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ∼5%, including the systematic uncertainties estimated from six distinct mass models. We emphasize that the use of multiple-image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and knowledge of cluster membership based on extensive spectroscopic information is key to constructing robust high-resolution mass maps. We also produce magnification maps over the central area that is covered with HST observations. We investigate the galaxy contribution, both in terms of total and stellar mass, to the total mass budget of the cluster. When compared with the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations, our results point to a lack of massive subhalos in the inner regions of simulated clusters with total masses similar to that of MACS J0416.1–2403. Our findings of the location and shape of the cluster dark-matter halo density profiles and on the cluster substructures provide

  8. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter Phase II study comparing the efficacy and safety of oral nemonoxacin with oral levofloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yingyuan; Wu, Jufang; Zhu, Demei; Sun, Shenghua; Zhao, Li; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Hua; Ren, Zhenyi; Wang, Changzheng; Xiu, Qingyu; Xiao, Zuke; Cao, Zhaolong; Cui, Shehuai; Yang, Heping; Liang, Yongjie; Chen, Ping; Lv, Yuan; Hu, Chengping; Lv, Xiaoju; Liu, Shuang; Kuang, Jiulong; Li, Jianguo; Wang, Dexi; Chang, Liwen

    2017-12-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of nemonoxacin with levofloxacin in treating community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a Phase II clinical trial. One hundred ninety-two patients with CAP were randomized to receive oral nemonoxacin (500 mg or 750 mg) or levofloxacin (500 mg) once daily for 7-10 days. Clinical and bacteriological responses were determined at the test of cure (TOC) visit in the full analysis set (FAS). The clinical cure rate of nemonoxacin (500 mg), nemonoxacin (750 mg), and levofloxacin (500 mg) was 93.3%, 87.3%, and 88.5%, respectively, in the FAS (n = 168), and 93.0%, 93.9%, and 88.9%, respectively in the per protocol set (n = 152). At the TOC visit, nemonoxacin at 500 mg and 750 mg was proven to be noninferior to levofloxacin at 500 mg in the FAS in terms of clinical efficacy. The overall bacteriological success rate was 83.3% in both nemonoxacin groups and 80.0% in the levofloxacin 500 mg group in the bacteriological FAS. The comprehensive efficacy rate was comparable among the three groups (87.5% for the nemonoxacin 500 mg group, 93.8% for the nemonoxacin 750 mg group, and 81.3% for the levofloxacin 500 mg group). Most drug-related adverse events were mild and transient, mainly gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, transient neutropenia, and elevated liver enzymes. No drug-related serious adverse events occurred. Either 500 mg or 750 mg of oral nemonoxacin taken once daily for 7-10 days demonstrated high clinical and bacteriological success rates in Chinese adult patients with CAP. Nemonoxacin at 500 mg once daily for 7-10 days is recommended for future Phase III clinical trials. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01537250. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Alkoxyl- and carbon-centered radicals as primary agents for degrading non-phenolic lignin-substructure model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yasunori; Uno, Yukiko; Amirta, Rudianto; Watanabe, Takahito; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takashi

    2011-04-07

    Lignin degradation by white-rot fungi proceeds via free radical reaction catalyzed by oxidative enzymes and metabolites. Basidiomycetes called selective white-rot fungi degrade both phenolic and non-phenolic lignin substructures without penetration of extracellular enzymes into the cell wall. Extracellular lipid peroxidation has been proposed as a possible ligninolytic mechanism, and radical species degrading the recalcitrant non-phenolic lignin substructures have been discussed. Reactions between the non-phenolic lignin model compounds and radicals produced from azo compounds in air have previously been analysed, and peroxyl radical (PR) is postulated to be responsible for lignin degradation (Kapich et al., FEBS Lett., 1999, 461, 115-119). However, because the thermolysis of azo compounds in air generates both a carbon-centred radical (CR) and a peroxyl radical (PR), we re-examined the reactivity of the three radicals alkoxyl radical (AR), CR and PR towards non-phenolic monomeric and dimeric lignin model compounds. The dimeric lignin model compound is degraded by CR produced by reaction of 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), which under N(2) atmosphere cleaves the α-β bond in 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-propanediol to yield 4-ethoxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde. However, it is not degraded by the PR produced by reaction of Ce(4+)/tert-BuOOH. In addition, it is degraded by AR produced by reaction of Ti(3+)/tert-BuOOH. PR and AR are generated in the presence and absence of veratryl alcohol, respectively. Rapid-flow ESR analysis of the radical species demonstrates that AR but not PR reacts with the lignin model compound. Thus, AR and CR are primary agents for the degradation of non-phenolic lignin substructures.

  10. California Verbal Learning Test-II performance in schizophrenia as a function of ascertainment strategy: comparing the first and second phases of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William S; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Braff, David L; Calkins, Monica E; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-04-01

    The first phase of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-1) showed performance deficits in learning and memory on the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II) in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), compared to healthy comparison subjects (HCS). A question is whether the COGS-1 study, which used a family study design (i.e. studying relatively intact families), yielded "milder" SZ phenotypes than those acquired subsequently in the COGS-2 case-control design that did not recruit unaffected family members. CVLT-II performance was compared for the COGS-1 and COGS-2 samples. Analyses focused on learning, recall and recognition variables, with age, gender and education as covariates. Analyses of COGS-2 data explored effects of additional covariates and moderating factors in CVLT-II performance. 324 SZ subjects and 510 HCS had complete CVLT-II and covariate data in COGS-1, while 1356 SZ and 1036 HCS had complete data in COGS-2. Except for recognition memory, analysis of covariance showed significantly worse performance in COGS-2 on all CVLT-II variables for SZ and HCS, and remained significant in the presence of the covariates. Performance in each of the 5 learning trials differed significantly. However, effect sizes comparing cases and controls were comparable across the two studies. COGS-2 analyses confirmed SZ performance deficits despite effects of multiple significant covariates and moderating factors. CVLT-II performance was worse in COGS-2 than in COGS-1 for both the SZ and the HCS in this large cohort, likely due to cohort effects. Demographically corrected data yield a consistent pattern of performance across the two studies in SZ. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Estimation of the displacement of cardiac substructures and the motion of the coronary arteries using electrocardiographic gating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wenyong Tan,1,* Liying Xu,2,* Xiaohong Wang,1 Dasheng Qiu,3 Guang Han,1 Desheng Hu1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 3PET-CT Center, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors have contributed equally to this paper Purpose: The aim of this study was to quantify the displacement of cardiac substructures, including the anterior myocardial territory (AMT, left ventricle, and coronary arteries during a normal cardiac cycle. Materials and methods: Computed tomography (CT images with retrospective electrocardiographic gating of 17 eligible patients were obtained. All images were reconstructed automatically for the end-diastolic and end-systolic phases. CT scanning without contrast at a random phase and a selected vertebral body were used as references to measure three-dimensionaldisplacements of the cardiac substructures. Results: The displacement between the end-diastolic and end-systolic phases (Dd-s was greater than that between the end-systolic and random phases and between the end-diastolic and random cardiac phases. The largest displacements for the heart were in the left, posterior, and inferior directions with an average Dd-s of approximately 4–6 mm. The average Dd-s for the AMT and left ventricle was 1.2–2.7 mm in the anterior and right directions, 4.3–7.8 mm in left and posterior directions, and 4.9–6.3 mm in superior and inferior directions. For the coronary arteries, the average Dd-s was 2.8–5.9 mm in the anterior-posterior direction, 3.5–6.6 mm in left-right direction, and 3.8–5.3 mm in the superior-inferior direction. Inter-observer agreement was excellent for the heart, AMT, and left ventricle (kappa coefficient, >0.75 for all and good for most coronary arteries in three dimensions (kappa coefficient, 0.511–0.687. The Dd-s did not

  12. Aspects of dislocation substructures associated with the deformation stages of stainless steel AISI 304 at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.L.L.; Reis Filho, J.A.B.S.; Almeida, L.H. de; Monteiro, S.N.

    1978-07-01

    The development of dislocation substrutures in type 304 austenitic stainless steel at high temperatures has been associated with the deformation stages through log dσ/d epsilon x log epsilon plots, which show the transition point independently. The mechanisms responsible for the Dynamic Strain Aging particulary the Portevin-LeChatelier effect were related to the appearence of the stages. The results indicate that the deformation stages can be divided into two distinct regions. Each one of these region show particular characteristics with respect to the stress level, transition point, developed substructure and type of crystalline defects interaction with dislocations. (Author) [pt

  13. Weak lensing study of 16 DAFT/FADA clusters: Substructures and filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Nicolas; Clowe, Douglas; Durret, Florence; Adami, Christophe; Acebrón, Ana; Hernandez-García, Lorena; Márquez, Isabel; Guennou, Loic; Sarron, Florian; Ulmer, Mel

    2016-05-01

    While our current cosmological model places galaxy clusters at the nodes of a filament network (the cosmic web), we still struggle to detect these filaments at high redshifts. We perform a weak lensing study for a sample of 16 massive, medium-high redshift (0.4 DAFT/FADA survey, which are imaged in at least three optical bands with Subaru/Suprime-Cam or CFHT/MegaCam. We estimate the cluster masses using an NFW fit to the shear profile measured in a KSB-like method, adding our contribution to the calibration of the observable-mass relation required for cluster abundance cosmological studies. We compute convergence maps and select structures within these maps, securing their detection with noise resampling techniques. Taking advantage of the large field of view of our data, we study cluster environment, adding information from galaxy density maps at the cluster redshift and from X-ray images when available. We find that clusters show a large variety of weak lensing maps at large scales and that they may all be embedded in filamentary structures at megaparsec scale. We classify these clusters in three categories according to the smoothness of their weak lensing contours and to the amount of substructures: relaxed (~7%), past mergers (~21.5%), and recent or present mergers (~71.5%). The fraction of clusters undergoing merging events observationally supports the hierarchical scenario of cluster growth, and implies that massive clusters are strongly evolving at the studied redshifts. Finally, we report the detection of unusually elongated structures in CLJ0152, MACSJ0454, MACSJ0717, A851, BMW1226, MACSJ1621, and MS1621. This study is based on observations obtained with MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/IRFU, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii

  14. Comparing the life cycle costs of using harvest residue as feedstock for small- and large-scale bioenergy systems (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, Julian; Wolf, Derek P.; Caspersen, John P.

    2015-01-01

    In part II of our two-part study, we estimate the nominal electricity generation and GHG (greenhouse gas) mitigation costs of using harvest residue from a hardwood forest in Ontario, Canada to fuel (1) a small-scale (250 kW e ) combined heat and power wood chip gasification unit and (2) a large-scale (211 MW e ) coal-fired generating station retrofitted to combust wood pellets. Under favorable operational and regulatory conditions, generation costs are similar: 14.1 and 14.9 cents per kWh (c/kWh) for the small- and large-scale facilities, respectively. However, GHG mitigation costs are considerably higher for the large-scale system: $159/tonne of CO 2 eq., compared to $111 for the small-scale counterpart. Generation costs increase substantially under existing conditions, reaching: (1) 25.5 c/kWh for the small-scale system, due to a regulation mandating the continual presence of an operating engineer; and (2) 22.5 c/kWh for the large-scale system due to insufficient biomass supply, which reduces plant capacity factor from 34% to 8%. Limited inflation adjustment (50%) of feed-in tariff rates boosts these costs by 7% to 11%. Results indicate that policy generalizations based on scale require careful consideration of the range of operational/regulatory conditions in the jurisdiction of interest. Further, if GHG mitigation is prioritized, small-scale systems may be more cost-effective. - Highlights: • Generation costs for two forest bioenergy systems of different scales are estimated. • Nominal electricity costs are 14.1–28.3 cents/kWh for the small-scale plant. • Nominal electricity costs are 14.9–24.2 cents/kWh for the large-scale plant. • GHG mitigation costs from displacing coal and LPG are $111-$281/tonne of CO 2 eq. • High sensitivity to cap. factor (large-scale) and labor requirements (small-scale)

  15. Comparative study cephalometric-radiographic of the cephalo-facio-dental patterns in patients who presented normal occlusion and class II, division 1 malocclusions, considering variations of the FMA angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.M.N.

    1986-01-01

    The proposal of this job was to study cephalo-facio-dental patterns comparatively in patients who presented normal occlusion and Class II, division 1 malocclusions, considering variations of the FMA angle. The sample was composed of seventy-five telerradiographies on lateral pattern, obtained from Brazilian teenagers students of the ABC area (Santo Andre, Sao Bernardo do Campo and Sao Caetano do Sul), 'whites', who presented normal occlusion and Class II, division 1 malocclusions, without previous orthodontic treatment: their parents were Brazilian. (author) [pt

  16. Comparative energies of Zn(II) cation localization as a function of the distance between two forming cation position aluminium ions in high-silica zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kachurovskaya, N.A.; Zhidomirov, G.M.; van Santen, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Periodical calcns. of Zn(II) metal cation stabilization in cationic positions with distantly placed aluminum ions has been performed for high-silica ferrierite. It was found that decrease of the stabilization energy at large distances between Al ions (more than 10 .ANG.) is about of 2 eV in

  17. A randomized clinical multicentre trial comparing enamel matrix derivative and membrane treatment of buccal class II furcation involvement in mandibular molars. Part III: patient factors and treatment outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, T.; Richter, S; Meyle, J.; Gonzales, J.R.; Heinz, B.; Arjomand, M.; Sculean, A.; Reich, E.; Jepsen, K.J.; Jepsen, S.; Boedeker, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of effects of patient factors on the outcome of regenerative treatment of buccal mandibular class II furcation defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients were recruited. In the intention-to-treat population 21 patients were allocated into the sequence left treatment with

  18. 40 CFR Table C-5 to Subpart C of... - Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and III FEMs for PM10â2.5 and PM2.5 C Table C-5 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Between Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-5 Table C-5 to Subpart C of Part...

  19. In silico prediction of Tetrahymena pyriformis toxicity for diverse industrial chemicals with substructure pattern recognition and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feixiong; Shen, Jie; Yu, Yue; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Lee, Philip W; Tang, Yun

    2011-03-01

    There is an increasing need for the rapid safety assessment of chemicals by both industries and regulatory agencies throughout the world. In silico techniques are practical alternatives in the environmental hazard assessment. It is especially true to address the persistence, bioaccumulative and toxicity potentials of organic chemicals. Tetrahymena pyriformis toxicity is often used as a toxic endpoint. In this study, 1571 diverse unique chemicals were collected from the literature and composed of the largest diverse data set for T. pyriformis toxicity. Classification predictive models of T. pyriformis toxicity were developed by substructure pattern recognition and different machine learning methods, including support vector machine (SVM), C4.5 decision tree, k-nearest neighbors and random forest. The results of a 5-fold cross-validation showed that the SVM method performed better than other algorithms. The overall predictive accuracies of the SVM classification model with radial basis functions kernel was 92.2% for the 5-fold cross-validation and 92.6% for the external validation set, respectively. Furthermore, several representative substructure patterns for characterizing T. pyriformis toxicity were also identified via the information gain analysis methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. European Population Genetic Substructure: Further Definition of Ancestry Informative Markers for Distinguishing Among Diverse European Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E.; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4000 subjects genotyped for 300 thousand SNPs we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be effectively controlled in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity to perform additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets. PMID:19707526

  1. Crystal substructures of the rotation-twinned T (Al20Cu2Mn3) phase in 2024 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Z.Q.; Yang, Y.Q.; Huang, B.; Li, M.H.; Chen, Y.X.; Ru, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The substructures in rotation-twinned T (Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 ) particles were investigated. • A flattened hexagonal structural subunit with 20 atomic columns was proposed. • The stacking mode of these subunits at APB and TB were revealed. • The transition structures at twin domain junctions were unraveled. -- Abstract: The substructures in rotation-twinned T (Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 ) particles were investigated by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) in the present work. A flattened hexagonal structural subunit with 20 atomic columns was proposed. The stacking mode of these subunits in non-defective T phase was proved to be tessellation of many flattened hexagonal subunits with the same orientations, while the stacking modes near anti-phase boundary (APB) and twin boundary (TB) were tessellations of two differently oriented flattened hexagonal subunits. The transition region at twin domain junctions has hybrid structure and perfect or imperfect pentagram structure. Centered with the perfect pentagram transition structure, a rotation twin with ten fan-shaped domains and constituted by five twin variants can be deduced

  2. Magnetic field selective enhancement of Li I lines comparing Li II line in laser ablated lithium plasma at 10- 2 mbar air ambient gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Ding; Sun, Liying; Hai, Ran; Liu, Jiamin; Ding, Hongbin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of magnetic field (1.1 T) on the atomic and ionic spectral emission of a laser produced lithium plasma at low pressure has been investigated. The experimental results indicate that magnetic field enhances the intensities of Li I spectral lines but reduces the Li II spectral lines intensities. In this study, two narrowband filters were placed before the ICCD camera to observe the evolution feature of Li II spectral line (548.39 nm, 2p3P2,1,0 → 2s3S1) and Li I spectral line (610.30 nm, 3d2P3/2, 5/2 → 2p2P1/2, 3/2), respectively. The plasma dynamic images show that with the magnetic field, the number density of luminous Li atoms is higher, while the number density of luminous Li ions is lower in comparison to the field-free case. The reduced Li II spectral intensities indicate that the quenching rate of Li ions in the excited state is greater than that without the magnetic field. The enhanced impact frequency of recombination indicates that magnetic field increases the recombination process of electron and Li ions. All of these observations strongly suggest that magnetic confinement increases the recombination process of the electrons with Li ions in the plasma, which results in the decrease in the intensity of Li II line. The results are useful for applying laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to in-situ diagnose the processes of lithium wall conditioning in EAST tokamak.

  3. Genetic sub-structure in western Mediterranean populations revealed by 12 Y-chromosome STR loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, V; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sánchez, J J

    2008-01-01

    Haplotype and allele frequencies of 12 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385 a/b, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439) included in the Powerplex(R) Y System were determined in seven western Mediterranean populations from Valencia, Ma...

  4. Investigating the Role of Coherence Effects on Jet Quenching in Pb-Pb Collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV using Jet Substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardoshti, Nima; Alice Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We report measurements of two jet shapes, the ratio of 2-Subjettiness to 1-Subjettiness (τ2 /τ1) and the opening angle between the two axes of the 2-Subjettiness jet shape, which is obtained by reclustering the jet with the exclusive-kT algorithm [S.D.Ellis and D.E.Soper, Phys.Rev.B 48, 3160] and undoing the final clustering step. The aim of this measurement is to explore a possible change in the rate of 2-pronged objects in Pb-Pb compared to pp due to colour coherence. Coherence effects [Y.Mehtar-Tani, C.A.Salgado and K.Tywoniuk Phys. Rev. Lett. 106:122002, 2011] relate to the ability of the medium to resolve a jet's substructure, which has an impact on the energy loss magnitude and mechanism of the traversing jet. In both collision systems charged jets are found with the anti-kT algorithm [M.Cacciari, G.P.Salam and G.Soyez JHEP 0804:063, 2008], a resolution parameter of R = 0.4 and a constituent cut off of 0.15 GeV. This analysis uses hadron-jet coincidence techniques in Pb-Pb collisions to reject the combinatorial background and corrects further for background effects by employing various jet shape subtraction techniques and two dimensional unfolding. Measurements of the Nsubjettiness for jet momenta of 40-60 GeV/c in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV and pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV will be presented and compared to PYTHIA simulations.

  5. Comparative genome analysis of VSP-II and SNPs reveals heterogenic variation in contemporary strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from cholera patients in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Daisuke; Morita, Masatomo; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Tamaki; Takemura, Taichiro; Yamashiro, Tetsu; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Kuroda, Makoto; Shinoda, Sumio; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease and a major public health problem in many developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Since the Bay of Bengal is considered the epicenter for the seventh cholera pandemic, it is important to understand the genetic dynamism of Vibrio cholerae from Kolkata, as a representative of the Bengal region. We analyzed whole genome sequence data of V. cholerae O1 isolated from cholera patients in Kolkata, India, from 2007 to 2014 and identified the heterogeneous genomic region in these strains. In addition, we carried out a phylogenetic analysis based on the whole genome single nucleotide polymorphisms to determine the genetic lineage of strains in Kolkata. This analysis revealed the heterogeneity of the Vibrio seventh pandemic island (VSP)-II in Kolkata strains. The ctxB genotype was also heterogeneous and was highly related to VSP-II types. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed the shifts in predominant strains in Kolkata. Two distinct lineages, 1 and 2, were found between 2007 and 2010. However, the proportion changed markedly in 2010 and lineage 2 strains were predominant thereafter. Lineage 2 can be divided into four sublineages, I, II, III and IV. The results of this study indicate that lineages 1 and 2-I were concurrently prevalent between 2007 and 2009, and lineage 2-III observed in 2010, followed by the predominance of lineage 2-IV in 2011 and continued until 2014. Our findings demonstrate that the epidemic of cholera in Kolkata was caused by several distinct strains that have been constantly changing within the genetic lineages of V. cholerae O1 in recent years.

  6. Phase II Results of RTOG 0537: A Phase II/III Study Comparing Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Early Radiation-Induced Xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Raimond K. W.; James, Jennifer L.; Sagar, Stephen; Wyatt, Gwen; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc Felix; Singh, Anurag K.; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Cardinale, Francis; Yeh, Alexander M.; Berk, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This phase II component of a multi-institutional phase II/III randomized trial assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) in reducing radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods Head and neck cancer patients who were 3–24 months from completing radiotherapy ± chemotherapy (RT±C) and experiencing xerostomia symptoms with basal whole saliva production ≥0.1 ml/min and without recurrence were eligible. Patients received twice weekly ALTENS sessions (24 over 12 weeks) using a Codetron™ unit. The primary objective assessed the feasibility of ALTENS treatment. A patient was considered compliant if 19/24 ALTENS were delivered, with a targeted 85% compliance rate. Secondary objectives measured treatment-related toxicities and ALTENS effect on overall radiation-induced xerostomia burden using the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS). Results Of 48 accrued patients, 47 were evaluable. Median age was 60 years; 84% were male, 70% completed RT±C for > 12 months and 21% had received prior pilocarpine. All ALTENS sessions were completed in 34 patients, but 9 and 1 completed 20–23 and 19 sessions respectively, representing a 94% total compliance rate. 6-month XeQOLS scores were available for 35 patients; 30 (86%) achieved a positive treatment response with a mean reduction of 35.9% (SD 36.1). Five patients developed grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity and one had grade 1 pain event. Conclusions ALTENS treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia can be uniformly delivered in a cooperative multicenter setting and has possible beneficial treatment response. Given these results, the phase III component of this study was initiated. PMID:22252927

  7. California Verbal Learning Test-II performance in schizophrenia as a function of ascertainment strategy: Comparing the first and second phases of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS)

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, WS; Mesholam-Gately, RI; Braff, DL; Calkins, ME; Freedman, R; Green, MF; Greenwood, TA; Gur, RE; Gur, RCC; Lazzeroni, LC; Light, GA; Nuechterlein, KH; Olincy, A; Radant, AD; Siever, LJ

    2014-01-01

    © 2014. The first phase of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-1) showed performance deficits in learning and memory on the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II) in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), compared to healthy comparison subjects (HCS). A question is whether the COGS-1 study, which used a family study design (i.e. studying relatively intact families), yielded “milder“ SZ phenotypes than those acquired subsequently in the COGS-2 case-control de...

  8. California verbal learning test-ii performance in schizophrenia as a function of ascertainment strategy: Comparing the first and second phases of the consortium on the genetics of schizophrenia (COGS)

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, WS; Mesholam-Gately, RI; Braff, DL; Calkins, ME; Freedman, R; Green, MF; Greenwood, TA; Gur, RE; Gur, RC; Lazzeroni, LC; Light, GA; Nuechterlein, KH; Olincy, A; Radant, AD; Siever, LJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2014. The first phase of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-1) showed performance deficits in learning and memory on the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II) in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), compared to healthy comparison subjects (HCS). A question is whether the COGS-1 study, which used a family study design (i.e. studying relatively intact families), yielded "milder" SZ phenotypes than those acquired subsequently in the COGS-2 case-control de...

  9. Jet-substructure tools and boosted hadronic boson identification in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvetsov, Ivan; Mozer, Matthias; Mueller, Thomas [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), KIT (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    At the double central-mass energy in Run II boosted hadronic vector boson decays will be of greater importance than in Run I. One of the main challenges for the reconstruction of such hadronic decays in the coming LHC run will be increase of instantaneous luminosity which will result in a large number of additional proton-proton interactions (pileup). In particular the high pileup environment degrades the reconstruction of jet properties. In this talk the performance of several pileup mitigation tools such as charge hadron subtraction, pileup per particle identification (PUPPI) and grooming techniques is presented. Improvements of techniques for the identification of hadronically decaying vector bosons under the challenging conditions of Run II are also discussed.

  10. Definition of a concrete bio-decontamination process in nuclear substructures; Biodegradation de matrices cimentaires en vue de leur decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jestin, A

    2005-05-15

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high-importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those micro-organisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  11. Impact of Intragranular Substructure Parameters on the Forming Limit Diagrams of Single-Phase B.C.C. Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Franz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An advanced elastic-plastic self-consistent polycrystalline model, accounting for intragranular microstructure development and evolution, is coupled with a bifurcation-based localization criterion and applied to the numerical investigation of the impact of microstructural patterns on ductility of single-phase steels. The proposed multiscale model, taking into account essential microstructural aspects, such as initial and induced textures, dislocation densities, and softening mechanisms, allows us to emphasize the relationship between intragranular microstructure of B.C.C. steels and their ductility. A qualitative study in terms of forming limit diagrams for various dislocation networks, during monotonic loading tests, is conducted in order to analyze the impact of intragranular substructure parameters on the formability of single-phase B.C.C. steels.

  12. Rehabilitation of Nose following Chemical Burn Using CAD/CAM Made Substructure for Implant Retained Nasal Prosthesis: A Clinical Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chaturvedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient knowledge of medical chemicals and their improper use have destructive effects. Accidental exposure to chemicals on facial tissue may result in large facial defect. For ages the tradition of piercing nose is common but improper use of unknown chemical for piercing has deleterious effect. Mostly rhinectomy defects are acquired caused by trauma or malignant diseases. Prosthetic rehabilitation is the preferred treatment of choice for any large rhinectomy defects as medical and surgical interventions are ineffective in developing esthetics. Main concern with the prosthesis for such defects is retention. This article describes rehabilitation of a patient with large size nasal defect created by chemical burn in childhood during piercing. Implant retained customized silicone nasal prosthesis was fabricated using simple O-ring attachments and innovative modified polyamide acrylic resin substructure acting as skeleton.

  13. Effect of the shades of background substructures on the overall color of zirconia-based all-ceramic crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulapornchai, Chantana; Mamani, Jatuphol; Kamchatphai, Wannaporn; Thongpun, Noparat

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the color of a background substructure on the overall color of a zirconia-based all-ceramic crown. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty one posterior zirconia crowns were made for twenty subjects. Seven premolar crowns and six molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with metal post and core in the first and second group. In the third group, eight molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with a prefabricated post and composite core build-up. The color measurements of all-ceramic crowns were made before try-in, before and after cementation. A repeated measure ANOVA was used for a statistical analysis of a color change of all-ceramic crowns at α=.05. Twenty four zirconia specimens, with different core thicknesses (0.4-1 mm) were also prepared to obtain the contrast ratio of zirconia materials after veneering. RESULTS L*, a*, and b* values of all-ceramic crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or on a prefabricated post did not show significant changes (P>.05). However, the slight color changes of zirconia crowns were detected and represented by ΔE*ab values, ranging from 1.2 to 3.1. The contrast ratios of zirconia specimens were 0.92-0.95 after veneering. CONCLUSION No significant differences were observed between the L*, a*, and b* values of zirconia crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or a prefabricated post and composite core. However, the color of a background substructure could affect the overall color of posterior zirconia restorations with clinically recommended core thickness according to ΔE*ab values. PMID:24049574

  14. Effect of Angiotensin II Type I Receptor Blockade with Valsartan on Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Valsartan and Placebo (EFFERVESCENT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ronnie; Dhawan, Saurabh S; Binongo, José Nilo G; Alkhoder, Ayman; Jones, Dean P; Oshinski, John N; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-04-01

    Progression of atherosclerosis is associated with a greater risk for adverse outcomes. Angiotensin II plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the effects of angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockade with Valsartan on carotid wall atherosclerosis, with the hypothesis that Valsartan will reduce progression of atherosclerosis. Subjects (n = 120) with carotid intima-media thickness >0.65 mm by ultrasound were randomized (2:1) in a double-blind manner to receive either Valsartan or placebo for 2 years. Bilateral T2-weighted black-blood carotid magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Changes in the carotid bulb vessel wall area and wall thickness were primary endpoints. Secondary endpoints included changes in carotid plaque thickness, plasma levels of aminothiols, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular function. Over 2 years, the carotid bulb vessel wall area decreased with Valsartan (-6.7, 95% CI [-11.6, -1.9] mm(2)) but not with placebo (3.4, 95% CI [-2.8, 9.6] mm(2)), P = .01 between groups. Similarly, mean wall thickness decreased with Valsartan (-0.18, 95% CI [-0.30, -0.06] mm), but not with placebo (0.08, 95% CI [-0.07, 0.23] mm), P = .009 between groups. Furthermore, plaque thickness decreased with Valsartan (-0.35, 95% CI [-0.63, -0.08] mm) but was unchanged with placebo (+0.28, 95% CI [-0.11, 0.69] mm), P = .01 between groups. These findings were unaffected by statin therapy or changes in blood pressure. Notably, there were significant improvements in the aminothiol cysteineglutathione disulfide, and trends to improvements in fibrinogen levels and endothelium-independent vascular function. In subjects with carotid wall thickening, angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockade was associated with regression in carotid atherosclerosis. Whether these effects translate into improved outcomes in subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis

  15. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  16. Comparative study of the anchorage and the catalytic properties of nanoporous TiO2 films modified with ruthenium (II) and rhenium (I) carbonyl complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Diego P.; Chardon-Noblat, Sylvie; Linarez Pérez, Omar E.; López Teijelo, Manuel; Zúñiga, César; Zarate, Ximena; Shott, Eduardo; Carreño, Alexander; Arratia-Perez, Ramiro

    2018-02-01

    In this article we study the anchoring of cis-[Ru(bpyC4pyr)(CO)2(CH3CN)2]2+, cis-[Ru(bpy)2(CO)2]2+ and cis-[Ru(bpyac)(CO)2Cl2], onto nanoporous TiO2 employing electropolymerization, electrostatic interaction and chemical bonding. Also, the [Re(bpyac)(CO)3Cl] rhenium(I) complex for chemical anchorage was analyzed. The characterization of TiO2/Ru(II) and TiO2/Re(I) nanocomposite films was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, for the more stable nanocomposites obtained, the catalytic properties (solar energy conversion and CO2 reduction) were evaluated. The efficiency improvement in redox process derived from the (photo)electrochemical evidence indicates that modified nanoporous TiO2 structures enhance the rate of charge transfer reactions.

  17. Local Heat Application for the Treatment of Buruli Ulcer: Results of a Phase II Open Label Single Center Non Comparative Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bratschi, Martin W; Bolz, Miriam; Um Boock, Alphonse; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pluschke, Gerd; Junghanss, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease most prevalent among West African children. The causative organism, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is sensitive to temperatures above 37°C. We investigated the safety and efficacy of a local heat application device based on phase change material. In a phase II open label single center noncomparative clinical trial (ISRCTN 72102977) under GCP standards in Cameroon, laboratory confirmed BU patients received up to 8 weeks of heat treatment. We assessed efficacy based on the endpoints 'absence of clinical BU specific features' or 'wound closure' within 6 months ("primary cure"), and 'absence of clinical recurrence within 24 month' ("definite cure"). Of 53 patients 51 (96%) had ulcerative disease. 62% were classified as World Health Organization category II, 19% each as category I and III. The average lesion size was 45 cm(2). Within 6 months after completion of heat treatment 92.4% (49 of 53, 95% confidence interval [CI], 81.8% to 98.0%) achieved cure of their primary lesion. At 24 months follow-up 83.7% (41 of 49, 95% CI, 70.3% to 92.7%) of patients with primary cure remained free of recurrence. Heat treatment was well tolerated; adverse effects were occasional mild local skin reactions. Local thermotherapy is a highly effective, simple, cheap and safe treatment for M. ulcerans disease. It has in particular potential as home-based remedy for BU suspicious lesions at community level where laboratory confirmation is not available. ISRCT 72102977. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. Treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion using Eruption guidance appliance: A comparative study with Twin-block and Activator-Headgear appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jenny Jiayan Luo; Shu, Xiaochen; Magnusson, Britt Hedenberg; Burt, Idil Alatli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compliance and short-term effects of eruption guidance appliance (EGA) in adolescents with class II division 1 malocclusion in comparison with twin-block appliance (TBA) and activator-headgear appliance (A-HG). Dental records of 1886 patients were viewed in this retrospective study 129 patients treated with one of these three functional appliances were identified. 123 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and data were extracted from the dental records. Gender, age, compliance, overjet change at every visit, number of appliance breakages and number of emergency visits apart from appliance breakage were studied. The data were analyzed with Chi-square test, General Linear Model and Fisher scoring test. Results showed that 47 patients were treated with EGA, 38 patients with TBA and 38 patients with A-HG. Mean ages starting the treatment were slightly lower with EGA (11.5 years) than with TBA (12.3 years) and A-HG (11.8 years). Non-compliance was higher in the EGA group (31.9%) than TBA group (26.3%) and A-HG group (23.7%). Mean overjet reduction per month was 0.6 mm for EGA which was lower than TBA group (0.7 mm) and A-HG groups (0.7 mm).The number of emergency visits and appliance breakage were lower in EGA group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the 3 groups regarding ages,compliance, mean overjet reduction, emergency visits and appliance breakage aspects. In conclusion, this study indicates that EGA is an alternative choice in the treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion. However, long-term follow-up and cephalometric prospective study should be performed to continue our understanding more about the mechanisms of EGA and more definite conclusions can be made.

  19. Comparing the Suitability of Autodock, Gold and Glide for the Docking and Predicting the Possible Targets of Ru(II-Based Complexes as Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo A. Adeniyi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In cancer chemotherapy, metal-based complexes have been recognized as the most promising means of inhibiting cancer growth due to the successful application of cis-platin and its derivatives above many of the existing organic anticancer agents. The limitations in their rational design can be traced to the complexity of the mechanism of their operations, lack of proper knowledge of their targets and lack of force fields in docking packages to appropriately define the metal centre of the organometallic complexes. In this paper, some of the promising anticancer complexes of Ru(II such as the rapta-based complexes formulated as [Ru(η6-p-cymeneL2(pta] and those with unusual ligands are considered. CatB and kinases which have been experimentally confirmed as possible targets of the complexes are also predicted by the three methods as one of the most targeted receptors while TopII and HDAC7 are predicted by two and one of the methods as best targets. The interesting features of the binding of the complexes show that some of the complexes preferentially target specific macromolecules than the others, which is an indication of their specificity and possibility of their therapeutic combination without severe side effects that may come from competition for the same target. Also, introduction of unusual ligands is found to significantly improve the activities of most of the complexes studied. Strong correlations are observed for the predicted binding sites and the orientation of the complexes within the binding site by the three methods of docking. However there are disparities in the ranking of the complexes by the three method of docking, especially that of Glide.

  20. Comparative genomic analysis reveals independent expansion of a lineage-specific gene family in vertebrates: The class II cytokine receptors and their ligands in mammals and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogensen Knud

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high degree of sequence conservation between coding regions in fish and mammals can be exploited to identify genes in mammalian genomes by comparison with the sequence of similar genes in fish. Conversely, experimentally characterized mammalian genes may be used to annotate fish genomes. However, gene families that escape this principle include the rapidly diverging cytokines that regulate the immune system, and their receptors. A classic example is the class II helical cytokines (HCII including type I, type II and lambda interferons, IL10 related cytokines (IL10, IL19, IL20, IL22, IL24 and IL26 and their receptors (HCRII. Despite the report of a near complete pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes genome sequence, these genes remain undescribed in fish. Results We have used an original strategy based both on conserved amino acid sequence and gene structure to identify HCII and HCRII in the genome of another pufferfish, Tetraodon nigroviridis that is amenable to laboratory experiments. The 15 genes that were identified are highly divergent and include a single interferon molecule, three IL10 related cytokines and their potential receptors together with two Tissue Factor (TF. Some of these genes form tandem clusters on the Tetraodon genome. Their expression pattern was determined in different tissues. Most importantly, Tetraodon interferon was identified and we show that the recombinant protein can induce antiviral MX gene expression in Tetraodon primary kidney cells. Similar results were obtained in Zebrafish which has 7 MX genes. Conclusion We propose a scheme for the evolution of HCII and their receptors during the radiation of bony vertebrates and suggest that the diversification that played an important role in the fine-tuning of the ancestral mechanism for host defense against infections probably followed different pathways in amniotes and fish.

  1. Effect of Angiotensin II Type I Receptor Blockade with Valsartan on Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Valsartan and Placebo (EFFERVESCENT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ronnie; Dhawan, Saurabh S.; Binongo, José Nilo G.; Alkhoder, Ayman; Jones, Dean P.; Oshinski, John N.; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Progression of atherosclerosis is associated with a greater risk for adverse outcomes. Angiotensin II plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the effects of Angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) blockade with Valsartan on carotid wall atherosclerosis, with the hypothesis that Valsartan will reduce progression of atherosclerosis. Methods Subjects (n= 120) with carotid intima-media thickness >0.65mm by ultrasound were randomized (2:1) in a double-blind manner to receive either Valsartan or placebo for 2 years. Bilateral T2-weighted black-blood carotid magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Changes in the carotid bulb vessel wall area (VWA) and wall thickness (WT) were primary endpoints. Secondary endpoints included changes in carotid plaque thickness, plasma levels of aminothiols, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular function. Results Over 2 years, the carotid bulb VWA decreased with Valsartan (−6.7, 95% CI: (−11.6,−1.9) mm2) but not with placebo (3.4, 95% CI: (−2.8,9.6) mm2)), p=0.01 between groups. Similarly, mean WT decreased with Valsartan (−0.18, 95% CI: (−0.30,−0.06) mm), but not with placebo (0.08, 95% CI: (−0.07,0.23) mm),), p=0.009 between groups. Furthermore, plaque thickness decreased with Valsartan (−0.35, 95% CI: (−0.63,−0.08) mm) but was unchanged with placebo (+0.28, 95% CI: (−0.11,0.69) mm), p=0.01 between groups. These findings were unaffected by statin therapy or changes in blood pressure. Notably, there were significant improvements in the aminothiol cysteineglutathione disulfide, and trends to improvements in fibrinogen levels and endothelium–independent vascular function. Conclusions In subjects with carotid wall thickening, AT1R blockade was associated with regression in carotid atherosclerosis. Whether these effects translate into improved outcomes in subjects with

  2. Effect of dispersion on surface interactions of cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin monolayer on Au(111) and HOPG(0001) substrates: a comparative first principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Bhaskar; Mazur, Ursula; Hipps, K W

    2014-07-21

    A density functional theory study of a cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin (CoOEP) monolayer on Au(111) and HOPG(0001) surfaces was performed under periodic boundary conditions. Calculations with and without dispersion corrections are performed and the effect of van der Waals forces on the interface properties is analyzed. Calculations have determined that the CoOEP molecule tends to bind at the 3-fold and the 6-fold center sites on Au(111) and HOPG(0001), respectively. Geometric optimizations at the center binding sites have indicated that the porphyrin molecules (in the monolayer) lie flat on both substrates. Calculations also reveal that the CoOEP monolayer binds slightly more strongly to Au(111) than to HOPG(0001). Charge density difference plots disclose that charge is redistributed mostly around the porphyrin plane and the first layer of the substrates. Dispersion interactions cause a larger substrate to molecule charge pushback on Au(111) than on HOPG. CoOEP adsorption tends to lower the work functions of either substrate, qualitatively agreeing with the experimental photoelectron spectroscopic data. Comparison of the density of states (DOS) of the isolated CoOEP molecule with that on gold and HOPG substrates showed significant band shifts around the Fermi energy due to intermolecular orbital hybridization. Simulated STM images were plotted with the Tersoff-Hamann approach using the local density of states, which also agree with the experimental results. This study elucidates the role of dispersion for better describing porphyrin-substrate interactions. A DFT based overview of geometric, adsorption and electronic properties of a porphyrin monolayer on conductive surfaces is presented.

  3. Comparative biological evaluation between 99mTc tricarbonyl and 99mTc-Sn(II) levosalbutamol as a β2-adrenoceptor agonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanad, Mahmoud H.; Borai, Emad H.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the comparison between 99m Tc-tricarbonyl and 99m Tc-Sn (II) levosalbutamol as a β 2 -adrenoceptors radiopharmaceutical and evaluation of their different biological characteristics using experimental animals. Levosalbutamol was labeled firstly with 99m Tc in the presence of SnCl 2 . 2H 2 O as a reducing agent under the optimum conditions: pH 8, 50 μg SnCl 2 . 2H 2 O, room temperature, 40 μg levosalbutamol and 30 min reaction time to give a maximum radiochemical yield of 98 ± 0.1%. The obtained 99m Tc-levosalbutamol was stable for a time up to 8 h. Secondly, 99m Tc-tricarbonyl ([ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] + ) levosalbutamol was prepare under 30 min heating at 100 C. Labeling yield and stability were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (labeling yield >99% and stability for 8 h). Biodistribution investigation showed that, the maximum uptake ratio of the 99m Tc-levosalbutamol ( 99m Tc-Lev) between lung and heart was 2.34 ± 0.62 % of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 30 min post-injection. But in case of 99m Tc-tricarbonyl levosalbutamol ( 99m Tc-tricarbonyl Lev) the maximum uptake ratio was 3.6 ± 0.11 of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 30 min post-injection. This indicates that 99m Tc-tricarbonyl levosalbutamol was more selective for lung β 2 -adrenoceptors than 99m Tc-levosalbutamol. These results introduce 99m Tc-tricarbonyl levosalbutamol as a novel potential radiopharmaceutical for lung imaging.

  4. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice: Part II: Impact on specific chemical and biochemical quality parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Grauwet, T.; Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of thermal, high pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for mild pasteurization of orange juice was compared on a fair basis, using processing conditions leading to an equivalent degree of microbial inactivation. Examining the effect on specific chemical and biochemical

  5. L`ANALYSE COMPARATIVE DES FUSIONS-ACQUISITIONS AVEC LES AUTRES FORMES DE CROISSANCE DES ENTREPRISES (II- FUSIONS- ACQUISITIONS VS. ALLIANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancea Mariana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Development through mergers and acquisitions is a companys external growth strategy, as well as business alliances, but these options can not be mistaken, because the characteristics, stakes and risks are fundamentally different nature. In this paper we intent to analyze mergers and acquisitions compared with other ways of the companys external growth, by presenting the main similarities and differences between them.

  6. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  7. Comparative study of trusses to determine the influence of the geometry in the structural efficiency, according to the directions of the principal stresses : Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Señís, Roger; Brufau, Robert; Sastre, Ramón; Carbajal, Eusebio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Congreso celebrado en la Escuela de Arquitectura de la Universidad de Sevilla desde el 24 hasta el 26 de junio de 2015. This study compares flat lattice girders mounted on two supports, based on various design parameters, to determine which have better structural performance and what geometries are more efficient. The fundamental goal is to determine the relationship of performance and structural behaviour of each type of framework structure, with respect to the principle of optimization a...

  8. A comparative evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and Multi-Slice CT (MSCT). Part II: On 3D model accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xin; Lambrichts, Ivo; Sun Yi; Denis, Kathleen; Hassan, Bassam; Li Limin; Pauwels, Ruben; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The study aim was to compare the geometric accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) surface model reconstructions between five Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scanners and one Multi-Slice CT (MSCT) system. Materials and methods: A dry human mandible was scanned with five CBCT systems (NewTom 3G, Accuitomo 3D, i-CAT, Galileos, Scanora 3D) and one MSCT scanner (Somatom Sensation 16). A 3D surface bone model was created from the six systems. The reference (gold standard) 3D model was obtained with a high resolution laser surface scanner. The 3D models from the five systems were compared with the gold standard using a point-based rigid registration algorithm. Results: The mean deviation from the gold standard for MSCT was 0.137 mm and for CBCT were 0.282, 0.225, 0.165, 0.386 and 0.206 mm for the i-CAT, Accuitomo, NewTom, Scanora and Galileos, respectively. Conclusion: The results show that the accuracy of CBCT 3D surface model reconstructions is somewhat lower but acceptable comparing to MSCT from the gold standard.

  9. Part II: Biomechanical assessment for a footprint-restoring transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair technique compared with a double-row repair technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Maxwell C; Tibone, James E; ElAttrache, Neal S; Ahmad, Christopher S; Jun, Bong-Jae; Lee, Thay Q

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that a transosseous-equivalent repair would demonstrate improved tensile strength and gap formation between the tendon and tuberosity when compared with a double-row technique. In 6 fresh-frozen human shoulders, a transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair was performed: a suture limb from each of two medial anchors was bridged over the tendon and fixed laterally with an interference screw. In 6 contralateral matched-pair specimens, a double-row repair was performed. For all repairs, a materials testing machine was used to load each repair cyclically from 10 N to 180 N for 30 cycles; each repair underwent tensile testing to measure failure loads at a deformation rate of 1 mm/sec. Gap formation between the tendon edge and insertion was measured with a video digitizing system. The mean ultimate load to failure was significantly greater for the transosseous-equivalent technique (443.0 +/- 87.8 N) compared with the double-row technique (299.2 +/- 52.5 N) (P = .043). Gap formation during cyclic loading was not significantly different between the transosseous-equivalent and double-row techniques, with mean values of 3.74 +/- 1.51 mm and 3.79 +/- 0.68 mm, respectively (P = .95). Stiffness for all cycles was not statistically different between the two constructs (P > .40). The transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair technique improves ultimate failure loads when compared with a double-row technique. Gap formation is similar for both techniques. A transosseous-equivalent repair helps restore footprint dimensions and provides a stronger repair than the double-row technique, which may help optimize healing biology.

  10. CELL RESPIRATION STUDIES : II. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF BLOOD FROM NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH INCREASED LEUCOCYTE COUNTS (SEPSIS; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUCEMIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daland, G A; Isaacs, R

    1927-06-30

    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells.

  11. Analysis of Polymorphisms in the Merozoite Surface Protein-3a Gene and Two Microsatellite Loci in Sri Lankan Plasmodium vivax: Evidence of Population Substructure in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The geographical distribution of genetic variation in Plasmodium vivax samples (N = 386) from nine districts across Sri Lanka is described using three markers; the P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3a (Pvmsp-3a) gene, and the two microsatellites m1501 and m3502. At Pvmsp-3a, 11 alleles....... The results show evidence of high genetic diversity and possible population substructure of P. vivax populations in Sri Lanka....

  12. Recovery and deformation substructures of zircaloy-4 in high temperature plasticity under stationary or non-stationary stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocek, M.; Armas, I.

    1982-01-01

    It was the aim of the present investigation to examine how the recovery rate in creep is influenced by a non-stationary stress. For purposes of phenomenological analysis it is postulated that, irrespective of whether the applied stress is stationary or not, for large strains the mean internal stress sigmasub(i) approaches a stationary value sigmasub(i,s). The stationary recovery rate Rsub(s) for constant load creep turns out be governed by the applied stress indicating that the recovery mechanism is dynamic in nature. For sigma-ramp loading, Rsub(s) is dependent on the stress rate sigma. In tensional stress cycling, Rsub(s) is governed by the maximum stress sigmasub(M) and is also dependent on the ratio of sigmasub(M) to the minimum stress sigma 0 . TEM examination of Zircaloy-4 specimens crept at 800 0 C at constant and cycling load respectively could not reveal any differences in the deformation substructure for the two loading types. Subgrain formation did not appear, individual dislocations were observed only rarely. However, typical networks were formed as well as pileups which perhaps are responsible for the back stress in high temperature plasticity (HTP). (orig.)

  13. Search for vector-like T' quarks using tools for the analysis of jet substructure with the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Haller, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    A search for pairs of vector-like T' quark produced in proton-proton collisions recorded with the CMS experiment at p s = 8 TeV is presented. The search is optimized for decays of T' quarks to top quarks and Higgs bosons, where the top quarks and Higgs bosons decay hadronically. The T'-quark mass range between 500 and 1000 GeV is investigated. The top quarks and Higgs bosons produced in decays of the heavy T' quarks acquire large Lorentz boosts. The signatures of these particles in the detector can overlap and are therefore dicult to resolve using classical jet reconstruction methods. Large-radius jets are reconstructed and subjets formed from their constituents. The decay products of particles with large Lorentz boosts are highly collimated and can all be found within a single one of these large-radius jets. Top jets containing hadronic top-quark decays are identied with a top-tagging algorithm that analyzes the jet substructure. A b-tagging algorithm is applied to the reconstructed subjets in order to nd bo...

  14. Predictive modeling of interfacial damage in substructured steels: application to martensitic microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresca, F; Kouznetsova, V G; Geers, M G D

    2016-01-01

    Metallic composite phases, like martensite present in conventional steels and new generation high strength steels exhibit microscale, locally lamellar microstructures characterized by alternating layers of phases or crystallographic variants. The layers can be sub-micron down to a few nanometers thick, and they are often characterized by high contrasts in plastic properties. As a consequence, fracture in these lamellar microstructures generally occurs along the layer interfaces or within one of the layers, typically parallel to the interface. This paper presents a computational framework that addresses the lamellar nature of these microstructures, by homogenizing the plastic deformation at the mesoscale by using the microscale response of the laminates. Failure is accounted for by introducing a family of damaging planes that are parallel to the layer interface. Mode I, mode II and mixed-mode opening are incorporated. The planes along which failure occurs are captured using a smeared damage approach. Coupling of damage with isotropic or anisotropic plasticity models, like crystal plasticity, is straightforward. The damaging planes and directions do not need to correspond to crystalline slip planes, and normal opening is also included. Focus is given on rate-dependent formulations of plasticity and damage, i.e. converged results can be obtained without further regularization techniques. The validation of the model using experimental observations in martensite-austenite lamellar microstructures in steels reveals that the model correctly predicts the main features of the onset of failure, e.g. the necking point, the failure initiation region and the failure mode. Finally, based on the qualitative results obtained, some material design guidelines are provided for martensitic and multi-phase steels. (paper)

  15. Free Vibration Analysis of a Spinning Flexible DISK-SPINDLE System Supported by Ball Bearing and Flexible Shaft Using the Finite Element Method and Substructure Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    JANG, G. H.; LEE, S. H.; JUNG, M. S.

    2002-03-01

    Free vibration of a spinning flexible disk-spindle system supported by ball bearing and flexible shaft is analyzed by using Hamilton's principle, FEM and substructure synthesis. The spinning disk is described by using the Kirchhoff plate theory and von Karman non-linear strain. The rotating spindle and stationary shaft are modelled by Rayleigh beam and Euler beam respectively. Using Hamilton's principle and including the rigid body translation and tilting motion, partial differential equations of motion of the spinning flexible disk and spindle are derived consistently to satisfy the geometric compatibility in the internal boundary between substructures. FEM is used to discretize the derived governing equations, and substructure synthesis is introduced to assemble each component of the disk-spindle-bearing-shaft system. The developed method is applied to the spindle system of a computer hard disk drive with three disks, and modal testing is performed to verify the simulation results. The simulation result agrees very well with the experimental one. This research investigates critical design parameters in an HDD spindle system, i.e., the non-linearity of a spinning disk and the flexibility and boundary condition of a stationary shaft, to predict the free vibration characteristics accurately. The proposed method may be effectively applied to predict the vibration characteristics of a spinning flexible disk-spindle system supported by ball bearing and flexible shaft in the various forms of computer storage device, i.e., FDD, CD, HDD and DVD.

  16. Lensing substructure quantification in RXJ1131-1231: a 2 keV lower bound on dark matter thermal relic mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, Simon; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: simon.birrer@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-05-01

    We study the substructure content of the strong gravitational lens RXJ1131-1231 through a forward modelling approach that relies on generating an extensive suite of realistic simulations. We use a semi-analytic merger tree prescription that allows us to stochastically generate substructure populations whose properties depend on the dark matter particle mass. These synthetic halos are then used as lenses to produce realistic mock images that have the same features, e.g. luminous arcs, quasar positions, instrumental noise and PSF, as the data. We then analyse the data and the simulations in the same way with summary statistics that are sensitive to the signal being targeted and are able to constrain models of dark matter statistically using Approximate Bayesian Computing (ABC) techniques. (In this work, we focus on the thermal relic mass estimate and fix the semi-analytic descriptions of the substructure evolution based on recent literature.) We are able, based on the HST data for RXJ1131-1231, to rule out a warm dark matter thermal relic mass below 2 keV at the 2σ confidence level.

  17. Comparative study of type-II superconducting properties in polycrystalline NdFeAsO0.88F0.12 prepared by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, X.D.; Wang, H.C.; Shi, Z.X.; Ren, Z.A.; Yang, J.; Lu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline NdFeAsO 0.88 F 0.12 superconductors prepared by high pressure (HP) and ambient pressure (AP) methods were comparatively studied by magnetization and transport measurements. Upper critical field H c2 , irreversibility field H irr and the anisotropy parameter Γ were estimated from resistance transition curves. The broadening of transition width was observed, and was ascribed to both H c2 anisotropy and superconductivity inhomogeneity of samples. Magnetic hysteresis loops (MHLs) in low fields were measured to detect the trace of weak-link behavior. The reclosed hysteresis loops in low fields indicate that there are weak links in both samples. Magnetization critical current density J cm were derived from MHLs. Sample HP shows higher J cm than sample AP. Direct transport I-V measurements show that the transport critical current density J ct are very low but persist up to 9 T, suggesting intrinsic strong-link existing in both samples.

  18. How narrow-band and broad-band uvb irradiation influences the immunohistochemistry analyses of experimental animals’ skin – a comparative study. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Borowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of the artcle series impact narrow-band UVB radiation (NB-UVB and broad-band UVB radiation (BB-UVB on experimental animals’ skin (white Wistar female rats. The aim of this comparative study was immunohistochemistry analyses containing expression of p53 protein. Expression of p53 protein was performed on two experimental groups. One – exposed to NB-UVB; the other – exposed to BB-UVB radiation. The results indicate that p53 protein takes an active part in the process of apoptosis that is induced by both NB-UVB and BB-UVB. The results showed an increase in p53 expressing cells following BB-UVB than NB-UVB phototherapy.

  19. Comparative study of the effects of PM1-induced oxidative stress on autophagy and surfactant protein B and C expressions in lung alveolar type II epithelial MLE-12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ru; Guan, Longfei; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jinxia; Rui, Wei; Zhang, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2016-12-01

    There is a strong link between smaller air pollution particles and a range of serious health conditions. Thus, there is a need for understanding the impacts of airborne fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of PM1) on lung alveolar epithelial cells. In the present study, mouse lung epithelial type II cell MLE-12 cells were used to examine the intracellular oxidative responses and the surfactant protein expressions after exposure to various concentrations of PM1 collected from an urban site and a steel-factory site (referred as uPM1 and sPM1 hereafter, respectively). Physicochemical characterization of PM1 was performed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity and autophagy induced by PM1 were assessed by using comprehensive approaches after MLE-12 cells were exposed to different concentrations of PM1 for various times. Expression of surfactant proteins B and C in MLE-12 cells was determined by Western blotting. All of the tested PM1 induced cytotoxicity evidenced by significant decrease of cell viability and increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in the exposed cells compared with the unexposed cells. A similar pattern of increase of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was also observed. PM1-induced autophagy was evidenced by an increase in microtubule-associated protein light chain-3 (LC3) puncta, accumulation of LC3II, and increased levels of beclin1. Data from Western blotting showed significant decrease of surfactant protein B and C expressions. Relatively high concentrations of transition metals, including Fe, Cu and Mn, may be responsible for the higher toxicity of sPM1 compared with uPM1. Moreover, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or Chelex (a metal chelating agent, which removes a large suite of metals from PM1) prevented the increase of

  20. Comparison of tolerance to soil acidity among crop plants. II. Tolerance to high levels of aluminum and manganese. Comparative plant nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A; Hayakawa, Y

    1975-01-01

    Research was conducted by growing various species of plants in solutions containing high concentrations of manganese or aluminum. A comparison was made of the tolerance of these plants to low pH and to the manganese and aluminum. In addition, the element content of the plants was compared. Plants high in calcium were found to have an intermediate tolerance to high concentrations of manganese and aluminum. Gramineae had a high tolerance to these elements and to low pH. They also accumulated high levels of these elements. Legumes had a high tolerance to manganese and aluminum and to low pH. However, they also accumulated high levels of these elements. Legumes had a high tolerance to manganese and aluminum and to low pH. However, they also accumulated high levels of these elements. Cruciferae had a low tolerance to the elements and to low pH. They contained low levels of manganese and aluminum. Chenopodiaceae had a low tolerance to the elements as well as low element contents. However, they were highly tolerant to low pH.

  1. Comparative factor analysis models for an empirical study of EEG data, II: A data-guided resolution of the rotation indeterminacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L J; Douglas, R R

    1984-02-01

    In this paper (the second in a series), we consider a (generic) pair of datasets, which have been analyzed by the techniques of the previous paper. Thus, their "stable subspaces" have been established by comparative factor analysis. The pair of datasets must satisfy two confirmable conditions. The first is the "Inclusion Condition," which requires that the stable subspace of one of the datasets is nearly identical to a subspace of the other dataset's stable subspace. On the basis of that, we have assumed the pair to have similar generating signals, with stochastically independent generators. The second verifiable condition is that the (presumed same) generating signals have distinct ratios of variances for the two datasets. Under these conditions a small elaboration of some elementary linear algebra reduces the rotation problem to several eigenvalue-eigenvector problems. Finally, we emphasize that an analysis of each dataset by the method of Douglas and Rogers (1983) is an essential prerequisite for the useful application of the techniques in this paper. Nonempirical methods of estimating the number of factors simply will not suffice, as confirmed by simulations reported in the previous paper.

  2. Comparative study of open and arthroscopic coracoid transfer for shoulder anterior instability (Latarjet)-computed tomography evaluation at a short term follow-up. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordasiewicz, Bartłomiej; Kicinski, Maciej; Małachowski, Konrad; Wieczorek, Janusz; Chaberek, Sławomir; Pomianowski, Stanisław

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the radiological parameters after arthroscopic and open Latarjet technique via evaluation of computed tomography (CT) scans. Our hypothesis was that the radiological results after arthroscopic stabilisation remained in the proximity of those results achieved after open stabilisation. CT scan evaluation results of patients after primary Latarjet procedure were analysed. Patients operated on between 2006 and 2011 using an open technique composed the OPEN group and patients operated on arthroscopically between 2011 and 2013 composed the ARTHRO group. Forty-three out of 55 shoulders (78.2%) in OPEN and 62 out of 64 shoulders (95.3%) in ARTHRO were available for CT scan evaluation. The average age at surgery was 28 years in OPEN and 26 years in ARTHRO. The mean follow-up was 54.2 months in OPEN and 23.4 months in ARTHRO. CT scan evaluation was used to assess graft fusion and osteolysis. Bone block position and screw orientation were assessed in the axial and the sagittal views. The subscapularis muscle fatty infiltration was evaluated according to Goutallier classification. The non-union rate was significantly higher in OPEN than in ARTHRO: 5 (11.9%) versus 1 (1.7%) (p OPEN group: five cases (11.9%) versus zero in ARTHRO (p OPEN group (p > 0.05). These results should be evaluated very carefully due to significant difference in the follow-up of both groups. A significantly higher rate of partial graft osteolysis at the level of the superior screw was reported in ARTHRO with 32 patients (53.3%) versus 10 (23.8%) in OPEN (p OPEN had the coracoid bone block in an acceptable position (between 4 mm medially and 2 mm laterally). In the sagittal plane, the bone block was in an acceptable position between 2 and 5 o'clock in 86.7% of patients in ARTHRO and 90.2% in OPEN (p > 0.05). However, in the position between 3 and 5 o'clock there were 56.7% of the grafts in ARTHRO versus 87.8% in OPEN (p OPEN group

  3. Randomized phase II study of gefitinib compared with placebo in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and poor performance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Glenwood; Ferry, David; Wierzbicki, Rafal; Laurie, Scott A; Thompson, Joyce; Biesma, Bonne; Hirsch, Fred R; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Duffield, Emma; Ataman, Ozlem U; Zarenda, Marc; Armour, Alison A

    2009-05-01

    To compare gefitinib with placebo in chemotherapy naïve patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and poor performance status. NSCLC patients (chemotherapy naïve, WHO performance status 2 or 3; unfit for chemotherapy; stage IIIB/IV) were randomly assigned to gefitinib (250 mg/d) plus best supportive care (BSC; n = 100) or placebo plus BSC (n = 101). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), quality of life (QOL), pulmonary symptom improvement (PSI), and safety. Correlation of gefitinib efficacy with EGFR gene copy number (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH]) was explored. Hazard ratios (HRs; gefitinib:placebo) were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.60 to 1.12; P = .217) for PFS and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.15; P = .272) for OS. As expected for this patient population, OS for both arms was poor, at about 3 months. ORRs were 6.0% (gefitinib) and 1.0% (placebo). QOL and PSI rates were 21.1% and 28.3% (gefitinib) and 20.0% and 28.3% (placebo), respectively. In EGFR FISH-positive patients (n = 32), HRs were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.73) for PFS and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.12) for OS. No unexpected adverse events occurred. There was no statistically significant difference in PFS, OS, and ORRs after treatment with gefitinib or placebo, in the overall population; improvements in QOL and symptoms were similar in both groups. Tolerability profile of gefitinib was consistent with previous studies. PFS was statistically significantly improved for gefitinib-treated patients with EGFR FISH-positive tumors.

  4. Randomized Phase II Study of Gefitinib Compared With Placebo in Chemotherapy-Naive Patients With Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Poor Performance Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Glenwood; Ferry, David; Wierzbicki, Rafal; Laurie, Scott A.; Thompson, Joyce; Biesma, Bonne; Hirsch, Fred R.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Duffield, Emma; Ataman, Ozlem U.; Zarenda, Marc; Armour, Alison A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare gefitinib with placebo in chemotherapy naïve patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and poor performance status. Patients and Methods NSCLC patients (chemotherapy naïve, WHO performance status 2 or 3; unfit for chemotherapy; stage IIIB/IV) were randomly assigned to gefitinib (250 mg/d) plus best supportive care (BSC; n = 100) or placebo plus BSC (n = 101). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), quality of life (QOL), pulmonary symptom improvement (PSI), and safety. Correlation of gefitinib efficacy with EGFR gene copy number (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH]) was explored. Results Hazard ratios (HRs; gefitinib:placebo) were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.60 to 1.12; P = .217) for PFS and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.15; P = .272) for OS. As expected for this patient population, OS for both arms was poor, at about 3 months. ORRs were 6.0% (gefitinib) and 1.0% (placebo). QOL and PSI rates were 21.1% and 28.3% (gefitinib) and 20.0% and 28.3% (placebo), respectively. In EGFR FISH-positive patients (n = 32), HRs were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.73) for PFS and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.12) for OS. No unexpected adverse events occurred. Conclusion There was no statistically significant difference in PFS, OS, and ORRs after treatment with gefitinib or placebo, in the overall population; improvements in QOL and symptoms were similar in both groups. Tolerability profile of gefitinib was consistent with previous studies. PFS was statistically significantly improved for gefitinib-treated patients with EGFR FISH-positive tumors. PMID:19289623

  5. Individual fluorouracil dose adjustment in FOLFOX based on pharmacokinetic follow-up compared with conventional body-area-surface dosing: a phase II, proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitain, Olivier; Asevoaia, Andreaa; Boisdron-Celle, Michele; Poirier, Anne-Lise; Morel, Alain; Gamelin, Erick

    2012-12-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacokinetically (PK) guided fluorouracil (5-FU) dose adjustment vs. standard body-surface-area (BSA) dosing in a FOLFOX (folinic acid, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin) regimen in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A total of 118 patients with mCRC were administered individually determined PK-adjusted 5-FU in first-line FOLFOX chemotherapy. The comparison arm consisted of 39 patients, and these patients were also treated with FOLFOX with 5-FU by BSA. For the PK-adjusted arm 5-FU was monitored during infusion, and the dose for the next cycle was based on a dose-adjustment chart to achieve a therapeutic area under curve range (5-FU(ODPM Protocol)). The objective response rate was 69.7% in the PK-adjusted arm, and median overall survival and median progression-free survival were 28 and 16 months, respectively. In the traditional patients who received BSA dosage, objective response rate was 46%, and overall survival and progression-free survival were 22 and 10 months, respectively. Grade 3/4 toxicity was 1.7% for diarrhea, 0.8% for mucositis, and 18% for neutropenia in the dose-monitored group; they were 12%, 15%, and 25%, respectively, in the BSA group. Efficacy and tolerability of PK-adjusted FOLFOX dosing was much higher than traditional BSA dosing in agreement with previous reports for 5-FU monotherapy PK-adjusted dosing. Analysis of these results suggests that PK-guided 5-FU therapy offers added value to combination therapy for mCRC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on the risk of pneumonia and severe exacerbations in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai CC

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Cheng Lai,1 Ya-Hui Wang,2 Cheng-Yi Wang,3 Hao-Chien Wang,4 Chong-Jen Yu,4 Likwang Chen5 On behalf of the Taiwan Clinical Trial Consortium for Respiratory Diseases (TCORE 1Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Taiwan; 2Medical Research Center, Cardinal Tien Hospital and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Cardinal Tien Hospital and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEis and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs on the risk of pneumonia and severe exacerbations in patients with COPD.Patients and methods: All patients with COPD who used ACEis and ARBs for >90 days between 2000 and 2005 were recruited. Pairwise matching (1:1 of the ACEi and ARB groups resulted in two similar subgroups, with 6,226 patients in each. The primary outcomes were pneumonia and COPD exacerbations, and the secondary outcome was death.Results: During the follow-up period, the incidence of pneumonia was 7.20 per 100 person-years in the ACEi group and 5.89 per 100 person-years in the ARB group. The ACEi group had a higher risk of pneumonia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.15–1.29 than the ARB group. The incidence of severe exacerbations was 0.65 per person-year for the patients receiving ACEis and 0.52 per person-year for those receiving ARBs. The patients receiving ACEis had a higher risk of severe exacerbations (aHR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.16–1.21 than those receiving ARBs. Similar trends were noted in terms of severe exacerbations requiring

  7. Validity of the ages and stages questionnaires in Korean compared to Bayley Scales of infant development-II for screening preterm infants at corrected age of 18-24 months for neurodevelopmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, Yoojin; Park, Hye Won; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Byong Sop; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the ages and stages questionnaire in Korean (ASQ 1st edition, Korean Questionnaires, Seoul Community Rehabilitation Center, 2000) for premature infants. The study population consisted of 90 premature infants born between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, who were tested using the ASQ (Korean) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) (II) at a corrected age of 18-24 months. The validity of the ASQ (Korean) using cut-off values set at < -2 SD was examined by comparing it to the BSID (II) components, namely, the mental developmental index (MDI) or psychomotor developmental index (PDI), which were both set at < 85. The calculation of the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the ASQ (Korean) components revealed that they detected infants with neurodevelopmental delay with low sensitivity and positive predictive values, however, the communication domain showed moderate correlations with MDI. The failure in more than one domain of the ASQ (Korean) was significantly correlated with the failure in MDI. The ASQ (Korean) showed low validity for screening neurodevelopmentally delayed premature infants.

  8. Ancestry inference using principal component analysis and spatial analysis: a distance-based analysis to account for population substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jinyoung; Han, Younghun; Gorlov, Ivan P; Busam, Jonathan A; Seldin, Michael F; Amos, Christopher I

    2017-10-16

    Accurate inference of genetic ancestry is of fundamental interest to many biomedical, forensic, and anthropological research areas. Genetic ancestry memberships may relate to genetic disease risks. In a genome association study, failing to account for differences in genetic ancestry between cases and controls may also lead to false-positive results. Although a number of strategies for inferring and taking into account the confounding effects of genetic ancestry are available, applying them to large studies (tens thousands samples) is challenging. The goal of this study is to develop an approach for inferring genetic ancestry of samples with unknown ancestry among closely related populations and to provide accurate estimates of ancestry for application to large-scale studies. In this study we developed a novel distance-based approach, Ancestry Inference using Principal component analysis and Spatial analysis (AIPS) that incorporates an Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method from spatial analysis to assign individuals to population memberships. We demonstrate the benefits of AIPS in analyzing population substructure, specifically related to the four most commonly used tools EIGENSTRAT, STRUCTURE, fastSTRUCTURE, and ADMIXTURE using genotype data from various intra-European panels and European-Americans. While the aforementioned commonly used tools performed poorly in inferring ancestry from a large number of subpopulations, AIPS accurately distinguished variations between and within subpopulations. Our results show that AIPS can be applied to large-scale data sets to discriminate the modest variability among intra-continental populations as well as for characterizing inter-continental variation. The method we developed will protect against spurious associations when mapping the genetic basis of a disease. Our approach is more accurate and computationally efficient method for inferring genetic ancestry in the large-scale genetic studies.

  9. Superposed epoch study of ICME sub-structures near Earth and their effects on Galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masías-Meza, J. J.; Dasso, S.; Démoulin, P.; Rodriguez, L.; Janvier, M.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the interplanetary manifestations of solar eruptions. The overtaken solar wind forms a sheath of compressed plasma at the front of ICMEs. Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a subset of ICMEs with specific properties (e.g. the presence of a flux rope). When ICMEs pass near Earth, ground observations indicate that the flux of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) decreases. Aims: The main aims of this paper are to find common plasma and magnetic properties of different ICME sub-structures and which ICME properties affect the flux of GCRs near Earth. Methods: We used a superposed epoch method applied to a large set of ICMEs observed in situ by the spacecraft ACE, between 1998 and 2006. We also applied a superposed epoch analysis on GCRs time series observed with the McMurdo neutron monitors. Results: We find that slow MCs at 1 AU have on average more massive sheaths. We conclude that this is because they are more effectively slowed down by drag during their travel from the Sun. Slow MCs also have a more symmetric magnetic field and sheaths expanding similarly as their following MC, while in contrast, fast MCs have an asymmetric magnetic profile and a sheath in compression. In all types of MCs, we find that the proton density and the temperature and the magnetic fluctuations can diffuse within the front of the MC due to 3D reconnection. Finally, we derive a quantitative model that describes the decrease in cosmic rays as a function of the amount of magnetic fluctuations and field strength. Conclusions: The obtained typical profiles of sheath, MC and GCR properties corresponding to slow, middle, and fast ICMEs, can be used for forecasting or modelling these events, and to better understand the transport of energetic particles in ICMEs. They are also useful for improving future operative space weather activities.

  10. Quarkonium polarization and the long distance matrix elements hierarchies using jet substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lin; Shrivastava, Prashant

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the quarkonium production mechanisms in jets at the LHC, using the fragmenting jet functions (FJF) approach. Specifically, we discuss the jet energy dependence of the J /ψ production cross section at the LHC. By comparing the cross sections for the different NRQCD production channels (1S0[8], 3S1[8], 3PJ[8], and 3cripts>S1[1]), we find that at fixed values of energy fraction z carried by the J /ψ , if the normalized cross section is a decreasing function of the jet energy, in particular for z >0.5 , then the depolarizing 1S0[8] must be the dominant channel. This makes the prediction made in [Baumgart et al., J. High Energy Phys. 11 (2014) 003, 10.1007/JHEP11(2014)003] for the FJF's also true for the cross section. We also make comparisons between the long distance matrix elements extracted by various groups. This analysis could potentially shed light on the polarization properties of the J /ψ production in high pT region.

  11. Dark matter substructure modelling and sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to Galactic dark halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetten, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany); Combet, C.; Maurin, D. [Grenoble-Alpes Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble (France). LPSC; Maier, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Hierarchical structure formation leads to a clumpy distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way. These clumps are possible targets to search for dark matter annihilation with present and future γ-ray instruments. Many uncertainties exist on the clump distribution, leading to disputed conclusions about the expected number of detectable clumps and the ensuing limits that can be obtained from non-detection. In this paper, we use the CLUMPY code to simulate thousands of skymaps for several clump distributions. This allows us to statistically assess the typical properties (mass, distance, angular size, luminosity) of the detectable clumps. Varying parameters of the clump distributions allows us to identify the key quantities to which the number of detectable clumps is the most sensitive. Focusing our analysis on two extreme clump configurations, yet consistent with results from numerical simulations, we revisit and compare various calculations made for the Fermi-LAT instrument, in terms of number of dark clumps expected and the angular power spectrum for the Galactic signal. We then focus on the prospects of detecting dark clumps with the future CTA instrument, for which we make a detailed sensitivity analysis using open-source CTA software. Based on a realistic scenario for the foreseen CTA extragalactic survey, and accounting for a post-trial sensitivity in the survey, we show that we obtain competitive and complementary limits to those based on long observation of a single bright dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

  12. Substructure of a Tunisian Berber population as inferred from 15 autosomal short tandem repeat loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodjet-El-Khil, Houssein; Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Gusmão, Leonor; Alves, Cíntia; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Amorim, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Currently, language and cultural practices are the only criteria to distinguish between Berber autochthonous Tunisian populations. To evaluate these populations' possible genetic structure and differentiation, we have analyzed 15 autosomal short tandem repeat loci (CSF1PO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D2S1338, and D19S433) in three southern Tunisian Berber groups: Sened, Matmata, and Chenini-Douiret. The exact test of population differentiation based on allele frequencies at the 15 loci shows significant P values at 7 loci between Chenini-Douiret and both Sened and Matmata, whereas just 5 loci show significant P values between Sened and Matmata. Comparative analyses between the three Berber groups based on genetic distances show that P values for F(ST) distances are significant between the three Berber groups. Population analysis performed using Structure shows a clear differentiation between these Berber groups, with strong genetic isolation of Chenini-Douiret. These results confirm at the autosomal level the high degree of heterogeneity of Tunisian Berber populations that had been previously reported for uniparental markers.

  13. Dark matter substructure modelling and sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to Galactic dark halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetten, M.; Combet, C.; Maurin, D.

    2016-07-01

    Hierarchical structure formation leads to a clumpy distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way. These clumps are possible targets to search for dark matter annihilation with present and future γ-ray instruments. Many uncertainties exist on the clump distribution, leading to disputed conclusions about the expected number of detectable clumps and the ensuing limits that can be obtained from non-detection. In this paper, we use the CLUMPY code to simulate thousands of skymaps for several clump distributions. This allows us to statistically assess the typical properties (mass, distance, angular size, luminosity) of the detectable clumps. Varying parameters of the clump distributions allows us to identify the key quantities to which the number of detectable clumps is the most sensitive. Focusing our analysis on two extreme clump configurations, yet consistent with results from numerical simulations, we revisit and compare various calculations made for the Fermi-LAT instrument, in terms of number of dark clumps expected and the angular power spectrum for the Galactic signal. We then focus on the prospects of detecting dark clumps with the future CTA instrument, for which we make a detailed sensitivity analysis using open-source CTA software. Based on a realistic scenario for the foreseen CTA extragalactic survey, and accounting for a post-trial sensitivity in the survey, we show that we obtain competitive and complementary limits to those based on long observation of a single bright dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

  14. MATTER IN THE BEAM: WEAK LENSING, SUBSTRUCTURES, AND THE TEMPERATURE OF DARK MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, Hareth S.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Lewis, Geraint F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Power, Chris, E-mail: hareth@physics.usyd.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-08-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) models offer an attractive alternative to the current cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model. We present a novel method to differentiate between WDM and CDM cosmologies, namely, using weak lensing; this provides a unique probe as it is sensitive to all of the “matter in the beam,” not just dark matter haloes and the galaxies that reside in them, but also the diffuse material between haloes. We compare the weak lensing maps of CDM clusters to those in a WDM model corresponding to a thermally produced 0.5 keV dark matter particle. Our analysis clearly shows that the weak lensing magnification, convergence, and shear distributions can be used to distinguish between CDM and WDM models. WDM models increase the probability of weak magnifications, with the differences being significant to ≳5 σ , while leaving no significant imprint on the shear distribution. WDM clusters analyzed in this work are more homogeneous than CDM ones, and the fractional decrease in the amount of material in haloes is proportional to the average increase in the magnification. This difference arises from matter that would be bound in compact haloes in CDM being smoothly distributed over much larger volumes at lower densities in WDM. Moreover, the signature does not solely lie in the probability distribution function but in the full spatial distribution of the convergence field.

  15. COMPARE CPM-RMI Trial: Intramyocardial Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived CD133+ Cells and MNCs during CABG in Patients with Recent MI: A Phase II/III, Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Madani, Hoda; Ahmadi Tafti, Seyed Hossein; Moshkani Farahani, Maryam; Kazemi Saleh, Davood; Hosseinnejad, Hossein; Hosseini, Saeid; Hekmat, Sepideh; Hossein Ahmadi, Zargham; Dehghani, Majid; Saadat, Alireza; Mardpour, Soura; Hosseini, Seyedeh Esmat; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Sadeghian, Hakimeh; Bahoush, Gholamreza; Bassi, Ali; Amin, Ahmad; Fazeli, Roghayeh; Sharafi, Yaser; Arab, Leila; Movahhed, Mansour; Davaran, Saeid; Ramezanzadeh, Narges; Kouhkan, Azam; Hezavehei, Ali; Namiri, Mehrnaz; Kashfi, Fahimeh; Akhlaghi, Ali; Sotoodehnejadnematalahi, Fattah; Vosough Dizaji, Ahmad; Gourabi, Hamid; Syedi, Naeema; Shahverdi, Abdol Hosein; Baharvand, Hossein; Aghdami, Nasser

    2018-07-01

    The regenerative potential of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CD133+ stem cells in the heart varies in terms of their pro-angiogenic effects. This phase II/III, multicenter and double-blind trial is designed to compare the functional effects of intramyocardial autologous transplantation of both cell types and placebo in patients with recent myocardial infarction (RMI) post-coronary artery bypass graft. This was a phase II/III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial COMPARE CPM-RMI (CD133, Placebo, MNCs - recent myocardial infarction) conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki that assessed the safety and efficacy of CD133 and MNCs compared to placebo in patients with RMI. We randomly assigned 77 eligible RMI patients selected from 5 hospitals to receive CD133+ cells, MNC, or a placebo. Patients underwent gated single photon emission computed tomography assessments at 6 and 18 months post-intramyocardial transplantation. We tested the normally distributed efficacy outcomes with a mixed analysis of variance model that used the entire data set of baseline and between-group comparisons as well as within subject (time) and group×time interaction terms. There were no related serious adverse events reported. The intramyocardial transplantation of both cell types increased left ventricular ejection fraction by 9% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.14% to 15.78%, P=0.01] and improved decreased systolic wall thickening by -3.7 (95% CI: -7.07 to -0.42, P=0.03). The CD133 group showed significantly decreased non-viable segments by 75% (P=0.001) compared to the placebo and 60% (P=0.01) compared to the MNC group. We observed this improvement at both the 6- and 18-month time points. Intramyocardial injections of CD133+ cells or MNCs appeared to be safe and efficient with superiority of CD133+ cells for patients with RMI. Although the sample size precluded a definitive statement about clinical outcomes, these results have provided the

  16. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Bio-Gen with biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of class II furcation defects: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    JENABIAN, Niloofar; HAGHANIFAR, Sina; MABOUDI, Avideh; BIJANI, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective Treatment of furcation defects are thought to be challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters of Bio-Gen with Biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of Class II furcation defects. Material and Methods In this clinical trial, 24 patients with Class II furcation defect on a buccal or lingual mandibular molar were recruited. After oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing and achievement of acceptable plaque control, the patients were randomly chosen to receive either connective tissue and Bio-Gen (case group) or Biocollagen and Bio-Gen (control group). The following parameters were recorded before the first and re-entry surgery (six months later): vertical clinical attachment level (VCAL), gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), horizontal probing depth (HPD), vertical probing depth (VPD), gingival recession (GR), furcation vertical component (FVC), furcation to alveolar crest (FAC), fornix to base of defect (FBD), and furcation horizontal component (FHC) were calculated at the time of first surgery and during re-entry. A digital periapical radiograph was taken in parallel before first surgery and re-entry. The radiographs were then analyzed by digital subtraction. The differences with p value <0.05 were considered significant. Results Only the mean changes of FAC, FHC, mean of FHC, FBD in re-entry revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups. HPD, VPD, FBD, FAC, and FHC showed statistically significant differences after 6 months in the case group. However, in the control group, statistically significant differences were found in GR and HPD. We did not observe any significant difference in radiographic changes among the two groups. Conclusion The results of this trial indicate that better clinical outcomes can be obtained with connective tissue grafts in combination with bone material compared with a resorbable barrier with bone material

  17. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Bio-Gen with biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of class II furcation defects: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Jenabian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Treatment of furcation defects are thought to be challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters of Bio-Gen with Biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of Class II furcation defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical trial, 24 patients with Class II furcation defect on a buccal or lingual mandibular molar were recruited. After oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing and achievement of acceptable plaque control, the patients were randomly chosen to receive either connective tissue and Bio-Gen (case group or Biocollagen and Bio-Gen (control group. The following parameters were recorded before the first and re-entry surgery (six months later: vertical clinical attachment level (VCAL, gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, horizontal probing depth (HPD, vertical probing depth (VPD, gingival recession (GR, furcation vertical component (FVC, furcation to alveolar crest (FAC, fornix to base of defect (FBD, and furcation horizontal component (FHC were calculated at the time of first surgery and during re-entry. A digital periapical radiograph was taken in parallel before first surgery and re-entry. The radiographs were then analyzed by digital subtraction. The differences with p value <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Only the mean changes of FAC, FHC, mean of FHC, FBD in re-entry revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups. HPD, VPD, FBD, FAC, and FHC showed statistically significant differences after 6 months in the case group. However, in the control group, statistically significant differences were found in GR and HPD. We did not observe any significant difference in radiographic changes among the two groups. CONCLUSION: The results of this trial indicate that better clinical outcomes can be obtained with connective tissue grafts in combination with bone material compared with a resorbable barrier with bone

  18. Analysis of Population Substructure in Two Sympatric Populations of Gran Chaco, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevini, Federica; Yao, Daniele Yang; Lomartire, Laura; Barbieri, Annalaura; Vianello, Dario; Ferri, Gianmarco; Moretti, Edgardo; Dasso, Maria Cristina; Garagnani, Paolo; Pettener, Davide; Franceschi, Claudio; Luiselli, Donata; Franceschi, Zelda Alice

    2013-01-01

    Sub-population structure and intricate kinship dynamics might introduce biases in molecular anthropology studies and could invalidate the efforts to understand diseases in highly admixed populations. In order to clarify the previously observed distribution pattern and morbidity of Chagas disease in Gran Chaco, Argentina, we studied two populations (Wichí and Criollos) recruited following an innovative bio-cultural model considering their complex cultural interactions. By reconstructing the genetic background and the structure of these two culturally different populations, the pattern of admixture, the correspondence between genealogical and genetic relationships, this integrated perspective had the power to validate data and to link the gap usually relying on a singular discipline. Although Wichí and Criollos share the same area, these sympatric populations are differentiated from the genetic point of view as revealed by Non Recombinant Y Chromosome genotyping resulting in significantly high Fst values and in a lower genetic variability in the Wichí population. Surprisingly, the Amerindian and the European components emerged with comparable amounts (20%) among Criollos and Wichí respectively. The detailed analysis of mitochondrial DNA showed that the two populations have as much as 87% of private haplotypes. Moreover, from the maternal perspective, despite a common Amerindian origin, an Andean and an Amazonian component emerged in Criollos and in Wichí respectively. Our approach allowed us to highlight that quite frequently there is a discrepancy between self-reported and genetic kinship. Indeed, if self-reported identity and kinship are usually utilized in population genetics as a reliable proxy for genetic identity and parental relationship, in our model populations appear to be the result not only and not simply of the genetic background but also of complex cultural determinants. This integrated approach paves the way to a rigorous reconstruction of

  19. Chemical Abundances of Planetary Nebulae in the Substructures of M31. II. The Extended Sample and a Comparison Study with the Outer-disk Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xuan; García-Benito, Rubén; Guerrero, Martín A.; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaowei; Morisset, Christophe; Karakas, Amanda I.; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Yuan, Haibo; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We report deep spectroscopy of 10 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). Our targets reside in different regions of M31, including halo streams and the dwarf satellite M32, and kinematically deviate from the extended disk. The temperature-sensitive [O III] λ4363 line is observed in all PNe. For four PNe, the GTC spectra extend beyond 1 μm, enabling the explicit detection of the [S III] λ6312 and λλ9069, 9531 lines and thus determination of the [S III] temperature. Abundance ratios are derived and generally consistent with AGB model predictions. Our PNe probably all evolved from low-mass (Palma. The observations presented in this paper are associated with GTC programs #GTC66-16A and #GTC25-16B.

  20. Prediction of the vibroacoustic behavior of a submerged shell with non-axisymmetric internal substructures by a condensed transfer function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, V.; Maxit, L.; Guyader, J.-L.; Leissing, T.

    2016-01-01

    The vibroacoustic behavior of axisymmetric stiffened shells immersed in water has been intensively studied in the past. On the contrary, little attention has been paid to the modeling of these shells coupled to non-axisymmetric internal frames. Indeed, breaking the axisymmetry couples the circumferential orders of the Fourier series and considerably increases the computational costs. In order to tackle this issue, we propose a sub-structuring approach called the Condensed Transfer Function (CTF) method that will allow assembling a model of axisymmetric stiffened shell with models of non-axisymmetric internal frames. The CTF method is developed in the general case of mechanical subsystems coupled along curves. A set of orthonormal functions called condensation functions, which depend on the curvilinear abscissa along the coupling line, is considered. This set is then used as a basis for approximating and decomposing the displacements and the applied forces at the line junctions. Thanks to the definition and calculation of condensed transfer functions for each uncoupled subsystem and by using the superposition principle for passive linear systems, the behavior of the coupled subsystems can be deduced. A plane plate is considered as a test case to study the convergence of the method with respect to the type and the number of condensation functions taken into account. The CTF method is then applied to couple a submerged non-periodically stiffened shell described using the Circumferential Admittance Approach (CAA) with internal substructures described by Finite Element Method (FEM). The influence of non-axisymmetric internal substructures can finally be studied and it is shown that it tends to increase the radiation efficiency of the shell and can modify the vibrational and acoustic energy distribution.