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Sample records for ii colorectal cancer

  1. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Extended Cancer Education for Longer-Term Survivors in Primary Care for Patients With Stage I-II Breast or Prostate Cancer or Stage I-III Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage II Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Prostate Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

  3. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  4. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Exercise and Low-Dose Ibuprofen for Cognitive Impairment in Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    Cognitive Impairment; Stage 0 Colorectal Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage II Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage III Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  7. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... possible. Research will help us better understand whether chemotherapy can benefit elderly colorectal cancer patients. Such patients often do not receive chemotherapy due to concerns about side effects. We will ...

  8. Analyzing proteasomal subunit expression reveals Rpt4 as a prognostic marker in stage II colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer is the key to improving survival rates and as such a need exists to identify patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated in oncogenesis and cancer cell survival, and proteasome inhibitors are in clinical use for a number of malignancies including multiple myeloma. In our study, we examined the protein expression of several key components of the UPS in colorectal cancer using immunohistochemistry to determine expression levels of ubiquitinylated proteins and the proteasomal subunits, 20S core and Rpt4 in a cohort of 228 patients with colon cancer. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that neither the intensity of either ubiquitinylated proteins or the 20S core was predictive in either Stage II or III colon cancer for disease free survival or overall survival. In contrast, in Stage II patients increased Rpt4 staining was significantly associated with disease free survival (Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.605; p = 0.0217). Our data suggest that Rpt4 is an independent prognostic variable for Stage II colorectal cancer and may aid in the decision of which patients undergo adjuvant chemotherapy.

  9. High clusterin expression correlates with a poor outcome in stage II colorectal cancers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kevans, David

    2012-02-01

    The role of clusterin in tumor growth and progression remains unclear. Overexpression of cytoplasmic clusterin has been studied in aggressive colon tumors; however, no correlation between clusterin expression and survival in colorectal cancer has been identified to date. We assessed levels of clusterin expression in a group of stage II colorectal cancer patients to assess its utility as a prognostic marker. The study included 251 patients with stage II colorectal cancer. Tissue microarrays were constructed and immunohistochemistry done and correlated with clinical features and long term outcome. Dual immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used with terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling probes and clusterin antibody to assess the degree of co localization. Percentage epithelial cytoplasmic staining was higher in tumor compared with nonadjacent normal mucosa (P < 0.001). Within the stromal compartment, percentage cytoplamic staining and intensity was lower in tumor tissue compared with normal nonadjacent mucosa (P < or = 0.001). Survival was significantly associated with percentage epithelial cytoplasmic staining (P < 0.001), epithelial cytoplasmic staining intensity (P < 0.001), percentage stromal cytoplasmic staining (P = 0.002), and stromal cytoplasmic staining intensity (P < 0.001). Clusterin levels are associated with poor survival in stage II colorectal cancer.

  10. Prognostic impact of interhospital variation in adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with Stage II/III colorectal cancer: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, K; Kawai, K; Tanaka, T; Hata, K; Sugihara, K; Nozawa, H

    2018-05-12

    Clinical guidelines recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk patients with Stage II-III colorectal cancer. However, chemotherapeutic administration rates differ significantly between hospitals. We assessed the prognostic benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with Stage IIb/c colorectal cancer, and the prognostic impact of interhospital variations in the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy for Stage II-III colorectal cancer. We conducted a multicentre, retrospective study of 17 757 patients with Stage II-III colorectal cancer treated between 1997 and 2008 in 23 hospitals in Japan. Hospitals were classified as high-rate (rate > 42.8%) or low-rate (rate ≤ 42.8%), chemotherapy prescribing clinics. The 5-year overall survival (OS) of patients with Stage II-III colorectal cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly higher than for those not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (85.7% vs 79.2%, P colorectal cancer (both P colorectal cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy, with patients who were treated in hospitals with high adjuvant chemotherapy rates demonstrating better prognoses. Colorectal Disease © 2018 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes colorectal cancer risk in relation to A-bomb radiation. The RERF Life Span Study has revealed the incidence of colorectal cancer to be significantly high in the group of A-bomb survivors than the control group. With regard to relative risk or excess relative risk, there is no definitive difference among sites in the colon. Risk for colon cancer is found to be linearly increased with increasing radiation doses, and in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Risk associated with one Gy is estimated to be increased by double. There is no definitive variation between sex and between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Excess relative risk would be increased rapidly with aging in the whole group of A-bomb survivors and with the cancer-prone age in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. (N.K.)

  12. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  13. Ezrin expression combined with MSI status in prognostication of stage II colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Slik

    Full Text Available Currently used factors predicting disease recurrence in stage II colorectal cancer patients are not optimal for risk stratification. Thus, new biomarkers are needed. In this study the applicability of ezrin protein expression together with MSI status and BRAF mutation status were tested in predicting disease outcome in stage II colorectal cancer. The study population consisted of 173 stage II colorectal cancer patients. Paraffin-embedded cancer tissue material from surgical specimens was used to construct tissue microarrays (TMAs with next-generation technique. The TMA-slides were subjected to following immunohistochemical stainings: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, ezrin and anti-BRAF V600E antibody. The staining results were correlated with clinicopathological variables and survival. In categorical analysis, high ezrin protein expression correlated with poor disease-specific survival (p = 0.038. In univariate analysis patients having microsatellite instabile / low ezrin expression tumors had a significantly longer disease-specific survival than patients having microsatellite stable / high ezrin expression tumors (p = 0.007. In multivariate survival analysis, the presence of BRAF mutation was associated to poor overall survival (p = 0.028, HR 3.29, 95% CI1.14-9.54. High ezrin protein expression in patients with microsatellite stable tumors was linked to poor disease-specific survival (p = 0.01, HR 5.68, 95% CI 1.53-21.12. Ezrin protein expression is a promising biomarker in estimating the outcome of stage II colorectal cancer patients. When combined with microsatellite status its ability in predicting disease outcome is further improved.

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

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    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  15. Systems Support Mapping in Guiding Self-Management in Stage I-III Colorectal Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    Cancer Survivor; Stage I Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage II Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v8

  16. Identification of miRNAs associated with recurrence of stage II colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise Lotte; Tobiasen, Heidi; Schepeler, Troels

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Twenty-five percent of the patients radically treated for a stage II CRC (no lymph node or distant metastasis) later develop recurrence and dies from the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are aberrantly expressed or mutated in human...... target prediction and transcript profiling. Initially, miRNA over-expression in HCT116 cells was followed by transcriptional profiling of transfected cells using GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Three in silico predicted miRNA targets showing differential mRNA expression upon miRNA up-regulation were...... cancers, and function either as tumour suppressors or oncogenes. Additionally, they also appear to have both diagnostic and prognostic significance. The aim of the present study was to identify miRNAs associated with recurrence of stage II CRC, followed up by an investigation of how these potential...

  17. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview What to Expect ... section Overview 2 of 6 sections The Basics: Colorectal Cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a ...

  18. Micro satellite instability in colorectal cancer stage II. Hospital Central de las fuerzas armadas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Valle, A; Santander G; Camejo, N; Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: micro satellite instability (MSI) is a good prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) located. Its value as a predictive marker against adjuvant treatment of chemotherapy (CT) has been shown fluoropyrimidine in various publications. The MSI occurs in 15% of colorectal tumors and sporadic in 90% of tumors in the context of colorectal cancer syndrome hereditary nonpolyposis. In Uruguay there are no studies about this phenomenon. Objective: To determine the incidence of micro satellite instability in a sample of patients using the Hospital Central de las fuerzas armadas oncology service, association with a compatible family history and the histological features of the tumors associated therewith. Methods: The medical records of patients were analyzed with CRC diagnosed stage II between 01/2001 and 12/2009. Data of the patients were analyzed which had complete histology and evolution. Results: 30/52 patients (57.6%) were analyzed. 40% had a detected MSI by kits for Pcr (polymerase chain reaction) to D2S123, D5S250, D17S346, BAT25 and BAT26 according to the Bethesda criteria. In those patients they filed a MSI: the median age was 70 years; 58.3% male. No patient had a family history consistent with HNPCC. 5.6% (3) they received Adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. Regarding tumor characteristics: 75% (9) were T3, and T4 were 25% (3); 8.3% histologic grade I (1) II 58.3% (7) 8.3% III (1) without Data 33% (6). This tumor lymphocyte infiltration was reported in 25% (3), absent 33.3% (4), not reported in 41.6% (5). Conclusions: This is the first analysis of these characteristics carried out in Uruguay. The same has been detected MSI percentage higher than reported in the literature International. In either case a compatible family history met HNPCC

  19. [Aspirin and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancher, Adrien; Michel, Pierre; Di Fiore, Frédéric; Sefrioui, David

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a worldwide public health problem. Aspirin has been identified as a protective factor against the apparition of colorectal cancer. There are several mechanisms about the actions by aspirin on colorectal tumorogenesis. These are not perfectly known nowadays. On one hand, there are direct mechanisms on colorectal mucosa, on the other hand there are indirect mechanisms through platelet functions. Aspirin also plays a role by its anti-inflammatory action and the stimulation of antitumor immunity. Several studies show that long-term treatment with low-doses of aspirin decreases the incidence of adenomas and colorectal cancers. In the United States, aspirin is currently recommended for primary prevention of the risk of colorectal cancer in all patients aged 50 to 59, with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular event greater than 10 %. However, primary prevention with aspirin should not be a substitute for screening in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, aspirin seems to be beneficial when used in post-diagnosis of colorectal cancer. It could actually decrease the risk of metastasis in case of a localized colorectal cancer, and increase the survival in particular, concerning PIK3CA mutated tumors. The association of aspirin with neoadjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer by radiochimiotherapy seems to have beneficial effects. French prospective randomized study is currently being conducted to investigate postoperative aspirin in colorectal cancers with a PIK3CA mutation. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells that transforms them into adenocarcinomas. There have been major advances in our understanding of cancer epigenetics over the last decade, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation. Assessment of the colon cancer epigenome has revealed that virtually all colorectal cancers have aberrantly methylated genes and the average colorectal cancer methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these methylated genes, called driver genes, is presumed to play a functional role in colorectal cancer. The assessment of methylated genes in colorectal cancers has also revealed a unique molecular subgroup of colorectal cancers called CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) cancers; these tumors have a particularly high frequency of methylated genes. The advances in our understanding of aberrant methylation in colorectal cancer has led to epigenetic alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in the assessment of epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer and their clinical applications has shown that these alterations will be commonly used in the near future as molecular markers to direct the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22009203

  1. Identification of 42 Genes Linked to Stage II Colorectal Cancer Metastatic Relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabeah A. Al-Temaimi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality. Metastasis remains the primary cause of CRC death. Predicting the possibility of metastatic relapse in early-stage CRC is of paramount importance to target therapy for patients who really need it and spare those with low-potential of metastasis. Ninety-six stage II CRC cases were stratified using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH data based on a predictive survival algorithm and supervised clustering. All genes included within the resultant copy number aberrations were each interrogated independently at mRNA level using CRC expression datasets available from public repositories, which included 1820 colon cancers, and 167 normal colon tissues. Reduced mRNA expression driven by copy number losses and increased expression driven by copy number gains revealed 42 altered transcripts (29 reduced and 13 increased transcripts associated with metastatic relapse, short disease-free or overall survival, and/or epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. Resultant genes were classified based on gene ontology (GO, which identified four functional enrichment groups involved in growth regulation, genomic integrity, metabolism, and signal transduction pathways. The identified 42 genes may be useful for predicting metastatic relapse in stage II CRC. Further studies are necessary to validate these findings.

  2. Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table ... Carmen Marc Valvo is an outspoken voice for colorectal cancer screening. Photo Courtesy of: Phil Fisch Photography Designer ...

  3. Effect of More vs Less Frequent Follow-up Testing on Overall and Colorectal Cancer-Specific Mortality in Patients With Stage II or III Colorectal Cancer: The COLOFOL Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille-Jørgensen, Peer; Syk, Ingvar; Smedh, Kenneth; Laurberg, Søren; Nielsen, Dennis T; Petersen, Sune H; Renehan, Andrew G; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Påhlman, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2018-05-22

    Intensive follow-up of patients after curative surgery for colorectal cancer is common in clinical practice, but evidence of a survival benefit is limited. To examine overall mortality, colorectal cancer-specific mortality, and colorectal cancer-specific recurrence rates among patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer who were randomized after curative surgery to 2 alternative schedules for follow-up testing with computed tomography and carcinoembryonic antigen. Unblinded randomized trial including 2509 patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer treated at 24 centers in Sweden, Denmark, and Uruguay from January 2006 through December 2010 and followed up for 5 years; follow-up ended on December 31, 2015. Patients were randomized either to follow-up testing with computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen and serum carcinoembryonic antigen at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months after surgery (high-frequency group; n = 1253 patients) or at 12 and 36 months after surgery (low-frequency group; n = 1256 patients). The primary outcomes were 5-year overall mortality and colorectal cancer-specific mortality rates. The secondary outcome was the colorectal cancer-specific recurrence rate. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were performed. Among 2555 patients who were randomized, 2509 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (mean age, 63.5 years; 1128 women [45%]) and 2365 (94.3%) completed the trial. The 5-year overall patient mortality rate in the high-frequency group was 13.0% (161/1253) compared with 14.1% (174/1256) in the low-frequency group (risk difference, 1.1% [95% CI, -1.6% to 3.8%]; P = .43). The 5-year colorectal cancer-specific mortality rate in the high-frequency group was 10.6% (128/1248) compared with 11.4% (137/1250) in the low-frequency group (risk difference, 0.8% [95% CI, -1.7% to 3.3%]; P = .52). The colorectal cancer-specific recurrence rate was 21.6% (265/1248) in the high-frequency group compared with 19

  4. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  5. [Obesity and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Soo-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Obesity worldwide is constantly increasing. Obesity acts as an independent significant risk factor for malignant tumors of various organs including colorectal cancer. Visceral adipose tissue is physiologically more important than subcutaneous adipose tissue. The relative risk of colorectal cancer of obese patients is about 1.5 times higher than the normal-weight individuals, and obesity is also associated with premalignant colorectal adenoma. The colorectal cancer incidence of obese patients has gender-specific and site-specific characteristics that it is higher in men than women and in the colon than rectum. Obesity acts as a risk factor of colorectal carcinogenesis by several mechanisms. Isulin, insulin-like growth factor, leptin, adiponectin, microbiome, and cytokines of chronic inflammation etc. have been understood as its potential mechanisms. In addition, obesity in patients with colorectal cancer negatively affects the disease progression and response of chemotherapy. Although the evidence is not clear yet, there are some reports that weight loss as well as life-modification such as dietary change and physical activity can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. It is very important knowledge in the point that obesity is a potentially modifiable risk factor that can alter the incidence and outcome of the colorectal cancer.

  6. Reporting colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, P; Morris, E

    2007-01-01

    The management of colorectal cancer is a team process. High-quality reporting of colorectal cancer is very important as the whole team relies upon the skill of the pathologist. Failure to report key features can lead to undertreatment of this disease. The use of a proforma has been demonstrated to be beneficial and we recommend staying with TNM5 due to scientific and reproducibility issues with TNM6. Important features in stage II/Dukes' B cases are extramural vascular invasion, peritoneal involvement, extent of extramural spread, incomplete resection and perforation. All of these may lead to adjuvant therapy being administered. The surgically created circumferential resection margin (CRM) and the mode of its creation are important features and the CRM retains its value after preoperative therapy. Regression grading should be applied only to fully resected tumours and the dissection and sampling must be standardized to allow comparison of results between trials and centres. When reporting local resections of early-stage cancers we need to look for features that predict spread to local lymph nodes to allow a full resection to be considered.

  7. Schedule-selective biochemical modulation of 5-fluorouracil in advanced colorectal cancer – a phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savage Paul

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 5-fluorouracil remains the standard therapy for patients with advanced/metastatic colorectal cancer. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated the biological modulation of 5-fluorouracil by methotrexate and leucovorin. This phase II study was initiated to determine the activity and toxicity of sequential methotrexate – leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Methods Ninety-seven patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were enrolled onto the study. Methotrexate – 30 mg/m2 was administered every 6 hours for 6 doses followed by a 2 hour infusion of LV – 500 mg/m2. Midway through the leucovorin infusion, patients received 5-fluorouracil – 600 mg/m2. This constituted a cycle of therapy and was repeated every 2 weeks until progression. Results The median age was 64 yrs (34–84 and the Eastern Cooperative Group Oncology performance score was 0 in 37%, 1 in 55% and 2 in 8% of patients. Partial and complete responses were seen in 31% of patients with a median duration of response of 6.4 months. The overall median survival was 13.0 months. The estimated 1-year survival was 53.7%. Grade III and IV toxic effects were modest and included mucositis, nausea and vomiting. Conclusions This phase II study supports previously reported data demonstrating the modest clinical benefit of 5-FU modulation utilizing methotrexate and leucovorin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ongoing studies evaluating 5-fluorouracil modulation with more novel agents (Irinotecan and/or oxaliplatin are in progress and may prove encouraging.

  8. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  9. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship........59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...

  10. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing...... with a well-established register of familial adenomatous polyposis and a recently founded register for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, both with major international relationships. The Danish tradition of epidemiology and clinical trials has also been demonstrated in population screening trials...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  11. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Data have been accumulating to support an increased role for combined radiation therapy and surgery in the initial treatment of many rectal and some colonic carcinomas. These include the following findings: 1. Improvements in surgical survival rates have been minimal in the past 25 to 30 years and are the result of an increase in operability with little change by stage of disease in those patients who have survived a ''curative resection.'' 2. The incidence of local recurrence after potentially curative surgery is high in more advanced stages of disease for both rectal and colon cancer. Although palliation of local recurrence can frequently be obtained, its duration is often limited and the curative potential is low. Therefore, prevention of local recurrence with adjuvant radiation with or without chemotherapy is imperative. 3. When patients present with fixed, unresectable tumors, aggressive treatment combinations appear to improve both local control and survival. Close interaction is required between the surgeon and the radiation oncologist to achieve these results with an acceptable risk of complications

  12. Hereditary colorectal cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Holck, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) subset of tumours can broadly be divided into tumours caused by an underlying mismatch-repair gene mutation, referred to as Lynch syndrome, and those that develop in families with similar patterns of heredity but without disease......-predisposing germline mismatch repair mutations, referred to as familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Recognition of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers is central since surveillance programmes effectively reduce morbidity and mortality. The characteristic morphological features linked to Lynch syndrome can aid...... in the identification of this subset, whereas the possibility to use morphological features as an indicator of FCCTX is uncertain.Objective and methodsTo perform a detailed morphological evaluation of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and demonstrate significant differences between tumours associated with FCCTX...

  13. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, A. A.; Halligan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide. There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use. Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing. The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests. In addition, their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can...

  14. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  15. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... at the National Cancer Institute, shared developments in colorectal cancer screening methods with NIH MedlinePlus magazine. What ...

  16. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing with a w......Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing...... with a well-established register of familial adenomatous polyposis and a recently founded register for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, both with major international relationships. The Danish tradition of epidemiology and clinical trials has also been demonstrated in population screening trials...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  17. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, Monica Ramona

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden and is the most common cause of mortality from cancer in Europe. Over the last two decades robust evidence from randomised clinical trials and case-control series have confirmed that the mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by screening. The challenge over the next decade is how to implement this in clinical practice. This is what we set out to answer with this thesis. Not all individuals are equal when it comes to screening and tho...

  18. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...

  19. Mucinous Adenocarcinomas Histotype Can Also be a High-Risk Factor for Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Li, Ya-Qi; Li, Qing-Guo; Ma, Yan-Lei; Peng, Jun-Jie; Cai, Sanjun

    2018-05-22

    Colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) has been associated with a worse prognosis than adenocarcinoma (AD) in advanced stages. Little is known about the prognostic impact of a mucinous histotype on the early stages of colorectal cancer with negative lymph node (LN) metastasis. In contrast to the established prognostic factors such as T stage and grading, the histological subtype is not thought to contribute to the therapeutic outcome, although different subtypes can potentially represent different entities. In this study, we aimed to define the prognostic value of mucinous histology in colorectal cancer with negative LNs. Between 2006 and 2017, a total of 4893 consecutive patients without LN metastasis underwent radical surgery for primary colorectal cancer (MA and AD) in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC). Clinical, histopathological, and survival data were analyzed. The incidence of MA was 11% in 4893 colorectal cancer patients without LN metastasis. The MA patients had a higher T category, a greater percentage of LN harvested, larger tumor size and worse grading than the AD patients (p colorectal cancer patients. Mucinous histology can suggest a possible high risk in early-stage colorectal carcinoma. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.H.; Casper, S.; Corgan, R.L.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with 131 I at a total dose of at least 1.0 μCi. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the 131 I-labeled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with 131 I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the apparent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures

  1. Lysyl oxidase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent form of cancer worldwide and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, leading to ~600,000 deaths annually, predominantly affecting the developed world. Lysyl oxidase is a secreted, extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme previously suggested...... to act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence has rapidly implicated lysyl oxidase in promoting metastasis of solid tumors and in particular colorectal cancer at multiple stages, affecting tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. This emerging research has...... advancements in the field of colorectal cancer....

  2. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Enrique; Saito, Yutaka; Hassan, Cessare; Senore, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the leading cancer in Singapore, can be prevented by increased use of screening and polypectomy. A range of screening strategies such as stool-based tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography are available, each with different strengths and limitations. Primary care physicians should discuss appropriate screening modalities with their patients, tailored to their individual needs. Physicians, patients and the government should wo...

  3. The effect of 3-bromopyruvate on human colorectal cancer cells is dependent on glucose concentration but not hexokinase II expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Nelson; Morrison, Jodi; Silva, Andreza; Coomber, Brenda L

    2016-01-06

    Cancer cells heavily rely on the glycolytic pathway regardless of oxygen tension. Hexokinase II (HKII) catalyses the first irreversible step of glycolysis and is often overexpressed in cancer cells. 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) has been shown to primarily target HKII, and is a promising anti-cancer compound capable of altering critical metabolic pathways in cancer cells. Abnormal vasculature within tumours leads to heterogeneous microenvironments, including glucose availability, which may affect drug sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which 3BP acts on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells with focus on the HKII/Akt signalling axis. High HKII-expressing cell lines were more sensitive to 3BP than low HKII-expressing cells. 3BP-induced rapid Akt phosphorylation at site Thr-308 and cell death via both apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms. Cells grown under lower glucose concentrations showed greater resistance towards 3BP. Cells with HKII knockdown showed no changes in 3BP sensitivity, suggesting the effects of 3BP are independent of HKII expression. These results emphasize the importance of the tumour microenvironment and glucose availability when considering therapeutic approaches involving metabolic modulation. © 2016 Authors.

  4. Patterns of Sociodemographic and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Stages II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients by Age: Examining Potential Mechanisms of Young-Onset Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Caitlin C.; Sanoff, Hanna K.; Stitzenberg, Karyn B.; Baron, John A.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. As a first step toward understanding the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in younger (age < 50) populations, we examined demographic, clinicopathologic, and socioeconomic characteristics and treatment receipt in a population-based sample of patients newly diagnosed with stages II and III CRC. Methods. Patients were sampled from the National Cancer Institute's Patterns of Care studies in 1990/91, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 (n = 6, 862). Tumor characteristics...

  5. Microbiota, Inflammation and Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécily Lucas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, is a multifactorial disease involving genetic, environmental and lifestyle risk factors. In addition, increased evidence has established a role for the intestinal microbiota in the development of colorectal cancer. Indeed, changes in the intestinal microbiota composition in colorectal cancer patients compared to control subjects have been reported. Several bacterial species have been shown to exhibit the pro-inflammatory and pro-carcinogenic properties, which could consequently have an impact on colorectal carcinogenesis. This review will summarize the current knowledge about the potential links between the intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer, with a focus on the pro-carcinogenic properties of bacterial microbiota such as induction of inflammation, the biosynthesis of genotoxins that interfere with cell cycle regulation and the production of toxic metabolites. Finally, we will describe the potential therapeutic strategies based on intestinal microbiota manipulation for colorectal cancer treatment.

  6. Adjuvant Therapy for Stage II Colorectal Cancer: Who and with What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ki-Young Y; Kelsen, David

    2006-06-01

    The role of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage II colon adenocarcinoma remains controversial. The high surgical cure rate for patients with "low-risk" stage II colon cancer, ranging from 75% to 80%, and the available clinical trials and meta-analyses provide conflicting recommendations for or against adjuvant chemotherapy for this group of patients. For fit "high-risk" stage II patients with clinical obstruction or perforation at presentation, in which the 5-year survival rate is 60% to 70%, there is little controversy, as these patients are routinely treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Other potential high-risk factors, including high histologic grade, microsatellite instability, and loss of 18q, have yet to be validated in prospective trials. Patients with fewer than 12 regional lymph nodes identified in the surgical specimen have a statistically unclear risk of lymph node involvement. These patients may have stage III disease and should receive adjuvant therapy. The decision to use adjuvant chemotherapy to treat low-risk stage II colon cancer patients (no obstruction or perforation) should be an informed decision weighing the magnitude of a net 2% to 5% survival benefit, a 0.5% to 1.0% risk of mortality with chemotherapy in addition to 6 months of chemotherapy-related toxicities, other coexisting patient morbidities, and the anticipated life expectancy of each patient. As adjuvant chemotherapy is therapy addressing local or metastatic microscopic disease, and the effectiveness of systemic and biologically targeted therapy for advanced macroscopic colon cancer continues to improve rapidly, it remains to be determined by clinical trials whether therapies including newer agents such as cetuximab and bevacizumab administered in the adjuvant setting may affect survival for stage II cancer patients.

  7. High levels of microRNA-21 in the stroma of colorectal cancers predict short disease-free survival in stage II colon cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Jørgensen, Stine; Fog, Jacob Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 25% of all patients with stage II colorectal cancer will experience recurrent disease and subsequently die within 5 years. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is upregulated in several cancer types and has been associated with survival in colon cancer. In the present study we developed a robust...... in situ hybridization assay using high-affinity Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) probes that specifically detect miR-21 in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. The expression of miR-21 was analyzed by in situ hybridization on 130 stage II colon and 67 stage II rectal cancer specimens. The mi...... relative to the nuclear density (TBR) obtained using a red nuclear stain. High TBR (and TB) estimates of miR-21 expression correlated significantly with shorter disease-free survival (p = 0.004, HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.55) in the stage II colon cancer patient group, whereas no significant correlation...

  8. Association Between Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbal Therapy and Survival Outcomes in Patients With Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Mao, Jun J; Sun, Lingyun; Yang, Lin; Li, Jie; Hao, Yingxu; Li, Huashan; Hou, Wei; Chu, Yuping; Bai, Yu; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jinwan; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jianbin; Liu, Jianping; Yang, Yufei

    2017-11-01

    Chinese cancer patients often use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbal medicine during or after active cancer treatments. However, little is known about how TCM herbal medicine impacts cancer outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the association between TCM herbal therapy and survival outcomes in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer. We conducted an eight-center prospective cohort study in China among patients who had undergone radical resection for stage II and III colorectal cancer. All patients received comprehensive conventional treatments according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, and follow-up visits were conducted over five years. We defined high exposure as a patient's use of TCM individualized herbs for more than one year, ascertained via clinical interviews. The primary outcome was disease-free survival (DFS), with overall survival (OS) as a secondary outcome. Between April 2007 and February 2009, we enrolled 312 patients into the cohort; 166 (53.2%) met the definition of high exposure to TCM herbs. Adjusting for covariates, high exposure to TCM was associated with both better DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.39 to 0.98) and OS (HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.68). In subgroup exploratory analysis, the effects demonstrated that the differences in outcomes were statistically significant in patients who had received chemotherapy. Longer duration of TCM herbal use is associated with improved survival outcomes in stage II and III colorectal cancer patients in China. More research is needed to evaluate the effects and underlying mechanisms of herbal medicine on colorectal cancer outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Identification and Construction of Combinatory Cancer Hallmark-Based Gene Signature Sets to Predict Recurrence and Chemotherapy Benefit in Stage II Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanwu; Tibiche, Chabane; Zou, Jinfeng; Zaman, Naif; Trifiro, Mark; O'Connor-McCourt, Maureen; Wang, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) have been among the most challenging and controversial in oncology over the past 20 years. To develop robust combinatory cancer hallmark-based gene signature sets (CSS sets) that more accurately predict prognosis and identify a subset of patients with stage II CRC who could gain survival benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy. Thirteen retrospective studies of patients with stage II CRC who had clinical follow-up and adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. Respective totals of 162 and 843 patients from 2 and 11 independent cohorts were used as the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. A total of 1005 patients with stage II CRC were included in the 13 cohorts. Among them, 84 of 416 patients in 3 independent cohorts received fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Identification of CSS sets to predict relapse-free survival and identify a subset of patients with stage II CRC who could gain substantial survival benefits from fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Eight cancer hallmark-based gene signatures (30 genes each) were identified and used to construct CSS sets for determining prognosis. The CSS sets were validated in 11 independent cohorts of 767 patients with stage II CRC who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The CSS sets accurately stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. Five-year relapse-free survival rates were 94%, 78%, and 45%, respectively, representing 60%, 28%, and 12% of patients with stage II disease. The 416 patients with CSS set-defined high-risk stage II CRC who received fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy showed a substantial gain in survival benefits from the treatment (ie, recurrence reduced by 30%-40% in 5 years). The CSS sets substantially outperformed other prognostic predictors of stage 2 CRC. They are more accurate and robust for prognostic predictions and facilitate the identification of patients with stage

  10. ColoFinder: a prognostic 9-gene signature improves prognosis for 871 stage II and III colorectal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingguang Shi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a heterogeneous disease with a high mortality rate and is still lacking an effective treatment. Our goal is to develop a robust prognosis model for predicting the prognosis in CRC patients. In this study, 871 stage II and III CRC samples were collected from six gene expression profilings. ColoFinder was developed using a 9-gene signature based Random Survival Forest (RSF prognosis model. The 9-gene signature recurrence score was derived with a 5-fold cross validation to test the association with relapse-free survival, and the value of AUC was gained with 0.87 in GSE39582(95% CI [0.83–0.91]. The low-risk group had a significantly better relapse-free survival (HR, 14.8; 95% CI [8.17–26.8]; P < 0.001 than the high-risk group. We also found that the 9-gene signature recurrence score contributed more information about recurrence than standard clinical and pathological variables in univariate and multivariate Cox analyses when applied to GSE17536(p = 0.03 and p = 0.01 respectively. Furthermore, ColoFinder improved the predictive ability and better stratified the risk subgroups when applied to CRC gene expression datasets GSE14333, GSE17537, GSE12945and GSE24551. In summary, ColoFinder significantly improves the risk assessment in stage II and III CRC patients. The 9-gene prognostic classifier informs patient prognosis and treatment response.

  11. Systemic therapy for patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Per; Qvortrup, Camilla; Tabernero, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Recent modalities and strategies have increased the complexity of treatment choice in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and therefore all cases should be assessed at a multidisciplinary conference. Adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months increases the chance of cure by absolutely 5 % in stage II...

  12. Phase I-II Study of Fluorouracil in Combination With Phenylbutyrate in Advanced Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  13. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2010-06-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and postmenopausal hormones for women are associated with substantial reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence.

  14. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention....

  15. Colorectal Cancer: Prognostic Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Manxhuka-Kerliu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available After lung cancer colorectal cancer (Cc is ranked the second, as a cause of cancer-related death. The purpose of this study was to analyze the Cc cases in our material with respect to all prognostic values including histological type and grade, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, and tumor border features. There were investigated 149 cases of resection specimen with colorectal cancer, which were fixed in buffered neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. Tissue sections (4(µm thick were cut and stained with H&E. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type found in 85,90% of cases, in 60,94% of males and 39,06% of females; squamous cell carcinoma in 7,38%, in 63,63% of males and 36,36% of females; mucinous carcinoma in 4,68%, in 57,15% of males and 42,85% of females; while adenosquamous carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma and carcinoma in situ in 0,71% of cases each. Dukes' classification was used in order to define the depth of invasion. Dukes B was found in 68,45% of cases, whereas in 31,54% of cases Dukes C was found. As far as histological grading is concerned, Cc was mostly with moderate differentiation (75,16% with neither vascular nor perineural invasion. Resection margins were in all cases free of tumor. Our data indicate that the pathologic features of the resection specimen constitute the most powerful predictors of postoperative outcome in Cc. Dukes' stage and degree of differentiation provide independent prognostic information in Cc. However, differentiation should be assessed by the worst pattern.

  16. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed......, and other pathological risk factors. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal...... diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long...

  17. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hano Garcia, Olga Marina; Wood Rodriguez, Lisette; Villa Jimenez, Oscar Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  18. p53 nuclear accumulation and multiploidy are adverse prognostic factors in surgically resected stage II colorectal cancers independent of fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglioni, S; D'Agnano, I; Vasselli, S; Perrone Donnorso, R; D'Angelo, C; Brenna, A; Benevolo, M; Cosimelli, M; Zupi, G; Mottolese, M

    2001-09-01

    To identify the prognostically highest risk patients, DNA content and p53 nuclear or cytoplasmic accumulation, evaluated by monoclonal antibody DO7 and polyclonal antibody CM1, were determined in 94 surgically resected stage II (Dukes B2) colorectal cancers, treated or not with adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Sixty-one (65%) of the tumors were aneuploid, 16 (17%) of which had a multiploid DNA content; 50 (53%) displayed DO7 nuclear p53 accumulation, and 44 (47%) showed cytoplasmic CM1 positivity. In multivariate analysis, only multiploidy and p53 nuclear positivity emerged as independent prognostic indicators of a poorer outcome. Positivity for p53 was associated with shorter survival in 5-fluorouracil-treated and untreated patients. Therefore, in patients with Dukes B2 colorectal cancer, a biologic profile based on the combined evaluation of DNA multiploidy and p53 status can provide valuable prognostic information, identifying patients to be enrolled in alternative, more aggressive therapeutic trials.

  19. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  20. Colorectal Cancer: What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Colorectal Cancer: What You Should Know Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... with—and more than 50,000 died from—colorectal cancer, according to the National Cancer Institute. It is ...

  1. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARYBackground and purpose Colorectal cancer is a common disease in Denmark with considerable morbidity and mortality. Although survival in recent years has improved, Denmark still has the lowest 5-year survival compared to the other Nordic countries. The treatment of patients depends on local...... the potential to contribute to the staging of colorectal cancer. The purpose of these studies was to determine the usefulness of ultrasound diagnostics in patients with colorectal cancer.The purpose of the TRUS studies was to compare staging of rectal carcinomas using digital rectal exploration...... of 295 patients with primary colorectal cancer we found a sensitivity of preoperative ultrasound, surgical exploration, and intraoperative ultrasound of 70%, 84%, and 97%, respectively, based on a patient-by-patient comparison (p

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC): From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56), 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most com...

  3. A network-based predictive gene-expression signature for adjuvant chemotherapy benefit in stage II colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bangrong; Luo, Liping; Feng, Lin; Ma, Shiqi; Chen, Tingqing; Ren, Yuan; Zha, Xiao; Cheng, Shujun; Zhang, Kaitai; Chen, Changmin

    2017-12-13

    The clinical benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) is controversial. This study aimed to explore novel gene signature to predict outcome benefit of postoperative 5-Fu-based therapy in stage II CRC. Gene-expression profiles of stage II CRCs from two datasets with 5-Fu-based adjuvant chemotherapy (training dataset, n = 212; validation dataset, n = 85) were analyzed to identify the indicator. A systemic approach by integrating gene-expression and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was implemented to develop the predictive signature. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards model were used to determine the survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. Experiments with shRNA knock-down were carried out to confirm the signature identified in this study. In the training dataset, we identified 44 PPI sub-modules, by which we separate patients into two clusters (1 and 2) having different chemotherapeutic benefit. A predictor of 11 PPI sub-modules (11-PPI-Mod) was established to discriminate the two sub-groups, with an overall accuracy of 90.1%. This signature was independently validated in an external validation dataset. Kaplan-Meier curves showed an improved outcome for patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy in Cluster 1 sub-group, but even worse survival for those in Cluster 2 sub-group. Similar results were found in both the training and the validation dataset. Multivariate Cox regression revealed an interaction effect between 11-PPI-Mod signature and adjuvant therapy treatment in the training dataset (RFS, p = 0.007; OS, p = 0.006) and the validation dataset (RFS, p = 0.002). From the signature, we found that PTGES gene was up-regulated in CRC cells which were more resistant to 5-Fu. Knock-down of PTGES indicated a growth inhibition and up-regulation of apoptotic markers induced by 5-Fu in CRC cells. Only a small proportion of stage II CRC patients could benefit from adjuvant therapy. The 11-PPI-Mod as

  4. Colorectal cancer complicating Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H J

    2001-04-01

    Some earlier studies have indicated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially those with long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis, have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Moreover, others in tertiary care centres have suggested that patients with Crohn's disease also have a higher risk of colorectal cancer. Canadian data on colorectal cancer in Crohn's disease appear to be limited. For this investigation, a single clinician database of 877 patients with Crohn's disease was used. Altogether, there were six patients with colorectal cancer (ie, overall rate of 0.7%). All of these patients were men with an initial diagnosis of Crohn's disease established at a mean age of approximately 28 years, with either ileocolonic disease or colonic disease alone, but not with ileal disease alone. Although there was a predominance of women in the overall study population (ie, 56.1%), no women developed colorectal cancer. The clinical behaviour of Crohn's disease was classified as nonstricturing in all six patients with colorectal cancer, but in two patients, Crohn's disease was complicated by a perirectal abscess or a fistula. All cancers were located in the rectum and were diagnosed 30 years, 22 years, seven years, 18 years, 20 years and 40 years after Crohn's disease was initially diagnosed. In three patients, the cancer was detected in a residual rectal stump after a partial colon resection at least 10 years earlier. In five patients, localized extension of disease through the serosa, nodal or distant metastases (ie, liver, lung) was found at the time of cancer diagnosis; two patients have since died. The present study confirms that Crohn's disease involving the colon may be a possible risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, at least in younger men, but, in this study, not in women. However, part of this increased risk in men may have been related to the presence of a rectal stump, rather than to Crohn's disease per se.

  5. Colorectal Cancer Complicating Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier studies have indicated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially those with long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis, have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Moreover, others in tertiary care centres have suggested that patients with Crohn's disease also have a higher risk of colorectal cancer. Canadian data on colorectal cancer in Crohn's disease appear to be limited. For this investigation, a single clinician database of 877 patients with Crohn's disease was used. Altogether, there were six patients with colorectal cancer (ie, overall rate of 0.7%. All of these patients were men with an initial diagnosis of Crohn's disease established at a mean age of approximately 28 years, with either ileocolonic disease or colonic disease alone, but not with ileal disease alone. Although there was a predominance of women in the overall study population (ie, 56.1%, no women developed colorectal cancer. The clinical behaviour of Crohn's disease was classified as nonstricturing in all six patients with colorectal cancer, but in two patients, Crohn's disease was complicated by a perirectal abscess or a fistula. All cancers were located in the rectum and were diagnosed 30 years, 22 years, seven years, 18 years, 20 years and 40 years after Crohn's disease was initially diagnosed. In three patients, the cancer was detected in a residual rectal stump after a partial colon resection at least 10 years earlier. In five patients, localized extension of disease through the serosa, nodal or distant metastases (ie, liver, lung was found at the time of cancer diagnosis; two patients have since died. The present study confirms that Crohn's disease involving the colon may be a possible risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, at least in younger men, but, in this study, not in women. However, part of this increased risk in men may have been related to the presence of a rectal stump, rather than to Crohn's disease per se.

  6. Regorafenib plus modified FOLFOX6 as first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: A phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argilés, Guillem; Saunders, Mark P; Rivera, Fernando; Sobrero, Alberto; Benson, Al; Guillén Ponce, Carmen; Cascinu, Stefano; Van Cutsem, Eric; Macpherson, Iain R; Strumberg, Dirk; Köhne, Claus-Henning; Zalcberg, John; Wagner, Andrea; Luigi Garosi, Vittorio; Grunert, Julia; Tabernero, Josep; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2015-05-01

    The oral multikinase inhibitor regorafenib improves overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) for which all standard treatments have failed. This study investigated regorafenib plus modified FOLFOX (mFOLFOX6) as first-line treatment of metastatic CRC. In this single-arm, open-label, multicentre, phase II study, patients received mFOLFOX6 on days 1 and 15, and regorafenib 160 mg orally once daily on days 4-10 and 18-24 of each 28-day cycle. The primary end-point was centrally assessed objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end-points included disease control rate (DCR), OS, progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. Median overall treatment duration with any study drug was 9.9 months (range 0.6-19.6); median treatment duration with regorafenib was 7.7 months (range 0.1-19.5); six patients remained on regorafenib for more than 1 year. Fifty-three patients received at least one dose of regorafenib. ORR was 43.9% (all partial responses); DCR was 85.4%; median OS was not reached; median PFS was 8.5months. Treatment-emergent adverse events were experienced by all patients but were manageable with dose modifications. Regorafenib+mFOLFOX6 as first-line treatment in patients with metastatic CRC did not improve ORR over historical controls. Regorafenib plus mFOLFOX6 did not appear to be associated with a markedly worse tolerability profile versus mFOLFOX6 alone. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  8. Undefined familial colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambirinis, Constantinos Pantelis; Theodoropoulos, George; Gazouli, Maria

    2009-10-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most common cancers of the world, is actually a spectrum of several subtypes, with different molecular profiles, clinico-pathological characteristics and possibly separate pathways of progression. It is estimated that in approximately 25%-35% of cases, a familial component exists, so they are classified as familial CRC (fCRC). However the known hereditary CRC syndromes justify only up to 5%. The rest are attributed to some inherited genetic predisposition passed to offspring through low-penetrance genes, which in the proper environmental setting can bring on tumorigenesis. Furthermore, part of the familial clustering may be attributed to chance. Because of the complexity regarding the etiology of CRC, the clinician is sometimes faced with obscure patient data, and cannot be sure if they are dealing with fCRC or sporadic CRC. The elucidation of what is going on with the as yet "undefined" portion of CRC will aid not only in the diagnosis, classification and treatment of CRC, but more importantly in the proper adjustment of the screening guidelines and in genetic counselling of patients.

  9. Genetic Testing for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before 50). Dave has Lynch syndrome and had colorectal cancer at 28. Amy found out she has Lynch syndrome when she was diagnosed with colorectal cancer days after turning 47. Why is it Important ...

  10. Colorectal cancer with venous tumor thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kensuke Otani; Soichiro Ishihara; Keisuke Hata; Koji Murono; Kazuhito Sasaki; Koji Yasuda; Takeshi Nishikawa; Toshiaki Tanaka; Tomomichi Kiyomatsu; Kazushige Kawai; Hiroaki Nozawa; Hironori Yamaguchi; Toshiaki Watanabe

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Colorectal cancer is seldom accompanied by venous tumor thrombosis, and little is known about the features of venous tumor thrombosis in colorectal cancer. However, some reports show that colorectal cancer patients can develop venous tumor thrombosis and warn clinicians not to overlook this complication. In this report, we perform a review of 43 previously reported cases and investigate the characteristics of colorectal cancer accompanied by venous tumor thrombosis. The histological ...

  11. Brain metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Brain metastases from colorectal cancer are rare. The prognosis for patients with even a single resectable brain metastasis is poor. A case of surgically treated cerebral metastasis from a rectal carcinoma is reported. The brain tumour was radically resected. However, cerebral, as well...... as extracerebral, disease recurred 12 months after diagnosis. Surgical removal of colorectal metastatic brain lesions in selected cases results in a longer survival time....

  12. The tumour spectrum in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: a study of 24 kindreds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, H. F.; Offerhaus, G. J.; den Hartog Jager, F. C.; Menko, F. H.; Nagengast, F. M.; Griffioen, G.; van Hogezand, R. B.; Heintz, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    The hereditary colonic cancer syndrome without polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is usually divided into 2 main categories: hereditary site-specific colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome I) and colorectal cancer in association with other forms of cancer (Lynch syndrome II).

  13. Subnuclear proteomics in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C; Piersma, Sander R

    2010-01-01

    for early cancer detection. Here we evaluate a proteomics work flow for profiling protein constituents in subnuclear domains in colorectal cancer tissues and apply this work flow to a comparative analysis of the nuclear matrix fraction in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissue samples. First, we......Abnormalities in nuclear phenotype and chromosome structure are key features of cancer cells. Investigation of the protein determinants of nuclear subfractions in cancer may yield molecular insights into aberrant chromosome function and chromatin organization and in addition may yield biomarkers...... with statistics, we identified proteins that are significantly enriched in the nuclear matrix fraction relative to two earlier fractions (the chromatin-binding and intermediate filament fractions) isolated from six colorectal tissue samples. The total data set contained 2,059 non-redundant proteins. Gene ontology...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); H. Brenner (Hermann)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is an important public health problem. Several screening methods have been shown to be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality. The objective of this review was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the different colorectal cancer screening methods and to

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardwick, James C.; Kodach, Liudmila L.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the current understanding of colorectal cancer stems from the study of rare, inherited colorectal cancer syndromes. Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway have been found in juvenile polyposis, an inherited polyposis syndrome that predisposes to colorectal cancer. The

  16. Is prevalence of colorectal polyps higher in patients with family history of colorectal cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Bezerra, Carla Camila Rocha; Peixoto, Ana Ligia Rocha; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Siebra, José Airton Gonçalves; da Silva Fernandes, Graziela Olivia; Vasconcelos, Rafael Aragão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjectives:To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening.Methods:A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy...

  17. Effect of Cu(II) coordination compounds on the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Katarzyna; Malinowska, Katarzyna; Langer, Ewa; Dziki, Łukasz; Dziki, Adam; Majsterek, Ireneusz

    2011-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious medical and economical problem of our times. It is the most common gastrointestinal cancer in the world. In Poland, the treatment and detection of CRC are poorly developed and the pathogenesis is still unclear. One hypothesis suggests a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of CRC. Experimental studies in recent years confirm the participation of ROS in the initiation and promotion of CRC. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the following coordination compounds coordination compounds: dinitrate (V) tetra(3,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dichloro di(3,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dinitrate (V) di(1,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II), dichloro di(1,3,4,5-tetramethyl-N1-pyrazole-κN2) copper(II) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, ZnCu-SOD) and catalase (CAT) in a group of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and in the control group consisting of patients with minor gastrointestinal complaints. The study was conducted in 20 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at the age of 66.5±10.2 years (10 men and 10 women) versus the control group of 20 people (10 men and 10 women) aged 57.89±17.10 years without cancer lesions in the biological material - hemolysate prepared in a proportion of 1ml of water per 1 ml of blood. CAT activity was measured by the Beers method (1952), while SOD activity was measured by the Misra and Fridovich method (1972). We found that patients with CRC showed a statistically significant decrease of SOD and CAT activity (CAT - 12,75±1.97 U/g Hb, SOD - 1111.52±155.52 U/g Hb) in comparison with the control group (CAT - 19.65±2,17 U/g Hb, SOD - 2046.26±507.22 U/g Hb). Simultaneously, we observed that the investigated coordination compounds of Cu(II) significantly increased the antioxidant activity of CAT and SOD in patients with CRC (mean: CAT 25.23±4.86 U/g Hb, SOD - 3075.96±940.20 U/g Hb). Patients with

  18. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...

  19. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-06

    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  1. Optimisation of colorectal cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Colette Bernadine Maria-Theresia van den

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Although there have been several improvements in screening, staging, and treatment in the past decades, survival differences remain. For example among certain subgroups of patients, such as elderly patients and patients with

  2. Brain metastasis from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Yoshiko; Itabashi, Michio; Hirosawa, Tomoichiro; Ogawa, Shinpei; Noguchi, Eiichiro; Takemoto, Kaori; Shirotani, Noriyasu; Kameoka, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    The present study was performed to clarify the clinical characteristics of brain metastasis from colorectal cancer. Five patients with brain metastasis from colorectal cancer treated at our institute between 2001 and 2005 were included in the study. Clinical findings and survival time were determined and an appropriate system for follow-up in such cases was considered. Brain metastasis was found after surgery for colorectal cancer in 4 cases. In addition, colorectal cancer was found after diagnosis of brain metastasis in 1 case. At the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis, all patients had lung metastasis and 3 had liver metastasis. The mean periods between surgery for colorectal cancer and lung and brain metastases were 19.5 and 38.2 months, respectively. In all cases, brain metastasis was diagnosed by imaging after the appearance of neurological symptoms. Brain metastases were multiple in 1 case and focal in 4 cases. We performed gamma knife radiation therapy, and the symptoms disappeared or decreased in all cases. Mean survival time after brain metastasis was 3.0 months. Prognosis after brain metastasis is poor, but gamma knife radiation therapy contributed to patients' quality of life. (author)

  3. Cancer immunology and colorectal cancer recurrence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vannucci, Luca

    -, č. 3 (2011), s. 1421-1431 ISSN 1945-0524 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : colorectal cancer * inflammation * tumor Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shafayan M. Keyhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC: From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56, 25.4 percent were long-term smokers and bleeding was the most common symptom. The rectum was the most common site and moderately differentiated carcinoma was considered as the main common histopathological variety. In conclusion, increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in younger Iranian population, below 30 and late admission and diagnosis were the main findings in the present study necessitating screening programs with annual fecal occult blood tests in high risk families.

  5. Overexpression of the S100A2 protein as a prognostic marker for patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    MASUDA, TAIKI; ISHIKAWA, TOSHIAKI; MOGUSHI, KAORU; OKAZAKI, SATOSHI; ISHIGURO, MEGUMI; IIDA, SATORU; MIZUSHIMA, HIROSHI; TANAKA, HIROSHI; UETAKE, HIROYUKI; SUGIHARA, KENICHI

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify a novel prognostic biomarker related to recurrence in stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Stage II and III CRC tissue mRNA expression was profiled using an Affymetrix Gene Chip, and copy number profiles of 125 patients were generated using an Affymetrix 250K Sty array. Genes showing both upregulated expression and copy number gains in cases involving recurrence were extracted as candidate biomarkers. The protein expression of the candidate gene was assessed using immunohistochemical staining of tissue from 161 patients. The relationship between protein expression and clinicopathological features was also examined. We identified 9 candidate genes related to recurrence of stage II and III CRC, whose mRNA expression was significantly higher in CRC than in normal tissue. Of these proteins, the S100 calcium-binding protein A2 (S100A2) has been observed in several human cancers. S100A2 protein overexpression in CRC cells was associated with significantly worse overall survival and relapse-free survival, indicating that S100A2 is an independent risk factor for stage II and III CRC recurrence. S100A2 overexpression in cancer cells could be a biomarker of poor prognosis in stage II and III CRC recurrence and a target for treatment of this disease. PMID:26783118

  6. Long-term use of metformin and colorectal cancer risk in type II diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardel, Majken; Jensen, S. M.; Pottegård, Anton

    2014-01-01

    of prescriptions for a cumulative dose of 2000 g within 5 years prior to the index date. To control for potential confounders, we used unconditional logistic regression. We generated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the association between metformin and CRC and performed subanalyses for selected subgroups...... and for the dose-response relation. We identified 2088 cases and 9060 controls during the study period. The association between long-term metformin use and CRC gave an adjusted OR at 0.83 (95% CI 0.68-1.00). A protective effect on CRC with long-term use of metformin was only evident for women (OR 0.66 vs. 0.......99 for men). There was a significant dose-response association of metformin use > 250 defined daily dose (DDD) and for the duration of metformin use > 1 year. We found an indication of a protective effect of long-term metformin use against CRC in type II diabetics, although this effect was only seen in women....

  7. Molecular Classification and Correlates in Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ogino, Shuji; Goel, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Molecular classification of colorectal cancer is evolving. As our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis improves, we are incorporating new knowledge into the classification system. In particular, global genomic status [microsatellite instability (MSI) status and chromosomal instability (CIN) status] and epigenomic status [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status] play a significant role in determining clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of colorectal cancer. In thi...

  8. Incidence of chemotherapy- and chemoradiotherapy-induced amenorrhea in premenopausal women with stage II/III colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Juefeng; Gai, Ya; Li, Guichao; Tao, Zhonghua; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    The incidence rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) in young individuals are increasing. There has been a significant improvement in overall survival in CRC because of advances in adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy over the past decades. However, these procedures may compromise the function of the reproductive system, and ovarian failure and premature menopause may occur. The objective of this analysis was to determine the incidence of long-term amenorrhea (≥ 12 months) in women with CRC aged 40 years and younger after adjuvant treatment. The authors identified 162 premenopausal women with CRC aged 40 years or younger who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from January 2008 to December 2012. One hundred twenty-three patients met all eligibility criteria and had sufficient follow-up for evaluation. The median age at diagnosis in patients with colon and rectal cancers was, respectively, 36 and 35 years (range, 17-40 and 24-40 years). All patients had regular menses before treatment; 3 patients with colon cancer (4.2%) experienced long-term amenorrhea, and 48 patients with rectal cancer (94.1%) experienced long-term amenorrhea. The incidence of amenorrhea was significantly lower in patients with colon cancer (4.2%; 3 of 72) than in patients with rectal cancer (94.1%; 48 of 51) (P amenorrhea in patients with colon and rectal cancers was 4.2% and 94.1%, respectively. We believe our data support the fact that young female patients with CRC, especially those with rectal cancer who are scheduled to undergo pelvic irradiation, should be counseled regarding fertility preservation options, including ovarian transposition and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, embryo, or oocyte. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Peritumoral eosinophils predict recurrence in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum, Lars; Pollheimer, Marion J; Kornprat, Peter; Lindtner, Richard A; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Langner, Cord

    2015-03-01

    In colorectal cancer, the presence and extent of eosinophil granulocyte infiltration may render important prognostic information. However, it remains unclear whether an increasing number of eosinophils might simply be linked to the overall inflammatory cell reaction or represent a self-contained, antitumoral mechanism that needs to be documented and promoted therapeutically. Peri- and intratumoral eosinophil counts were retrospectively assessed in 381 primary colorectal cancers from randomly selected patients. Tumors were diagnosed in American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) stage I in 21%, stage II in 32%, stage III in 33%, and stage IV in 14%. Presence and extent of eosinophils was related to various histopathological parameters as well as patients' outcome. Overall, peri- and intratumoral eosinophils were observed in 86 and 75% cancer specimens. The peritumoral eosinophil count correlated strongly with the intratumoral eosinophil count (R=0.69; Peosinophil counts were significantly associated with lower T and N classification, better tumor differentiation, absence of vascular invasion, as well as improved progression-free and cancer-specific survival. However, only peritumoral eosinophils, but not intratumoral, were an independent prognosticator of favorable progression-free (hazard ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.98; P=0.04) and cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.52-0.93; P=0.01)-independent of the intensity of overall inflammatory cell reaction. This was also found for patients with AJCC/UICC stage II disease, wherein the presence of peritumoral eosinophils was significantly associated with favorable outcome. In conclusion, the number of peritumoral eosinophils had a significant favorable impact on prognosis of colorectal cancer patients independent of the overall tumor-associated inflammatory response. Evaluation of peritumoral eosinophils represents a promising

  10. Underpinning the repurposing of anthracyclines towards colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Sune Boris; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Smith, David Hersi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. We propose a repurposing strategy where anthracyclines are reintroduced to a subgroup of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with the highest likelihood of response. In breast cancer, DNA topoisomerase II alpha gene (TOP2A) alterations predict incremental benefit...... of anthracyclines, but this association has not been investigated in colorectal cancer. Frequency analysis of TOP2A gene alterations in colorectal cancer and the association with prognosis are evaluated and the challenges of using a TOP2A/CEN-17 FISH probe combination are addressed. Material and methods. Formalin......-fixed, paraffin-embedded material from 154 stage III colorectal cancer patients included in the RANX05 clinical trial was retrospectively assessed for TOP2A gene alterations using FISH. The TOP2A/CEN-17 ratio as well as the TOP2A gene copy number alone was used to define gene alterations and associations between...

  11. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  12. Syncytin immunoreactivity in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Mou; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    monoclonal syncytin antibody we have assessed syncytin expression in a retrospective series of 140 colorectal cancer patients. Variable degrees of syncytin expression were detected in both colonic and rectal tumors and the prognostic impact of such expression was analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method...... and the Cox proportional hazard model. Interestingly, increased syncytin expression was associated with decreased overall survival in rectal but not in colonic cancer patients. Thus, the prognostic impact of syncytin expression appears to vary with the tumor type....

  13. Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC...... and presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along...

  14. Attributable causes of colorectal cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Meng-Jia; Huang, Qiu-Chi; Bao, Cheng-Zhen; Li, Ying-Jun; Li, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Ding; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Kun; Wang, Jian-Bing

    2018-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the 4th common cancer in China. Most colorectal cancers are due to modifiable lifestyle factors, but few studies have provided a systematic evidence-based assessment of the burden of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality attributable to the known risk factors in China. Methods We estimated the population attributable faction (PAF) for each selected risk factor in China, based on the prevalence of exposure around 2000 and relative risks from cohort studies a...

  15. Management of colorectal cancer and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Caroline; Nash, Guy F; Hickish, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is associated with diabetes mellitus and both of these common conditions are often managed together by a surgeon. The surgical focus is usually upon cancer treatment rather than diabetes management. The relationship between colorectal cancer and diabetes is a complex one and can raise problems in both diagnosis and the management of patients with both conditions. This literature review explores the relationship between diabetes, diabetic treatment and colorectal cancer and a...

  16. Pitfalls and Opportunities in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. van Putten (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of death from cancer in the Western world. Screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality. The first evidence that colorectal cancer screening could effectively reduce mortality dates

  17. [Oligometastasized colorectal cancer-modern treatment strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnebösel, M; Lambertz, A; Dejong, K; Neumann, U P

    2018-06-05

    The prognosis of colorectal cancer in UICC stage IV has been improved in the last decades by improvements in interdisciplinary treatment. Treatment strategies for oligometastasized colorectal cancer are developing more and more into an individualized treatment. An overview of the current literature of modern treatment concepts in oligometastasized colorectal cancer UICC stage IV is given. Surgery still has the supreme mandate in resectable colorectal liver metastases, as neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment strategies to not provide any benefits for these patients. In marginal or non-resectable stages systemic treatment is superior in these patients depending on the prognostic parameters. Also in curative settings local treatment options should be considered as a reasonable additive tool. An interesting treatment approach for isolated liver metastases and non-resectable colorectal cancer is liver transplantation. Irrespective of new developments in treatment strategies for metastasized colorectal cancer, resection of colorectal liver metastases remains the gold standard whenever possible.

  18. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226...

  19. Predictive value of pretreatment lymphocyte count in stage II colorectal cancer and in high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Huixun; Huang, Liyong; Li, Dawei; Li, Qingguo; Li, Xinxiang

    2016-01-05

    Pretreatment lymphocyte count (LC) has been associated with prognosis and chemotherapy response in several cancers. The predictive value of LC for stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and for high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) has not been determined. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 1332 consecutive stage II CRC patients who underwent curative tumor resection was conducted. A pretreatment LC value risk, 459 (62.2%) of whom received AC. Patients with low LCs had significantly worse 5-year OS (74.6% vs. 90.2%, p risk patients with low LCs had the poorest DFS (p value or combined with high-risk status were both independent prognostic factors(p risk, AC-treated patients with high LCs had significantly longer DFS than untreated patients (HR, 0.594; 95% CI, 0.364-0.970; p = 0.035). There was no difference or trend for DFS or OS in patients with low LCs, regardless of the use of AC (DFS, p = 0.692; OS, p = 0.522). Low LC was also independently associated with poorer DFS in high-risk, AC-treated patients (HR, 1.885; 95% CI, 1.112-3.196; p = 0.019). Pretreatment LC is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II CRC. Furthermore, pretreatment LC reliably predicts chemotherapeutic efficacy in high-risk patients with stage II CRC.

  20. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long

  1. KRAS as a predictor of poor prognosis and benefit from postoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy in patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanhong; Wang, Li; Tan, Shuyun; Kim, George P; Dou, Ruoxu; Chen, Dianke; Cai, Yue; Fu, Xinhui; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    2015-08-01

    The KRAS gene frequently mutates in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we investigated the prognostic and predictive role of KRAS mutation in patients with stage II or III CRC. A consecutive cohort of patients with stage II or III CRC from a single center database was studied. The association between KRAS status, adjuvant FOLFOX therapy, and 3-year disease-free survival (3-y DFS) was analyzed. Of our 433 patients, 166 (38.3%) exhibited the KRAS mutation. Among the 190 patients who did not receive adjuvant therapy, those with KRAS mutation tumors had a worse 3-y DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.924; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.078-3.435; P = 0.027). Among patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, KRAS mutation was not correlated with worse 3-y DFS (HR, 1.083; 95% CI, 0.618-1.899; P = 0.781). Adjuvant chemotherapy improved 3-y DFS only among patients with KRAS mutant tumors (78.0% vs 69.2%) on multivariate analysis adjusted for age, stage, grade, site, vessel invasion, and carcinoembryonic antigen level (HR, 0.454; 95% CI, 0.229-0.901; P = 0.024). In contrast, there was no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in the KRAS wild-type group (84.3% vs 82.0%). KRAS mutation indicates poor prognosis. FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy benefits patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer with KRAS mutant tumors and is worth further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  3. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  4. Chemopreventive evaluation of a Schiff base derived copper (II) complex against azoxymethane-induced colorectal cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Golbabapour, Shahram; Najihussien, Abdrabuh; Almagrami, Amel Abdullah; Zahedifard, Maryam; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fani, Somaye; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Based on the potential of Schiff base compounds to act as sources for the development of cancer chemotherapeutic agents, this in vivo study was performed to investigate the inhibitory properties of the synthetic Schiff base compound Cu(BrHAP)2 on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). This study involved five groups of male rats. The negative control group was injected with normal saline once a week for 2 weeks and fed 10% Tween 20 for 10 weeks, the cancer control group was subcutaneously injected with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once per week for two consecutive weeks, the positive control group was injected with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once per week for two consecutive weeks and 35 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil (injected intra-peritoneally) for 4 weeks, and the experimental groups were first injected with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once per week for two consecutive weeks and then fed 2.5 or 5 mg/kg of the Schiff base compound once a day for 10 weeks. Application of the Schiff base compound suppressed total colonic ACF formation by up to 72% to 74% (P<0.05) when compared with the cancer control group. Analysis of colorectal specimens revealed that treatments with the Schiff base compound decreased the mean crypt scores in azoxymethane-treated rats. Significant elevations of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities and a reduction in the level of malondialdehyde were also observed. Histologically, all treatment groups exhibited significant decreases in dysplasia compared to the cancer control group (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated down-regulation of the PCNA protein. Comparative western blot analysis revealed that COX-2 and Bcl2 were up-regulated and Bax was down-regulated compared with the AOM control group. The current study demonstrated that the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound has promising chemoprotective activities that are evidenced by significant decreases in the numbers of ACFs in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer.

  5. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Pedro Lopes; Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso Pereira; Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar Vicente; Alexandra Bernardo; María Fernanda de Mesquita

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery...

  6. Evolving concepts in staging and treatment of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloothaak, D.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    For localized colorectal cancer (CRC), lymph node metastases are the most powerful prognostic factor for disease specific and overall survival. In the first part of the thesis, we explore the prognostic role of lymph nodes in patients with stage I/II colon cancer. In these patients, nodal metastases

  7. Radiologic evaluation of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Joong; Kang, Hee Tae; Kim, Jong Deok; Rhee, Hak Song

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer of Korea is much lower than that of Western countries, but has shown a tendency to a slight increase recently. Barium enema is the most valuable, noninvasive and inexpensive method available to evaluate the size, shape and site of colorectal cancer. The authors reviewed and radiologically classified barium enema studies of 232 cases of colorectal cancer from Aug. 1967 to July 1982 at Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Confirmed clinically, operatively and pathologically. The results were as follows; 1. The ratio of male and female was 1.3:1, and youngest was 13 year-old and the oldest 86 year-old. 2. The peak incidence occurred from 5th to 7th decades, accounting for 78% of all cases (181/232), and there was a relatively high incidence of the disease in patients below 30 years of age at 7.8% (18/232). 3. Rectum and rectosigmoid region are the most frequently involved regions (127/232:54.8%). 4. The positivity of barium enema examination was 4.0% (232/5807), and its accuracy was 96.5% (224/232). 5. The radiologic findings were classified into 4 groups, and they were annular encircling 62.9% (146/232). polypoid fungating 26.8% (62/232), infiltrating 8.6% (20/232), and primary ulcerating 1.7% (4/232) in order of frequency. 6. The linear length of the cancer ranged from 1.5 Cm to 15 Cm, and the average length was 5.5 Cm. 7. There was no statistical correlation between the length of lesion, the site, and the radiologic findings, and stages of the lesion (P:0.750-0.250). 8. The majority of colorectal cancers was adenocarcinoma (217/232:93.6%)

  8. Optimizing Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.S. Meester (Reinier)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractColorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Screening for colorectal cancer is implemented in an increasing number of settings, but performance of programs is often suboptimal. In this thesis, advanced modeling, informed by empirical data, was used to identify areas for

  9. Colorectal cancer stages transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyao Huo

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression differences in different stages of CRC. Gene expression data on 433 CRC patient samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Gene expression differences were evaluated across CRC stages using linear regression. Genes with p≤0.001 in expression differences were evaluated further in principal component analysis and genes with p≤0.0001 were evaluated further in gene set enrichment analysis. A total of 377 patients with gene expression data in 20,532 genes were included in the final analysis. The numbers of patients in stage I through IV were 59, 147, 116 and 55, respectively. NEK4 gene, which encodes for NIMA related kinase 4, was differentially expressed across the four stages of CRC. The stage I patients had the highest expression of NEK4 genes, while the stage IV patients had the lowest expressions (p = 9*10-6. Ten other genes (RNF34, HIST3H2BB, NUDT6, LRCh4, GLB1L, HIST2H4A, TMEM79, AMIGO2, C20orf135 and SPSB3 had p value of 0.0001 in the differential expression analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that the patients from the 4 clinical stages do not appear to have distinct gene expression pattern. Network-based and pathway-based gene set enrichment analyses showed that these 11 genes map to multiple pathways such as meiotic synapsis and packaging of telomere ends, etc. Ten of these 11 genes were linked to Gene Ontology terms such as nucleosome, DNA packaging complex and protein-DNA interactions. The protein complex-based gene set analysis showed that four genes were involved in H2AX complex II. This study identified a small number of genes that might be associated with clinical stages of CRC. Our analysis was not able to find a molecular basis for the current clinical staging for CRC based on the gene expression patterns.

  10. Some Aspects Of Adjuvant Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavata, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe and in North America. Cornerstone of the treatment of localized colorectal cancer is surgical resection followed by chemotherapy or radio-chemotherapy in indicated cases. For patients with Stage III colon cancer recent data have shown efficacy through the combining fluorouracil-based chemotherapy with oxaliplatin into adjuvant treatment program. For patients with Stage II colon cancer, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial, but may be appropriate in a subset of individuals at high risk for disease recurrence. Current randomized clinical trials in the adjuvant therapy of colorectal cancer are examining the value of adding agents known to be active in metastatic disease, including those that modify specific molecular targets. (author)

  11. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  12. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  13. Immunomodulatory effects in a phase II study of lenalidomide combined with cetuximab in refractory KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Gandhi

    Full Text Available This study assessed the immunomodulatory effects in previously treated KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients participating in a phase II multicenter, open-label clinical trial receiving lenalidomide alone or lenalidomide plus cetuximab. The main findings show the T cell immunostimulatory properties of lenalidomide as the drug induced a decrease in the percentage CD45RA(+ naïve T cells 3-fold while increasing the percentage HLA-DR(+ activated T helper cells and percentage total CD45RO(+ CD8(+ memory T cytotoxic cells, 2.6- and 2.1-fold respectively (p<0.0001. In addition, lenalidomide decreased the percentage of circulating CD19(+ B cells 2.6-fold (p<0.0001. Lenalidomide increased a modest, yet significant, 1.4-fold change in the percentage of circulating natural killer cells. Our findings indicate that lenalidomide significantly activates T cells, suggestive of an immunotherapeutic role for this drug in settings of maintenance therapy and tumor immunity. Furthermore, reported for the first time is the effect of lenalidomide in combination with cetuximab on T cell function, including increases in circulating naïve and central memory T cells. In summary, lenalidomide and cetuximab have significant effects on circulating immune cells in patients with colorectal carcinoma.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01032291.

  14. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, fo...

  15. Lower or Standard Dose Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-22

    Colon Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

  16. Screening of colorectal early cancer by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Usui, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been gradually increasing in Japan, and if the present rate of increase is maintained it has been estimated that it will become the most common of all malignant neoplasms by the year 2000. It has been proved that colorectal cancer can be completely cured, if it is treated in its early phase. Early cancer of the large bowel is defined as a cancer which is limited to the mucosal membrane or submucosal layer, regardless of lymph node and distant metastases. Detection of early cancer improves the overall curability of colorectal cancer. The greatest number of early cancers of the large bowel are polypoid lesions in their macroscopic form, and depressed lesions are rarely encountered. Accordingly, the first step in the detection of early cancer starts with the screening of polypoid lesion by radiology and endoscopy. This paper is concerned with diagnostic accuracy of radiology in the screening of colorectal cancer with endoscopic correlation

  17. Tumors with unmethylated MLH1 and the CpG island methylator phenotype are associated with a poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tao; Liu, Yanliang; Li, Kai; Wan, Weiwei; Pappou, Emmanouil P; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Kerner, Zachary; Baylin, Stephen B; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Ahuja, Nita

    2016-12-27

    We previously developed a novel tumor subtype classification model for duodenal adenocarcinomas based on a combination of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and MLH1 methylation status. Here, we tested the prognostic value of this model in stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Tumors were assigned to CIMP+/MLH1-unmethylated (MLH1-U), CIMP+/MLH1-methylated (MLH1-M), CIMP-/MLH1-U, or CIMP-/MLH1-M groups. Age, tumor location, lymphovascular invasion, and mucin production differed among the four patient subgroups, and CIMP+/MLH1-U tumors were more likely to have lymphovascular invasion and mucin production. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed differences in both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) among the four groups. In a multivariate analysis, CIMP/MLH1 methylation status was predictive of both DFS and OS, and DFS and OS were shortest in CIMP+/MLH1-U stage II CRC patients. These results suggest that tumor subtype classification based on the combination of CIMP and MLH1 methylation status is informative in stage II CRC patients, and that CIMP+/MLH1-U tumors exhibit aggressive features and are associated with poor clinical outcomes.

  18. Phase I/II study of azacitidine and capecitabine/oxaliplatin (CAPOX) in refractory CIMP-high metastatic colorectal cancer: evaluation of circulating methylated vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Michael J; Morris, Van; Moinova, Helen; Manyam, Ganiraju; Ensor, Joe; Lee, Michael S; Eng, Cathy; Kee, Bryan; Fogelman, David; Shroff, Rachna T; LaFramboise, Thomas; Mazard, Thibault; Feng, Tian; Hamilton, Stanley; Broom, Bradley; Lutterbaugh, James; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Markowitz, Sanford D; Kopetz, Scott

    2016-10-11

    Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands (CIMP) has been strongly implicated in chemotherapy resistance and is implicated in the pathogenesis of a subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) termed CIMP-high. This phase I/II study in CRC (phase II portion restricted to CIMP-high CRC), treated fluoropyrimidine/oxaliplatin refractory patients with azacitidine (75 mg/m2/day subcutaneously D1-5) and CAPOX (capecitibine and oxaliplatin) every three weeks. Twenty-six patients (pts) were enrolled in this study: 15 pts (12 treated at MTD) in phase I and 11 pts in phase II. No dose limiting toxicities were observed. A total of 14 pts were CIMP-high. No responses were seen. CIMP-high status did not correlate with efficacy endpoints [stable disease (SD) or progression-free survival (PFS)] or baseline vimentin methylation level. Changes in vimentin methylation over time did not correlate with efficacy outcomes. Baseline methylated vimentin correlated with tumor volume (PCIMP-high pts, but no objective responses. Serum methylated vimentin may be associated with benefit from a regimen including a hypomethylation agent, although this study is not able to separate a potential prognostic or predictive role for the biomarker.

  19. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Colorectal Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and specific radiological and clinical characteristics that predict malignancy of these at initial staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with colorectal cancer. A considerable number of indeterminate...... pulmonary nodules, which cannot readily be classified as either benign or malignant, are detected at initial staging chest CT in colorectal cancer patients....

  20. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment and follow up were included. Patient ... and recurrence and the associated patient and disease ... The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the devel- ... therapy, disease stage and curative intent (table 3). ... through genetic and family analyses (4,6). ... Polite BN, Dignam JJ: A colorectal cancer model of health.

  1. Vitamin D, inflammation, and colorectal cancer progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harten-Gerritsen, van Suzanne; Balvers, Michiel G.J.; Witkamp, Renger F.; Kampman, Ellen; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Survival from colorectal cancer is positively associated with vitamin D status. However, whether this association is causal remains unclear. Inflammatory processes may link vitamin D to colorectal cancer survival, and therefore investigating inflammatory markers as potential mediators may be a

  2. Colorectal Cancer Awareness for Women via Facebook: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Pennings Kamp, Kendra J; Salaysay, Zachary

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death among U.S. women. Women report being screened for colorectal cancer less often than men, and if colorectal cancer screening guidelines were routinely followed, approximately 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented. Many colorectal cancer screening interventions have not used Facebook, which is the most popular social media site among women. Little is known about engaging women in colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction information using Facebook. The "Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women" Facebook page was created to promote colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction awareness among women. Facebook posts targeted women aged 45-64 years and highlighted colorectal cancer screening methods, guidelines, and colorectal cancer risk reduction strategies. Demographics and data about the women's interactions with the page were collected using Facebook analytics and analyzed. The majority of the 391 users of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women Facebook page were women aged 45-54 years (56.5%). The most "liked" posts were related to colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors. In an effort to increase routine colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors, gastroenterology nurses and practices should consider Facebook as a good method to regularly engage women in colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction information.

  3. Phase II open-label study to assess efficacy and safety of lenalidomide in combination with cetuximab in KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Siena

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of combination treatment with lenalidomide and cetuximab in KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients. This was a phase II multicenter, open-label trial comprising a safety lead-in phase (phase IIa to determine the maximum tolerated dose, and a randomized proof of concept phase (phase IIb to determine the response rate of lenalidomide plus cetuximab combination therapy. Phase IIa treatment comprised oral lenalidomide (starting dose 25 mg/day and intravenous cetuximab (400 mg/m(2 followed by weekly 250 mg/m(2 in 28-day cycles. In phase IIb patients were randomized to either the phase IIa treatment schedule of lenalidomide plus cetuximab combination therapy or lenalidomide 25 mg/day monotherapy. Eight patients were enrolled into phase IIa. One patient developed a dose-limiting toxicity and the maximum tolerated dose of lenalidomide was determined at 25 mg/day. Forty-three patients were enrolled into phase IIb proof of concept. Best response was stable disease in 9 patients and study enrollment was terminated prematurely due to lack of efficacy in both treatment arms and failure to achieve the planned response objective. The majority of adverse events were grade 1 and 2. In both phases, the adverse events most commonly attributed to any study drugs were fatigue, rash and other skin disorders, diarrhea, nausea, and stomatitis. Thirty-nine deaths occurred; none was related to study drug. The combination of lenalidomide and cetuximab appeared to be well tolerated but did not have clinically meaningful activity in KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01032291.

  4. CD133 expression is not an independent prognostic factor in stage II and III colorectal cancer but may predict the better outcome in patients with adjuvant therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Jung, So Young; Kim, Ik-Yong; Oh, Sung Soo; Choi, EunHee; Chang, Sei Jin; Kang, Tae Young; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are notorious for their capacity of tumor progression, metastasis or resistance to chemo-radiotherapy. However, the undisputed role of cancer stem marker, CD133, in colorectal cancers (CRCs) is not clear yet. We assessed 271 surgically-resected stage II and III primary CRCs with (171) and without (100) adjuvant therapy after surgery. CD133 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and real-time RT-PCR. CD133 promoter methylation was quantified by pyrosequencing. The CD133 IHC expression was significantly correlated with mRNA expression (p=0.0257) and inversely correlated with the promoter methylation (p=0.0001). CD133 was expressed more frequently in rectal cancer (p=0.0035), and in moderately differentiated tumors (p=0.0378). In survival analysis, CD133 expression was not significantly correlated with overall survival (OS) (p=0.9689) as well as disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.2103). However, CD133+ tumors were significantly associated with better OS in patients with adjuvant therapy compared to those without adjuvant therapy (p<0.0001, HR 0.125, 95% CI 0.052-0.299). But the patients with CD133- tumors did not show any significant difference of survival according to adjuvant therapy (p=0.055, HR 0.500, 95% CI 0.247-1.015). In stage II and III CRCs, CD133 IHC expression may signify the benefit for adjuvant therapy although it is not an independent prognostic factor

  5. Colorectal cancer, diabetes and survival : Epidemiological insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanders, M. M. J.; Vissers, P. A. J.; Haak, H. R.; van de Poll-Franse, L.

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with pre-existing diabetes have significantly lower rates of overall survival compared with patients without diabetes. Against this backdrop, the American Diabetes Association and American Cancer Society in 2010 reviewed the scientific literature concerning diabetes

  6. Curable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hochster, Howard S.

    2010-01-01

    Colon cancer, though already metastatic, may still be curable through multi-modality approaches, which require combined planning between medical and surgical oncologists. Retrospective surgical series have historically shown 5-year survival or “cures” for 30% to 50% of patients with solitary or a few resectable liver metastases. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting has been poorly defined. A recent European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study randomize...

  7. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.

  8. Gene expression signatures for colorectal cancer microsatellite status and HNPCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, M; Jensen, J L; Laiho, P

    2005-01-01

    The majority of microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancers are sporadic, but a subset belongs to the syndrome hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Microsatellite instability is caused by dysfunction of the mismatch repair (MMR) system that leads to a mutator phenotype, and MSI...... of 101 stage II and III colorectal cancers (34 MSI, 67 microsatellite stable (MSS)) using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. From these data, we constructed a nine-gene signature capable of separating the mismatch repair proficient and deficient tumours. Subsequently, we demonstrated...... is correlated to prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Gene expression signatures as predictive markers are being developed for many cancers, and the identification of a signature for MMR deficiency would be of interest both clinically and biologically. To address this issue, we profiled the gene expression...

  9. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Personalizing therapy for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ashley; Ma, Brigette B Y

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Several important scientific discoveries in the molecular biology of CRC have changed clinical practice in oncology. These included the comprehensive genome-wide profiling of CRC by the Cancer Genome Atlas Network, the discovery of mutations along the RAS-RAF signaling pathway as major determinants of response to antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor, the elucidation of new molecular subsets of CRC or gene signatures that may predict clinical outcome after adjuvant chemotherapy, and the innovative targeting of the family of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors. These new data have allowed oncologists to individualize drug therapy on the basis of a patient's tumor's unique molecular profile, especially in the management of metastatic CRC. This review article will discuss the progress of personalized medicine in the contemporary management of CRC. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  12. Management of colorectal cancer and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Caroline; Nash, Guy F; Hickish, Tamas

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is associated with diabetes mellitus and both of these common conditions are often managed together by a surgeon. The surgical focus is usually upon cancer treatment rather than diabetes management. The relationship between colorectal cancer and diabetes is a complex one and can raise problems in both diagnosis and the management of patients with both conditions. This literature review explores the relationship between diabetes, diabetic treatment and colorectal cancer and addresses the issues that arise in diagnosing and treating this patient group. By highlighting these difficulties, this review aims to improve understanding and to provide clearer insight into both surgical and non-surgical management.

  13. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, H. F.; Wijnen, J. T.; Menko, F. H.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Taal, B. G.; Griffioen, G.; Nagengast, F. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, E. H.; Bertario, L.; Varesco, L.; Bisgaard, M. L.; Mohr, J.; Fodde, R.; Khan, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers. The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of carriers within

  14. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, HFA; Wijnen, JT; Menko, FH; Kleibeuker, JH; Taal, BG; Griffioen, G; Nagengast, FM; MeijersHeijboer, EH; Bertario, L; Varesco, L; Bisgaard, ML; Mohr, J; Fodde, R; Khan, PM

    Background & Aims: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers, The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of

  15. Patterns of Sociodemographic and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Stages II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients by Age: Examining Potential Mechanisms of Young-Onset Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin C. Murphy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. As a first step toward understanding the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in younger (age < 50 populations, we examined demographic, clinicopathologic, and socioeconomic characteristics and treatment receipt in a population-based sample of patients newly diagnosed with stages II and III CRC. Methods. Patients were sampled from the National Cancer Institute’s Patterns of Care studies in 1990/91, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 (n=6,862. Tumor characteristics and treatment data were obtained through medical record review and physician verification. We compared sociodemographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment patterns of younger (age < 50 and older (age 50–69, age ≥ 70 CRC patients. Results. Younger patients were more likely to be black (13% and Hispanic (15% than patients aged 50–69 years (11% and 10%, resp. and ≥70 years (7% each. A larger proportion of young white (41% and Hispanic (33% patients had rectal tumors, whereas tumors in the right colon were the most common in young black patients (39%. The majority of younger patients received chemotherapy and radiation therapy, although receipt of microsatellite instability testing was suboptimal (27%. Conclusion. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with young-onset CRC differ considerably by race/ethnicity, with a higher proportion of black and Hispanic patients diagnosed at the age of < 50 years.

  16. Patterns of Sociodemographic and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Stages II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients by Age: Examining Potential Mechanisms of Young-Onset Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caitlin C; Sanoff, Hanna K; Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Baron, John A; Lund, Jennifer L; Sandler, Robert S

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. As a first step toward understanding the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in younger (age stages II and III CRC. Methods. Patients were sampled from the National Cancer Institute's Patterns of Care studies in 1990/91, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 ( n = 6, 862). Tumor characteristics and treatment data were obtained through medical record review and physician verification. We compared sociodemographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment patterns of younger (age age 50-69, age ≥ 70) CRC patients. Results. Younger patients were more likely to be black (13%) and Hispanic (15%) than patients aged 50-69 years (11% and 10%, resp.) and ≥70 years (7% each). A larger proportion of young white (41%) and Hispanic (33%) patients had rectal tumors, whereas tumors in the right colon were the most common in young black patients (39%). The majority of younger patients received chemotherapy and radiation therapy, although receipt of microsatellite instability testing was suboptimal (27%). Conclusion. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with young-onset CRC differ considerably by race/ethnicity, with a higher proportion of black and Hispanic patients diagnosed at the age of < 50 years.

  17. Prognosis and Survival in patients with Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the outcome after colorectal surgery and to try to find possible ways to improve staging and treatment, especially in patients with stage I and II colonic cancer. The first part of this thesis describes the outcome and quality of life in patients with

  18. Update on Sporadic Colorectal Cancer Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Karin M

    2018-05-01

    Our understanding of the genetics of colorectal cancer has changed dramatically over recent years. Colorectal cancer can be classified in multiple different ways. Along with the advent of whole-exome sequencing, we have gained an understanding of the scale of the genetic changes found in sporadic colorectal cancer. We now know that there are multiple pathways that are commonly involved in the evolution of colorectal cancer including Wnt/β-catenin, RAS, EGFR, and PIK3 kinase. Another recent leap in our understanding of colorectal cancer genetics is the recognition that many, if not all tumors, are actually genetically heterogeneous within individual tumors and also between tumors. Recent research has revealed the prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications of various specific mutations, including specific mutations in BRAF and KRAS . There is increasing interest in the use of mutation testing for screening and surveillance through stool and circulating DNA testing. Recent advances in translational research in colorectal cancer genetics are dramatically changing our understanding of colorectal cancer and will likely change therapy and surveillance in the near future.

  19. Genetic prognostic markers in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Houlston, R S; Tomlinson, I P

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of molecular genetics to colorectal cancer has been restricted largely to relatively rare inherited tumours and to the detection of germline mutations predisposing to these cancers. However, much is now also known about somatic events leading to colorectal cancer. A number of studies has been undertaken examining possible relations between genetic features and prognostic indices. While many of these studies are small and inconclusive, it is clear that a number of different pa...

  20. The Association Between Molecular Markers in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Polyps and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0273 TITLE: The Association between Molecular Markers in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Polyps and Colorectal Cancer ... Colorectal Cancer Risk 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0273 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrea Burnett-Hartman 5d... cancer in patients with sessile serrated colorectal polyps (SSPs). The project’s specific aims are as follows: 1) Estimate the risk of colorectal

  1. Perceived religiousness is protective for colorectal cancer: data from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kune, G A; Kune, S; Watson, L F

    1993-01-01

    The perceived or self-reported degree of 'religiousness' was obtained by interview from 715 colorectal cancer patients and 727 age/sex matched community controls, as part of a large, comprehensive population-based study of colorectal cancer incidence, aetiology and survival (The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study) conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Self-reported or perceived 'religiousness', as defined in the study, was a statistically significant protective factor [relative risk (RR) = 0.70, ...

  2. Pneumatosis Coli Mimicking Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatosis coli (PC is a rare condition of the gastrointestinal tract involving extraluminal gas confined within the bowel wall. We report the case of a 40-year-old gentleman presenting clinically and endoscopically with suspected colorectal cancer. In light of the patient’s red flag symptoms, and carpet of polyps seen endoscopically, surgical management by an anterior resection was performed with the patient making a successful recovery. Histological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed pneumatosis coli with no evidence of colonic neoplasia. Although PC can be an incidental finding in asymptomatic patients and considered a benign condition, it can also present as a life-threatening emergency with bowel necrosis and obstruction requiring emergency surgical intervention. Also, when PC mimics malignancy, surgical management is the most appropriate step to ensure that the diagnosis of cancer is not missed.

  3. Skin toxicity and quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI treatment in a single-arm phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaler, Josef; Köhne, Claus-Henning; Karthaus, Meinolf; Mineur, Laurent; Greil, Richard; Letocha, Henry; Hofheinz, Ralf; Fernebro, Eva; Gamelin, Erick; Baños, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Integument-related toxicities are common during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy. Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR that significantly improves progression-free survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have wild-type (WT) KRAS tumours. Primary efficacy and tolerability results from a phase II single-arm study of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported. Here we report additional descriptive tolerability and quality of life data from this trial. Integument-related toxicities and quality of life were analysed; toxicities were graded using modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to and duration of first integument-related toxicity were prepared. Quality of life was measured using EuroQoL EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Best overall response was analysed by skin toxicity grade and baseline quality of life. Change in quality of life was analysed by skin toxicity severity. 154 patients were enrolled (WT KRAS n = 86; mutant KRAS n = 59); most (98%) experienced integument-related toxicities (most commonly rash [42%], dry skin [40%] and acne [36%]). Median time to first integument-related toxicity was 8 days; median duration was 334 days. Overall, proportionally more patients with grade 2+ skin toxicity responded (56%) compared with those with grade 0/1 (29%). Mean overall EQ-5D health state index scores (0.81 vs. 0.78), health rating scores (72.5 vs. 71.0) and QLQ-C30 global health status scores (65.8 vs. 66.7) were comparable at baseline vs. safety follow-up (8 weeks after completion), respectively and appeared unaffected by skin toxicity severity. First-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI has acceptable tolerability and appears to have little impact on quality of life, despite the high incidence of integument-related toxicity. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00508404

  4. Skin toxicity and quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI treatment in a single-arm phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler Josef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integument-related toxicities are common during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeted therapy. Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR that significantly improves progression-free survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have wild-type (WT KRAS tumours. Primary efficacy and tolerability results from a phase II single-arm study of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported. Here we report additional descriptive tolerability and quality of life data from this trial. Methods Integument-related toxicities and quality of life were analysed; toxicities were graded using modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to and duration of first integument-related toxicity were prepared. Quality of life was measured using EuroQoL EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Best overall response was analysed by skin toxicity grade and baseline quality of life. Change in quality of life was analysed by skin toxicity severity. Results 154 patients were enrolled (WT KRAS n = 86; mutant KRAS n = 59; most (98% experienced integument-related toxicities (most commonly rash [42%], dry skin [40%] and acne [36%]. Median time to first integument-related toxicity was 8 days; median duration was 334 days. Overall, proportionally more patients with grade 2+ skin toxicity responded (56% compared with those with grade 0/1 (29%. Mean overall EQ-5D health state index scores (0.81 vs. 0.78, health rating scores (72.5 vs. 71.0 and QLQ-C30 global health status scores (65.8 vs. 66.7 were comparable at baseline vs. safety follow-up (8 weeks after completion, respectively and appeared unaffected by skin toxicity severity. Conclusions First-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI has acceptable tolerability and appears to have little impact on quality of life, despite the high incidence of integument

  5. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Meat and colo-rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M J

    1999-05-01

    In early epidemiological studies of diet and cancer the stress was on the search for causal factors. Population (ecological) studies tended to show a strong correlation between meat intake, particularly red meat, and the risk of colo-rectal cancer. They also tended to show meat to be strongly inversely correlated with cancers of the stomach and oesophagus and liver. Early case-control studies tended to support the postulated role for red meat in colo-rectal carcinogenesis, although more recent case-control studies, particularly those from Europe, have tended to show no relationship. The cohort studies in general failed to detect any relationship between meat intake and colo-rectal cancer risk. The available evidence points to the intake of protective factors such as vegetables and whole-grain cereals being the main determinants of colo-rectal cancer risk, with meat intake only coincidentally related.

  7. Colorectal cancer: what's new in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivoire, M.

    1992-01-01

    Five studies presented at the 1992 ASCO meeting are analysed. Kligerman's study was designed to determine if pre-treatment with WR-2721 could p rotect normal tissues from the toxicities induced by radiation therapy (in 100 patients with an advanced rectal cancer). This pre-treatment resulted in a 13% reduction of moderate and severe acute toxicity. No WR-2721 patient experienced moderate or severe late toxicities compared to five in the group without pre-treatment. Minski studied the acute toxicity (during treatment and two weeks after) of combined pelvic radiation therapy, 5-FU and leucovorin when delivered pre-operatively (16 patients) versus post-operatively (25 patients) in patients with rectal cancer. The final report of the inter group study of 5-FU plus levamisole as adjuvant therapy for stage C colon cancer was made by Moertel. With a median follow-up time of 5.5 years, the 5-FU plus levamisole treatment has reduced the recurrence rate by 39%, the cancer related death rate by 32% and the overall death rate by 31%. Most of the recurrences occurred during the first two years. There was a decrease in the liver, great omentum, peritoneum and lung metastases, but there was no modification in loco-regional recurrence rate. Welt presented a phase I/II study of radio-immunotherapy with I 131 monoclonal antibody A33 in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. Results were characterized by major hematologic toxicity and minor tumor response rate. Heiss undertook a prospective study to evaluate the influence of homologous blood transfusion on recurrence rate after colorectal cancer surgery. Fifty-eight patients receiving autologous blood transfusion were compared with sixty-two patients receiving homologous transfusion. With a median follow-up of 21 months a higher recurrence rate was found in the homologous group (29.4% versus 16.7%)

  8. Pathological and Biological Aspects of Colorectal Cancer Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, M.J.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. This thesis describes several pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. Different patient populations were investigated including patients with mobile rectal cancer enrolled in the Dutch TME trial, patients

  9. A Phase I/II Trial of DCVac/IR Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy Combined with Irradiation in Cases of Refractory Colorectal Cancer with Multiple Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young-Min; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Han, Sang-Young; Choi, Jong-Cheol [Donga Univ. School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ju-Seop; Kim, Chang-Won; Kim, Dong-Won; Kang, Chi-Duk [Busan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    injections. Moreover, of the 14 patients that applied for the tolerance test, only 11 patients completed it because 3 patients withdrew their testing agreement. A grade 3 or more side effect, which was possibly related to the DC injection, did not occur in additional patients. The 12x10{sup 6} DC injection was identified as the maximum tolerable dose, and was then injected in an additional 8 patients. Patients tolerated the injection fairly well, with no fatal side effects. In order to assess the feasibility of DC immunotherapy, the response was evaluated in other hepatic lesions outside of the targeted hepatic lesion. The response evaluation was performed in 15 of the 17 patients who received at least 4 injections. Stable and progressive disease was found in 4 and 11 patients, respectively. The DC-based immunotherapy and radiotherapy is theoretically synergistic for the local control and systemic control. The DCVac/IR immunotherapy combined with irradiation was tolerable and safe in the evaluated cases of refractory colorectal cancer with multiple liver metastases. Future work should include well designed a phase II clinical trials.

  10. A Phase I/II Trial of DCVac/IR Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy Combined with Irradiation in Cases of Refractory Colorectal Cancer with Multiple Liver Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young-Min; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Han, Sang-Young; Choi, Jong-Cheol; Chung, Ju-Seop; Kim, Chang-Won; Kim, Dong-Won; Kang, Chi-Duk

    2008-01-01

    , of the 14 patients that applied for the tolerance test, only 11 patients completed it because 3 patients withdrew their testing agreement. A grade 3 or more side effect, which was possibly related to the DC injection, did not occur in additional patients. The 12x10 6 DC injection was identified as the maximum tolerable dose, and was then injected in an additional 8 patients. Patients tolerated the injection fairly well, with no fatal side effects. In order to assess the feasibility of DC immunotherapy, the response was evaluated in other hepatic lesions outside of the targeted hepatic lesion. The response evaluation was performed in 15 of the 17 patients who received at least 4 injections. Stable and progressive disease was found in 4 and 11 patients, respectively. The DC-based immunotherapy and radiotherapy is theoretically synergistic for the local control and systemic control. The DCVac/IR immunotherapy combined with irradiation was tolerable and safe in the evaluated cases of refractory colorectal cancer with multiple liver metastases. Future work should include well designed a phase II clinical trials

  11. A phase I/II study of biweekly capecitabine and irinotecan plus bevacizumab as second-line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suenaga M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitsukuni Suenaga,1 Nobuyuki Mizunuma,1 Satoshi Matsusaka,1 Eiji Shinozaki,1 Masato Ozaka,1 Mariko Ogura,1 Keisho Chin,1 Toshiharu Yamaguchi2 1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Triweekly capecitabine plus irinotecan (XELIRI is not completely regarded as a valid substitute for fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC because of the potential for greater toxicity. We conducted a phase I/II study to assess the efficacy and safety of biweekly XELIRI plus bevacizumab (BV as second-line chemotherapy for mCRC.Methods: Patients with mCRC who had received prior chemotherapy including oxaliplatin and BV and had a UGT1A1 genotype of wild-type or heterozygous for UGT1A1*6 or *28 were eligible for this study. Treatment comprised capecitabine 1,000 mg/m2 twice daily from the evening of day 1 to the morning of day 8, intravenous irinotecan on day 1, and BV 5 mg/kg on day 1 every 2 weeks. The phase I study consisted of two steps (irinotecan 150 and 180 mg/m2, and dose-limiting toxicity was assessed during the first treatment cycle. The primary endpoint of the phase II study was progression-free survival (PFS.  Results: The recommended dose of irinotecan was determined to be 180 mg/m2 in the phase I study. Between November 2010 and August 2013, 44 patients were enrolled in phase II. The patients’ characteristics were as follows (N=44: median age, 60 years (range 32–80; male/female, 21/23; and UGT1A1 wild-type/heterozygous, 29/15. The median PFS was 6.8 months (95% confidence interval, 5.3–8.2 months, and the primary endpoint was met. Median overall survival was 18.3 months. The response rate was 22.7%. There was no significant difference in PFS or overall survival according to UGT1A1 status. Grade 3 or higher adverse events were mainly neutropenia in six

  12. Growth and progression of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Ushio, K.; Hirota, T.

    1988-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the natural history of colorectal carcinoma, now that small polypoid lesions of the large intestine can be detected effectively by radiology and endoscopy. The problems of this histo- and morphogenesis of colorectal cancer have, however, remained unsettled because the observation of the sequential change of a lesion with time by follow-up radiology and/or endoscopy is impossible once its malignancy is proved. Clinically the retrospective review of radiographic findings in overlooked cases is the only means to evaluate the natural history of colorectal cancer. This paper attempts to estimate the growth rate of colorectal cancer, based on a retrospective review of radiographic findings of overlooked cases, and analyses of the radiographic features of small polypoid lesions which may develop into advanced cancers

  13. Colorectal cancer presenting as bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Suresh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, the patients of colorectal cancer presenting with bone metastasis were of male sex and younger age. The factors that were associated with reduced survival were extraosseous and liver involvement.

  14. Randomized phase II study of 5-fluorouracil hepatic arterial infusion with or without antineoplastons as an adjuvant therapy after hepatectomy for liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Ogata

    Full Text Available Antineoplastons are naturally occurring peptides and amino acid derivatives found in human blood and urine. Antineoplaston A10 and AS2-1 reportedly control neoplastic growth and do not significantly inhibit normal cell growth. Antineoplastons contain 3-phenylacetylamino-2, 6-piperidinedione (A10, phenylacetylglutamine plus phenylacetylisoglutamine (A10-I, and phenylacetylglutamine plus phenylacetate (AS2-1. This open label, non- blinded randomized phase II study compared the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion (HAI with 5-fluorouracil,with or without antineoplastons as a postoperative therapy for colorectal metastasis to the liver.Sixty-five patients with histologically confirmed metastatic colon adenocarcinoma in liver, who had undergone hepatectomy, and/or thermal ablation for liver metastases were enrolled between 1998- 2004 in Kurume University Hospital. Patients were randomly assigned to receive systemic antineoplastons (A10-I infusion followed by per-oral AS2-1 plus HAI (AN arm or HAI alone (control arm based on the number of metastases and presence/ absence of extra-hepatic metastasis at the time of surgery. Primary endpoint was cancer-specific survival (CSS; secondary endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS, status and extent of recurrence, salvage surgery (rate and toxicity.Overall survival was not statistically improved (p=0.105 in the AN arm (n=32. RFS was not significant (p=0.343. Nevertheless, the CSS rate was significantly higher in the AN arm versus the control arm (n=33 with a median survival time 67 months (95%CI 43-not calculated versus 39 months (95%CI 28-47 (p=0.037 and 5 year CSS rate 60% versus 32% respectively. Cancer recurred more often in a single organ than in multiple organs in the AN arm versus the control arm. The limited extent of recurrent tumours in the AN arm meant more patients remained eligible for salvage surgery. Major adverse effects of antineoplastons were fullness of the stomach and phlebitis. No

  15. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  16. Chemoprevention, chemotherapy, and chemoresistance in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Jose J G; Sanchez de Medina, Fermin; Castaño, Beatriz; Bujanda, Luis; Romero, Marta R; Martinez-Augustin, Olga; Moral-Avila, Rosario Del; Briz, Oscar

    2012-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in industrialized countries. Chemoprevention is a promising approach, but studies demonstrating their usefulness in large populations are still needed. Among several compounds with chemopreventive ability, cyclooxygenase inhibitors have received particular attention. However, these agents are not without side effects, which must be weighed against their beneficial actions. Early diagnosis is critical in the management of CRC patients, because, in early stages, surgery is curative in >90% of cases. If diagnosis occurs at stages II and III, which is often the case, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy before surgery are, in a few cases, recommended. Because of the high risk of recurrence in advanced cancers, chemotherapy is maintained after tumor resection. Chemotherapy is also indicated when the patient has metastases and in advanced cancer located in the rectum. In the last decade, the use of anticancer drugs in monotherapy or in combined regimens has markedly increased the survival of patients with CRC at stages III and IV. Although the rate of success is higher than in other gastrointestinal tumors, adverse effects and development of chemoresistance are important limitations to pharmacological therapy. Genetic profiling regarding mechanisms of chemoresistance are needed to carry out individualized prediction of the lack of effectiveness of pharmacological regimens. This would minimize side effects and prevent the selection of aggressive, cross-resistant clones, as well as avoiding undesirable delays in the use of the most efficient therapeutic approaches to treat these patients.

  17. Profile of colorectal cancer in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Snigdha; Mukherjee, Ramanuj; Paira, Susil Kumar; Roy, Bipradas; Banerjee, Shubhabrata; Mukherjee, Saibal Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Although colorectal cancer is a major cause of concern in the western population, recent studies are showing the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer to be rapidly rising in Asia. The present study is an insight into the epidemiological profile of colorectal cancer of a representative Eastern Indian population. Over a period of three years, all histologically proved patients with colorectal cancer were assessed for age, sex, body mass index, dietary habits, socioeconomic status and stage of disease. Of a total of 168 patients male to female ratio was 1.7:1.The mean age of presentation was 47.01 years. Although colorectal cancer has been known as a disease of sedentary obese men, 41.66% of the patients were from a low socioeconomic rural set-up and 40.47% were involved in heavy physical labour with only 15% of being obese; 62% patients were harbouring a locally advanced disease at the time of presentation. The epidemiological pattern of colorectal cancer in India is different from that of the west as regards to earlier age of presentation, prevalence in low socio economic class with low fat diet and scanty meat intake.

  18. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

  19. Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Timothy A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Results A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test. However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis.

  20. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and familial colorectal cancer in Central part of Iran, Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Nemati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of data on familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (CRC in Iran. We aimed to deter-mine the frequency of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC and familial colorectal cancer (FCC and to determine the frequency of extracolonic cancers in these families in Isfahan. Methods: We reviewed documents of all patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of CRC admitted to Isfa-han referral hospitals between 1995 and 2006. We also studied our CRC registry at Poursina Hakim Research Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found HNPCC and FCC families based on the Amsterdam II criteria and interviewed them for family history of CRC and extracolonic tumors. The family history was taken at least up to the second-degree relatives. Results: During 1996 to 2008, a total of 2580 CRC cases have been diagnosed. We found 14 HNPCC and 53 FCC families. Mean age of CRC at diagnosis was 48.0 ΁ 14.6 and 49.0 ΁ 13.9 years in the HNPCC and FCC families, re-spectively (p > 0.05. The total numbers of observed extracolonic tumors were 70 (21.6%; mean age = 53.6 ΁ 11.0 years and 157 (13.8%; mean age = 54.8 ΁ 18.0 years in HNPCC and FCC families, respectively (p > 0.05. CRC was respectively found in 52 and 76 members of the HNPCC and FCC families, revealing the frequency of HNPCC and FCC as 2.0% (52/2580 and 2.9% (76/2580, respectively. Conclusions: We found a relative high frequency of HNPCC (2.0% and FCC (2.9% among CRC cases in our socie-ty and high incidence of extracolonic tumors in their families. Further studies focusing on molecular basis in this field and designing a specific screening and national cancer registry program for HNPCC and FCC families should be con-ducted.

  1. Precancerous Lesions in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez Sandouk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer death in the world. The incidence rate (ASR and age distribution of this disease differ between most of African-Middle-Eastern (AMAGE and North America and Europe for many reasons. However, in all areas, “CRC” is considered as one of the most preventable cancers, because it might develop from variant processes like polyps and IBD in addition to the genetic pathogenesis which became very well known in this disease. We tried in this paper to review all the possible reasons of the differences in incidence and age between the west and AMAGE. Also we reviewed all the mutations that lead to the hereditary and familiar clustering of this disease with the correlations with the surrounding food and environment of different areas. Then, we focused on the precancerous pathology of this disease with special focusing on early detection depending on new endoscopy technology and most important genetic studies. We lastly reviewed the evidence of some of the surveillance and put suggestions about future surveillance programs and how important those programs are on the psychological aspect of the patients and their families.

  2. Socioeconomic, Rural-Urban, and Racial Inequalities in US Cancer Mortality: Part I-All Cancers and Lung Cancer and Part II-Colorectal, Prostate, Breast, and Cervical Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K. G.; Williams, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial inequalities in US mortality from all cancers, lung, colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers. A deprivation index and rural-urban continuum were linked to the 2003-2007 county-level mortality data. Mortality rates and risk ratios were calculated for each socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial group. Weighted linear regression yielded relative impacts of deprivation and rural-urban residence. Those in more deprived groups and rural areas had higher cancer mortality than more affluent and urban residents, with excess risk being marked for lung, colorectal, prostate, and cervical cancers. Deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to cancer mortality, with deprivation showing stronger impacts. Socioeconomic inequalities existed for both whites and blacks, with blacks experiencing higher mortality from each cancer than whites within each deprivation group. Socioeconomic gradients in mortality were steeper in nonmetropolitanlitan areas. Mortality disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking and other cancer-risk factors, screening, and treatment

  3. Epigenetic prognostic biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benard, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common diagnosed cancers worldwide, and is the second most important cause of cancer mortality in Europe. The current TNM staging system used at the time of diagnosis is insufficient, as patients with the same tumor stage show wide variations in survival and

  4. Outcome of colorectal cancer resection in octogenarians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer is predominantly a disease of the elderly. It is the second most common cancer in the UK and the third most common cause of cancer-related death.[1] Surgical resection, either for cure or palliation, remains the mainstay of treatment.[1,2]. Long-term survival is related to the extent of disease at diagnosis.

  5. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-05

    This podcast is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 7/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/5/2011.

  6. ICECREAM: randomised phase II study of cetuximab alone or in combination with irinotecan in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with either KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and PI3KCA wild type, or G13D mutated tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segelov, Eva; Waring, Paul; Desai, Jayesh; Wilson, Kate; Gebski, Val

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer whose disease has progressed on oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-containing regimens may benefit from EGFR-inhibiting monoclonal antibodies if they do not contain mutations in the KRAS gene (are “wild type”). It is unknown whether these antibodies, such as cetuximab, are more efficacious in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer as monotherapy, or in combination with irinotecan. Lack of mutation in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA predicts response to EFGR-inhibitors. The ICECREAM trial examines the question of monotherapy versus combination with chemotherapy in two groups of patients: those with a “quadruple wild type” tumour genotype (no mutations in KRAS, NRAS, PI3KCA or BRAF genes) and those with the specific KRAS mutation in codon G13D, for whom possibly EGFR-inhibitor efficacy may be equivalent. ICECREAM is a randomised, phase II, open-label, controlled trial comparing the efficacy of cetuximab alone or with irinotecan in patients with “quadruple wild type” or G13D-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer, whose disease has progressed on, or who are intolerant of oxaliplatin- and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. The primary endpoint is the 6-month progression-free survival benefit of the treatment regimen. Secondary endpoints are response rate, overall survival, and quality of life. The tertiary endpoint is prediction of outcome with further biological markers. International collaboration has facilitated recruitment in this prospective trial of treatment in these infrequently found molecular subsets of colorectal cancer. This unique trial will yield prospective information on the efficacy of cetuximab and whether this is further enhanced with chemotherapy in two distinct populations of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: the “quadruple wild type”, which may ‘superselect’ for tumours sensitive to EGFR-inhibition, and the rare KRAS G13D mutated tumours, which are also postulated to be sensitive to the drug

  7. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin, E-mail: Kliu@gru.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, and Cancer Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  8. Epigenetics and colorectal cancer pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-06-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  9. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy

  10. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebin Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Circle of Health for Alaskans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the colon and rectum is often called colorectal cancer. But in this brochure we use the term ... tests can be used to find polyps or colorectal cancer. Each can be used alone. Sometimes they are ...

  12. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer prevention strategies can include avoiding known risk factors, having a healthy lifestyle, taking aspirin, and removing polyps. Learn more about preventing colorectal cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  13. Self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tianhui; Xu, Jinghong; Zhu, Yongliang

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth facto...

  14. Cytogenetic findings in metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardi, G; Parada, L A; Bomme, L

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen tumor samples from 11 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were cytogenetically analyzed after short-term culturing. Of the 13 metastases examined, 11 were from lymph nodes, 1 from the peritoneum and 1 from the lung. In 5 of the 11 patients, matched samples from the primary tumor...... colorectal carcinomas, and del(10)(q22) and add(16)(p13), which so far have not been associated with primary tumors and which may play a particular pathogenetic role in the metastatic process....

  15. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  16. Phase I/II trial of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan in combination with bevacizumab in first line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazarbashi, Shouki; Aljubran, Ali; Alzahrani, Ahmad; Mohieldin, Ahmed; Soudy, Hussein; Shoukri, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Phase III studies have demonstrated the efficacy of FOLFOXIRI regimens (5-fluorouracil/leucovorin, oxaliplatin, irinotecan) with/without bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Capecitabine is an orally administered fluoropyrimidine that may be used instead of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin. We evaluated a triple-chemotherapy regimen of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan, plus bevacizumab in 53 patients with mCRC. A Phase I study identified the maximum tolerated dose of irinotecan as 150 mg/m 2 . Median follow-up in a subsequent Phase II study using this dose was 28 months (74% progressed). For all patients, a complete response was achieved in 4% and a partial response in 60%; median progression-free survival (PFS) was 16 months and median overall survival (OS) was 28 months. Median PFS was longer for patients with an early treatment response (28 vs. 9 months for others; P = 0.024), or early tumor shrinkage (25 vs. 9 months for others; P = 0.006), or for patients suitable for surgical removal of metastases with curative intent (median not reached vs. 9 months for others; P = 0.001). Median OS was longer for patients with early tumor shrinkage (median not reached vs. 22 months for others; P = 0.006) or surgery (median not reached vs. 22 months for others, P = 0.002). K-ras mutations status did not influence PFS (P = 0.88) or OS (P = 0.82). Considerable Grade 3/4 toxicity was encountered (36% for diarrhea, 21% for vomiting and 17% for fatigue). In conclusion, the 3-weekly triple-chemotherapy regimen of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan, plus bevacizumab, was active in the first-line treatment of mCRC, although at the expense of a high level of toxicity

  17. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment.

  18. Ziv-aflibercept in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anuj Patel, Weijing Sun Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic agents has become a conventional treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ziv-aflibercept is a fusion protein which acts as a decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor (PlGF; it was approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after an oxaliplatin-containing fluoropyrimidine-based regimen. Herein we review the role of tumor angiogenesis as the rationale for antiangiogenic therapy, the clinical data associated with ziv-aflibercept, and its current role as a treatment option compared to other antiangiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab and regorafenib. Keywords: aflibercept, angiogenesis, colorectal cancer

  19. Predictors of advanced colorectal neoplasia for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Lam, Thomas Y T; Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Chan, Victor C W; Hirai, Hoyee W; Ching, Jessica Y L; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2014-05-01

    The Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) score based on age, gender, family history, and smoking is useful to predict advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) in asymptomatic Asian subjects. To evaluate the factors in addition to those of APCS associated with ACN colonoscopic findings. Data from 5,220 asymptomatic subjects aged between 50 and 70 years who underwent screening colonoscopy in a community center between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed. One binary logistic regression analysis was conducted in 2013 with the presence of ACN or cancer as the outcome, controlling for APCS score, alcohol consumption, BMI, hypertension, and other chronic diseases as independent variables. The average participant age was 57.7 years (SD=4.9) and 47.5% were men. Advanced neoplasms or cancers were identified at colonoscopy in 5.6% of all screening participants. From multivariate regression analysis, APCS score≥4 (adjusted OR [AOR]=1.74, 95% CI=1.34, 2.25, pstatistic of APCS score alone was 0.560 (95% CI=0.524, 0.595, p=0.001) and that of APCS score plus BMI, hypertension, and alcohol consumption was 0.613 (95% CI=0.578, 0.648, p<0.001). Alcohol consumption, hypertension, and BMI are independent predictors of ACN, which could be incorporated into the APCS for prioritizing Asian asymptomatic subjects for colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, S; Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Antikainen, R; Pukkala, E; Hakulinen, T; Tuomilehto, J

    2010-09-01

    The possible association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied in the many populations. The aim of this study is to examine this relationship among Finns, who are the heaviest coffee consumers in the world. A total of 60 041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Their coffee consumption and other study characteristics were determined at baseline, and they were prospectively followed up for onset of colon and rectal cancer, emigration, death or until 30 June 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 538 cases of colorectal cancer (304 cases of colon cancer and 234 cases of rectal cancer) were diagnosed. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of colorectal cancer incidence for > or =10 cups of coffee per day compared with non-drinkers was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.47-2.03) for men (P for trend=0.86), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.49-3.14) for women (p for trend=0.83) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.58-1.83) for men and women combined (P for trend=0.61). In this study, we found no association between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer.

  1. App Improves Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer screening reduces deaths from the disease, yet about one-third of Americans aren’t up to date with screening. In this Cancer Currents blog post, learn what happened when people waiting for routine checkups could order their own screening test using a computer app.

  2. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) are subjected to a preoperative thoraco-abdominal CT scan to determine the cancer stage. This staging is of relevance with regard to treatment and prognosis. About 20% of the patients have distant metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis, i...

  3. Colorectal cancer screening | Schneider | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the Western world, with an estimated incidence of 148 810 cases in the USA in 2008, and about 50 000 deaths from this disease. If detected early, patients with disease localised to the colonic wall have a 5-year survival of 90%. The 5-year survival for patients ...

  4. Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation/International Digestive Cancer Alliance Practice Guidelines. S Winawer, M Classen, R Lambert, M Fried, P Dite, K L Goh, F Guarner, D Lieberman, R Eliakim, B Levin, R Saenz, A G Khan, I Khalif, A Lanas, G Lindberg, M J O'Brien, G Young, J Krabshuis ...

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Guide to the Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas K Rex

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most recent guidelines for colorectal cancer screening are those of the Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, and the American Cancer Society. The guidelines are similar in many regards and reflect current literature, consensus opinion and compromise between members of multidisciplinary panels. The emphasis of both guidelines is to increase the options available for colorectal cancer screening. Increasing choice should expand the attractiveness of colorectal cancer screening to more patients and physicians, and the development of guidelines should help compel payers to provide reimbursement for colorectal cancer screening. These guidelines are summarized and evaluated as they pertain to colorectal cancer screening.

  6. Screening for colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Fayyaz; Quyn, Aaron; Steele, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Population-based colorectal (bowel) cancer screening using faecal occult blood tests leads to a reduction in cause-specific mortality. However, in people where the colon is defunctioned, the use of standard faecal occult blood test is not appropriate. The aim of this study was to examine the current trends of clinical practice for colorectal cancer screening in people with defunctioned colons. Methods An online survey was performed using SurveyMonkey. All members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland were invited by email to participate. Reminders were sent to non-responders and partial responders till six weeks. All responses were included in our analysis. Results Of the 206 (34.59%) questionnaires completed, all questions were answered in 110 (55.8%). Among responders, 94 (85.4%) were colorectal consultant surgeons, 72% had worked in their current capacity for more than five years, and 105 (50.9%) had encountered colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons during their career. Some 72.2% of responders stated that a screening test for colorectal cancer in patients with defunctioned colons was currently not offered, or that they did not know whether or not it was offered in their area. Conclusions Bowel screening in the United Kingdom is currently not offered to 72.2% of the age appropriate population with defunctioned colons. Among responding colorectal surgeons, 50% had encountered colorectal cancer in such patients. There is considerable variability in clinical practice regarding the optimal age for onset of screening, time interval, and the optimal modality to offer for screening in such cases.

  7. Toward standardizing and reporting colorectal cancer screening indicators on an international level: The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Victoria S.; Atkin, Wendy S.; Green, Jane; Nadel, Marion R.; Patnick, Julietta; Smith, Robert A.; Villain, Patricia; Patnick, J.; Atkin, W. S.; Altenhofen, L.; Ancelle-Park, R.; Benson, V. S.; Green, J.; Levin, T. R.; Moss, S. M.; Nadel, M.; Ransohoff, D.; Segnan, N.; Smith, R. A.; Villain, P.; Weller, D.; Koukari, A.; Young, G.; López-Kostner, F.; Antoljak, N.; Suchánek, S.; Zavoral, M.; Holten, I.; Malila, N.; Salines, E.; Brenner, G.; Herszényi, L.; Tulassay, Z.; Rennert, G.; Senore, C.; Zappa, M.; Zorzi, M.; Saito, H.; Leja, M.; Dekker, E.; Jansen, J.; Hol, L.; Kuipers, E.; Kaminski, M. F.; Regula, J.; Sfarti, C.; Trifan, A.; Tang, C.-L.; Hrcka, R.; Binefa, G.; Espinàs, J. A.; Peris, M.; Chen, T. H.; Steele, R.; Pou, G.; Bisges, D.; Dwyer, D.; Groves, C.; Courteau, S.; Kramer, R.; Siegenthaler, K.; Lane, D.; Herrera, C.; Rogers, J.; Rojewski, M.; Wolf, Holly; Sung, J. J.; Ling, K.; Bryant, H.; Rabeneck, L.; Dale, J.; Sware, L.; Yang, H.; Viguier, J.; Von Karsa, L.; Kupcinskas, L.; Deutekom, M.; Törnberg, S.; Austoker, J.; Beral, V.; Monk, C.; Valori, R.; Watson, J.; Kobrin, S.; Pignone, M.; Taplin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network was established in 2003 to promote best practice in the delivery of organized colorectal cancer screening programs. To facilitate evaluation of such programs, we defined a set of universally applicable colorectal cancer screening measures and

  8. Radiological and clinical evaluation of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, O. J.; Chin, S. Y.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred thirty two cases of the pathologically proven colorectal cancer at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Hospital in the period from January 1973 to June 1980 were analyzed radiologically and clinically. The results were as follows: 1. The colorectal cancer was prevalent in rectosigmoid area and in the fourth to seventh decade of life. 2. The clinical pictures were classified into two groups. The one was rectosigmoid cancer with bowel habit changes. The other was one with no specific symptoms or signs. The clinical pictures of the right colon cancer were rather indirected, chronic and systemic than those of the left one. 3. The roentgenological findings were classified into two groups. The one was rectum and left colon cancer with symmetrical annular narrowing and the other showed trumpet-like proximal dilatation. 4. The most frequent complication was intestinal obstruction. 5. The majority of colorectal cancer was adenocarcinoma. The squamous cell carcinoma and atypical cell carcinoma were most prevalent in rectum, but malignantly lymphoma often occurred in right colon. The rarest colorectal cancer was atypical cell carcinoma in rectum

  9. Sodium butyrate-mediated differentiation of colorectal cancer cells: regulation of PKC-betaII by PI3-kinase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turečková, Jolana; Vojtěchová, Martina; Kučerová, Dana; Velek, Jiří; Tuháčková, Zdena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2005), s. 329-335 ISSN 1107-3756 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP301/02/D159; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK5020115 Keywords : phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase * PKCbetaII * adenocarcinoma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.090, year: 2005

  10. Sugars, sucrose and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka colorectal cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Morita, Makiko; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2014-05-01

    A diet high in sugars may promote colorectal carcinogenesis, but it remains uncertain whether high intake of sugars or sucrose confers increased risk of colorectal cancer. The authors investigated the associations of sugars and sucrose intake with colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study in Japan. The study subjects comprised 816 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 815 community controls. Consumption frequencies and portion sizes of 148 food and beverage items were ascertained by a computer-assisted interview. The authors used the consumption of 29 food items to estimate sugars and sucrose intake. The odds ratios of colorectal cancer risk according to intake categories were obtained using a logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Overall, intakes of sugars and sucrose were not related to colorectal cancer risk either in men or women. The association between sugars intake and colorectal cancer risk differed by smoking status and alcohol use in men, but not in women. In men, sugars intake tended to be associated with colorectal cancer risk inversely among never-smokers and positively among male ever-smokers (interaction p=0.01). Sugars intake was associated with an increased risk among men with no alcohol consumption, but was unrelated to the risk among male alcohol drinkers (interaction p=0.02). Body mass index did not modify the association with sugars intake in either men or women. Sugars intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among smokers and non-alcohol drinkers in men selectively.

  11. Molecular alterations and biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William M.; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer genetics is leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers). PMID:24178577

  12. Involvement of hyaluronidases in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouga, Helen; Tsouros, Isidoros; Bounias, Dimitrios; Kyriakopoulou, Dora; Stavropoulos, Michael S; Papageorgakopoulou, Nikoletta; Theocharis, Dimitrios A; Vynios, Demitrios H

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronidases belong to a class of enzymes that degrade, predominantly, hyaluronan. These enzymes are known to be involved in physiological and pathological processes, such as tumor growth, infiltration and angiogenesis, but their exact role in tumor promotion or suppression is not clear yet. Advanced colorectal cancer is associated with elevated amounts of hyaluronan of varying size. The aim of the present study was therefore to illuminate the importance of hyaluronidases in colon carcinoma progression. The patients' samples (macroscopically normal and cancerous) were subjected to sequential extraction with PBS, 4 M GdnHCl and 4 M GdnHCl - 1% Triton X-100. The presence of the various hyaluronidases in the extracts was examined by zymography and western blotting. Their expression was also examined by RT-PCR. Among hyaluronidases examined, Hyal-1, -2, -3 and PH-20 were detected. Their activity was higher in cancerous samples. Hyal-1 and Hyal-2 were overexpressed in cancerous samples, especially in advanced stages of cancer. Both isoforms were mainly extracted with PBS. Hyal-3 was observed only in the third extract of advanced stages of cancer. PH-20 was abundant in all three extracts of all stages of cancer. The expression of only Hyal-1 and PH-20 was verified by RT-PCR. A high association of hyaluronidases in colorectal cancer was observed. Each hyaluronidase presented different tissue distribution, which indicated the implication of certain isoforms in certain cancer stages. The results provided new evidence on the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer

  13. Early Colorectal Cancer Detected by Machine Learning Model Using Gender, Age, and Complete Blood Count Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbrook, Mark C; Goshen, Ran; Choman, Eran; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen; Kinar, Yaron; Liles, Elizabeth G; Rust, Kristal C

    2017-10-01

    Machine learning tools identify patients with blood counts indicating greater likelihood of colorectal cancer and warranting colonoscopy referral. To validate a machine learning colorectal cancer detection model on a US community-based insured adult population. Eligible colorectal cancer cases (439 females, 461 males) with complete blood counts before diagnosis were identified from Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region's Tumor Registry. Control patients (n = 9108) were randomly selected from KPNW's population who had no cancers, received at ≥1 blood count, had continuous enrollment from 180 days prior to the blood count through 24 months after the count, and were aged 40-89. For each control, one blood count was randomly selected as the pseudo-colorectal cancer diagnosis date for matching to cases, and assigned a "calendar year" based on the count date. For each calendar year, 18 controls were randomly selected to match the general enrollment's 10-year age groups and lengths of continuous enrollment. Prediction performance was evaluated by area under the curve, specificity, and odds ratios. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for detecting colorectal cancer was 0.80 ± 0.01. At 99% specificity, the odds ratio for association of a high-risk detection score with colorectal cancer was 34.7 (95% CI 28.9-40.4). The detection model had the highest accuracy in identifying right-sided colorectal cancers. ColonFlag ® identifies individuals with tenfold higher risk of undiagnosed colorectal cancer at curable stages (0/I/II), flags colorectal tumors 180-360 days prior to usual clinical diagnosis, and is more accurate at identifying right-sided (compared to left-sided) colorectal cancers.

  14. Differential expression of proteomics models of colorectal cancer, colorectal benign disease and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shu-Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is often diagnosed at a late stage with concomitant poor prognosis. The hypersensitive analytical technique of proteomics can detect molecular changes before the tumor is palpable. The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectra (SELDI-TOF-MS is a newly-developed technique of evaluating protein separation in recent years. The protein chips have established the expression of tumor protein in the serum specimens and become the newly discovered markers for tumor diagnosis. The objective of this study was to find new markers of the diagnosis among groups of CRC, colorectal benign diseases (CBD and healthy controls. The assay of SELDI-TOF-MS with analytical technique of protein-chip bioinformatics was used to detect the expression of protein mass peaks in the sera of patients or controls. One hundred serum samples, including 52 cases of colorectal cancer, 27 cases of colorectal benign disease, and 21 cases of healthy controls, were examined by SELDI-TOF-MS with WCX2 protein-chips. Results The diagnostic models (I, II and III were setup by analyzed the data and sieved markers using Ciphergen - Protein-Chip-Software 5.1. These models were combined with 3 protein mass peaks to discriminate CRC, CBD, and healthy controls. The accuracy, the sensitivity and the particularity of cross verification of these models are all highly over 80%. Conclusions The SELDI-TOF-MS is a useful tool to help diagnose colorectal cancer, especially during the early stage. However, identification of the significantly differentiated proteins needs further study.

  15. Prognostic significance of numeric aberrations of genes for thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase and dihydrofolate reductase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Astrup; Vainer, B.; Witton, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    ) in colorectal cancer, and to evaluate its prognostic significance following adjuvant chemotherapy, since these enzymes are closely related to efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients (n = 314), who were completely resected for colorectal cancer stages II-IV and adjuvantly...

  16. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bo In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  17. Impact of Dose Reductions, Delays Between Chemotherapy Cycles, and/or Shorter Courses of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients: a Single-Center Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouros, Joseph; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Kouvatseas, George; Rapti, Anna; Stamoulis, George; Bisvikis, Anastasios; Res, Helen; Samantas, Epameinondas

    2015-12-01

    Most stage II or III colorectal cancer patients are receiving nowadays a 4 to 6-month course of adjuvant chemotherapy. However, delays between cycles, reductions in the doses of chemotherapy drugs, or even permanent omissions of chemotherapy cycles might take place due to side effects or patient's preference. We examined the impact of these treatment modifications on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). We retrospectively collected data from colorectal cancer patients who had received adjuvant chemotherapy in our Department. Patients were categorized in five groups based on whether they had or not delays between chemotherapy cycles, dose reductions, and permanent omissions of chemotherapy cycles. Three-year RFS and OS of the five different groups were compared using the log-rank test and the Sidak approach. Five hundred and eight patients received treatment. Twenty seven percent of the patients had the full course of chemotherapy; the others had delays, dose reductions, or early termination of the treatment. No statistically significant differences were observed in 3-year RFS and OS between the five groups. A trend for worse RFS was noticed with early termination of treatment. A similar trend was also noticed for OS but only for stage II patients. In colorectal cancer patients, receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, delays between chemotherapy cycles, dose reductions of chemotherapy drugs, or even early termination of the treatment course do not seem to have a negative impact in 3-year RFS and OS; however, due to the trend of worse RFS in patients receiving shorter courses of chemotherapy, further studies are needed.

  18. An audit of colorectal cancer histopathology reports in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To audit the completeness of histopathologic reports of Colorectal Cancer for prognostic information in a tertiary care hospital in the light of the minimum reporting standards for colorectal cancer resections recently proposed for use in Nigeria. Material and Methods: Twenty–five histopathology reports of colorectal ...

  19. Linking Gut Microbiota to Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical data produce mounting evidence that the microbiota is strongly associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Dysbiosis may change the course of carcinogenesis as microbial actions seem to impact genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to dysplasia, clonal expansion...... and malignant transformation. Initiation and promotion of colorectal cancer may result from direct bacterial actions, bacterial metabolites and inflammatory pathways. Newer aspects of microbiota and colorectal cancer include quorum sensing, biofilm formation, sidedness and effects/countereffects of microbiota...... and probiotics on chemotherapy. In the future, targeting the microbiota will probably be a powerful weapon in the battle against CRC as gut microbiology, genomics and metabolomics promise to uncover important linkages between microbiota and intestinal health....

  20. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, H.; Ezaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  1. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Ezaki, Haruo.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occurring in A-bomb survivors. (author)

  2. Family history of prostate and colorectal cancer and risk of colorectal cancer in the Women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L; Yee, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra; Schwartz, Ann G; Lane, Dorothy; Palmer, Nynikka R A; Bock, Cathryn H; Nassir, Rami; Simon, Michael S

    2017-12-13

    Evidence suggests that risk of colorectal and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease, particularly among first-degree relatives. However, the aggregation of colorectal and prostate cancer within families has not been well investigated. Analyses were conducted among participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort, free of cancer at the baseline examination. Subjects were followed for colorectal cancer through August 31st, 2009. A Cox-proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate risk of colorectal cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and both cancers among first-degree relatives of all participants and stratified by race (African American vs. White). Of 75,999 eligible participants, there were 1122 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed over the study period. A family history of prostate cancer alone was not associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for confounders (aHR =0.94; 95% CI =0.76, 1.15). Separate analysis examining the joint impact, a family history of both colorectal and prostate cancer was associated with an almost 50% increase in colorectal cancer risk (aHR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.10), but similar to those with a family history of colorectal cancer only (95% CI = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.54). Our findings suggest risk of colorectal cancer is increased similarly among women with colorectal cancer only and among those with both colorectal and prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contribution of genes and shared environment to the risk of both cancers.

  3. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in a Japanese population: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Kayo; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Joshi, Amit Man; Yin, Guang; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Mibu, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the relation between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in Japan. We investigated dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study. The association with dietary patterns was also examined for different sites of colorectal cancer. Data were derived from the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study, including 800 cases and 775 controls interviewed from September 2000 to December 2003. The cases were admitted to one of the participating hospitals for the first surgical treatment during this period. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of intakes of twenty-nine items of food groups and specific foods. Quartile categories of each dietary pattern were used, and non-dietary lifestyle factors and total energy intake were adjusted for in the analysis. We identified three dietary patterns: prudent, high-fat and light-meal patterns. The prudent dietary pattern characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, seafoods and soya foods showed a nearly significant protective association with the overall risk of colorectal cancer (trend P = 0.054), and it was statistically significantly related to a decreased risk of distal colon cancer (trend P = 0.002), but not to that of either proximal colon or rectal cancer. The high-fat and light-meal dietary patterns were not materially related to the overall or site-specific risk of colorectal cancer. In summary, a prudent dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, especially with that of distal colon cancer, in a fairly large case-control study in Japan.

  4. Phase II study of nab-paclitaxel in refractory small bowel adenocarcinoma and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-high colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, M J; Adam, L; Raghav, K; Wang, J; Kee, B; Fogelman, D; Eng, C; Vilar, E; Shroff, R; Dasari, A; Wolff, R; Morris, J; Karunasena, E; Pisanic, R; Azad, N; Kopetz, S

    2018-01-01

    Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)] represents a unique pathway for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), characterized by lack of chromosomal instability and a low rate of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations, which have both been correlated with taxane resistance. Similarly, small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA), a rare tumor, also has a low rate of APC mutations. This phase II study evaluated taxane sensitivity in SBA and CIMP-high CRC. The primary objective was Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 response rate. Eligibility included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0/1, refractory disease, and SBA or CIMP-high metastatic CRC. Nab-paclitaxel was initially administered at a dose of 260 mg/m2 every 3 weeks but was reduced to 220 mg/m2 owing to toxicity. A total of 21 patients with CIMP-high CRC and 13 with SBA were enrolled from November 2012 to October 2014. The efficacy-assessable population (patients who received at least three doses of the treatment) comprised 15 CIMP-high CRC patients and 10 SBA patients. Common grade 3 or 4 toxicities were fatigue (12%), neutropenia (9%), febrile neutropenia (9%), dehydration (6%), and thrombocytopenia (6%). No responses were seen in the CIMP-high CRC cohort and two partial responses were seen in the SBA cohort. Median progression-free survival was significantly greater in the SBA cohort than in the CIMP-high CRC cohort (3.2 months compared with 2.1 months, P = 0.03). Neither APC mutation status nor CHFR methylation status correlated with efficacy in the CIMP-high CRC cohort. In vivo testing of paclitaxel in an SBA patient-derived xenograft validated the activity of taxanes in this disease type. Although preclinical studies suggested taxane sensitivity was associated with chromosomal stability and wild-type APC, we found that nab-paclitaxel was inactive in CIMP-high metastatic CRC. Nab-paclitaxel may represent a novel

  5. Hereditary & familial colorectal cancer : Identification, characteristics, surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, 15-20% is related to familial or hereditary factors. Diagnosing familial and hereditary CRC syndromes is important for several reasons. One of these is that surveillance colonoscopies can reduce CRC incidence and mortality importantly. A complete family history

  6. Parameters of biological activity in colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Š.; Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Levý, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Svačina, Š.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 373-378 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : colorectal cancer * biological activity * prognosis * tumor markers * angiogenetic factors * metalloproteinases * adhesion molecules Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  7. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three...

  8. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  9. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zedan, Ahmed; Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent effective against advanced colorectal cancer. Unlike with other platinum-based agents, the main side effect of oxaliplatin is polyneuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced polyneuropathy (OIPN) has a unique profile, which can be divided into acute and chronic...

  10. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...

  11. Why I Got Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-29

    CDC’s Dr. Lisa Richardson explains why she got tested for colorectal cancer when she turned 50 years old. .  Created: 2/29/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/29/2016.

  12. Cetuximab: clinical results in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, E; Giuliani, F; Gebbia, V; Piano, A; Agueli, R; Colucci, G

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, the introduction of targeted therapies into clinical practice seems to offer incremental benefits in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), mainly when they are employed in combination with optimal chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In this paper, we focus on Cetuximab and its role in the treatment of mCRC.

  13. Metalloproteinases and their regulators in colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, M.F.P. van der; Wobbes, T.; Strobbe, L.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Span, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    Metalloproteinases (MPs) such as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and adamalysins (ADAMs and ADAMTS) are expressed in various stages of colorectal cancer (CRC), and some correlate with survival and prognosis. The MPs are regulated by various factors including EMMPRIN, TIMPs, and RECK. In

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Ocepek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in developed countries and Slovenia, and the incidence is still rising. Groups of people with higher risk for colorectal cancer are well defined. Among them are patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk is highest in patients in whom whole large bowel is affected by inflammation, it rises after 8 to 10 years and increases with the duration of the disease. Precancerous lesion is a displastic, chronically inflammed mucosa and not an adenoma as in cases of sporadic colorectal carcinoma.Conclusions: Many studies suggest that the influence of genetic factors differs between sporadic and inflammatory bowel disease related colorectal cancer. Symptomatic patients at the time of diagnosis have a much worse prognosis. The goal of prevention programes is therefore discovering early precancerous lesions. Established screening protocols are based on relatively frequent colonoscopies which are inconvinient for the patient as well as the endoscopist. Use of specific genetic markers, mutations of candidate genes, as a screening method and a prognostic predictor could greatly lighten therapeutic decisions.

  15. Status of colorectal cancer devices: present scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Shammy; Akhtar, Reyhan; Sarotra, Pooja; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the colonoscopic detection and removal of neoplasia from the colorectum to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Various online medical databases were searched such as PubMed, ACS, NCI, NIH, WHO, etc. for relevant publications and clinical trials for new developments in colonoscopic devices that are intended for diagnostic visualization and therapeutic interventions of the digestive tract. HD colon and I-Scan both has shown to increase the detection of sporadic adenomas with high quality. Third Eye Retroscope confers the backward view of colon, but aeroscope screens the entire colon in 30-60 min. Narrow-band imaging enhances mucosal and vascular details through the color differentiation of precancerous or cancerous polyp, compared to white light colonoscopy. The PillCam Colon Capsule is another new technique which is easily inserted and painless. In case of chemotherapy, Therasphere with Yttrium-90 has good results in the treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma metastasis. Radiofrequency ablation is a good technique for tumors ablation and Staple Line Reinforcement prevents the leak during and post-surgery of colon. FOBT is much more sensitive and cheaper test for colorectal cancer screening. Registered clinical trials have shown promising results for neoplasia detection by I-Scan, TER, and NBI imaging techniques will change current colonoscopic practice in colorectal cancer screening. However, more studies and inventions are required for improving the patient safety and efficacy.

  16. [Multiple primary colorectal cancer: Clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatkina, N V; Kit, O I; Gevorkyan, Yu A; Milakin, A G

    to define some clinical characteristics of synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC). The investigation was concerned with the data of 150 patients with T1-4N0-2M0-1 multiple primary CRC. The clinical, biological, and morphological characteristics of synchronous and metachronous tumors were analyzed. Multiple primary tumors were 6.01% of all the cases of CRC. There was a preponderance of synchronous CRC (63.75%) with the tumor localized in the sigmoid colon and rectum. In women, synchronous colorectal tumors were more often concurrent with breast tumors; metachronous ones were detected after treatment for genital tumors. In men, synchronous colorectal tumors were more frequently concurrent with kidney cancer; metachronous ones were identified after treatment for gastric cancer. The found characteristics of multiple primary colorectal tumors may be taken in account in programs for both primary diagnosis and follow-up after treatment for malignant tumors, which will be able to improve the early detection of cancer patients and their treatment results.

  17. Does sex of the patient play a role in survival for MSI colorectal cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tulin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI is a feature of colorectal tumors that develops as a result of inactivation of the DNA mismatch repair system. It is found in about 15% of all colorectal cancers and is an important prognostic molecular marker when assessing patients with colorectal cancer. It can influence prognosis and treatment decisions in both the advanced and early stages. Although in early stages this marker suggests a favorable prognosis and presents an important argument against adjuvant treatment in stage II disease, in metastatic stages it no longer associated with such an optimistic outcome. The present trial is a prospective, single-center study which included 122 colorectal cancer patients who were tested for MSI using immunohistochemistry. The trial included patients with stage II to IV colorectal cancer, treated in the Prof. Dr. Agrippa Ionescu Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania. Follow-up data were collected during a 24-month period. The study attempted to determine whether differences exist in overall survival for MSI (microsatellite instability vs. MSS (microsatellite stable colorectal cancer and to ascertain whether sex of the patient influences prognosis in MSI patients, irrespective of stage or treatment. Results demonstrated no significant differences in survival for MSI vs MSS colorectal patients, and patients’ gender proved not to influence the outcome in MSI patients.

  18. Fear of cancer recurrence in colorectal cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, J.A.E.; Gielissen, M.F.M.; Janssen, S.H.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Prins, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although long-term colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors generally report a good quality of life, fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) remains an important issue. This study investigated whether the Cancer Worry Scale (CWS) can detect high FCR, the prevalence, and characteristics of FCR in CRC

  19. Aspirin Metabolomics in Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for cancer chemoprevention in addition to its well-established role in cardiovascular protection. In recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in humans, daily aspirin use reduced incidence, metastasis and mortality from several common types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. The mechanism(s) by which

  20. Genomics of Colorectal Cancer in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide studies are increasingly becoming a must, especially for complex diseases such as cancer where multiple genes and diverse molecular mechanisms are known to be involved in genes’ function alteration. In this review, we report our latest genomic and epigenomic findings in African-American colorectal cancer patients. This population suffers a higher burden of the disease and most investigators in this field are looking for the underlying genetic and epigenetic targets that might be r...

  1. Quality of life and its determinants among colorectal cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Ali Nikbakht; Nayyereh Amini Sani; Mohamad Asghari Jafarabadi; Seyed Reza Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer has a significant impact on physical, mental and social discomfort of patients. The aim of this study was to assess different aspects of health-related quality of life and its association with demographic characteristics and some clinical features in colorectal cancer survivors in the city of Babol. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 120 colorectal cancer survivors identified in the cancer registry from 2007 to 2012. A questionnair...

  2. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joana Pedro; de Castro Cardoso Pereira, Paula Manuela; dos Reis Baltazar Vicente, Ana Filipa; Bernardo, Alexandra; de Mesquita, María Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery procedure. The sample was divided between convention and fast-track procedures. Most of the individuals were overweight or obese but had lost weight on the past six months. Despite mild, there were signs of malnutrition in this sample with high losses of fat free mass, weight and also fat mass during the hospitalization period. These results reinforce the importance of malnutrition assessment in colorectal patients as well as consider weight loss on the past months and body composition in order to complement nutritional status evaluation. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Multicenter Phase II study of FOLFOX or biweekly XELOX and Erbitux (cetuximab) as first-line therapy in patients with wild-type KRAS/BRAF metastatic colorectal cancer: The FLEET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Hitoshi; Maeda, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Junichi; Takahashi, Takao; Hazama, Shoichi; Fukunaga, Mutsumi; Kono, Emiko; Kotaka, Masahito; Sakamoto, Junichi; Nagata, Naoki; Oba, Koji; Mishima, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    The clinical benefit of cetuximab combined with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy remains under debate. The aim of the present multicenter open-label Phase II study was to explore the efficacy and safety of biweekly administration of cetuximab and mFOLFOX-6 or XELOX as first-line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Sixty-two patients with previously untreated KRAS/BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer were recruited to the study between April 2010 and May 2011. Patients received one of two treatment regimens, either cetuximab plus mFOLFOX-6 (FOLFOX + Cmab) or cetuximab plus biweekly XELOX (XELOX + Cmab), according to their own preference. Treatment was continued until disease progression or the appearance of intolerable toxicities. The primary endpoint was response rate; secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, overall survival, disease control rate, dose intensity, conversion rate to surgical resection, and safety. The response rates in the FOLFOX + Cmab (n = 37) and XELOX + Cmab (n = 25) groups were 64.9 % (24/37) and 72.0 % (18/25), respectively. The median PFS in the FOLFOX + Cmab and XELOX + Cmab groups was 13.1 months (95 % confidence interval [CI] 12.1–17.5) and 13.4 months (95 % CI 10.1–17.9), respectively. Neutropenia was the most frequent grade 3/4 adverse event in both groups (33.9 %), followed by anorexia, acneiform eruption, skin fissure and paronychia. A waterfall plot of tumor diameter showed prominent shrinkage of the tumors in 88.7 % of patients. The results of the present study indicate that biweekly cetuximab plus mFOLFOX-6/XELOX is an effective and tolerable treatment regimen. Biweekly administration of cetuximab requires only one hospital visit every 2 weeks, and may become a convenient treatment option for patients with KRAS/BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer

  4. Prospective study of blood metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Yu, Danxia; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jia, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2018-02-26

    Few prospective studies, and none in Asians, have systematically evaluated the relationship between blood metabolites and colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study to search for risk-associated metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer in an Asian population using blood samples collected prior to cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess associations of metabolites with cancer risk. In this study, we included 250 incident cases with colorectal cancer and individually matched controls nested within two prospective Shanghai cohorts. We found 35 metabolites associated with risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Among them, 12 metabolites were glycerophospholipids including nine associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and three with increased risk [odds ratios per standard deviation increase of transformed metabolites: 0.31-1.98; p values: 0.002-1.25 × 10 -10 ]. The other 23 metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk included nine lipids other than glycerophospholipid, seven aromatic compounds, five organic acids and four other organic compounds. After mutual adjustment, nine metabolites remained statistically significant for colorectal cancer. Together, these independently associated metabolites can separate cancer cases from controls with an area under the curve of 0.76 for colorectal cancer. We have identified that dysregulation of glycerophospholipids may contribute to risk of colorectal cancer. © 2018 UICC.

  5. The PANDA study: a randomized phase II study of first-line FOLFOX plus panitumumab versus 5FU plus panitumumab in RAS and BRAF wild-type elderly metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, Francesca; Schirripa, Marta; Buggin, Federica; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Morano, Federica; Boscolo, Giorgia; Tonini, Giuseppe; Lutrino, Eufemia Stefania; Lucchetti, Jessica; Salvatore, Lisa; Passardi, Alessandro; Cremolini, Chiara; Arnoldi, Ermenegildo; Scartozzi, Mario; Pella, Nicoletta; Boni, Luca; Bergamo, Francesca; Zagonel, Vittorina; Loupakis, Fotios; Lonardi, Sara

    2018-01-25

    Few data are available regarding the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer elderly patients with anti-EGFR agents in combination with chemotherapy. FOLFOX plus panitumumab is a standard first-line option for RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. Slight adjustments in chemo-dosage are commonly applied in clinical practice to elderly patients, but those modified schedules have never been prospectively tested. Clinical definition of elderly (≥70 years old) patients that may deserve a more or less intensive combination therapy is still debated. Several geriatric screening tools have been developed to predict survival and risk of toxicity from treatment. Among those, the G8 screening tool has been tested in cancer patients showing the strongest prognostic value for overall survival, while the CRASH score can stratify patients according to an estimated risk of treatment-related toxicities. The PANDA study is a prospective, open-label, multicenter, randomized phase II trial of first-line therapy with panitumumab in combination with dose-adjusted FOLFOX or with 5-fluorouracil monotherapy, in previously untreated elderly patients (≥70 years) with RAS and BRAF wild-type unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. RAS and BRAF analyses are centralized. Geriatric assessment by means of G8 and CRASH score is planned at baseline and G8 will be re-evaluated at disease progression. The primary endpoint is duration of progression-free survival in both arms. Secondary endpoints include prospective evaluation of the prognostic role of G8 score and the correlation of CRASH risk categories with toxicity. The PANDA study aims at exploring safety and efficacy of panitumumab in combination with FOLFOX or with 5FU/LV in elderly patients affected by RAS and BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer, to identify the most promising treatment strategy in this setting. Additionally, this is the first trial in which the prognostic role of the G8 score will be prospectively

  6. A transcriptome anatomy of human colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Bingjian; Xu, Jing; Lai, Maode; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating databases in human genome research have enabled integrated genome-wide study on complicated diseases such as cancers. A practical approach is to mine a global transcriptome profile of disease from public database. New concepts of these diseases might emerge by landscaping this profile. In this study, we clustered human colorectal normal mucosa (N), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adenoma (A) and cancer (T) related expression sequence tags (EST) into UniGenes via an in-house GetUni software package and analyzed the transcriptome overview of these libraries by GOTree Machine (GOTM). Additionally, we downloaded UniGene based cDNA libraries of colon and analyzed them by Xprofiler to cross validate the efficiency of GetUni. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the expression of β-catenin and. 7 novel genes in colorectal cancers. The efficiency of GetUni was successfully validated by Xprofiler and RT-PCR. Genes in library N, IBD and A were all found in library T. A total of 14,879 genes were identified with 2,355 of them having at least 2 transcripts. Differences in gene enrichment among these libraries were statistically significant in 50 signal transduction pathways and Pfam protein domains by GOTM analysis P < 0.01 Hypergeometric Test). Genes in two metabolic pathways, ribosome and glycolysis, were more enriched in the expression profiles of A and IBD than in N and T. Seven transmembrane receptor superfamily genes were typically abundant in cancers. Colorectal cancers are genetically heterogeneous. Transcription variants are common in them. Aberrations of ribosome and glycolysis pathway might be early indicators of precursor lesions in colon cancers. The electronic gene expression profile could be used to highlight the integral molecular events in colorectal cancers

  7. N-glycosylation of Colorectal Cancer Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Crina I. A.; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Fung, Wesley L. J.; Koeleman, Carolien A.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Verhoeven, Aswin; Mesker, Wilma E.; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Deelder, André M.; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide with an annual incidence of ∼1 million cases and an annual mortality rate of ∼655,000 individuals. There is an urgent need for identifying novel targets to develop more sensitive, reliable, and specific tests for early stage detection of colon cancer. Post-translational modifications are known to play an important role in cancer progression and immune surveillance of tumors. In the present study, we compared the N-glycan profiles from 13 colorectal cancer tumor tissues and corresponding control colon tissues. The N-glycans were enzymatically released, purified, and labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid. Aliquots were profiled by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC-HPLC) with fluorescence detection and by negative mode MALDI-TOF-MS. Using partial least squares discriminant analysis to investigate the N-glycosylation changes in colorectal cancer, an excellent separation and prediction ability were observed for both HILIC-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS data. For structure elucidation, information from positive mode ESI-ion trap-MS/MS and negative mode MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was combined. Among the features with a high separation power, structures containing a bisecting GlcNAc were found to be decreased in the tumor, whereas sulfated glycans, paucimannosidic glycans, and glycans containing a sialylated Lewis type epitope were shown to be increased in tumor tissues. In addition, core-fucosylated high mannose N-glycans were detected in tumor samples. In conclusion, the combination of HILIC and MALDI-TOF-MS profiling of N-glycans with multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated its potential for identifying N-glycosylation changes in colorectal cancer tissues and provided new leads that might be used as candidate biomarkers. PMID:22573871

  8. Prevalence of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in patients with colorectal cancer in Iran: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Esmaeilzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and hereditary factors and family history are responsible for the incidence and development of the disease in 20 to 30% of cases. Lynch syndrome, or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, is the most common hereditary form of CRC that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This study consisted of a systematic literature review of research articles that described the prevalence of HNPCC in Iranian patients with CRC. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases to identify relevant articles that describe HNPCC or Lynch syndrome in patients with CRC in Iran. For this purpose, a keyword search of the following terms was employed: (((Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer OR HNPCC OR Lynch syndrome AND (colorectal cancer OR familial colorectal cancer OR colon cancer OR rectal cancer OR bowel cancer AND IRAN. All eligible documents were collected, and the desired data were qualitatively analyzed.Result: Of the 67 articles that were found via the initial database search, only 12 were deemed to be of relevance to the current study. These articles included a total population of 3237 and this sample was selected and qualitatively analyzed. The findings of the review revealed that the frequency of mutation in MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, and MSH6 genes varied between 23.1% and 62.5% among the studied families. This indicated that HNPCC is linked with up to 5.5% of the total cases of colorectal cancers in Iran.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the hereditary form of HNPCC or Lynch syndrome is significantly high among patients with CRC in Iran

  9. Distinct Gene Expression Signatures in Lynch Syndrome and Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Veerla, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects.......Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects....

  10. Clinical application and research of tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. There are many tumor markers for detecting colorectal cancer, some of which have been widely used in clinical area. However, still lack an ideal tumor marker of colorectal cancer. In this review, we simply characterized some common tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA50, CA242 etc and their dignostic value. And here we discussed some combined detecting procedures which improve diagnostic accuracy of colorectal cancer. In addition, with the development of the biomoleculer technique, some newly discovered tumor markers and genetic marekers have gained great progress in the research of colorectal cancer, and will become a promissing technique in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (authors)

  11. RNF43 is mutated less frequently in Lynch Syndrome compared with sporadic microsatellite unstable colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Lochlan J; Clendenning, Mark; McKeone, Diane M; Jamieson, Saara H; Balachandran, Samanthy; Borowsky, Jennifer; Liu, John; Kawamata, Futoshi; Bond, Catherine E; Rosty, Christophe; Burge, Matthew E; Buchanan, Daniel D; Leggett, Barbara A; Whitehall, Vicki L J

    2018-01-01

    The WNT signaling pathway is commonly altered during colorectal cancer development. The E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF43, negatively regulates the WNT signal through increased ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the Frizzled receptor. RNF43 has recently been reported to harbor frequent truncating frameshift mutations in sporadic microsatellite unstable (MSI) colorectal cancers. This study assesses the relative frequency of RNF43 mutations in hereditary colorectal cancers arising in the setting of Lynch syndrome. The entire coding region of RNF43 was Sanger sequenced in 24 colorectal cancers from 23 patients who either (i) carried a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH6, MSH2, PMS2), or (ii) showed immunohistochemical loss of expression of one or more of the DNA mismatch repair proteins, was BRAF wild type at V600E, were under 60 years of age at diagnosis, and demonstrated no promoter region methylation for MLH1 in tumor DNA. A validation cohort of 44 colorectal cancers from mismatch repair germline mutation carriers from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) were sequenced for the most common truncating mutation hotspots (X117 and X659). RNF43 mutations were found in 9 of 24 (37.5%) Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers. The majority of mutations were frameshift deletions in the G659 G7 repeat tract (29%); 2 cancers (2/24, 8%) from the one patient harbored frameshift mutations at codon R117 (C6 repeat tract) within exon 3. In the ACCFR validation cohort, RNF43 hotspot mutations were identified in 19/44 (43.2%) of samples, which was not significantly different to the initial series. The proportion of mutant RNF43 in Lynch syndrome related colorectal cancers is significantly lower than the previously reported mutation rate found in sporadic MSI colorectal cancers. These findings identify further genetic differences between sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers. This may be because Lynch Syndrome cancers

  12. Colorectal cancer in younger population: our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, A.Q.; Samo, K.A.; Memon, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To promote awareness regarding increased occurrence of colorectal cancer in younger population and its clinicopathological features compared to older patients. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2010 to January 2011 on patients with diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma admitted through emergency or outpatient departments to Surgical Unit 5, Civil Hospital, Karachi. Data regarding age, gender, presentation, site of tumour, surgery performed and Dukes staging was collected and analysed. Results: A total of 23 patients were operated during the study period: 13 (56.52%) males and 10 (43.47%) females. Of them 12 (52.17%) were below the age of 40 years, while 3 (13.04%) patients were in the 11-20 age group. In 7 (30.4%) patients, tumour was irresectable at the time of presentation so a palliative procedure (diversion colostomy or ileostomy) was performed. There was a higher proportion of younger patients with metastatic disease at the time of presentation (n=9; 75%) while 10 out of 12 patients in the younger age group (83.3%) had a tumour of left colon, particularly rectum. Conclusion: Although colorectal cancer is usually a disease of older patients, it is increasingly becoming more common in younger population. Data suggests a leftward distribution for colorectal carcinoma and that younger patients present with more advanced disease and poorer prognosis. (author)

  13. Autophagy Enhances the Aggressiveness of Human Colorectal Cancer Cells and Their Ability to Adapt to Apoptotic Stimulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Hai-yang; Zhang, Xiao-yang; Wang, Xing-fen; Sun, Bao-cun

    2012-01-01

    To investigate LC3B-II and active caspase-3 expression in human colorectal cancer to elucidate the role of autophagy, and to explore the relationship of autophagy with apoptosis in human colorectal cancer. LC3B expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 53 human colorectal cancer tissues and 20 normal colon tissues. The protein levels of LC3B-II and active caspase-3 were also determined by Western blot analysis in 23 human colorectal cancer tissues and 10 normal colon tissues. LC3B was expressed both in cancer cells and normal epithelial cells. LC3B expression in the peripheral area of cancer tissues was correlated with several clinicopathological factors, including tumor differentiation (P=0.002), growth pattern of the tumor margin (P=0.028), pN (P=0.002), pStage (P=0.032), as well as vessel and nerve plexus invasion (P=0.002). The protein level of LC3B-II in cancer tissue was significantly higher than in normal tissue (P=0.038), but the expression of active forms of procaspase-3 in cancer tissue was lower (P=0.041). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the expression levels of LC3B-II and the active forms of procaspase-3 (r=0.537, P=0.008). Autophagy has a prosurvival role in human colorectal cancer. Autophagy enhances the aggressiveness of colorectal cancer cells and their ability to adapt to apoptotic stimulus

  14. Two cases of colorectal cancer complicating radiation enterocolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Kaneatsu; Muto, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Toshiomi; Tokumine, Akio; Okushima, Norihiko; Tamashiro, Tetsuo

    1993-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman presented with bowel movement disorder. She had received radiation therapy with 60 Gy for uterine cervical cancer approximately 20 years before. Barium enema and colonofiberscopy revealed radiation enterocolitis. Thereafter, the patient was admitted to the hospital due to stricture of the sigmoid colon and an increased CEA and was diagnosed as having Borrmann II type colorectal well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Histological examination revealed stage I with no associated lymph node metastases. She is alive 3 years and 10 month after surgery. The other patient was a 65 year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer. Twenty-one years after combined hysterectomy and postoperative external irradiation of 45 Gy, the patient presented with melena. Detailed examination revealed colorectal adenocarcinoma. Simultaneously, barium enema revealed radiation enterocolitis. At surgery, intrapelvic area was found to be frozen due to irradiation. She has no evidence of metastasis 2 years after surgery. As can be shown in the two patients, patients developing radiation enterocolitis should be followed up periodically for the early detection of coexistent colorectal cancer. (N.K.)

  15. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) are subjected to a preoperative thoraco-abdominal CT scan to determine the cancer stage. This staging is of relevance with regard to treatment and prognosis. About 20% of the patients have distant metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis, i...... detected in 7.5% of the patients and in 37% of these cases the metastatic spread was confined to the lungs. The prevalence of SPCM increased with the implementation of thoracic CT in CRC staging. SPCM impaired survival significantly and was associated with increasing age and rectal cancer. Resection...

  16. Oxidative stress may cause metastatic disease in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Edith Smed; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Despite surgical treatment of stage II colorectal cancer many patients will experience relapse. Inflammatory and immunologic reactions created due to the surgical stress response result in the production of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress in turn, may result in the stimulation of cancer...

  17. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Colorectal (Colon) Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Risk Assessment Tool (National Cancer Institute) Learning About Colon Cancer Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  18. Lifestyle Changes and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a public health challenge in developed countries and ... of this cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, South Asia and the Caribbean. ... populations from low risk regions to countries in North America, Europe and ... risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in their newly found environment as a result of ...

  19. Colorectal Cancer: Late Presentation and Outcome of Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer remains a major health problem especially in developed countries where it ranks as the third most common cause of cancer in both men and women. Though incidence of colorectal cancer is low in Nigeria and other developing countries, outcome of treatment remains poor due largely to late ...

  20. Presentation of colorectal cancers in Benin-City, Nigeria | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, and the prevalence in Nigeria appears to be increasing due to a shift to western diets. We undertook a retrospective analysis of colorectal cancers seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City from January 1983 to December 2002.

  1. Clinical and biological aspects of mucinous colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugen, N.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands approximately 5% of all people will develop colorectal cancer during his or her life. The rapid development of individualized therapy for cancer patients has led to an increased interest in tumor subtypes. Currently, colorectal cancer patients are treated in the same way

  2. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Asia: A systematic review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the top five cancers afflicting both men and women globally. Once predominantly a Western disease, it has begun to rise in Asian countries as well. This systematic review aims to compile and analyze the various barriers towards colorectal cancer screening in Asia, and to ...

  3. Environmental Factors and Colorectal Tumor Risk in Individuals With Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Vasen, H.F.; Nagengast, F.M.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Environmental factors might play a role in HNPCC-associated carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the effects of environmental factors on

  4. [Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. In 2012 one million thirty six thousand cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed all over the world, two hundred fifty three thousand cases were diagnosed in China (accounted for 18.6%). China has the largest number of new cases of colorectal cancer in the world. Colorectal cancer has becoming a serious threat of Chinese residents' health. In 2010, the National Ministry of Health organized colorectal cancer expertise of the Chinese Medical Association to write the "Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer" (2010edition), and publish it publicly. In recent years, the National Health and Family Planning Commission has organized experts to revised the protocol 2 times: the first time in 2015, the second time in 2017. The revised part of "Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer" (2017 edition) involves new progress in the field of imaging examination, pathological evaluation, surgery, chemotherpy and radiotherapy. The 2017 edition of the protocol not only referred to the contents of the international guidelines, but also combined with the specific national conditions and clinical practice in China, and also included many evidence-based clinical data in China recently. The 2017 edition of the protocol would further promote the standardization of diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer in China, improve the survival and prognosis of patients, and benefit millions of patients with colorectal cancer and their families.

  5. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules in Colorectal-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN) at staging computed tomography (CT) for colorectal cancer (CRC), and the optimal diagnostic approach, are debated. This study aimed to analyse variability in radiologists' detection of IPN at staging CT for CRC. METHODS......: All patients with CRC referred to our center between 2006 and 2011 were included. Primary staging CT scans were re-evaluated by an experienced thoracic radiologist whose findings were entered into a dedicated database and merged with data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database, the National...... investigated radiological characteristics or clinicopathological factors were significantly associated with malignancy of IPN. CONCLUSION: The characterization of pulmonary findings on staging CT for CRC varied greatly between the radiologists, and double-reading of scans with IPN is recommended prior...

  6. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... infectious complications (n = 170; HR 0.6 (95 per cent c.i. 0.4 to 0.9), P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis of patients who had a curative resection, including Dukes' stage, age, gender, tumour location, blood transfusion, postoperative infectious complications and treatment, ranitidine still had...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  7. Potential targets for colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Sally; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ali

    2013-08-22

    The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the "proof of principle" that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  8. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamseddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  9. Genetics, Cytogenetics, and Epigenetics of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Migliore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the colorectal cancer (CRC cases are sporadic, only 25% of the patients have a family history of the disease, and major genes causing syndromes predisposing to CRC only account for 5-6% of the total cases. The following subtypes can be recognized: MIN (microsatellite instability, CIN (chromosomal instability, and CIMP (CpG island methylator phenotype. CIN occurs in 80–85% of CRC. Chromosomal instability proceeds through two major mechanisms, missegregation that results in aneuploidy through the gain or loss of whole chromosomes, and unbalanced structural rearrangements that lead to the loss and/or gain of chromosomal regions. The loss of heterozygosity that occur in the first phases of the CRC cancerogenesis (in particular for the genes on 18q as well as the alteration of methylation pattern of multiple key genes can drive the development of colorectal cancer by facilitating the acquisition of multiple tumor-associated mutations and the instability phenotype.

  10. Bile acids in experimental colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Rainey, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Cogent epidemiological and experimental data implicate bile acids as endogenous co-carcinogens in colorectal cancer. A series of experiments was designed to test the ability of sodium deoxycholate (SDC) to promote intestinal hyperplasia and neoplasia in rats (n = 265). The intermediary role of faecal anaerobes was explored in animals receiving oral metronidazole. Intrarectal instillation of SDC trebled tumour yield in functioning large bowel and increased both crypt depth and crypt cell produ...

  11. Cetuximab in the management of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2007-01-01

    Cetuximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets the ligand-binding domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is active in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). As an IgG1 antibody, cetuximab may exert its antitumor efficacy through both EGFR antagonism and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Clinical trials established the role of cetuximab, particularly with irinotecan, in irinotecan-refractory/heavily pretreated patients. More recent studies show promising...

  12. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer (COLOR II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Pas, Martijn Hgm; Haglind, Eva; Cuesta, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery as an alternative to open surgery in patients with rectal cancer has not yet been shown to be oncologically safe. The aim in the COlorectal cancer Laparoscopic or Open Resection (COLOR II) trial was to compare laparoscopic and open surgery in patients with rectal cancer....

  13. Immunotherapy and immunoescape in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, Guillermo; Murillo, Oihana; Atorrasagasti, Catalina; Dubrot, Juan; Tirapu, Iñigo; Rizzo, Miguel; Arina, Ainhoa; Alfaro, Carlos; Azpilicueta, Arantza; Berasain, Carmen; Perez-Gracia, José L; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Melero, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Immunotherapy encompasses a variety of interventions and techniques with the common goal of eliciting tumor cell destructive immune responses. Colorectal carcinoma often presents as metastatic disease that impedes curative surgery. Novel strategies such as active immunization with dendritic cells (DCs), gene transfer of cytokines into tumor cells or administration of immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (such as anti-CD137 or anti-CTLA-4) have been assessed in preclinical studies and are at an early clinical development stage. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that chemotherapy and immunotherapy can be combined in the treatment of some cases with colorectal cancer, with synergistic potentiation as a result of antigens cross-presented by dendritic cells and/or elimination of competitor or suppressive T lymphocyte populations (regulatory T-cells). However, genetic and epigenetic unstable carcinoma cells frequently evolve mechanisms of immunoevasion that are the result of either loss of antigen presentation, or an active expression of immunosuppressive substances. Some of these actively immunosuppressive mechanisms are inducible by cytokines that signify the arrival of an effector immune response. For example, induction of 2, 3 indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO) by IFNγ in colorectal carcinoma cells. Combinational and balanced strategies fostering antigen presentation, T-cell costimulation and interference with immune regulatory mechanisms will probably take the stage in translational research in the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:17990348

  14. Comparison of colorectal and gastric cancer: Survival and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Safaee, Azadeh; Zali, Mohammad R

    2009-01-01

    Gastric and colorectal cancers are the most common gastrointestinal malignancies in Iran. We aim to compare the survival rates and prognostic factors between these two cancers. We studied 1873 patients with either gastric or colorectal cancer who were registered in one referral cancer registry center in Tehran, Iran. All patients were followed from their time of diagnosis until December 2006 (as failure time). Survival curves were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier Method and compared by the Log-rank test. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was carried out using the Cox proportional hazard model. Of 1873 patients, there were 746 with gastric cancer and 1138 with colorectal cancer. According to the Kaplan-Meier method 1, 3, 5, and 7-year survival rates were 71.2, 37.8, 25.3, and 19.5%, respectively, in gastric cancer patients and 91.1, 73.1, 61, and 54.9%, respectively, in patients with colorectal cancer. Also, univariate analysis showed that age at diagnosis, sex, grade of tumor, and distant metastasis were of prognostic significance in both cancers ( P < 0.0001). However, in multivariate analysis, only distant metastasis in colorectal cancer and age at diagnosis, grade of tumor, and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer were identified as independent prognostic factors influencing survival. According to our findings, survival is significantly related to histological differentiation of tumor and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer patients and only to distant metastasis in gastric cancer patients. (author)

  15. Analysis of metastasis associated signal regulatory network in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu; Ding, Yanqing

    2018-06-18

    Metastasis is a key factor that affects the survival and prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. To elucidate molecular mechanism associated with the metastasis of colorectal cancer, genes related to the metastasis time of colorectal cancer were screened. Then, a network was constructed with this genes. Data was obtained from colorectal cancer expression profile. Molecular mechanism elucidated the time of tumor metastasis and the expression of genes related to colorectal cancer. We found that metastasis-promoting and metastasis-inhibiting networks included protein hubs of high connectivity. These protein hubs were components of organelles. Some ribosomal proteins promoted the metastasis of colorectal cancer. In some components of organelles, such as proteasomes, mitochondrial ribosome, ATP synthase, and splicing factors, the metastasis of colorectal cancer was inhibited by some sections of these organelles. After performing survival analysis of proteins in organelles, joint survival curve of proteins was constructed in ribosomal network. This joint survival curve showed metastasis was promoted in patients with colorectal cancer (P = 0.0022939). Joint survival curve of proteins was plotted against proteasomes (P = 7 e-07), mitochondrial ribosome (P = 0.0001157), ATP synthase (P = 0.0001936), and splicing factors (P = 1.35e-05). These curves indicate that metastasis of colorectal cancer can be inhibited. After analyzing proteins that bind with organelle components, we also found that some proteins were associated with the time of colorectal cancer metastasis. Hence, different cellular components play different roles in the metastasis of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three......YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been...

  17. Challenging the Cancer Molecular Stratification Dogma: Intratumoral Heterogeneity Undermines Consensus Molecular Subtypes and Potential Diagnostic Value in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Philip D; McArt, Darragh G; Bradley, Conor A; O'Reilly, Paul G; Barrett, Helen L; Cummins, Robert; O'Grady, Tony; Arthur, Ken; Loughrey, Maurice B; Allen, Wendy L; McDade, Simon S; Waugh, David J; Hamilton, Peter W; Longley, Daniel B; Kay, Elaine W; Johnston, Patrick G; Lawler, Mark; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Van Schaeybroeck, Sandra

    2016-08-15

    A number of independent gene expression profiling studies have identified transcriptional subtypes in colorectal cancer with potential diagnostic utility, culminating in publication of a colorectal cancer Consensus Molecular Subtype classification. The worst prognostic subtype has been defined by genes associated with stem-like biology. Recently, it has been shown that the majority of genes associated with this poor prognostic group are stromal derived. We investigated the potential for tumor misclassification into multiple diagnostic subgroups based on tumoral region sampled. We performed multiregion tissue RNA extraction/transcriptomic analysis using colorectal-specific arrays on invasive front, central tumor, and lymph node regions selected from tissue samples from 25 colorectal cancer patients. We identified a consensus 30-gene list, which represents the intratumoral heterogeneity within a cohort of primary colorectal cancer tumors. Using a series of online datasets, we showed that this gene list displays prognostic potential HR = 2.914 (confidence interval 0.9286-9.162) in stage II/III colorectal cancer patients, but in addition, we demonstrated that these genes are stromal derived, challenging the assumption that poor prognosis tumors with stem-like biology have undergone a widespread epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Most importantly, we showed that patients can be simultaneously classified into multiple diagnostically relevant subgroups based purely on the tumoral region analyzed. Gene expression profiles derived from the nonmalignant stromal region can influence assignment of colorectal cancer transcriptional subtypes, questioning the current molecular classification dogma and highlighting the need to consider pathology sampling region and degree of stromal infiltration when employing transcription-based classifiers to underpin clinical decision making in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 22(16); 4095-104. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Morris and

  18. The Role of Akt Isoforms in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0198 TITLE: The Role of Akt Isoforms in Colorectal Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jatin Roper...CONTRACT NUMBER The Role of Akt Isoforms in Colorectal Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0198 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...substantially reduces colorectal tumorigenesis in our genetically engineered mouse model. We also successfully ablated novel downstream targets of Akt in our

  19. Phase II Trial of Biweekly Cetuximab and Irinotecan as Third-Line Therapy for Pretreated KRAS Exon 2 Wild-Type Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Hiroki; Shinozaki, Eiji; Mashima, Tetsuo; Wakatsuki, Takeru; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Ichimura, Takashi; Ogura, Mariko; Ota, Yumiko; Nakayama, Izuma; Takahari, Daisuke; Chin, Keisho; Miki, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Kensei

    2018-06-16

    Efficacy and safety of biweekly cetuximab plus irinotecan were evaluated to provide guidance for its use in Japan as third-line treatment for pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer patients harboring wild-type KRAS Exon 2. Objective response rate was used as primary endpoint based on an expected proportion of 0.23 with confidence width of 0.298 (95% confidence interval, 0.105-0.403), which showed 35 to be the minimal participant number. Forty patients, refractory to first- and second-line chemotherapy containing irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and fluoropyrimidine were enrolled. Objective response and disease control rates were 25.0% (95% CI:11.5%-38.4%) and 72.5% (95% CI:56.8%-86.4%), respectively. Median progression-free survival, overall survival, and number of courses were 5.70 months (95% CI;2.7-7.9), 15.1 months (95% CI;11.8-19.0), and 10.5 (range:3.0-31.0), respectively. Grade 3 adverse events were skin toxicity (12.5%), diarrhea (10.0%), neutropenia (5.0%), febrile neutropenia (5.0%), nausea (5.0%), anorexia (5.0%), and fatigue (2.5%). Cetuximab C max mean was 723.2 μg/mL after first dose. High AUC last variance was associated with t 1/2 range of 131.2-1209.6 h (median, 174.4 h). Early tumor shrinkage and median depth of response were 25.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Mutation frequencies in KRAS exon 3 or 4, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA were 5.5%, 2.7%, 8.3%, and 5.5%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis assessed whether any gene mutations and early tumor shrinkage are predictors for progression-free survival, and whether performance status, synchronous metastasis, and early tumor shrinkage are predictors for overall survival. Importantly, the data provide guidance for a biweekly cetuximab plus irinotecan regimen in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Is prevalence of colorectal polyps higher in patients with family history of colorectal cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthela Maria Murad-Regadas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening. Methods: A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy, presence, location and histological type of polyps were evaluated, comparing the two groups. Results: 214 patients were evaluated: 162 in Group I and 52 in Group II. The distribution of patients with polyps was similar in relation to gender: polyps were evidenced in Group I in 33 (20% female patients vs. 10 (6% male patients (p = 1.00; in Group II, the presence of polyps was evidenced in 9 (17% female patients vs. 2 (4% male patients (p = 1.00. Polypoid lesions were found in 54 patients (25%, with 43 (26% in Group I and 11 (21% in Group II. The prevalence of adenomas was similar in both groups (Group I = 18/37% vs. Group II = 10/50% (p = 0.83. Conclusion: In this preliminary study, no correlation was found between prevalence of polyps and a family history of colorectal cancer. Resumo: Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência de pólipos em pacientes com história familiar de câncer colorretal comparando com indivíduos assintomáticos com indicação para rastreamento. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo realizado em um grupo de indivíduos submetidos à colonoscopia entre 2012 e 2014. Os pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo I: sem história familiar de câncer colorretal e Grupo II: com história familiar em parentes de primeiro grau. Avaliaram-se características demográficas, achados na colonoscopia, presença, localização e tipo histológico dos pólipos, comparando os dois grupos. Resultados: Foram avaliados 214 pacientes, 162 incluídas no grupo I e 52

  1. Early colorectal Cancer: focuses and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Oscar A; Martinez, Carlos E; Escobar, Jaime; Sanchez, William; Serrano, Juan M

    2001-01-01

    Currently, early colorectal cancer (ECC) constitutes only 10% of the total of diagnosed colorectal malignancy. This proportion is expected to show an important increase with the different screening protocols that are on the way, together with recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy. We compare the histopathologic spectrum of ECC from the western and Japanese viewpoint, defining the anatomopathologic characteristics of this lesions, together with the natural history and new classification and staging systems; variables which are all oriented to establish the grade of local invasion and risk of nodal spread. The knowledge and integral analysis of the different biologic, clinical, histological and endoscopic characteristics of ECC, will determine the most rational individual therapeutic pathway from the prognostic point of view

  2. Mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal cancer patients in a low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... This is 10% of the rate reported in First-World countries. In high-incidence areas, the rate of abnormal mismatch repair gene expression in colorectal cancers is 2 - 7%. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hMLH1- and hMSH2-deficient colorectal cancer in the. Northern Cape.

  3. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  4. Patterns and presentations of colorectal cancer at Komfo-Anokye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally and its incidence is increasing in developing countries. This study determined the incidence, clinical features and the histopathological patterns of colorectal cancer at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Methods: A ...

  5. Workload and surgeon's specialty for outcome after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archampong, David; Borowski, David; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has focused on investigating the effects of healthcare provider volume and specialization on patient outcomes including outcomes of colorectal cancer surgery. However there is conflicting evidence about the role of such healthcare provider characteristics in the management...... of colorectal cancer....

  6. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya | Saidi | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The incidence of colorectal cancer in Africa is increasing. True data on clinical outcomes of the disease is hampered by follow up challenges. Method Follow up data of 233 patients treated for colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2010 at various Nairobi hospitals were evaluated. The primary outcome was ...

  7. Vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer cell pulsed autologous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer (CRC) cell pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) in advanced CRC, 14 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) were enrolled and treated with DCs vaccine to assess toxicity, tolerability, immune and clinical responses to the vaccine. No severe toxicity ...

  8. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer; Epidemiologie kolorektaler Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Colorectal tumors are among the most frequently encountered forms of cancer worldwide. With approximately 57,000 new cases every year, they represent the most frequent type of cancer in Germany, ranking before breast cancer (approximately 46,000) and lung cancer (approximately 37,000). Although global incidence is on the rise, in Germany it is only increasing among men, but not among women. The mortality rate (approximately 26,500 deaths annually) in Germany has declined among men for about the past 10 years and among women for about the past 20 years.The most important risk factors are familial history of colorectal and other tumors as well as lifestyle factors such as nutrition, obesity, inactivity,and smoking.Lifestyle-related risks offer a broad area for implementing primary preventive measures, which have not yet been adequately exhausted. Several proven (fecal occult blood test) and probably effective (endoscopic) methods are available for secondary prevention. Consistent encouragement of these possibilities for prevention could reduce incidence and mortality substantially and render colorectal tumors less frequent. (orig.) [German] Kolorektale Tumoren gehoeren weltweit zu den haeufigsten Krebsarten und sind mit jaehrlich ca.57000 Neuerkrankungsfaellen vor Brustkrebs (ca. 46000) und Lungenkrebs (ca. 37000) die haeufigste Krebsart in Deutschland.Waehrend die Inzidenz weltweit steigt, nimmt sie in Deutschland nur bei Maennern,nicht aber bei Frauen zu.Die Mortalitaet (jaehrlich ca.26500 Todesfaelle) geht hierzulande bei Maennern seit ca.10 Jahren, bei Frauen seit ca.20 Jahren zurueck. Die bedeutendsten Risikofaktoren sind familiaere Vorgeschichte an kolorektalen und anderen Tumoren sowie Lebensstilfaktoren wie Ernaehrung, Uebergewicht,Bewegungsmangel und Rauchen.Die lebensstilbedingten Risiken bieten breiten Raum fuer primaere Praevention, der bisher nur unzureichend ausgeschoepft ist.Auch fuer sekundaere Praevention stehen mehrere nachgewiesenermassen (Test auf

  9. Prognostic and predictive factors in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolocan, A; Ion, D; Ciocan, D N; Paduraru, D N

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important public health problem; it is a leading cause of cancer mortality in the industrialized world, second to lung cancer: each year there are nearly one million new cases of CRC diagnosed worldwide and half a million deaths (1). This review aims to summarise the most important currently available markers for CRC that provide prognostic or predictive information. Amongst others, it covers serum markers such as CEA and CA19-9, markers expressed by tumour tissues, such as thymidylate synthase, and also the expression/loss of expression of certain oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes such as K-ras and p53. The prognostic value of genomic instability, angiogenesis and proliferative indices, such as the apoptotic index, are discussed. The advent of new therapies created the pathway for a personalized approach of the patient. This will take into consideration the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis, besides the classical clinical and pathological stagings. The growing number of therapeutic agents and known molecular targets in oncology lead to a compulsory study of the clinical use of biomarkers with role in improving response and survival, as well as in reducing toxicity and establishing economic stability. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have arisen from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and their therapeutical significance are discussed. RevistaChirurgia.

  10. Pattern & presentation of colorectal cancer in central Sudan, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    logical types of colorectal cancer cases presented to Ibn Sina specialized hospital. ... Abdominal pain. Tenesmus. Weight loss. Abdominal distension. Anal pain ... Male sex. 23. 18. 31. 21. Family history 8. 1. 6. 5. Rectal cancer. 26. 9. 29. 26.

  11. Evaluation of complement proteins as screening markers for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Line; Christensen, Ib J; Jensenius, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Lack of symptoms results in late detection and increased mortality. Inflammation, including complement activation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The concentrations of nine proteins...

  12. Self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianhui; Xu, Jinghong; Zhu, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog-Gli (HH-GLI), specific roles mediated by cell surface markers and micro-environmental factors are involved in the regulation of self-renewal. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind self-renewal may lead to the development of novel targeted interventions for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  13. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.

  14. Uracil-ftorafur: an oral fluoropyrimidine active in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkes, A; Benner, S E; Canetta, R M

    1998-10-01

    This review describes the early clinical development of uracil-ftorafur (UFT), an oral fluoropyrimidine, designed in 1978 by adding uracil to ftorafur. The review focuses on the treatment of colorectal cancer and summarizes the Japanese experience and the phase I and II trials performed in the United States and Europe. Clinical trials of UFT published in the Western world have included 581 patients with colorectal cancer. UFT has been administered in these trials as a single agent or biomodulated by leucovorin (LV). UFT was administered daily in split doses for periods that ranged from 14 to 28 days. The activity of oral UFT in large-bowel cancer when administered with oral LV (approximately 50 mg/dose) has resulted in objective response rates of approximately 40%. Response rates of approximately 25% (range, 17% to 39%) were reported when UFT was administered as a single agent or with lower doses of LV. The highest dose-intensities of UFT are achieved with 28-day schedules of administration. The maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of UFT with this schedule, when administered concomitantly with oral LV 150 mg daily, is 300 mg/m2 daily. The dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of UFT has generally been diarrhea. Other commonly described toxicities include nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and stomatitis. Myelosuppression occurs infrequently. Typically, hand-foot syndrome and neurologic toxicity are lacking. UFT is a fluoropyrimidine active in colorectal cancer. The oral route of administration and improved safety profile represent important advantages over both conventional and infusional fluorouracil (5-FU) regimens.

  15. High expression of PTBP1 promote invasion of colorectal cancer by alternative splicing of cortactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Na; Liu, Dan; Yin, Bin; Ju, Wen-Yi; Qiu, Hui-Zhong; Xiao, Yi; Chen, Yuan-Jia; Peng, Xiao-Zhong; Lu, Chong-Mei

    2017-05-30

    Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) involving in almost all steps of mRNA regulation including alternative splicing metabolism during tumorigenesis due to its RNA-binding activity. Initially, we found that high expressed PTBP1 and poor prognosis was interrelated in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with stages II and III CRC, which widely different in prognosis and treatment, by immunohistochemistry. PTBP1 was also upregulated in colon cancer cell lines. In our study, knockdown of PTBP1 by siRNA transfection decreased cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. Denovirus shRNA knockdown of PTBP1 inhibited colorectal cancer growth in vivo. Furthermore, PTBP1 regulates alternative splicing of many target genes involving in tumorgenesis in colon cancer cells. We confirmed that the splicing of cortactin exon 11 which was only contained in cortactin isoform-a, as a PTBP1 target. Knockdown of PTBP1 decreased the expression of cortactin isoform-a by exclusion of exon 11. Also the mRNA levels of PTBP1 and cortactin isoform-a were cooperatively expressed in colorectal cancer tissues. Knocking down cortactin isoform-a significantly decreased cell migration and invasion in colorectal cancer cells. Overexpression of cortactin isoform-a could rescue PTBP1-knockdown effect of cell motility. In summary the study revealed that PTBP1 facilitates colorectal cancer migration and invasion activities by inclusion of cortactin exon 11.

  16. POLE somatic mutations in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joana; Pinto, Carla; Pinto, Diana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Silva, Romina; Peixoto, Ana; Rocha, Patrícia; Veiga, Isabel; Santos, Catarina; Santos, Rui; Cabreira, Verónica; Lopes, Paula; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2017-12-01

    Despite all the knowledge already gathered, the picture of somatic genetic changes in colorectal tumorigenesis is far from complete. Recently, germline and somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit (POLE) gene have been reported in a small subset of microsatellite-stable and hypermutated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), affecting the proofreading activity of the enzyme and leading to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. To evaluate the role of POLE mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis, namely in advanced CRC, we searched for somatic mutations by Sanger sequencing in tumor DNA samples from 307 cases. Microsatellite instability and mutation analyses of a panel of oncogenes were performed in the tumors harboring POLE mutations. Three heterozygous mutations were found in two tumors, the c.857C>G, p.Pro286Arg, the c.901G>A, p.Asp301Asn, and the c.1376C>T, p.Ser459Phe. Of the POLE-mutated CRCs, one tumor was microsatellite-stable and the other had low microsatellite instability, whereas KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were found in one tumor each. We conclude that POLE somatic mutations exist but are rare in advanced CRC, with further larger studies being necessary to evaluate its biological and clinical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Association of Cholelithiasis and Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sărăcuț

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the literature there are a number of studies that suggest a possible correlation between cholelithiasis/cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer. The exposure of the colon mucosa to the action of bile acids that potentially have a carcinogenic effect due to the change in anatomy after cholecystectomy, seems to be the explanation of this association. The purpose of this paper was to search for such a correlation in our study group. Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study, analyzing the patients admitted to the First Surgical Clinic of the County Emergency Clinical Hospital Tîrgu Mureș, between January 1st, 2005 - December 31st, 2010. Analyzing the medical records, operation protocols and histopathological results, we paid attention to demographics, location of neoplasia, the time elapsed since the cholecystectomy to the discovery of neoplasia, histological types, trying to perform correlations between these parameters and the lithiasic factor. Results: Out of the 534 patients admitted and operated with the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, 15.6% (n = 83 showed a history of gallbladder stone affection. Most patients came from urban areas, the average age was 67.2 (range 39-88 years, females were more affected. The most common locations were: the sigmoid colon (26.5%, rectum (36.3% and the most common histological form was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: Similar to other studies, our work suggests a slight increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer in patients that underwent a cholecystectomy, without drawing a firm conclusion. We deem it necessary to see if diet changes of the Romanian population affect this relationship

  18. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symer, Matthew M; Wong, Natalie Z; Abelson, Jonathan S; Milsom, Jeffrey W; Yeo, Heather L

    2018-06-01

    Hormone replacement therapy has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer incidence, but its effect on colorectal cancer mortality is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hormone replacement therapy on survival from colorectal cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a large multicenter randomized trial run from 1993 to 2001, with follow-up data recently becoming mature. Participants were women aged 55 to 74 years, without recent colonoscopy. Data from the trial were analyzed to evaluate colorectal cancer incidence, disease-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality based on subjects' use of hormone replacement therapy at the time of randomization: never, current, or former users. A total of 75,587 women with 912 (1.21%) incident colorectal cancers and 239 associated deaths were analyzed, with median follow-up of 11.9 years. Overall, 88.6% were non-Hispanic white, and colorectal cancer incidence in current users compared to never-users was lower (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-0.94; P = .005), as was death from colorectal cancer (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.85; P = .002) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72-0.80; P colorectal cancer incidence and improved colorectal cancer-specific survival, as well as all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Participation and barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Harmy Mohamed; Daud, Norwati; Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Rahim, Amry Abdul

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in males and the third most common in females. Mortality due to colorectal cancer can be effectively reduced with early diagnosis. This study was designed to look into colorectal cancer screening participation and its barriers among average risk individuals in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2009 till April 2010 involving average risk individuals from 44 primary care clinics in West Malaysia. Each individual was asked whether they have performed any of the colorectal cancer screening methods in the past five years. The barrier questions had three domains: patient factors, test factors and health care provider factors. Descriptive analysis was achieved using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12.0. A total of 1,905 average risk individuals responded making a response rate of 93.8%. Only 13 (0.7%) respondents had undergone any of the colorectal cancer screening methods in the past five years. The main patient and test factors for not participating were embarrassment (35.2%) and feeling uncomfortable (30.0%), respectively. There were 11.2% of respondents who never received any advice to do screening. The main reason for them to undergo screening was being advised by health care providers (84.6%). The study showed that participation in colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia is extremely low and multiple factors contribute to this situation. Given the importance of the disease, efforts should be made to increase colorectal cancer screening activities in Malaysia.

  20. Clinical responses in patients with advanced colorectal cancer to a dendritic cell based vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Stefan K; Fischer, Anders; Myschetzky, Peter S

    2008-01-01

    Patients with disseminated colorectal cancer have a poor prognosis. Preliminary studies have shown encouraging results from vaccines based on dendritic cells. The aim of this phase II study was to evaluate the effect of treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer with a cancer vaccine based...... with this DC-based cancer vaccine was safe and non-toxic. Stable disease was found in 24% (4/17) of the patients. The quality of life remained for most categories high and stable throughout the study period.......Patients with disseminated colorectal cancer have a poor prognosis. Preliminary studies have shown encouraging results from vaccines based on dendritic cells. The aim of this phase II study was to evaluate the effect of treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer with a cancer vaccine based......-testis antigens. Vaccines were biweekly administered intradermally with a total of 10 vaccines per patient. CT scans were performed and responses were graded according to the RECIST criteria. Quality of life was monitored with the SF-36 questionnaire. Toxicity and adverse events were graded according...

  1. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  2. The association between patient's and partner's fatigue in couples coping with colorectal cancer : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traa, M J; De Vries, J; Roukema, J A; Den Oudsten, B L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Couples coping with colorectal cancer were monitored during the first year after diagnosis to evaluate the following: (i) levels of patients' and partners' fatigue-hereby comparing their scores to each other and a normative population, (ii) association between patients' and partners'

  3. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... relative (sibling, parent, or child) who has had colorectal cancer or an adenomatous polyp; (ii) A family... of medicine or osteopathy (as defined in section 1861(r)(1) of the Act) who is fully knowledgeable... service if it is performed by a doctor of medicine or osteopathy (as defined in section 1861(r)(1) of the...

  4. Colorectal cancer: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillant, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Technical advances that has been achieved during the past two decades have not dramatically improved the 35 % five-year rate observed in patients with colorectal cancer. These tumours remain one of the most challenging problems in public health policies in western countries. Screening applies to some subgroups of high-risk individuals and the general population aged over 50. In order to improve their efficacy, such screening programs imply large-scale information campaigns and a strong cooperation with the general physicians. The diagnosis is strongly suggested by any recent modification of bowel habits ad by rectal bleeding. It has to be confirmed by rectal examination and by colonoscopy which allows sampling to the tumour. Loco-regional and distant metastatic tumour spread must be assessed precisely before any therapeutic strategy is decided. Surgery, which resects the tumour en bloc with the corresponding lymphatic territories, is the only treatment that can achieve long term cure. In localized tumours, surgery alone can provide patients with 5-years survival rates close to 95 %. On the other hand, surgery alone is not sufficient to cure patients with advances cancers. In recent years, several adjuvant therapeutic modalities have been shown to improve the results of surgery in these cases (rectal cancer: pre-operative radiotherapy or post-operative radio-chemotherapy, colon cancer with nodal metastases: post-operative chemotherapy). There is a hope that a better use of our diagnostic and therapeutic armementarium would be able to avoid or to cure up to 75 % of the colorectal cancers we are dealing with. (author)

  5. Colorectal Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Periostin Expression and Its Prognostic Value for Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewu Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrin is important for cell growth, invasion and metastasis, which are frequently observed in malignant tumors. The periostin (POSTN gene encodes the ligand for integrin, one of the key focal adhesion proteins contributing to the formation of a structural link between the extracellular matrix and integrins. High expression levels of the POSTN gene are correlated with numerous human malignancies. We examined POSTN protein in colorectal cancer specimens from 115 patients by strictly following up using immunohistochemistry. Cytoplasm immunohistochemical staining showed POSTN protein expression in colorectal cancers. The positive expression rate of POSTN protein (59.13%, 68/115 in colorectal cancers was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal colon mucosa (0.47%, 11/109. POSTN over-expression in colorectal cancers was positively correlated with tumor size, differentiation, lymph node metastasis, serosal invasion, clinical stage and five-year survival rates. Further analysis showed that patients with advanced stage colorectal cancer and high POSTN expression levels had lower survival rates than those with early stage colorectal cancer and low POSTN expression levels. Overall, our results showed that POSTN played an important role in the progression of colorectal cancers.

  8. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie L; Rennert, Hedy S; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Coffee contains several bioactive compounds relevant to colon physiology. Although coffee intake is a proposed protective factor for colorectal cancer, current evidence remains inconclusive. We investigated the association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in 5,145 cases and 4,097 controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, a population-based case-control study in northern Israel. We also examined this association by type of coffee, by cancer site (colon and rectum), and by ethnic subgroup (Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Arabs). Coffee data were collected by interview using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Coffee consumption was associated with 26% lower odds of developing colorectal cancer [OR (drinkers vs. non-drinkers), 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.86; P consumption alone (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99; P = 0.04) and for boiled coffee (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.94; P = 0.004). Increasing consumption of coffee was associated with lower odds of developing colorectal cancer. Compared with 2.5 servings/day (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.39-0.54; P colorectal cancer (Ptrend cancers. Coffee consumption may be inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer in a dose-response manner. Global coffee consumption patterns suggest potential health benefits of the beverage for reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 634-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  10. Role of physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarigan, Erin L; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the evidence regarding physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival. There have been extensive reports on adiposity, inactivity, and certain diets, particularly those high in red and processed meats, and increased risk of colorectal cancer. Only in the past decade have data emerged on how such lifestyle factors are associated with outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors. Prospective observational studies have consistently reported that physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis reduces mortality. A meta-analysis estimated that each 15 metabolic equivalent task-hour per week increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with a 38% lower risk of mortality. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to confirm that physical activity lowers risk of mortality among colorectal cancer survivors; however, trials have shown that physical activity, including structured exercise, is safe for colorectal cancer survivors (localized to metastatic stage, during and after treatment) and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function. In addition, prospective observational studies have suggested that a Western dietary pattern, high carbohydrate intake, and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages after diagnosis may increase risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality, but these data are limited to single analyses from one of two US cohorts. Additional data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available evidence, it is reasonable to counsel colorectal cancer survivors to engage in regular physical activity and limit consumption of refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laparoscopic surgery in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressler Hernandez, Norlan; Martinez Perez, Elliot; Fernandez Rodriguez, Leopoldo; Torres Core, Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    In the current age of minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer has been established as oncologically equivalent to conventional open surgery. The advantages of laparoscopic surgery have translated into smaller incisions and shorter recovery. Since the advent of laparoscopy, surgeons have been fueled to develop less invasive operative methods as feasible alternatives to traditional procedures. As techniques evolved and technology advanced, laparoscopy became more widely accepted and is now more commonly used in many institutions. Recently, a trend toward less invasive surgery, driven by patient and surgeon alike, has been a major objective for many institutions because of the ability of laparoscopic surgery to reduce postoperative pain, achieve a quicker recovery time, and improve cosmetic outcomes. Although still evolving, traditional laparoscopy has served as a foundation for even further refinements in the minimally invasive approach and as a result, more advanced equipment and newer techniques have arisen

  13. Long non-coding RNA PVT1 as a novel potential biomarker for predicting the prognosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Heng; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Yao, Xue-Qing

    2018-05-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays a very important role in the occurrence and development of various tumors, and is a potential biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the expression of lncRNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) and the prognostic significance in patients with colorectal cancer. The expression of PVT1 was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in cancerous and adjacent tissues of 210 colorectal cancer patients. The disease-free survival and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, and univariate and multivariate analysis were performed by Cox proportional-hazards model. Our results revealed that PVT1 expression in cancer tissues of colorectal cancer was significantly higher than that of adjacent tissues ( Pcolorectal cancer patients, whether at TNM I/II stage or at TNM III/IV stage. A multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that high PVT1 expression was an independent predictor of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Our results suggest that high PVT1 expression might be a potential biomarker for assessing tumor recurrence and prognosis in colorectal cancer patients.

  14. Mature Results of a Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing 5-Flourouracil with Leucovorin to 5-Flourouracil with Levamisole as Adjuvant Therapy of Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer- The Israel Cooperative Oncology Group (ICOG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Figer, Aviram Nissan, Adi Shani, Riva Borovick, Mariana Stiener, Mario Baras, Herbert R. Freund, Aaron Sulkes, Alexander Stojadinovic, Tamar Peretz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Survival benefit with adjuvant therapy was shown in patients with Stage III colorectal cancer (CRC. This study evaluates long-term (10-year outcome in patients with CRC randomly assigned to adjuvant 5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin (5FU+LV or 5-FU/Levamisole (5FU+LEV.Methods: Between 1990 and 1995, 398 patients with curatively resected Stage II-III CRC were randomly assigned to adjuvant 5FU+LV or 5FU+LEV for 12 months.Results: No difference was evident in 10-year relapse-free or overall survival between study groups. Grade III toxicity was similar between groups; however, neurotoxicity was significantly greater with 5FU+LEV (p=0.02 and gastrointestinal toxicity with 5FU+LV (p=0.03. Female patients treated with 5FU+LEV had improved overall survival.Conclusions: Adjuvant treatment of CRC is still based on leucovorin modulated fluorouracil. The long-term follow-up results of this trial indicate that the adjuvant treatment of Stage II-III CRC with 5FU+LV or 5FU+LEV is equally effective. The finding of improved survival in female subjects treated with 5FU+LEV warrants further study to determine if Levamisole is a better modulator of 5-FU than Leucovorin in this patient subset.

  15. Genetic Mechanisms of Immune Evasion in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Catherine S; Giannakis, Marios; Wells, Daniel K; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Quist, Michael; Nowak, Jonathan A; Nishihara, Reiko; Qian, Zhi Rong; Inamura, Kentaro; Morikawa, Teppei; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Abril-Rodriguez, Gabriel; Connolly, Charles; Escuin-Ordinas, Helena; Geybels, Milan S; Grady, William M; Hsu, Li; Hu-Lieskovan, Siwen; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Kim, Yeon Joo; Krystofinski, Paige; Leiserson, Mark D M; Montoya, Dennis J; Nadel, Brian B; Pellegrini, Matteo; Pritchard, Colin C; Puig-Saus, Cristina; Quist, Elleanor H; Raphael, Ben J; Salipante, Stephen J; Shin, Daniel Sanghoon; Shinbrot, Eve; Shirts, Brian; Shukla, Sachet; Stanford, Janet L; Sun, Wei; Tsoi, Jennifer; Upfill-Brown, Alexander; Wheeler, David A; Wu, Catherine J; Yu, Ming; Zaidi, Syed H; Zaretsky, Jesse M; Gabriel, Stacey B; Lander, Eric S; Garraway, Levi A; Hudson, Thomas J; Fuchs, Charles S; Ribas, Antoni; Ogino, Shuji; Peters, Ulrike

    2018-06-01

    To understand the genetic drivers of immune recognition and evasion in colorectal cancer, we analyzed 1,211 colorectal cancer primary tumor samples, including 179 classified as microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high). This set includes The Cancer Genome Atlas colorectal cancer cohort of 592 samples, completed and analyzed here. MSI-high, a hypermutated, immunogenic subtype of colorectal cancer, had a high rate of significantly mutated genes in important immune-modulating pathways and in the antigen presentation machinery, including biallelic losses of B2M and HLA genes due to copy-number alterations and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. WNT/β-catenin signaling genes were significantly mutated in all colorectal cancer subtypes, and activated WNT/β-catenin signaling was correlated with the absence of T-cell infiltration. This large-scale genomic analysis of colorectal cancer demonstrates that MSI-high cases frequently undergo an immunoediting process that provides them with genetic events allowing immune escape despite high mutational load and frequent lymphocytic infiltration and, furthermore, that colorectal cancer tumors have genetic and methylation events associated with activated WNT signaling and T-cell exclusion. Significance: This multi-omic analysis of 1,211 colorectal cancer primary tumors reveals that it should be possible to better monitor resistance in the 15% of cases that respond to immune blockade therapy and also to use WNT signaling inhibitors to reverse immune exclusion in the 85% of cases that currently do not. Cancer Discov; 8(6); 730-49. ©2018 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 663 . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Low Penetrance Alleles in Colorectal Cancer: the arachidonic acid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L.E. Siezen

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn summary, we can conclude that we have successfully identified low penetrance alleles in the PPAR., PLA2G2A and ALOX15 genes, conferring differential colorectal adenoma risk, and two such alleles in the PTGS2 gene, one of which is also involved in colorectal cancer risk. These

  17. Bergenin suppresses the growth of colorectal cancer cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate anticancer effects of bergenin on human colorectal cancer cell lines. Methods: Human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HCT116 was treated with various concentrations of bergenin for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were analyzed ...

  18. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Courtney; Kim, David H; Bartel, Twyla B; Cash, Brooks D; Chang, Kevin J; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Garcia, Evelyn M; Kambadakone, Avinash R; Lambert, Drew L; Levy, Angela D; Marin, Daniele; Peterson, Christine M; Scheirey, Christopher D; Smith, Martin P; Weinstein, Stefanie; Carucci, Laura R

    2018-05-01

    This review summarizes the relevant literature regarding colorectal screening with imaging. For individuals at average or moderate risk for colorectal cancer, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer screening. After positive results on a fecal occult blood test or immunohistochemical test, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer detection. For individuals at high risk for colorectal cancer (eg, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn colitis), optical colonoscopy is preferred because of its ability to obtain biopsies to detect dysplasia. After incomplete colonoscopy, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer screening for individuals at average, moderate, or high risk. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patients' Awareness Of The Prevention And Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Łukasz; Puła, Anna; Stawiski, Konrad; Mudza, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Marcin; Dziki, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patients' awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, hospitalised at the Department of General and Colorectal Surgery of the Medical University in Łódź during the period from January 2015 to April 2015, were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their families' medical case record, factors predisposing them to the development of colorectal cancer, the tests applied in diagnostics, and the treatment process. The questionnaire comprised 42 closed-ended questions with one correct answer. A statistical analysis of all answers was carried out. The study group consisted of 30 men and 20 women aged 27-94 years old. A strong, statistically significant negative correlation between a patient's age and his/her awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer was noted (pcancer (p=0.008), and the awareness of the prevention programme. The women's group was characterised by statistically significantly greater awareness of colonoscopy as a screening examination (p=0.004). Patients need more information on colorectal cancer, its risk factors, prevention, the treatment process, and postoperative care. Lack of awareness of the colorectal cancer issue can be one of the major factors contributing to the high incidence of this disease.

  20. The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Kuppen, Peter Jk; Aghdaei, Hamid Asadzadeh; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through multiple genetic and epigenetic pathways. These pathways may be determined on the basis of three molecular features: (i) mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, leading to a DNA microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype, (ii) mutations in APC and other genes that activate Wnt pathway, characterized by chromosomal instability (CIN) phenotype, and (iii) global genome hypermethylation, resulting in switch off of tumor suppressor genes, indicated as CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Each of these pathways is characterized by specific pathological features, mechanisms of carcinogenesis and process of tumor development. The molecular aspects of these pathways have been used clinically in the diagnosis, screening and management of patients with colorectal cancer. In this review we especially describe various aspects of CIMP, one of the important and rather recently discovered pathways that lead to colorectal cancer.

  1. Risk of second primary colorectal cancer among colorectal cancer cases: A population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha P Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with history of colorectal cancer (CRC are at increased risk for developing a second primary colorectal cancer (SPCRC as compared to the general population. However, the degree of risk is uncertain. Here, we attempt to quantify the risk, using data from the large population-based California Cancer Registry (CCR. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the CCR data for cases with surgically-treated colon and rectal cancer diagnosed during the period 1990-2005 and followed through up to January 2008. We excluded those patients diagnosed with metastatic disease and those in whom SPCRC was diagnosed within 6 months of the diagnosis of the primary CRC. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to evaluate risk as compared to the underlying population after taking into account age, sex, ethnicity, and time at risk. Results: The study cohort consisted of 69809 cases with colon cancer and 34448 with rectal cancer. Among these patients there were 1443 cases of SPCRCs. The SIR for developing SPCRC was higher in colon cancer survivors (SIR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.5 as compared to the underlying population. The incidence of SPCRC was also higher in females (SIR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6 and Hispanics (SIR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.7 to 2.4 with primary colon cancer. The SIR for developing an SPCRC was higher only among those whose initial tumor was located in the descending colon (SIR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.0 and proximal colon (SIR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6. Conclusions: Our results confirm that CRC patients, especially females and Hispanics, are at a higher risk of developing SPCRC than the general population. Differential SPCRC risk by colorectal tumor subsite is dependent on gender and ethnicity, underscoring the heterogeneous nature of CRC.

  2. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths by cancer. Modifiable risk factors of CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, being overweight and obesity, eating processed meat, and drinking alcohol excessively. CRC screening programs are possible only in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographical areas with ageing populations and a western lifestyle. 19 , 20 Sigmoidoscopy screening done with people aged 55-64 years has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of CRC by 33% and mortality by CRC by 43%. Objective To assess the effect on the incidence and mortality of CRC diet and lifestyle and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology A comprehensive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC and subsequently, a meta-analysis of the same blocks are performed. Results 225 articles related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were retrieved. Of these 145 were considered valid on meta-analysis: 12 on epidemiology, 56 on diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different screenings for early detection of CRC. Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no doubt whatsoever which environmental factors, probably diet, may account for these cancer rates. Excessive alcohol consumption and cholesterol-rich diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet poor in folic acid and vitamin

  3. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer : Identification of mutation carriers and assessing pathogenicity of mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, RC; Sijmons, RH; Berends, MJW; Ou, J; Hofstra, RNW; Kleibeuker, JH

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also referred to as Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by susceptibility to colorectal cancer and extracolonic malignancies, in particular endometrial cancer. HNPCC is caused by pathogenic mutations

  4. Molecularly targeted drugs for metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ying-dong Cheng, Hua Yang, Guo-qing Chen, Zhi-cao Zhang Department of General Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The survival rate of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC has significantly improved with applications of molecularly targeted drugs, such as bevacizumab, and led to a substantial improvement in the overall survival rate. These drugs are capable of specifically targeting the inherent abnormal pathways in cancer cells, which are potentially less toxic than traditional nonselective chemotherapeutics. In this review, the recent clinical information about molecularly targeted therapy for mCRC is summarized, with specific focus on several of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved molecularly targeted drugs for the treatment of mCRC in the clinic. Progression-free and overall survival in patients with mCRC was improved greatly by the addition of bevacizumab and/or cetuximab to standard chemotherapy, in either first- or second-line treatment. Aflibercept has been used in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–irinotecan (FOLFIRI chemotherapy in mCRC patients and among patients with mCRC with wild-type KRAS, the outcomes were significantly improved by panitumumab in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–oxaliplatin (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. Because of the new preliminary studies, it has been recommended that regorafenib be used with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI as first- or second-line treatment of mCRC chemotherapy. In summary, an era of new opportunities has been opened for treatment of mCRC and/or other malignancies, resulting from the discovery of new selective targeting drugs. Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC, antiangiogenic drug, bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib, cetuximab, panitumumab, clinical trial, molecularly targeted therapy

  5. Altered Polyamine Profiles in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venäläinen, Markus K; Roine, Antti N; Häkkinen, Merja R; Vepsäläinen, Jouko J; Kumpulainen, Pekka S; Kiviniemi, Mikko S; Lehtimäki, Terho; Oksala, Niku K; Rantanen, Tuomo K

    2018-06-01

    The declining mortality rate of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) can be explained, at least partially, with early diagnosis. Simple diagnostic methods are needed to achieve a maximal patient participation rate in screening. Liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine urinary polyamine (PA) profiles. In a prospective setting, 116 patients were included in the study: 57 with CRC, 13 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 12 with adenoma, and 34 controls. N1,N12-diacetylspermine (DiAcSPM) level was significantly higher in patients with CRC than controls (sensitivity=78.0%, specificity=70.6%; p=0.00049). The level of diacetylated cadaverine (p=0.0068) was lower and that of diacetylated putrescine (p=0.0078) was higher in patients with CRC than in those with IBD. Cadaverine (p=0.00010) and spermine (p=0.042) levels were lower and that of DiAcSPM (p=0.018) higher in patients with CRC than in those with adenoma. The simultaneous determination of urinary PAs by means of LC-MS/MS can be used to discriminate CRC from controls and patients with benign colorectal diseases. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Towards the human colorectal cancer microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Marchesi

    Full Text Available Multiple factors drive the progression from healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinomas and accumulating evidence associates intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a first high-resolution map of colonic dysbiosis that is associated with human colorectal cancer (CRC. To this purpose, the microbiomes colonizing colon tumor tissue and adjacent non-malignant mucosa were compared by deep rRNA sequencing. The results revealed striking differences in microbial colonization patterns between these two sites. Although inter-individual colonization in CRC patients was variable, tumors consistently formed a niche for Coriobacteria and other proposed probiotic bacterial species, while potentially pathogenic Enterobacteria were underrepresented in tumor tissue. As the intestinal microbiota is generally stable during adult life, these findings suggest that CRC-associated physiological and metabolic changes recruit tumor-foraging commensal-like bacteria. These microbes thus have an apparent competitive advantage in the tumor microenvironment and thereby seem to replace pathogenic bacteria that may be implicated in CRC etiology. This first glimpse of the CRC microbiome provides an important step towards full understanding of the dynamic interplay between intestinal microbial ecology and sporadic CRC, which may provide important leads towards novel microbiome-related diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions.

  7. Colorectal Cancer "Methylator Phenotype": Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anacleto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that human colorectal tumors can be classified into two groups: one in which methylation is rare, and another with methylation of several loci associated with a "CpG island methylated phenotype (CIMP," characterized by preferential proximal location in the colon, but otherwise poorly defined. There is considerable overlap between this putative methylator phenotype and the well-known mutator phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI. We have examined hypermethylation of the promoter region of five genes (DAPK, MGMT, hMLH1, p16INK4a, and p14ARF in 106 primary colorectal cancers. A graph depicting the frequency of methylated loci in the series of tumors showed a continuous, monotonically decreasing distribution quite different from the previously claimed discontinuity. We observed a significant association between the presence of three or more methylated loci and the proximal location of the tumors. However, if we remove from analysis the tumors with hMLH1 methylation or those with MSI, the significance vanishes, suggesting that the association between multiple methylations and proximal location was indirect due to the correlation with MSI. Thus, our data do not support the independent existence of the so-called methylator phenotype and suggest that it rather may represent a statistical artifact caused by confounding of associations.

  8. Evaluation the role of nutritional and individual factors in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Moshfeghi; Abolfazl Mohammad-Beigi; Davood Hamedi-Sanani; Masoud Bahrami

    2011-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide including 38% of gastrointestinal cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third type of Iranian men and fourth in women in ranking. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of environmental risk factors in colorectal cancer.Materials and Method: In this case-control study, the authors selected cases from colorectal cancer patients in Arak and controls were selected from Arak hospitals in proportion to the number of...

  9. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: are we closer to reality?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, Asghar

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An early detection of colorectal cancer determines therapeutic outcomes, while primary prevention remains a challenge. Our aim was to review the dietary, geographical and genetic factors in the causation and their possible role in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Data from experimental and clinical studies and population screening programmes were analysed to determine the factors responsible for causation of colorectal cancer. The role of dietary constituents, including the consumption of fat, red meat, fibre content, alcohol consumption, and other lifestyle issues, including obesity, lack of exercise and geographical variations in cancer prevalence were reviewed. The role of genetic and lifestyle factors in causation of colorectal cancer is evident from the experimental, clinical and population-based studies. Dietary factors, including the consumption of fat, fibre, red meat and alcohol, seem to have a significant influence in this regard. The role of micronutrients, vitamins, calcium may be relevant but remain largely unclear. In conclusion, there is ample evidence favouring the role of various dietary and lifestyle factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. Modification of these factors is an attractive option, which is likely to help in the primary prevention and reduced disease burden.

  10. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer, using anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tadashi; Tadokoro, Masanori; Takagi, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Sadayuki; Sakamoto, Junichi.

    1989-01-01

    Aiming at radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer, anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies (CEA102) were produced by immunization with purified CEA. CEA102 showed high specificity with clorectal cancer by mixed hemadsorption assay and immunoperoxidase technique. The antigen detected by CEA102 was confirmed to be carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and its molecular weight was estimated to be ca. 180,000 by biochemical analysis. The in vivo study using nude mice grafted a human colorectal cancer or a human malignant melanoma showed greater accumulation of 125 I-labeled CEA102 in CEA-positive colorectal cancer than in nude mouse tissues and CEA-negative malignant melanoma. Moreover we successfully obtained scans with good localization of the grafted colorectal cancer on FCR (Fuji Computed Radiography). Using 131 I-labeled CEA102 liver metastasis in the patient with colorectal cancer was successfully detected by external scanning with γ-camera. These results suggest that radiolabeled CEA102 is useful for the detection of colorectal cancer. (author)

  11. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G; Selmin, Ornella I; Doetschman, Tom C; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  12. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G.; Selmin, Ornella I.; Doetschman, Tom C.; Romagnolo, Donato F.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern. PMID:29259973

  13. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah G. Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  14. RET is a potential tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanxin; Tsuchiya, Karen D.; Park, Dong Il; Fausel, Rebecca; Kanngurn, Samornmas; Welcsh, Piri; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Wang, Jianping; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer arises as the consequence of mutations and epigenetic alterations that activate oncogenes and inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Through a genome-wide screen for methylated genes in colon neoplasms, we identified aberrantly methylated RET in colorectal cancer. RET, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase and a receptor for the GDNF-family ligands, was one of the first oncogenes to be identified and has been shown to be an oncogene in thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma. However, unexpectedly, we found RET is methylated in 27% of colon adenomas and in 63% of colorectal cancers, and now provide evidence that RET has tumor suppressor activity in colon cancer. The aberrant methylation of RET correlates with decreased RET expression, whereas the restoration of RET in colorectal cancer cell lines results in apoptosis. Furthermore, in support of a tumor suppressor function of RET, mutant RET has also been found in primary colorectal cancer. We now show that these mutations inactivate RET, which is consistent with RET being a tumor suppressor gene in the colon. These findings suggest that the aberrant methylation of RET and the mutational inactivation of RET promote colorectal cancer formation and that RET can serve as a tumor suppressor gene in the colon. Moreover, the increased frequency of methylated RET in colon cancers compared to adenomas suggests RET inactivation is involved in the progression of colon adenomas to cancer. PMID:22751117

  15. [Flow cytometry in datecting lymph node micrometastasis in colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q; Ding, Y; Zhang, J

    2001-01-25

    To study the methodology and significance of flow cytometry in detecting lymph node micrometastasis of colorectal cancer. One hundred sixty-two cellular suspensions were prepared with lymph nodes which were resected radically on 25 patients with colorectal cancer and in which no cancer cells were found by HE staining. Different concentrations of cultured Lovo colorectal cancer cells were added into the celular suspension prepared from lymph node tissue of persons without colorectal cancer in order to prepare a control model. Dual staining with CK/FTTC and PI was made to the sedimetns from those 2 kinds of suspension. Flow cytometry was used to detect cancer cells. An ideal correlation was obtained between the detection value and the theoretical value of cancer cells in the specimen suspensions and control models (r = 0.097 6) with a sensitivity rate of 10/10(5). Cancer cells were detected from 7 out of the 25 patients and 30 of the 162 cellular suspensions. The detection rate was correlated with the size and infiltrating depth of the cancer. Flow cytometry is a reliable, rapid, and quantitative method for detecting lymph node micrometastasis in colorectal cancer.

  16. Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T; Brown, Lisa S

    2013-03-01

    Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development of colorectal cancer, but the full complexity of the association is not yet understood. Dietary pattern analysis is an important new technique that may help to elucidate the relationship. This review examines the most common techniques for extrapolating dietary patterns and reviews dietary pattern/colorectal cancer studies published between September 2011 and August 2012. The studies reviewed are consistent with prior research but include a more diverse international population. Results from investigations using a priori dietary patterns (i.e., diet quality scores) and a posteriori methods, which identify existing eating patterns (i.e., principal component analysis), continue to support the benefits of a plant-based diet with some dairy as a means to lower the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in meats, refined grains, and added sugar appears to increase risk. The association between colorectal cancer and alcohol remains unclear.

  17. Immunogenomic Classification of Colorectal Cancer and Therapeutic Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelands, Jessica; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Vermeulen, Louis; Maccalli, Cristina; Decock, Julie; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Bedognetti, Davide; Hendrickx, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    The immune system has a substantial effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Additionally, the response to immunotherapeutics and conventional treatment options (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies) is influenced by the immune system. The molecular characterization of

  18. Staging colorectal cancer with the TNM 7(th)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puppa, Giacomo; Poston, Graeme; Jess, Per

    2013-01-01

    lesions encountered, in particular, during radiological staging of patients with colorectal cancer. In this article the diagnosis of these lesions with multiple imaging modalities, their frequency, significance and relevance to staging and disease management are described in a multidisciplinary way...

  19. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention strategies include avoiding known risk factors, adopting a healthy lifestyle, polyp removal, and aspirin. Get detailed information about risk factors for CRC and potential interventions for prevention in this summary for clinicians.

  20. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are five types of tests that are used to screen for colorectal cancer: fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, and DNA stool test. Learn more about these and other tests in this expert-reviewed summary.

  1. Serum YKL-40 in risk assessment for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia Sidenius; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that high serum YKL-40 associates with colorectal cancer in subjects at risk of colorectal cancer. We measured serum YKL-40 in a prospective study of 4,496 Danish subjects [2,064 men, 2,432 women, median age 61 years (range, 18-97)] referred.......05-1.40; P = 0.012), whereas this was not the case for those with comorbidity (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.14; P = 0.80). In conclusion, high serum YKL-40 in subjects suspected of colorectal cancer and without comorbidity associates with colorectal cancer. Determination of serum YKL-40 may be useful...

  2. Immune reaction and colorectal cancer: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Vincenzo; Cereda, Vittore; Nardecchia, Antonella; Tesauro, Manfredi; Roselli, Mario

    2014-09-21

    The potential clinical impact of enhancing antitumor immunity is increasingly recognized in oncology therapeutics for solid tumors. Colorectal cancer is one of the most studied neoplasms for the tumor-host immunity relationship. Although immune cell populations involved in such a relationship and their prognostic role in colorectal cancer development have clearly been identified, still no approved therapies based on host immunity intensification have so far been introduced in clinical practice. Moreover, a recognized risk in enhancing immune reaction for colitis-associated colorectal cancer development has limited the emphasis of this approach. The aim of the present review is to discuss immune components involved in the host immune reaction against colorectal cancer and analyze the fine balance between pro-tumoral and anti-tumoral effect of immunity in this model of disease.

  3. Chemotherapy, bevacizumab, and cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, J.; Koopman, M.; Cats, A.; Rodenburg, C.J.; Creemers, G.J.M.; Schrama, J.G.; Erdkamp, F.L.G.; Vos, A.H.; van Groeningen, C.J.; Sinnige, H.A.M.; Richel, D.J.; Voest, E.E.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Vink-Börger, M.E.; Antonini, N.F.; Mol, L.; van Krieken, J.H.J.M.; Dalesio, O.; Punt, C.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fluoropyrimidine- based chemotherapy plus the anti - vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab is standard first- line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. We studied the effect of adding the anti - epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody cetuximab to

  4. Chemotherapy, Bevacizumab, and Cetuximab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Jolien; Koopman, Miriam; Cats, Annemieke; Rodenburg, Cees J.; Creemers, Geert J. M.; Schrama, Jolanda G.; Erdkamp, Frans L. G.; Vos, Allert H.; van Groeningen, Cees J.; Sinnige, Harm A. M.; Richel, Dirk J.; Voest, Emile E.; Dijkstra, Jeroen R.; Vink-Börger, Marianne E.; Antonini, Ninja F.; Mol, Linda; van Krieken, Johan H. J. M.; Dalesio, Otilia; Punt, Cornelis J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fluoropyrimidine- based chemotherapy plus the anti - vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) antibody bevacizumab is standard first- line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. We studied the effect of adding the anti - epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) antibody cetuximab

  5. Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Teresa T.; Brown, Lisa S.

    2012-01-01

    Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development of colorectal cancer, but the full complexity of the association is not yet understood. Dietary pattern analysis is an important new technique that may help to elucidate the relationship. This review examines the most common techniques for extrapolating dietary patterns and reviews dietary pattern/colorectal cancer studies published between September 2011 and August 2012. The studies reviewed are consistent with prior research but ...

  6. Intraoperative ultrasonography in detection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to compare diagnostic accuracies of measuring liver enzymes, preoperative ultrasonography, surgical examination, and intraoperative ultrasonography for detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. METHODS: Blind, prospective comparisons of diagnostic...... examinations mentioned above were performed in 295 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer. An experienced ultrasonologist performed the preoperative examinations, and results were unknown to the other experienced ultrasonologist who performed the intraoperative examinations. The latter, also was unaware...

  7. Have You Been Tested for Colorectal Cancer? PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the November 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer screening saves lives, but only if you get tested. If you’re between 50 and 75, talk with your doctor about which test is best for you. If you have inflammatory bowel disease or a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, ask your doctor if you should start screening before age 50.

  8. Microsatellite Status of Primary Colorectal Cancer Predicts the Incidence of Postoperative Colorectal Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Aki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Hata, Keisuke; Ishihara, Soichiro; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have evaluated the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms stratified by the nature of primary colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we revealed it on the basis of the microsatellite (MS) status of primary CRC. We retrospectively reviewed 338 patients with CRC and calculated the risk of neoplasms during postoperative surveillance colonoscopy in association with the MS status of primary CRC. A propensity score method was applied. We identified a higher incidence of metachronous rectal neoplasms after the resection of MS stable CRC than MS instable CRC (adjusted HR 5.74, p=0.04). We also observed a higher incidence of colorectal tubular adenoma in patients with MSS CRC (adjusted hazard ratio 7.09, pcolorectal cancer influenced the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Oestrogen receptor beta isoform expression in sporadic colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis and progressive stages of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanato Filho, Paulo Roberto; Aguiar Júnior, Samuel; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Kuasne, Hellen; Spencer, Ranyell Matheus; Nakagawa, Wilson Toshihiko; Bezerra, Tiago Santoro; Kupper, Bruna Catin; Takahashi, Renata Maymi; Barros Filho, Mateus; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Lopes, Ademar

    2017-11-13

    Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas are poorly described. This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of the ERβ1, ERβ2, ERβ4 and ERβ5 isoform variants using quantitative RT-PCR (921 analyses) in FAP, normal mucosa, adenomatous polyps and sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Decreased expression of ERβ isoforms was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p colorectal carcinomas were compared to normal mucosa tissues. These findings suggest an association of the ERβ isoform variants in individuals affected by germline mutations of the APC gene. Progressively decreased expression of ERβ was found in polyps at early stages of low-grade dysplasia, followed by T1-T2 and T3-T4 tumours (p colorectal cancer, the loss of expression was an independent predictor of recurrence, and ERβ1 and ERβ5 expression levels were associated with better disease-free survival (p = 0.002). These findings may provide a better understanding of oestrogens and their potential preventive and therapeutic effects on sporadic colorectal cancer and cancers associated with FAP syndrome.

  10. Familial Colorectal Cancer: Understanding the Alphabet Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, Matthew D; Chu, Daniel I

    2016-09-01

    While most colorectal cancers (CRCs) originate from nonhereditary spontaneous mutations, one-third of cases are familial or hereditary. Hereditary CRCs, which account for < 5% of all CRCs, have identifiable germline mutations and phenotypes, such as Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Familial CRCs, which account for up to 30% of CRCs, have no identifiable germline mutation or specific pattern of inheritance, but higher-than-expected incidence within a family. Since the discovery that certain genotypes can lead to development of CRC, thousands of mutations have now been implicated in CRC. These new findings have enhanced our ability to identify at-risk patients, initiate better surveillance, and take preventative measures. Given the large number of genes now associated with hereditary and familial CRCs, clinicians should be familiar with the alphabet soup of genes to provide the highest quality of care for patients and families.

  11. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  12. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...... population). RAS was mutated in 46% and BRAF in 12% of the tumours. RAS and BRAF, if mutated, were negative prognostic factors. The updated analyses confirmed the finding of the primary report that cetuximab did not provide any additional benefit when added to FLOX in patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type tumours......, neither on progression-free nor overall survival. However, the outcomes in a subset of patients, which, after the first eight treatment cycles, received cetuximab alone, suggested a beneficial effect of cetuximab monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Adding cetuximab to Nordic FLOX did not provide any clinical...

  13. Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Sporadic CRC and Hereditary Nonpolyosis Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Sun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Extent neuroendocrine differentiation can be encountered in many human neoplasm derived from different organs and systems using immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural techniques. The tumor cells' behaviors resemble those of neurons and neuroendocrine cells. The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation reputedly appears to be associated with a poorer prognosis than the adenocarcinoma counterparts in sporadic human neoplasm. In this review the neuroendocrine carcinoma and the adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation of colon and rectum both in sporadic colorectal carcinoma and the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, the relationship of neuroendocrine differentiation and some possible molecular pathways in tumorogenesis of colorectal cancer will be discussed. Possible treatment strategy will also be addressed.

  14. Feasibility of sequential adjuvant chemotherapy with a 3-month oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine in patients with stage III and high-risk stage II colorectal cancer: JSWOG-C2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Atsushi; Yamashita, Kazuki; Tanioka, Hiroaki; Tsuji, Akihito; Inukai, Michio; Yamakawa, Toshiki; Yamatsuji, Tomoki; Yoshimitsu, Masanori; Toyota, Kazuhiro; Yamano, Taketoshi; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Okajima, Masazumi

    2016-01-01

    Six months of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected stage III colorectal cancer (CRC). Also, patients with stage II CRC who are considered to be at high risk of disease recurrence often receive the same adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. We prospectively investigated the extent and degree of neuropathy suffered by stage III and high-risk stage II resectable CRC patients who underwent sequential approach involving 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine. Patients with completely resected stage III and high-risk stage II CRC aged ≥20 years were eligible. Patients were treated with folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) for 3 months followed by capecitabine (2,500 mg/m 2 on days 1-14 every 3 weeks) for 3 months. Primary end points were frequency and the grade of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity as evaluated using the physician-based Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAE) grading and the patient-based scale, self-reported Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire. Ninety-one patients were enrolled and 86 patients assessed. Eighty-four percent of patients completed the planned oxaliplatin-based therapy for 3 months, and 63% of patients completed all treatments for the full 6 months. Overall incidences of grade 3 or 4 peripheral sensory or motor neuropathy according to the CTCAE were 3.5% and 1.2%, respectively. Regarding the peripheral sensory neuropathy, the proportion of Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (grade C-E) and CTCAE (grade 2-4) at months 1.5/3/6 were 11.3/22.1/29.4% and 5.3/4.4/11.3%, respectively (Spearman correlation coefficient: 0.47). A sequential approach to adjuvant chemotherapy with 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine was tolerated by patients and associated with a low incidence of neuropathy.

  15. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessl, E. J.; Allison, M. A.; Ho, S. B.; Groessl, E. J.; Allison, M. A.; Ho, S. B.; Larson, J. C.; Snetslaar, L. G.; Lane, D. S.; Tharp, K. M.; Stefanick, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample ( N = 83,778 women) was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0-<4 cups), and high (4+ cups). Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53%) new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02-1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93-1.38). Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05-1.36) and high non drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01-2.02) were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  16. Combination Effect of Nimotuzumab with Radiation in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hye Kyung; Kim, Mi Sook; Jeong, Jae Hoon

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of the selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor nimotuzumab in human colorectal cancer cell lines. Four human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT-8, LoVo, WiDr, and HCT-116 were treated with nimotuzumab and/or radiation. The effects on cell proliferation, viability, and cell cycle progression were measured by MTT, clonogenic survival assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot. An immunoblot analysis revealed that EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by nimotuzumab in colorectal cancer cell lines. Under these experimental conditions, pre-treatment with nimotuzumab increased radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cell lines, except for cell line HCT-116. However, cell proliferation or cell cycle progression was not affected by the addition of nimotuzumab, irrespective of irradiation. Nimotuzumab enhanced the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells in vitro by inhibiting EGFR-mediated cell survival signaling. This study provided a rationale for the clinical application of the selective EGFR inhibitor, nimotuzumab in combination with radiation in colorectal cancer cells.

  17. Symptom burden among young adults with breast or colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Stacy D; Zhao, Fengmin; Salsman, John M; Chang, Victor T; Wagner, Lynne I; Fisch, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Cancer incidence has increased among young adults (YAs) and survival rates have not improved compared with other age groups. Patient-reported outcomes may enhance our understanding of this vulnerable population. In a multisite prospective study, patients completed a cancer symptom inventory at the time of enrollment (T1) and 4 weeks to 5 weeks later (T2). YAs (those aged ≤ 39 years) with breast or colorectal cancer were compared with older adults (those aged ≥ 40 years) with breast or colorectal cancer with regard to symptom severity, symptom interference, changes over time, and medical care. Participants included 1544 patients with breast cancer (96 of whom were YAs) and 718 patients with colorectal cancer (37 of whom were YAs). Compared with older adults, YAs with breast cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe drowsiness, hair loss, and symptom interference with relationships at T1. YAs with colorectal cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe pain, fatigue, nausea, distress, drowsiness, shortness of breath, and rash plus interference in general activity, mood, work, relationships, and life enjoyment compared with older adults. Compared with older adults, shortness of breath, appetite, and sore mouth were more likely to improve in YAs with breast cancer; vomiting was less likely to improve in YAs with colorectal cancer. Referrals for supportive care were few, especially among patients with colorectal cancer. YAs with breast cancer were somewhat more likely to be referred to nutrition and psychiatry services than older patients. YAs reported symptom severity, symptom interference, and variations over time that were distinct from older patients. Distinctions were found to differ by diagnostic group. These findings enhance the understanding of symptom burden in YAs and inform the development of targeted interventions and future research. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  18. Immunisation of colorectal cancer patients with autologous tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Alice; Stenholm, Anna Catharina Olsen; Kronborg, O

    1998-01-01

    Patients with colorectal cancer were entered into a clinical phase I trial of immunotherapy with an autologous tumour cell/bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. We attempted to describe the possible effects and side effects of the immunisation, and further to investigate whether expression...... of immune-response-related surface molecules on the tumour cells in the vaccine correlated with survival. The first and second vaccine comprised of 107 irradiated tumour cells mixed with BCG, the third of irradiated tumour cells only. Thirty-nine patients were considered, but only 6 patients fulfilled...... the criteria for inclusion. No serious side effects were observed. With three years of observation time, two patients are healthy, while the rest have had recurrence, and two of them have died. In all vaccines, all tumour cells expressed HLA class I, some expressed HLA class II and none expressed CD80...

  19. Colorectal Cancer Profile in a Tertiary Care Centre, Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja Suryadevara, , , ,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancers are a common disease of oncological practice. A raising incidence is seen in Asian population. It is one of the cancers where screening and early diagnosis are possible. Very few articles are there about the cancer scenario in India. A study of the disease profile helps in screening, early diagnosis and management of the disease in developing countries. Aim: To study the cancer presentation in our population which can help in developing strategies for better control of disease. Material and Methods: Medical records of 171 patients registered at Kidwai Hospital from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data including age at presentation, sex, location of the cancer and stage at presentation were analyzed. Results: The male to female ratio was 1.26:1 in rectal cancer. In colon cancer the ratio was 1:1.3. The mean age at presentation was 47 years in males and 51 years in females in colorectal cancers together. Thirty eight percent of the patients were less than 45 years old. Eighty percent of the cases were rectal cancers. In 71% of rectal cancers the growth was located within 5cm from anal verge (AV. Stage III was the commonest stage of presentation. Abdominoperineal resection (APR was the commonest surgical procedure done. Inoperability was highest with lower rectal cancer. Conclusion: Younger age at presentation, low lying rectal cancers and advanced stage at presentation were observed in our study group which includes predominantly rural population. Rectal cancers are the most common cancers referred among colorectal cancers. Screening for colorectal cancers and early evaluation of symptomatic cases need to be encouraged. Patients should be educated regarding this. Screening strategies, etiopathogenesis and genetic abnormalities in colorectal cancer patients need to be defined in developing countries.

  20. Colorectal cancer through simulation and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Kershaw, Sophie K.; Byrne, Helen M.; Gavaghan, David J.; Osborne, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has formed a canonical example of tumourigenesis ever since its use in Fearon and Vogelstein's linear model of genetic mutation, and continues to generate a huge amount of research interest. Over time, the field has witnessed a transition from solely experimental work to the inclusion of mathematical and computational modelling. The fusion of these disciplines has the potential to provide valuable insights into oncologic processes, but also presents the challenge of uniting many diverse perspectives. Furthermore, the cancer cell phenotype defined by the 'Hallmarks of Cancer' has been extended in recent times and provides an excellent basis for future research. The authors present a timely summary of the literature relating to CRC, addressing the traditional experimental findings, summarising the key mathematical and computational approaches, and emphasising the role of the Hallmarks in current and future developments. The authors conclude with a discussion of interdisciplinary work, outlining areas of experimental interest which would benefit from the insight that theoretical modelling can provide. © The institution of engineering and technology 2013.

  1. Colorectal cancer through simulation and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Kershaw, Sophie K.

    2013-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has formed a canonical example of tumourigenesis ever since its use in Fearon and Vogelstein\\'s linear model of genetic mutation, and continues to generate a huge amount of research interest. Over time, the field has witnessed a transition from solely experimental work to the inclusion of mathematical and computational modelling. The fusion of these disciplines has the potential to provide valuable insights into oncologic processes, but also presents the challenge of uniting many diverse perspectives. Furthermore, the cancer cell phenotype defined by the \\'Hallmarks of Cancer\\' has been extended in recent times and provides an excellent basis for future research. The authors present a timely summary of the literature relating to CRC, addressing the traditional experimental findings, summarising the key mathematical and computational approaches, and emphasising the role of the Hallmarks in current and future developments. The authors conclude with a discussion of interdisciplinary work, outlining areas of experimental interest which would benefit from the insight that theoretical modelling can provide. © The institution of engineering and technology 2013.

  2. Special Section: Preventing, Detecting, and Treating Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a week-long series to promote colon and rectal (colorectal) cancer awareness and screening. Following that, research showed that ... niddk.nih.gov The American Cancer Society: www.cancer.org The American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons: www.fascrs.org Spring 2009 Issue: Volume ...

  3. Second primary cancers in subsites of colon and rectum in patients with previous colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Lemmens, V.E.; de Hingh, I.H.J.T.; de Vries, E.; Roukema, J.A.; van Leerdam, M.E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Soerjomataram, I.

    Background: Compared with the general population, patients with a previous colorectal cancer are at higher risk for a second colorectal cancer, but detailed risk analysis by subsite is scarce. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the risk of a second cancer in relation to subsite as a basis for

  4. Tailored treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: clinical and pre-clinical developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, A.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in males and females in developed countries. Metastases in distant organs, which develop in 50% of colorectal cancer patients, are responsible for the majority of colorectal cancer deaths. Treatment of metastatic disease should

  5. Colorectal cancer: From prevention to personalized medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binefa, Gemma; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Teule, Àlex; Medina-Hayas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a very heterogeneous disease that is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. CRC develops through a gradual accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes, leading to the transformation of normal colonic mucosa into invasive cancer. CRC is one of the most prevalent and incident cancers worldwide, as well as one of the most deadly. Approximately 1235108 people are diagnosed annually with CRC, and 609051 die from CRC annually. The World Health Organization estimates an increase of 77% in the number of newly diagnosed cases of CRC and an increase of 80% in deaths from CRC by 2030. The incidence of CRC can benefit from different strategies depending on its stage: health promotion through health education campaigns (when the disease is not yet present), the implementation of screening programs (for detection of the disease in its early stages), and the development of nearly personalized treatments according to both patient characteristics (age, sex) and the cancer itself (gene expression). Although there are different strategies for screening and although the number of such strategies is increasing due to the potential of emerging technologies in molecular marker application, not all strategies meet the criteria required for screening tests in population programs; the three most accepted tests are the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. FOBT is the most used method for CRC screening worldwide and is also the primary choice in most population-based screening programs in Europe. Due to its non-invasive nature and low cost, it is one of the most accepted techniques by population. CRC is a very heterogeneous disease, and with a few exceptions (APC, p53, KRAS), most of the genes involved in CRC are observed in a small percentage of cases. The design of genetic and epigenetic marker panels that are able to provide maximum coverage in the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia seems a reasonable strategy

  6. Molecular genetic approach for screening of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Ravnik-Glavač

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main goal of knowledge concerning human diseases is to transfer as much as possible useful information into clinical applications. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC is the most common autosomal dominant inherited predisposition for colorectal cancer, accounting for 1–2% of all bowel cancer. The only way to diagnose HNPCC is by a family history consistent with the disease defined by International Collaborative Group on HNPCC (Amsterdam criteria I and II. The main molecular cause of HNPCC is a constitutional mutation in one of the mismatch repair (MMR genes. Since HNPCC mutations have been detected also in families that did not fulfil the Amsterdam criteria, molecular genetic characteristics of HNPCC cancers have been proposed as valuable first step in HNPCC identification. Microsatellite instability is present in about 90% of cancers of HNPCC patients. However, of all MSI colorectal cancers 80– 90% are sporadic. Several molecular mechanisms have been uncovered that enable distinguishing to some extent between sporadic and HNPCC cancers with MSI including hypermethylation of hMLH1 promoter and frequent mutations in BAX and TGFBR2 in sporadic CRC with MSI-H.Conclusions: The determination of MSI status and careful separation of MSI positive colorectal cancer into sporadic MSIL, sporadic MSI-H, and HNPCC MSI-H followed by mutation detection in MMR genes is important for prevention, screening and management of colorectal cancer. In some studies we and others have already shown that large-scale molecular genetic analysis for HNPCC can be done and is sensitive enough to approve population screening. Population screening includes also colonoscopy which is restricted only to the obligate carriers of the mutation. This enables that the disease is detected in earlier stages which would greatly decrease medical treatment costs and most importantly decrease mortality. In Slovenia we have started population screening based

  7. Importance of PET/CT for imaging of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, F.G.; Schramm, N.; Graser, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Rist, C.; Haug, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has emerged as a very useful imaging modality in the management of colorectal carcinoma. Data from the literature regarding the role of PET/CT in the initial diagnosis, staging, radiotherapy planning, response monitoring and surveillance of colorectal carcinoma is presented. Future directions and economic aspects are discussed. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FDG-PET for colorectal cancer and endorectal ultrasound for rectal cancer. Combined FDG-PET/CT. While other imaging modalities allow superior visualization of the extent and invasion depth of the primary tumor, PET/CT is most sensitive for the detection of distant metastases of colorectal cancer. We recommend a targeted use of PET/CT in cases of unclear M staging, prior to metastasectomy and in suspected cases of residual or recurrent colorectal carcinoma with equivocal conventional imaging. The role of PET/CT in radiotherapy planning and response monitoring needs to be determined. Currently there is no evidence to support the routine use of PET/CT for colorectal screening, staging or surveillance. To optimally exploit the synergy between morphologic and functional information, FDG-PET should generally be performed as an integrated FDG-PET/CT with a contrast-enhanced CT component in colorectal carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  8. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F; Beeson, W Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L; Herring, R Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96,354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77,659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.65-1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59-1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62-1.37) compared with nonvegetarians. Effect estimates were similar for men and women and for black and nonblack individuals. Vegetarian diets are

  9. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J.; Singh, Pramil N.; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L.; Herring, R. Patti; Fraser, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96 354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77 659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. EXPOSURES Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64–0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95%CI, 0.65–1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47–1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59–1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65–1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40–0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62–1.37) compared with

  10. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 7/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/5/2011.

  11. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Liang; Shu, Long; Zheng, Pei-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of dietary patterns has recently drawn considerable attention as a method of investigating the association between the overall whole diet and the risk of colorectal cancer. However, the results have yielded conflicting findings. Here, we carried out a meta-analysis to identify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 40 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The highest category of 'healthy' dietary pattern compared with the lowest category was apparently associated with a decreased risk for colorectal cancer [odds ratio (OR)=0.75; confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.83; Pcolorectal cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest category of a 'western-style' dietary pattern (OR=1.40; CI: 1.26-1.56; Pcolorectal cancer in the highest compared with the lowest category of 'alcohol-consumption' pattern (OR=1.44; CI: 1.13-1.82; P=0.003). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that a 'healthy' dietary pattern may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas 'western-style' and 'alcohol-consumption' patterns may increase the risk of colorectal cancer.

  12. An inverse association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuetong; Wu, Yuan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Lingjun; Tong, Na; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Dongying; Chen, Jinfei

    2017-06-06

    It is well known that the tea extracts, mainly polyphenols as chemo-preventive elements, could act as cancer progression blockers. Although the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk has been widely investigated, the results still remain inconsistent. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate their relationships by enrolling qualified 29 literatures. The summary odds ratio (OR) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was 0.93 with 0.87-1.00 of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among all studies with modest heterogeneity (P = 0.001, I2 = 43.4%). Stratified analysis revealed that tea, especially green tea, had a protective effect among female and rectal cancer patients. Particularly, the dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant inverse association between an increment of 1 cup/day of tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the subgroup of the green tea drinking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.01, Pnonlinear = 0.003) and female (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56-0.81, Pnonlinear colorectal cancer risk, which may have significant public health implications in the prevention of colorectal cancer and further similar researches.

  13. Immediately modifiable risk factors attributable to colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Lai, Pei Kuan; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-08-04

    This study aimed to estimate potential reductions in case incidence of colorectal cancer attributable to the modifiable risk factors such as alcohol consumption, overweight and physical inactivity amongst the Malaysian population. Gender specific population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for colorectal cancer in Malaysia were estimated for the three selected risk factors (physical inactivity, overweight, and alcohol consumptions). Exposure prevalence were sourced from a large-scale national representative survey. Risk estimates of the relationship between the exposure of interest and colorectal cancer were obtained from published meta-analyses. The overall PAF was then estimated, using the 2013 national cancer incidence data from the Malaysian Cancer Registry. Overall, the mean incidence rate for colorectal cancer in Malaysia from 2008 to 2013 was 21.3 per 100,000 population, with the mean age of 61.6 years (±12.7) and the majority were men (56.6%). Amongst 369 colorectal cancer cases in 2013, 40 cases (20 men, 20 women), 10 cases (9 men, 1 woman) or 20 cases (16 men,4 women) would be prevented, if they had done physical exercises, could reduce their body weight to normal level or avoided alcohol consumption, assuming that these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. It was estimated that 66 (17.8%;66/369) colorectal cancer cases (42 men, 24 women) who had all these three risk factors for the last 10 years would have been prevented, if they could control these three risk factors through effective preventive measures. Findings suggest that approximately 18% of colorectal cancer cases in Malaysia would be prevented through appropriate preventive measures such as doing regular physical exercises, reducing their body weight to normal level and avoiding alcohol consumption, if these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. Scaling-up nationwide public health campaigns tailored to increase physical activity, controlling body weight within normal

  14. Critical appraisal of the use of regorafenib in the management of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festino, Lucia; Fabozzi, Alessio; Manzo, Anna; Gambardella, Valentina; Martinelli, Erika; Troiani, Teresa; De Vita, Ferdinando; Orditura, Michele; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Morgillo, Floriana

    2013-01-01

    The lack of valid clinical management options for patients affected by metastatic colorectal cancer, which has progressed after all approved standard treatments, has lead to research into new active molecules. Regorafenib is an oral small-molecule multi kinase inhibitor, binding to several intracellular kinases, with powerful inhibitory activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR-1,VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3), platelet-derived growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, Raf, TIE-2, and the kinases KIT, RET, and BRAF. The antitumor activity of regorafenib has been tested in vitro and in vivo, and inhibition of tumor growth has been observed in several cancer models, particularly colorectal cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The most frequent adverse events of grade 3 or higher related to regorafenib were hand-foot skin reaction, fatigue, diarrhea, hypertension, and rash or desquamation. Only a few Phase I–II trials, and most recently a Phase III trial in pretreated colorectal cancer, have been carried out to date. Several ongoing trials are testing the efficacy of regorafenib in combination with chemotherapy. At this point in time, regorafenib is the first small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor to gain approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer patients

  15. Reduction in Late Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer Following Introduction of a Specialist Colorectal Surgery Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Amanda L; Mercer, Stuart J; Harris, Guy JC; Simson, Jay NL

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION An audit of patients presenting with colorectal cancer to our district general hospital during a 2-year period from November 1994 found that 12.1% of cases were diagnosed later than 6 months after initial presentation to a physician. This audit was repeated for a 2-year period from December 2001, to determine whether the introduction of a specialist coloproctology surgery service had led to a reduction in late diagnosis of colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Case notes were reviewed of all patients presenting with colorectal cancer between December 2001 and November 2003. Late diagnosis was defined as diagnosis of colorectal cancer more than 6 months after their first attendance to either their general practitioner or district general hospital. The results were compared with those of the previous study. RESULTS Of a total of 218 patients presenting with colorectal cancer during the study period, 14 (6.4%; 10 men and 4 women) satisfied the criteria for late diagnosis, with the longest delay being 12.5 months. Reasons for late diagnosis were false-negative reporting of barium studies (n = 3), inaccurate tumour biopsy (n = 2), concurrent pathology causing anaemia (n = 4), inappropriate delay in definitive investigation (n = 3), and refusal of investigation by patients (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS There has been a reduction of nearly 50% (12.1% to 6.4%) in the proportion of patients with a late diagnosis of colorectal cancer compared with our previous audit. It is suggested that an important factor in this improvement in diagnosis has been the introduction of a specialist coloproctology surgery service. PMID:17059718

  16. Galectin-3 expression in colorectal cancer and its correlation with clinical pathological characteristics and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the expression levels of galectin-3 in colorectal cancer and the association between galectin-3 and its clinical pathological parameters, as well as the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients.

  17. Risk factors determining chemotherapeutic toxicity in patients with advanced colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, FGA; Sleijfer, DT; Coenen, JLLM; De Graaf, JC; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2000-01-01

    Antitumour therapy in advanced colorectal cancer has limited efficacy. For decades, fluorouracil has been the main anticancer drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Recently, however, new agents have been introduced: raltitrexed, irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Currently, the dosage for an

  18. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer in Chinese Adolescent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Du

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Colorectal cancer in Chinese adolescents was very rare. The chinese adolecents with colorectal cancer were frequently diagnosed in the right colon, as Stage III/IV disease with signet ring cell carcinoma. The prognosis was relatively poor.

  19. GSTT2 promoter polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Sun-A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione S-transferases are a group of enzymes that participate in detoxification and defense mechanisms against toxic carcinogens and other compounds. These enzymes play an important role in human carcinogenesis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether GSTT2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with colorectal cancer risk. Methods A total of 436 colorectal cancer patients and 568 healthy controls were genotyped for three GSTT2 promoter SNPs (-537G>A, -277T>C and -158G>A, using real-time TaqMan assay and direct sequencing. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA was performed to determine the effects of polymorphisms on protein binding to the GSTT2 promoter. Results The -537A allele (-537G/A or A/A was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.373, p = 0.025, while the -158A allele (-158G/A or A/A was involved in protection against colorectal cancer (OR = 0.539, p = 0.032. Haplotype 2 (-537A, -277T, -158G was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.386, p = 0.021, while haplotype 4 (-537G, -277C, -158A protected against colorectal cancer (OR = 0.539, p = 0.032. EMSA data revealed lower promoter binding activity in the -537A allele than its -537G counterpart. Conclusion Our results collectively suggest that SNPs and haplotypes of the GSTT2 promoter region are associated with colorectal cancer risk in the Korean population.

  20. HER2 activating mutations are targets for colorectal cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Shyam M; Jain, Naveen; Galimi, Francesco; Cottino, Francesca; Leto, Simonetta M; Migliardi, Giorgia; Searleman, Adam C; Shen, Wei; Monsey, John; Trusolino, Livio; Jacobs, Samuel A; Bertotti, Andrea; Bose, Ron

    2015-08-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas project identified HER2 somatic mutations and gene amplification in 7% of patients with colorectal cancer. Introduction of the HER2 mutations S310F, L755S, V777L, V842I, and L866M into colon epithelial cells increased signaling pathways and anchorage-independent cell growth, indicating that they are activating mutations. Introduction of these HER2 activating mutations into colorectal cancer cell lines produced resistance to cetuximab and panitumumab by sustaining MAPK phosphorylation. HER2 mutants are potently inhibited by low nanomolar doses of the irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors neratinib and afatinib. HER2 gene sequencing of 48 cetuximab-resistant, quadruple (KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA) wild-type (WT) colorectal cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDX) identified 4 PDXs with HER2 mutations. HER2-targeted therapies were tested on two PDXs. Treatment with a single HER2-targeted drug (trastuzumab, neratinib, or lapatinib) delayed tumor growth, but dual HER2-targeted therapy with trastuzumab plus tyrosine kinase inhibitors produced regression of these HER2-mutated PDXs. HER2 activating mutations cause EGFR antibody resistance in colorectal cell lines, and PDXs with HER2 mutations show durable tumor regression when treated with dual HER2-targeted therapy. These data provide a strong preclinical rationale for clinical trials targeting HER2 activating mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02 and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003. The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.

  2. Demographic factors associated with knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms in a UK population-based survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley, C.; Glover, C.; Allen-Mersh, T. G.

    2000-01-01

    Greater public awareness of colorectal cancer symptoms might result in earlier presentation with improved cure by available treatments, but little is known about the extent of public knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms. We asked a sample of the general population about knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms and assessed demographic characteristics associated with differences in knowledge. A population-based telephone enquiry into knowledge of colorectal cancer-associated symptoms was con...

  3. COLORECTAL CANCER IN YOUNG INDIVIDUALS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shanthilal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer which can be detected early by implementation of cancer screening. This has led to decline in colorectal cancer related morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. However, there is increase in the incidence of this cancer in young individuals. This study was undertaken to study the characteristics of young colorectal cancer patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS The study was conducted from 2014 to 2016. All colorectal cancer patients attending the Department of Oncology, who were less than or equal to 50 years of age were included. Patients’ demographic data as well as data regarding the colorectal cancer was collected. The data was entered into MS Excel worksheet and analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS This study included 28 patients with a median age of 40 years and equal sex distribution. History of smoking in 85.7% (12/14 and alcohol (moderate consumption in 64% (9/14 was present in male patients. There was no history of alcohol or smoking was present among female patients. However, tobacco chewing habit was present in 28% (4/14 of female patients. History of multiple sexual partners in 14% (4/28 of cases and 78% (22/28 were non-vegetarians. Nearly 85% (24/28 of patients presented with an advanced stage disease. The analysis showed involvement of left side of colon in 50% (14/28, rectum in 39% (11/28 and right side of colon in 11%(3/28. Except for two patients who were in stage - 1, all other patients received chemotherapy. CONCLUSION The incidence of colorectal cancer in young individuals is constantly rising. The reason for this increase is unclear and the relative contributions of genetic versus environmental factors remain relatively unexplored.

  4. Intraoperative Radiotherapy (IORT) for Locally Advanced Colorectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Se; Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Jae Hwang; Kwan, Koing Bo; Kim, Heung Dae

    1991-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most frequent malignant tumor in the United States and fourth most frequent tumor in Korea. Surgery has been used as a primary treatment modality but reported overall survivals after curative resection were from 20% to 50%. Local recurrence is the most common failure in the treatment of locally advanced colorectal cancer. Once recurrence has developed, surgery has rarely the role and the five year survival of locally advanced rectal cancer is less than 5%, this indicated that significant improvement of local control could be achieved. We performed 6 cases of IORT for locally advanced colorectal cancer which is he first experience in Korea. Patient's eligibility, treatment applicator, electron energy, dose distribution on the surface and depth within the treatment field and detailed skills are discussed. We hope that our IORT protocol can reduce local failure and increase the long term survival significantly

  5. Diagnosing lynch syndrome in absence of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Henry T; Knezetic, Joseph; Lanspa, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    There are many ways in which a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome can be made, most prominent of which is family history, presence of cancer, high microsatellite instability, immunohistochemistry, and a mismatch repair germline mutation. There are at least four molecular pathways for colorectal cancer carcinogenesis: 1) adenoma-carcinoma sequence; 2) hereditary microsatellite instability; 3) serrated pathway; 4) epidermal growth factor receptor. The answer to diagnosing Lynch syndrome in the absence of colorectal cancer may be partially based upon the phenotypic characteristics of the colonic polyps should they be identified at colonoscopy, specifically their phenotypic characteristics of location, size, histology, number, and age of polyp onset.

  6. ERCC2 2251A>C genetic polymorphism was highly correlated with early relapse in high-risk stage II and stage III colorectal cancer patients: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Su-Chen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early relapse in colorectal cancer (CRC patients is attributed mainly to the higher malignant entity (such as an unfavorable genotype, deeper tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and advance cancer stage and poor response to chemotherapy. Several investigations have demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms in drug-targeted genes, metabolizing enzymes, and DNA-repairing enzymes are all strongly correlated with inter-individual differences in the efficacy and toxicity of many treatment regimens. This preliminary study attempts to identify the correlation between genetic polymorphisms and clinicopathological features of CRC, and evaluates the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and chemotherapeutic susceptibility of Taiwanese CRC patients. To our knowledge, this study discusses, for the first time, early cancer relapse and its indication by multiple genes. Methods Six gene polymorphisms functional in drug-metabolism – GSTP1 Ile105Val, ABCB1 Ile1145Ile, MTHFR Ala222Val, TYMS double (2R or triple (3R tandem repeat – and DNA-repair genes – ERCC2 Lys751Gln and XRCC1 Arg399Gln – were assessed in 201 CRC patients using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique and DNA sequencing. Patients were diagnosed as either high-risk stage II (T2 and 3 N0 M0 or III (any T N1 and 2 M0 and were administered adjuvant chemotherapy regimens that included 5-fluorouracil (5FU and leucovorin (LV. The correlations between genetic polymorphisms and patient clinicopathological features and relapses were investigated. Results In this study, the distributions of GSTP1 (P = 0.003, ABCB1 (P = 0.001, TYMS (P ERCC2 (P XRCC1 (P = 0.006 genotypes in the Asian population, with the exception of MTHFR (P = 0.081, differed significantly from their distributions in a Caucasian population. However, the unfavorable genotype ERCC2 2251A>C (P = 0.006, tumor invasion depth (P = 0.025, lymph node metastasis (P = 0

  7. Surveillance for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: a long-term study on 114 families.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos tot Nederveen Cappel, W.H. de; Nagengast, F.M.; Griffioen, G.; Menko, F.H.; Taal, B.G.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Vasen, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Mutation carriers have a 60 to 85 percent risk of developing colorectal cancer. In the Netherlands hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families are monitored in an intensive

  8. Surveillance for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer - A long-term study on 114 families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappel, WHDTN; Nagengast, FM; Griffioen, G; Menko, FH; Taal, BG; Kleibeuker, JH; Vasen, HF

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Mutation carriers have a 60 to 85 percent risk of developing colorectal cancer. In the Netherlands hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families are monitored in an intensive

  9. Cancer stem cells in colorectal cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Matthew J; Wickremesekera, Susrutha K; Peng, Lifeng; Tan, Swee T; Itinteang, Tinte

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men. Adenocarcinoma accounts for 90% of CRC cases. There has been accumulating evidence in support of the cancer stem cell (CSC) concept of cancer which proposes that CSCs are central in the initiation of cancer. CSCs have been the focus of study in a range of cancers, including CRC. This has led to the identification and understanding of genes involved in the induction and maintenance of pluripotency of stem cells, and markers for CSCs, including those investigated specifically in CRC. Knowledge of the expression pattern of CSCs in CRC has been increasing in recent years, revealing a heterogeneous population of cells within CRC ranging from pluripotent to differentiated cells, with overlapping and sometimes unique combinations of markers. This review summarises current literature on the understanding of CSCs in CRC, including evidence of the presence of CSC subpopulations, and the stem cell markers currently used to identify and localise these CSC subpopulations. Future research into this field may lead to improved methods for early detection of CRC, novel therapy and monitoring of treatment for CRC and other cancer types. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Frequency of hereditary colorectal cancer in Uruguayans patients with non polipotic colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarroca, C.; Della Valle, A.; Fresco, R.; Peltomaki, P.; Lynch, H.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Colonic Cancer Family Polipótic not (CCFNP) is a syndrome transmission autosomal dominant characterized by the aggregation of colorectal cancer (CCR), frequently associated with other solid tumors. Few studies have investigated CCFNP frequency in colorectal cancer patients. these have shown marked geographic variation (0.3% to 13%). The objective of this study is to estimate the frequency of a population CCFNP CCR carriers Uruguayan cancer patients. All patients consecutively operated CRC were included in the Hospital Central Armed Forces (Montevideo, Uruguay) between 1987 and 2003. The cases were classified into 3 groups: 1) those who met the criteria Amsterdam (CCFNP), 2) those who did not meet these criteria but considered as a population of increased risk of cancer based on family history / staff (PRI), and 3) sporadic CRC. Genetic analysis was performed for Detection of mutations in hMLH1, hMSH2 and hMSH6 gene in patients subgroup 1. 461 patients were included, with a median age of 66 years. The subgroup 1 represented 2.5% 2 5.6% and 91.8% sporadic CRC. 75% of cases CCFNP were classified as under 55. Mutations in hMLH1 / hMSH2/hMSH6 were found in 16.6% of cases included in the subgroup 1 (2 in hMLH1, 1 in hMSH2, hMSH6 none). The proportion of patients who met the Amsterdam criteria matches with that observed by other authors. However, the percentage of cases classified CCFNP identified as carriers of mutations is lower than that reported (16.6% vs. ~ 70%). This may reflect a different genetic profile Uruguayan population

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Colorectal cancer in South Africa: A heritable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the DNA mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2, and less frequently hMSH6 and PMS2, leading to the rapid development of neoplasms ..... nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) and microsatellite instability. J Natl Cancer.

  12. Cancer evolution and immunity in a rat colorectal carcinogenesis model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vannucci, Luca; Fišerová, Anna; Horváth, Ondřej; Rossmann, Pavel; Mosca, F.; Pospíšil, Miloslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2004), s. 973-981 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/98/K034; GA AV ČR IAA7020006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cancer * cancer model * colorectal adenocarcinoma Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2004

  13. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes include Lynch syndrome and several polyposis syndromes (familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and serrated polyposis syndrome). Learn about the genetics, clinical manifestations, management, and psychosocial aspects of these and other hereditary colon cancer syndromes in this expert-reviewed summary.

  14. Candidate driver genes in microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhopuro, Pia; Sammalkorpi, Heli; Niittymäki, Iina

    2012-01-01

    Defects in the mismatch repair system lead to microsatellite instability (MSI), a feature observed in ∼ 15% of all colorectal cancers (CRCs). Microsatellite mutations that drive tumourigenesis, typically inactivation of tumour suppressors, are selected for and are frequently detected in MSI cancers...

  15. Lifestyle modification: A primary prevention approach to colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection of cancer through screening is an important step in decreasing both morbidity and mortality. Likewise, specific modifiable lifestyle behaviors are associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Lifestyle practices have also been shown to maximize health after the primary treatmen...

  16. Genetics and tumor genomics in familial colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, Janneke Willemijn

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the Western world and in about 30% hereditary factors play a role. Although several genetic factors that predispose families to CRC are known, in many families affected with CRC the underlying genetics remain elusive. The work described in

  17. Sulindac treatment in hereditary non-pollyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, Fleur E. M.; Hollema, Harry; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; van der Sluis, Tineke; Ek, Wytske Boersma-van; Kleibeuker, Jan H.

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, e.g. sulindac have been extensively studied for chemoprevention in familial adenomatous polyposis, but not in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). We evaluated these effects in HNPCC using surrogate end-points for cancer risk. In a randomised

  18. Advances in MRI for colorectal cancer and bowel motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Paardt, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis certain aspects of MRI in the evaluation of colorectal cancer and its precursors, and restaging of rectal cancer were addressed. The current status of MR colonography regarding the different preparation techniques as well as the imaging sequences and colon distension

  19. Iranian dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Hosein; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham; Mirzapoor, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC. This case-control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35-75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases). Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method;"Healthy pattern"and "Iranian pattern". Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI)=1.05-2.19) while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47). Iranian dietary pattern (IDP) seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern.

  20. Iranian Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Azizi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC.Methods: This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35–75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases. Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA method;“Healthy pattern”and “Iranian pattern”. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI=1.05–2.19 while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47.Conclusion: Iranian dietary pattern (IDP seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern.

  1. Dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi, Giorgia; Edefonti, Valeria; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2010-07-01

    The association of colorectal cancer risk with select foods has been evaluated by dietary pattern analysis. This review of the literature was conducted to thoroughly examine the available evidence for the association between dietary patterns and colorectal cancers and adenomas. A total of 32 articles based on worldwide epidemiological studies were identified. Pattern identification was achieved by exploratory data analyses (principal component, factor, and cluster analyses) in most articles, and only a few used a priori-defined scores. Dietary patterns named as healthy, prudent, fruit and vegetables, fat-reduced/diet foods, vegetable/fish/poultry, fruit/whole grain/dairy, and healthy eating index-2005, recommended food and Mediterranean diet scores were all associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and the risk estimates varied from 0.45 to 0.90. In contrast, diets named Western, pork-processed meat-potatoes, meat-eaters, meat and potatoes, traditional patterns, and dietary risk and life summary scores were associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer with risk estimates varying from 1.18 to 11.7. Dietary patterns for adenomas were consistent with those identified for colorectal cancer.

  2. Plant sterol intakes and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normén, A.L.; Brants, H.A.M.; Voorrips, L.E.; Andersson, H.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2001-01-01

    Background: Plant sterols in vegetable foods might prevent colorectal cancer. Objective: The objective was to study plant sterol intakes in relation to colorectal cancer risk in an epidemiologic study. Design: The study was performed within the framework of the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and

  3. Quality-of-life assessment in colorectal cancer patients: evaluation of cancer therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the need to assess the impact of colorectal cancer and its treatment on patients' quality of life (QL). An overview is provided of generic and (colorectal) cancer-specific QL questionnaires that yield adequate levels of reliability and validity. These measures have

  4. Oestrogen receptor beta isoform expression in sporadic colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis and progressive stages of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanato Filho, Paulo Roberto; Aguiar Júnior, Samuel; Begnami, Maria Dirlei

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas...... was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p expression in polyps (p ..., no differences were observed when sporadic colorectal carcinomas were compared to normal mucosa tissues. These findings suggest an association of the ERβ isoform variants in individuals affected by germline mutations of the APC gene. Progressively decreased expression of ERβ was found in polyps at early stages...

  5. Immediate preoperative nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer: a warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Luiza Regina L S; Lacerda-Filho, Antonio; Barbosa, Livia Cristina L S

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss and malnutrition are disorders observed in colorectal cancer patients. We sought to evaluate the immediate preoperative nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer. This is a cross-sectional clinical study conducted at a single center. Sixty-six consecutive patients in preoperative for elective surgical treatment were studied. The clinical history, socio-demographic data and nutritional status of the patients were evaluated using Subjective Global Assessment and objective (anthropometry) methods. The primary outcome measures were nutritional status classification as nourished or malnourished and the relationship between nutritional status and socio-demographic and clinical features. Most of patients exhibited left colon tumors and disease stage II. According to the Subjective Global Assessment, 36.4% of patients were malnourished. Malnutrition ranged from 7.6% to 53% depending on the evaluation method used, with poor correlation to Subjective Global Assessment. The prevalence of malnutrition was significantly greater in females and non-married patients and in those with two or more symptoms of colorectal cancer. More than a third of patients in the immediate preoperative period for colorectal cancer exhibited malnutrition. Therefore, routine nutritional assessment is highly advisable so that appropriate measures may be taken to minimize the potential postoperative complications.

  6. IMMEDIATE PREOPERATIVE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER: a warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Regina L S BARBOSA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Weight loss and malnutrition are disorders observed in colorectal cancer patients. Objectives We sought to evaluate the immediate preoperative nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer. Methods This is a cross-sectional clinical study conducted at a single center. Sixty-six consecutive patients in preoperative for elective surgical treatment were studied. The clinical history, socio-demographic data and nutritional status of the patients were evaluated using Subjective Global Assessment and objective (anthropometry methods. The primary outcome measures were nutritional status classification as nourished or malnourished and the relationship between nutritional status and socio-demographic and clinical features. Results Most of patients exhibited left colon tumors and disease stage II. According to the Subjective Global Assessment, 36.4% of patients were malnourished. Malnutrition ranged from 7.6% to 53% depending on the evaluation method used, with poor correlation to Subjective Global Assessment. The prevalence of malnutrition was significantly greater in females and non-married patients and in those with two or more symptoms of colorectal cancer. Conclusions More than a third of patients in the immediate preoperative period for colorectal cancer exhibited malnutrition. Therefore, routine nutritional assessment is highly advisable so that appropriate measures may be taken to minimize the potential postoperative complications.

  7. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  8. CBD: a biomarker database for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Cao, Yang; Ye, Benchen; Peng, Qiliang; Liu, Xingyun; Shen, Bairong; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) biomarker database (CBD) was established based on 870 identified CRC biomarkers and their relevant information from 1115 original articles in PubMed published from 1986 to 2017. In this version of the CBD, CRC biomarker data were collected, sorted, displayed and analysed. The CBD with the credible contents as a powerful and time-saving tool provide more comprehensive and accurate information for further CRC biomarker research. The CBD was constructed under MySQL server. HTML, PHP and JavaScript languages have been used to implement the web interface. The Apache was selected as HTTP server. All of these web operations were implemented under the Windows system. The CBD could provide to users the multiple individual biomarker information and categorized into the biological category, source and application of biomarkers; the experiment methods, results, authors and publication resources; the research region, the average age of cohort, gender, race, the number of tumours, tumour location and stage. We only collect data from the articles with clear and credible results to prove the biomarkers are useful in the diagnosis, treatment or prognosis of CRC. The CBD can also provide a professional platform to researchers who are interested in CRC research to communicate, exchange their research ideas and further design high-quality research in CRC. They can submit their new findings to our database via the submission page and communicate with us in the CBD.Database URL: http://sysbio.suda.edu.cn/CBD/.

  9. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M

    2007-01-01

    to individual characteristics. A perceived risk of colorectal cancer above 60% was reported by 22/45 individuals, and only one out of five mutation carriers reported a perceived risk > 80%. Female mutation carriers, individuals below age 50, and individuals who received their oncogenetic counseling within 1......Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10...... year prior to the study reported higher, albeit not significantly, perceived risks of colorectal cancer. Higher perceived risks were also reported by individuals who had lost a parent to HNPCC-related cancer at early age, whereas individuals with a personal history of cancer did not report a higher...

  10. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M

    2007-01-01

    Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10...... to individual characteristics. A perceived risk of colorectal cancer above 60% was reported by 22/45 individuals, and only one out of five mutation carriers reported a perceived risk > 80%. Female mutation carriers, individuals below age 50, and individuals who received their oncogenetic counseling within 1...... year prior to the study reported higher, albeit not significantly, perceived risks of colorectal cancer. Higher perceived risks were also reported by individuals who had lost a parent to HNPCC-related cancer at early age, whereas individuals with a personal history of cancer did not report a higher...

  11. Eating frequency and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrigue, Martine M; Kantor, Elizabeth D; Hastert, Theresa A; Patterson, Ruth; Potter, John D; Neuhouser, Marian L; White, Emily

    2013-12-01

    Eating frequency is a modifiable aspect of dietary behavior that may affect risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although most previous case-control studies indicate a positive association, two prospective studies suggest an inverse association between eating frequency and CRC risk, with evidence of effect modification by diet composition. We examined the association between eating frequency and CRC in a large, prospective cohort study, and explored whether this relationship was modified by sex, coffee consumption, or dietary glycemic load. Between 2000 and 2002, 67,912 western Washington residents aged 50-76 reported average daily meal and snack frequency using a mailed questionnaire as part of the vitamins and lifestyle study. Participants were followed for CRC through linkage with SEER through 2008, over which time 409 CRC cases developed. Hazard Ratios and 95 % Confidence Intervals were obtained using Cox regression. In age- and sex-adjusted models higher (5+ times/d) vs. lower (1-2 times/d) eating frequency was associated with a HR of 0.62 (95 % CI 0.43-0.88, Ptrend = 0.001). However, following further adjustment for BMI, race/ethnicity, alcohol, and other known CRC risk factors, the relationship was no longer statistically significant (HR: 0.76; 95 % CI 0.51, 1.14). No effect modification was observed by sex (Pinteraction = 0.45), coffee consumption (Pinteraction = 0.44), or dietary glycemic load (Pinteraction = 0.90). In subgroup analyses by tumor site, higher vs. lower eating frequency was associated with lower risk for colon (HR 0.65 95 % CI 0.39-1.07, Ptrend = 0.04), but not rectal cancers (HR = 1.08 95 % CI 0.54-2.18, Ptrend = 0.94). The weak inverse association observed between eating frequency and CRC is consistent with findings from other prospective studies. Modification of this relationship by diet quality and participant characteristics should be considered in the future studies.

  12. Critical appraisal of the use of regorafenib in the management of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festino L

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lucia Festino*, Alessio Fabozzi*, Anna Manzo, Valentina Gambardella, Erika Martinelli, Teresa Troiani, Ferdinando De Vita, Michele Orditura, Fortunato Ciardiello, Floriana Morgillo Division of Medical Oncology, Department of clinical and experimental medicine and surgery "F. Magrassi e A. Lanzara", Second University of Naples, Napoli, Italy*These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The lack of valid clinical management options for patients affected by metastatic colorectal cancer, which has progressed after all approved standard treatments, has lead to research into new active molecules. Regorafenib is an oral small-molecule multi kinase inhibitor, binding to several intracellular kinases, with powerful inhibitory activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR-1,VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, Raf, TIE-2, and the kinases KIT, RET, and BRAF. The antitumor activity of regorafenib has been tested in vitro and in vivo, and inhibition of tumor growth has been observed in several cancer models, particularly colorectal cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The most frequent adverse events of grade 3 or higher related to regorafenib were hand-foot skin reaction, fatigue, diarrhea, hypertension, and rash or desquamation. Only a few Phase I–II trials, and most recently a Phase III trial in pretreated colorectal cancer, have been carried out to date. Several ongoing trials are testing the efficacy of regorafenib in combination with chemotherapy. At this point in time, regorafenib is the first small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor to gain approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Keywords: colorectal cancer, angiogenesis, regorafenib

  13. The role of biliverdin reductase in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the effects of biliverdin and bilirubin have been studied extensively, and an inhibitory effect of bile pigments in cancer progression has been proposed. In this study we focused on the effects of biliverdin reductase, the enzyme that converts biliverdin to bilirubin, in colorectal cancer. For in vitro experiments we used a human colorectal carcinoma cell line and transfected it with an expression construct of shRNA specific for biliverdin reductase, to create cells with stable knock-down of enzyme expression. Cell proliferation was analyzed using the CASY model TT cell counting device. Western blot protein analysis was performed to study intracellular signaling cascades. Samples of human colorectal cancer were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. We were able to confirm the antiproliferative effects of bile pigments on cancer cells in vitro. However, this effect was attenuated in biliverdin reductase knock down cells. ERK and Akt activation seen under biliverdin and bilirubin treatment was also reduced in biliverdin reductase deficient cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples from patients with colorectal cancer showed elevated biliverdin reductase levels. High enzyme expression was associated with lower overall and disease free patient survival. We conclude that BVR is required for bile pigment mediated effects regarding cancer cell proliferation and modulation of intracellular signaling cascades. The role of BVR overexpression in vivo and its exact influence on cancer progression and patient survival need to be further investigated. (author) [de

  14. Cystic Fibrosis Colorectal Cancer Screening Consensus Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiliadis, Denis; Khoruts, Alexander; Zauber, Ann G; Hempstead, Sarah E; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2018-02-01

    Improved therapy has substantially increased survival of persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). But the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in adults with CF is 5-10 times greater compared to the general population, and 25-30 times greater in CF patients after an organ transplantation. To address this risk, the CF Foundation convened a multi-stakeholder task force to develop CRC screening recommendations. The 18-member task force consisted of experts including pulmonologists, gastroenterologists, a social worker, nurse coordinator, surgeon, epidemiologist, statistician, CF adult, and a parent. The committee comprised 3 workgroups: Cancer Risk, Transplant, and Procedure and Preparation. A guidelines specialist at the CF Foundation conducted an evidence synthesis February-March 2016 based on PubMed literature searches. Task force members conducted additional independent searches. A total of 1159 articles were retrieved. After initial screening, the committee read 198 articles in full and analyzed 123 articles to develop recommendation statements. An independent decision analysis evaluating the benefits of screening relative to harms and resources required was conducted by the Department of Public Health at Erasmus Medical Center, Netherlands using the Microsimulation Screening Analysis model from the Cancer Innervation and Surveillance Modeling Network. The task force included recommendation statements in the final guideline only if they reached an 80% acceptance threshold. The task force makes 10 CRC screening recommendations that emphasize shared, individualized decision-making and familiarity with CF-specific gastrointestinal challenges. We recommend colonoscopy as the preferred screening method, initiation of screening at age 40 years, 5-year re-screening and 3-year surveillance intervals (unless shorter interval is indicated by individual findings), and a CF-specific intensive bowel preparation. Organ transplant recipients with CF should initiate CRC screening

  15. Colorectal cancer surveillance in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors at increased risk of therapy-related colorectal cancer : study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigter, Lisanne S; Spaander, Manon C W; Moons, Leon M; Bisseling, Tanya M; Aleman, Berthe M P; de Boer, Jan Paul; Lugtenburg, Pieternella J; Janus, Cecile P M; Petersen, Eefke J; Roesink, Judith M; Raemaekers, John M M; van der Maazen, Richard W M; Cats, Annemieke; Bleiker, Eveline M A; Snaebjornsson, Petur; Carvalho, Beatriz; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Jóźwiak, Katarzyna; Te Riele, Hein; Meijer, Gerrit A; van Leeuwen, Flora E; van Leerdam, Monique E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Second primary malignancies are a major cause of excess morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. Hodgkin lymphoma survivors who were treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy and/or high-dose procarbazine have an increased risk to develop colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy

  16. Cetuximab in combination with irinotecan/5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (FOLFIRI) in the initial treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: a multicentre two-part phase I/II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoul, Jean-Luc; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Peeters, Marc; Brezault, Catherine; Husseini, Fares; Cals, Laurent; Nippgen, Johannes; Loos, Anja-Helena; Rougier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor cetuximab combined with irinotecan, folinic acid (FA) and two different doses of infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the first-line treatment of EGFR-detectable metastatic colorectal cancer. The 5-FU dose was selected on the basis of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) during part I of the study. Patients received cetuximab (400 mg/m 2 initial dose and 250 mg/m 2 /week thereafter) and every 2 weeks irinotecan (180 mg/m 2 ), FA (400 mg/m 2 ) and 5-FU (either low dose [LD], 300 mg/m 2 bolus plus 2,000 mg/m 2 46-hour infusion, n = 7; or, high-dose [HD], 400 mg/m 2 bolus plus 2,400 mg/m 2 ; n = 45). Only two DLTs occurred in the HD group, and HD 5-FU was selected for use in part II. Apart from rash, commonly observed grade 3/4 adverse events such as leucopenia, diarrhoea, vomiting and asthenia occurred within the expected range for FOLFIRI. Among 52 patients, the overall response rate was 48%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.6 months (counting all reported progressions) and the median overall survival was 22.4 months. Treatment facilitated the resection of initially unresectable metastases in fourteen patients (27%): of these, 10 patients (71%) had no residual tumour after surgery, and these resections hindered the estimation of PFS. The combination of cetuximab and FOLFIRI was active and well tolerated in this setting. Initially unresectable metastases became resectable in one-quarter of patients, with a high number of complete resections, and these promising results formed the basis for the investigation of FOLFIRI with and without cetuximab in the phase III CRYSTAL trial

  17. Cetuximab in combination with irinotecan/5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (FOLFIRI in the initial treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: a multicentre two-part phase I/II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cals Laurent

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor cetuximab combined with irinotecan, folinic acid (FA and two different doses of infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in the first-line treatment of EGFR-detectable metastatic colorectal cancer. Methods The 5-FU dose was selected on the basis of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs during part I of the study. Patients received cetuximab (400 mg/m2 initial dose and 250 mg/m2/week thereafter and every 2 weeks irinotecan (180 mg/m2, FA (400 mg/m2 and 5-FU (either low dose [LD], 300 mg/m2 bolus plus 2,000 mg/m2 46-hour infusion, n = 7; or, high-dose [HD], 400 mg/m2 bolus plus 2,400 mg/m2; n = 45. Results Only two DLTs occurred in the HD group, and HD 5-FU was selected for use in part II. Apart from rash, commonly observed grade 3/4 adverse events such as leucopenia, diarrhoea, vomiting and asthenia occurred within the expected range for FOLFIRI. Among 52 patients, the overall response rate was 48%. Median progression-free survival (PFS was 8.6 months (counting all reported progressions and the median overall survival was 22.4 months. Treatment facilitated the resection of initially unresectable metastases in fourteen patients (27%: of these, 10 patients (71% had no residual tumour after surgery, and these resections hindered the estimation of PFS. Conclusion The combination of cetuximab and FOLFIRI was active and well tolerated in this setting. Initially unresectable metastases became resectable in one-quarter of patients, with a high number of complete resections, and these promising results formed the basis for the investigation of FOLFIRI with and without cetuximab in the phase III CRYSTAL trial.

  18. Heterogenous mismatch-repair status in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, Patrick; Veurink, Nynke; Holck, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunohistochemical staining for mismatch repair proteins is efficient and widely used to identify mismatch repair defective tumors. The tumors typically show uniform and widespread loss of MMR protein staining. We identified and characterized colorectal cancers with alternative......, heterogenous mismatch repair protein staining in order to delineate expression patterns and underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Heterogenous staining patterns that affected at least one of the mismatch repair proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6 were identified in 14 colorectal cancers. Based on alternative....... CONCLUSIONS: Heterogenous mismatch repair status can be demonstrated in colorectal cancer. Though rare, attention to this phenomenon is recommended since it corresponds to differences in mismatch repair status that are relevant for correct classification. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article...

  19. Third-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundgaard, M.G.; Ehrnrooth, E.; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The past years' therapy for colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly with the introduction of novel cytotoxic agents such as irinotecan, capecitabine and oxaliplatin. Further advances have been achieved with the integration of targeted agents such as bevacizumab, cetuximab and recently......, panitumumab. As a result, third-line treatment is now a necessary step in the optimal treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a literature review of English language publications on third-line therapy for MCRC from January 2000 to April 2007. Data......OS of 16 months. With irinotecan and 5-FU, mOS around 8 months were reported and with cetuximab combined with irinotecan, the highest mOS was 9.8 months. CONCLUSION: Third-line therapy in advanced colorectal cancer may improve mOS for patients with MCRC. Therefore, randomized studies should be conducted...

  20. Assessment of rehabilitation needs in colorectal cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiedenbein, Liza; Kristiansen, Maria; Adamsen, Lis

    2016-01-01

    clinical practices related to identification and documentation of rehabilitation needs among patients with colorectal cancer at Danish hospitals. Material and methods A retrospective clinical audit was conducted utilizing data from patient files randomly selected at surgical and oncology hospital...... departments treating colorectal cancer patients. Forty patients were included, 10 from each department. Semi-structured interviews were carried out among clinical nurse specialists. Audit data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, qualitative data using thematic analysis. Results Documentation...... rehabilitation services was documented among 5% (n = 2) of all patients. Assessments at surgical departments were shaped by the inherent continuous assessment of rehabilitation needs within standardized fast-track colorectal cancer surgery. In contrast, the implementation of locally developed assessment tools...

  1. THE ROLE OF AUTOPHAGY AND ANGIOGENESIS IN COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Rachkovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was a review of available data on the role of autophagy and angiogenesis in the development, progression and prognosis of colorectal cancer. Material and methods. Databases searched were Medline, Cochrane Library and Elibrary. Of 340 studies, 48 were used to write a systematic review. Results. To date, there is a variety of prognostic markers used in the study of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. The review describes the molecular mechanisms of the participation of various proteins of autophagy and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis and progression of colorectal cancer, and the potential importance of their use in clinical practice is presented. Conclusion. Many of the existing markers can be used not only in assessing the prognosis, but also sensitivity to chemotherapy. However, the contradictory results of studies with respect to certain proteins require further study, validation, and subsequent introduction into practice. 

  2. Clinical Aspects of Hypoxia-inducible Factors in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2010-01-01

    Clinical Aspects of Hypoxia-inducible Factors in Colorectal Cancer  Birgitte Mayland Havelund1,4 MD, Karen-Lise Garm Spindler1,4 MD, PhD, Flemming Brandt Sørensen2,4 MD, DMSc, Ivan Brandslund3 MD, DMSc, Anders Jakobsen1,4 MD, DMSc.1Department of Oncology, 2Pathology and 3Biochemistry, Vejle...... Hospital, Vejle, Denmark4Institute of Regional Health Services Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense DenmarkBackgroundPrognostic and predictive markers are needed for individualizing the treatment of colorectal cancer. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription-inducing factor which...... the predictive and prognostic value of HIF-1α in colorectal cancer.Materials and MethodsThe project is divided into 3 substudies:1. Biological and methodological aspects. The expression of HIF-1α measured by immunohistochemistry in paraffin embedded tissue is related to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP...

  3. Social integration and survival after diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Elizabeth A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Poole, Elizabeth M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Giovannucci, Edward L; Fuchs, Charles S; Bao, Ying

    2018-02-15

    Although larger social networks have been associated with lower all-cause mortality, few studies have examined whether social integration predicts survival outcomes among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The authors examined the association between social ties and survival after CRC diagnosis in a prospective cohort study. Participants included 896 women in the Nurses' Health Study who were diagnosed with stage I, II, or III CRC between 1992 and 2012. Stage was assigned using the American Joint Committee on Cancer criteria. Social integration was assessed every 4 years since 1992 using the Berkman-Syme Social Network Index, which included marital status, social network size, contact frequency, religious participation, and other social group participation. During follow-up, there were 380 total deaths, 167 of which were due to CRC. In multivariable analyses, women who were socially integrated before diagnosis had a subsequent reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.46-0.92) and CRC mortality (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.38-1.06) compared with women who were socially isolated. In particular, women with more intimate ties (family and friends) had lower all-cause mortality (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88) and CRC mortality (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.34-1.03) compared with those with few intimate ties. Participation in religious or community activities was not found to be related to outcomes. The analysis of postdiagnosis social integration yielded similar results. Socially integrated women were found to have better survival after a diagnosis of CRC, possibly due to beneficial caregiving from their family and friends. Interventions aimed at strengthening social network structures to ensure access to care may be valuable programmatic tools in the management of patients with CRC. Cancer 2018;124:833-40. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Cost of illness in colorectal cancer: an international review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriza, Christine; Emmert, Martin; Wahlster, Philip; Niederländer, Charlotte; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Given the current-and increasing-pressure to limit expenditure on health care provision in many countries, a better understanding of the cost burden of colorectal cancer is needed. Cost-of-illness studies and reviews thereof can be a useful tool for analysing and critically evaluating the cost-related development of colorectal cancer, and they highlight important cost drivers. A systematic review was conducted from 2002 to 2012 to identify cost-of-illness studies related to colorectal cancer, searching the Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and the York CRD databases. Among the 10 studies (from France, the US, Ireland and Taiwan) included in the review, 6 studies reported prevalence-based estimates and 4 studies focussed on incidence-based data. In the studies included in the review, long-term costs for colorectal cancer of up to $50,175 per patient (2008 values) were estimated. Most of the studies in the review showed that the initial and terminal phases of colorectal cancer care are the most expensive, with continuing treatment being the least costly phase. One study also highlighted that stage I CRC disease was the least costly and stage III the most costly of all 4 stages, due to the high cost impact of biological agents. This review has highlighted a trend for rising costs associated with CRC, which is linked to the increasing use of targeted biological therapies. COI studies in colorectal cancer can identify specific components and areas of care that are especially costly, thereby focussing attention on more cost-effective approaches, which is especially relevant to the increased use of biological agents in the field of personalised medicine. COI studies are an important tool for further health economic evaluations of personalised medicine.

  5. Cancer in numbers: Do preventive measures for colorectal cancer apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in men, after lung cancer, and is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the second leading cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most common cause of cancer death if both genders are considered together. CRC accounts for approximately 10% of cancer deaths. Modifiable risk factors for CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption. CRC screening programs are possible in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographically populated areas and western lifestyles. Objective: To evaluate the effect on the incidence and mortality of diet and lifestyle of CRC and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through the early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology: An exhaustive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC is carried out and a meta-analysis of the same blocks is carried out. Results: 301 items related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were recovered. Of these, 177 were considered valid in the meta-analysis: 12 in epidemiology, 56 in diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different projections for the early detection of CRC. Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no question of which environmental factors, probably diet, may explain these cancer rates. Excessive consumption of alcohol and high cholesterol diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet low in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer with overexpression of p53. Eating pulses at least three times a week reduces the risk of

  6. Development of Detachable IORT Table for Colorectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Se; Lee, Joon Ha

    1994-01-01

    In spite of remarkable improvement of surgical skills and anesthesia, local failure still occurred in 36-45% of locally advanced colorectal cancer after curative resection with or without pre-or post-operative irradiation. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is the ideal modality which respectable lesions are removed surgically and the remaining cancer nests are sterilized by irradiation during a surgical procedure. Therefore, the excellent local control without the damage of the adjacent normal tissues can be achieved. In IORT, judicious set up of the treatment cone on the treatment surface of the patient is required for accurate and homogenous dose distribution within treatment field, especially on the slopping surface of sacrum and pelvic sidewall which are the common sites of the local recurrence in rectal cancer. For this purpose, adequate coordination of gantry rotation and table tilting are essential. Adjusting gantry rotation is not difficult but tilting of the table is impossible inconventional treatment couch. Department of Therapeutic Radiology in Yeungnam University Medical Center developed the IORT table for colorectal cancer which is easy to set up and detach on head-down is about 30 degree which is efficient and easy-to-use, not only for IORT but also for colorectal surgery. So far, authors performed IORT with newly developed treatment table in 2 patients with rectal cancer and we found that this newly developed table could contribute in improving the dose distribution of IORT and surgical procedure for colorectal cancer

  7. Colorectal cancer complicated by perforation. Specific features of surgical tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Shchaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the immediate results of surgical interventions for colorectal cancer complicated by perforation.Materials and methods. The immediate results of surgical treatment were retrospectively analyzed in 56 patients with colorectal cancer complicated by perforated colon cancer, who had been treated at Smolensk surgical hospitals in 2001 to 2013. Patients with diastatic perforation of the colon in the presence of decompensated obturation intestinal obstruction of tumor genesis were not included into this investigation.Results. The immediate results of uni- and multistage surgical interventions were analyzed in relation to the extent of peritonitis and the stage of colon cancer. More satisfactory immediate results were observed after multistage surgical treatment. Following these interventions, a fatal outcome of disseminated peritonitis in the presence of performed colorectal cancer was recorded in 8 (53.3 % cases whereas after symptomatic surgery there were 11 (67.8 % deaths. A fatal outcome was noted in 1 case (7.7 % after multistage surgery.Discussion. The results of surgical treatment in the patients with perforated colorectal cancer are directly related to the degree of peritonitis and the choice of surgical tactics.

  8. Time dependent ethnic convergence in colorectal cancer survival in hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundahl Scott A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although colorectal cancer death rates have been declining, this trend is not consistent across all ethnic groups. Biological, environmental, behavioral and socioeconomic explanations exist, but the reason for this discrepancy remains inconclusive. We examined the hypothesis that improved cancer screening across all ethnic groups will reduce ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival. Methods Through the Hawaii Tumor Registry 16,424 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer were identified during the years 1960–2000. Cox regression analyses were performed for each of three cohorts stratified by ethnicity (Caucasian, Japanese, Hawaiian, Filipino, and Chinese. The models included stage of diagnosis, year of diagnosis, age, and sex as predictors of survival. Results Mortality rates improved significantly for all ethnic groups. Moreover, with the exception of Hawaiians, rates for all ethnic groups converged over time. Persistently lower survival for Hawaiians appeared linked with more cancer treatment. Conclusion Ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer mortality rates appear primarily the result of differential utilization of health care. If modern screening procedures can be provided equally to all ethnic groups, ethnic outcome differences can be virtually eliminated.

  9. [Colorectal cancer the importance of primary tumor location].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryska, M; Bauer, J

    2017-01-01

    Retrospective evaluations of the relevance of primary colorectal cancer (CRC) location consistently indicate that right-sided tumors, arising in the cecum, ascending colon, hepatic bend, transverse colon and splenic flexure, are clinically, biologically and genetically different from left-sided tumors - those located in the descending colon, sigmoid colon or rectum. Location in the right-sided colon represents a negative prognostic indicator, particularly for stage III and IV carcinomas. Irrespective of treatment, the rightward location is associated with a significantly increased risk of death when compared to the left side.Key words: colorectal cancer - location - therapy - prognosis.

  10. Use of positron emission tomography in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez E, Patricio; Jofre E, Josefina; Massardo V, Teresa; Humeres, Pamela; Canessa G, Jose; Sierralta C, Paulina

    2002-01-01

    The value of PET (Positron Emission Tomography) in colorectal cancer is presented. PET is a novel technique that uses F-18-FDG (fluorodeoxiglucose) to assess glucose metabolism by whole body imaging. It has been demonstrated that malignant cells have both increase of glucose uptake and utilization. In colorectal cancer, PET is indicated for staging, assess recurrence, liver metastasis and treatment follow-up. PET is more sensitive and specific than CT (Computed Tomography) and is cost effective. In 30% of cases PET may change patient management, avoiding unnecessary procedures (au)

  11. Mismatch repair status and synchronous metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Morton, Dion

    2015-01-01

    The causality between the metastatic potential, mismatch repair status (MMR) and survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) is complex. This study aimed to investigate the impact of MMR in CRC on the occurrence of synchronous metastases (SCCM) and survival in patients with SCCM on a national basis....... A nationwide cohort study of 6,692 patients diagnosed with CRC between 2010 and 2012 was conducted. Data were prospectively entered into the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's database and merged with data from the Danish Pathology Registry and the National Patient Registry. Multivariable and multinomial...

  12. Clinical experience with intraoperative radiotherapy for locally advanced colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibamoto, Yuta; Takahashi, Masaharu; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    1988-01-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) was performed on 20 patients with colorectal cancer. IORT with a single dose of 20 to 40 Gy was delivered to the residual tumor, tumor bed, and/or lymphnode regions. Although most of the patients had advanced lesions, local control was achieved in 67 % of the patients when IORT was combined with tumor resection, and 4 patients survived more than 5 years. There were no serious complications, except for contracture or atrophy of the psoas muscle seen in 2 patients. IORT combined with external beam radiotherapy should be a useful adjuvant therapy to surgery for locally advanced colorectal cancer. (author)

  13. Have You Been Tested for Colorectal Cancer? PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the November 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer screening saves lives, but only if you get tested. If you’re between 50 and 75, talk with your doctor about which test is best for you. If you have inflammatory bowel disease or a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, ask your doctor if you should start screening before age 50.  Created: 11/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/5/2013.

  14. Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Colorectal Cancer: A Personalized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Rockall

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is an exciting time for all those engaged in the treatment of colorectal cancer. The advent of new therapies presents the opportunity for a personalized approach to the patient. This approach considers the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis in addition to classical clinicopathological staging. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have stemmed from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and therapeutics are discussed with a focus on mismatch repair status, KRAS, BRAF, 18qLOH, CIMP and TGF-β.

  15. AZIN1 RNA editing confers cancer stemness and enhances oncogenic potential in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeyasu, Kunitoshi; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Toden, Shusuke; Miyoshi, Jinsei; Toiyama, Yuji; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Takahashi, Naoki; Kusunoki, Masato; Takayama, Tetsuji; Yamada, Yasuhide; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Chen, Leilei; Goel, Ajay

    2018-06-21

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, a process mediated by adenosine deaminases that act on the RNA (ADAR) gene family, is a recently discovered epigenetic modification dysregulated in human cancers. However, the clinical significance and the functional role of RNA editing in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. We have systematically and comprehensively investigated the significance of the expression status of ADAR1 and of the RNA editing levels of antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1), one of the most frequently edited genes in cancers, in 392 colorectal tissues from multiple independent CRC patient cohorts. Both ADAR1 expression and AZIN1 RNA editing levels were significantly elevated in CRC tissues when compared with corresponding normal mucosa. High levels of AZIN1 RNA editing emerged as a prognostic factor for overall survival and disease-free survival and were an independent risk factor for lymph node and distant metastasis. Furthermore, elevated AZIN1 editing identified high-risk stage II CRC patients. Mechanistically, edited AZIN1 enhances stemness and appears to drive the metastatic processes. We have demonstrated that edited AZIN1 functions as an oncogene and a potential therapeutic target in CRC. Moreover, AZIN1 RNA editing status could be used as a clinically relevant prognostic indicator in CRC patients.

  16. Perceptions of Malaysian colorectal cancer patients regarding dietary intake: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Afzaninawati Suria; Isa, Zaleha Md; Shah, Shamsul Azhar

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dietary practices are known to be associated with changes in the health and disease pattern of a population. This study aimed to qualitatively explore the perception of colorectal cancer patients regarding causes of colorectal cancer and the influence of diet. Twelve respondents from three major ethnicities in Malaysia were selected from the quantitative study on dietary pattern and colorectal cancer carried out earlier in this study. In-depth interviews (IDI), conducted from April until June 2012, were mainly in the Malay language with additional use of English and continued until the saturation point was reached. All interviews were autorecorded so that verbatim transcriptions could be created. Causes of colorectal cancer were categorized into internal and external factors. The majority of respondents agreed that there is an association between Western foods and colorectal cancer. Malaysian traditional diet was not related to colorectal cancer as less preservative agents were used. Malaysian diet preparation consisting of taste of cooking (spicy, salty and sour foods) plus type of cooking (fry, grilled and smoked) were considered causes of colorectal cancer. All respondents changed their dietary pattern to healthy food after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Advice from doctors regarding suitable food for colorectal cancer was useful in this regard. Eating outside, use of food flavoring ingredients and preservative agents were considered to be the main factors causing colorectal cancer. All respondents admitted that they changed to a healthy diet after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer.

  17. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme C M DE; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Monteiro, Mariane; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results. RESUMO O câncer colorretal (CCR) esporádico é tradicionalmente diagnosticado após a sexta década de vida, embora uma pequena porcentagem de casos seja diagnosticada em doentes abaixo dos 40 anos de idade, e a incidência está aumentando. Existe uma grande controvérsia a respeito da evolução clínica de doentes jovens portadores de CCR em comparação aos mais idosos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de CCR em doentes jovens, rever a literatura pertinente e discutir suas características mais importantes nesta faixa etária. Para tanto realizou-se revisão da literatura envolvendo doentes com CCR com foco na

  18. Perspectives of colorectal cancer risk and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans: stigma and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Roberta E; Diaz, Joseph A; Kim, Ivone

    2009-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer among Latinos, but a lower percentage of Latinos are screened than Whites and Blacks. Along with recognized economic barriers, differences in knowledge and perceptions might impede colorectal screening among Latinos. We conducted 147 individual, qualitative interviews with Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in the northeastern United States to explore their explanatory models for colorectal cancer and screening barriers. Many participants had not previously heard of colorectal cancer. The most commonly mentioned cause of colorectal cancer was anal sex. Also considered risks were "bad food," digestion leading to constipation, and strained bowel movements. Screening barriers included stigma, misperceptions, embarrassment, and machismo. Progress toward increasing colorectal cancer screening requires normalization of this screening among Latinos. Higher patient familiarity, along with improved physician counseling and referral, might contribute to reducing stigma and other barriers, and to enhancing knowledge and Latino community support of colorectal cancer screening.

  19. [Regression analysis of the characteristics and outcome of colorectal cancer 1995 - 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang-qi; Fang, Le-kun; Ma, Jin-ping; Cai, Shi-rong; Dong, Wen-guang; Huang, Yi-hua; He, Yu-long; Zhan, Wen-hua

    2010-07-13

    To explore the clinical characteristics and the prognostic factors of patients with colorectal cancer. The data of 2042 cases of colorectal cancer, pathologically confirmed at our hospital from January 1995 to December 2007, were summarized and analyzed. The median age of all cases with colorectal cancer was 59 years old. The high-risk age ranged from 50 to 70 years old. The ratio of male and female was 1.4:1. The lesions located in rectum accounted for 46.2% and those for 22.0% in sigmoid. Patients under age 40 had a higher percentage of poor differentiation (33.5%) and mucinous carcinoma (16.7%). The cases with confirmed stage I, II, III and IV were 5.8%, 42.9%, 31.0% and 20.3% respectively. For all cases, the 1-, 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 92.3%, 73.9%, 65.1% and 57.5% respectively. The independent risk factors for patient prognosis were age, gross type, differentiation, TNM staging and surgical type. Adjuvant chemotherapy was a protective factor. As compared with phase I (1995 - 2001), phase II (2002 - 2007) had a higher proportions of employing stapler, Dixon operation and adjuvant chemotherapy. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of phase II were higher than phase I (93.4%, 78.0% and 73.2% vs 90.6%, 69.2% and 58.8%). The prognostic factors of patients with colorectal cancer are age, gross type, differentiation, TNM staging, surgical type and adjuvant chemotherapy.

  20. The COLON study: Colorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Zutphen, van M.; Harten-Gerritsen, van A.S.; Kok, D.E.G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is clear evidence that nutrition and lifestyle can modify colorectal cancer risk. However, it is not clear if those factors can affect colorectal cancer treatment, recurrence, survival and quality of life. This paper describes the background and design of the “COlorectal cancer:

  1. The COLON study: Colorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Heine-Broring, R.C.; Zutphen, M. van; Harten-Gerritsen, S. van; Kok, D.E.; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is clear evidence that nutrition and lifestyle can modify colorectal cancer risk. However, it is not clear if those factors can affect colorectal cancer treatment, recurrence, survival and quality of life. This paper describes the background and design of the "COlorectal cancer:

  2. Fish consumption and markers of colorectal cancer risk: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, G.K.; Majsak-Newman, G.; Geelen, A.; Harvey, L.; Nagengast, F.M.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Meeberg, van de P.C.; Timmer, R.; Tan, A.; Wahab, P.J.; Hart, A.R.; Williams, M.P.; Przybylska-Philips, K.; Dainty, J.R.; Schaafsma, G.; Kampman, E.; Lund, E.K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diet is a major factor in the etiology of colorectal cancer, with high fish consumption possibly decreasing colorectal cancer risk, as was shown in several observational studies. To date, no intervention trials have examined the possible beneficial effects of fish intake on colorectal

  3. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  4. Galectin-3 expression in colorectal cancer and its correlation with clinical pathological characteristics and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Liu; Jin Li; Dechun Li; Hongqiang Yang; Changhua Kou; Guijun Lei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the expression levels of galectin-3 in colorectal cancer and the association between galectin-3 and its clinical pathological parameters, as well as the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. Methods An immunohistochemistry assay was used to test the expression levels of galectin-3 in cancer tissues of 61 colorectal cancer cases and in normal intestinal tissues adjacent to the cancer tissues of 23 cases. The associations between protein expression levels of gal...

  5. A team approach to improving colorectal cancer services using administrative health data

    OpenAIRE

    Porter Geoffrey; Urquhart Robin; Bu Jingyu; Kendell Cynthia; MacIntyre Maureen; Dewar Ron; Kephart George; Asada Yukiko; Grunfeld Eva

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in Canada and accounts for 11.9% of all cancer-related mortality. Fortunately, previous studies have provided evidence of improved outcomes from access to timely and appropriate health services along the disease trajectory in CRC. As a result, the CIHR/CCNS Team in Access to Colorectal Cancer Services in Nova Scotia (Team ACCESS) was created to build colorectal cancer (CRC) research capacity in Nova Scotia...

  6. Expression of EZH2 and Ki-67 in colorectal cancer and associations with treatment response and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluge, Ø.; Gravdal, K.; Carlsen, E.; Vonen, B.; Kjellevold, K.; Refsum, S.; Lilleng, R.; Eide, T.J.; Halvorsen, T.B.; Tveit, K.M.; Otte, A.P.; Akslen, L.A.; Dahl, O.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) is a member of the Polycomb group of genes that is involved in epigenetic silencing and cell cycle regulation. Methods: We studied EZH2 expression in 409 patients with colorectal cancer stages II and III. The patients were included in a randomised

  7. Incidence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in premenopausal women treated with adjuvant FOLFOX for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercek, Andrea; Siegel, Cara L; Capanu, Marinela; Reidy-Lagunes, Diane; Saltz, Leonard B

    2013-09-01

    Studies indicate that the incidence of young women diagnosed with colorectal cancer is rising, thus there is an increasing number of female colorectal cancer survivors of premenopausal and child-bearing age. Adjuvant FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy is the most widely used standard treatment for stage III and high-risk stage II colon cancer. We evaluated the incidence of FOLFOX-induced amenorrhea in women age 50 and younger treated with adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer. A search of pharmacy records identified 119 women age 50 or younger who received adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering for stage II or III colorectal cancer from January 2002 and January 2011. Eligible patients were mailed an anonymous questionnaire. The returned surveys were reviewed and the results tallied. Seventy-three patients returned the questionnaire. Twenty-four patients were excluded from analysis: 19 were treated with pelvic radiotherapy, 2 patients had undergone bilateral oophorectomy, 2 had a hysterectomy, and 1 stopped menstruating before diagnosis. Forty-nine patient responses were analyzed. In total, 41% (n = 20) experienced amenorrhea during chemotherapy. Sixteen percent had persistent amenorrhea 1 year after completion of chemotherapy. The incidence of amenorrhea during chemotherapy trended higher in patients aged older than 40 compared with patients aged 40 and younger (59% vs. 31% [P = .075]). There was no statistically significant difference in persistent amenorrhea between the 2 age groups (24% vs. 13%; P = .42). In this retrospective series, there appears to be a trend toward FOLFOX induced amenorrhea during chemotherapy increasing with age. Twenty-four percent of women older than the age of 40 were found to have persistent amenorrhea after FOLFOX therapy. Because of the small sample size, the study is underpowered to detect a statistically significant difference between older and younger patients. Prospective studies

  8. Conditional net survival: Relevant prognostic information for colorectal cancer survivors. A French population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillard, Antoine; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Rollot, Fabien; Faivre, Jean; Jooste, Valérie; Lepage, Côme

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, survival estimates have been reported as survival from the time of diagnosis. A patient's probability of survival changes according to time elapsed since the diagnosis and this is known as conditional survival. The aim was to estimate 5-year net conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer in a well-defined French population at yearly intervals up to 5 years. Our study included 18,300 colorectal cancers diagnosed between 1976 and 2008 and registered in the population-based digestive cancer registry of Burgundy (France). We calculated conditional 5-year net survival, using the Pohar Perme estimator, for every additional year survived after diagnosis from 1 to 5 years. The initial 5-year net survival estimates varied between 89% for stage I and 9% for advanced stage cancer. The corresponding 5-year net survival for patients alive after 5 years was 95% and 75%. Stage II and III patients who survived 5 years had a similar probability of surviving 5 more years, respectively 87% and 84%. For survivors after the first year following diagnosis, five-year conditional net survival was similar regardless of age class and period of diagnosis. For colorectal cancer survivors, conditional net survival provides relevant and complementary prognostic information for patients and clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality of Cancer Care Among Foreign-Born and US-Born Patients With Lung or Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; He, Yulei; Ayanian, John Z.

    2010-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Disparities in care have been documented for foreign-born cancer patients in the United States. However, few data are available regarding patients with lung and colorectal cancer. In the current study, the authors assessed whether patient-reported quality and receipt of recommended...... from 2003 through 2005. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between nativity and patient-reported quality of care and receipt of recommended treatments (adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for stage II/III rectal cancer......, and curative surgery for stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer). The authors also assessed whether language explained any differences in care by nativity. RESULTS: Overall, 46% of patients reported excellent care, but foreign-born patients were less likely than US-born patients to report excellent quality...

  10. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and the prognosis of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, XiangZhou; Wen, QiaoCheng; Wang, Ran; Chen, ZhiKang

    2017-11-01

    Recently, there has been a controversial discussion about the prognostic value of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) in colorectal cancer patients. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between CIN and the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases to identify studies evaluating the association between CIN and colorectal cancer prognosis. Pooled random/fixed effect models were used to calculate pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association. Eight studies were selected for the meta-analysis, for a total of 2,745 patients. There was significant improved survival among colorectal cancer patients with CIN (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.47-0.76). However, significant heterogeneity was found (p = 0.000, Ι 2  = 75.0%). Through subgroup analysis, we could greatly eliminate the heterogeneity and found that neutropenia was associated with better survival in stage IV colorectal cancer patients, no matter the HR calculated by overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS). Meanwhile, the prognostic value of neutropenia in stage II/III colorectal cancer can be found when the HR is calculated by disease-free survival (DFS). Additionally, we observed significant differences after stratification according to various tumor stages, endpoints, and the use of G-CSF. Our results which, based on a cohort study, indicate that CIN is associated with improved survival in patients with colorectal cancer. However, further randomized controlled trials are warranted.

  11. Electronic Monitoring Device of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Function in Improving Patient-Centered Care in Patients With Gastrointestinal Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-05

    Stage I Adult Liver Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Adult Liver Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Adult Liver Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Adult Liver Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Adult Liver Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVA Liver Cancer; Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVB Liver Cancer; Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer

  12. Colorectal-Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Screening Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Yokochi, Lance A.; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C.; Reding, Douglas J.; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S.; Miller, Anthony B.; Gohagan, John K.; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. Methods From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Results Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; Pcolorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; Pcolorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P = 0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; Pcolorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; Pcolorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P = 0.81). Conclusions Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was associated with a significant decrease in colorectal-cancer incidence (in both the distal and proximal colon) and mortality (distal colon only). (Funded by the

  13. Activating mutation in MET oncogene in familial colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schildkraut Joellen M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, the lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC is 5%, and it is the second leading cause of death from cancer. The presence of family history is a well established risk factor with 25-35% of CRCs attributable to inherited and/or familial factors. The highly penetrant inherited colon cancer syndromes account for approximately 5%, leaving greater than 20% without clear genetic definition. Familial colorectal cancer has been linked to chromosome 7q31 by multiple affected relative pair studies. The MET proto-oncogene which resides in this chromosomal region is considered a candidate for genetic susceptibility. Methods MET exons were amplified by PCR from germline DNA of 148 affected sibling pairs with colorectal cancer. Amplicons with altered sequence were detected with high-resolution melt-curve analysis using a LightScanner (Idaho Technologies. Samples demonstrating alternative melt curves were sequenced. A TaqMan assay for the specific c.2975C >T change was used to confirm this mutation in a cohort of 299 colorectal cancer cases and to look for allelic amplification in tumors. Results Here we report a germline non-synonymous change in the MET proto-oncogene at amino acid position T992I (also reported as MET p.T1010I in 5.2% of a cohort of sibling pairs affected with CRC. This genetic variant was then confirmed in a second cohort of individuals diagnosed with CRC and having a first degree relative with CRC at prevalence of 4.1%. This mutation has been reported in cancer cells of multiple origins, including 2.5% of colon cancers, and in Conclusions Although the MET p.T992I genetic mutation is commonly found in somatic colorectal cancer tissues, this is the first report also implicating this MET genetic mutation as a germline inherited risk factor for familial colorectal cancer. Future studies on the cancer risks associated with this mutation and the prevalence in different at-risk populations will

  14. Colorectal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intestinal polyps; Polyps - colorectal; Adenomatous polyps; Hyperplastic polyps; Villous adenomas; Serrated polyp; Serrated adenoma; Precancerous polyps; Colon cancer - polyps; Bleeding - colorectal polyps

  15. Prognostic markers for colorectal cancer: estimating ploidy and stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, H E; Hveem, T S; Domingo, E; Pradhan, M; Kleppe, A; Syvertsen, R A; Kostolomov, I; Nesheim, J A; Askautrud, H A; Nesbakken, A; Lothe, R A; Svindland, A; Shepherd, N; Novelli, M; Johnstone, E; Tomlinson, I; Kerr, R; Kerr, D J

    2018-03-01

    We report here the prognostic value of ploidy and digital tumour-stromal morphometric analyses using material from 2624 patients with early stage colorectal cancer (CRC). DNA content (ploidy) and stroma-tumour fraction were estimated using automated digital imaging systems and DNA was extracted from sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue for analysis of microsatellite instability. Samples were available from 1092 patients recruited to the QUASAR 2 trial and two large observational series (Gloucester, n = 954; Oslo University Hospital, n = 578). Resultant biomarkers were analysed for prognostic impact using 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) as the clinical end point. Ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction were significantly prognostic in a multivariate model adjusted for age, adjuvant treatment, and pathological T-stage in stage II patients, and the combination of ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction was found to stratify these patients into three clinically useful groups; 5-year CSS 90% versus 83% versus 73% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.77 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.13-2.77) and HR = 2.95 (95% CI: 1.73-5.03), P < 0.001]. A novel biomarker, combining estimates of ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction, sampled from FFPE tissue, identifies stage II CRC patients with low, intermediate or high risk of CRC disease specific death, and can reliably stratify clinically relevant patient sub-populations with differential risks of tumour recurrence and may support choice of adjuvant therapy for these individuals.

  16. Obesity, Aspirin, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Carriers of Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Movahedi, Mohammad; Bishop, D Timothy; Macrae, Finlay

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In the general population, increased adiposity is a significant risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether obesity has similar effects in those with hereditary CRC is uncertain. This prospective study investigated the association between body mass index and cancer risk...... was 25.0 months, and mean follow-up was 55.7 months. RESULTS: During follow-up, 55 of 937 participants developed CRC. For obese participants, CRC risk was 2.41× (95% CI, 1.22 to 4.85) greater than for underweight and normal-weight participants (reference group), and CRC risk increased by 7% for each 1-kg....../m(2) increase in body mass index. The risk of all LS-related cancers in obese people was 1.77× (95% CI, 1.06 to 2.96; P = .03) greater than for the reference group. In subgroup analysis, obesity was associated with 3.72× (95% CI, 1.41 to 9.81) greater CRC risk in patients with LS with MLH1 mutation...

  17. Genetic biomarkers for neoplastic colorectal cancer in peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Mirela; Ciocirlan, Mihai; Ionescu, Cristina; Becheanu, Gabriel; Gologan, Serban; Teiusanu, Adriana; Arbanas, Tudor; Mircea, Diculescu

    2011-04-01

    Loss of genomic stability appears as a key step in colorectal carcinogenesis. Micronucleus (MN) designates a chromosome fragment or an entire chromosme which lags behind mitosis. MN may be noticed as an additional nucleus within the cytoplasm cell during the intermediate mitosis phases. We tested the hypothesis that MN and its related anomalies may be associated with the presence of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured and microscopically examined. The frequency of micronuclei (FMN) and the presence of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB) in binucleated cells were compared in patients with of without colorectal neoplastic lesions. We included 45 patients undergoing colonoscopy, 23 males and 22 females, with a median age of 59. 17 patients had polyps, 11 colorectal cancer (CRC) and 17 had a normal colonoscopy. The FMN was significantly higher in women than in men (8.14 vs 4.17, p=0.008); NPB were significantly less frequent in patients with advanced adenomas (>10mm or vilous) or CRC (p=0.044) when compared with patients with normal colonoscopy, hiperplastic polyps or non-advanced adenomas. Micronuclei are more frequent in women, but its frequency was not significantly different in patients with advanced adenomas or CRC. Null or low frequency values for nucleoplasmic bridges presence in peripheral lymphocyte may be predictive for advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer.

  18. Safety of laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer in patients with liver cirrhosis: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Senjun; Zhu, Hepan; Li, Zhenjun; Ying, Xiaojiang; Xu, Miaojun

    2018-05-26

    Patients with liver cirrhosis represent a high risk group for colorectal surgery. The safety and effectiveness of laparoscopy in colorectal surgery for cirrhotic patients is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic colorectal surgery with those of open procedure for colorectal cancer in patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 62 patients with cirrhosis who underwent radical resections for colorectal cancer from 2005 to 2014 were identified retrospectively from a prospective database according to the technique adopted (laparoscopic or open). Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. Comparison of laparoscopic group and open group revealed no significant differences at baseline. In the laparoscopic group, the laparoscopic surgery was associated with reduced estimated blood loss (136 vs. 266 ml, p = 0.015), faster first flatus (3 vs. 4 days, p = 0.002) and shorter days to first oral intake (4 vs. 5 days, p = 0.033), but similar operative times (p = 0.856), number of retrieved lymph nodes (p = 0.400) or postoperative hospital stays (p = 0.170). Despite the similar incidence of overall complications between the two groups (50.0% vs. 68.8%, p = 0.133), we observed lower morbidities in laparoscopic group in terms of the rate of Grade II complication (20.0% vs. 50.0%, p = 0.014). Long-term of overall and Disease-free survival rates did not differ between the two groups. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery appears to be a safe and less invasive alternative to open surgery in some elective cirrhotic patients in terms of less blood loss or early recovery and does not result in additional harm in terms of the postoperative complications or long-term oncological outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A role for MLH3 in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y; Berends, MJW; Sijmons, RH; Mensink, RGJ; Verlind, E; Kooi, KA; van der Sluis, T; Kempinga, C; van der Zee, AGJ; Hollema, H; Buys, CHCM; Kleibeuker, JH; Hofstra, RMW

    2001-01-01

    We investigated a possible role of the mismatch-repair gene MLH3 in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer by scanning for mutations in 39 HNPCC families and in 288 patients suspected of having HNPCC. We identified ten different germline MLH3 variants, one frameshift and nine missense mutations,

  20. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces CRC mortality; some screening modalities also reduce CRC incidence. Get detailed information about CRC screening tests (e.g., fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, stool DNA) including potential benefits and harms in this clinician summary.

  1. Echo pattern of lymph nodes in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus

    1992-01-01

    Surgical specimens from 75 patients with colorectal cancer were examined within 15 min of removal with a 7.5 MHz linear-array transducer. The echo pattern of 139 lymph nodes was analysed to evaluate previous criteria of malignancy and to establish other possible criteria, which could be tested...

  2. Internet Use for Prediagnosis Symptom Appraisal by Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Maria D.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Longo, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explored the characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who accessed Internet-based health information as part of their symptom appraisal process prior to consulting a health care provider. Method: Newly diagnosed CRC patients who experienced symptoms prior to diagnosis were interviewed. Brief COPE was used to…

  3. Haemostatic alterations in colorectal cancer: perspectives for future treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jakob; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    The role of the haemostatic system in colorectal cancer (CRC) is reviewed. Correlations between the activation of the haemostatic system and overall survival have been suggested. Experimental studies indicate that the haemostatic system plays a key role in growth, invasion and dissemination of tu...

  4. Prognostic and predictive biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Towards precision medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimers, Marlies Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define prognostic and predictive biomarkers in colorectal cancer for improved risk stratification and treatment benefit in the individual patient, with the introduction of precision medicine in the near future as the ultimate goal. By definition, precision medicine is

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Regorafenib for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Ahmad, Bilal B; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H; Lipscomb, Joseph; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Flowers, Christopher R

    2015-11-10

    Regorafenib is a standard-care option for treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer that increases median overall survival by 6 weeks compared with placebo. Given this small incremental clinical benefit, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of regorafenib in the third-line setting for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the US payer perspective. We developed a Markov model to compare the cost and effectiveness of regorafenib with those of placebo in the third-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Drug costs were based on Medicare reimbursement rates in 2014. Model robustness was addressed in univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provided an additional 0.04 QALYs (0.13 life-years) at a cost of $40,000, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $900,000 per QALY. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for regorafenib was > $550,000 per QALY in all of our univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provides minimal incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY in the third-line management of metastatic colorectal cancer. The cost-effectiveness of regorafenib could be improved by the use of value-based pricing. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  6. Serum adipocytokine levels in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Uslu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Adipose tissue, besides its main function as an energy storage depot, is currently considered an endocrine organ that secretes several self-produced cytokines. Leptin and resistin play an important role in energy homeostasis, glucose, lipid metabolism and regulation of body weight. The aim of the current study was to determine the concentration of leptin and resistin in pre-operational and post-operational periods of patients diagnosed as colorectal cancer.Materials and methods: The body mass index (BMI and values of leptin and resistin in blood at diagnosis were measured in 12 colorectal cancer patients in pre- and post-operational periods and in 12 age- and sex-matched controls. Serum leptin and resistin concentrations were measured by ELISA method.Results: Decreased leptin (1.95±0.62 ng/ml and resistin (4.32±1.83 ng/ml levels were found in pre-operational group compared with the control group (leptin: 6.12±0.82 ng/ml; resistin: 10.75±1.46 ng/ml (p0.05.Conclusion: We conclude that serum concentration of leptin and resistin may have a role in patients with colorectal cancers. Further studies are needed to investigate the possible prognostic value of leptin and resistin in clinical practice of patients with colorectal cancers.

  7. Health Effects and Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Wilschut (Janneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health problem, with over a million newly diagnosed cases per year worldwide. CRC occurs especially frequently in established market economies like Europe, the United States (US), Canada, Australia and Japan. The lifetime incidence in average

  8. 5-ASA - colorectal cancer - cell death : an intriguing threesome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelink, Pim Johan

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complicated disease in which both genetic pre-desposition and environmental factors are important. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing CRC, and it is believed that treatment of IBD patients with 5-Aminosalicylic acid

  9. Importance of circulating tumor cells in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalum, Guus; Stam, Gerrit-Jan; Scholten, Loes F.A.; Mastboom, Walter J.B.; Vermes, I.; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; De Groot, Marco R.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2015-01-01

    Presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) is associated with poor prognosis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study was conducted to determine if the presence of CTC prior to surgery and during follow‑up in patients with newly diagnosed non-metastatic CRC can identify

  10. [Laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancer. A comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Martin, Antonio; Díaz-Pizarro-Graf, José Ignacio; Muñoz-Hinojosa, Jorge Demetrio; Valdés-Castañeda, Alberto; Cruz-Ramírez, Omar; Bertrand, Martin Marie

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is currently accepted and widespread worldwide. However, according tol the surgical experience on this approach, surgical and short-term oncologic results may vary. Studies comparing laparoscopic vs. open surgery in our population are scarce. To determine the superiority of the laparoscopic vs. open technique for colorectal cancer surgery. This retrospective and comparative study collected data from patients operated on for colorectal cancer between 1999 and 2011 at the Angeles Lomas Hospital, Mexico. A total of 82 patients were included in this study; 47 were operated through an open approach and 35 laparoscopically. Mean operative time was significantly lower in the open approach group (p= 0.008). There were no significant difference between both techniques for intraoperative bleeding (p= 0.3980), number of lymph nodes (p= 0.27), time to initiate oral feeding (p= 0.31), hospital stay (p= 0.12), and postoperative pain (p= 0.19). Procedure-related complications rate and type were not significantly different in both groups (p= 0.44). Patients operated laparoscopically required significantly less analgesic drugs (p= 0.04) and less need for epidural postoperative analgesia (p= 0.01). Laparoscopic approach is as safe as the traditional open approach for colorectal cancer. Early oncological and surgical results confirm its suitability according to this indication.

  11. Workload and surgeon's specialty for outcome after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archampong, David; Borowski, David; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has focused on investigating the effects of healthcare provider volume and specialization on patient outcomes including outcomes of colorectal cancer surgery. However there is conflicting evidence about the role of such healthcare provider characteristics in the management...

  12. The use of a proforma improves colorectal cancer pathology reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, K.; Brown, S. R.; Lakin, G.; Balsitis, M.; Hosie, K. B.

    1999-01-01

    The detail and accuracy of pathological reporting for colorectal cancer is becoming increasingly recognised as important in the overall management of the patient. However, there is criticism of the variable standards of reporting. We assessed how the use of a proforma affected the completeness of reporting within one hospital. Data on all colorectal cancer patients attending one teaching hospital has been collected prospectively over a 15 month period from 1997 to 1998. The Royal College of Surgeons/Association of Coloproctology proforma lists all items considered to be essential for a complete pathological report of colorectal cancer. Its introduction in September 1997 allowed us to compare reporting before the proforma to that after. Of 54 patients, 46 (85%) had one or more items missing from their report before introduction of the proforma compared with only 8/44 (18%) patients after the proforma (P < 0.001). Circumferential resection margins and apical node status were the items most often absent, being significantly more frequently reported after the proforma (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). There was no difference in the median number of lymph nodes harvested after proforma introduction. The introduction of the proforma has not only resulted in improvements in reporting, but has increased the dialogue between surgical oncologists and pathologists. These features should result in improved overall management of the colorectal cancer patient. PMID:10655894

  13. Neoexpression of a functional primary cilium in colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Sénicourt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway is involved in the maintenance of numerous cell types both during development and in the adult. Often deregulated in cancers, its involvement in colorectal cancer has come into view during the last few years, although its role remains poorly defined. In most tissues, the HH pathway is highly connected to the primary cilium (PC, an organelle that recruits functional components and regulates the HH pathway. However, normal epithelial cells of the colon display an inactive HH pathway and lack a PC. In this study, we report the presence of the PC in adenocarcinoma cells of primary colorectal tumors at all stages. Using human colorectal cancer cell lines we found a clear correlation between the presence of the PC and the expression of the final HH effector, GLI1, and provide evidence of a functional link between the two by demonstrating the recruitment of the SMO receptor to the membrane of the primary cilium. We conclude that the primary cilium directly participates in the HH pathway in colorectal cancer cells.

  14. Potential role of probiotics on colorectal cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uccello Mario

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer represents the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Owing to differences in dietary habits and lifestyle, this neoplasm is more common in industrialized countries than in developing ones. Evidence from a wide range of sources supports the assumption that the link between diet and colorectal cancer may be due to an imbalance of the intestinal microflora. Discussion Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a healthy benefit on the host, and they have been investigated for their protective anti-tumor effects. In vivo and molecular studies have displayed encouraging findings that support a role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention. Summary Several mechanisms could explain the preventive action of probiotics against colorectal cancer onset. They include: alteration of the intestinal microflora; inactivation of cancerogenic compounds; competition with putrefactive and pathogenic microbiota; improvement of the host’s immune response; anti-proliferative effects via regulation of apoptosis and cell differentiation; fermentation of undigested food; inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.

  15. Loss of heterozygosity in colorectal cancer | Ozaslan | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. The development and progression of CRC is a multistep process, which involves many dietary and environmental factors. A great number of oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and DNA repair genes contribute to molecular and biological ...

  16. HIPEC treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis in colorectal and gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, H.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the treatment of peritoneal metastases of gastric and colorectal cancer, specifically using cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). A large part of this thesis is based on retrospective analysis of patients treated with CRS

  17. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in colorectal cancer follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer follow-up aims to detect recurrent disease as soon as possible, since earlier detection of recurrent disease is associated with greater chances for cure. A part of follow-up is the measurement of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in the blood of the patient. This tumor marker is

  18. Vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer cell pulsed autologous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-18

    Feb 18, 2011 ... with DCs vaccine to assess toxicity, tolerability, immune and clinical responses to the vaccine. No ... Key words: Dendritic cells, immunotherapy, colorectal cancer. .... color analyses of DCs, cells were labeled simultaneously with ..... promote CD8+ Tc1 cell survival, memory response, tumor localization and ...

  19. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:20)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  20. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  1. Higher prevalence of KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer in Saudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied retrospectively tumor samples of 83 Saudi metastatic CRC patients for KRAS mutations in codon 12 and codon 13, to evaluate the relevance of KRAS mutation positive colorectal cancers with metastatic sites. KRAS mutation was observed in 42.2% (35/83) patients with CRC. The most common mutations were in ...

  2. Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and histological features of colorectal cancer in the Northern Cape province, South Africa. ... This is a retrospective review of all cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum diagnosed by the two pathology laboratories operating in the Northern Cape between January 2002 and February 2009.

  3. Visualising and quantifying angiogenesis in metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Jakobsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumour growth and dissemination. We have recently shown that blood vessel density, determined by image analysis based on microRNA-126 (miRNA-126) in situ hybridization (ISH) in the primary tumours of metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC), is predictive...

  4. HER 2/neu protein expression in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuell, B; Gruenberger, T; Scheithauer, W; Zielinski, Ch; Wrba, F

    2006-01-01

    Conflicting data exist about the prevalence of HER-2/neu overexpression in colorectal cancer ranging from 0 to 83 %. In our study we tried to clarify the extent of expression and its relationship to clinicopathological parameters. This study involved 77 specimens of malignant colorectal cancer lesions of surgically resected patients. HER-2/neu immunohistochemistry was performed using the Hercep-Test Kit. Out of 77 specimens, 56 were Her-2/neu negative (70%), 20 (26%) showed a barely immunostaining (1+), only 1 (1%) was moderately (2+) and 2 (3%) were strongly positive (3+). Her-2/neu staining (moderately and strongly positive) was only detected in primary tumours of patients with confirmed metastases. No relationship was found between membranous HER-2 expression and patients' gender or differentiation. The median survival time of patients with positive HER-2/neu immunostaining was 21 versus 39 months in patients without HER-2/neu expression (p = 0.088). The c-erbB protein expression was observed in colorectal cancer but rarely in the therapeutic range (2+ and 3+). There was no significant association with tumour grade, gender, localization of the primary tumour or survival. These data indicate that c-erbB-2 is unlikely to play a major role in the therapeutic management of colorectal cancer

  5. [Looking for colorectal cancer in the patients iris?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herber, S; Rehbein, M; Tepas, T; Pohl, C; Esser, P

    2008-06-01

    Iridology is a noninvasive method from the field of complementary medicine that is said to detect diseases by looking for abnormalities of pigmentation and structure in the iris. Colorectal cancer is an ideal opportunity for screening programs because of its long period of development. Our study investigated the applicability of iridology as an alternative screening method for colorectal cancer. Digital color slides were obtained from both eyes of 29 patients with histologically diagnosed colorectal cancer and from 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. The slides were presented in random order to acknowledged iridologists without knowledge of the number of patients in the two categories. The iridologists correctly detected 51.7% and 53.4%, respectively, of the patients' slides; therefore, the likelihood was statistically no better than chance. Sensitivity was, respectively, 58.6% and 55.2%, and specificity was 44.8% and 51.7%. Iridology had no validity as a diagnostic tool for detecting colorectal cancer in this study.

  6. Unique insight into microenvironmental changes in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Nicholas; Bager, Cecilie L; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-mediated tissue remodeling is one of the malignant changes driving colorectal cancer. Measurement of altered MMP expression/activity is not sufficient to fully understand the effect of MMP-mediated tissue remodeling. Biomarkers are required that specifically reflect t...

  7. Advances in the care of patients with mucinous colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugen, N.; Brown, G.; Glynne-Jones, R.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Nagtegaal, I.D.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of colorectal cancers (CRCs) are classified as adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (AC). Mucinous carcinoma (MC) is a distinct form of CRC and is found in 10-15% of patients with CRC. MC differs from AC in terms of both clinical and histopathological characteristics, and has long

  8. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinetti, Alberto; Zurlo, Valeria; Manenti, Antonio; Coppi, Francesca; Mattioli, Anna Vittoria

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, especially in developed countries where an estimated 60% of all cases occur. There is evidence of a higher risk for CRC in Western society, where people tend to eat more red and processed meat than those living along the Mediterranean coast, who have a decreased overall cancer mortality, which is correlated to their eating habits, such as Mediterranean diet. The aim of this review was to evaluate the correlation between three components of the Mediterranean diet (olive oil, red wine, and tomatoes) and incidence and progression of colorectal cancer. As such, we conducted a literature search using keywords "colorectal cancer," "dietary pattern," "Mediterranean diet," "olive oil," "protective effects," "resveratrol," and "lycopene." Olive oil polyphenols, red wine resveratrol, and tomato lycopene showed several characteristics in vitro that interfere with molecular cancer pathways. At the same time, many clinical studies have reported an association of these components with a reduction in cancer initiation and progression. More clinical studies are needed to identify the precise dose and administration of single agents or their combination to produce a coadjutant treatment to those already applied in chemoprevention and oncologic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hyaluronan and calcium carbonate hybrid nanoparticles for colorectal cancer chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinghui; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Rui

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid drug delivery system (DDS) composed of hyaluronan and calcium carbonate (CC) was developed. By taking advantage of the tumor-targeting ability of hyaluronan and the drug-loading property of CC, the well-formed hyaluronan-CC nanoparticles were able to serve as a DDS targeting colorectal cancer with a decent drug loading content, which is beneficial in the chemotherapy of colorectal cancer. In this study, hyaluronan-CC nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm were successfully developed to load the wide-range anti-cancer drug adriamycin (Adr) to construct hyaluronan-CC/Adr nanoparticles. On the other hand, we also found that hyaluronan-CC/Adr nanoparticles can possibly increase the uptake ratio of Adr into HT29 colorectal cancer cells when compared with hyaluronan-free nanoparticles (CC/Adr) via the CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis via competitive uptake and in vivo imaging assays. Note that both in vitro (CCK-8 assay on HT29 cells) and in vivo (anti-cancer assay on HT-29 tumor-bearing nude mice model) experiments revealed that hyaluronan-CC/Adr nanoparticles exhibited stronger anti-cancer activity than free Adr or CC/Adr nanoparticles with minimized toxic side effects and preferable cancer-suppression potential.

  10. The Prognostic and Predictive Value of Soluble Type IV Collagen in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolff, Hans Christian; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Vainer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the prognostic and predictive biomarker value of type IV collagen in colorectal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation of two independent cohorts of patients with colorectal cancer included prospectively in 2004-2005 (training set) and 2006-2008 (validation....... RESULTS: High levels of type IV collagen showed independent prognostic significance in both cohorts with hazard ratios (HRs; for a one-unit change on the log base 2 scale) of 2.25 [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.78-2.84; P ... and validation set, respectively. The prognostic impact was present both in patients with metastatic and nonmetastatic disease. The predictive value of the marker was investigated in stage II and III patients. In the training set, type IV collagen was prognostic both in the subsets of patients receiving...

  11. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk; Obesidad y riesgo de cancer colorrectal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hano Garcia, Olga Marina; Wood Rodriguez, Lisette; Villa Jimenez, Oscar Manuel, E-mail: olga.hano@infomed.sld.c [Instituto Nacional de Gastroenterologia, La Habana (Cuba)

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  12. Identification of Kininogen 1 as a Serum Protein Marker of Colorectal Adenoma in Patients with a Family History of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiekai; Huang, Yanqin; Lin, Chen; Li, Xiaofen; Fang, Xuefeng; Zhong, Chenhan; Yuan, Ying; Zheng, Shu

    2018-01-01

    The serum protein markers of colorectal adenoma in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer have been rarely reported. Serum samples from colorectal adenoma patients with or without a family history of colorectal cancer and healthy controls were profiled using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The model to distinguish colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer from atypical hereditary colorectal families (CRA-H) and sporadic colorectal adenoma patients without a family history of colorectal cancer (CRA-S) was established with 85.0% accuracy. The model distinguishing CRA-H from healthy individuals was established with 90.0% specificity and 86.7% sensitivity. Additionally, five peaks (2202, 5821, 3260, 2480, and 2218) showing differential expression in advanced colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer were selected. The protein Kininogen 1 (KNG1) was identified in colorectal adenoma patients and validated using Western Blotting. KNG1 may be a biomarker for colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer. PMID:29535795

  13. The COLON study: Colorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Winkels, R.M.; Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Zutphen, van, M.; Harten-Gerritsen, van, A.S.; Kok, D.E.G.; Duijnhoven, van, F.J.B.; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is clear evidence that nutrition and lifestyle can modify colorectal cancer risk. However, it is not clear if those factors can affect colorectal cancer treatment, recurrence, survival and quality of life. This paper describes the background and design of the "COlorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life" - COLON - study. The main aim of this study is to...

  14. Applications of multiphoton microscopy in the field of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Li, Lianhuang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zheng, Liqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2018-06-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is a powerful tool for visualizing cellular and subcellular details within living tissue by its unique advantages of being label-free, its intrinsic optical sectioning ability, near-infrared excitation for deep penetration depth into tissue, reduced photobleaching and phototoxicity in the out-of-focus regions, and being capable of providing quantitative information. In this review, we focus on applications of MPM in the field of colorectal cancer, including monitoring cancer progression, detecting tumor metastasis and microenvironment, evaluating the cancer therapy response, and visualizing and ablating pre-invasive cancer cells. We also present one of the major challenges and the future research direction to exploit a colorectal multiphoton endoscope.

  15. Collagen mRNA levels changes during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Hanne; Anthonsen, Dorit; Lothe, Inger M B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Invasive growth of epithelial cancers is a complex multi-step process which involves dissolution of the basement membrane. Type IV collagen is a major component in most basement membranes. Type VII collagen is related to anchoring fibrils and is found primarily in the basement membrane...... zone of stratified epithelia. Immunohistochemical studies have previously reported changes in steady-state levels of different alpha(IV) chains in several epithelial cancer types. In the present study we aimed to quantitatively determine the mRNA levels of type IV collagen (alpha1/alpha 4/alpha 6......) and type VII collagen (alpha1) during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. METHODS: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for alpha1(IV), alpha 4(IV), alpha 6(IV), and alpha1(VII) in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 33), adenomas (n = 29) and in normal tissue from the same individuals...

  16. Personality as a risk factor in large bowel cancer: data from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kune, G A; Kune, S; Watson, L F; Bahnson, C B

    1991-02-01

    In a case control study which formed one arm of a large, population-based investigation of colorectal cancer incidence, aetiology and survival. 'The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study', among others, 22 psychosocially orientated questions were asked by personal interview of 637 histologically confirmed new cases of colorectal cancer and 714 age/sex frequency matched community controls, from Melbourne (population 2.81 million). Self-reported childhood or adult life 'unhappiness' was statistically significantly more common among the cancer cases, while 'unhappiness with retirement' was similarly distributed among cases and controls. Questions which were formulated to test a particular personality profile as a cancer risk, and which included the elements of denial and repression of anger and of other negative emotions, a commitment to prevailing social norms resulting in the external appearance of a 'nice' or 'good' person, a suppression of reactions which may offend others and the avoidance of conflict, showed a statistically significant discrimination between cases and controls. The risk of colorectal cancer with respect to this model was independent of the previously found risk factors of diet, beer intake, and family history of colorectal cancer, and was also independent of other potential confounding factors of socioeconomic level, marital status, religion and country of birth. Although the results must be interpreted with caution, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that this personality type may play a role in the clinical expression of colorectal cancer and merits further study.

  17. Chinese peoples' perceptions of colorectal cancer screening: a New Zealand perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Genevieve; McCool, Judith

    2011-03-25

    A national cancer screening programme requires a level of perceived acceptability of the procedure among the target population groups to be successful (that is, achieve a high uptake rate). In this study we explored Chinese immigrants' attitudes and perceptions towards colorectal cancer screening. A grounded theory methodology was used explore the determinants of colorectal cancer screening. In depth one-on-one interviews were conducted and subsequently analysed to develop an appreciation of the perspectives on colorectal cancer screening among Chinese people living in New Zealand. Findings indicated a high degree of perceived acceptability for the concept of a national colorectal cancer screening programme. Chinese participants valued health care and preventive health measures were highly prioritised. However, colorectal cancer suffered from the 'poor cousin' syndrome whereby other more highly publicised cancers, such breast cancer, or skin cancer, were perceived to be more relevant and serious, thus marginalising the perceived priority of colorectal cancer screening. Overall, participants paid close attention to their bodies' balance and were proactive in seeking medical advice. Patient practitioner interaction was also found to be influential in the patient's decision to seek screening. The results of the study suggest that the introduction of a colorectal cancer screening programme in New Zealand would benefit from close attention to cultural determinants of screening uptake to provide an equitable service and outcome. Chinese patients who are eligible for participating in the colorectal cancer screening would benefit from access to appropriately detailed and culturally relevant information on the risks, benefit and procedures associated with colorectal cancer screening.

  18. Ornithine Decarboxylase G316A Genotype and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hughes, D. J.; Hlavatá, I.; Souček, P.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodičková, Ludmila; O´Morain, C. O.; Vodička, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 8 (2011), s. 860-864 ISSN 1462-8910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GP305/09/P194 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) 15109/2009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : colorectal cancer * cancer genetics * association study Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.927, year: 2011

  19. Identification of a biomarker panel for colorectal cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Bilbao Amaia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignancies arising in the large bowel cause the second largest number of deaths from cancer in the Western World. Despite progresses made during the last decades, colorectal cancer remains one of the most frequent and deadly neoplasias in the western countries. Methods A genomic study of human colorectal cancer has been carried out on a total of 31 tumoral samples, corresponding to different stages of the disease, and 33 non-tumoral samples. The study was carried out by hybridisation of the tumour samples against a reference pool of non-tumoral samples using Agilent Human 1A 60-mer oligo microarrays. The results obtained were validated by qRT-PCR. In the subsequent bioinformatics analysis, gene networks by means of Bayesian classifiers, variable selection and bootstrap resampling were built. The consensus among all the induced models produced a hierarchy of dependences and, thus, of variables. Results After an exhaustive process of pre-processing to ensure data quality--lost values imputation, probes quality, data smoothing and intraclass variability filtering--the final dataset comprised a total of 8, 104 probes. Next, a supervised classification approach and data analysis was carried out to obtain the most relevant genes. Two of them are directly involved in cancer progression and in particular in colorectal cancer. Finally, a supervised classifier was induced to classify new unseen samples. Conclusions We have developed a tentative model for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer based on a biomarker panel. Our results indicate that the gene profile described herein can discriminate between non-cancerous and cancerous samples with 94.45% accuracy using different supervised classifiers (AUC values in the range of 0.997 and 0.955.

  20. Designing the colorectal cancer core dataset in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dorri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no need to explain the importance of collection, recording and analyzing the information of disease in any health organization. In this regard, systematic design of standard data sets can be helpful to record uniform and consistent information. It can create interoperability between health care systems. The main purpose of this study was design the core dataset to record colorectal cancer information in Iran. Methods: For the design of the colorectal cancer core data set, a combination of literature review and expert consensus were used. In the first phase, the draft of the data set was designed based on colorectal cancer literature review and comparative studies. Then, in the second phase, this data set was evaluated by experts from different discipline such as medical informatics, oncology and surgery. Their comments and opinion were taken. In the third phase refined data set, was evaluated again by experts and eventually data set was proposed. Results: In first phase, based on the literature review, a draft set of 85 data elements was designed. In the second phase this data set was evaluated by experts and supplementary information was offered by professionals in subgroups especially in treatment part. In this phase the number of elements totally were arrived to 93 numbers. In the third phase, evaluation was conducted by experts and finally this dataset was designed in five main parts including: demographic information, diagnostic information, treatment information, clinical status assessment information, and clinical trial information. Conclusion: In this study the comprehensive core data set of colorectal cancer was designed. This dataset in the field of collecting colorectal cancer information can be useful through facilitating exchange of health information. Designing such data set for similar disease can help providers to collect standard data from patients and can accelerate retrieval from storage systems.

  1. Colorectal Cancer Safety Net: Is It Catching Patients Appropriately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althans, Alison R; Brady, Justin T; Times, Melissa L; Keller, Deborah S; Harvey, Alexis R; Kelly, Molly E; Patel, Nilam D; Steele, Scott R

    2018-01-01

    Disparities in access to colorectal cancer care are multifactorial and are affected by socioeconomic elements. Uninsured and Medicaid patients present with advanced stage disease and have worse outcomes compared with similar privately insured patients. Safety net hospitals are a major care provider to this vulnerable population. Few studies have evaluated outcomes for safety net hospitals compared with private institutions in colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare demographics, screening rates, presentation stage, and survival rates between a safety net hospital and a tertiary care center. Comparative review of patients at 2 institutions in the same metropolitan area were conducted. The study included colorectal cancer care delivered either at 1 safety net hospital or 1 private tertiary care center in the same city from 2010 to 2016. A total of 350 patients with colorectal cancer from each hospital were evaluated. Overall survival across hospital systems was measured. The safety net hospital had significantly more uninsured and Medicaid patients (46% vs 13%; p presentation, a similar percentage of patients at each hospital presented with stage IV disease (26% vs 20%; p = 0.06). For those undergoing resection, final pathologic stage distribution was similar across groups (p = 0.10). After a comparable median follow-up period (26.6 mo for safety net hospital vs 29.2 mo for tertiary care center), log-rank test for overall survival favored the safety net hospital (p = 0.05); disease-free survival was similar between hospitals (p = 0.40). This was a retrospective review, reporting from medical charts. Our results support the value of safety net hospitals for providing quality colorectal cancer care, with survival and recurrence outcomes equivalent or improved compared with a local tertiary care center. Because safety net hospitals can provide equivalent outcomes despite socioeconomic inequalities and financial constraints, emphasis should be focused

  2. Patterns of Colorectal Cancer Care in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, Neetu; Butler, Eboneé N.; Lund, Jennifer; Warren, Joan L.; Harlan, Linda C.; Yabroff, K. Robin

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men worldwide. In this study, we used MEDLINE to conduct a systematic review of existing literature published in English between 2000 and 2010 on patterns of colorectal cancer care. Specifically, this review examined 66 studies conducted in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand to assess patterns of initial care, post-diagnostic surveillance, and end-of-life care for colorectal cancer. The majority of studie...

  3. 76 FR 41805 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... mortality for each of the four cancer sites (prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovary). In addition, cancer...; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Cancer...

  4. Prognostic and Predictive Value of CpG Island Methylator Phenotype in Patients with Locally Advanced Nonmetastatic Sporadic Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the present study, the prognostic significance of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP in stage II/III sporadic colorectal cancer was evaluated using a five-gene panel. Methods. Fifty stage II/III colorectal cancer patients who received radical resection were included in this study. Promoter methylation of p14ARF, hMLH1, p16INK4a, MGMT, and MINT1 was determined by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP. CIMP positive was defined as hypermethylation of three or more of the five genes. Impact factors on disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method (log-rank test and adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. Results. Twenty-four percent (12/50 of patients were characterized as CIMP positive. Univariate analysis showed stage III (P=0.049 and CIMP positive (P=0.014 patients who had significantly inferior DFS. In Cox regression analysis, CIMP positive epigenotype was independently related with poor DFS with HR = 2.935 and 95% CI: 1.193–7.220 (P=0.019. In patients with CIMP positive tumor, those receiving adjuvant chemotherapy had a poor DFS than those without adjuvant chemotherapy (P=0.023. Conclusions. CIMP positive was significantly correlated with decreased DFS in stage II/III colorectal cancer. Patients with CIMP positive locally advanced sporadic colorectal cancers may not benefit from 5-fluorouracil based adjuvant chemotherapy.

  5. Cold atmospheric plasma treatment inhibits growth in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christin; Arndt, Stephanie; Zimmermann, Julia L; Li, Yangfang; Karrer, Sigrid; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2018-06-01

    Plasma oncology is a relatively new field of research. Recent developments have indicated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technology is an interesting new therapeutic approach to cancer treatment. In this study, p53 wildtype (LoVo) and human p53 mutated (HT29 and SW480) colorectal cancer cells were treated with the miniFlatPlaSter - a device particularly developed for the treatment of tumor cells - that uses the Surface Micro Discharge (SMD) technology for plasma production in air. The present study analyzed the effects of plasma on colorectal cancer cells in vitro and on normal colon tissue ex vivo. Plasma treatment had strong effects on colon cancer cells, such as inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell death, and modulation of p21 expression. In contrast, CAP treatment of murine colon tissue ex vivo for up to 2 min did not show any toxic effect on normal colon cells compared to H2O2 positive control. In summary, these results suggest that the miniFlatPlaSter plasma device is able to kill colorectal cancer cells independent of their p53 mutation status. Thus, this device presents a promising new approach in colon cancer therapy.

  6. Multicenter randomized phase II clinical trial of oxaliplatin reintroduction as a third- or later-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer-biweekly versus standard triweekly XELOX (The ORION Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Chu; Honda, Michitaka; Tanaka, Chihiro; Fukunaga, Mutsumi; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Munemoto, Yoshinori; Hata, Taishi; Bando, Hiroyuki; Oshiro, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Michiya; Tokunaga, Yukihiko; Fujii, Akitomo; Nagata, Naoki; Oba, Koji; Mishima, Hideyuki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a dose-dense capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) regimen in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) for whom reintroduction of oxaliplatin had been planned as a third- or later-line regimen. The patients with mCRC who had received prior chemotherapy including oxaliplatin and were scheduled for reintroduction of oxaliplatin were randomized to capecitabine (1,000 mg/m(2)) twice daily on days 1-14 and oxaliplatin (130 mg/m(2)) on day 1 every 21 days (Q3W group) or capecitabine (2,000 mg/m(2)) twice daily on days 1-7 and oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)) on day 1 every 14 days (Q2W group). The primary endpoint was the time-to-treatment failure (TTF). Other endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and other adverse events (AEs). A total of 46 patients were enrolled in the trial-22 patients were randomly assigned to the Q3W group and 23 to the Q2W group. The median TTF was 3.4 months in both groups (hazard ratio [HR] 1.053; p = 0.880). The median PFS and OS were 3.3 and 9.2 months in the Q2W group and 4.3 and 12.1 months in the Q3W group, respectively (HR 1.15; p = 0.153 and 0.672; p = 0.836). The most common grade 3-4 AEs in the Q3W and Q2W groups were fatigue (27.3 vs 21.7), neuropathy (9.1 vs 0 %) and diarrhea (9.1 vs 0 %), respectively. There was no significant inter-group difference in any of the efficacy and safety endpoints, including TTF, OS, RFS and AEs. The results of this clinical trial were convincingly negative.

  7. Colorectal cancer risk and patients' survival: influence of polymorphisms in genes somatically mutated in colorectal tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Bevier, M.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodičková, Ludmila; Novotný, J.; Vodička, Pavel; Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2014), s. 759-769 ISSN 0957-5243 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1585; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) Prvouk-P27/LF1/1 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : colorectal cancer * risk * survival Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.735, year: 2014

  8. Potential Protective Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics Against Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsopp, Philip; Rowland, Ian

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer related mortality in the world. Approximately 944,000 new cases were diagnosed globally in 2000 and this accounts for 9.2% of all new cancer cases (IARC, 2000). In Western societies namely Europe, North America and Australasia, it is the second most prevalent cancer after lung/breast (Boyle and Langman, 2000). About 363,000 new cases were reported in Europe in 2000 and it affects 6% of men and women by age 75, in almost equal proportion.

  9. Clinical and Biological Features of Interval Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mi Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval colorectal cancer (I-CRC is defined as a CRC diagnosed within 60 months after a negative colonoscopy, taking into account that 5 years is the “mean sojourn time.” It is important to prevent the development of interval cancer. The development of interval colon cancer is associated with female sex, old age, family history of CRC, comorbidities, diverticulosis, and the skill of the endoscopist. During carcinogenesis, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps share many genomic and colonic site characteristics with I-CRCs. The clinical and biological features of I-CRC should be elucidated to prevent the development of interval colon cancer.

  10. Age-specific incidence of all neoplasms after colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Fabio; Randimbison, Lalao; Blanc-Moya, Rafael; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with a specific neoplasm tend to have a subsequent excess risk of the same neoplasm. The age incidence of a second neoplasm at the same site is approximately constant with age, and consequently the relative risk is greater at younger age. It is unclear whether such a line of reasoning can be extended from a specific neoplasm to the incidence of all neoplasms in subjects diagnosed with a defined neoplasm. We considered the age-specific incidence of all non-hormone-related epithelial neoplasms after a first primary colorectal cancer (n = 9542) in the Vaud Cancer Registry data set. In subjects with a previous colorectal cancer, the incidence rate of all other epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was stable around 800 per 100,000 between age 30 and 60 years, and rose only about twofold to reach 1685 at age 70 to 79 years and 1826 per 100,000 at age 80 years or older. After excluding synchronous cancers, the rise was only about 1.5-fold, that is, from about 700 to 1000. In the general population, the incidence rate of all epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was 29 per 100,000 at age 30 to 39 years, and rose 30-fold to 883 per 100,000 at age 70 to 79 years. Excluding colorectal cancers, the rise of all non-hormone-related cancers was from 360 per 100,000 at age 40 to 49 years to 940 at age 70 to 79 years after colorectal cancer, and from 90 to 636 per 100,000 in the general population (i.e., 2.6- vs. 7.1-fold). The rise of incidence with age of all epithelial non-hormone-related second cancers after colorectal cancer is much smaller than in the general population. This can possibly be related to the occurrence of a single mutational event in a population of susceptible individuals, although alternative models are plausible within the complexity of the process of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Loss of insulin-like growth factor-II imprinting and the presence of screen-detected colorectal adenomas in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Karen; Flood, Andrew; Green, Lisa; Tangrea, Joseph A; Hanson, Jeffrey; Cash, Brooks; Schatzkin, Arthur; Schoenfeld, Phillip

    2004-03-03

    Loss of imprinting (LOI) of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) may be an inherited epigenetic trait that is polymorphic in the population, and its presence may predispose an individual to the development of colorectal cancer. We evaluated the association between LOI of IGF-II in normal colonic mucosal samples and adenomas in women participating in a colonoscopy screening study. Among 40 participants, 11 (27.5%) had LOI of IGF-II in their normal colonic mucosal tissue. After adjusting for body mass index and family history of colorectal cancer, LOI status was associated with a fivefold increased risk of adenoma formation (odds ratio = 5.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.0 to 26.7). On average, IGF-II expression was more than threefold higher among women with LOI of IGF-II than among women with normal imprinting status. Our findings support the hypothesis that LOI of IGF-II is an epigenetic trait polymorphic in the population and suggest that LOI of IGF-II may play a role in colorectal cancer. These findings are intriguing and need to be confirmed in larger studies.

  12. Feasibility of sequential adjuvant chemotherapy with a 3-month oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine in patients with stage III and high-risk stage II colorectal cancer: JSWOG-C2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuruta A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Atsushi Tsuruta,1,* Kazuki Yamashita,2,* Hiroaki Tanioka,3 Akihito Tsuji,4,5 Michio Inukai,6 Toshiki Yamakawa,7 Tomoki Yamatsuji,8 Masanori Yoshimitsu,9 Kazuhiro Toyota,10 Taketoshi Yamano,11 Takeshi Nagasaka,12 Masazumi Okajima13 On behalf of the Japan Southwest Oncology Group (JSWOG 1Department of Digestive Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School Hospital, 2Department of Surgery, 3Department of Medical Oncology, Okayama Rosai Hospital, Okayama, 4Department of Medical Oncology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, 5Department of Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Hospital, Kagawa, 6Department of Medicine, Okayama Saiseikai General Hospital, Okayama, 7Department of Surgery, Kagawa Prefectural Central Hospital, Takamatsu, 8Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, 9Department of Surgery, Hiroshima City Asa Hospital, Hiroshima, 10Department of Surgery, National Hospital Organization Higashihirosima Medical Center, Higashihiroshima, 11Department of Surgery, Kurashiki Medical Center, 12Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 13Department of Surgery, Hiroshima City Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Six months of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected stage III colorectal cancer (CRC. Also, patients with stage II CRC who are considered to be at high risk of disease recurrence often receive the same adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. We prospectively investigated the extent and degree of neuropathy suffered by stage III and high-risk stage II resectable CRC patients who underwent sequential approach involving 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine. Patients and methods: Patients with completely resected stage III and high-risk stage II CRC aged ≥20 years were

  13. Usefulness of the preoperative administration of tegafur suppositories as alternative adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with resectable stage II or III colorectal cancer: a KODK4 multicenter randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Koji; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ohishi, Takashi; Hisa, Akio; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and conferred protection against recurrence of preoperatively administered tegafur suppositories following the intravenous and oral administration of fluoropyrimidine in a multicenter randomized control trial. Patients with clinical T3/4 colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to receive the preoperative administration of tegafur suppositories (group A) or no preoperative treatment (group B). The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The mean follow-up periods were 80.9 ± 31.0 months in group A and 64.5 ± 28.8 months in group B. The 5-year DFS rates were 89.3% in group A and 70.3% in group B (p = 0.045), whereas the 5-year OS rates were 91.4% in group A and 73.2% in group B (p = 0.051). Furthermore, a significant difference in the cumulative distant metastatic rate was observed (group A, 7.4% vs. group B, 23.4%; p = 0.03). However, no significant difference in the cumulative local recurrence rate was seen (group A, 4.6% vs. group B, 8.2%; p = 0.68). Despite a relatively small sample size, preoperative tegafur suppositories might protect recurrences and improve survival rates, mainly by preventing distant metastasis. These findings suggest the utility of tegafur suppositories as an alternative neoadjuvant treatment in modern chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Colorectal cancer in Malaysia: Its burden and implications for a multiethnic country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veettil, Sajesh K; Lim, Kean Ghee; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Ching, Siew Mooi; Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to provide an analytical overview of the changing burden of colorectal cancer and highlight the implementable control measures that can help reduce the future burden of colorectal cancer in Malaysia. We performed a MEDLINE search via OVID with the ​Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "Colorectal Neoplasms"[Mesh] and "Malaysia"[Mesh], and PubMed with the key words "colorectal cancer" and "Malaysia" from 1990 to 2015 for studies reporting any clinical, societal, and economical findings associated with colorectal cancer in Malaysia. Incidence and mortality data were retrieved from population-based cancer registries/databases. In Malaysia, colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in males and the third most common cancer in females. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is substantial and is likely to increase over time in Malaysia owing to the current trend in colorectal cancer incidence. In Malaysia, most patients with colorectal cancer have been diagnosed at a late stage, with the 5-year relative survival by stage being lower than that in developed Asian countries. Public awareness of the rising incidence of colorectal cancer and the participation rates for colorectal cancer screening are low. The efficiency of different screening approaches must be assessed, and an organized national screening program should be developed in a phased manner. It is essential to maintain a balanced investment in awareness programs targeting general population and primary care providers, focused on increasing the knowledge on symptoms and risk factors of colorectal cancer, awareness on benefits of screening, and promotion of healthy life styles to prevent this important disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  15. Dietary Modulation of Inflammation-Induced Colorectal Cancer through PPARγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee B. Carter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC is dramatically increased for patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. For instance, patients with Crohn's Disease (CD or Ulcerative Colitis (UC have a 12–20% increased risk for developing CRC. Preventive strategies utilizing nontoxic natural compounds that modulate immune responses could be successful in the suppression of inflammation-driven colorectal cancer in high-risk groups. The increase of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ expression and its transcriptional activity has been identified as a target for anti-inflammatory efforts, and the suppression of inflammation-driven colon cancer. PPARγ down-modulates inflammation and elicits antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions in epithelial cells. All of which may decrease the risk for inflammation-induced CRC. This review will focus on the use of orally active, naturally occurring chemopreventive approaches against inflammation-induced CRC that target PPARγ and therefore down-modulate inflammation.

  16. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerg, L.; Langsteger, W.

    2002-01-01

    Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled glucose analog F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) is a sensitive diagnostic tool that images tumors based on increased uptake of glucose. Several recent publications have shown that F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography is more sensitive than computed-tomography (CT) in detecting colorectal cancer. In patients with increasing CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) and no evidence of recurrent disease on CT F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography often detects recurrent cancer. In all, patient management seems to be changed in about 25 % of patients who undergo F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in addition to standard staging procedure. Limited reports to date on both chemotherapy and radiotherapy support the role of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in assessing treatment response. Also regarding preoperative staging of primary colorectal cancer the literature is very limited. (author)

  17. Expression of prostasin and its inhibitors during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selzer-Plon, Joanna; Bornholdt, Jette; Friis, Stine; Bisgaard, Hanne C; Lothe, Inger MB; Tveit, Kjell M; Kure, Elin H; Vogel, Ulla; Vogel, Lotte K

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials where cancer patients were treated with protease inhibitors have suggested that the serine protease, prostasin, may act as a tumour suppressor. Prostasin is proteolytically activated by the serine protease, matriptase, which has a very high oncogenic potential. Prostasin is inhibited by protease nexin-1 (PN-1) and the two isoforms encoded by the mRNA splice variants of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1), HAI-1A, and HAI-1B. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for prostasin and PN-1 in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 116), severe dysplasia (n = 13), mild/moderate dysplasia (n = 93), and in normal tissue from the same individuals. In addition, corresponding tissues were examined from healthy volunteers (n = 23). A part of the cohort was further analysed for the mRNA levels of the two variants of HAI-1, here denoted HAI-1A and HAI-1B. mRNA levels were normalised to β-actin. Immunohistochemical analysis of prostasin and HAI-1 was performed on normal and cancer tissue. The mRNA level of prostasin was slightly but significantly decreased in both mild/moderate dysplasia (p < 0.001) and severe dysplasia (p < 0.01) and in carcinomas (p < 0.05) compared to normal tissue from the same individual. The mRNA level of PN-1 was more that two-fold elevated in colorectal cancer tissue as compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.001) and elevated in both mild/moderate dysplasia (p < 0.01), severe dysplasia (p < 0.05) and in colorectal cancer tissue (p < 0.001) as compared to normal tissue from the same individual. The mRNA levels of HAI-1A and HAI-1B mRNAs showed the same patterns of expression. Immunohistochemistry showed that prostasin is located mainly on the apical plasma membrane in normal colorectal tissue. A large variation was found in the degree of polarization of prostasin in colorectal cancer tissue. These results show that the mRNA level of PN-1 is significantly elevated in colorectal cancer tissue. Future studies

  18. A Study of the Frequency and Social Determinants of Exposure to Cancer-Related Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Among Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) is controversial because cancer treatment is complex and entails more risks and costs than typical treatments that are advertised for other conditions. Drawing from the Structural Influence Model of Communication, this study explores communication inequalities in DTCA exposure across social determinants among a population-based sample of 2013 patients diagnosed with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancers. Three survey items assessed patients' frequency of encountering ads concerning treatment alternatives for cancer, dealing with side effects of treatment, and doctors or hospitals offering services for cancer following their diagnosis. The analysis showed that overall exposure to DTCA in this study population was modest (median was once per week). Breast cancer patients reported significantly higher exposure to all three ad categories and overall DTCA exposure than prostate and colorectal cancer patients. Older patients consistently reported lower overall exposure to DTCA across the three cancer types. Other significant correlates included ethnicity (higher exposures among African American prostate cancer patients vs. White; lower exposures in Hispanic colorectal cancer patients vs. White) and cancer stage (higher exposures in Stage IV prostate cancer patients vs. Stages 0-II). Education level did not predict patients' DTCA exposure. The implications of these observed inequalities in DTCA exposure on cancer outcomes are discussed.

  19. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor; Kong, Say Li; Sengupta, Debarka; Tan, Iain B; Phyo, Wai Min; Lee, Daniel; Hu, Min; Iliescu, Ciprian; Alexander, Irina; Goh, Wei Lin; Rahmani, Mehran; Suhaimi, Nur-Afidah Mohamed; Vo, Jess H; Tai, Joyce A; Tan, Joanna H; Chua, Clarinda; Ten, Rachel; Lim, Wan Jun; Chew, Min Hoe; Hauser, Charlotte; van Dam, Rob M; Lim, Wei-Yen; Prabhakar, Shyam; Lim, Bing; Koh, Poh Koon; Robson, Paul; Ying, Jackie Y; Hillmer, Axel M; Tan, Min-Han

    2016-01-01

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  20. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor

    2016-06-29

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.