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Sample records for iguana brachylophus fasciatus

  1. Yolk coelomitis in Fiji Island banded iguanas (Brachylophus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Brian A; Howard, Lauren; Kinkaid, John; Vidal, Justin D; Papendick, Rebecca

    2008-06-01

    Yolk coelomitis is a major cause of death in captive sexually mature female Fiji Island banded iguanas (Brachylophus fasciatus) maintained by the Zoological Society of San Diego. The medical records, breeding histories, and pathology archival materials from this group were reviewed to study this health problem. From 1987 through 2004, deaths of nine of 21 adult females were due to yolk coelomitis. Most iguanas had a history of reproduction-related problems, which included reproductive failure, episodes of lethargy associated with ovarian activity, folliculostasis, ovostasis, and behavioral abnormalities. Most affected iguanas either were found dead or presented moribund and subsequently died or were euthanized. Clinical signs were nonspecific and included lethargy, cutaneous discoloration, and coelomic effusion. Yolk leakage in most cases was associated with the presence of large vitellogenic follicles undergoing atresia and resulted in coelomitis characterized by florid mesothelial proliferation.

  2. Rediscovery of the 220-year-old holotype of the Banded Iguana, Brachylophus fasciatus (Brongniart, 1800) in the Paris Natural History Museum

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    Ineich, Ivan; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Natural History Museum herpetological collection (MNHN-RA) has seven historical specimens of Brachylophus spp. collected late in the 18th and early in the 19th centuries. Brachylophus fasciatus was described in 1800 by Brongniart but its type was subsequently considered as lost and never present in MNHN-RA collections. We found that 220 year old holotype among existing collections, registered without any data, and we show that it was donated to MNHN-RA from Brongniart’s private collection after his death in 1847. It was registered in the catalogue of 1851 but without any data or reference to its type status. According to the coloration (uncommon midbody saddle-like dorsal banding pattern) and morphometric data given in its original description and in the subsequent examination of the type in 1802 by Daudin and in 1805 by Brongniart we found that lost holotype in the collections. Another MNHN-RA specimen has Horn Islands (Wallis and Futuna) as the collection location but we show that most of the collections given to MNHN-RA by its collector, Louis Arnoux, have mixed localities in the MNHN-RA catalogues. We thus conclude that the locality is wrong and that the species never inhabited those islands located west of Western Samoa and north-east of Fiji.

  3. Rediscovery of the 220-year-old holotype of the Banded Iguana, Brachylophus fasciatus (Brongniart, 1800) in the Paris Natural History Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineich, Ivan; Fisher, Robert N

    2016-07-15

    The Paris Natural History Museum herpetological collection (MNHN-RA) has seven historical specimens of Brachylophus spp. collected late in the 18th and early in the 19th centuries. Brachylophus fasciatus was described in 1800 by Brongniart but its type was subsequently considered as lost and never present in MNHN-RA collections. We found that 220 year old holotype among existing collections, registered without any data, and we show that it was donated to MNHN-RA from Brongniart's private collection after his death in 1847. It was registered in the catalogue of 1851 but without any data or reference to its type status. According to the coloration (uncommon midbody saddle-like dorsal banding pattern) and morphometric data given in its original description and in the subsequent examination of the type in 1802 by Daudin and in 1805 by Brongniart we found that lost holotype in the collections. Another MNHN-RA specimen has Horn Islands (Wallis and Futuna) as the collection location but we show that most of the collections given to MNHN-RA by its collector, Louis Arnoux, have mixed localities in the MNHN-RA catalogues. We thus conclude that the locality is wrong and that the species never inhabited those islands located west of Western Samoa and north-east of Fiji.

  4. A new species of iguana Brachylophus Cuvier 1829 (Sauria: Iguania: Iguanidae) from Gau Island, Fiji Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S

    2017-06-06

    The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji.  Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species.  One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province.  Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations.  We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.

  5. A new species of iguana Brachylophus Cuvier 1829 (Sauria: Iguania: Iguanidae) from Gau Island, Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N.; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S.

    2017-01-01

    The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji.  Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species.  One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province.  Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations.  We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.

  6. Molecular and morphological analysis of the critically endangered Fijian iguanas reveals cryptic diversity and a complex biogeographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, J Scott; Edwards, Danielle L; Fisher, Robert N; Harlow, Peter S

    2008-10-27

    The Pacific iguanas of the Fijian and Tongan archipelagos are a biogeographic enigma in that their closest relatives are found only in the New World. They currently comprise two genera and four species of extinct and extant taxa. The two extant species, Brachylophus fasciatus from Fiji, Tonga, and Vanuatu and Brachylophus vitiensis from western Fiji, are of considerable conservation concern with B. vitiensis listed as critically endangered. A recent molecular study has shown that Brachylophus comprised three evolutionarily significant units. To test these conclusions and to reevaluate the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships within Brachylophus, we generated an mtDNA dataset consisting of 1462 base pairs for 61 individuals from 13 islands, representing both Brachylophus species. Unweighted parsimony analyses and Bayesian analyses produced a well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis supported by high bootstrap values and posterior probabilities within Brachylophus. Our data reject the monophyly of specimens previously believed to comprise B. fasciatus. Instead, our data demonstrate that living Brachylophus comprise three robust and well-supported clades that do not correspond to current taxonomy. One of these clades comprises B. fasciatus from the Lau group of Fiji and Tonga (type locality for B. fasciatus), while a second comprises putative B. fasciatus from the central regions of Fiji, which we refer to here as B. n. sp. Animals in this clade form the sister group to B. vitiensis rather than other B. fasciatus. We herein describe this clade as a new species of Brachylophus based on molecular and morphological data. With only one exception, every island is home to one or more unique haplotypes. We discuss alternative biogeographic hypotheses to explain their distribution in the Pacific and the difficulties of distinguishing these. Together, our molecular and taxonomic results have important implications for future conservation initiatives for the Pacific

  7. Molecular and morphological analysis of the critically endangered Fijian iguanas reveals cryptic diversity and a complex biogeographic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, J.S.; Edwards, D.L.; Fisher, R.N.; Harlow, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Pacific iguanas of the Fijian and Tongan archipelagos are a biogeographic enigma in that their closest relatives are found only in the New World. They currently comprise two genera and four species of extinct and extant taxa. The two extant species, Brachylophus fasciatus from Fiji, Tonga, and Vanuatu and Brachylophus vitiensis from western Fiji, are of considerable conservation concern with B. vitiensis listed as critically endangered. A recent molecular study has shown that Brachylophus comprised three evolutionarily significant units. To test these conclusions and to reevaluate the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships within Brachylophus, we generated an mtDNA dataset consisting of 1462 base pairs for 61 individuals from 13 islands, representing both Brachylophus species. Unweighted parsimony analyses and Bayesian analyses produced a well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis supported by high bootstrap values and posterior probabilities within Brachylophus. Our data reject the monophyly of specimens previously believed to comprise B. fasciatus. Instead, our data demonstrate that living Brachylophus comprise three robust and well-supported clades that do not correspond to current taxonomy. One of these clades comprises B. fasciatus from the Lau group of Fiji and Tonga (type locality for B. fasciatus), while a second comprises putative B. fasciatus from the central regions of Fiji, which we refer to here as B. n. sp. Animals in this clade form the sister group to B. vitiensis rather than other B. fasciatus. We herein describe this clade as a new species of Brachylophus based on molecular and morphological data. With only one exception, every island is home to one or more unique haplotypes. We discuss alternative biogeographic hypotheses to explain their distribution in the Pacific and the difficulties of distinguishing these. Together, our molecular and taxonomic results have important implications for future conservation initiatives for the Pacific

  8. Spatial ecology of the critically endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an extremely dense population: implications for conservation.

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    Suzanne F Morrison

    Full Text Available The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs.

  9. Spatial ecology of the critically endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an extremely dense population: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Suzanne F; Biciloa, Pita; Harlow, Peter S; Keogh, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs.

  10. Spatial Ecology of the Critically Endangered Fijian Crested Iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an Extremely Dense Population: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Suzanne F.; Biciloa, Pita; Harlow, Peter S.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs. PMID:24019902

  11. Mycoplasmosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel R; Wendland, Lori D; Rotstein, David S

    2007-06-01

    Mycoplasma iguanae was the suspected etiology of spinal disease in feral iguanas (Iguana iguana) from Florida. In an experimental infection study, juvenile iguanas were inoculated with M. iguanae intravenously or by instillation into the nares. Blood samples obtained at intervals postinoculation were all culture negative for mycoplasma. Gross anatomic and histologic findings at necropsy 12 wk postinoculation were unremarkable. Mycoplasmas were cultured in high numbers from the posterior choanae and upper trachea of some inoculated and control iguanas at necropsy. The 16S rDNA gene sequence of these isolates revealed they were all a previously undescribed strain, Mycoplasma insons proposed species nova. M. iguanae. Mycoplasma iguanae was not recovered from the conjunctivae, choanae, trachea, lung, coelomic cavity, blood, heart, liver, spleen, limb joints, brain, or spinal cord of inoculated iguanas, and the iguanas did not seroconvert. We conclude that M. iguanae is unlikely to be an agent of acute disease in iguanas and that M. insons can be considered as normal flora in the respiratory tract of iguanas.

  12. Haematological and biochemical values of 10 green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

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    Divers, S J; Redmayne, G; Aves, E K

    1996-03-02

    Ten clinically healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana) imported from South America were examined, and haematological and biochemical measurements were made on samples of blood. This paper describes the methods of blood sampling, handling and laboratory analysis, and presents the results as a set of normal blood ranges for the green iguana.

  13. Cannabis intoxication in three Green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, S J; Fraser, M A

    2011-02-01

    This report describes clinical signs and plasma biochemical changes associated with significant cannabis consumption in three Green iguanas (Iguana iguana) which resulted in seizures, cardiovascular and digestive tract aberrations, elevated hepatic enzymes and bile acid concentrations for a number of weeks post recovery. One case required extensive antiseizuring therapy to recover. All Green iguanas eventually made a full recovery. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of inhaled anesthetics in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Robert J; Pypendop, Bruno H; Barter, Linda S; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2006-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that differences in anesthetic uptake and elimination in iguanas would counter the pharmacokinetic effects of blood:gas solubility and thus serve to minimize kinetic differences among inhaled agents. 6 green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Iguanas were anesthetized with isoflurane, sevoflurane, or desflurane in a Latin-square design. Intervals from initial administration of an anesthetic agent to specific induction events and from cessation of administration of an anesthetic agent to specific recovery events were recorded. End-expired gas concentrations were measured during anesthetic washout. Significant differences were not detected for any induction or recovery events for any inhalation agent in iguanas. Washout curves best fit a 2-compartment model, but slopes for both compartments did not differ significantly among the 3 anesthetics. Differences in blood:gas solubility for isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane did not significantly influence differences in pharmacokinetics for the inhalation agents in iguanas.

  15. Collection and characterization of semen from green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dawn M; Mitchell, Mark A; Perry, Brittany Heggem

    2013-12-01

    To determine an efficient method for the collection of semen samples by means of electroejaculation, characterize spermatozoa quality and quantity, and determine the effect of refrigerated storage on motility of spermatozoa obtained from green iguanas (Iguana iguana). 18 adult green iguanas. Green iguanas were anesthetized, and semen samples were obtained by means of electroejaculation. Up to 3 series of electrostimulations were performed; the procedure was stopped after a semen sample was obtained. Various semen sample variables were evaluated. Semen samples were obtained from 16 iguanas; most (n = 10) iguanas produced a semen sample after the second series of electrostimulations. Median semen sample volume was 0.05 mL. Mean spermatozoa concentration was 2 69.0 × 10(6) spermatozoa/mL. Median percentage of motile spermatozoa was 78%. The only morphological abnormality of spermatozoa was bent tails (mean percentage in a semen sample, 5.7%). Spermatozoa motility decreased significantly during refrigeration (4°C); median percentage motility after 24, 48, and 72 hours of refrigeration was 60%, 33%, and 0%, respectively. Results of this study suggested electroejaculation can be performed to collect semen samples from green iguanas, characteristics of iguana semen samples are similar to those for semen samples obtained from other reptiles, and motility of iguana spermatozoa decreases during refrigeration within 48 to 72 hours.

  16. Rapid prehistoric extinction of iguanas and birds in Polynesia.

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    Steadman, David W; Pregill, Gregory K; Burley, David V

    2002-03-19

    The Tongoleleka archaeological site on Lifuka Island, Kingdom of Tonga, is a rich accumulation of pottery, marine mollusks, and nonhuman bones that represents first human contact on a small island in Remote Oceania approximately 2,850 years ago. The lower strata contain decorated Lapita-style pottery and bones of an extinct iguana (Brachylophus undescribed sp.) and numerous species of extinct birds. The upper strata instead feature Polynesian Plainware pottery and bones of extant species of vertebrates. A stratigraphic series of 20 accelerator-mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates on individual bones of the iguana, an extinct megapode (Megapodius alimentum), and the non-native chicken (Gallus gallus) suggests that anthropogenic loss of the first two species and introduction of the latter occurred on Lifuka within a time interval too short (a century or less) to be resolved by radiometric dating. The geologically instantaneous prehistoric collapse of Lifuka's vertebrate community contrasts with the much longer periods of faunal depletion on some other islands, thus showing that the elapse time between human arrival and major extinction events was highly variable on oceanic islands as well as on continents.

  17. Alfaxalone anaesthesia in the green iguana (Iguana iguana

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    Zdeněk Knotek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term intravenous anaesthesia with alfaxalone in green iguanas (Iguana iguana. Alfaxalone at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg was administered to thirteen adult male green iguanas via the ventral caudal vein following 24 h fasting. The induction time, tracheal tube insertion time, surgical plane of anaesthesia interval, and full recovery time were recorded. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure (measured indirectly, pulse rate, respiratory rate, SpO2 and ETCO2 were recorded. The induction time and tracheal tube insertion time was 41.54 ± 27.69 s and 69.62 ± 37.03 s, respectively. The time from the alfaxalone administration to the loss of toe-pinch reflex was 2.20 ± 1.47 min. Full activity was restored 14.23 ± 4.15 min after the initial alfaxalone administration. The respiratory rate increased significantly (P 2 from 43.65 ± 10.54 to 26.58 ± 8.10 mmHg (P th min after alfaxalone administration. The pulse rate, SpO2 and blood pressure did not change significantly. Intravenous use of alfaxalone proved to be a suitable and safe form for short term anaesthesia in green iguanas.

  18. Growth of juvenile green iguanas (Iguana iguana) fed four diets.

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    Donoghue, S

    1994-12-01

    Wild green iguanas consume a primarily folivorous diet. As pets in captivity, they suffer high mortality and malnutrition. Nutrient requirements are not established. The purpose of this study was to compare growth in juvenile iguanas fed three commercial diets and a romaine-based diet. Twelve nominally 4-wk-old iguanas were fed in a latin square design each of four diets for 8 wk, consisting of a 2-wk accommodation period and a 6-wk collection period. Diets were analyzed at the beginning and end of the study. Food consumption was measured daily; body weights and lengths were measured weekly. For Diets A, B, C and D mean body weight gains were--3, 6, 31 and 60% in 6 wk, respectively. Gain in body weight and snout-vent length increased linearly with dietary protein and fiber and with dry matter intake. The data suggest that growth in pet green iguanas may achieve rates for farmed and wild green iguanas when diets are palatable and contain adequate protein and fiber.

  19. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

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    Olias, P; Hammer, M; Klopfleisch, R

    2010-07-01

    Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis was diagnosed in a 4-year-old green iguana (Iguana iguana) with paroxysmal spastic paralysis of all limbs and circling motion. Formalin-fixed tissues were collected at necropsy examination and submitted for evaluation. The left cerebrum and the left ventricle were replaced by a solid brown coloured mass. Microscopical examination revealed the presence of necrotizing and granulomatous encephalitis affecting the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem, with severe vasculitis and intralesional dematiaceous fungal hyphae. No other lesions or fungi were found in other organs. Fungi were identified as Oidiodendron spp. by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region 1 extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded brain tissue. This case represents the first report of phaeohyphomycosis with tropism for the central nervous system in a reptile. In the absence of fresh tissue, the diagnosis in such cases may be assisted by molecular analysis of fixed tissue specimens. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigations on blood coagulation in the green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubalek, S; Mischke, R; Fehr, M

    2002-05-01

    The prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time, kaolin clotting time (KCT), dilute Russell's viper venom time (DRVVT) and reptilase time, as well as five different plasma fibrinogen assays [gravimetry, Jacobsson method (extinction at 280 nm), Millar method (heat precipitation), kinetic turbidometry, Clauss method] and resonance thrombography were performed in 26 clinically healthy green iguanas. All assays were carried out in comparison with pooled normal canine plasma. In iguana plasma, the PT [median (x0.50) = 453-831 s, dependent on the reagent], APTT (x0.50 = 170-242 s, dependent on the reagent), thrombin time (x0.50 = 118 - > 1000 s, dependent on thrombin activity), KCT (x0.50 = 274 s), DRVVT (x0.50 = 349 s) and reptilase time (all samples > 1000 s) were widely scattered at the limit of measurability. Only fibrinogen concentrations measured using the Jacobsson method (x0.50 = 4.40 g/l) correlated well (r = 0.91) with gravimetry (x0.50 = 4.22 g/l). The results of this study indicate a limited suitability and a confined diagnostic significance of the selected methods in the green iguana. This may be caused by the species specificity of certain components of the reagents used, as well as a less optimal test system, i.e. relationship of test reagent to clotting factor concentrations in iguana plasma.

  1. The mating behavior of Iguana iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Over a 19 month period I observed the social behaviors of individually recognized green iguanas, Iguana iguana, at three sites in the llanos of Venezuela. The behavior of iguanas outside the mating season differed from that seen during the mating season in three major ways: (1) during normal waking hours outside the breeding season, adult iguanas spent the majority of time immobile, apparently resting; (2) their interactions involved fewer high intensity displays; and (3) their day to day movements were often nomadic. During the mating season, one site was watched continuously during daylight hours (iguanas sleep throughout the night), allowing a complete count of all copulation attempts (N = 250) and territorial interactions. At all sites, dominant males controlled access to small mating territories. Within the territories there did not appear to be any resources needed by females or their offspring. Thus, females could choose mates directly on the basis of male phenotype. Females aggregated in the mating territories of the largest males and mated preferentially with them. Territorial males copulated only once per day, although on several occasions more than one resident female was receptive on the same day. A few small nonterritorial males exhibited pseudofemale behavior (i.e., they abstained from sexual competition), but most nonterritorial males stayed on the periphery of mating territories and attempted to force copulations on unguarded females (peripheral male behavior). Uncooperative females were mounted by as many as three males simultaneously. Females resisted 95% of the 200 observed mating attempts by peripheral males, but only 56% of the attempts by territorial males (N = 43). The selectivity of the females probably increased the genetic representation of the territorial males in the next generation. During the mating season females maintained a dominance hierarchy among themselves. Low ranked females tended to be excluded from preferred

  2. Allergy to iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, J M; Fox, R W; Jones, R T; Yunginger, J W

    2000-08-01

    Furry animals produce allergens that can cause allergic rhinitis and asthma. In contrast, scaly animals, such as lizards, are assumed not to be allergenic. We sought to evaluate a 32-year-old man who complained of allergic rhinitis and asthma symptoms that occurred exclusively in his own home. He had dogs and cats at home but denied any increase in symptoms specifically associated with these pets. Skin prick testing initially performed to 42 common aeroallergens, including cat, dog, and house dust mite, elicited negative results. He later reported that the symptoms were worse on exposure to his pet iguanas. Skin prick tests were subsequently performed to an extract made from scales from his pet iguana. Extracts were also prepared from several zoo reptiles. Immunoassays for IgE antibody, as well as IgE immunoblots, were performed by using these extracts and the patient's serum. The skin prick test result with the pet iguana scale extract was positive. The patient's serum contained IgE antibody to his own pet iguana and to a zoo iguana. Our patient's history, skin test results, and in vitro studies clearly demonstrate that he is allergic to iguana. Physicians should be aware that such allergy to scaly pets may occur and should not restrict history taking to questions about furry pets.

  3. Aural-pharyngeal polyps associated with Cryptosporidium infection in three iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, E W; Jacobson, E; Bartick, T E; Micinilio, J; Schimdt, R

    2001-03-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. infection was associated with aural-pharyngeal polyps in three iguanas (Iguana iguana). All iguanas were presented for masses protruding from the ear canal, and the disease was characterized by a chronic clinical course. The masses consisted of nests of cystic glands surrounded by abundant fibrous connective tissue and lined by hyperplastic cuboidal to pseudostratified columnar epithelium that was moderately to heavily colonized by cryptosporidial organisms. Electron microscopy revealed that the majority of organisms were trophozoites.

  4. Treatment of cryptosporidiosis in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund

    2018-03-15

    There are no standard guidelines for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in reptiles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two cryptosporidiosis therapies in captive green iguanas. Eight green iguanas aged 2-6 years, including 6 (1 ♂ and 5 ♀) animals with chronic diarrhea, received treatment for cryptosporidiosis. The presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was determined in 8 iguanas (100%), Isospora sp. oocysts were detected in 3 animals (37.5%), and Oxyuridae eggs were observed in 5 iguanas (62.5%). The animals were divided into two therapeutic groups (A and B). Group A iguanas were administered halofuginone (Halocur, 0,50 mg/ml Intervet Productions S.A., France) at a dose of 110 mg/kg body weight (BW) every 7 days for 5 weeks. Group B animals were administered sulfadiazine and trimethoprim (Norodine Vet Oral Paste sulfadiazine 288,3 mg/g, trimethoprim 58 mg/g, ScanVet Animal Health A/S, Denmark) at 75 mg/kg BW per os every 5 days for 5 weeks and spiramycin and metronidazole (Stomorgyl, spiramycin 1500000 IU, metronidazole 250 mg, Merial, France) at 200 mg/kg BW every 5 days for 5 weeks. Both groups received hyperimmune bovine colostrum and subcutaneous fluids. Before treatment, the average number of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in 1 g of feces was determined at 1.71 * 10 5 (±313,262.44) in group A and 1.56 * 10 5 (±262,908.53) in group B; the average number of Isospora sp. oocysts was determined at 3.53 * 10 3 (±1747.38), and the average number of Oxyuridae eggs was determined at 810 (±496.74). Blood tests were performed once before treatment. The results of blood morphology and biochemistry tests before treatment revealed leukocytosis with a significant increase in heterophile and monocyte counts in all animals. Dehydration, elevated hematocrit values and low levels of Na + , Ca 2+ , PO 4 - and Cl - ions were observed in 6 iguanas. Two iguanas died during treatment. The gross necropsy revealed acute

  5. Gastrointestinal obstruction caused by a radiolucent foreign body in a green iguana (Iguana Iguana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büker, Markus; Foldenauer, Ulrike; Simova-Curd, Stefka; Martig, Sandra; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    This report describes an intestinal obstruction in a green iguana (Iguana iguana). The patient was presented with vomiting and subtle signs of abdominal pain. Radiographs and ultrasound imaging did not reveal any abnormalities. A coeliotomy was performed and a 30-cm piece of absorbent cotton was removed surgically from the large intestine. PMID:20676294

  6. Gastrointestinal obstruction caused by a radiolucent foreign body in a green iguana (Iguana Iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büker, Markus; Foldenauer, Ulrike; Simova-Curd, Stefka; Martig, Sandra; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    This report describes an intestinal obstruction in a green iguana (Iguana iguana). The patient was presented with vomiting and subtle signs of abdominal pain. Radiographs and ultrasound imaging did not reveal any abnormalities. A coeliotomy was performed and a 30-cm piece of absorbent cotton was removed surgically from the large intestine.

  7. Energetics of the green iguana (Iguana iguana) in a semi-arid environment

    OpenAIRE

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter David

    1991-01-01

    Energy budgets in the herbivorous green iguana (Iguana Iguana) were studied from April 1985-October 1988 in a strongly seasonal environment on the semi-arid island Curacao (Netherlands Antilles) under the auspices of the CARMABI Foundation in cooperation with the State University of Groningen (The Netherlands). ... Zie: Summary

  8. Energetics of the green iguana (Iguana iguana) in a semi-arid environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter David

    1991-01-01

    Energy budgets in the herbivorous green iguana (Iguana Iguana) were studied from April 1985-October 1988 in a strongly seasonal environment on the semi-arid island Curacao (Netherlands Antilles) under the auspices of the CARMABI Foundation in cooperation with the State University of Groningen (The

  9. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma iguanae proposed sp. nov. isolated from vertebral lesions of green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Megan E; Demcovitz, Dina L; Plourdé, Daisy R; Rotstein, David S; Brown, Daniel R

    2006-06-01

    Mycoplasma iguanae proposed species nova was isolated from vertebral abscesses of two feral iguanas (Iguana iguana) from Florida. Three strains were evaluated for sensitivity to a variety of antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for M. iguanae, assessed by broth dilution methods, of clindamycin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, and tylosin (all doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tylosin were bacteriostatic from 0.1 to 0.5 microg/ml, whereas enrofloxacin was bactericidal at 20 ng/ml. An enrofloxacin dosage of 5-10 mg/kg achieves peak plasma concentrations >1 microg/ml, with an elimination half-life of 6-20 hr, in alligators. Although concentrations achieved in the vertebrae by i.m. or i.v. injection are probably lower than those in plasma, these data suggest that enrofloxacin may be useful to treat M. iguanae mycoplasmosis in iguanas.

  10. PRE AND POSTPRANDIAL THERMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Rusu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The body temperature of 10 clinically healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana was measured using a thermographic camera (FLIR E6, Flir Systems Sweden before and after the food was offered. For each animal there were performed a total of 6 measurements (3 before feeding and 3 after the food was offered. The purpose of this experiment was to observe the thermographic pattern of the body before and after the feeding, since herbivore reptiles tend to bask after the feeding to increase the body temperature that will help them afterwards digest the food. The animals were housed in individual vivariums with every animal having a basking spot available. The pictures were taken outside the vivarium in an adjacent room. The animals were handled with gloves and transported in a cardboard box in order to avoid heat transfer between the handler and the iguana that would have produced thermal artefacts. Each individual was placed on a table on a styrofoam slate, again, to avoid the heat transfer between the table and the animal`s body. For each animal a total of 4 pictures were taken (up, front, left and right. The pictures were analysed with the FLIR Tools program that is provided by the manufacturer and 3 temperatures were taken into consideration (the head temperature, body temperature on the right side and body temperature on the left side. The temperatures were compared between them and with the temperature of the vivariums that consisted of the average between the temperature in 3 different spots (basking spot, the feeding bowl site and the coldest spot measured with an infrared thermometer GM300 (Benetech, China. The temperature of the body was dependent on the vivarium temperature and it was a significant temperature difference between the measurements before the feeding and after the feeding. Also we discovered a significant difference between the head temperature and the body temperature on the left side before the feeding that disappeared

  11. Iguana Virus, a Herpes-Like Virus Isolated from Cultured Cells of a Lizard, Iguana iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, H. Fred; Karzon, David T.

    1972-01-01

    An agent cytopathic for Terrapene and Iguana cell cultures was isolated from spontaneously degenerating cell cultures prepared from a green iguana (Iguana iguana). The agent, designated iguana virus, caused a cytopathic effect (CPE) of a giant cell type, with eosinophilic inclusions commonly observed within giant cell nuclei. Incubation temperature had a marked effect on CPE and on virus release from infected cells. Within the range of 23 to 36 C, low temperatures favored CPE characterized by cytolysis and small giant cell formation, and significant virus release was observed. At warmer temperatures, a purely syncytial type of CPE and total absence of released virus were noted. A unique type of hexagonal eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion was observed within syncytia of infected Terrapene cell cultures incubated at 36 C. In vivo studies revealed no evidence of pathogenicity of iguana virus for suckling mice, embryonated hen's eggs, or several species of reptiles and amphibians. Inoculation of iguana virus into young iguanas consistently caused infection that was “unmasked” only when cell cultures were prepared directly from the infected animal. Filtration studies revealed a virion size of >100 nm and Iguana virus is ether-sensitive and, as presumptively indicated by studies of inhibition by bromodeoxyuridine, possesses a deoxyribonucleic type of nucleic acid. The virus characteristics described, as well as electron microscopy observations described in a separate report, indicate that iguana virus is a member of the herpesvirus group. Images PMID:4344303

  12. Alfaxalone anaesthesia in the green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Mads F; Sauer, Cathrine D

    2011-09-01

    To characterise the anaesthetic effects of alfaxalone administered intramuscularly (IM) at 10, 20, and 30 mg kg(-1) . Prospective, randomized cross-over study. Ten juvenile green iguanas (Iguana iguana) of mean body weight (±SD) 480 ± 134 g. Alfaxalone was administered IM in the triceps of both thoracic limbs. Times for anaesthetic induction, plateau and recovery periods were recorded. Skeletal muscle tone of the jaw, neck, thoracic limbs, pelvic limbs, and tail was scored. The palpebral, corneal and righting reflexes, and the response to painful stimuli were also assessed. Pulse rate and respiratory rate were recorded. Comparisons between different dosages and over time were made using anova. Times are given for 10, 20 and 30 mg kg(-1) dosages respectively: mean time to maximal effect was 7.7 ± 2.2, 5.4 ± 1.7 and 3.9 ± 1.2 minutes; duration of the plateau phase was 11.3 ± 3.8, 22.1 ± 6.5 and 39.1 ± 11.5 minutes; recovery time was 10 ± 2.4, 17.5 ± 8.6 and 25 ± 7.1 minutes; and total anaesthetic duration was 29 ± 35.7, 45 ± 8.2 and 68 ± 9.8 inutes. Endotracheal intubation was possible in 40% of the subjects given 10 mg kg(-1) and in 100% subjects given both 20 and 30 mg kg(-1) . Loss of response to a painful stimulus was seen in 0/10, 8/10 and 9/10 animals at 10, 20, and 30 mg kg(-1) respectively. There was an initial dose-dependent depression of respiration followed by a significant increase in frequency over time. In contrast, pulse rates decreased by 20% over the duration of the anaesthetic events. Intramuscular administration of alfaxalone is a simple, rapid and reliable means of achieving relatively brief sedation or anaesthesia in healthy green iguanas. A dosage of 10 mg kg(-1) provides light sedation, appropriate for examination and venipuncture; 20 mg kg(-1) provides a level suitable for minor procedures or for endotracheal intubation and supplementation with

  13. Iguana production: hope or scope?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Iguanas offer an opportunity to establish a balanced production system in which economically viable conditions for the smallholders can be realised together with conservation of the natural forest and production of animal protein. The objectives of this study were to analyse existing iguana

  14. Echocardiographic and radiographic findings in a cohort of healthy adult green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Kate A; Saunders, Ashley B; Young, Benjamin D; Winter, Randolph L; Hoppes, Sharman M

    2014-09-01

    To describe characteristics of echocardiography and cranial coelomic radiography in a cohort of iguanas. Twenty apparently healthy adult green iguanas (Iguana iguana) from a reptile sanctuary. Physical examination, radiography, two-dimensional and color Doppler echocardiography were performed to assess cardiac structures and function, and any related normal or abnormal findings were recorded. Echocardiographic examination was possible without sedation and allowed visualization of the great vessels, atria, and ventricle. Some structures could not be evaluated in a minority of the iguanas due to individual differences in bony conformation and imaging quality. Suspected abnormal echocardiographic findings in 3 iguanas included pericardial effusion (n = 1) and enlarged caudal vena cava and/or sinus venosus (n = 2). Objective measurements were repeatable as assessed by within-subject coefficient of variation, and reliable as assessed by intra-observer intraclass correlation coefficient. Left atrial and ventricular measurements were significantly correlated with body weight. Valve regurgitation was common, with atrioventricular valve regurgitation present in 53% (9/17) and aortic or pulmonic valve regurgitation in 71% (12/17) of otherwise normal iguanas. A heart murmur was not appreciated during examination of any of the iguanas. Heart size cannot be measured radiographically due to superimposition and silhouetting of other coelomic structures. Echocardiographic or radiographic findings consistent with mineralization of the great vessels were present in 76% of iguanas (13/17). Echocardiography in iguanas is well tolerated without sedation and allowed both subjective evaluation and structural measurements. Valve regurgitation and great vessel mineralization were commonly observed in this cohort of apparently healthy adult iguanas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary findings of Salmonella spp. in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M A; Shane, S M

    2000-06-12

    Captive reptiles are routinely identified as reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and reports of reptile-associated salmonellosis are increasing. Unfortunately, little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella spp. and green iguanas. We did a limited survey of a green-iguana farm in El Salvador to identify sources of Salmonella spp. in green iguanas and their environment. A limited number of samples for microbiological culture were collected from iguanas (adult, hatchling, and embryos) and their environment (food, water, soil, shelter, insects, and wild-caught lizards). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the intestine of both adult (3/20) and hatchling iguanas (8/20). There was no evidence of Salmonella spp. in the reproductive tracts of female iguanas (0/10). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the surface of 40% (7/16) of the egg surfaces tested. Salmonella spp. was not identified from the externalized yolk-sac of the iguana embryos tested. Soil samples from a breeding pen and a nest were both positive for Salmonella spp. Eight different Salmonella spp. serotypes were identified in this survey. These results suggest that horizontal transmission of Salmonella spp. is a potential source of exposure to hatchling iguanas at this facility.

  16. Severe dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale in flocks of green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Rostami, A; Tamai, I A; Erfanmanesh, A; Memarian, I

    2012-05-01

    To describe the clinical, mycological, histopathological and molecular findings in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) affected with severe dermatophytosis in selected flocks near Tehran, Iran. Samples were collected from the scales of skin lesions and tested with standard mycological methods and dermatophyte-specific PCR amplification analysis using the primer pair for the chitin synthase 1(CHS1) gene. All iguanas were definitively diagnosed with dermatophytosis using both traditional and molecular diagnostic methods. PCR fingerprinting profiles using simple repetitive (GACA)4 primers showed that all diagnosed iguanas had the same pattern profile. Intraspecific variability was not observed for these isolates. Oligonucleotide sequencing of CHS1 gene PCR products confirmed Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale as the infectious agent. These results suggest that (GACA)4-based PCR has utility both as a simple and rapid method for identification of dermatophyte species and for differentiation of T. mentagrophytes variants. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  17. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae Possess Functional Mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Di Giacomo

    Full Text Available Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i widely occur in erythrocytes, ii are polarized, and iii seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation.

  18. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae) Possess Functional Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Campello, Silvia; Corrado, Mauro; Di Giambattista, Livia; Cirotti, Claudia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm)-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation.

  19. Variations of plasma protein electrophoresis in healthy captive Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilová, Anna; Knotková, Zora; Pinterová, Kateřina; Knotek, Zdeněk

    2015-06-01

    Serum or plasma protein electrophoresis is used as a routine test for health assessment in veterinary medicine, but there are only a limited number of studies regarding clinical use of electrophoresis in reptile species. The goals of this study were to establish reference intervals for plasma protein electrophoresis in the Green Iguana (Iguana iguana), compare values between males and females, and to identify season-related changes. Plasma samples were obtained from 21 healthy captive male and female Green Iguanas. Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed using an automated Hydrasys system. Four main protein fractions were observed: albumin, α globulins, β globulins, and γ globulins. Bisalbuminemia was observed in 4 of 21 healthy iguanas. Minimum and maximum values were reported for healthy Green Iguanas in March, June, September, and December. Seasonal changes in albumin were determined between March and December, and in γ globulins between June and September. Differences between males and females were seen in albumin concentration in September. Reference intervals of the plasma protein fractions according to electrophoresis in the Green Iguana can be affected by seasonal changes and sex of animals. It should be taken into account when clinical evaluation is performed. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF SPIROTOME® DEVICE FOR LIVER BIOPSY IN GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA): A PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Giordano; Origgi, Francesco C; Leopardi, Stefania; Zaghini, Anna; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vignoli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a large-core manual biopsy device (Spirotome(®), Medinvents, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium) for liver sampling and histologic diagnosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The study included eight green iguanas, and two ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected for each lizard, for 16 biopsies in total. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol (10 mg/kg) maintained with a mixture of 2.0% isoflurane and 0.8-1.2 L/min oxygen after tracheal intubation. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 biopsies were considered diagnostic. Liver biopsy quality was assessed according to sample size and tissue preservation. In particular, mean length (16.2 ± 4.5 mm), width (2.2 ± 0.5 mm), area (34.8 ± 6.9 mm(2)), and number of portal areas (9.4 ± 3.9) of each biopsy were recorded for all green iguanas. The total available surface of the sections obtained from the biopsies and their grade of preservation enabled a satisfactory evaluation of the parenchymal architecture. One of the green iguanas in the study died the day after the procedure due to severe hemocoeloma. Risk assessment evaluation suggested that small green iguanas may not be suitable for this biopsy procedure.

  1. Diagnosis and surgical management of malignant ovarian teratoma in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, Lucia; Tecilla, Marco; Borza, Gabriel; Pestean, Cosmin; Purdoiu, Robert; Ober, Ciprian; Oana, Liviu; Taulescu, Marian

    2016-07-19

    Ovarian tumors in reptiles are uncommonly reported in the literature and for green iguanas previously reported cases include teratomas, one adenocarcinoma and one papillary cystadenocarcinoma. The present report is the first of a malignant ovarian teratoma in a green iguana. Complete and detailed pathological features, differential diagnosis and surgical management of malignant ovarian teratoma are discussed in this paper. A 9-year-old intact female green iguana (Iguana iguana) with a clinical history of persistent anorexia and progressive abdominal distension was referred to the surgery department. On physical examination, a presumptive diagnosis of follicular stasis was established. Radiographic evaluation showed a large radioopaque mass within the abdomen, which was visible both in latero-lateral and ventro-dorsal exposures. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a large intra-abdominal mass, with numerous cyst-like structures filled with liquid and a heterogeneous aspect with hypoechoic areas. Exploratory laparatomy was thus suggested and the mass was removed surgically. The histologic findings of the neoplasm were consistent with those of ovarian malignant teratoma. Surgical excision of the mass in our case was considered curative and after a follow-up period of 6 months the animal has recovered completely. A malignant ovarian teratoma has not been previously reported in green iguana and should be included in the list of differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors in this species. This report will contribute to a better understanding of the pathology of this rare tumor in green iguanas.

  2. Effects of allopurinol on plasma uric acid levels in normouricaemic and hyperuricaemic green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Divers, S J; Martinez-Jimenez, D; Bush, S; Latimer, K S; Zwart, P; Kroeze, E J B Veldhuis

    2008-01-26

    A two-phase cross-over therapeutic study was performed with 19 green iguanas (Iguana iguana) maintained within a preferred optimum temperature range of 26 to 37 degrees C. During phase 1, they were fed a normal vegetarian diet and medicated orally with either allopurinol or a placebo control once a day for seven days. Uric acid concentrations, total protein, packed-cell volumes (pcv) and bodyweights were recorded from each lizard before and after treatment to determine the effects of allopurinol. In phase 2, after a 10-day washout period, the iguanas were fed a high protein diet to induce hyperuricaemia. Normo- and hyperuricaemic iguanas that received 24.2 (3.2) mg/kg allopurinol had significantly lower mean (sd) uric acid concentrations (100.3 [53.1] micromol/l) than the controls (159.3 [100.3] micromol/l). There were no detectable interactions between the doses of allopurinol or placebo, and the iguanas' diet, weight, pcv or total protein. The allopurinol was well tolerated, and there was no significant clinical, gross or histological evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity in the iguanas that received the drug. However, in the kidneys of the hyperuricaemic iguanas that did not receive allopurinol there were proliferative changes in the glomeruli and degeneration of tubular epithelia. Allopurinol given orally at 25 mg/kg daily is able to reduce plasma uric acid levels by 41 to 45 per cent, and is therefore recommended for the treatment of hyperuricaemia in the green iguana.

  3. Chrysosporium guarroi sp. nov. a new emerging pathogen of pet green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Castellá, G; Martorell, J; Cabañes, F J

    2010-03-01

    Chrysosporium guarroi sp. nov. represented by five strains isolated from cases of dermatomycosis in pet green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Spain, is described and illustrated. This taxon is characterized by its ability to grow at temperatures from 15 to 37 degrees C and by the presence of arthroconidia and aleurioconidia. The latter are unicellular, smooth, pyriform or clavate, sessile or borne at the ends of narrow stalks. The analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 and ITS regions confirm the separation of this new species from others of the genus Chrysosporium.

  4. Cloaca prolapse and cystitis in green iguana (Iguana iguana) caused by a novel Cryptosporidium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Marja J L; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Lenstra, Johannes A; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2011-01-10

    Cryptosporidium infection was associated with colitis and cystitis in 2 green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The disease was characterized by a chronic clinical course of cloacal prolapses and cystitis. Histological examination of the gut and urinary bladder showed numerous Cryptosporidium developmental stages on the surface of the epithelium with mixed inflammatory response in the lamina propria. Cryptosporidium oocysts were visualised in a cytological preparation of the faeces. Based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene the cryptosporidia were characterized as belonging to the intestinal cryptosporidial lineage, but not to Cryptosporidium saurophilum or Cryptosporidium serpentis species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) following single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Allison D; Papich, Mark; Lewbart, Gregory A; Christian, Shane; Gunkel, Conny; Harms, Craig A

    2006-12-01

    The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug ketoprofen (KTP) is a commonly used antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in reptile medicine, but no studies documenting its pharmacokinetics in this species have been published. Ketoprofen was administered as a racemic mixture to green iguanas (Iguana iguana) intravenously (i.v.) and intramuscularly (i.m.) at 2 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed and indicated that ketoprofen in iguanas administered by the intravenous route has a classical two-compartmental distribution pattern, a slow clearance (67 ml/ kg/hr) and a long terminal half-life (31 hr) compared to ketoprofen studies reported in mammals. When delivered by the intramuscular route, bioavailability was 78%. These data indicate the daily dosing that is generally recommended for reptile patients, as an extrapolation from mammalian data, may be more frequent than necessary.

  6. Radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation of egg retention and peritonitis in two green iguanas (Iguana iguana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, N.E.; Douglass, J.P.; Lewbart, G.; Stoskopf, M.

    1996-01-01

    The radiographic technique and radiographic and sonographic findings in two green iguanas with egg retention and peritonitis are described. Neither radiography nor ultrasound provided for identification of free eggs within the coelomic structure secondary to presumed oviduct rupture. Gravidity and coelomic effusion were confirmed by both radiography and ultrasound. Radiography and ultrasound are valuable tools in the diagnosis of egg retention and peritonitis in the green iguana

  7. Effect of Butorphanol on Anaesthesia Induction by Isoflurane in the Green Iguana (Iguana iguana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Trnková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 10 clinically healthy green iguanas (5 males and 5 females, body weight ranging from 1 350 to 2 770 g were given butorphanol by intramuscular injection following 24 h fasting. Inhalation anaesthesia was administered by mask (5% isoflurane with oxygen, 1.0 l/min, once reactions to external stimuli had decreased (15.45 ± 1.54 min later. Tracheal intubation was performed as soon as the iguanas exhibited complete tolerance to mechanical stimuli. A second study was performed 4 weeks later using the same green iguanas with no pre-medication. Marked individual reactions to masking were observed during both experiments. Some iguanas exhibited breath holding which prolonged anaesthetic induction. Physical stimulation was used in these cases in order to stimulate spontaneous breathing. The mean anaesthetic induction time was similar in both groups of green iguanas (4.34 ± 0.47 and 4.93 ± 0.88 min. There was also a comparable interval from masking to safe tracheal intubation in both experimental groups (15.21 ± 4.26 and 14.31 ± 1.39 min. In view of the results, pre-medication with butorphanol cannot be considered an effective method of anaesthetic induction in green iguanas.

  8. Incomplete ovariosalpingectomy and subsequent malignant granulosa cell tumor in a female green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Cardona, Janice A; Conley, Kenneth J; Wellehan, James F X; Farina, Lisa L; Origgi, Francesco C; Wamsley, Heather L

    2011-07-15

    A 9-year-old spayed female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was evaluated because of a distended coelom and weight loss. History included a single episode of egg binding and subsequent bilateral ovariosalpingectomy. Physical examination revealed a mass within the coelomic cavity. Ultrasonography revealed a large, irregular mass with hypoechoic regions and coelomic effusion. Clinicopathologic derangements included heterophilia, monocytosis, lymphopenia, basophilia, hypocholesterolemia, hypoproteinemia, and hypercalcemia. Results of cytologic evaluation of the mass were suggestive of malignant epithelial neoplasia, but neoplastic cells were not found in the effusion. An ovarian tumor was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, clinicopathologic findings, and results of cytologic evaluation of the mass. Surgical exploration revealed a large left ovary, a normal-appearing contralateral ovary, and a mass in the fat body, all of which were removed and submitted for histologic examination. The histologic diagnosis was granulosa cell tumor with metastasis to the fat body. The patient died 11 months after evaluation, and disseminated granulosa cell tumor was confirmed at necropsy; histologic examination at that time also identified systemic mastocytosis. Granulosa cell tumors are uncommon in reptiles, and this was the first granulosa cell tumor described antemortem cytologically, histologically, and ultrastructurally in an iguana. Findings in this iguana underscored concerns associated with incomplete oophorectomy of iguanas; cytologic and histopathologic findings were similar to those observed in other domestic animals. Oophorectomy should be considered as an alternative to standard ovariosalpingectomy to avoid potential complications in pet reptiles, and use of microsurgical instruments and vascular clips is advised.

  9. Selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor reflex in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sonia M; Schumacher, Juergen; Lewis, Stephen J; Odoi, Agricola; Divers, Stephen J

    2011-11-01

    To determine selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor response in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and to evaluate the use of blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry in this species. 15 healthy juvenile green iguanas. Baseline cardiopulmonary values were determined in 15 conscious iguanas breathing room air. Effects of 100% O(2) inspiration were also measured (n = 6), and the baroreceptor reflex was characterized by exponential sigmoidal curve fitting analysis. Conscious iguanas had a mean ± SD resting heart rate of 52 ± 8 beats/min, respiratory rate of 28 ± 6 breaths/min, and systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures of 69 ± 10 mm Hg, 62 ± 12 mm Hg, and 56 ± 13 mm Hg, respectively. Mean arterial pH at 37°C was 7.29 ± 0.11, PaO(2) was 81 ± 10 mm Hg, and PaCO(2) was 42 ± 9 mm Hg; corrected for a body temperature of 30°C, mean arterial pH at 37°C was 7.382 ±0.12, PaO(2) was 54 ± 15 mm Hg, and PaCO(2) was 32 ± 7 mm Hg. Inspiration of 100% O(2) did not change heart and respiratory rates but increased PaO(2) to 486 ± 105 mm Hg (corrected value, 437 ± 96 mm Hg). A baroreceptor reflex was evident, with mean heart rates ranging from 30 ± 3 beats/min to 63 ± 5 beats/min and mean arterial blood pressures ranging from 42 ± 3 mm Hg to 58 ± 3 mm Hg. This study provided needed information on cardiopulmonary values in healthy green iguanas, the application and limitation of arterial and venous blood gas analysis, and the accuracy of pulse oximetry.

  10. Plasma protein electrophoresis of Trachemys scripta and Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Mercè; Saco, Yolanda; Pato, Raquel; Busquets, Alex; Martorell, Jaime M; Bassols, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Protein electrophoresis is widely applied in veterinary medicine, but is not used often in reptiles, in part because of lack of reference values. The goals of this study were to compare plasma protein profiles obtained by cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CAE) and agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE), measure precision and examine interference by sample hemolysis, and establish preliminary reference intervals for 2 reptile species. Heparinized plasma samples from healthy and diseased adult female Iguana iguana (n=40) and Trachemys scripta (n=60) were analyzed by CAE and AGE. Total protein concentration was measured by the biuret method. Electrophoresis results were compared using Bland-Altman plots and Passing-Bablok regression analysis. Precision and the effects of sample hemolysis were determined. Results from clinically healthy animals were used to determine reference intervals. Five protein fractions were identified in both species, with bisalbuminemia observed in 23/40 iguanas. High correlation was observed between the 2 methods for all fractions, with few proportional and systematic errors. Coefficients of variation were lower using AGE vs CAE and for I. iguana vs T. scripta. Two additional bands were observed in hemolyzed samples from T. scripta; 1 additional band was observed for I. iguana. Minimum and maximum values were reported for healthy I. iguana (n=14) and T. scripta (n=22). Although both methods are acceptable, the performance of AGE was slightly better than that of CAE for analysis of plasma from reptiles. Furthermore, reptile electrophoretic patterns should be interpreted based on the method used, the species analyzed, and the quality of the plasma sample.

  11. Fecal glucocorticoid response to environmental stressors in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Timm, Jeanette A; Ibsen, Ida B; Hau, Jann; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie B; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2012-05-15

    Quantification of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces has been shown to be a powerful tool in evaluating well-being in vertebrates. Little is known however about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stressors, and consequent glucocorticoid excretion, in reptiles. In a longitudinal study, fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) levels in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) were quantified during periods of rest and exposure to hypothesized stressors. FCM quantification was combined with behavioral analysis to further contextualize the measured increases. It was shown that both daily 5-minute handling/restraint, as well as housing devoid of climbing opportunity, resulted in increased FCM excretion. Behavioral analysis suggested that the iguanas were chronically stressed by the lack of climbing opportunity, whereas handling may have induced only a transient stress response. The experimental design, using repeated periods of stressor-exposure, also revealed a facilitating effect, where the two stressors potentiated one another. Furthermore, the order of the two stressors was found to be important. The study provides insight into the functioning of the hormonal stress response in green iguanas, and to the refining of their housing and handling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intraspecific allometry of standard metabolic rate in green iguanas, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lara K; Jacobson, Elliott R; McNab, Brian K

    2003-10-01

    To study the allometric relationship between standard metabolic rate and body mass (mass range 16-3627 g) in green iguanas, Iguana iguana (n=32), we measured rates of oxygen consumption (V(O(2))) at 30 degrees C during scotophase. The relationship could be described as: V(O(2))(ml h(-1))=0.478W(0.734). The resulting mass exponent was similar to the 3/4 power commonly used in interspecific curves (P>0.05), but differed from a proposed intraspecific value of 2/3 (Piguanas did not differ (P>0.05). The mass adjusted V(O(2)) was higher than predicted from generalized squamate curves. The mean mass exponent of intra-individual allometric equations of iguanas (n=7) at varying masses during ontogeny did not differ from that of the pooled equation, indicating that scaling of V(O(2)) is similar for both between and within individuals. Thermal acclimation, compensatory changes in V(O(2)) with prolonged exposure to a constant temperature, was not observed in juvenile iguanas (n=11) between 1 and 5 weeks of acclimation at 30 degrees C.

  13. Nitrogen excretion during embryonic development of the green iguana, Iguana iguana (Reptilia; Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, M R; Taylor, E W; Abe, A S

    2012-10-01

    Development within the cleidoic egg of birds and reptiles presents the embryo with the problem of accumulation of wastes from nitrogen metabolism. Ammonia derived from protein catabolism is converted into the less toxic product urea or relatively insoluble uric acid. The pattern of nitrogen excretion of the green iguana, Iguana iguana, was determined during embryonic development using samples from allantoic fluid and from the whole homogenized egg, and in hatchlings and adults using samples of blood plasma. Urea was the major excretory product over the course of embryonic development. It was found in higher concentrations in the allantoic sac, suggesting that there is a mechanism present on the allantoic membrane enabling the concentration of urea. The newly hatched iguana still produced urea while adults produced uric acid. The time course of this shift in the type of nitrogen waste was not determined but the change is likely to be related to the water relations associated with the terrestrial habit of the adult. The green iguana produces parchment-shelled eggs that double in mass during incubation due to water absorption; the eggs also accumulate 0.02 mM of urea, representing 82% of the total measured nitrogenous residues that accumulate inside the allantois. The increase in egg mass and urea concentration became significant after 55 days of incubation then were unchanged until hatching. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnosis and management of lymphoma in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, Douglas W; Johnston, Matthew S; Thamm, Douglas H; Reavill, Drury

    2011-10-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION-A 2-year-old female green iguana was examined for anorexia and swelling and pain on palpation in the cranial cervical area. CLINICAL FINDINGS-Marked soft tissue swelling in the cranial cervical area with corresponding cystic swellings in the pharynx were noted. The iguana was considered to be 50% under the expected body weight, given diet and husbandry conditions. The WBC count was markedly elevated, characterized by heterophilia and lymphocytosis. Surgical exploration of the cranial cervical area and histologic and microbial testing identified lymphoma with secondary infection as the cause of the swelling. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-The tumor was initially treated with a single 10-Gy fraction of radiation directed at the masses in the neck. A vascular access port was placed in the ventral abdominal vein, and a canine chemotherapy protocol was modified for use in the iguana. During the course of treatment, the protocol was modified twice. At 1,008 days from the initiation of treatment, the iguana appeared to be in remission. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of radiation with doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone to successfully manage lymphoma in a reptile. A vascular access port was used effectively for drug administration for an extended period. The doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone protocol appeared to be safe and effective in this iguana for the management of lymphoma.

  15. Multiorgan fungal infection caused by Microsporum canis in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Eun-Ju; Choi, Ul Soo

    2014-06-01

    Multiple organ invasion by keratinophilic fungi in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) has not been previously reported. In this case, a 1-yr-old female green iguana presented with a nodular, darkly discolored skin lesion surrounded by necrosis in the right ventral abdominal region. A cytologic examination of the fine needle aspiration of the lesion revealed an exuberant proliferation of fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinucleated cells along with frequent filamentous structures consistent with hyphal elements. The necropsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the liver, lung, and cardiac apex with white nodules. A histopathologic examination of the lesions also confirmed a fungal infection associated with granulomatous inflammation. Rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the chitin synthase 1 gene was conducted for rapid direct detection, and inter-simple sequence repeat fingerprinting was conducted to classify the infectious origin. The PCR analysis definitively demonstrated representative Microsporum canis fungus. The present report is the first case of disseminated M. canis infection with multiorgan involvement in a green iguana.

  16. Helmintos oxiuridae parasitos de Iguana iguana (Squamata, Lacertilia, Iguanidae procedentes do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Breves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on nematode fauna occurring in wild iguanas (Iguana iguana from Brazilian Northeast (Alagoas and Maranhão and Central-west (Goiás and Mato Grosso areas were presented. Six adult iguanas, three males and three females, were necropsied and the digestive system removed to examination. All the iguana specimens were heavily parasitized. The helminths diagnosed were: Ozolaimus cirratus in the cecum and colon of five iguanas; Ozolaimus megatyphlon in cecum, colon and rectum of three iguanas; and Alaeuris vogelsangi in the small intestine, cecum, colon and rectum of five animals. Two larvae of Ozolaimus sp. were recovered from the pyloric region of the stomach of one iguana. The three diagnosed species of nematodes were reported for the first time in the Brazilian Central-West region.

  17. EXPLORATORY CELIOTOMY IN GREEN IGUANA (IGUANA IGUANA, LINNAEUS 1758 SHOWING SIGNS OF URINARY OBSTRUCTION IN THE CITY OF CUIABÁ - MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Angeli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the therapeutic and surgical protocols adopted during the clinical management of a wild green iguana (Iguana iguana iguana,Linnaeus 1758 presented for lethargy, anorexy and clinical signs of urinary obstruction. There were also explored general aspects of the species, as well as the main impairments of health and their respective diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Keith G; Tell, Lisa A; Young, Lee A; Wetzlich, Scott; Craigmill, Arthur L

    2003-10-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium after IM and SC administration in green iguanas. 6 male and 4 female adult green iguanas. In a crossover design, 5 iguanas received a single dose of ceftiofur sodium (5 mg/kg) IM, and 5 iguanas received the same dose SC. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, and 40 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. After a 10-week washout period, each iguana was given the same dose via the reciprocal administration route, and blood was collected in the same fashion. Ceftiofur free-acid equivalents were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. The first phase intercepts were significantly different between the 2 administration routes. Mean maximum plasma concentration was significantly higher with the IM (28.6 +/- 8.0 microg/mL) than the SC (18.6 +/- 8.3 microg/mL) administration route. There were no significant differences between terminal half-lives (harmonic mean via IM route, 15.7 +/- 4.7 hours; harmonic mean via SC route, 19.7 +/- 6.7 hours) and mean areas under the curve measured to the last time point (IM route, 11,722 +/- 7,907 microg x h/mL; SC route, 12,143 +/- 9,633 microg x h/mL). Ceftiofur free-acid equivalent concentrations were maintained > or = 2 microg/mL for > 24 hours via both routes. A suggested dosing schedule for ceftiofur sodium in green iguanas for microbes susceptible at > 2 microg/mL would be 5 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 24 hours.

  19. Cellular and extracellular dehydration, and angiotensin as stimuli to drinking in the common iguana Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, J T; Kaufman, S

    1977-01-01

    1. After water deprivation, the iguana promptly drank slightly more than enough water to restore the body fluids to isotonicity even under conditions of hypervolaemia. 2. In response to systemic injections of hypertonic solutions of NaCl and sucrose, the iguana drank and retained enough water to dilute the injected load to isotonicity irrespective of whether water was offered immediately or after 3 hr, and irrespective of whether the solute was administered I.V. or I.P. 3. Hypertonic solutions to glucose, urea, sorbitol and KCl caused little drinking. 4. The long latencies to drinking after hypertonic loads, which were not dependent on the nature of the solute, the route of administration or the dosage, were shown not to be a result of slow distribution of the solute throughout the body fluids. 5. Clearance of injected solutes via renal and extra-renal (nasal salt gland) routes was negligible during the 6 hr experimental period. 6. Measurements of plasma [Na], haematocrit, osmotic pressure and inulin space showed that the iguana drank, in response to cellular dehydration, enough water to restore the intracellular fluid volume to normal. 7. We conclude that, in response to substances which dehydrate cells, the iguana regulates its body osmolality precisely and efficiently provided it is able to do so by drinking. In this respect the responses of the iguana are similar to those of the nephrectomized rat since, in the short term, both rely exclusively on drinking to restore cellular water to normal. 8. The iguana also drinks in response to extracellular dehydration produced by hyperoncotic peritoneal dialysis, and in response to I.P. angiotensin II. PMID:850202

  20. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam following intravenous and oral administration in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, Stephen J; Papich, Mark; McBride, Michael; Stedman, Nancy L; Perpinan, David; Koch, Thomas F; Hernandez, Sonia M; Barron, G Heather; Pethel, Melinda; Budsberg, Steven C

    2010-11-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in healthy green iguanas following PO and IV administration and assess potential toxicity. 21 healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana). To assess pharmacokinetics, 13 iguanas were administered a single dose (0.2 mg/kg) of meloxicam PO and, 14 days later, the same dose IV. To assess potential toxicity, 4 iguanas were given meloxicam at a dosage of 1 or 5 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 12 days, and results of histologic examination were compared with results for another 4 iguanas given a single dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg). There were no significant differences between PO and IV administration with regard to terminal half-life (mean ± SD, 12.96 ± 8.05 hours and 9.93 ± 4.92 hours, respectively), mean area under the curve to the last measured concentration (5.08 ± 1.62 μg•h/mL and 5.83 ± 2.49 μg•h/mL), volume of distribution (745 ± 475 mL/kg and 487 ± 266 mL/kg), or clearance (40.17 ± 10.35 mL/kg/h and 37.17 ± 16.08 mL/kg/h). Maximum plasma concentration was significantly greater following IV (0.63 ± 0.17 μg/mL) versus PO (0.19 ± 0.07 μg/mL) administration. Time from administration to maximum plasma concentration and mean residence time were significantly longer following PO versus IV administration. Daily administration of high doses (1 or 5 mg/kg) for 12 days did not induce any histologic changes in gastric, hepatic, or renal tissues. Results suggested that administration of meloxicam at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg IV or PO in green iguanas would result in plasma concentrations > 0.1 μg/mL for approximately 24 hours.

  1. Duplicación de miembro anterior en Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758: registro de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota registra el caso de polimelia en una hembra juvenil de iguana verde o Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae de entre cinco y seis meses de edad (camada del 2012, con talla de 43 cm y peso de 60 g.

  2. Cutaneous hyalohyphomycosis caused by a Chrysosporium species related to Nannizziopsis vriesii in two green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Martorell, J; Castellá, G; Ramis, A; Cabañes, F J

    2008-06-01

    This report describes the first isolation of a Chrysosporium species as the etiological agent of dermatomycosis in two green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The ITS-5.8S rRNA gene of the two strains was sequenced and a search on the GenBank database revealed that the closest match was Nannizziopsis vriesii. Treatment with oral ketoconazole, in combination with topical 2% chlorhexidine solution and terbinafine resulted in clinical cure.

  3. Genetic evidence of hybridization between the endangered native species Iguana delicatissima and the invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae) in the Lesser Antilles: management Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillaume, Barbara; Valette, Victorien; Lepais, Olivier; Grandjean, Frederic; Breuil, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima) and the invasive common green iguana (Iguana iguana) in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact ...

  4. Osteologia do neurocrânio de Iguana iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano C. Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O crânio representa o segmento com conspícuas adaptações que, nos lagartos, podem ser conservativas ou impulsionadas por pressões seletivas. Objetivando subsidiar o conhecimento morfológico dos répteis, fornecemos uma descrição detalhada dos ossos que formam o neurocrânio de Iguana iguana iguana com base na análise de três esqueletos secos de espécimes adultos. O crânio da referia espécie possui características basais entre os lagartos sem o fechamento das aberturas cranianas e formato geral triangular. As estruturas ósseas que formam a base craniana apresentam muitas fusões, principalmente no assoalho. Na face caudal o exoccipital e o opistótico estão fundidos e formam o otoccipital, que contribui para a formação dos terços laterais do côndilo occipital. A parte central do côndilo é formada pelo supraoccipital. Fusões e estruturas esqueléticas presentes em Iguana são similares aos demais lagartos. Não foram descritas autapomorfias no neurocrânio para esta espécie.

  5. Mycoplasma insons sp. nov., a twisted mycoplasma from green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Meghan; Ortiz, G Javier; Wendland, Lori D; Rotstein, David S; Relich, Ryan F; Balish, Mitchell F; Brown, Daniel R

    2007-09-01

    Mycoplasma insons sp. nov., first cultured from the choanae and tracheae of healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana) from El Salvador, was readily distinguished from all previously described mollicutes and assigned to the Mycoplasma fastidiosum phylogenetic cluster by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Growth inhibition assays distinguished the isolates serologically from the other two members of that cluster. Many M. insons cells exhibit a remarkable twisted rod morphology despite lacking a cell wall. The organism is nonmotile, produces acid from glucose, but does not hydrolyze arginine, esculin, or urea. Mycoplasma insons 16S rRNA gene was also detected by PCR in packed blood cells from culture-negative iguanas. The type strain I17P1(T) has been deposited with the Mollicutes Collection at Purdue University and with the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC BAA-1435) in the USA. A limited number of cultures generated by the authors have also been deposited with the Culture Collection, University of Göteborg, in Sweden (CCUG 53461).

  6. Are powerful females powerful enough? Acceleration in gravid green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Jeffrey; Butler, Marguerite

    2007-08-01

    One demand placed exclusively on the musculoskeletal system of females is maintaining locomotor performance with an increasing load over the reproductive cycle. Here, we examine whether gravid (i.e., "pregnant") iguanas can increase their force and power production to support, stabilize, and accelerate the additional mass of a clutch of eggs. At any acceleration, gravid iguanas produced very high mechanical power (average total power = 673 w/kg; total peak power = 1175 w/kg). While the increase in total power was partly a result of greater propulsive power (average propulsive power = 25% higher, peak propulsive power = 38% higher), increased vertical power (roughly 200% increase) was the main contributor. Gravid iguanas were also able to increase peak forces (propulsive = 23%, mediolateral = 44%, vertical = 42%), and step duration (44%) resulting in greater impulses (i.e., the sum of force produced during a step) to accelerate, balance, and support their increased mass. The increase in step duration and smaller increase in peak propulsive force suggests that gravid iguanas may be force-limited in the direction of motion. We discuss how biomechanical constraints due to females' reproductive role may influence the evolution of the female musculoskeletal systems and contribute to the evolution and maintenance of ecological dimorphism in lizards.

  7. Lethal Ozolaimus megatyphlon infection in a green iguana (Iguana iguana rhinolopa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Komnenou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Elias; Psychas, Vassilios

    2007-03-01

    An imported 2.5-yr-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana rhinolopa) kept in Greece was presented with a history of anorexia and allotriophagy of 1 mo duration. Upon clinical examination, it was cachectic and had severe abdominal distension and fibrous osteodystrophy. Despite treatment, it died a month later. On necropsy, massive accumulations of threadlike nematode parasites were observed in the large intestine, identified as Ozolaimus megatyphlon, a member of the Oxyuridae family of Pharyngodonidae, a usually nonpathogenic intestinal parasite of iguanas. To the authors' knowledge, its presence has not been reported previously in Europe, although one pathogenic infection has been reported previously in Japan. The animal was presumably infected before importation. Although death was attributed to the heavy parasitic overload, the poor diet and terrarium hygiene, and absence of an anthelminthic regime further contributed to the deterioration of the animal's condition. Recognition of this condition, which may be recently introduced or underdiagnosed, may help improve medical and trade standards concerning this species in practice.

  8. Scanning electron microscopical study of the lingual epithelium of green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, F; Latella, G; Montalbano, G; Guerrera, M C; Levanti, M B; Ciriaco, E

    2008-08-01

    During the last few years, green iguanas (Iguana iguana) have turned out to be one of the most popular pets. They are omnivorous. In their way of feeding, this crucial function is performed by capturing of the preys and mostly, this is carried out by the tongue. The role of the tongue is also fundamental during the intra-oral transport and during the swallowing of food. This has been reported in several studies about chameleons, agamids and iguanids, nevertheless published data about the mechanisms of capturing and swallowing the prey, and the morphological descriptions about the tongue epithelium, are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to analyse the morphology of the lingual epithelium in green iguanas by scanning electron microscopy. Three different areas were demonstrated on the tongue surface: the tongue tip, characterized by a smooth epithelium without papillae, a foretongue, completely covered by numerous closely packed cylindriform papillae, and a hindtongue with conical-like papillae. Some taste buds were recognized on the middle and the posterior parts of the tongue. Different functional roles could be hypothesized for the three tongue areas: the tongue tip could have a role related to the movements of the prey immediately after the capturing, while the middle papillae and the hindtongue could have an important role concerning the swallowing phase.

  9. Energetic consequences of field body temperatures in the green iguana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, WDVM; Wesselingh, RA

    We investigated body temperatures of free-ranging green iguanas (Iguana iguana) on Curacao (Netherlands Antilles), and how metabolic costs and benefits of food processing affect body temperatures. Body temperatures of free-living iguanas were measured by radio telemetry. We also used a model, with

  10. DIGESTION IN AN ECTOTHERMIC HERBIVORE, THE GREEN IGUANA (IGUANA-IGUANA) - EFFECT OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND BODY-TEMPERATURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LICHTENBELT, WDV

    1992-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, the effect of food composition and body temperature on digestive efficiency was investigated in the lizard Iguana iguana on Curacao (Netherlands Antilles). In a series of experiments the animals were kept in cages with a temperature gradient and different foods were

  11. Textile foreign body in a Green Iguana (Iguana iguana): Diagnostic imaging for localisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebens, M; Länger, B; Günther, P; Fehr, M; Mathes, K A

    2016-11-01

    This case report includes different diagnostic imaging methods for localization of textile foreign bodies in reptiles and shows the limitations and advantages of these methods. A six-year-old, male, green iguana was presented to our clinic after ingesting a sock 5 days earlier. Ultrasound, contrast x-ray, computed tomography and endoscopy were used to locate the foreign body before surgery. Attempts to remove the sock endoscopically failed. The sock was surgically removed via celiotomy and enterotomy.

  12. [Displacements of the green iguana (Iguana iguana) (Squamata: Iguanidae) during the dry season in La Palma, Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Mávil, Jorge E; Vogt, Richard C; Gadsden-Esparza, Héctor

    2007-06-01

    The green iguana (Iguana iguana) is said to be primarily sedentary, although the females travel long distances to nest. Displacement patterns must be known to help predict the effects of environmental disturbance on iguanas' survival. We studied nesting season (February-July) movements in La Palma, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico (18 degrees 33' N, 95 degrees 03' W). Individual movements and activity were monitored by radio tracking. The transmitters were implanted surgically in eight adult iguanas (four males and four females). Snout vent length (SVL) was used to determine the relationship between size of the body and size of home range. To estimate the size of home range, three or more points were used. Minimum convex polygons estimates of home range were calculated with McPAAL. The iguanas were radio-located between 23 and 30 occasions, mainly in trees (56% between 3-9 m); only 4% were localized under a height of 3 m (forest floor). The occupation area mean was larger for males (9,158.06+/-3,025.3 m2 vs. 6,591.24+/-4,001.1 m2) although the differences were not significant (t= 0.51, p>0.05). SVL was correlated with home range (r= 0.76; gl= 7; piguanas use the riparian vegetation for foraging. The females display two strategies for nesting: 1) moving to the sandy area near the sea or, 2) laying eggs near the river, in loam. Iguanas responded to habitat fragmentation and reduction by modifying their nesting strategy.

  13. Prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. from wild and domestic green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, W R B; Amadi, V; Pinckney, R; Macpherson, C N L; McKibben, J S; Bruhl-Day, R; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2014-09-01

    Cloacal swabs from 62 green iguanas (Iguana iguana), including 47 wild and 15 domestic ones from five parishes of Grenada, were sampled during a 4-month period of January to April 2013 and examined by enrichment and selective culture for the presence of Salmonella spp. Fifty-five per cent of the animals were positive, and eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated. The most common serovar was Rubislaw (58.8%), a serovar found recently in many cane toads in Grenada, followed by Oranienburg (14.7%), a serovar that has been causing serious human disease outbreaks in Japan. Serovar IV:48:g,z51 :- (formerly, S. Marina) highly invasive and known for serious infections in children in the United States, constituted 11.8% of the isolates, all of them being from domestic green iguanas. Salmonella Newport, a serovar recently found in a blue land crab in Grenada, comprised 11.8% of the isolates from the green iguanas. The remaining four less frequent serovars included S. Javiana and S. Glostrup. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests conducted by a disc diffusion method against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal, with intermediate susceptibility, mainly to streptomycin, tetracycline and cefotaxime. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars from wild and domestic green iguanas in Grenada, West Indies. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. PHARMACOKINETICS OF CEFTIOFUR CRYSTALLINE FREE ACID STERILE SUSPENSION IN GREEN IGUANAS ( IGUANA IGUANA) AFTER SINGLE INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadar, Miranda J; Hawkins, Michelle G; Taylor, Ian T; Byrne, Barbara A; Tell, Lisa A

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) for a single intramuscular injection in green iguanas ( Iguana iguana). Six green iguanas received an injection of 5 mg/kg CCFA into the triceps muscle. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, concentrations of ceftiofur free acid equivalents in plasma samples collected at predetermined time points were evaluated up to 21 days following drug administration. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was applied to the data. The observed maximum plasma concentration (C max obs ) was 2.765 ± 0.864 μg/mL, and the time of observed maximum concentration (T max obs ) was 6.1 ± 9.2 hr. The area under the curve (0 to infinity) was 239.3 ± 121.1 μg·hr/mL. No significant adverse drug reactions were clinically observed, and no visible injection site reactions were noted. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of bacterial isolates from iguanas were used to establish a target plasma concentration of 2.0 μg/mL. Based on the results from this study, a potential dosing interval for ceftiofur crystalline free acid administered at 5 mg/kg intramuscularly for iguanas maintained at a temperature of 30°C would be 24 hr based on a target plasma concentration of 2 μg/mL; however, multidose studies still need to be performed.

  15. Characterization of pituitary growth hormone and its receptor in the green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Carranza, Martha; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) has been studied in most vertebrate groups; however, only a few studies have been carried out in reptiles. Little is known about pituitary hormones in the order Squamata, to which the green iguana (gi) belongs. In this work, we characterized the hypophysis of Iguana iguana morphologically. The somatotrophs (round cells of 7.6-10 μm containing 250- to 300-nm secretory granules where the giGH is stored) were found, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, exclusively in the caudal lobe of the pars distalis, whereas the lactotrophs were distributed only in the rostral lobe. A pituitary giGH-like protein was obtained by immuno-affinity chromatography employing a heterologous antibody against chicken GH. giGH showed molecular heterogeneity (22, 44, and 88 kDa by SDS-PAGE/Western blot under non-reducing conditions and at least four charge variants (pIs 6.2, 6.5, 6.9, 7.4) by isoelectric focusing. The pituitary giGH cDNA (1016 bp), amplified by PCR and RACE, encodes a pre-hormone of 218 aa, of which 190 aa correspond to the mature protein and 28 aa to the signal peptide. The giGH receptor cDNA was also partially sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the amino acid sequences of giGH and giGHR homologs in vertebrates suggest a parallel evolution and functional relationship between the GH and its receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although thousands of iguanas are kept as pets in the United States, information on their bites is limited. The intent of this investigation was to describe the pattern of iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers. Iguana bites reported during 1998-2008 were identified. The distribution of cases by various factors was determined. Of 59 total bites, 71% were managed on-site, 17% of the patients were at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, and 10% were referred to a health care facility. The medical outcome was no effect in 9% of the cases, minor effect in 24%, moderate effect in 2%, not followed but minimal effects possible in 64%, and unable to follow but potentially toxic in 2%. Most iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers did not result in serious effects and were managed on-site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Lesser Antillean Iguana (Iguana delicatissima) on St. Eustatius: genetically depauperate and threatened by ongoing hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Burg, Matthijs P; Meirmans, Patrick G; Wagensveld, Tim van; Kluskens, Bart; Madden, Hannah; Welch, Mark E; Breeuwer, Johannes A J

    2018-02-19

    The Lesser Antillean Iguana (Iguana delicatissima) is an endangered species threatened by habitat loss and hybridization with non-native Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana). Iguanadelicatissima has been extirpated on several islands, and the Green Iguana has invaded most islands with extant populations. Information is essential to protect this species from extinction. We collected data on 293 iguanas including 17 juveniles from St. Eustasius, one of the few remaining I. delicatissima strongholds. Genetic data was leveraged to test for hybridization presence with the Green Iguana using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, including 16 microsatellite loci. The microsatellites were also analysed to estimate genetic diversity, population structure and effective population size. Using molecular and morphological data we identified 286 I. delicatissima individuals captured during our first fieldwork effort, and seven non-native iguanas captured during a second effort, showing hybridization occurs within this population. Comparing homologous microsatellites used in studies on Dominica and Chancel, the I. delicatissima population on St. Eustatius has extremely low genetic diversity (HO=0.051; HE=0.057), suggesting this population is genetically depauperate. Furthermore, there is significant evidence for inbreeding (FIS=0.12) and weak spatial genetic structure (FST=0.021, p=0.002) within this population. Besides immediate threats including hybridization, this population's low genetic diversity, presence of physiological abnormalities and low recruitment could indicate presence of inbreeding depression that threatens its long-term survival. We conclude there is a continued region-wide threat to I. delicatissima and highlight the need for immediate conservation action to stop the continuing spread of Green Iguanas and to eliminate hybridization from St. Eustatius.

  18. Iguana farming in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Koops, W.J.; Udo, H.M.J.; Keulen, van H.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Present and former iguana farmers and neighbours were interviewed to find conditions important for iguana farming. Social aspects that facilitated it included few people working off-farm, as iguana farming was time-consuming; co-operative farming, which increases access to technical knowledge;

  19. Nematodes of the genus Ozolaimus in West Indian Iguanas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leussink, J.A.

    1958-01-01

    This paper contains some morphological and statistical data on a number of Ozolaimus populations gathered from entire specimens of Iguana iguana iguana — injected with formaline and/or alcohol for general purposes only — and from a few intestinal tracts that had been preserved separately. Further

  20. REPRODUCTIVE ADAPTATIONS OF THE GREEN IGUANA ON A SEMIARID ISLAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LICHTENBELT, WDV; ALBERS, KB

    1993-01-01

    Reproductive cycle and clutch size were studied in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) on the semiarid Caribbean island of Curacao. The reproductive cycle is correlated with seasonality in rainfall. Mating is in the first half of the dry season, egg laying in the second part of the dry season, and

  1. Proximal duodenoileal anastomosis for treatment of small intestinal obstruction and volvulus in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Sarah; Beaufrère, Hugues; Watrous, Gwyneth; Oblak, Michelle L; Smith, Dale A

    2016-11-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Exploratory laparotomy confirmed a diagnosis of small intestinal entrapment and 170° volvulus involving approximately 80% (20 to 30 cm) of the small intestine. The portion of the small intestine extending from the middle portion of the duodenum to the caudal extent of the ileum was resected, and end-to-end anastomosis of the remaining small intestine was performed. The iguana recovered without apparent complications and was reportedly doing well 1 year after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that iguanas, as hindgut fermenters, may tolerate > 70% resection of the small intestine with a good outcome and no clinical evidence of residual gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  2. Iguana-associated salmonellosis in a young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, B J; Martens, P B; Harte, J S

    1995-08-01

    Review a case of Salmonella infection in a young adult related to handling of an infected iguana. Case report. Most cases of Salmonella infection related to handling of reptiles have occurred in children. We report a case of Salmonella diarrhea in a 19-year-old male who kept a pet iguana. The iguana was asymptomatic, but Salmonella grew from stool specimens. Those who keep iguanas as pets, which are particularly attractive to adolescents and young adults, should be aware that iguanas frequently carry Salmonella. Those caring for adolescents and young adults should always inquire into the pet-keeping habits of their patients when illnesses develop.

  3. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana-light and scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapoznikov, Olga; Cizek, Petr; Tichy, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas ( Iguana iguana ). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107.

  4. XROMM analysis of rib kinematics during lung ventilation in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Moritz, Sabine; Ritter, Dale A

    2016-02-01

    The three-dimensional rotations of ribs during breathing are typically described as bucket-handle rotation about a dorsoventrally oriented axis, pump-handle rotation about a mediolateral axis, and caliper rotation about a rostrocaudal axis. In amniotes with double-headed ribs, rib motion is constrained primarily to one degree-of-freedom (DOF) rotation about an axis connecting the two rib articulations. However, in Squamata, the ribs are single headed and the hemispherical costovertebral joints permit rotations with three DOF. In this study, we used X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM ) to quantify rib rotation during deep breathing in four green iguanas. We found that rib rotation was strongly dominated by bucket-handle rotation, thus exhibiting nearly hinge-like motion, despite the potential for more complex motions. The vertebral and sternal segments of each rib did not deform measurably during breathing, but they did move relative to each other at a thin, cartilaginous intracostal joint. While standing still and breathing deeply, four individual iguanas showed variability in their rib postures, with two breathing around a highly inflated posture, and two breathing around a posture with the ribs folded halfway back. Bucket-handle rotations showed clear rostrocaudal gradients, with rotation increasing from the third cervical to the first or second dorsal rib, and then decreasing again caudally, a pattern that is consistent with the intercostal muscles in the rostral intercostal spaces being the primary drivers of inspiration. The constrained, primarily bucket-handle rotations observed here during breathing do not help to explain the evolution of permissive, hemispherical costovertebral joints in squamates from the more constrained, double-headed rib articulations of other amniotes. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Assessments of thermal antinociceptive effects of butorphanol and human observer effect on quantitative evaluation of analgesia in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Gregory J; Robertson, Sheilah A

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether butorphanol induces thermal antinociception in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and assess the human observer effect on quantitative evaluation of butorphanol-induced analgesia. 6 juvenile green iguanas. Skin temperature was recorded, and then a direct increasing heat stimulus was applied to the lateral aspect of the tail base of each iguana. Temperature of the stimulus at which the iguana responded (thermal threshold) was measured before and for 8 hours after IM injection of either butorphanol tartrate (1.0 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Six experiments (butorphanol [n = 3] and saline solution [3]) were conducted with the observer in the iguanas' field of vision, and 11 experiments (butorphanol [n = 5] and saline solution [6]) were conducted with the observer hidden from their view. The interval between treatments or tests was ≥ 1 month. Temperature difference between thermal threshold and skin temperature when iguanas were administered saline solution did not differ from temperature difference when iguanas were administered butorphanol regardless of whether the observer was or was not visible. Temperature difference between thermal threshold and skin temperature was significantly lower when iguanas were tested without the observer in visual range, compared with the findings obtained when iguanas were tested with an observer in view, at multiple times after either treatment. Intramuscular administration of 1.0 mg of butorphanol/kg did not induce thermal antinociception in juvenile green iguanas. The visible presence of an observer appeared to influence the results of noxious stimulus testing in this reptile species.

  6. Gross and histologic evaluation of effects of photobiomodulation, silver sulfadiazine, and a topical antimicrobial product on experimentally induced full-thickness skin wounds in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lara M; Mayer, Joerg; Cutler, Daniel C; Rissi, Daniel R; Divers, Stephen J

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess effects of photobiomodulation, silver sulfadiazine, and a topical antimicrobial product for the treatment of experimentally induced full-thickness skin wounds in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). ANIMALS 16 healthy subadult green iguanas. PROCEDURES Iguanas were anesthetized, and three 5-mm cutaneous biopsy specimens were obtained from each iguana (day 0). Iguanas were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups, each of which had a control treatment. Wounds in the topical treatment group received silver sulfadiazine, a topical antimicrobial product, or no treatment. Wounds in the laser treatment group received treatment with a class 4 laser at 5 or 10 J/cm 2 or no treatment. Wound measurements were obtained daily for 14 days. Iguanas were euthanized, and treatment sites were evaluated microscopically to detect ulceration, bacterial contamination, reepithelialization, necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and collagen maturity. RESULTS On day 14, wounds treated with a laser at 10 J/cm 2 were significantly smaller than those treated with silver sulfadiazine, but there were no other significant differences among treatments. Histologically, there were no significant differences in ulceration, bacterial infection, reepithelialization, necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and collagen maturity among treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Photobiomodulation at 10 J/cm 2 appeared to be a safe treatment that was tolerated well by green iguanas, but it did not result in substantial improvement in histologic evidence of wound healing, compared with results for other treatments or no treatment.

  7. Morfologia da junção atrioventricular em Iguana iguana (Reptilia-Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Jurado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The atrioventricular junctional area (AVJA, including atrioventricular (AV node and bundle was investigated in seven hearts of common or green iguana (Iguana iguana using the light microscopy. Adult animals, both sexes, were captured in the Pantanal, Brazil. All hearts were fixed in buffered formaldehyde 10% (pH 7.2 for 24 hours, embedded in paraplast according to routine methods, and serially cut at 5 µm thickness. In the Iguana iguana, the AVJA consists of a mass of the fibers intermingled with variable amount of connective tissue and blood vessels surrounded by adjacent myocardium and the attachment of the right atrioventricular valve in the fibrous skeleton. By light microscopy, conducting cells of the AV node and bundle can be distinguished from working cells by their much smaller size, paler staining reaction and the presence of a sheath of connective tissue. The AV node and bundle and its branches were found to constitute a continuous tract. Histochemically, we found elastic fibers between cells of the conduction, mainly in the AV node. The PAS method reveals absence of glycogen in specialized cells. The fibrous skeleton, mainly the right trigone, showed a well-developed chondroid tissue, made by hyaline like cartilage (binucleated condrocytes included in the big lacunas and extracellular matrix with fibrillar collagen. In conclusion, the nodal and Purkinje cells in heart iguana presented poorly morphological differentiation comparing mammals and birds, however the skeleton fibrous has a different cartilage kind.

  8. The progressive onset of cholinergic and adrenergic control of heart rate during development in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Marina R; Leite, Cleo A C; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A; Taylor, Edwin W

    2015-10-01

    The autonomic control of heart rate was studied throughout development in embryos of the green iguana, Iguana iguana by applying receptor agonists and antagonists of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems. Acetylcholine (Ach) slowed or stopped the heart and atropine antagonized the response to Ach indicating the presence of muscarinic cholinoceptors on the heart of early embryos. However, atropine injections had no impact on heart rate until immediately before hatching, when it increased heart rate by 15%. This cholinergic tonus increased to 34% in hatchlings and dropped to 24% in adult iguanas. Although epinephrine was without effect, injection of propranolol slowed the heart throughout development, indicating the presence of β-adrenergic receptors on the heart of early embryos, possibly stimulated by high levels of circulating catecholamines. The calculated excitatory tonus varied between 33% and 68% until immediately before hatching when it fell to 25% and 29%, a level retained in hatchlings and adults. Hypoxia caused a bradycardia in early embryos that was unaffected by injection of atropine indicating that hypoxia has a direct effect upon the heart. In later embryos and hatchlings hypoxia caused a tachycardia that was unaffected by injection of atropine. Subsequent injection of propranolol reduced heart rate both uncovering a hypoxic bradycardia in late embryos and abolishing tachycardia in hatchlings. Hypercapnia was without effect on heart rate in late stage embryos and in hatchlings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Flap surgery in a green iguana (Iguana iguana with a non-healing palmar wound – a case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Kocsis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this clinical tutorial report for young vets, there is presented the clinical efficiency of a common surgery technique in a non-healing decubitus inflammatory crusted and pyogenic wound to a nine years male green iguana (Iguana iguana. The wound appeared two months before the reptile was presented to control and the bacteriologic culture made revealed a massive bacterial association where Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were dominant. Consequently, the antibiogram was accomplished, the results indicating resistance to penicillin and chloramphenicol and respectively, efficacy to gentamicin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The initial treatment with gentamicin 5%, as topical application was started, but though the massive tissue destruction, the surgical way was chosen. Under anaesthesia, the area was scratched and the wound was debrided with scalpel until the bleeding occurred and skin was primarily closed with a surgical skin stapler, but this technique proven to be totally unsuited to green iguana, because of the skin’s tension developed consequently the intervention. Following, the “twisted flap” surgical technique was accomplished, we considering this way as a choice one in iguana’s case, and skin was sutured with no absorbable 2/0 nylon. After the local and general antibiotic treatment with enrofloxacin, animal was fully recovered, the suture points being removed after five weeks.

  10. Determination of lead and zinc concentrations in the blood and liver of the captive common green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Russell P; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2009-09-01

    Heavy metal toxicosis is a well-known phenomenon in wild, captive-animal, and domestic animal medicine. However, the occurrence among reptiles is not well documented. One reason for this is the lack of information regarding reference blood and tissue levels of heavy metals in reptiles. To determine normal blood lead, plasma zinc, and liver lead and zinc concentrations, blood and liver samples were collected from 4 adult and 16 juvenile, healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Lead and zinc levels were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Using the mean +/- two SD as the normal reference range, the present study suggests the following for captive common green iguana: 1) whole blood lead level: 0.06 +/- 0.06 microg/ml; 2) plasma zinc level: 2.68 +/- 1.66 microg/ml; 3) liver lead level (wet-weight basis): <1.0 +/- 0.0 microg/g; 4) liver lead level (dry-weight basis): <3.0 +/- 0.0 microg/g; 5) liver zinc level (wet-weight basis): 24.9 +/- 11.6 microg/g; and 6) liver zinc level (dry-weight basis): 83.4 +/- 44.6 microg/g. These values are fairly consistent with published reference levels in other mammalian and avian species.

  11. Effectiveness of a single application of 0·25% fipronil solution for the treatment of hirstiellosis in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana): an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmaki, Rania; Simou, Chrisa; Papadopoulos, Elias; Koutinas, Alexander F; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2013-08-01

    Hirstiella spp. are common ectoparasites of captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Suggested treatments are empirical and some of them are of low efficacy and potentially toxic. The objective of this open-label study was to investigate the short-term efficacy and safety of a single application of 0·25% fipronil solution for the treatment of hirstiellosis. The skin of 50 green iguanas was thoroughly examined with the aid of bright light and magnifying lenses. A total of 21 iguanas were found to be infested, harbouring 1-24 mites (median: 5). All 35 mites collected from 17 iguanas were identified as Hirstiella sp. Both infested and non-infested lizards, sharing the same enclosure, were carefully wiped with 0·25% fipronil solution. The safety and the efficacy of the treatment were evaluated after 2 days in 47/50 (94%) and 7 days in 29/50 (58%) iguanas. Compared with pre-treatment levels, the parasitic load did not changed significantly on the second day but was significantly lower on day 7 (P = 0·006). No adverse reactions were noticed. Based on these results a single whole-body application of 0·25% fipronil solution can be considered a safe and effective treatment for the reduction of parasitic burden in captive green iguanas infested by Hirstiella sp. mites.

  12. Tissue and plasma enzyme activities in juvenile green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R A; Wetzel, R

    1999-02-01

    To determine activities of intracellular enzymes in 8 major organs in juvenile green iguanas and to compare tissue and plasma activities. 6 green iguanas iguanas, but high values may not always indicate overt muscle disease. The AMS activity may be specific for the pancreas, but the wide range of plasma activity would likely limit its diagnostic usefulness. Activities of AST and LDH may reflect tissue damage or inflammation, but probably do not reflect damage to specific tissues or organs.

  13. Nematodes associated with Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata, Iguanidae) in Semi-arid areas of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, D A; Brito, S V; Teixeira, A A M; Ribeiro, S C; Araujo-Filho, J A; Lima, V F; Pereira, A M A; Almeida, W O

    2017-01-01

    Nematodes were analyzed in Iguana iguana, a large lizard Iguanidae that is widely distributed throughout the Americas. The aims of the study were investigate the helminths associated with the lizard, I. iguana in semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil and analyze the parasitological indices (prevalence, and mean intensity of infection). A total of 18 specimens of I. iguana were examined (8 males and 10 females). The overall prevalence of infection was 66.6% (12/18), while in males, it was 75% (6/8) and in females, 60% (6/10). Iguana iguana was identified as a new host for Physaloptera sp., Atractis sp., Piratuba sp. and Subulura sp. This registered contributes to the knowledge of helminth diversity associated with this host.

  14. Nematodes associated with Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata, Iguanidae in Semi-arid areas of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Teles

    Full Text Available Abstract Nematodes were analyzed in Iguana iguana, a large lizard Iguanidae that is widely distributed throughout the Americas. The aims of the study were investigate the helminths associated with the lizard, I. iguana in semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil and analyze the parasitological indices (prevalence, and mean intensity of infection. A total of 18 specimens of I. iguana were examined (8 males and 10 females. The overall prevalence of infection was 66.6% (12/18, while in males, it was 75% (6/8 and in females, 60% (6/10. Iguana iguana was identified as a new host for Physaloptera sp., Atractis sp., Piratuba sp. and Subulura sp. This registered contributes to the knowledge of helminth diversity associated with this host.

  15. Oral food processing in two herbivorous lizards, Iguana iguana (Iguanidae) and Uromastix aegyptius (Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, G S

    1976-03-01

    The anatomy and function of the feeding apparatus in Iguana iguana and Uromastix aegyptius were studied by dissection, cinematic and cineradiographic techniques. The feeding behavior of these species differs from that of insectivorous lizards in the cropping action involves movement of both the upper jaw around the atlantooccipital joint and the lower jaw around the mandibular joint; and in Uromastix only, streptostylic movement of the quadrate. Often movements of the whole head play a supplementary role in the cropping action. In both species the feeding apparatus has been modified to facilitate cropping. In Iguana the pleurodont dentition is multicusped and laterally compressed. Each tooth forms a shearing blade whose function does not require contact with other teeth. In Uromastix the dentition is acrodont and the cheek teeth are massive and lack cusps. Occlusion is necessary for shearing plant material. The skull system of Uromastix also has a number of modified structures which allow protraction and retraction of the lower jaw to facilitate cropping while maintaining a gape equivalent to that in Iguana. It is suggested that the differences in the feeding apparatus between Iguana and Uromastix are attributable to differeces in the mode of tooth replacement and implantation.

  16. A virulent clone of Devriesea agamarum affects endangered Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Questel, Karl; Pasmans, Frank; Brantegem, Leen Van; Philip, Pascal; Martel, An

    2017-10-02

    Infectious diseases affecting wildlife are drivers of global biodiversity loss. Here we report a bacterial threat to endangered wild reptiles. Since April 2011, a severe skin disease has affected free-ranging, endangered Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima) on the French Caribbean island of Saint Barthélemy and we identified Devriesea agamarum as the causative agent. The presence of this bacterium was also demonstrated in healthy lizards (anoles) co-inhabiting the island. All isolates from the iguanas corresponded to a single AFLP genotype that until now has exclusively been associated with infections in lizard species in captivity. The clonal relatedness of the isolates and recent emergence of the disease suggest recent arrival of a virulent D. agamarum clone on the island. The presence of healthy but infected lizards suggests the presence of asymptomatic reservoir hosts. This is the first description of a bacterial disease that poses a conservation threat towards free-ranging squamates.

  17. The mitochondrial genomes of the iguana (Iguana iguana) and the caiman (Caiman crocodylus): implications for amniote phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, A; Erpenbeck, D; Nilsson, M; Arnason, U

    2001-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two reptiles, the common iguana (Iguana iguana) and the caiman (Caiman crocodylus), were sequenced in order to investigate phylogenetic questions of tetrapod evolution. The addition of the two species allows analysis of reptilian relationships using data sets other than those including only fast-evolving species. The crocodilian mitochondrial genomes seem to have evolved generally at a higher rate than those of other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses of 2889 amino-acid sites from 35 mitochondrial genomes supported the bird-crocodile relationship, lending no support to the Haematotherma hypothesis (with birds and mammals representing sister groups). The analyses corroborated the view that turtles are at the base of the bird-crocodile branch. This position of the turtles makes Diapsida paraphyletic. The origin of the squamates was estimated at 294 million years (Myr) ago and that of the turtles at 278 Myr ago. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian relationships using the additional outgroups corroborated the Marsupionta hypothesis, which joins the monotremes and the marsupials to the exclusion of the eutherians. PMID:11297180

  18. Genetic Evidence of Hybridization between the Endangered Native Species Iguana delicatissima and the Invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae) in the Lesser Antilles: Management Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillaume, Barbara; Valette, Victorien; Lepais, Olivier; Grandjean, Frédéric; Breuil, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima) and the invasive common green iguana (Iguana iguana) in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact of interspecific hybridization on the decline of I. delicatissima. 59 I. delicatissima (5 localities), 47 I. iguana (12 localities) and 27 hybrids (5 localities), who were all identified based on morphological characters, have been genotyped at 15 microsatellites markers. We also sequenced hybrids using ND4 mitochondrial loci to further investigate mitochondrial introgression. The genetic clustering of species and hybrid genetic assignment were performed using a comparative approach, through the implementation of a Discriminant Analysis of Principal Component (DAPC) based on statistics, as well as genetic clustering approaches based on the genetic models of several populations (Structure, NewHybrids and HIest), in order to get full characterization of hybridization patterns and introgression dynamics across the islands. The iguanas identified as hybrids in the wild, thanks to morphological analysis, were all genetically F1, F2, or backcrosses. A high proportion of individuals were also the result of a longer-term admixture. The absence of reproductive barriers between species leads to hybridization when species are in contact. Yet morphological and behavioral differences between species could explain why males I. iguana may dominate I. delicatissima, thus resulting in short-term species displacement and extinction by hybridization and recurrent introgression from I. iguana toward I. delicatissima. As a consequence, I. delicatissima gets eliminated through introgression, as

  19. Genetic Evidence of Hybridization between the Endangered Native Species Iguana delicatissima and the Invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae) in the Lesser Antilles: Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillaume, Barbara; Valette, Victorien; Lepais, Olivier; Grandjean, Frédéric; Breuil, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima) and the invasive common green iguana (Iguana iguana) in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact of interspecific hybridization on the decline of I. delicatissima. 59 I. delicatissima (5 localities), 47 I. iguana (12 localities) and 27 hybrids (5 localities), who were all identified based on morphological characters, have been genotyped at 15 microsatellites markers. We also sequenced hybrids using ND4 mitochondrial loci to further investigate mitochondrial introgression. The genetic clustering of species and hybrid genetic assignment were performed using a comparative approach, through the implementation of a Discriminant Analysis of Principal Component (DAPC) based on statistics, as well as genetic clustering approaches based on the genetic models of several populations (Structure, NewHybrids and HIest), in order to get full characterization of hybridization patterns and introgression dynamics across the islands. The iguanas identified as hybrids in the wild, thanks to morphological analysis, were all genetically F1, F2, or backcrosses. A high proportion of individuals were also the result of a longer-term admixture. The absence of reproductive barriers between species leads to hybridization when species are in contact. Yet morphological and behavioral differences between species could explain why males I. iguana may dominate I. delicatissima, thus resulting in short-term species displacement and extinction by hybridization and recurrent introgression from I. iguana toward I. delicatissima. As a consequence, I. delicatissima gets eliminated through introgression, as

  20. Genetic Evidence of Hybridization between the Endangered Native Species Iguana delicatissima and the Invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae in the Lesser Antilles: Management Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vuillaume

    Full Text Available The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima and the invasive common green iguana (Iguana iguana in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact of interspecific hybridization on the decline of I. delicatissima. 59 I. delicatissima (5 localities, 47 I. iguana (12 localities and 27 hybrids (5 localities, who were all identified based on morphological characters, have been genotyped at 15 microsatellites markers. We also sequenced hybrids using ND4 mitochondrial loci to further investigate mitochondrial introgression. The genetic clustering of species and hybrid genetic assignment were performed using a comparative approach, through the implementation of a Discriminant Analysis of Principal Component (DAPC based on statistics, as well as genetic clustering approaches based on the genetic models of several populations (Structure, NewHybrids and HIest, in order to get full characterization of hybridization patterns and introgression dynamics across the islands. The iguanas identified as hybrids in the wild, thanks to morphological analysis, were all genetically F1, F2, or backcrosses. A high proportion of individuals were also the result of a longer-term admixture. The absence of reproductive barriers between species leads to hybridization when species are in contact. Yet morphological and behavioral differences between species could explain why males I. iguana may dominate I. delicatissima, thus resulting in short-term species displacement and extinction by hybridization and recurrent introgression from I. iguana toward I. delicatissima. As a consequence, I. delicatissima gets eliminated through

  1. The cardiac anesthetic index of isoflurane in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Craig A E; Dyson, Doris; Smith, Dale A

    2003-06-01

    To determine the cardiac anesthetic index (CAI) of isoflurane in green iguanas and whether butorphanol affected the CAI. Prospective randomized controlled trial. 7 healthy mature iguanas. In 5 iguanas, CAI was determined after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane alone, and in 5 iguanas, CAI was determined after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and IM administration of butorphanol (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]). Three iguanas underwent both treatments. Animals were equilibrated for 20 minutes at 1.5 times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane and observed for evidence of cardiovascular arrest. If there was no evidence of cardiovascular arrest, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was increased by 20%, and animals were allowed to equilibrate for another 20 minutes. This process was repeated until cardiovascular arrest occurred or vaporizer output could no longer be consistently increased. The CAI was calculated by dividing the highest end-tidal isoflurane concentration by the MAC. None of the iguanas developed cardiovascular arrest and all survived. Mean +/- SD highest end-tidal isoflurane concentration during anesthesia with isoflurane alone (9.2 +/- 0.60%) was not significantly different from mean concentration during anesthesia with isoflurane and butorphanol (9.0 +/- 0.43%). The CAI was > 4.32. Results suggest that the CAI of isoflurane in green iguanas is > 4.32 and not affected by administration of butorphanol. Isoflurane appears to be a safe anesthetic in green iguanas.

  2. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates in 2 pet iguanas, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Ashley M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Koski, Marilyn A; Lifland, Barry; Byrne, Barbara A; Swanson, Alexandra A; Rood, Michael P; Gee, Jay E; Elrod, Mindy Glass; Beesley, Cari A; Blaney, David D; Ventura, Jean; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Beeler, Emily S

    2014-02-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, was isolated from abscesses of 2 pet green iguanas in California, USA. The international trade in iguanas may contribute to importation of this pathogen into countries where it is not endemic and put persons exposed to these animals at risk for infection.

  3. Selected pharmacokinetic parameters for Cefovecin in hens and green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, L R; Bertelsen, M F; Brimer, L; Skaanild, M T

    2009-12-01

    The third generation cephalosporin cefovecin has been shown to have an exceptionally long elimination half-life in dogs and cats, making it suitable for antibacterial treatment with a 14-day dosing interval in these species. Pharmacokinetic parameters for cefovecin were investigated in juvenile hens and green iguanas, following subcutaneous injections with 10 mg cefovecin/kg bodyweight. Preliminary studies in eight additional species of birds and reptiles were performed and results were compared with the parameters found in hens and green iguanas. The kinetics were characterized by rapid absorption with peak plasma concentration of 6 +/- 2 microg/mL in hens and 35 +/- 12 microg/mL in green iguanas. The mean plasma half-life for cefovecin was 0.9 +/- 0.3 h for hens and 3.9 h in green iguanas. Volume of distribution was 1.6 +/- 0.5 L/kg for hens and 0.3 L/kg for green iguanas and clearance was 1252 +/- 185 mL.h/kg for hens and 53 mL.h/kg for green iguanas. Results from preliminary studies did not differ notably from those seen in hens and green iguanas. Cefovecin is not suitable for the treatment of bacterial infections with a 14-day dosing interval in hens or green iguanas and seems not to be in a number of other bird and retile species either.

  4. Selected pharmacokinetic parameters for cefovecin in hens and green iguanas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Line Risager; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Brimer, Leon

    2009-01-01

    hens and green iguanas, following subcutaneous injections with 10 mg cefovecin / kg bodyweight. Preliminary studies in eight additional species of birds and reptiles were performed and results were compared with the parameters found in hens and green iguanas. The kinetics were characterized by rapid...

  5. Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates in 2 Pet Iguanas, California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Zehnder, Ashley M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Koski, Marilyn A.; Lifland, Barry; Byrne, Barbara A.; Swanson, Alexandra A.; Rood, Michael P.; Gee, Jay E.; Elrod, Mindy Glass; Beesley, Cari A.; Blaney, David D.; Ventura, Jean; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Beeler, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, was isolated from abscesses of 2 pet green iguanas in California, USA. The international trade in iguanas may contribute to importation of this pathogen into countries where it is not endemic and put persons exposed to these animals at risk for infection.

  6. Desplazamientos de la iguana verde, Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae) durante la estación seca en La Palma, Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Mávil, Jorge E; Vogt, Richard C; Gadsden-Esparza, Héctor

    2007-01-01

    Usamos radiotransmisores para determinar los desplazamientos de la iguana verde (Iguana iguana) en el periodo de anidación (febrero-julio) en La Palma, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México (18°33’ N, 95°03’ W). Las iguanas fueron radiolocalizadas entre 23 y 30 ocasiones, principalmente en árboles (56 % entre 3-9 m); sólo 4 % fueron localizadas en el suelo. El tamaño del ámbito hogareño de machos y de hembras fue similar (9 158.06±3 025.3 m² vs. 6 591.24±4 001.1 m², respectivamente; t= 0.51, p>0.05)....

  7. Evaluation of an endoscopic liver biopsy technique in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Divers, Stephen J; Stahl, Scott J; McBride, Michael; Stedman, Nancy L

    2007-06-15

    To establish a safe and effective endoscopic technique for collection of liver biopsy specimens from lizards by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope system that is commonly available in zoologic veterinary practice. Prospective study. 11 subadult male green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Each lizard was anesthetized, and right-sided coelioscopic examination of the right liver lobe and gallbladder was performed. Three liver biopsy specimens were collected from each lizard by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope and 1.7-mm (5-F) biopsy forceps. Biopsy samples were evaluated histologically for quality and crush artifact. Ten days following surgery, all iguanas were euthanatized and underwent full necropsy examination. For all 11 iguanas, the right liver lobe and gallbladder were successfully examined endoscopically, and 3 biopsy specimens of the liver were collected without complications. Mean +/- SD durations of anesthesia and surgery were 24 +/- 7 minutes and 6.8 +/- 1.0 minutes, respectively. At necropsy, there was no evidence of trauma or disease associated with the skin or muscle entry sites, liver, or any visceral structures in any iguana. All 33 biopsy specimens were considered acceptable for histologic interpretation; in most samples, the extent of crush artifact was considered minimal. By use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope, liver biopsy procedures can be performed safely, swiftly, and easily in green iguanas. Biopsy specimens obtained by this technique are suitable for histologic examination. For evaluation of the liver and biopsy specimen collection in lizards, endoscopy is recommended.

  8. Exotic pets are new allergenic sources: allergy to iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel-Moncín, M M; Pineda, F; Río, C; Alonso, R; Tella, R; Cisteró-Bahima, A

    2006-01-01

    Although furry animals are known sources of respiratory allergy, scaly animals are assumed not to be allergenic. Exotic animals such as iguanas are becoming increasingly common pets. Nevertheless, these animals are not suspected to be allergenic. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma caused by a pet iguana. Clear IgE-sensitization and respiratory allergy to iguana scales is demonstrated, suggesting that scaly pets should be taken into account as possible allergenic sources.

  9. Desplazamientos de la iguana verde, Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae durante la estación seca en La Palma, Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Morales-Mávil

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Usamos radiotransmisores para determinar los desplazamientos de la iguana verde (Iguana iguana en el periodo de anidación (febrero-julio en La Palma, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México (18°33’ N, 95°03’ W. Las iguanas fueron radiolocalizadas entre 23 y 30 ocasiones, principalmente en árboles (56 % entre 3-9 m; sólo 4 % fueron localizadas en el suelo. El tamaño del ámbito hogareño de machos y de hembras fue similar (9 158.06±3 025.3 m² vs. 6 591.24±4 001.1 m², respectivamente; t= 0.51, p>0.05. Se encontró una correlación significativa entre la LHC y el ámbito hogareño (r= 0.76, gl= 7, pDisplacements of the green iguana (Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae during the dry season in La Palma, Veracruz, Mexico. The green iguana (Iguana iguana is said to be primarily sedentary, although the females travel long distances to nest. Displacement patterns must be known to help predict the effects of environmental disturbance on iguanas’ survival. We studied nesting season (February-July movements in La Palma, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico (18°33’ N, 95°03’ W. Individual movements and activity were monitored by radio tracking. The transmitters were implanted surgically in eight adult iguanas (four males and four females. Snout vent length (SVL was used to determine the relationship between size of the body and size of home range. To estimate the size of home range, three or more points were used. Minimum convex polygons estimates of home range were calculated with McPAAL. The iguanas were radio-located between 23 and 30 occasions, mainly in trees (56 % between 3-9 m; only 4 % were localized under a height of 3 m (forest floor. The occupation area mean was larger for males (9 158.06±3 025.3m² vs. 6 591.24±4 001.1 m² although the differences were not significant (t= 0.51, p>0.05. SVL was correlated with home range (r= 0.76; gl= 7; p<0.05. Breeding males defended their home range vigorously against other adult males. We observed one

  10. Comparison of an implantable telemetry device and an oscillometric monitor for measurement of blood pressure in anaesthetized and unrestrained green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; DeVoe, Ryan; Koenig, Amie; Gadsen, Nadia; Ardente, Amanda; Divers, Stephen J

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare an implanted direct blood pressure monitor and a non-invasive oscillometric unit for use in anesthetized and awake green iguanas. Prospective experimental trial. Four male and four female adult green iguanas (Iguana iguana) weighing 1833 +/- 534 g. For each animal, the carotid artery was surgically exposed and the catheter tip of the pressure transducer was placed in the aortic arch. Non-invasive blood pressure was measured using a cuff over the left femoral region. Pulse rate, respiratory rate and arterial blood pressure (ABP) measurements were taken every 5 minutes. Direct ABP measurements consisted of recording numerical values and graphic output. Simultaneous direct and indirect measurements were repeated in awake animals. The oscillometric device failed to provide a reading in over 80% of attempts, and failed to provide readings that correlated with direct measurements. The implanted direct transducer was capable of detecting blood pressures throughout all ABP ranges examined. The implantable transducer was a reliable means of determining blood pressure in this study, while the oscillometric device was unreliable and often failed to provide any reading. We do not recommend using the oscillometric device as described in a research or clinical setting for green iguanas. The advantages of an implantable device include the ability to monitor awake and anesthetized subjects remotely and continuously. These monitors are small, biocompatible and function across a wide range of ABP.

  11. Escape Behavior and Predation Risk of Mainland and Island Spiny-tailed Iguanas (Ctenosaura hemilopha)

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez, M.C.; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Delibes, M.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between predator avoidance behavior and predation risk by comparing the wariness of iguanas (Ctenosaura hemilopha) belonging to an island population with few predators with that of iguanas belonging to a mainland population under high predation pressure. We predicted that island iguanas would be less wary than mainland ones. Island iguanas allowed the closer approach of potential predators before their first reaction and fleeing. The responses of both sexes d...

  12. OPTIMAL FORAGING OF A HERBIVOROUS LIZARD, THE GREEN IGUANA IN A SEASONAL ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LICHTENBELT, WDV

    Food selection was studied in free living green iguanas (Iguana iguana) throughout the year in a semiarid environment, Curacao (Netherlands Antilles). Food intake was determined by direct observations and converted into biomass intake. Comparison between intake and biomass availability of the

  13. ENERGY BUDGETS IN FREE-LIVING GREEN IGUANAS IN A SEASONAL ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LICHTENBELT, WDV; WESSELINGH, RA; VOGEL, JT; ALBERS, KBM

    Using a variety of techniques we estimated energy expenditure and allocation of energy in free-living green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in a seasonal environment on Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. 1) Daily energy expenditure (DEE) was measured by means of the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, using

  14. The Lesser Antillean Iguana on St. Eustatius: 2012 status update and review of limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Boman, E.

    2013-01-01

    The endangered Lesser Antillean Iguana, Iguana delicatissima, is an emblematic species for the island of St. Eustatius and in Caribbean Netherlands it is only found on St. Eustatius. In this study we conducted an extensive population survey for the iguana and compared densities in different areas to

  15. The biogeography of threatened insular iguanas and opportunities for invasive vertebrate management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tershy, Bernie R.; Newton, Kelly M.; Spatz, Dena R.; Swinnerton, Kirsty; Iverson, John B.; Fisher, Robert N.; Harlow, Peter S.; Holmes, Nick D.; Croll, Donald A.; Iverson, J.B.; Grant, T. D.; Knapp, C. R.; Pasachnik, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Iguanas are a particularly threatened group of reptiles, with 61% of species at risk of extinction. Primary threats to iguanas include habitat loss, direct and indirect impacts by invasive vertebrates, overexploitation, and human disturbance. As conspicuous, charismatic vertebrates, iguanas also represent excellent flagships for biodiversity conservation. To assist planning for invasive vertebrate management and thus benefit threatened iguana recovery, we identified all islands with known extant or extirpated populations of Critically Endangered and Endangered insular iguana taxa as recognized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. For each island, we determined total area, sovereignty, the presence of invasive alien vertebrates, and human population. For the 23 taxa of threatened insular iguanas we identified 230 populations, of which iguanas were extant on 185 islands and extirpated from 45 islands. Twenty-one iguana taxa (91% of all threatened insular iguana taxa) occurred on at least one island with invasive vertebrates present; 16 taxa had 100% of their population(s) on islands with invasive vertebrates present. Rodents, cats, ungulates, and dogs were the most common invasive vertebrates. We discuss biosecurity, eradication, and control of invasive vertebrates to benefit iguana recovery: (1) on islands already free of invasive vertebrates; (2) on islands with high iguana endemicity; and (3) for species and subspecies with small total populations occurring across multiple small islands. Our analyses provide an important first step toward understanding how invasive vertebrate management can be planned effectively to benefit threatened insular iguanas.

  16. Vitamin D status of wild Ricord's iguanas (Cyclura ricordii) and captive and wild rhinoceros iguanas (Cyclura cornuta cornuta) in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Jan C; Maria, Roberto; Reichard, Tim; Tolson, Peter J; Chen, Tai C; Holick, Michael F

    2005-06-01

    Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) values are reported for 22 wild Ricord's iguanas (Cyclura ricordii) and seven wild rhinoceros iguanas (Cyclura cornuta cornuta). Calcitriol (1,25-hydroxyvitamin D) values are reported for 12 wild Ricord's iguanas and seven wild rhinoceros iguanas. These animals were captured as part of a larger health assessment study being conducted on Ricord's iguanas in Isla Cabritos National Park, Dominican Republic. A total of 13 captive rhinoceros iguanas held outdoors at Parque Zoológico Nacional were also sampled for comparison. Mean concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 554 nmol/L (222 ng/ml) with a range of 250-1,118 nmol/L (100-448 ng/ml) for wild Ricord's iguanas, 332 nmol/L (133 ng/ml) with a range of 260-369 nmol/L (104-148 ng/ml) for wild rhinoceros iguanas, and 317 nmol/L (127 ng/ml) with a range of 220-519 nmol/L (88-208 ng/ml) for captive rhinoceros iguanas. On the basis of these results, serum concentrations of at least 325 nmol/L (130 ng/ml) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be considered normal for healthy Ricord's and rhinoceros iguanas.

  17. Evaluation of liver parenchyma and perfusion using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Giordano; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Leopardi, Stefania; Paganelli, Irene; Zaghini, Anna; Origgi, Francesco C; Vignoli, Massimo

    2014-05-13

    Contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging techniques are considered useful in veterinary and human medicine to evaluate liver perfusion and focal hepatic lesions. Although hepatic diseases are a common occurrence in reptile medicine, there is no reference to the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) to evaluate the liver in lizards. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of change in echogenicity and attenuation of the liver in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) after administration of specific contrast media. An increase in liver echogenicity and density was evident during CEUS and CECT, respectively. In CEUS, the mean ± SD (median; range) peak enhancement was 19.9% ± 7.5 (18.3; 11.7-34.6). Time to peak enhancement was 134.0 ± 125.1 (68.4; 59.6-364.5) seconds. During CECT, first visualization of the contrast medium was at 3.6 ± 0.5 (4; 3-4) seconds in the aorta, 10.7 ± 2.2 (10.5; 7-14) seconds in the hepatic arteries, and 15 ± 4.5 (14.5; 10-24) seconds in the liver parenchyma. Time to peak was 14.1 ± 3.4 (13; 11-21) and 31 ± 9.6 (29; 23-45) seconds in the aorta and the liver parenchyma, respectively. CEUS and dynamic CECT are practical means to determine liver hemodynamics in green iguanas. Distribution of contrast medium in iguana differed from mammals. Specific reference ranges of hepatic perfusion for diagnostic evaluation of the liver in iguanas are necessary since the use of mammalian references may lead the clinician to formulate incorrect diagnostic suspicions.

  18. Evaluation of the use of technetium Tc 99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid and technetium Tc 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid for scintigraphic imaging of the kidneys in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Leah L; Daniel, Gregory B; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I; Ramsay, Edward C

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the use of scintigraphy involving technetium Tc 99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) or technetium Tc 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) for the determination of kidney morphology and function in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). 10 healthy iguanas weighing >1.6 kg. Renal scintigraphy was performed by use of (99m)Tc-DTPA in 6 of the iguanas and by use of (99m)Tc-DMSA in all 10 iguanas. After the injection of (99m)Tc-DMSA, scans were performed for each iguana at intervals during a 20-hour period. Renal biopsies were performed in all 10 iguanas after the final scintigraphic evaluation. In iguanas, the use of (99m)Tc-DTPA for renal scintigraphy was nondiagnostic because of serum protein binding and poor renal uptake of the isotope; mean +/- SD (99m)Tc-DTPA bound to serum proteins was 48.9 +/- 9.9%. Renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA produced distinct visualization of both kidneys. Renal uptake and soft tissue clearance of (99m)Tc-DMSA increased over the 20-hour imaging period; mean +/- SD renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was 11.31 +/- 3.06% at 20 hours. In each of the 10 iguanas, ultrasonographic and histologic examinations of biopsy specimens from both kidneys revealed no abnormalities. Results indicate that the kidneys of iguanas can be evaluated scintigraphically by use of (99m)Tc-DMSA; this technique may be potentially useful for the diagnosis of renal failure in iguanas.

  19. Is there an endogenous tidal foraging rhythm in marine iguanas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, M; Hau, M

    1995-12-01

    As strictly herbivorous reptiles, Galápagos marine iguanas graze on algae in the intertidal areas during low tide. Daily foraging rhythms were observed on two islands during 3 years to determine the proximate factors underlying behavioral synchrony with the tides. Marine iguanas walked to their intertidal foraging grounds from far-off resting areas in anticipation of the time of low tide. Foraging activity was restricted to daytime, resulting in a complex bitidal rhythm including conspicuous switches from afternoon foraging to foraging during the subsequent morning when low tide occurred after dusk. The animals anticipated the daily low tide by a maximum of 4 h. The degree of anticipation depended on environmental parameters such as wave action and food supply. "Early foragers" survived in greater numbers than did animals arriving later at foraging sites, a result indicating selection pressure on the timing of anticipation. The timing of foraging trips was better predicted by the daily changes in tabulated low tide than it was by the daily changes in actual exposure of the intertidal foraging flats, suggesting an endogenous nature of the foraging rhythms. Endogenous rhythmicity would also explain why iguanas that had spontaneously fasted for several days nevertheless went foraging at the "right" time of day. A potential lunar component of the foraging rhythmicity of marine iguanas showed up in their assemblage on intertidal rocks during neap tide nights. This may indicate that iguanas possessed information on the semi-monthly rhythms in tide heights. Enclosure experiments showed that bitidal foraging rhythms of iguanas may free run in the absence of direct cues from the intertidal areas and operate independent of the light:dark cycle and social stimuli. Therefore, the existence of a circatidal oscillator in marine iguanas is proposed. The bitidal foraging pattern may result from an interaction of a circadian system with a circatidal system. Food intake or related

  20. Marine iguanas die from trace oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin; Wong, Vanessa; Chevalier, Brett; Rattenborg, Niels; Snell, Howard L

    2002-06-06

    An oil tanker ran aground on the Galapagos island of San Cristóbal on 17 January 2001, spilling roughly three million litres of diesel and bunker oil. The slick started to spread westwards and was dispersed by strong currents, so only a few marine animals were killed immediately as a result. Here we draw on the long-term data sets gathered before the spill to show that a population of marine iguanas (Amblyrhychus cristatus) on Sante Fe island suffered a massive 62% mortality in the year after the accident, due to a small amount of residual oil contamination in the sea. Another population on the more remote island of Genovesa was unaffected.

  1. Prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas and potential public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, B R; Atchley, D H; DeFusco, R P; Ferris, K E; Zicarelli, J C; Lee, J H; Angulo, F J

    1998-07-01

    To determine prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Cohort study. 12 captive green iguanas. Iguanas were isolated in an environmental chamber, and fecal samples were collected weekly for 10 consecutive weeks. Samples were incubated aerobically in tetrathionate broth for 18 to 24 hours. Aliquots were then transferred to Hektoen and Salmonella-Shigella agar plates and incubated for an additional 18 to 24 hours. Isolated colonies were subcultured on nutrient agar slants, and Salmonella isolates were serogrouped and serotyped. All 12 iguanas were found to be shedding Salmonella organisms at least once during the study, and multiple serotypes were isolated from 7 of the 12. Salmonella organisms were isolated from 88 of 106 (83%) fecal samples; 21 samples contained multiple Salmonella serotypes. Overall, 11 Salmonella serotypes were identified. In 74 of 100 instances, when a particular Salmonella serotype was isolated from an individual iguana, the same serotype was also isolated from a subsequent fecal sample from that iguana. Results suggested that most iguanas have a stable mixture of Salmonella serotypes in their intestinal tracts and intermittently or continuously shed Salmonella organisms in their feces. Veterinarians should advise their clients on precautions for reducing the risk of acquiring these organisms from their pets. Public health officials trying to determine whether an iguana is the source of a specific Salmonella serotype that caused infection in human patients should submit at least 3 fecal samples collected from the iguana 1 week apart for bacterial culture.

  2. Plasma concentration of ionized calcium in healthy iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, P M; Bennett, R A; Harr, K E; Lock, B A

    2001-08-01

    To measure plasma concentration of ionized calcium in healthy green iguanas. Prospective study. 9 juvenile and 21 (10 male, 11 female) adult iguanas. Blood samples were obtained from each iguana, and plasma calcium, glucose, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, potassium, and ionized calcium concentrations, aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, and pH were measured. Heparinized blood was used for measurement of ionized calcium concentration and blood pH. A CBC was also performed to assess the health of the iguanas. Significant differences were not detected among the 3 groups (juveniles, males, and females) with regard to ionized calcium concentration. Mean ionized calcium concentration measured in blood was 1.47 +/- 0.105 mmol/L. Significant differences were detected between juveniles and adults for values of phosphorus, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, and AST activity. Ionized calcium concentration provides a clinical measurement of the physiologically active calcium in circulation. Evaluation of physiologically active calcium in animals with suspected calcium imbalance that have total plasma calcium concentrations within reference range or in gravid animals with considerably increased total plasma calcium concentrations is vital for determining a therapeutic plan. Accurate evaluation of calcium status will provide assistance in the diagnosis of renal disease and seizures and allow for better evaluation of the health status of gravid female iguanas.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of Clusia fluminensis extracts and their isolated compounds against Dysdercus peruvianus and Oncopeltus fasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Duprat

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of the hexanic extracts of the fruits and flowers of Clusia fluminensis Planch. & Triana, Clusiaceae, as well as their main constituents, the triterpene lanosterol and the benzophenone clusianone, were evaluated on hemipterans Dysdercus peruvianus and Oncopeltus fasciatus. The topical treatments of insects with the hexanic extracts significantly affected the survival of O. fasciatus, but not that of D. peruvianus. Concomitantly, extracts delayed the development of both hemipterans. Moreover, isolated lanosterol significantly reduced both the survival and development of O. fasciatus and D. peruvianus, while clusianone only reduce the survival of D. peruvianus and marginally inhibited the development of both insects. The results show the specific activity of lanosterol and clusianone against the two evaluated insect species and indicate the potential of compounds derived from C. fluminensis for the development of specific biopesticides for the control of agricultural pests. Subsequent work will examine the mode of action of lanosterol and clusianone isolates from C. fluminensis.

  4. IGUANA Architecture, Framework and Toolkit for Interactive Graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Alverson, G; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Tuura, L A; Taylor, L; Alverson, George; Eulisse, Giulio; Muzaffar, Shahzad; Osborne, Ianna; Tuura, Lassi A.; Taylor, Lucas

    2003-01-01

    IGUANA is a generic interactive visualisation framework based on a C++ component model. It provides powerful user interface and visualisation primitives in a way that is not tied to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The article describes interactive visualisation tools built using IGUANA for the CMS and D0 experiments, as well as generic GEANT4 and GEANT3 applications. It covers features of the graphical user interfaces, 3D and 2D graphics, high-quality vector graphics output for print media, various textual, tabular and hierarchical data views, and integration with the application through control panels, a command line and different multi-threading models.

  5. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana—light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sapoznikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana. Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107.

  6. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana—light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Petr; Tichy, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107. PMID:27920949

  7. Estudio embriológico de Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758 bajo condiciones de incubación controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Liliana Guzmán Lotero

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio de Iguana iguana para establecer los estadios embrionarios que caracterizan la especie, bajo condiciones de incubaci6n artificial controladas de 32.5°C y humedad relativa promedio de 90% ± 2, colectándose y fijándose 5 huevos diarios a partir de la postura y durante 67 días. El peso promedio de los huevos fue de 15.4001 g, largo 3.84 mm, ancho 2.7 mm, notándose que estos son independientes del tiempo transcurrido de incubación. El peso de los embriones no presenció diferencias significativas durante los primeros 6 estadios (periodo embrionario, a partir del estadio 7 (periódo fetal existen valores que van de 1.5834 g a 7.2323 g. 14 dimensiones fueron evaluadas en cada embrión, encontrándose que todas están directamente relacionadas con el tiempo de incubación. Se establecieron 12 estadios embrionarios para Iguana iguana teniendo en cuenta una tipificación rnorfométrica y morfológica, lepidosis, organización de órganos, proceso mandibular, grade de diferenciación de bulbos en extremidades y presencia de lengua, entre otros. Los embriones de Iguana iguana continúan su desarrollo postovipuestos con la presencia de esbozo cardíaco y hepático. Al final del estadio 8 la porción distal de la lengua se observa dividida en dos. Solo en el estadio 12 se evidencian los dientes y e! ovirruptor o diente embrionario. Los hemipenes en embriones machos, se mantienen externos durante todo el proceso embrionario.

  8. Estudio embriológico de Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758) bajo condiciones de incubación controladas

    OpenAIRE

    Ossa Velásquez Jaime de la; Guzmán Lotero Edith Liliana

    2000-01-01

    Se realiza un estudio de Iguana iguana para establecer los estadios embrionarios que caracterizan la especie, bajo condiciones de incubaci6n artificial controladas de 32.5°C y humedad relativa promedio de 90% ± 2, colectándose y fijándose 5 huevos diarios a partir de la postura y durante 67 días. El peso promedio de los huevos fue de 15.4001 g, largo 3.84 mm, ancho 2.7 mm, notándose que estos son independientes del tiempo transcurrido de incubación. El peso de los embriones no presen...

  9. Allometric basis of enrofloxacin scaling in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, L K; Jacobson, E R

    2008-02-01

    When body size varies greatly, drug disposition can best be described as an allometric function of body weight. Therefore, the allometry of standard metabolic rate (SMR; 3/4 power) and body surface area (BSA; 2/3 power) have been advocated as surrogate markers for the prediction of key pharmacokinetic parameters. The goal of the present study was to examine the allometric basis of pharmacokinetic scaling within a species, green iguanas. Enrofloxacin was administered intravenously to 20 green iguanas (322-3824 g), and noncompartmental analysis was used to calculate standard pharmacokinetic parameters, which were log(10) transformed and regressed against log(10) body weight. The slopes of significant regressions were compared with the values of unity, 3/4, and 2/3. The slope of enrofloxacin total body clearance (Cl) was also compared with the slopes relating SMR and renal Cl of (99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)DTPA) to body weight in iguanas. Enrofloxacin Cl depended allometrically on body weight with the power of 0.32. The slope of enrofloxacin Cl was significantly less than those of SMR, Cl of (99m)DTPA, and the 2/3 value. Therefore, the relationship between enrofloxacin Cl and body weight does not directly depend on the allometry of BSA, SMR, or renal Cl of (99m)DTPA in iguanas.

  10. Allometric scaling of kidney function in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lara K; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2004-07-01

    Numerous physiological parameters, such as metabolic rate and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), are allometrically related to body mass. Whereas the interspecific relationships between metabolic rate and body mass have been extensively studied in vertebrates, intraspecific studies of renal function have been limited. Therefore, kidney function was studied in 16 green iguanas, (Iguana iguana; 322-4764 g), by using nuclear scintigraphy to measure the renal uptake of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA), following either intravenous or intraosseous administration. Route of 99mTc-DTPA administration did not affect the percentage of the dose that accumulated in the kidney (P > 0.05). Renal uptake of 99mTc-DTPA was related to body mass (W, g) as: %Dose Kidney (min-1) = 11.09W(-0.235). Although not directly measured, the apparent renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA could be described as: Renal CL 99mTc-DTPA (ml.min-1) = 0.005W(0.759), and the mass exponent did not differ from either the 2/3 or 3/4 values (P > 0.05). The similarity of the mass exponents relating both renal function and metabolic rate to body mass suggests a common mechanism underlying these allometric relationships. As this study also demonstrated that renal scintigraphy can be used to quantify kidney function in iguanas, this technique may be a useful research and diagnostic tool.

  11. An overlooked pink species of land iguana in the Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Gabriele; Fabiani, Anna; Marquez, Cruz; Snell, Howard L; Snell, Heidi M; Tapia, Washington; Sbordoni, Valerio

    2009-01-13

    Despite the attention given to them, the Galápagos have not yet finished offering evolutionary novelties. When Darwin visited the Galápagos, he observed both marine (Amblyrhynchus) and land (Conolophus) iguanas but did not encounter a rare pink black-striped land iguana (herein referred to as "rosada," meaning "pink" in Spanish), which, surprisingly, remained unseen until 1986. Here, we show that substantial genetic isolation exists between the rosada and syntopic yellow forms and that the rosada is basal to extant taxonomically recognized Galápagos land iguanas. The rosada, whose present distribution is a conundrum, is a relict lineage whose origin dates back to a period when at least some of the present-day islands had not yet formed. So far, this species is the only evidence of ancient diversification along the Galápagos land iguana lineage and documents one of the oldest events of divergence ever recorded in the Galápagos. Conservation efforts are needed to prevent this form, identified by us as a good species, from extinction.

  12. Comparison of CO(2) laser and 4.0 MHz radiosurgery for making incisions in the skin and muscles of green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Divers, S J; Stahl, S J; Rakich, P M; Blas-Machado, U

    2009-01-03

    Four green iguanas scheduled for euthanasia were used to compare the extent of collateral tissue damage associated with CO(2) laser and 4.0 MHz radiosurgery. The iguanas were anaesthetised and a series of three skin and three muscle incisions was made by 4.0 MHz radiosurgery (0.18 mm wire electrode, 25 W, cut mode) and CO(2) laser (0.3 mm ceramic tip, 15 W focused beam super-pulse mode), and three incisions were made with a scalpel blade as controls. Following euthanasia, a total of 60 skin and 36 muscle sections were evaluated histologically. Radiosurgery and the laser both produced bloodless incisions, but radiosurgery caused significantly less collateral tissue damage in the skin (307 [97] v 386 [108] microm) and the muscle (18 [7] v 91 [15] microm).

  13. Foraging strategies of the Galapagos Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus Cristatus): adapting behavioral rules to ontogenetic size change

    OpenAIRE

    Wikelski, Martin; Trillmich, Fritz

    1994-01-01

    Ontogenetic development in reptiles entails major changes in size-related foraging options. We studied the changes in foraging behavior of marine iguanas. In this species, size increases about twenty- to hundredfold from hatching to full adult size. The foraging strategy of marine iguanas was studied at Miedo on Santa Fe Island in the Galapagos archipelago During low tide, large marine iguanas (>250 mm snout vent length (SVL)) foraged more in the lower intertidal than small ones (

  14. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana) , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any

  15. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzato Tommaso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be

  16. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana), common tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, Tommaso; Selleri, Paolo; Veladiano, Irene A; Martin, Andrea; Zanetti, Emanuele; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-05-11

    Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of: 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (-20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any imaging modality involving these

  17. Rates of oxygen uptake increase independently of changes in heart rate in late stages of development and at hatching in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Marina R; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A; Taylor, Edwin W

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), heart rate (f H ), heart mass (M h ) and body mass (M b ) were measured during embryonic incubation and in hatchlings of green iguana (Iguana iguana). Mean f H and VO 2 were unvarying in early stage embryos. VO 2 increased exponentially during the later stages of embryonic development, doubling by the end of incubation, while f H was constant, resulting in a 2.7-fold increase in oxygen pulse. Compared to late stage embryos, the mean inactive level of VO 2 in hatchlings was 1.7 fold higher, while f H was reduced by half resulting in a further 3.6 fold increase in oxygen pulse. There was an overall negative correlation between mean f H and VO 2 when data from hatchlings was included. Thus, predicting metabolic rate as VO 2 from measurements of f H is not possible in embryonic reptiles. Convective transport of oxygen to supply metabolism during embryonic incubation was more reliably indicated as an index of cardiac output (CO i ) derived from the product of f H and M h . However, a thorough analysis of factors determining rates of oxygen supply during development and eclosion in reptiles will require cannulation of blood vessels that proved impossible in the present study, to determine oxygen carrying capacity by the blood and arteriovenous oxygen content difference (A-V diff), plus patterns of blood flow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genomes of the Galápagos iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus and Conolophus subcristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Amy; Irisarri, Iker; Vences, Miguel; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    The Galápagos iguanas are among the oldest vertebrate lineages on the Galápagos archipelago, and the evolutionary history of this clade is of great interest to biologists. We describe here the complete mitochondrial genomes of the marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus (Genbank accession number: KT277937) and the land iguana Conolophus subcristatus (Genbank accession number: KT277936). The genomes contain 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs genes, as well as a control region (CR). Both species have an identical gene order, which matches that of Iguana iguana. The CR of both Galápagos iguanas features similar tandem repeats units, which are absent in I. iguana. We present a phylogeny of the Iguanidae based on complete mitochondrial genomes, which confirms the sister-group relationship of Galápagos iguanas. These new mitochondrial genomes constitute an important data source for future exploration of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Galápagos iguanas.

  19. The IGUANA interactive graphics toolkit with examples from CMS and D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverson, G.; Osborne, I.; Taylor, L.; Tuura, L.

    2001-01-01

    IGUANA (Interactive Graphics for User ANAlysis) is a C++ toolkit for developing graphical user interfaces and high performance 2-D and 3-D graphics applications, such as data browsers and detector and event visualisation programs. The IGUANA strategy is to use freely available software (e.g. Qt, SoQt, OpenInventor, OpenGL, HEPVis) and package and extend it to provide a general-purpose and experiment-independent toolkit. The authors describe the evaluation and choices of publicly available GUI/graphics software and the additional functionality currently provided by IGUANA. The authors demonstrate the use of IGUANA with several applications built for CMS and D0

  20. Distribution and activity of a Dippu DH31-like peptide in the large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Brugge, V A; Orchard, I

    2008-02-01

    The milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, is a plant feeding hemipteran. While there has been much research done on the neurohormonal control of the post-feeding diuresis in the blood-feeding hemipteran, Rhodnius prolixus, little is known about the control of the post-feeding diuresis in O. fasciatus. One of the neurohormones that may play a role in this rapid diuresis belongs to the calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (DH31) family of insect peptides. In this study we demonstrate the presence of DH31-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system (CNS) and gut of O. fasciatus 5th instars. As well, DH31-like material was quantified and partially purified from the CNS of 5th instar O. fasciatus using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and monitored with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). When tested on O. fasciatus 5th instar Malpighian tubules, DH31-like peptides significantly increased the rate of secretion over saline controls. The results suggest that there is a DH31-like peptide(s) present in the CNS of O. fasciatus and that this peptide may play a role in the control of Malpighian tubule secretion.

  1. Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of propofol administered intraosseously to green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R A; Schumacher, J; Hedjazi-Haring, K; Newell, S M

    1998-01-01

    To determine cardiopulmonary effects of intraosseous administration of propofol in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Prospective study. 14 green iguanas. Anesthesia was induced in 4 iguanas with propofol (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb] of body weight, intraosseously). Heart and respiratory rates, functional hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal CO2 concentration, and cloacal temperature were recorded. Ten additional iguanas were given propofol intraosseously for induction (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb] and maintenance (0.5 mg/kg/min [0.23 mg/lb/min], q 30 min) of anesthesia. Heart and respiratory rates, cloacal temperature, and SpO2 were recorded. Mean induction time for the first 4 iguanas was 1.2 minutes. A significant decrease in heart rate was seen 1 minute after induction of anesthesia. All iguanas were apneic, but spontaneous ventilation resumed within 5 minutes. End-tidal CO2 concentration decreased from 46 mm of Hg 4 minutes after induction of anesthesia to 32 mm of Hg 30 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Mean duration of anesthesia was 27 minutes. Mean induction time for the other 10 iguanas was 3 minutes. A significant decrease in heart rate was detected 35 minutes after induction of anesthesia and persisted until 120 minutes. Mean SpO2 value decreased from 79% 5 minutes after induction of anesthesia to 64% 30 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Mean recovery time was 57 minutes. Propofol is an effective anesthetic agent for use in green iguanas. It is recommended that iguanas be intubated, provided oxygen, and given assisted ventilation after administration of propofol to prevent hypoxemia and hypercapnia.

  2. The Paranuclear corpuscles in poikilothermic vertebrates: description of a new species of Pirhemocyton in Iguana iguana of Venezuela, with remarks on the nature of these organisms and their relation to applied parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Arcay de Peraza

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relations between the genera Toddia and Pirhemocyton, describing certain cytochemical reactions that clarify their nature, and discussing the position of these organisms as being of a parasitic or viral nature. A new species of Pirhemocyton is described form Iguana iguana from Mamo, Marapa (Dto. Federal of Venezuela; characterized by rectangular globoids with rounded borders. Attempts at experimental infections of other genera of lizerds indicate that the new species, Pirhemocyton iguanae, is specific to the natural host, Iguana iguana. The course of the parasitemia in the lizard is described.

  3. Epizoochory in dry forest iguanas: an overlooked seed dispersal mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Lasso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of animals as seed dispersal vectors is widely acknowledged, including dispersal by reptiles (saurochory. Most reports of saurochory have been via endozoochory, through feces deposition. We present the first evidence of epizoochory in Iguanas from a dry forest in Colombia via seeds attached to the snout. Our results show that seeds of a cactus Melocactus curvispinus ingested by iguana suffers from their passage through the digestive tract while seeds transported while attached to the snout germinate faster and in higher numbers. Our data suggest that we may have overlooked an alternative means of seed dispersal by lizards that does not comprise a passage through their digestive tract, and that deserves further attention for the understanding of dry forest ecology.

  4. Biochemical reference intervals and intestinal microflora of free-ranging Ricord's iguanas (Cyclura ricordii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Roberto; Ramer, Jan; Reichard, Tim; Tolson, Peter J; Christopher, Mary M

    2007-09-01

    Caribbean iguanas, including the Ricord's iguana (Cyclura ricordii) are ranked as critically endangered on the International Union of the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The taxon is endemic to Hispaniola, where it inhabits xeric lowlands and is found in a very limited range in two subpopulations in the southwestern area of the island. The goals of this study were to obtain and analyze plasma biochemical and intestinal microbiological data from Ricord's iguanas in the subpopulation of the Neiba Valley, on Cabritos Island National Park, Dominican Republic, and to establish biochemical reference intervals. A total of 23 blood samples from clinically healthy iguanas (16 males, 7 females) and 14 fecal samples from clinically healthy iguanas were analyzed. Adult female iguanas had higher concentrations of cholesterol, phosphorus, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, and aspartate transaminase activity compared with male iguanas, although the difference was not statistically significant. Seventeen bacterial isolates were obtained, including: Salmonella sp. (serogroup B; serogroup D negative) Escherichia coli, Brevibacterium sp., Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterococcus durans. These data will help contribute to the management and recovery of Ricord's iguana populations.

  5. Iguana production in Central America: prospects and constraints based on stakeholders' perceptions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Koops, W.J.; Udo, H.M.J.; Keulen, van H.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Iguana production in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama is a complex system with various stakeholders. In order to explore the opinions of stakeholders about iguana production, the system was discussed with two stakeholder groups: Farmers and Organizations. Organizations consisted of officials from

  6. Sterility and mating competitiveness of irradiated males of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, L.E.; Eesa, N.M.; Cutkomp, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    Low level gamma radiation adversely affected the reproductive capacity of the large milkweed bug, oncopeltus fasciatus dallas, as expressed by fecundity and fertility. Treatment was applied to late 5th instar male nymphs. Both fecundity and fertility decreased linearly with the treatment dose and complete sterility occurred when males were exposed to 6 kilorads and mated with normal females. The mating competitiveness of O. fasciatus males irradiated at late 5th instar nymphs decreased linearly with the treatment dose. A strong negative relationship existed between dose and mating competitiveness ( r = -0.93). A 3:2 ratio of irradiated males at 4 kilorads ( as late 5th instar as many progeny as normal in F 1 .2 tab.,1 fig

  7. Transovum transmission of trypanosomatid cysts in the Milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Almeida Dias

    Full Text Available Leptomonas wallacei is a trypanosomatid that develops promastigotes and cystic forms in the gut of the hemipteran insect Oncopeltus fasciatus. Insect trypanosomatids are thought to be solely transmitted from one host to another through the ingestion of parasite-contaminated feces. However, here we show that L. wallacei cysts present on the eggshells of eggs laid by O. fasciatus can also act as infective forms that are transmitted to the insect offspring. Newly hatched O. faciatus nymphs are parasite-free, but some of them become contaminated with L. wallacei after feeding on eggshell remnants. The present study is the first report of transovum transmission of a trypanosomatid, a process that may have a relevant role in parasite's within-host population dynamics.

  8. Transovum transmission of trypanosomatid cysts in the Milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo da Costa; Romeiro, Alexandre; Attias, Marcia; Souto-Padrón, Thais Cristina; Lopes, Angela Hampshire

    2014-01-01

    Leptomonas wallacei is a trypanosomatid that develops promastigotes and cystic forms in the gut of the hemipteran insect Oncopeltus fasciatus. Insect trypanosomatids are thought to be solely transmitted from one host to another through the ingestion of parasite-contaminated feces. However, here we show that L. wallacei cysts present on the eggshells of eggs laid by O. fasciatus can also act as infective forms that are transmitted to the insect offspring. Newly hatched O. faciatus nymphs are parasite-free, but some of them become contaminated with L. wallacei after feeding on eggshell remnants. The present study is the first report of transovum transmission of a trypanosomatid, a process that may have a relevant role in parasite's within-host population dynamics.

  9. Astyanax fasciatus as bioindicator of water pollution of Rio dos Sinos, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. SCHULZ

    Full Text Available The effects of an increasing downriver pollution gradient on the reproductive system of Astyanax fasciatus were investigated in the Rio dos Sinos, RS. The comparison of mean oocyte diameters, gonadal indices and gonado-somatic relationships of specimens captured in polluted areas with individuals from unpolluted reference sites revealed a significant decrease of these parameters with increasing water pollution. High loads of organic and industrial sewage are considered responsible for these effects. Condition factors showed an inverse relationship, and increased significantly in downriver polluted areas. The declining gonadal indices showed that energy was allocated to somatic growth. The results of the study recommend the use of A. fasciatus in biomonitoring essays.

  10. Astyanax fasciatus as bioindicator of water pollution of Rio dos Sinos, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHULZ U. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an increasing downriver pollution gradient on the reproductive system of Astyanax fasciatus were investigated in the Rio dos Sinos, RS. The comparison of mean oocyte diameters, gonadal indices and gonado-somatic relationships of specimens captured in polluted areas with individuals from unpolluted reference sites revealed a significant decrease of these parameters with increasing water pollution. High loads of organic and industrial sewage are considered responsible for these effects. Condition factors showed an inverse relationship, and increased significantly in downriver polluted areas. The declining gonadal indices showed that energy was allocated to somatic growth. The results of the study recommend the use of A. fasciatus in biomonitoring essays.

  11. Ultrasonographic appearance of the coelomic cavity in healthy green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Mason F; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen; Frank, Paul M

    2008-08-15

    To describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the coelomic cavity in healthy green iguanas. Cross-sectional study. 26 healthy green iguanas (20 males and 6 females). For coelomic ultrasonography, animals were physically restrained in dorsal recumbency by an assistant; chemical restraint was not used. Qualitative and quantitative observations were recorded. Structures that could be visualized in all animals included the heart and cardiac chambers; liver; caudal vena cava; hepatic veins; portal vein; gallbladder; pyloric portion of the stomach; and, when distended, urinary bladder. Visualization of the kidneys was poor. The spleen could be identified in 17 animals, and the gonads could be identified in 22, but were most easily identified in males evaluated during November (ie, during the breeding season); no females were evaluated during the breeding season. Physiologic enlargement of the testes yielded an acoustic window for the spleen by displacing overlying intestine. Anechoic, free coelomic fluid was identified in 3 animals. Measurements of overall cardiac size, ventricular wall thickness, gallbladder size, thickness of the pyloric portion of the stomach, and splenic size were obtained. Only ventricular wall thickness was significantly correlated with body weight. Results suggested that ultrasonography allowed examination of most coelomic structures in green iguanas. The procedure was easily performed and was well tolerated in conscious animals.

  12. Vertical structure use by the Stout Iguana (Cyclura pinguis) on Guana Island, BVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Christopher A.; Hlavaty, Shay; Perkins, Rebecca N.; Peyton, Mark A.; Ryan, Caitlin N.; Zavaleta, Jennifer C.; Boal, Clint W.; Perry, Gad

    2013-01-01

    The Stout Iguana (Cyclura pinguis) is a critically endangered species endemic to the Puerto Rico Bank and currently restricted to the British Virgin Islands (BVI). Our study on Guana Island, BVI, focused on vertical structure use. Based on previous incidental observations, we hypothesized that Stout Iguanas use vertical structures and that adults and juveniles use such structures differently. In October 2011, we documented movement and vertical structure use by adult (n = 4) and juvenile (n = 11) iguanas with tracking bobbins. We recorded structure types used, heights attained on structures, distances between structures, and structure sizes. We found that Stout Iguanas used vertical structure more than previously documented. Trees comprised a significantly greater (P Iguanas. Habitat management that provides vertical structure may be advantageous for the conservation of this species.

  13. Temporal pattern of foraging and microhabitat use by Galápagos marine iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttemer, William A; Dawson, William R

    1993-10-01

    We observed a colony of marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on Isla Fernandina, Galápagos, Ecuador, while measuring local micrometeorological and tidal conditions. We found size-related differences in foraging mode, with smaller iguanas feeding intertidally during daytime low tides and larger iguanas feeding subtidally. Despite having greater opportunity, subtidal foragers did not time their foraging bouts or exploit their environment in ways that optimized their period at high body temperature. Instead, the foraging schedule of these iguanas served to maximize their rate of rewarming following emergence from the cool sea. Intertidal feeders, by contrast, showed much greater behavioral flexibility in attempting to exploit their thermal environment. We suggest that size-ordered differences in marine iguana thermoregulatory behavior reflect underlying ontogenetic changes in costs and benefits of thermoregulation due to differences in predator pressure, quantity of food and electrolytes taken at each feeding, mode of foraging, and agonistic tendencies.

  14. An insight into the sialotranscriptome of the seed-feeding bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Francischetti, Ivo M.B.; Lopes, Angela H.; Dias, Felipe A.; Pham, Van M.; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The salivary transcriptome of the seed-feeding hemipteran, Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug), is described following assembly of 1,025 ESTs into 305 clusters of related sequences. Inspection of these sequences reveals abundance of low complexity, putative secreted products rich in the amino acids (aa) glycine, serine or threonine, which might function as silk or mucins and assist food canal lubrication and sealing of the feeding site around the mouthparts. Several protease inhibitors were f...

  15. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the lizard Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Squamata, Iguanidae) and the variability of sperm morphology among iguanian lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gustavo H C; Colli, Guarino R; Báo, Sônia N

    2004-01-01

    The spermatozoon of Iguana iguana is filiform and resembles that of other iguanian lizards, being most similar to Tropidurus. All sperm synapomorphies of Tetrapoda, Amniota and Squamata are present in the sperm of Iguana iguana. By reconstructing the evolution of 30 sperm characters we identified a novel synapomorphy of Iguania: the presence of a well-developed acrosomal ridge at the level of the epinuclear lucent zone. Because of the poor topological resolution among iguanian clades we could not discount the possibility of convergence or neutral selection as determinant of the variability in characteristics of the sperm cell. In agreement with previous studies, we identified heterogeneous rates of evolution among the three main regions of the sperm cell, namely the head, midpiece and tail. PMID:15198687

  16. Biochemical and microbiological evidence for fermentative digestion in free-living land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) and marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galápagos archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Roderick I; Rycyk, Mathew; Ruemmler, Rebecca L; Aminov, Rustam I; Wikelski, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Herbivorous lizards are potentially capable of high digestive efficiency, but the presence of an indigenous microbial population has been implied from measurements of activity rather than directly studied. This study is the first to provide direct biochemical and microbiological evidence for fermentative digestion in free-living land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) and marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) from the Galapagos archipelago. In marine iguanas, the stomach and large capacious colon contained ca. 32% and 60%, respectively, of the weight of total gut content. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was ca. 150 and 180 mM, respectively, for marine and land iguanas. Molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate (80.3%, 9.5%, and 3.5%) in land iguana fecal samples were similar to those for marine iguanas. Examination of fecal samples using confocal and transmission electron microscopy, as well as cultivable counts, revealed a dense and diverse population of bacteria, with spores prominent. Total culturable counts of anaerobes (2.22x10(8) g(-1) wet weight of fecal material) outnumbered aerobes on average by a factor of ca. 700. Combined, these results strongly support the contention that these unique herbivorous lizards are largely dependent on the presence and metabolic activities of a resident bacterial population in order to hydrolyze and ferment plant polymers that are indigestible to the host.

  17. Species-specific evolution of class I MHC genes in iguanas (order: Squamata; subfamily: Iguaninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-07-01

    Over the last few decades, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has emerged as a model for understanding the influence of natural selection on genetic diversity in populations as well as for investigating the genetic basis of host resistance to pathogens. However, many vertebrate taxa remain underrepresented in the field of MHC research, preventing its application to studies of disease, evolution, and conservation genetics in these groups. This is particularly true for squamates, which are by far the most diversified order of non-avian reptiles but have not been the subject of any recent MHC studies. In this paper, we present MHC class I complementary DNA data from three squamate species in the subfamily Iguaninae (iguanas): the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), the Galápagos land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus), and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). All sequences obtained are related to the few published class I genes from other squamates. There is evidence for multiple loci in each species, and the conserved alpha-3 domain appears to be evolving in a species-specific manner. Conversely, there is some indication of shared polymorphism between species in the peptide-binding alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains, suggesting that these two regions have different phylogenetic histories. The great similarity between alpha-3 sequences in marine iguanas in particular suggests that concerted evolution is acting to homogenize class I loci within species. However, while less likely, the data are also compatible with a birth and death model of evolution.

  18. The Zn Finger protein Iguana impacts Hedgehog signaling by promoting ciliogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Andrew; Wilkinson, Alex; Backer, Chelsea B.; Lapan, Sylvain; Gutzman, Jennifer H.; Cheeseman, Iain M.; Reddien, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling is critical for metazoan development and requires cilia for pathway activity. The gene iguana was discovered in zebrafish as required for Hedgehog signaling, and encodes a novel Zn finger protein. Planarians are flatworms with robust regenerative capacities and that utilize epidermal cilia for locomotion. RNA interference of Smed-iguana in the planarian S. mediterranea caused cilia loss and failure to regenerate new cilia, but did not cause defects similar to those observed in hedgehog(RNAi) animals. Smed-iguana gene expression was also similar in pattern to the expression of multiple other ciliogenesis genes, but was not required for expression of these ciliogenesis genes. iguana-defective zebrafish had too few motile cilia in pronephric ducts and in Kupffer's vesicle. Kupffer's vesicle promotes left-right asymmetry and iguana mutant embryos had left-right asymmetry defects. Finally, human Iguana proteins (dZIP1 and dZIP1L) localize to the basal bodies of primary cilia and, together, are required for primary cilia formation. Our results indicate that a critical and broadly conserved function for Iguana is in ciliogenesis and that this function has come to be required for Hedgehog signaling in vertebrates. PMID:19852954

  19. Seasonal shifts in body temperature and use of microhabitats by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, K.; Tracy, C.R.; Porter, W.P.

    1983-06-01

    Seasonal differences in the body temperatures (T/sub b/) of free-ranging Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) were detected by temperature sensitive telemetry transmitters. Midday T/sub b/'s of iguanas average 4.4/sup 0/C lower in the Garua (cool) season than in the Hot season. Measured T/sub b/'s and those predicted from biophysical models permitted the following conclusions: (1) lower T/sub b/'s during the Garua season represent an active shift in thermoregulation by the iguanas rather than a passive result of a cooler season; (2) the average midday T/sub b/ selected by the iguanas in either season is the T/sub b/ that allows maintenance of a constant T/sub b/ for the longest possible portion of the day; (3) by exploiting the warmer microclimate created by a cliff face, the iguanas are able to maintain a constant T/sub b/ for a full hour longer than they could elsewhere in their home range. Census data demonstrated that the iguanas exploited the warmer microclimate created by the cliff extensively during the Garua season, and the cliff face was visited by the iguanas relatively infrequently during the Hot season. Thus, the exploitation of the microclimate created by the cliff results in seasonal differences in the pattern of space utilization within the home ranges of the iguanas. Within the Garua season the iguanas moved away from the cliff more often on sunny days than during cloudy days. It is concluded that the physical environment is an important determinant of patterns of space utilization both within and between seasons.

  20. Demografía y ecología de anidación de la iguana verde, Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae, en dos poblaciones explotadas en la Depresión Momposina, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Muñoz

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la demografía y ecología de anidación de dos poblaciones de Iguana iguana que enfrentan explotación severa y alteración del hábitat, en la Depresión Momposina, Colombia. Los atos de transectos lineales fueron analizados con el modelo de Fourier para estimar la densidad de grupos sociales. El tamaño promedio de grupo y la densidad general de iguanas varió dentro y entre poblaciones (1.05 - 6.0 grupos/ha, y 1.5 - 13.7 iguanas/ha respectivamente. Las estimaciones de densidad fueron mucho menores que las reportadas en áreas más protegidas en Panamá y Venezuela. Las densidades de las iguanas fueron considerablemente mayores en sitios localizados a lo largo de los ríos (2.5 iguanas/grupo que en sitios en el margen de las ciénagas (1.5 iguanas/grupo, probablemente debido a diferencias en la vegetación. No hubo correlación entre las estimaciones de densidad y la de abundancia relativa (número de iguanas vistas/hora/persona, debido a diferencias en detectabilidad de los grupos de iguanas entre los sitios. La proporción sexual hallada (1:2.5 machos: hembras, es probablemente el resultado del sistema de apareamiento polígamo de esta especie, en vez de indicar un verdadero sesgo demográfico. Se monitoreó 34 nidos los cuales sufrieron poca depredación por vertebrados. Sin embargo si fueron afectados por inundaciones, pisoteo por ganado e infestación por larvas de mosca Phoridae. El tamaño de huevos por nidada en estas poblaciones fue de 29.4 menor que cualquier otro reporte de la literatura, con la excepción de las poblaciones de Iguana que habitan la isla altamente xérica de Curaçao, implicando que las hembras adultas en nuestra área son inusualmente pequeñas. Probablemente éste es el resultado de la explotación prolongada y excesiva de estas poblaciones en vez de ser una respuesta adaptativa a condiciones ambientales extremas.We studied the demography and nesting ecology of two populations of Iguana iguana that

  1. Análisis bromatológico de la carne de la iguana verde (Iguana iguana de los sectores de Minca, Bonda y Mamatoco (Santa Marta D.T.C.H. y Fonseca (La Guajira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Macías Villamizar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe determinó el contenido bromatológico parcial (proteínas, grasas, carbohidratos y minerales en veinte animales de los sectores de Minca, Bonda y Mamatoco (Santa Marta y Fonseca (Guajira.Se encontró que las iguanas capturadas en Mamatoco presentaron un relativo mayor porcentaje de proteína, calcio, hierro y potasio; en Bonda, mayor cantidad de humedad, cenizas y sodio; en Minca, mayor contenido de grasa, cloruro y calorías; mientras las de Fonseca mayor contenido de magnesio, manganeso, sulfatos y carbohidratos. Lo que convierte a la Iguana Verde en una fuente económica de nutrientes, siempre que se utilice en forma racional. (Duazary 2007; 1: 30 - 37AbstractThe contained partial bromathologic was determined (proteins, fats, carbohydrates and minerals in twenty animals of the sectors of Minca, Bonda and Mamatoco (Santa Marta and Fonseca (Guajira. It was found that the iguanas captured in Mamatoco presented a relative bigger protein percentage, calcium, iron and potassium; those captured in Bonda, bigger quantity of humidity, ashy and sodium; those captured in Minca, bigger content of fat, chloride and calories; while those of contained bigger Fonseca of magnesium, manganese, sulphates and carbohydrates. What transforms the Green Iguana into a source of nutritious economic whenever it is used in rationally.Key word: Green iguana; food habits; reptiles; proximate analysis; meat.

  2. Evolution of body size in Galapagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin

    2005-10-07

    Body size is one of the most important traits of organisms and allows predictions of an individual's morphology, physiology, behaviour and life history. However, explaining the evolution of complex traits such as body size is difficult because a plethora of other traits influence body size. Here I review what we know about the evolution of body size in a group of island reptiles and try to generalize about the mechanisms that shape body size. Galapagos marine iguanas occupy all 13 larger islands in this Pacific archipelago and have maximum island body weights between 900 and 12 000g. The distribution of body sizes does not match mitochondrial clades, indicating that body size evolves independently of genetic relatedness. Marine iguanas lack intra- and inter-specific food competition and predators are not size-specific, discounting these factors as selective agents influencing body size. Instead I hypothesize that body size reflects the trade-offs between sexual and natural selection. We found that sexual selection continuously favours larger body sizes. Large males establish display territories and some gain over-proportional reproductive success in the iguanas' mating aggregations. Females select males based on size and activity and are thus responsible for the observed mating skew. However, large individuals are strongly selected against during El Niño-related famines when dietary algae disappear from the intertidal foraging areas. We showed that differences in algae sward ('pasture') heights and thermal constraints on large size are causally responsible for differences in maximum body size among populations. I hypothesize that body size in many animal species reflects a trade-off between foraging constraints and sexual selection and suggest that future research could focus on physiological and genetic mechanisms determining body size in wild animals. Furthermore, evolutionary stable body size distributions within populations should be analysed to better

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma in a green iguana – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Knotek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3.10 kg, six-year old male green iguana (Iguana iguana suffered several weeks of decreased activity, loss of body weight, anorexia and change of skin colour. Physical examination revealed a cachectic depressed lizard, with marked pale mucous membranes. The complete blood count revealed a leukocytosis (46.5 × 109/l, elevated heterophils (23.25 × 109/l and azurophils (23.25 × 109/l, decreased haemoglobin concentration (29.00 g/l, low haematocrit (0.16 l/l and erythropenia (0.35 × 1012/l. Abnormalities of the plasma chemistry panel included increased activity of aspartate aminotransferase (6.05 μkat/l and creatinephosphokinase (217.91 μkat/l, increased concentrations of uric acid (321.58 μmol/l, phosphorus (4.04 mmol/l and bile acids (120.21 μmol/l, as well as a decreased concentration of glucose (3.72 mmol/l, cholesterol (0.637 mmol/l and triglycerides (0.09 mmol/l. A lateral radiograph revealed soft-tissue opacity present in the region of the liver. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enlarged left liver lobe distended caudally and displacing the other abdominal organs. The signal intensity of the liver parenchyma was slightly hyperintense, the ventro-medial part of the left lobe showed a hypointense signal. Endoscopic examination of the coelomic cavity revealed a greatly enlarged pale liver and the presence of a straw-coloured modified transudate. Based on histopathological examination of the liver hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed. Despite supportive treatment the patient died on the sixth day of hospitalisation.

  4. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric and computed tomographic features of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana (Iguana iguana), black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, T; Selleri, P; Veladiano, I A; Zotti, A

    2013-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity in four green iguanas, four black and white tegus and four bearded dragons were performed using a conventional CT scanner. Anatomical reference cross sections were obtained from four green iguana, four black and white tegu and six bearded dragon cadavers; the specimens were stored in a -20°C freezer for 24 h then sliced into 5-mm intervals. The frozen sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. The individual anatomical structures were identified by means of the available literature; these were labelled first on the anatomical images and then matched to the corresponding computed tomography images. The results provide an atlas of the normal cross-sectional and computed tomographic anatomy of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana, the black and white tegu and the bearded dragon, which is useful in the interpretation of any imaging modality. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Impaired ovarian functions in arsenic-treated freshwater fish, Colisa fasciatus (bl. and sch. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, J.P.; Pandey, K.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic(III) oxide (2.0 mg/l) after 15 and 30 days exposure, and 14.0 mg/l concentration after 15 days exposure, produced no marked histological alteration in the ovary of Colisa fasciatus during its mature phase, whereas 14.0 mg/l arsenic(III) oxide concentration after 30 days exposure decreased the development of oocyte (II and III stage), reduced the number and diameter of nucleoli and increased the number of atretic follicles. The possible mechanism for these alterations is discussed.

  6. The Combat System Design and Test Criteria for Iguana TM Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alper, Irfan

    1999-01-01

    ... acoustic/IR signatures. The Iguana(trademark), a tracked vehicle concept based on a recently patented suspension and track design, could deploy to hot spots world-wide on peacekeeping and combat missions which require extra flexibility to adapt...

  7. Simultaneous occurrence of Salmonella arizonae in a sulfur crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita galerita) and iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orós, J; Rodríguez, J L; Fernández, A; Herráez, P; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Jacobson, E R

    1998-01-01

    A case of fatal hepatitis in a captive sulfur crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita galerita) in which Salmonella arizonae was microbiologically and immunohistochemically detected is described. The death of the cockatoo was closely related to the arrival of a group of 10 green iguanas (Iguana iguana) at a pet shop, and no previous clinical signs were observed in the cockatoo. The most important lesion observed at necropsy of the cockatoo was a multifocal necrotic hepatitis. Salmonella arizonae was isolated from the liver of the cockatoo and was detected immunohistochemically mainly around the edges of necrotic foci. Four iguanas died 3 days later showing a severe enteritis, and Salmonella arizonae was isolated from these lesions. The importance of quarantine and, because of pathogens such as Salmonella, the need to house reptiles at a distance from avian species, mainly psittacids, are reinforced. This is the first report of Salmonella arizonae infection in a cockatoo.

  8. Physiological effects of tourism and associated food provisioning in an endangered iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Charles R.; Hines, Kirsten N.; Zachariah, Trevor T.; Perez-Heydrich, Caro; Iverson, John B.; Buckner, Sandra D.; Halach, Shelley C.; Lattin, Christine R.; Romero, L. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Deliberately feeding wildlife is an increasingly popular tourism-related activity despite a limited understanding of long-term impacts on the species being fed. As a result, tourist behaviours that may have adverse impacts on imperiled species have often been encouraged without the necessary evaluation or oversight. Here, we report the responses of Northern Bahamian Rock Iguanas (Cyclura cychlura) to human-visitation pressure and associated food provisioning. We compared a variety of blood chemistry parameters of iguanas subjected to supplemental feeding at popular tourist destinations with iguanas occurring on islands where supplemental feeding does not take place. We demonstrate that male and female iguanas inhabiting tourist-visited islands where supplemental feeding occurs do not differ in body condition or baseline stress and stress response (determined by corticosterone levels) compared with iguanas from non-visited islands. Both males and females from tourist-visited sites experienced a greater incidence of endoparasitic infection and atypical loose faeces. Indicators of dietary nutrition, including glucose, potassium, and uric acid values, also differed for both sexes from tourist-visited and unvisited islands. Male iguanas from visited islands differed significantly from those on non-visited islands in calcium, cholesterol, cobalt, copper, magnesium, packed cell volume, selenium, and triglyceride concentrations, whereas female iguanas from visited islands differed significantly in ionized calcium. Although the interpretation of these differences is challenging, chronic biochemical stressors could compromise individual health over time or decrease survivorship during periods of environmental stress. We suggest protocols that can be adopted throughout the region to ensure that supplemental feeding has fewer impacts on these long-lived iguanas. PMID:27293616

  9. Physiological effects of tourism and associated food provisioning in an endangered iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Charles R; Hines, Kirsten N; Zachariah, Trevor T; Perez-Heydrich, Caro; Iverson, John B; Buckner, Sandra D; Halach, Shelley C; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael

    2013-01-01

    Deliberately feeding wildlife is an increasingly popular tourism-related activity despite a limited understanding of long-term impacts on the species being fed. As a result, tourist behaviours that may have adverse impacts on imperiled species have often been encouraged without the necessary evaluation or oversight. Here, we report the responses of Northern Bahamian Rock Iguanas (Cyclura cychlura) to human-visitation pressure and associated food provisioning. We compared a variety of blood chemistry parameters of iguanas subjected to supplemental feeding at popular tourist destinations with iguanas occurring on islands where supplemental feeding does not take place. We demonstrate that male and female iguanas inhabiting tourist-visited islands where supplemental feeding occurs do not differ in body condition or baseline stress and stress response (determined by corticosterone levels) compared with iguanas from non-visited islands. Both males and females from tourist-visited sites experienced a greater incidence of endoparasitic infection and atypical loose faeces. Indicators of dietary nutrition, including glucose, potassium, and uric acid values, also differed for both sexes from tourist-visited and unvisited islands. Male iguanas from visited islands differed significantly from those on non-visited islands in calcium, cholesterol, cobalt, copper, magnesium, packed cell volume, selenium, and triglyceride concentrations, whereas female iguanas from visited islands differed significantly in ionized calcium. Although the interpretation of these differences is challenging, chronic biochemical stressors could compromise individual health over time or decrease survivorship during periods of environmental stress. We suggest protocols that can be adopted throughout the region to ensure that supplemental feeding has fewer impacts on these long-lived iguanas.

  10. Demography and genetic diversity of the Mexican black iguana Ctenosaura pectinata

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre-Hlidalgo, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The hunting of the black iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata) in some regions of Mexico constitutes an acute problem because mature, gravid females arc killed and eaten just before they lay their eggs. This practice thus impacts both the survival of adults and the otherwise imminent recruitment of new individuals to the population. The objective of this project was to compare the demographic behaviour and the genetic variability of two population of the black iguana, one protected and...

  11. Stress physiology as a predictor of survival in Galapagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2010-10-22

    Although glucocorticoid hormones are considered important physiological regulators for surviving adverse environmental stimuli (stressors), evidence for such a role is sparse and usually extrapolated from glucocorticoid effects under laboratory, short-term and/or non-emergency conditions. Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) provide an excellent model for determining the ultimate function of a glucocorticoid response because susceptibility to starvation induced by El Niño conditions is essentially their only major natural stressor. In a prospective study, we captured 98 adult male marine iguanas and assessed four major components of their glucocorticoid response: baseline corticosterone titres; corticosterone responses to acute stressors (capture and handling); the maximal capacity to secrete corticosterone (via adrenocorticotropin injection); and the ability to terminate corticosterone responses (negative feedback). Several months after collecting initial measurements, weak El Niño conditions affected the Galápagos and 23 iguanas died. The dead iguanas were typified by a reduced efficacy of negative feedback (i.e. poorer post-stress suppression of corticosterone release) compared with surviving iguanas. We found no prior differences between dead and alive iguanas in baseline corticosterone concentrations, responses to acute stressors, nor in capacity to respond. These data suggest that a greater ability to terminate a stress response conferred a survival advantage during starvation.

  12. The feeding ecology of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821 in the lagoonal system of Messolongi (western Greece

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    Ioannis Leonardos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821 is a small-sized omnivorous estuarine fish. Its diet is dominated by juveniles of shrimps (Palaemon adspersus, Isopods, Branchiopoda, Bivalvia, eggs of invertebrates, mosquitoes (adults and larvae and diatoms. An ontogenetic diet shift with an increase in mean prey size with fish length was observed. Smaller fish feed on planktonic prey (e.g. copepods, ostracods, nauplii of Artemia, while larger fish prefer larger and more benthic preys (e.g. ampipods, Bivalvia. The diet of A. fasciatus shows a high degree of seasonal variation, with a reduction in the feeding activity during the periods of adverse environmental conditions (winter and autumn. It is a well-adapted estuarine fish, its feeding mode and preferences depending on the preys that are available. Its feeding strategy is characterised by specialisation in different resource types (aquatic invertebrates and mosquitoes and a high between-phenotype contribution (BPC to niche width, with specialised individuals showing little or no overlap in resource use.

  13. Cytogenetic and morphological diversity in populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae from Brazilian northeastern river basins

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    Aline Souza Medrado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, morphometric and cytogenetic analyses were carried out in populations of the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae from Contas and Recôncavo Sul River basins (State of Bahia, Brazil, providing new data on the genetic structure of this species along the region. Based on morphologic measurements, we observed that populations from the same hydrographic basin were more similar to each other (Contas and Preto do Costa Rivers, and remarkably divergent from Recôncavo Sul (Mineiro Stream, as indicated by clustering analysis. Cytogenetic data revealed a same diploid number for all populations (2n = 48, but distinct karyotype formulae (8M+24SM+12ST+4A, FN = 92 in Contas River, 8M+24SM+10ST+6A, FN = 90 in Preto do Costa River, and 8M+18SM+16ST+6A, FN = 90 in Mineiro Stream. Ag-NORs were identified at telomeres on a subtelocentric chromosome pair, although multiple ribosomal sites have been detected in some specimens from Contas River. These results show that A. fasciatus populations from northeastern river basins are well differentiated and present peculiar cytogenetic features when compared to populations from other regions. Therefore, the apparent chromosomal plasticity of this species, likely to represent a complex of cryptic forms, is corroborated. Finally, we demonstrated that morphological features can be successfully used to support other sources of genetic information.

  14. Genetic architecture of conspecific sperm precedence in Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britch, Seth C; Swartout, Emma J; Hampton, Daniel D; Draney, Michael L; Chu, Jiming; Marshall, Jeremy L; Howard, Daniel J

    2007-06-01

    The evolution of barriers to gene exchange is centrally important to speciation. We used the crickets Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius to investigate the genetic architecture of conspecific sperm precedence (CSP), a postinsemination prezygotic reproductive barrier. With amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and controlled crosses we constructed linkage maps and estimated positions of QTL associated with CSP. The majority of QTL have low to moderate effects, although a few QTL exist in A. socius with large effects, and the numbers of QTL are comparable to numbers of genes accounting for species differences in other studies. The QTL are spread across many unlinked markers, yet QTL placed with linked markers are on a small number of linkage groups that could reflect the role of the large Allonemobius sex chromosome in prezygotic isolation. Although many QTL had positive effects on conspecific sperm utilization several QTL also exerted negative effects, which could be explained by intraspecific sexual conflict, sperm competition, or epistasis of introgressed genes on novel backgrounds. One unexpected outcome was that A. socius CSP alleles have a stronger effect than those from A. fasciatus in hybrid females, causing hybrids to behave like A. socius with regard to sperm utilization. Implications of this asymmetry in the Allonemobius hybrid zone are discussed.

  15. The immune response of hemocytes of the insect Oncopeltus fasciatus against the flagellate Phytomonas serpens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L Alves e Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Phytomonas includes parasites that are etiological agents of important plant diseases, especially in Central and South America. These parasites are transmitted to plants via the bite of an infected phytophagous hemipteran. Despite the economic impact of these parasites, many basic questions regarding the genus Phytomonas remain unanswered, such as the mechanism by which the parasites cope with the immune response of the insect vector. In this report, using a model of systemic infection, we describe the function of Oncopeltus fasciatus hemocytes in the immune response towards the tomato parasite Phytomonas serpens. Hemocytes respond to infection by trapping parasites in nodular structures and phagocytizing the parasites. In electron microscopy of hemocytes, parasites were located inside vacuoles, which appear fused with lysosomes. The parasites reached the O. fasciatus salivary glands at least six hours post-infection. After 72 hours post-infection, many parasites were attached to the salivary gland outer surface. Thus, the cellular responses did not kill all the parasites.

  16. Metagenomic-Based Study of the Phylogenetic and Functional Gene Diversity in Galápagos Land and Marine Iguanas

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Mao, Yuejian; Ortiz-Kofoed, Shannon; Shah, Rushabh S.; Cann, Isaac Ko O; Mackie, Roderick Ian

    2014-01-01

    affiliations of the fecal microbiome were more similar between both iguanas than to other mammalian herbivorous hosts. However, functional gene diversities in both MI and LI iguana hosts differed in relation to the diet, where the MI fecal microbiota had a

  17. Never judge an iguana by its spines: Systematics of the Yucatan spiny tailed iguana, Ctenosaura defensor (Cope, 1866).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Catherine L; Reynoso, Víctor Hugo; Buckley, Larry

    2017-10-01

    Spiny tailed iguanas are highly diverse clade of lizards in Mesoamerica, ranging from northern Mexico through Panama. Utilizing 2 regions of mitochondrial DNA (1948bp) and 4 nuclear loci (2232bp) we explored the relationships between these species and the phylogeographic history of the major clades. We discovered that the lineage endemic to the Yucatan Peninsula renders the genus Ctenosaura paraphyletic. To resolve this non-monophyly, we resurrect the taxon Cachryx Cope, 1866, and provide a new diagnosis for the genus. We also find that small body-size and highly spinose tails in the species previously referred to the subgenus Enyaliosaurus, have evolved independently 3 times. Cachryx were recovered as sister to the lineage of iguanines endemic to the Galapagos Islands, and we discuss biogeographic scenarios to explain this relationship as well as those among the primary clades of Ctenosaura in Mesoamerica. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PARÂMETROS HEMATOLÓGICOS E BIOQUÍMICOS DA ESPÉCIE Iguana iguana: REVISÃO DE LITERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Dias SILVEIRA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Iguana iguana, popularmente conhecida como iguana verde, é um réptil da família Iguanidae, encontrada no Brasil na região amazônica, região centro-oeste, pantanal e na caatinga. Estes animais possuem características intrínsecas em sua biologia e quaisquer perturbações no meio externo ou interno podem gerar repercussões importantes clinicamente e laboratorialmente. O crescente interesse por pets exóticos e a escassez de informações acerca das alterações fisiopatológicas envolvidas nos diversos processos de saúde-doença destes animais fundamentam a necessidade de maiores estudos abordando os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais com vistas a uma melhor conduta preventiva e terapêutica. O presente artigo teve como objetivo revisar os conceitos vigentes da hematologia e da bioquímica de iguanas verdes.

  19. Median effective dose of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S; Hawkins, Michelle G; Brosnan, Robert J; Antognini, Joseph F; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2006-03-01

    To determine the median effective dose (ED(50); equivalent to the minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]) of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane for anesthesia in iguanas. 6 healthy adult green iguanas. In unmedicated iguanas, anesthesia was induced and maintained with each of the 3 volatile drugs administered on separate days according to a Latin square design. Iguanas were endotracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented for cardiovascular and respiratory measurements. During each period of anesthesia, MAC was determined in triplicate. The mean value of 2 consecutive expired anesthetic concentrations, 1 that just permitted and 1 that just prevented gross purposeful movement in response to supramaximal electrical stimulus, and that were not different by more than 15%, was deemed the MAC. Mean +/- SD values for the third MAC determination for isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane were 1.8 +/- 0.3%, 3.1 +/- 1.0%, and 8.9 +/- 2.1% of atmospheric pressure, respectively. The MAC for all inhaled agents was, on average, 22% greater for the first measurement than for the third measurement. Over time, MACs decreased for all 3 agents. Final MAC measurements were similar to values reported for other species. The decrease in MACs over time may be at least partly explained by limitations of anesthetic uptake and distribution imposed by the reptilian cardiorespiratory system. Hence, for a constant end-tidal anesthetic concentration in an iguana, the plane of anesthesia may deepen over time, which could contribute to increased morbidity during prolonged procedures.

  20. Physiological and ecological consequences of sleeping-site selection by the Galapagos land iguana (Conolophus pallidus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, K.A.; Tracy, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Field observations and biophysical models were combined to analyze sleeping-site selection by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus). Iguanas slept in different kinds of sleeping sites during different seasons. In the coolest season (garua), adult land iguanas were found in sleeping sites that were warmer than the coolest sites available. This may be because the garua season (cool, overcast, and foggy) is a time when environmental conditions mitigate against rapid warm-up in the mornings, so lizards may regulate nighttime body temperatures so that it is easier to warm up to preferred daytime body temperatures. In the warmest season, adult iguanas were found in the coolest sleeping sites available. This observation is consistent with hypotheses of voluntary hypothermia, which can be advantageous in energy conservation and in avoiding detrimental effects associated with maintenance of constant body temperatures throughout the day and night. Juvenile iguanas were found sleeping in rock crevices regardless of the ambient thermal environments. Such sites are likely to be important as refugia for this life stage, which, unlike the adult stage, is vulnerable to predation. It was concluded that selection of sleeping sites is a process that may help in avoidance of predation, optimization of body temperature at the end of the sleeping period, and reduction of metabolic costs during sleeping. The importance of some of these factors may change with the thermal milieu (e.g., season).

  1. Alfred Russel Wallace and the destruction of island life: the Iguana tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Kleinhans, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) are usually associated with the explorations and theoretical deductions of Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), but Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) also investigated these islands and published several reports on the living world of this unique archipelago. In contrast to Darwin, Wallace described the destruction of natural ecosystems by humans and foresaw the resulting extinction of species. Here, we outline two case studies pertinent to Wallace's prediction. First, we summarize the behavior of the predator-naive marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galápagos Islands, which are threatened by feral dogs and cats imported by humans. We also describe the unique life cycle of the spiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura bakeri) from the island of Utila (Honduras), a rare species whose populations are declining because of habitat destructions. In contrast to these threatened, endemic island species, the Green iguana (Iguana iguana) is still widely distributed, although, as a result of de-forestation, in some areas of South America local populations have disappeared. We conclude that Wallace was correct in his prediction that, because of human activities, numerous species of animals and plants will be driven to extinction, notably on islands.

  2. An insight into the sialotranscriptome of the seed-feeding bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, Ivo M B; Lopes, Angela H; Dias, Felipe A; Pham, Van M; Ribeiro, José M C

    2007-09-01

    The salivary transcriptome of the seed-feeding hemipteran, Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug), is described following assembly of 1025 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) into 305 clusters of related sequences. Inspection of these sequences reveals abundance of low complexity, putative secreted products rich in the amino acids (aa) glycine, serine or threonine, which might function as silk or mucins and assist food canal lubrication and sealing of the feeding site around the mouthparts. Several protease inhibitors were found, including abundant expression of cystatin transcripts that may inhibit cysteine proteases common in seeds that might injure the insect or induce plant apoptosis. Serine proteases and lipases are described that might assist digestion and liquefaction of seed proteins and oils. Finally, several novel putative proteins are described with no known function that might affect plant physiology or act as antimicrobials.

  3. Environmental pollution affects molecular and biochemical responses during gonadal maturation of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolussi, Carlos E; Gomes, Aline D Olio; Kumar, Anupama; Ribeiro, Cristiele S; Nostro, Fabiana L Lo; Bain, Peter A; de Souza, Gabriela B; Cuña, Rodrigo Da; Honji, Renato M; Moreira, Renata G

    2018-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have the potential to alter fish reproduction at various levels of organization. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a natural environment with heavily anthropogenic influence on the physiological processes involved in reproduction in the freshwater fish lambari (Astyanax fasciatus) using different biomarkers. Adult males and females were collected in different seasons from two distinct sites in the same watershed: Ponte Nova Reservoir (PN) considered a pristine or small anthropogenic influence reference point; and Billings Reservoir (Bil), subjected to a large anthropogenic impact. Biological indices, such as hepatosomatic index and gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal histomorphology, fecundity, and biomarkers such as plasma levels of estradiol (E2) as well as hepatic gene expression of its alfa nuclear receptor (ERα), were analyzed. Hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression was evaluated in both sexes, as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. Females collected at PN presented a typical annual variation reflected in GSI, whereas for those sampled at Bil the index did not change through the seasons. The higher concentration of E2 in males collected at Bil during spring/2013, together with the detection of VTG gene expression, suggest the presence of EDCs in the water. These EDCs may have also influenced fecundity of females from Bil, which was higher during winter and spring/2013. Gene expression of ERα and ovarian morphology did not differ between fish from both sites. Water conditions from Bil reservoir impacted by anthropic activity clearly interfered mainly with biomarkers of biological effect such as plasma E2 levels and absolute and relative fecundity, but also altered biomarkers of exposure as VTG gene expression. These facts support the notion that waterborne EDCs are capable of causing estrogenic activity in A. fasciatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of dynamic energy budget parameters for the Mediterranean toothcarp (Aphanius fasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Lika, K.; Sanfilippo, M.; Manganaro, A.; Sarà, G.

    2014-11-01

    Organisms adopt different sets of physiological, behavioural and morphological trade-offs in order to cope with natural environmental fluctuations. This has consequential rebounds on ecological processes and population dynamics. Such aspects become crucial for sex-dimorphic species, where sex-specific growth variation could mirror different tactics both in energy acquisition and investment between maximum female and male body size with cascading effects on population demography. To date, different approaches have been used in order to understand the causes of individual growth rate changes in ectotherm indeterminate growers, most of which failed. Here, we propose the use of a mechanistic model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB; Koojiman, 2010) to investigate potential differences in energy allocation strategies adopted by individuals of different genders with the Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) as the model species. We collected literature and field data in order to study differences in energy allocation strategies between females and males of the same species by generating projections of possible growth performances: (1) throughout their entire life span and (2) under a context of varying functional responses. Generally, the present exercise of simulations returned different patterns of growth performance among females and males of A. fasciatus, with the former being able to better optimize energetic trade-offs under optimal environmental conditions. The present DEB parameterization exercise represents an essential step towards developing a mechanistic approach to depict metabolic strategies, which are at the base of observed sexual differences, and how such differences may impair ultimate fitness at individual and, therefore, population levels.

  5. Physiological ecology of desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) eggs: temperature and water relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, A.

    1980-12-01

    The soil environment imposes constraints on the timing of oviposition and the location of suitable sites for egg burrows of the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). The effects of temperature and water potential on the developmental period and hatching success of eggs were determined. Eggs hatch normally between 28/sup 0/ and 38/sup 0/C at environmental water potentials between -50 and -1500 kPa. Predictions were derived for the timing and placement of egg clutches based on soil water potential and temperature profiles measured in the field and on the results of laboratory incubation experiments. The results suggest that egg burrows should be located at depths >22 cm in washes or possibly in sparsely vegetated areas away from creosote bushes. The biogeography of desert iguanas within the United States is discussed in relation to soil environments and tolerances of eggs. The physical factors affecting incubation may limit the geographical range of desert iguanas.

  6. Effect of lysine addition on growth of black iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Juan José Ortiz; Luis, Arcos-García José; Martínez, Germán D Mendoza; Pérez, Fernando Xicoténcatl Plata; Mascorro, Gisela Fuentes; Inzunza, Gabriela Ruelas

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the addition of lysine to commercial feed given to captive black iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata) were evaluated in terms of growth and feed digestibility. Twenty-eight-day-old black iguana with an initial weight of 5.5 ± 0.3 g were housed individually in cages measuring 45 × 45 × 45 cm. The experiment lasted 150 days. The ambient temperature ranged from 28 to 35°C with a relative humidity of 60 to 95%. Treatments consisted of the addition of different percentages of lysine to the feed (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%, dry matter [DM] base). There was a linear response (P iguana diet in the first months of life is important to stimulate growth and intake. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Blood gases, biochemistry and haematology of Gal?pagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Lewbart, Gregory A.; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Brothers, J. Roger; Mu?oz-P?rez, Juan Pablo; Denkinger, Judith; Vinueza, Luis; Garc?a, Juan; Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is an iconic lizard endemic to the Gal?pagos Islands of Ecuador, but surprisingly little information exists on baseline health parameters for this species. We analysed blood samples drawn from 35 marine iguanas captured at three locations on San Crist?bal Island. A portable blood analyser (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for pH, lactate, partial pressure of O2, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3 ?), percentage O2 satur...

  8. Ceruleotoxin: identification in the venom of Bungarus fasciatus, molecular properties and importance of phospholipase A2 activity for neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, C; Saliou, B

    1983-01-01

    Ceruleotoxin is a potent neurotoxin which was originally purified from a batch of venom labelled Bungarus caeruleus, from the Pasteur Institute. Since NOBLE et al. have shown that this batch differs in its protein composition from that of B. caeruleus provided by Miami Serpentarium, we decided to clarify this point by comparing the composition of venoms from various Bungarus species of several origins. Although individual variations exist between samples of the same species, the venom from B. multicinctus, B. caeruleus and B. fasciatus possess characteristic protein compositions which allowed us to identify the batch used to purify ceruleotoxin as a B. fasciatus venom. We identified and purified ceruleotoxin from each of the five samples of B. fasciatus venoms tested. We failed to find this neurotoxin in either B. multicinctus or B. caeruleus venoms. Purified ceruleotoxin is a slightly basic protein with an isoelectric point of 7.4 which possesses a significant phospholipase A2 activity (200 mumoles lecithin hydrolyzed per min per mg) and a high lethal potency (i.v. LD50 in mice 0.03-0.07 mg/kg). It is composed of two identical subunits of 13,000 mol. wt. which resemble pancreas and snake venom phospholipases in their amino acid composition. Like crotoxin, ceruleotoxin irreversibly blocks the postsynaptic response of Torpedo and Electrophorus electroplaques to cholinergic agonists without preventing the binding of acetylcholine to its receptor. By hydrolyzing critical lipids of the postsynaptic membrane, it stabilizes the acetylcholine receptor - ionophore assembly in a desensitized state.

  9. Diversity of compounds in femoral secretions of Galápagos iguanas (genera: Amblyrhynchus and Conolophus), and their potential role in sexual communication in lek-mating marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Menke, Markus; Quezada, Galo; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Schulz, Stefan; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Chemical signals are widely used in the animal kingdom, enabling communication in various social contexts, including mate selection and the establishment of dominance. Femoral glands, which produce and release waxy secretions into the environment, are organs of central importance in lizard chemical communication. The Galápagos marine iguana ( Amblyrhynchus cristatus ) is a squamate reptile with a lek-mating system. Although the lekking behaviour of marine iguanas has been well-studied, their potential for sexual communication via chemical cues has not yet been investigated. Here we describe the diversity of the lipophilic fraction of males' femoral gland secretions among 11 island populations of marine iguanas, and compare it with the composition of its sister species, the Galápagos land iguana ( Conolophus subcristatus ). We also conducted behavioural observations in marine iguana territorial males in order to explore the possible function of these substances in the context of male dominance in leks. Femoral secretions were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) in order to characterise the lipophilic composition. To understand the potential role of femoral secretions in marine iguana intraspecific communication, territorial males were sampled for their femoral glands and monitored to record their head bob rate-a territorial display behaviour in males-as well as the number of females present in their leks. We found that the gland secretions were composed of ten saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids ranging in chain length between C 16 and C 24 , as well as three sterols. Cholesterol was the main compound found. Intriguingly, land iguanas have a higher diversity of lipophilic compounds, with structural group of lipids (i.e. aldehydes) entirely absent in marine iguanas; overall the chemical signals of both species were strongly differentiated. Lipid profiles also

  10. I WHATSAPP AN IGUANA: AN ATTEMPT TO APPLY UBIQUITOUS LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Haryanti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting how Whatsapp provides alternative method to enhance writing skills on personal letter for senior high school student. This method Whatsapps inspired by the concept called ubiquitous learning (U-Learning, which means ―learning supported by ICT resources held anytime, anywhere and fits the context of the learner‖ (de Sousa Monteiro et al., 2014. Participants were 40 11-th grade students in one class in Cirebon High School. A short story in the form of personal letter entitled I Wanna Iguana by Karen Kaufman Orloff was used as main learning source and the mobile version of the story was sent to the class Whatsapp group along with the reading comprehension questions and the personal letter template. The study was conducted for three weeks in the middle of the second semester year 2017. Contrary to the basic face-to-face teaching and learning, the using of Whatsapp group demonstrates how mobile technology can be fully integrated in an educational context to support students‘ learning beyond the classroom. Another advantages of using Whatsapp group is the fact that learning become the responsibility of learners and may take place through observation, trial and error, asking for help, conversing with others, reading to stories, reflecting on a one‘s personal event, or stimulated by general interests

  11. The distribution and function of serotonin in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. a comparative study with the blood-feeding bug, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiani, L; Orchard, I; TeBrugge, V

    1999-11-01

    The blood-feeding hemipteran, Rhodnius prolixus, ingests a large blood meal at the end of each larval stage. To accommodate and process this meal, its cuticle undergoes plasticisation, and its gut and Malpighian tubules respectively absorb and secrete a large volume of water and salts for rapid diuresis. Serotonin has been found to be integral to the feeding process in this animal, along with a diuretic peptide(s). The large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, tends to feed in a more continuous and abstemious manner, and therefore may have different physiological requirements than the blood feeder. Unlike R. prolixus, O. fasciatus is lacking serotonin-like immunoreactive dorsal unpaired median neurons in the mesothoracic ganglionic mass, and lacks serotonin-like immunoreactive neurohaemal areas and processes on the abdominal nerves, integument, salivary glands, and anterior junction of the foregut and crop. The salivary glands and crop do, however, respond to serotonin with increased levels of cAMP, while the integument and Malpighian tubules do not. In addition, O. fasciatus Malpighian tubules respond to both O. fasciatus and R. prolixus partially purified CNS extracts, which are likely to contain any native diuretic peptides. Thus, while serotonin and diuretic peptides may be involved in tubule control in R. prolixus, the latter may be of greater importance in O. fasciatus.

  12. The maternal and early embryonic transcriptome of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen-Campen, Ben; Shaner, Nathan; Panfilio, Kristen A; Suzuki, Yuichiro; Roth, Siegfried; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2011-01-25

    Most evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo") studies of emerging model organisms focus on small numbers of candidate genes cloned individually using degenerate PCR. However, newly available sequencing technologies such as 454 pyrosequencing have recently begun to allow for massive gene discovery in animals without sequenced genomes. Within insects, although large volumes of sequence data are available for holometabolous insects, developmental studies of basally branching hemimetabolous insects typically suffer from low rates of gene discovery. We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence over 500 million bases of cDNA from the ovaries and embryos of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, which lacks a sequenced genome. This indirectly developing insect occupies an important phylogenetic position, branching basal to Diptera (including fruit flies) and Hymenoptera (including honeybees), and is an experimentally tractable model for short-germ development. 2,087,410 reads from both normalized and non-normalized cDNA assembled into 21,097 sequences (isotigs) and 112,531 singletons. The assembled sequences fell into 16,617 unique gene models, and included predictions of splicing isoforms, which we examined experimentally. Discovery of new genes plateaued after assembly of ~1.5 million reads, suggesting that we have sequenced nearly all transcripts present in the cDNA sampled. Many transcripts have been assembled at close to full length, and there is a net gain of sequence data for over half of the pre-existing O. fasciatus accessions for developmental genes in GenBank. We identified 10,775 unique genes, including members of all major conserved metazoan signaling pathways and genes involved in several major categories of early developmental processes. We also specifically address the effects of cDNA normalization on gene discovery in de novo transcriptome analyses. Our sequencing, assembly and annotation framework provide a simple and effective way to achieve high

  13. The maternal and early embryonic transcriptome of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus

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    Roth Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo" studies of emerging model organisms focus on small numbers of candidate genes cloned individually using degenerate PCR. However, newly available sequencing technologies such as 454 pyrosequencing have recently begun to allow for massive gene discovery in animals without sequenced genomes. Within insects, although large volumes of sequence data are available for holometabolous insects, developmental studies of basally branching hemimetabolous insects typically suffer from low rates of gene discovery. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence over 500 million bases of cDNA from the ovaries and embryos of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, which lacks a sequenced genome. This indirectly developing insect occupies an important phylogenetic position, branching basal to Diptera (including fruit flies and Hymenoptera (including honeybees, and is an experimentally tractable model for short-germ development. 2,087,410 reads from both normalized and non-normalized cDNA assembled into 21,097 sequences (isotigs and 112,531 singletons. The assembled sequences fell into 16,617 unique gene models, and included predictions of splicing isoforms, which we examined experimentally. Discovery of new genes plateaued after assembly of ~1.5 million reads, suggesting that we have sequenced nearly all transcripts present in the cDNA sampled. Many transcripts have been assembled at close to full length, and there is a net gain of sequence data for over half of the pre-existing O. fasciatus accessions for developmental genes in GenBank. We identified 10,775 unique genes, including members of all major conserved metazoan signaling pathways and genes involved in several major categories of early developmental processes. We also specifically address the effects of cDNA normalization on gene discovery in de novo transcriptome analyses. Conclusions Our sequencing, assembly and annotation framework

  14. Phylogeography of the endangered Lesser Antillean iguana, Iguana delicatissima: a recent diaspora in an archipelago known for ancient herpetological endemism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica L; Knapp, Charles R; Gerber, Glenn P; Thorpe, Roger S; Welch, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Iguana delicatissima is an endangered endemic of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. Phylogeographic analyses for many terrestrial vertebrate species in the Caribbean, particularly lizards, suggest ancient divergence times. Often, the closest relatives of species are found on the same island, indicating that colonization rates are so low that speciation on islands is often more likely to generate biodiversity than subsequent colonization events. Mitochondrial sequence analysis of the region spanning ND4 was performed on I. delicatissima individuals from islands across the species' range to estimate genetic divergence among geographically isolated populations. Five unique haplotypes were recovered from 46 individuals. The majority of animals carry a single common haplotype. Two of the haplotypes were only present in individuals classified as hybrids from Îles des Saintes. The final 2 haplotypes, single nucleotide substitutions, were present in animals from Îlet Chancel of Martinique and Saint Barthélemy, respectively. Despite the great distances between islands and habitat heterogeneity within islands, this species is characterized by low haplotype diversity. The low mtDNA variation of I. delicatissima suggests a single colonization coupled with rapid range expansion, potentially hastened by human-mediated dispersal. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. An overlooked pink species of land iguana in the Galápagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Gabriele; Fabiani, Anna; Marquez, Cruz; Snell, Howard L.; Snell, Heidi M.; Tapia, Washington; Sbordoni, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    Despite the attention given to them, the Galápagos have not yet finished offering evolutionary novelties. When Darwin visited the Galápagos, he observed both marine (Amblyrhynchus) and land (Conolophus) iguanas but did not encounter a rare pink black-striped land iguana (herein referred to as “rosada,” meaning “pink” in Spanish), which, surprisingly, remained unseen until 1986. Here, we show that substantial genetic isolation exists between the rosada and syntopic yellow forms and that the rosada is basal to extant taxonomically recognized Galápagos land iguanas. The rosada, whose present distribution is a conundrum, is a relict lineage whose origin dates back to a period when at least some of the present-day islands had not yet formed. So far, this species is the only evidence of ancient diversification along the Galápagos land iguana lineage and documents one of the oldest events of divergence ever recorded in the Galápagos. Conservation efforts are needed to prevent this form, identified by us as a good species, from extinction. PMID:19124773

  16. Cretaceous park of sex determination: sex chromosomes are conserved across iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-03-01

    Many poikilothermic vertebrate lineages, especially among amphibians and fishes, possess a rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, while in endotherms there is a notable stability of sex chromosomes. Reptiles in general exhibit variability in sex-determining systems; as typical poikilotherms, they might be expected to have a rapid turnover of sex chromosomes. However, molecular data which would enable the testing of the stability of sex chromosomes are lacking in most lineages. Here, we provide molecular evidence that sex chromosomes are highly conserved across iguanas, one of the most species-rich clade of reptiles. We demonstrate that members of the New World families Iguanidae, Tropiduridae, Leiocephalidae, Phrynosomatidae, Dactyloidae and Crotaphytidae, as well as of the family Opluridae which is restricted to Madagascar, all share homologous sex chromosomes. As our sampling represents the majority of the phylogenetic diversity of iguanas, the origin of iguana sex chromosomes can be traced back in history to the basal splitting of this group which occurred during the Cretaceous period. Iguanas thus show a stability of sex chromosomes comparable to mammals and birds and represent the group with the oldest sex chromosomes currently known among amniotic poikilothermic vertebrates.

  17. Effects of foraging mode and season on the energetics of the Marine Iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, J; Lichtenbelt, WDV; Wikelski, M

    1, Marine Iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) inhabiting the rocky shores of the Galapagos Islands apply two foraging strategies, intertidal and subtidal foraging, in a seasonal climate. Effects of both foraging strategy and seasonality on the daily energy expenditure (DEE) were measured using doubly

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of a Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Isolated from a Pet Green Iguana in Prague, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Prasad; El-Adawy, Hosny; Mertens, Katja; Melzer, Falk; Hnizdo, Jan; Stamm, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from pus from an abscess of a pet iguana living in a private household in Prague, Czech Republic. This paper presents the complete genome sequence of B. pseudomallei strain VB976100. PMID:28280033

  19. Niche expansion, body size, and survival in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, M; Wrege, Peter H

    2000-07-01

    Foraging theory predicts that dietary niche breadth should expand as resource availability decreases. However, Galápagos marine iguanas often die during algae shortages (El Niños) although land plants abound where they rest and reproduce. On Seymour Norte island, a subpopulation of iguanas exhibited unique foraging behavior: they consistently included the succulent beach plant B. maritima in their diet. We investigated the consequences of land-plant feeding for body size and survival. Batis-eaters supplemented their algae diet both before and after intertidal zone foraging, and more Batis was eaten during tides unfavorable for intertidal zone foraging (dawn and dusk). Larger, energy-constrained iguanas fed more on land than did smaller animals. Compared to intertidal zone algae, Batis was 39% lower in caloric content (1.6 vs. 2.6 kcal g -1 dry mass), 56% lower in protein (8.3 vs. 18.9% dry mass) and 57% lower in nitrogen (1.3 vs. 3.0% dry mass). In spite of its lower nutrient value, iguanas that supplemented their diet with this plant were able to attain nearly twice the body size of other iguanas on the island. Age estimates indicate that many Batis-eaters survived repeated El Niño episodes during which animals of their relative size-class experienced high mortality on other islands. The larger animals were, however, completely dependent upon this supplementary source of food to maintain condition, and all perished in the 1997-1998 El Niño when high tides inundated and killed Batis on Seymour Norte Island. We hypothesize that Batis feeding developed as a local foraging tradition, and that dietary conservatism and strong foraging site fidelity explain why the inclusion of land plants in the diet has been observed in only a single population. Ultimately, a unique algae-adapted hindgut morphology and physiology may limit a switch from marine to terrestrial diet.

  20. Dynamics of growth zone patterning in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auman, Tzach; Vreede, Barbara M I; Weiss, Aryeh; Hester, Susan D; Williams, Terri A; Nagy, Lisa M; Chipman, Ariel D

    2017-05-15

    We describe the dynamic process of abdominal segment generation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus We present detailed morphological measurements of the growing germband throughout segmentation. Our data are complemented by cell division profiles and expression patterns of key genes, including invected and even-skipped as markers for different stages of segment formation. We describe morphological and mechanistic changes in the growth zone and in nascent segments during the generation of individual segments and throughout segmentation, and examine the relative contribution of newly formed versus existing tissue to segment formation. Although abdominal segment addition is primarily generated through the rearrangement of a pool of undifferentiated cells, there is nonetheless proliferation in the posterior. By correlating proliferation with gene expression in the growth zone, we propose a model for growth zone dynamics during segmentation in which the growth zone is functionally subdivided into two distinct regions: a posterior region devoted to a slow rate of growth among undifferentiated cells, and an anterior region in which segmental differentiation is initiated and proliferation inhibited. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect

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    Ben Ewen-Campen

    2013-04-01

    Primordial germ cell (PGC formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this “germ plasm” acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects.

  2. Early patterning and blastodermal fate map of the head in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkan, Michael; Schaeper, Nina D; Chipman, Ariel D

    2011-01-01

    The process of head development in insects utilizes a set of widely conserved genes, but this process and its evolution are not well understood. Recent data from Tribolium castaneum have provided a baseline for an understanding of insect head development. However, work on a wider range of insect species, including members of the hemimetabolous orders, is needed in order to draw general conclusions about the evolution of head differentiation and regionalization. We have cloned and studied the expression and function of a number of candidate genes for head development in the hemipteran Oncopeltus fasciatus. These include orthodenticle, empty spiracles, collier, cap 'n' collar, and crocodile. The expression patterns of these genes show a broad conservation relative to Tribolium, as well as differences from Drosophila indicating that Tribolium + Oncopeltus represent a more ancestral pattern. In addition, our data provide a blastodermal fate map for different head regions in later developmental stages and supply us with a "roadmap" for future studies on head development in this species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Late extraembryonic morphogenesis and its zen(RNAi)-induced failure in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilio, Kristen A

    2009-09-15

    Many insects undergo katatrepsis, essential reorganization by the extraembryonic membranes that repositions the embryo. Knockdown of the zen gene by RNA interference (RNAi) prevents katatrepsis in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. However, the precise morphogenetic defect has been uncertain, and katatrepsis itself has not been characterized in detail. The dynamics of wild type and zen(RNAi) eggs were analyzed from time-lapse movies, supplemented by analysis of fixed specimens. These investigations identify three zen(RNAi) defects. First, a reduced degree of tissue contraction implies a role for zen in baseline compression prior to katatrepsis. Subsequently, a characteristic 'bouncing' activity commences, leading to the initiation of katatrepsis in wild type eggs. The second zen(RNAi) defect is a delay in this activity, suggesting that a temporal window of opportunity is missed after zen knockdown. Ultimately, the extraembryonic membranes fail to rupture in zen(RNAi) eggs: the third defect. Nevertheless, the outer serosal membrane manages to contract, albeit in an aberrant fashion with additional phenotypic consequences for the embryo. These data identify a novel epithelial morphogenetic event - rupture of the 'serosal window' structure - as the ultimate site of defect. Overall, Oncopeltus zen seems to have a role in coordinating a number of pre-katatreptic events during mid embryogenesis.

  4. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen-Campen, Ben; Jones, Tamsin E M; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2013-06-15

    Primordial germ cell (PGC) formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this "germ plasm" acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola) suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects.

  5. Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) IL-12p40: identification, expression, and effect on bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Bao-Cun; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2014-08-01

    IL-12p40, also called IL-12β, is a subunit of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23. In teleost, IL-12p40 homologues have been identified in several species, however, the biological function of fish IL-12p40 is essentially unknown. In this work, we reported the identification and analysis of an IL-12p40, OfIL-12p40, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). OfIL-12p40 is composed of 361 amino acids and possesses a conserved IL-12p40 domain and a WSxWS signature motif characteristic of known IL-12p40. Constitutive expression of OfIL-12p40 occurred in multiple tissues and was highest in kidney. Experimental infection with bacterial pathogen upregulated the expression of OfIL-12p40 in kidney and spleen in a time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant OfIL-12p40 (rOfIL-12p40) stimulated the respiratory burst activity of peripheral blood leukocytes in a dose-dependent manner. rOfIL-12p40 also enhanced the resistance of rock bream against bacterial infection and upregulated the expression of innate immune genes in kidney. Taken together, these results indicate that OfIL-12p40 possesses cytokine-like property and plays a role in immune defense against bacterial infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inter-population differences in otolith morphology are genetically encoded in the killifish Aphanius fasciatus (Cyprinodontiformes

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    Ali Annabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inter-population differences in otolith shape, morphology and chemistry have been used effectively as indicators for stock assessment or for recognizing environmental adaptation in fishes. However, the precise parameters that affect otolith morphology remain incompletely understood. Here we provide the first direct support for the hypothesis that inter-population differences in otolith morphology are genetically encoded. The study is based on otolith morphology and two mitochondrial markers (D-loop, 16S rRNA of three natural populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae from Southeast Tunisia. Otolith and genetic data yielded congruent tree topologies. Divergence of populations likely results from isolation events in the course of the Pleistocene sea level drops. We propose that otolith morphology is a valuable tool for resolving genetic diversity also within other teleost species, which may be important for ecosystem management and conservation of genetic diversity. As reconstructions of ancient teleost fish faunas are often solely based on fossil otoliths, our discoveries may also lead to a new approach to research in palaeontology.

  7. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of blood cells and hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, K E; Alleman, A R; Dennis, P M; Maxwell, L K; Lock, B A; Bennett, R A; Jacobson, E R

    2001-03-15

    To determine blood cell morphologic characteristics and hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges for iguanas housed in a warm indoor and outdoor environment with regular exposure to direct sunlight. Original study. 51 clinically normal iguanas (18 males, 25 females, and 8 juveniles) housed in 3 Florida locations. Blood was collected from the coccygeal or ventral abdominal vein. Any samples that had obvious hemolysis or clot formation were not used. Leukocyte counts were determined manually; other hematologic values were obtained by use of a commercially available cell counter. Plasma biochemical values were determined by use of a spectrophotometric chemistry analyzer. Blood smears were stained with Wright-Giemsa and cytochemical stains for morphologic and cytochemical evaluation. Hematologic ranges were generally higher in this study than previously reported. Thrombocytes were variable in appearance between individuals and sometimes difficult to distinguish from lymphocytes on a Wright-Giemsa preparation. Concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, total protein, globulins, and cholesterol were significantly higher, and the albumin:globulin ratio was significantly lower, in healthy gravid females than in male or nongravid female iguanas. Nongravid females had significantly higher calcium and cholesterol concentrations, compared with males. The calcium:phosphorus ratio was > 1 in all iguanas. Gravid females had a calcium phosphorus product ranging between 210 and 800. Intracytoplasmic inclusions were identified within the erythrocytes of some iguanas. Hematologic ranges for iguanas in this study are higher than those reported for iguanas. Sex and age of the iguana should be considered when evaluating biochemical values. Healthy ovulating and gravid females may have significantly increased electrolyte and protein concentrations, but maintain a calcium:phosphorus ratio > 1.

  8. Body size, performance and fitness in galapagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2003-07-01

    Complex organismal traits such as body size are influenced by innumerable selective pressures, making the prediction of evolutionary trajectories for those traits difficult. A potentially powerful way to predict fitness in natural systems is to study the composite response of individuals in terms of performance measures, such as foraging or reproductive performance. Once key performance measures are identified in this top-down approach, we can determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and gain predictive power over long-term evolutionary processes. Here we use marine iguanas as a model system where body size differs by more than one order of magnitude between island populations. We identified foraging efficiency as the main performance measure that constrains body size. Mechanistically, foraging performance is determined by food pasture height and the thermal environment, influencing intake and digestion. Stress hormones may be a flexible way of influencing an individual's response to low-food situations that may be caused by high population density, famines, or anthropogenic disturbances like oil spills. Reproductive performance, on the other hand, increases with body size and is mediated by higher survival of larger hatchlings from larger females and increased mating success of larger males. Reproductive performance of males may be adjusted via plastic hormonal feedback mechanisms that allow individuals to assess their social rank annually within the current population size structure. When integrated, these data suggest that reproductive performance favors increased body size (influenced by reproductive hormones), with an overall limit imposed by foraging performance (influenced by stress hormones). Based on our mechanistic understanding of individual performances we predicted an evolutionary increase in maximum body size caused by global warming trends. We support this prediction using specimens collected during 1905. We also show in a common

  9. Surface swimming behavior of the curculionid Ochetina uniformis Pascoe (Erirhininae, Stenopelmini and Ludovix fasciatus (Gyllenhal (Curculioninae, Erodiscini Comportamento de nado superficial exibido pelos Curculionidae Ochetina uniformis Pascoe (Erirhininae, Stenopelmini e Ludovix fasciatus (Gyllenhal (Curculioninae, Erodiscini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Oliveira de Sousa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The swimming behavior exhibited by specimens of L. fasciatus and O. uniformis was analyzed frame-by-frame with video observation recorded with a digital camera, attached to a stereomicroscope. Adults of O. uniformis, an aquatic insect, swim with all three pairs of legs. During the process of swimming the majority of the abdomen and rostrum remain submerged, part of the fore and hind tibiae remain above the surface, while the mid tibiae remain submerged. The mesothoracic legs, during the power-stroke stage, provide the greatest thrust while the metathoracic legs provide the least forward propulsion. The prothoracic legs, extended forward, help to direct the swimming. The semi-aquatic specie L. fasciatus shows the same swimming style as O. uniformis, that is, with movement of all the three pairs of legs; the mesothoracic legs are responsible for the main propulsion. The insect body remains on the water surface during the process of swimming, while the legs remain submerged. Both species complete a swimming cycle in 0.33 and 0.32 seconds, respectively, with an average speed of 1.38 cm/s and a maximum and minimum swimming duration time of 11.15 and 5.05 minutes, respectively, for L. fasciatus. The swimming behavior exhibited by O. uniformis and L. fasciatus corresponds to the style known as a breast strokelike maneuver. This is the first record of this kind of swimming for both species here observed and increases to seven the number of genera of Curculionidae exhibiting this behavior.O comportamento de nado exibido por indivíduos de L. fasciatus e O. uniformis foi analisado quadro a quadro através de imagens obtidas com o auxílio de uma câmera fotográfica digital com opção de vídeo, acoplada a um estereomicroscópio. Foi demonstrado que O. uniformis, espécie aquática, nada com o auxílio dos três pares de pernas. Durante este processo a maior parte do abdome e rostro localizam-se abaixo da superfície da água, parte das t

  10. Evolution of the insect terminal patterning system--insights from the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Anat; Cohen, Mira; Chipman, Ariel D

    2013-08-01

    The anterior and posterior ends of the insect embryo are patterned through the terminal patterning system, which is best known from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila, the RTK receptor Torso and its presumed co-activator Torso-like initiate a signaling cascade, which activates two terminal gap genes, tailless and huckebein. These in turn interact with various patterning genes to define terminal structures. Work on other insect species has shown that this system is poorly conserved, and not all of its components have been found in all cases studied. We place the variability of the system within a broader phylogenetic framework. We describe the expression and knock-down phenotypes of the homologues of terminal patterning genes in the hemimetabolous Oncopeltus fasciatus. We have examined the interactions among these genes and between them and other patterning genes. We demonstrate that all of these genes have different roles in Oncopeltus relative to Drosophila; torso-like is expressed in follicle cells during oogenesis and is involved in the invagination of the blastoderm to form the germ band, and possibly also in defining the growth zone; tailless is regulated by orthodenticle and has a role only in anterior determination; huckebein is expressed only in the middle of the blastoderm; finally, torso was not found in Oncopeltus and its role in terminal patterning seems novel within holometabolous insects. We then use our data, together with published data on other insects, to reconstruct the evolution of the terminal patterning gene network in insects. We suggest that the Drosophila terminal patterning network evolved recently in the lineage leading to the Diptera, and represents an example of evolutionary "tinkering", where pre-existing pathways are co-opted for a new function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hox gene function and interaction in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, David R; Liu, Paul Z; Hughes, Cynthia L; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2005-11-15

    Studies in genetic model organisms such as Drosophila have demonstrated that the homeotic complex (Hox) genes impart segmental identity during embryogenesis. Comparative studies in a wide range of other insect taxa have shown that the Hox genes are expressed in largely conserved domains along the anterior-posterior body axis, but whether they are performing the same functions in different insects is an open question. Most of the Hox genes have been studied functionally in only a few holometabolous insects that undergo metamorphosis. Thus, it is unclear how the Hox genes are functioning in the majority of direct-developing insects and other arthropods. To address this question, we used a combination of RNAi and in situ hybridization to reveal the expression, functions, and regulatory interactions of the Hox genes in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Our results reveal many similarities and some interesting differences compared to Drosophila. We find that the gene Antennapedia is required for the identity of all three thoracic segments, while Ultrabithorax, abdominal-A and Abdominal-B cooperate to pattern the abdomen. The three abdominal genes exhibit posterior prevalence like in Drosophila, but apparently via some post-transcriptional mechanism. The functions of the head genes proboscipedia, Deformed, and Sex combs reduced were shown previously, and here we find that the complex temporal expression of pb in the labium is like that of other insects, but its regulatory relationship with Scr is unique. Overall, our data reveal that the evolution of insect Hox genes has included many small changes within general conservation of expression and function, and that the milkweed bug provides a useful model for understanding the roles of Hox genes in a direct-developing insect.

  12. Effect of captivity on genetic variance for five traits in the large milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Clark, K M

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the changes in genetic variance which may occur as populations move from nature into captivity has been considered important when populations in captivity are used as models of wild ones. However, the inherent significance of these changes has not previously been appreciated in a conservation context: are the methods aimed at founding captive populations with gene diversity representative of natural populations likely also to capture representative quantitative genetic variation? Here, I investigate changes in heritability and a less traditional measure, evolvability, between nature and captivity for the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, to address this question. Founders were collected from a 100-km transect across the north-eastern US, and five traits (wing colour, pronotum colour, wing length, early fecundity and later fecundity) were recorded for founders and for their offspring during two generations in captivity. Analyses reveal significant heritable variation for some life history and morphological traits in both environments, with comparable absolute levels of evolvability across all traits (0-30%). Randomization tests show that while changes in heritability and total phenotypic variance were highly variable, additive genetic variance and evolvability remained stable across the environmental transition in the three morphological traits (changing 1-2% or less), while they declined significantly in the two life-history traits (5-8%). Although it is unclear whether the declines were due to selection or gene-by-environment interactions (or both), such declines do not appear inevitable: captive populations with small numbers of founders may contain substantial amounts of the evolvability found in nature, at least for some traits.

  13. The genetic control of aposematic black pigmentation in hemimetabolous insects: insights from Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Lemonds, Thomas R; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Variations in body pigmentation, encompassing both the range of specific colors as well as the spatial arrangement of those colors, are among the most noticeable and lineage-specific insect features. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for generating this diversity are still limited to several model species that are primarily holometabolous insects. To address this lack of knowledge, we utilize Oncopeltus fasciatus, an aposematic hemimetabolous insect, as a new model to study insect pigmentation. First, to determine the genetic regulation of black pigment production in Oncopeltus, we perform an RNAi analysis on three core genes involved in the melanin pathway, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), and laccase 2 (lac2). The black pigmentation is affected in all instances, showing that the black pigments in this species are derived from the melanin pathway. The results of the DDC RNAi are particularly informative because they reveal that it is Dopamine melanin, not DOPA melanin, which is the predominant component of black pigments in Oncopeltus. Second, we test whether pigmentation follows a two-step model where the spatial pre-mapping of enzymatic activity is followed by vein-dependent transportation of melanin substances. We confirm the existence of the first step by observing that premature wings develop black pigmentation when exposed to melanin precursors. In addition, we provide evidence for the second step by showing that wing melanin patterning is disrupted when vein transportation is halted. These findings bring novel insights from a hemimetabolous species and establish a framework for subsequent studies on the mechanisms of pigment production and patterning responsible for variations in insect coloration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Impact of acadja fisheries on the population dynamics of Sarotherodon melanotheron and Hemichromis fasciatus in a Lake Nokoué (Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyonkuru C.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In Lake Nokoué fishermen have developed the acadjas system which operates as an extensive aquaculture practice. Little is known about the population dynamics of fish fauna which colonizes those acadjas. Therefore, population parameters of two cichlids of Lake Nokoué, Sarotherodon melanotheron and Hemichromis fasciatus, sampled in areas within and without acadjas were investigated using length-frequency data collected between June 2003 and December 2004. For the two species, asymptotic length, L∞ was higher within than without acadjas (26.8 cm and 24.1 cm respectively for S. melanotheron; 18.5 cm and 16.5 cm respectively for H. faciatus. K and Φ′ values recorded outside acadjas were higher than inside acadjas for H. fasciatus whereas the same values were very slightly different without and within acadjas for S. melanotheron. H. fasciatus is a fish predator and branches or woody debris of acadjas are not favourable for its hunting activities.The total and natural mortality rates for the two species were higher outside than inside acadjas showing so the role of protection insured by acadjas systems. Acadjas have more impact on H. fasciatus than on S. melanotheron. A possibility of management is to reorganize the distribution of acadjas over Lake Nokoué in order to keep some areas in which no acadjas would be allowed for fish species that growth is better without acadjas.

  15. In-vitro Neurotoxicity of Two Malaysian Krait Species (Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus Venoms: Neutralization by Monovalent and Polyvalent Antivenoms from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus are two species of krait found in Southeast Asia. Envenoming by these snakes is often characterized by neurotoxicity and, without treatment, causes considerable morbidity and mortality. In this study, the in vitro neurotoxicity of each species, and the effectiveness of two monovalent antivenoms and a polyvalent antivenom, against the neurotoxic effects of the venoms, were examined in a skeletal muscle preparation. Both venoms caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches, and attenuated responses to exogenous nicotinic receptor agonists, in the chick biventer preparation, with B. candidus venom being more potent than B. fasciatus venom. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis indicated different profiles between the venoms. Despite these differences, most proteins bands were recognized by all three antivenoms. Antivenom, added prior to the venoms, attenuated the neurotoxic effect of the venoms. Interestingly, the respective monovalent antivenoms did not neutralize the effects of the venom from the other Bungarus species indicating a relative absence of cross-neutralization. Addition of a high concentration of polyvalent antivenom, at the t90 time point after addition of venom, partially reversed the neurotoxicity of B. fasciatus venom but not B. candidus venom. The monovalent antivenoms had no significant effect when added at the t90 time point. This study showed that B. candidus and B. fasciatus venoms display marked in vitro neurotoxicity in the chick biventer preparation and administration of antivenoms at high dose is necessary to prevent or reverse neurotoxicity.

  16. Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae with the description of four new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Caminer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the systematics of the Hypsiboas calcaratus species complex, a group of widely distributed Amazonian hylid frogs. A comprehensive analysis of genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic datasets uncovered the existence of eleven candidate species, six of which are confirmed. Two of them correspond to Hypsiboas fasciatus and Hypsiboas calcaratus and the remaining four are new species that we describe here. Hypsiboas fasciatus sensu stricto has a geographic range restricted to the eastern Andean foothills of southern Ecuador while Hypsiboas calcaratus sensu stricto has a wide distribution in the Amazon basin. Hypsiboas almendarizae sp. n. occurs at elevations between 500 and 1950 m in central and northern Ecuador; the other new species (H. maculateralis sp. n., H. alfaroi sp. n., and H. tetete sp. n. occur at elevations below 500 m in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The new species differ from H. calcaratus and H. fasciatus in morphology, advertisement calls, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Five candidate species from the Guianan region, Peru, and Bolivia are left as unconfirmed. Examination of the type material of Hyla steinbachi, from Bolivia, shows that it is not conspecific with H. fasciatus and thus is removed from its synonymy.

  17. Differential infectivity of two Pseudomonas species and the immune response in the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Insecta: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Dorn, A

    2001-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida show a profound differential infectivity after inoculation in Oncopeltus fasciatus. Whereas P. putida has no significant impact on nymphs, P. aeruginosa kills all experimental animals within 48 h. Both Pseudomonas species, however, induce the same four hemolymph peptides in O. fasciatus. Also injection of saline solution and injury induced these peptides. In general peptide induction was stronger in nymphs than in adult males. A significantly higher number of nymphs survived a challenge with P. aeruginosa when an immunization with P. putida preceded. The antibacterial properties of the hemolymph were demonstrated in inhibition experiments with P. putida. Two of the four inducible peptides (peptides 1 and 4) could be partially sequenced after Edman degradation and were compared with known antibacterial peptides. Peptide 1, of 15 kDa, showed 47.1% identity with the glycine-rich hemiptericin of Pyrrhocoris apterus. Peptide 4, of 2 kDa, had a 77.8% identity with the proline-rich pyrrhocoricin of P. apterus and a 76.9% identity with metalnikowin 1 of Palomena prasina. Peptides 2 and 3 are also small, with molecular weights of 8 and 5 kDa.

  18. Significant population genetic structure detected in the rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) inferred from fluorescent-AFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongshuang; Ma, Daoyuan; Xu, Shihong; Liu, Qinghua; Wang, Yanfeng; Xiao, Zhizhong; Li, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Oplegnathus fasciatus (rock bream) is a commercial rocky reef fish species in East Asia that has been considered for aquaculture. We estimated the population genetic diversity and population structure of the species along the coastal waters of China using fluorescent-amplified fragment length polymorphisms technology. Using 53 individuals from three populations and four pairs of selective primers, we amplified 1 264 bands, 98.73% of which were polymorphic. The Zhoushan population showed the highest Nei's genetic diversity and Shannon genetic diversity. The results of analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 59.55% of genetic variation existed among populations and 40.45% occurred within populations, which indicated that a significant population genetic structure existed in the species. The pairwise fixation index F st ranged from 0.20 to 0.63 and were significant after sequential Bonferroni correction. The topology of an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean tree showed two significant genealogical branches corresponding to the sampling locations of North and South China. The AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses suggested that the O. fasciatus populations examined should comprise two stocks.

  19. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Rioja; Arturo Carrillo-Reyes; Eduardo Espinoza-Medinilla; Sergio López-Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian veget...

  20. Surgical technique for permanent intracoelomic radiotransmitter placement in Anegada iguanas (Cyclura pinguis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Shannon T; Marlar, Annajane B; Alberts, Allison C; Young, Lee A; Bradley, Kelly; Hurlbut, Sandra L; Lung, Nancy P

    2005-12-01

    Twenty-four juvenile to subadult Anegada iguanas (Cyclura pinguis), captive-reared in a propagation facility, were designated by a coordinated recovery program for release in the summer of 2003. To facilitate postrelease monitoring, a radiotransmitter device was placed within the coelomic cavity of each animal under general anesthesia before release. The equipment sterilization technique and the method of attachment of the transmitters to the coelomic body wall resulted in functional transmitters and acceptably low rates of mortality associated with the procedure.

  1. Corticosterone levels predict survival probabilities of Galapagos marine iguanas during El Nino events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L M; Wikelski, M

    2001-06-19

    Plasma levels of corticosterone are often used as a measure of "stress" in wild animal populations. However, we lack conclusive evidence that different stress levels reflect different survival probabilities between populations. Galápagos marine iguanas offer an ideal test case because island populations are affected differently by recurring El Niño famine events, and population-level survival can be quantified by counting iguanas locally. We surveyed corticosterone levels in six populations during the 1998 El Niño famine and the 1999 La Niña feast period. Iguanas had higher baseline and handling stress-induced corticosterone concentrations during famine than feast conditions. Corticosterone levels differed between islands and predicted survival through an El Niño period. However, among individuals, baseline corticosterone was only elevated when body condition dropped below a critical threshold. Thus, the population-level corticosterone response was variable but nevertheless predicted overall population health. Our results lend support to the use of corticosterone as a rapid quantitative predictor of survival in wild animal populations.

  2. Choanal and cloacal aerobic bacterial flora in captive green iguanas: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Barazorda Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterize the choanal and cloacal aerobic bacterial flora in healthy captive green iguanas and to compare it with the bacterial flora of the biofilm present in the water container of each terrarium. Samples were collected from the choana and the cloaca of 20 healthy captive adult green iguanas and from the biofilm of 15 water containers. The final identification of aerobic bacteria was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Salmonella positive samples were serotyped. The most common strains observed at each test location were from 1 choanae: Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter cloacae and Comamonas testosteroni; 2 cloacae: Citrobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and Corynebacterium spp.; and 3 biofilms: Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and Acidovorax spp. We showed that apart from Salmonella spp., the choanal and cloacal bacterial flora differed from the microorganisms present in the biofilm of the animal’s water container. These data revealed that healthy captive adult green iguanas harbored several aerobic bacterial strains that in immunosuppressed reptiles may act as opportunistic pathogens. Also, several of the aerobic bacteria identified in samples are potential zoonotic agents. Characterization of the normal background flora in captive reptiles and their environment can contribute to an understanding of the spread of bacterial contamination and the risk of potential zoonotic diseases for people in contact with these animals.

  3. Hybridization masks speciation in the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Amy; Rodríguez, Ariel; Vences, Miguel; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; García, Carolina; Trillmich, Fritz; Gentile, Gabriele; Caccone, Adalgisa; Quezada, Galo; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the direct interaction between hybridization and speciation—two major contrasting evolutionary processes—are poorly understood. We present here the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and reveal a case of incipient within-island speciation, which is paralleled by between-island hybridization. In-depth genome-wide analyses suggest that Amblyrhynchus diverged from its sister group, the Galápagos land iguanas, around 4.5 million years ago (Ma), but divergence among extant populations is exceedingly young (less than 50 000 years). Despite Amblyrhynchus appearing as a single long-branch species phylogenetically, we find strong population structure between islands, and one case of incipient speciation of sister lineages within the same island—ostensibly initiated by volcanic events. Hybridization between both lineages is exceedingly rare, yet frequent hybridization with migrants from nearby islands is evident. The contemporary snapshot provided by highly variable markers indicates that speciation events may have occurred throughout the evolutionary history of marine iguanas, though these events are not visible in the deeper phylogenetic trees. We hypothesize that the observed interplay of speciation and hybridization might be a mechanism by which local adaptations, generated by incipient speciation, can be absorbed into a common gene pool, thereby enhancing the evolutionary potential of the species as a whole. PMID:26041359

  4. IGUANA: a high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alverson, G. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Eulisse, G. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Muzaffar, S. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Osborne, I. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Taylor, L. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: lucas.taylor@cern.ch; Tuura, L.A. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2004-11-21

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high-performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, slicing, lighting or animation, as well as multiple linked views with OpenInventor, and describe them in this paper. We give details on how to edit object appearance efficiently and easily, and even dynamically as a function of object properties, with instant visual feedback to the user.

  5. Hybridization masks speciation in the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Amy; Rodríguez, Ariel; Vences, Miguel; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; García, Carolina; Trillmich, Fritz; Gentile, Gabriele; Caccone, Adalgisa; Quezada, Galo; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2015-06-22

    The effects of the direct interaction between hybridization and speciation-two major contrasting evolutionary processes--are poorly understood. We present here the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and reveal a case of incipient within--island speciation, which is paralleled by between-island hybridization. In-depth genome-wide analyses suggest that Amblyrhynchus diverged from its sister group, the Galápagos land iguanas, around 4.5 million years ago (Ma), but divergence among extant populations is exceedingly young (less than 50,000 years). Despite Amblyrhynchus appearing as a single long-branch species phylogenetically, we find strong population structure between islands, and one case of incipient speciation of sister lineages within the same island--ostensibly initiated by volcanic events. Hybridization between both lineages is exceedingly rare, yet frequent hybridization with migrants from nearby islands is evident. The contemporary snapshot provided by highly variable markers indicates that speciation events may have occurred throughout the evolutionary history of marine iguanas, though these events are not visible in the deeper phylogenetic trees. We hypothesize that the observed interplay of speciation and hybridization might be a mechanism by which local adaptations, generated by incipient speciation, can be absorbed into a common gene pool, thereby enhancing the evolutionary potential of the species as a whole. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. IGUANA A high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    CERN Document Server

    Alverson, G; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L A

    2004-01-01

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high- performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, sl...

  7. IGUANA: a high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverson, G.; Eulisse, G.; Muzaffar, S.; Osborne, I.; Taylor, L.; Tuura, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high-performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, slicing, lighting or animation, as well as multiple linked views with OpenInventor, and describe them in this paper. We give details on how to edit object appearance efficiently and easily, and even dynamically as a function of object properties, with instant visual feedback to the user

  8. Natural history and morphometry of the Cuban iguana (Cyclura nubila Gray, 1831 in Cayo Sijú, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beovides-Casas, K.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The report presents data about the Cuban iguana population (Cyclura nubila nubila inhabiting Cayo Sijú, an 88 ha island off the southwest coast of Cuba. Population densities estimated using strip transects were higher in xerophytic coastal scrub (6.72 ± 6.25 iguanas/ha than in typical sand vegetation (3.63 ± 2.71 iguanas/ha and mangrove forests (2.9 ± 2.9 iguanas/ha. The total population for the cay was estimated at 350 individuals with an adult biomass of approximately 11.67 kg/ha. Densities varied minimally between three habitat types and between the wet and dry seasons. No significant density fluctuations were found one month after Hurricane Ivan affected the cay. Iguana burrows were encountered most frequently in beach dunes. Analysis of 30 scat samples revealed eight species of plants, with the fruits of Chrysobalanum icaco and the leaves of Batis maritima being the most frequently identified items. The remains of crab (Cardisoma guandhumi and insects of the order Hemiptera were also present in scat samples. Sexual dimorphism was evident in this population, with males being significantly larger in eight morphological variables. The snout-vent length measurements were larger in this population than in those reported in two cays off the south coast of Cuba.

  9. Non-overlapping distributions of feral sheep (Ovis aries) and Stout Iguanas (Cyclura pinguis) on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Ben R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Kalyvaki, Maria; McGaughey, Kathleen; Mougey, Krista; Navarrete, Laura; Rondeau, Renée; Boal, Clint W.; Perry, Gad

    2013-01-01

    Stout Iguanas (Cyclura pinguis) remain one of the most critically endangered reptiles in the world. Factors contributing to that status include habitat loss, predation by introduced species, and competition with introduced herbivores. On Guana Island, British Virgin Islands, the presence of feral sheep (Ovis aries) has been a hypothesized detriment to iguanas. Using motion sensitive cameras, we documented the distribution of feral sheep on Guana Island in 2010. We also quantified the impact of feral sheep on ground vegetation by comparing plant abundance at longterm sheep exclosures and areas where sheep were absent to areas where sheep were present. Finally, we compared sheep distribution to iguana distribution on the island. The co-occurrence of sheep and Stout Iguanas was less than expected, indicating possible competition. Although we detected no difference in vegetative cover between areas where sheep were present and absent, the long-term exclosures showed that the exclusion of sheep allowed the abundance of many plant species to increase. Our data support the hypothesis that feral sheep are altering the abundance of ground-level vegetation and limiting iguana distribution on the island.

  10. Genomic fingerprinting and serotyping of Salmonella from Galápagos iguanas demonstrates island differences in strain diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Emily; Cann, Isaac K O; Mackie, Roderick I

    2011-04-01

    Salmonella carriage patterns in wild and captive reptiles suggest that both geographical proximity and host ecological differences may determine bacterial diversity among reptile populations. In this study, we explore the relative importance of these factors on Salmonella diversity in free-living Galápagos iguanas. We isolated Salmonella enterica from marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and land iguanas (Conolophus subcristatus and C. pallidus) living on two islands (Plaza Sur and Santa Fe). We evaluated Salmonella population patterns using genomic fingerprints, sequence typing and serotyping. Rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed significant grouping of isolates by iguana population. Island residence had the strongest effect on isolate similarity, but a smaller divergence among Salmonella isolates from different iguana ecotypes (land versus marine) was detected within each island. In contrast, sequence typing detected a marginal difference in isolate genotypes between islands. Sequence types corresponded strongly to serotype identity, with both islands hosting a unique serovar pool. Our findings suggest that both geographical location and host ecotype differences (either from within host strain selection or from differences in habitat use) contribute to Salmonella population patterns in the Galápagos Islands. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The energetic savings of sleep versus temperature in the Desert Iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) at three ecologically relevant temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Timothy K; Dunbar, Stephen G

    2007-10-01

    One of the proposed ecological functions of sleep is to conserve energy. The majority of studies that support this theory have been done on endothermic animals whose body temperatures drop during sleep due to the reduced neurological control of thermoregulation. In the present study, we examined typical temperatures to which the Desert Iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis, is exposed to in the field and found that mean high temperatures ranged from 24-58 degrees C throughout the active portion of the year. We also examined the ecological savings that sleep could provide for this ectothermic iguana using a closed system respirometer. We found that laboratory-acclimated iguanas are able to save significantly more (27.6%) energy by sleeping than by being awake and that field iguanas also had significant savings of energy (69.1%) while asleep. However, iguanas could save more energy by remaining awake at cooler temperatures than by sleeping at warmer temperatures. In addition, we found no correlation for time of night with metabolic rate. Our study supports the hypothesis that one potential function of sleep is to conserve energy.

  12. Structural polarity and dynamics of male germline stem cells in an insect (milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, David C; Dorn, August

    2008-01-01

    Knowing the structure opens a door for a better understanding of function because there is no function without structure. Male germline stem cells (GSCs) of the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus) exhibit a very extraordinary structure and a very special relationship with their niche, the apical cells. This structural relationship is strikingly different from that known in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) -- the most successful model system, which allowed deep insights into the signaling interactions between GSCs and niche. The complex structural polarity of male GSCs in the milkweed bug combined with their astonishing dynamics suggest that cell morphology and dynamics are causally related with the most important regulatory processes that take place between GSCs and niche and ensure maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation of GSCs in accordance with the temporal need of mature sperm. The intricate structure of the GSCs of the milkweed bug (and probably of some other insects, i.e., moths) is only accessible by electron microscopy. But, studying singular sections through the apical complex (i.e., GSCs and apical cells) is not sufficient to obtain a full picture of the GSCs; especially, the segregation of projection terminals is not tangible. Only serial sections and their overlay can establish whether membrane ingrowths merely constrict projections or whether a projection terminal is completely cut off. To sequence the GSC dynamics, it is necessary to include juvenile stages, when the processes start and the GSCs occur in small numbers. The fine structural analysis of segregating projection terminals suggests that these terminals undergo autophagocytosis. Autophagosomes can be labeled by markers. We demonstrated acid phosphatase and thiamine pyrophosphatase (TPPase). Both together are thought to identify autophagosomes. Using the appropriate substrate of the enzymes and cerium chloride, the precipitation of electron-dense cerium phosphate granules

  13. Protective immunity against Megalocytivirus infection in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following CpG ODN administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Lee, Jehee; Ortega-Villaizan, M; Perez, Luis; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-06-27

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) disease in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) remains an unsolved problem in Korea aquaculture farms. CpG ODNs are known as immunostimulant, can improve the innate immune system of fish providing resistance to diseases. In this study, we evaluated the potential of CpG ODNs to induce anti-viral status protecting rock bream from different RBIV infection conditions. We found that, when administered into rock bream, CpG ODN 1668 induces better antiviral immune responses compared to other 5 CpG ODNs (2216, 1826, 2133, 2395 and 1720). All CpG ODN 1668 administered fish (1/5µg) at 2days before infection (1.1×10 7 ) held at 26°C died even though mortality was delayed from 8days (1µg) and 4days (5µg). Similarly, CpG ODN 1668 administered (5µg) at 2days before infection (1.2×10 6 ) held at 23/20°C had 100% mortality; the mortality was delayed from 9days (23°C) and 11days (20°C). Moreover, when CpG ODN 1668 administered (1/5/10µg) at 2/4/7days before infection or virus concentration was decreased to 1.1×10 4 and held at 20°C had mortality rates of 20/60/30% (2days), 30/40/60% (4days) and 60/60/20% (7days), respectively, for the respective administration dose, through 100 dpi. To investigate the development of a protective immune response, survivors were re-infected with RBIV (1.1×10 7 ) at 100 and 400 dpi, respectively. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 100% of the previously infected fish survived. The high survival rate of fish following re-challenge with RBIV indicates that protective immunity was established in the surviving rock bream. Our results showed the possibility of developing preventive measures against RBIV using CpG ODN 1668 by reducing RBIV replication speed (i.e. water temperature of 20°C and infection dose of 1.1×10 4 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ruger Porter

    Full Text Available Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange. Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT. Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory

  15. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Ruger; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body) as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange). Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI) technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory tissue temperature

  16. Diversity of compounds in femoral secretions of Galápagos iguanas (genera: Amblyrhynchus and Conolophus, and their potential role in sexual communication in lek-mating marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus

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    Alejandro Ibáñez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Chemical signals are widely used in the animal kingdom, enabling communication in various social contexts, including mate selection and the establishment of dominance. Femoral glands, which produce and release waxy secretions into the environment, are organs of central importance in lizard chemical communication. The Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus is a squamate reptile with a lek-mating system. Although the lekking behaviour of marine iguanas has been well-studied, their potential for sexual communication via chemical cues has not yet been investigated. Here we describe the diversity of the lipophilic fraction of males’ femoral gland secretions among 11 island populations of marine iguanas, and compare it with the composition of its sister species, the Galápagos land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus. We also conducted behavioural observations in marine iguana territorial males in order to explore the possible function of these substances in the context of male dominance in leks. Methods Femoral secretions were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS, and chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID in order to characterise the lipophilic composition. To understand the potential role of femoral secretions in marine iguana intraspecific communication, territorial males were sampled for their femoral glands and monitored to record their head bob rate—a territorial display behaviour in males—as well as the number of females present in their leks. Results We found that the gland secretions were composed of ten saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids ranging in chain length between C16 and C24, as well as three sterols. Cholesterol was the main compound found. Intriguingly, land iguanas have a higher diversity of lipophilic compounds, with structural group of lipids (i.e. aldehydes entirely absent in marine iguanas; overall the chemical signals of both species were strongly

  17. Insecticidal effect of Canavalia ensiformis major urease on nymphs of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus and characterization of digestive peptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defferrari, Marina S; Demartini, Diogo R; Marcelino, Thiago B; Pinto, Paulo M; Carlini, Celia R

    2011-06-01

    Jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) ureases are entomotoxic upon the release of internal peptides by insect's digestive enzymes. Here we studied the digestive peptidases of Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and its susceptibility to jackbean urease (JBU). O. fasciatus nymphs fed urease showed a mortality rate higher than 80% after two weeks. Homogenates of midguts dissected from fourth instars were used to perform proteolytic activity assays. The homogenates hydrolyzed JBU in vitro, yielding a fragment similar in size to known entomotoxic peptides. The major proteolytic activity at pH 4.0 upon protein substrates was blocked by specific inhibitors of aspartic and cysteine peptidases, but not significantly affected by inhibitors of metallopeptidases or serine peptidases. The optimal activity upon N-Cbz-Phe-Arg-MCA was at pH 5.0, with complete blockage by E-64 in all pH tested. Optimal activity upon Abz-AIAFFSRQ-EDDnp (a substrate for aspartic peptidases) was detected at pH 5.0, with partial inhibition by Pepstatin A in the pH range 2-8. Fluorogenic substrates corresponding to the N- and C-terminal regions flanking a known entomotoxic peptide within urease sequence were also tested. While the midgut homogenate did not hydrolyze the N-terminal peptide, it cleaved the C-terminal peptide maximally at pH 4.0-5.0, and this activity was inhibited by E-64 (10 μM). The midgut homogenate was submitted to ion-exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. A 22 kDa active fraction was obtained, resolved in SDS-PAGE (12%), the corresponding band was in-gel digested by trypsin, the peptides were analyzed by mass spectrometry, retrieving a cathepsin L protein. The purified cathepsin L was shown to have at least two possible cleavage sites within the urease sequence, and might be able to release a known insecticidal peptide in a single or cascade event. The results suggest that susceptibility of O. fasciatus nymphs to jackbean urease is, like in other insect models, due mostly

  18. Reduced foraging in the presence of predator cues by the Black Spiny-tailed Iguana, Ctenosaura similis (Sauria: Iguanidae

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    Vincent R. Farallo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a predator may have direct and indirect effects on the behavior of the prey. Although altered behavior may help prey avoid predators, it also can have a potential impact on critical activities such as foraging. Predator-prey interactions are routinely studied in laboratory-based experiments owing to theperceived difficulties of conducting such experiments in natural settings. We conducted an experimental study under field conditions in Palo Verde National Park in northwestern Costa Rica to assess behavioral responses of Black Spiny-tailed Iguanas (Ctenosaurasimilis to the presence of predators and predator cues. Free-roaming iguanas were offered mango in designated areas in the presence of a predator (Boa constrictor, a predator cue (B. constrictor feces, and a control (no predator or predator cue. Results indicate that iguanas reduced their foraging efforts in the presence of both a predator and its cue.

  19. ASPEK BIOLOGI REPRODUKSI DAN POLA PERTUMBUHAN IKAN UCENG (Nemacheilus fasciatus DALAM PEMELIHARAAN DI AKUARIUM

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    Vitas Atmadi Prakoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan uceng (Nemacheilus fasciatus merupakan salah satu spesies ikan air tawar di Indonesia dengan nilai ekonomi cukup tinggi yang ketersediaannya masih mengandalkan penangkapan di alam, sehingga diperlukan upaya domestikasi untuk menjaga kelestariannya. Tujuan dari kegiatan ini adalah untuk mengamati biologi reproduksi dan pola pertumbuhan ikan uceng di lingkungan buatan (akuarium. Ikan uceng hasil tangkapan alam dari Sungai Progo, Temanggung, Jawa Tengah (panjang total 5,55 ± 0,53 cm; bobot 2,49 ± 0,24 g diadaptasikan selama 12 bulan di akuarium (40 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm dengan sistem air mengalir yang dilengkapi dengan aerator. Ikan uceng diberi Tubifex, hingga sampai akhirnya dapat beradaptasi dengan pakan komersial. Pakan komersial yang diberikan yaitu sebesar 3% per hari dari biomassa tubuh dengan frekuensi dua kali sehari. Data biologi reproduksi diperoleh melalui koleksi data panjang total, bobot badan, bobot gonad, fekunditas, diameter telur, dan indeks kematangan gonad. Data pola pertumbuhan diperoleh dengan koleksi data panjang, bobot, dan sintasannya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk betina yang gonadnya berkembang mempunyai warna bintik hitam yang jelas, sebaliknya induk jantan warna bintik hitam memudar. Indeks kematangan gonad (IKG yang diamati pada ikan uceng setelah 12 bulan pemeliharaan yaitu berkisar antara 0,007-0,027 pada jantan dan 0,13-0,25 pada betina. Kisaran diameter telur yang diamati yaitu berkisar antara 0,61-0,68 mm, dengan fekunditas 680-4.198 butir. Sedangkan pola pertumbuhannya menunjukkan bahwa ikan uceng betina dan jantan memiliki pola pertumbuhan allometrik negatif (b= 2,739 pada betina; b= 2,895 pada jantan. Nilai faktor kondisi Fulton (K pada ikan uceng yang diamati yaitu 0,44-1,07 (rata-rata ± SD: 0,70 ± 0,11 pada betina dan 0,37-0,72 (rata-rata ± SD: 0,60 ± 0,06 pada jantan. Dari pengamatan ini ditemukan bahwa proses perkembangan kematangan gonad ikan uceng di akuarium lebih lambat dibandingkan

  20. Absence of ribosomal DNA amplification in the meroistic (telotrophic) ovary of the large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    In the typical meroistic insect ovary, the oocyte nucleus synthesizes little if any RNA. Nurse cells or trophocytes actively synthesize ribosomes which are transported to and accumulated by the oocyte. In the telotrophic ovary a morphological separation exists, the nurse cells being localized at the apical end of each ovariole and communicating with the ooocytes via nutritive cords. In order to determine whether the genes coding for ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are amplified in the telotrophic ovary of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, the percentages of the genome coding for ribosomal RNA in somatic cells, spermatogenic cells, ovarian follicles, and nurse cells were compared. The oocytes and most of the nurse cells of O. fasciatus are uninucleolate. DNA hybridizing with ribosomal RNA is localized in a satellite DNA, the density of which is 1.712 g/cm(-3). The density of main-band DNA is 1.694 g/cm(-3). The ribosomal DNA satellite accounts for approximately 0.2% of the DNA in somatic and gametogenic tissues of both males and females. RNA-DNA hybridization analysis demonstrates that approximately 0.03% of the DNA in somatic tissues, testis, ovarian follicles, and isolated nurse cells hybridizes with ribosomal RNA. The fact that the percentage of DNA hybridizing with rRNA is the same in somatic and in male and female gametogenic tissues indicates that amplification of ribosomal DNA does not occur in nurse cells and that if it occurs in oocytes, it represents less than a 50- fold increase in ribosomal DNA. An increase in total genome DNA accounted by polyploidization appears to provide for increasing the amount of ribosomal DNA in the nurse cells. PMID:1158969

  1. Blood gases, biochemistry and haematology of Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewbart, Gregory A.; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Brothers, J. Roger; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan Pablo; Denkinger, Judith; Vinueza, Luis; García, Juan; Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is an iconic lizard endemic to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador, but surprisingly little information exists on baseline health parameters for this species. We analysed blood samples drawn from 35 marine iguanas captured at three locations on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyser (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for pH, lactate, partial pressure of O2, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3−), percentage O2 saturation, haematocrit, haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium and glucose. Parameter values affected by temperature were auto-corrected by the iSTAT. Standard laboratory haematology techniques were employed for differential white blood cell counts and haematocrit determination; resulting values were also compared with the haematocrit values generated by the iSTAT. Body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and body measurements were also recorded. Body length was positively correlated with several blood chemistry values (HCO3− and glucose) and two haematology parameters (haemoglobin and manually determined haematocrit). A notable finding was the unusually high blood sodium level; the mean value of 178 mg/dl is among the highest known for any reptile. This value is likely to be a conservative estimate because some samples exceeded the maximal value the iSTAT can detect. For haematocrit determination, the iSTAT blood analyser yielded results significantly lower than those obtained with high-speed centrifugation. The values reported in this study provide baseline data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among marine iguanas affected by natural disturbances or anthropogenic threats. The findings might also be helpful in future efforts to demonstrate associations between specific biochemical parameters and disease. PMID:27293719

  2. Blood gases, biochemistry and haematology of Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewbart, Gregory A; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Brothers, J Roger; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan Pablo; Denkinger, Judith; Vinueza, Luis; García, Juan; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    The marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is an iconic lizard endemic to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador, but surprisingly little information exists on baseline health parameters for this species. We analysed blood samples drawn from 35 marine iguanas captured at three locations on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyser (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for pH, lactate, partial pressure of O2, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)), percentage O2 saturation, haematocrit, haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium and glucose. Parameter values affected by temperature were auto-corrected by the iSTAT. Standard laboratory haematology techniques were employed for differential white blood cell counts and haematocrit determination; resulting values were also compared with the haematocrit values generated by the iSTAT. Body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and body measurements were also recorded. Body length was positively correlated with several blood chemistry values (HCO3 (-) and glucose) and two haematology parameters (haemoglobin and manually determined haematocrit). A notable finding was the unusually high blood sodium level; the mean value of 178 mg/dl is among the highest known for any reptile. This value is likely to be a conservative estimate because some samples exceeded the maximal value the iSTAT can detect. For haematocrit determination, the iSTAT blood analyser yielded results significantly lower than those obtained with high-speed centrifugation. The values reported in this study provide baseline data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among marine iguanas affected by natural disturbances or anthropogenic threats. The findings might also be helpful in future efforts to demonstrate associations between specific biochemical parameters and disease.

  3. Laser plant "Iguana" for transmyocardial revascularization based on kW-level waveguide CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Bockeria, L. A.; Berishvili, I. I.; Vasiltsov, Victor V.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Ul'yanov, Valery A.

    2001-05-01

    For many years the Institute on Laser and Information Technologies RAN has been developing a concept of high-power industrial CO2 lasers with diffusion cooling of the working medium. The paper gives a description of the laser medical system Iguana for transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) as an example of various applications of high-power waveguide CO2 lasers. The clinical results of the TMLR method application in surgical treatment are presented. The methods of determination of the time, when the laser beam passes through the demarcation line between myocardium tissue and blood, are discussed.

  4. Distinct classical and molecular cytogenetics of Astyanax marionae and A. fasciatus (Characiformes: Characidae): a comparative study of the organization of heterochromatin and repetitive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscor, Diovani; Centofante, Liano; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali

    2017-09-01

    Genus Astyanax is well distributed in Neotropical freshwater environments and its taxonomic position is uncertain, as is the case with other Characidae genera allocated in the group incertae sedis. This study aimed to analyse the karyotype of different populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Corumbataí River basin) using Giemsa staining, C-band technique, and fluorescence in situ hybridization for the H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes, in addition we describe for the first time the chromosomal organization of H3 histone and 5S rRNAgenes in A. marionae (ParaguayRiver basin). Chromosomes of three A. fasciatus populations were analysed (two with 2n = 50 and one with 2n = 48) and the heterochromatin was organized in two forms (blocks with blurred boundaries and distinct blocks). H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes were observed in all the three populations of A. fasciatus on two chromosome pairs (one metacentric chromosome showing H3 histone and 5S rRNA gene clusters). In A. marionae (2n = 48), H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes were observed in one acrocentric chromosome pair (different pairs). Further, differences between karyotypes and heterochromatin, as well as the chromosomal organization of H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes in Astyanax species, focussing on chromosome evolution in the group are discussed.

  5. Spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic variation in the diet of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Ostariophysi: Characidae in an Atlantic Forest river, Southern Brazil

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    Luciano Lazzarini Wolff

    Full Text Available This study described the feeding habits of the characin Astyanax aff. fasciatus. The diet compositions of specimens from two sites (A and B on a river in Southern Brazil were compared according to the size of individuals and seasonal period. The collections were performed monthly from March 2005 to February 2006, where the stomach contents of 290 specimens were assessed. Food items for A. aff. fasciatus were basically composed of plants and insects, especially leaf fragments, seeds, fruits, filamentous algae, aquatic and terrestrial insects and insect fragments. At site A, the most common items were insect and plant fragments. Conversely at site B, plant fragments were more representative. In general, all items of animal origin showed the highest feeding index values at site A, whereas at site B detritus and grass items were more abundant. The composition of items varied seasonally, with higher diversity of items being recorded during the spring at both sites. Smaller individuals preferred items of animal origin, while the larger ones consumed mainly items of plant origin. According to its size, A. aff. fasciatus in this study may be considered a species with insectivorous tendencies when immature or herbivorous tendencies when adult. Nevertheless, its feeding habits may be flexible according to resource availability, showing wide ontogenetic, besides spatial and temporal variation.

  6. Ecological and evolutionary influences on body size and shape in the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; Glaberman, Scott; Tarroso, Pedro; Caccone, Adalgisa; Claude, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Oceanic islands are often inhabited by endemic species that have undergone substantial morphological evolutionary change due to processes of multiple colonizations from various source populations, dispersal, and local adaptation. Galápagos marine iguanas are an example of an island endemic exhibiting high morphological diversity, including substantial body size variation among populations and sexes, but the causes and magnitude of this variation are not well understood. We obtained morphological measurements from marine iguanas throughout their distribution range. These data were combined with genetic and local environmental data from each population to investigate the effects of evolutionary history and environmental conditions on body size and shape variation and sexual dimorphism. Our results indicate that body size and shape are highly variable among populations. Sea surface temperature and island perimeter, but not evolutionary history as depicted by phylogeographic patterns in this species, explain variation in body size among populations. Conversely, evolutionary history, but not environmental parameters or island size, was found to influence variation in body shape among populations. Finally, in all populations except one, we found strong sexual dimorphism in body size and shape in which males are larger, with higher heads than females, while females have longer heads than males. Differences among populations suggest that plasticity and/or genetic adaptation may shape body size and shape variation in marine iguanas. This study will help target future investigations to address the contribution of plasticity versus genetic adaptation on size and shape variation in marine iguanas.

  7. Inter-population variation of carotenoids in Galápagos land iguanas (Conolophus subcristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, David; Dell'omo, Giacomo; Casagrande, Stefania; Fabiani, Anna; Carosi, Monica; Bertacche, Vittorio; Marquez, Cruz; Snell, Howard; Snell, Heidi; Tapia, Washington; Gentile, Gabriele

    2005-10-01

    Carotenoids have received much attention from biologists because of their ecological and evolutionary implications in vertebrate biology. We sampled Galápagos land iguanas (Conolophus subcristatus) to investigate the types and levels of blood carotenoids and the possible factors affecting inter-population variation. Blood samples were collected from populations from three islands within the species natural range (Santa Cruz, Isabela, and Fernandina) and one translocated population (Venecia). Lutein and zeaxanthin were the predominant carotenoids found in the serum. In addition, two metabolically modified carotenoids (anhydrolutein and 3'-dehydrolutein) were also identified. Differences in the carotenoid types were not related to sex or locality. Instead, carotenoid concentration varied across the localities, it was higher in females, and it was positively correlated to an index of body condition. Our results suggest a possible sex-related physiological role of xanthophylls in land iguanas. The variation in the overall carotenoid concentration between populations seems to be related to the differences in local abundance and type of food within and between islands.

  8. Phylogenetic evidence for lateral gene transfer in the intestine of marine iguanas.

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    David M Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lateral gene transfer (LGT appears to promote genotypic and phenotypic variation in microbial communities in a range of environments, including the mammalian intestine. However, the extent and mechanisms of LGT in intestinal microbial communities of non-mammalian hosts remains poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced two fosmid inserts obtained from a genomic DNA library derived from an agar-degrading enrichment culture of marine iguana fecal material. The inserts harbored 16S rRNA genes that place the organism from which they originated within Clostridium cluster IV, a well documented group that habitats the mammalian intestinal tract. However, sequence analysis indicates that 52% of the protein-coding genes on the fosmids have top BLASTX hits to bacterial species that are not members of Clostridium cluster IV, and phylogenetic analysis suggests that at least 10 of 44 coding genes on the fosmids may have been transferred from Clostridium cluster XIVa to cluster IV. The fosmids encoded four transposase-encoding genes and an integrase-encoding gene, suggesting their involvement in LGT. In addition, several coding genes likely involved in sugar transport were probably acquired through LGT. CONCLUSION: Our phylogenetic evidence suggests that LGT may be common among phylogenetically distinct members of the phylum Firmicutes inhabiting the intestinal tract of marine iguanas.

  9. Island tameness: an altered cardiovascular stress response in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael; Tarlow, Elisa; Cyr, Nicole E; Wikelski, Martin

    2010-03-30

    Island tameness is a widely documented phenomenon in which island species, particularly those that have evolved with no or few natural predators, show a greatly reduced behavioral response when faced with unfamiliar predators. This insufficient anti-predator response has led to widespread population declines among many island species exposed to novel predators, and has become a serious conservation problem. Despite its prevalence, the underlying physiology of island tameness is not known. Here we report that although Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) initiated flight from an evolutionarily recent and unfamiliar potential predator (humans), they failed to show the cardiovascular stress response that facilitates successful escape, even after a prior capture experience. In contrast, when approached by a native predator (the Galápagos hawk; Buteo galapagoensis), marine iguanas show markedly increased heart rate independent of initiating escape movement. The secretion of catecholamines appears to be central to the initiation of escape behavior: naïve animals remotely injected with epinephrine immediately increased flight initiation distance, whereas those injected with corticosterone did not. Our results provide the first evidence that muted escape behavior in predator-naïve species is indicative of both a cognitive deficit in recognizing potential predators and a catecholamine deficit in response. Understanding how the response to predators differs in predator-naïve species could enable the design of maximally effective techniques for inducing an anti-predator response in these vulnerable species. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phylogenetic evidence for lateral gene transfer in the intestine of marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David M; Cann, Isaac K O; Altermann, Eric; Mackie, Roderick I

    2010-05-24

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) appears to promote genotypic and phenotypic variation in microbial communities in a range of environments, including the mammalian intestine. However, the extent and mechanisms of LGT in intestinal microbial communities of non-mammalian hosts remains poorly understood. We sequenced two fosmid inserts obtained from a genomic DNA library derived from an agar-degrading enrichment culture of marine iguana fecal material. The inserts harbored 16S rRNA genes that place the organism from which they originated within Clostridium cluster IV, a well documented group that habitats the mammalian intestinal tract. However, sequence analysis indicates that 52% of the protein-coding genes on the fosmids have top BLASTX hits to bacterial species that are not members of Clostridium cluster IV, and phylogenetic analysis suggests that at least 10 of 44 coding genes on the fosmids may have been transferred from Clostridium cluster XIVa to cluster IV. The fosmids encoded four transposase-encoding genes and an integrase-encoding gene, suggesting their involvement in LGT. In addition, several coding genes likely involved in sugar transport were probably acquired through LGT. Our phylogenetic evidence suggests that LGT may be common among phylogenetically distinct members of the phylum Firmicutes inhabiting the intestinal tract of marine iguanas.

  11. Phylogenetic Evidence for Lateral Gene Transfer in the Intestine of Marine Iguanas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David M.; Cann, Isaac K. O.; Altermann, Eric; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lateral gene transfer (LGT) appears to promote genotypic and phenotypic variation in microbial communities in a range of environments, including the mammalian intestine. However, the extent and mechanisms of LGT in intestinal microbial communities of non-mammalian hosts remains poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two fosmid inserts obtained from a genomic DNA library derived from an agar-degrading enrichment culture of marine iguana fecal material. The inserts harbored 16S rRNA genes that place the organism from which they originated within Clostridium cluster IV, a well documented group that habitats the mammalian intestinal tract. However, sequence analysis indicates that 52% of the protein-coding genes on the fosmids have top BLASTX hits to bacterial species that are not members of Clostridium cluster IV, and phylogenetic analysis suggests that at least 10 of 44 coding genes on the fosmids may have been transferred from Clostridium cluster XIVa to cluster IV. The fosmids encoded four transposase-encoding genes and an integrase-encoding gene, suggesting their involvement in LGT. In addition, several coding genes likely involved in sugar transport were probably acquired through LGT. Conclusion Our phylogenetic evidence suggests that LGT may be common among phylogenetically distinct members of the phylum Firmicutes inhabiting the intestinal tract of marine iguanas. PMID:20520734

  12. Galápagos land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus) as a seed disperser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traveset, Anna; Nogales, Manuel; Vargas, Pablo; Rumeu, Beatriz; Olesen, Jens M; Jaramillo, Patricia; Heleno, Ruben

    2016-05-01

    The role of the most common land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus) in the Galápagos Islands as an effective seed disperser is explored in this study. A total of 5705 seeds of 32 plant species were identified from 160 scats, 4545 of which (80%) appeared visually undamaged. Germination trials of 849 seeds from 29 species revealed that at least 10 species remained viable after passing through the iguana's gut, although only a small proportion of those seeds (4%) germinated. In any case, we argue that C. subcristatus exerts an important role on the 7 Galapagos islands where it occurs because of its abundance and capacity to ingest and disperse seeds at long distances. Our results strongly suggest that the Galápagos C. subcristatus plays an important role as a seed disperser of not only of native species but also some introduced plants in the Galápagos Islands. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Function of muscle-type lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase of the Galápagos marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Peter A; Strothers, Chad M; Mitchell, Mark A

    2008-05-01

    The Galápagos marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is unique among lizards in foraging subtidally, leading to activity across a broad range of ambient temperatures ( approximately 14-40 degrees C). To determine whether the marine iguana shows any biochemical changes consistent with maintaining enzyme function at both warm and cold body temperatures, we examined the function of the aerobic enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and the muscle isoform of the anaerobic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (A(4)-LDH) in A. cristatus and a confamilial species, Iguana iguana, from 14 to 46 degrees C. We also deduced amino acid sequences from cDNA of each enzyme. In CS, despite two amino acid substitutions, we found no difference in the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant K(m) of oxaloacetate at any temperature, indicating that the substrate affinity of CS in A. cristatus has not adapted to changes in thermal environment. In A(4)-LDH, we used site-directed mutagenesis to show that the substitutions T9A and I283V (A. cristatus --> I. iguana) individually have no effect on kinetics, but together significantly decrease the K(m) of pyruvate and catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) of the A. cristatus ortholog. Thus, our data show that A. cristatus A(4)-LDH has not become cold adapted in response to this species' aquatic foraging behavior, and instead may be consistent with moderate warm adaptation with respect to the I. iguana ortholog.

  14. Iguanas and Salmonella marina infection in children: a reflection of the increasing incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermin, J; Hoar, B; Angulo, F J

    1997-03-01

    To investigate clinical aspects and risk factors for Salmonella serotype Marina infection in the United States. We identified all isolates of S Marina reported in 1994 to the National Salmonella Surveillance System. Patients were interviewed about demographic information, clinical course, diet, travel history, and contact with reptiles before illness. Twenty-six (81%) of 32 patients were infants (iguana exposure, only 4 (14%) touched the reptile, and only 12 respondents (43%) realized that it might have been the source of infection. Seven (32%) of 22 families who owned an iguana at the time of illness continued to own an iguana when contacted a median of 28 weeks later. Persons who thought that the iguana was the source of infection were more likely to have given away or sold the pet than those who did not. Four isolates (13%) were from blood. Bacteremia was associated with taking antibiotics during the 30 days before S Marina infection (odds ratio: 24; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-1309). S Marina infection is a potentially serious illness associated with iguana exposure, and it reflects the larger problem of reptile-associated salmonellosis. Many parents do not know that owning an iguana puts their children at risk for Salmonella infection. Pediatricians, veterinarians, and pet store owners should inform their patients and customers of the potential risks of owning reptiles and provide appropriate preventive education.

  15. Factors involved in early polarization of the anterior-posterior axis in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Neta; Cohen, Mira; Chipman, Ariel D

    2017-05-01

    The axes of insect embryos are defined early in the blastoderm stage. Genes involved in this polarization are well known in Drosophila, but less so in other insects, such as the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Using quantitative PCR, we looked at differential expression of several candidate genes for early anterior-posterior patterning and found that none of them are expressed asymmetrically in the early blastoderm. We then used an RNA-Seq approach to identify novel candidate genes that might be involved in early polarization in Oncopeltus. We focused on transcription factors (TFs) as these are likely to be central players in developmental processes. Using both homology and domain based identification approaches, we were unable to find any TF encoding transcripts that are expressed asymmetrically along the anterior-posterior axis at early stages. Using a GO-term analysis of all asymmetrically expressed mRNAs, we found an enrichment of genes relating to mitochondrial function in the posterior at the earliest studied time-point. We also found a gradual enrichment of transcription related activities, giving us a putative time frame for the maternal to zygotic transition. Our dataset provides us with a list of new candidate genes in early development, which can be followed up experimentally. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maressa Ferreira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on nymphal development and reproductive capacity of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Hemiptera - Lygaeidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma radiation adversely affected important fitness components of Oncopeltus fasciatus, particularly as expressed by nymphal development, subsequent reproductive capacity, mating competitiveness and longevity. Early treated 5th instar nymphs are about 2X more sensitive to gamma radiation than late treated 5th instar nymphs based upon LD50 values. The extremes in sensitivity were 5.01 kilorads (krad) for early treated males and 13.09 krad for females treated late in the 5th instar. Wing deformities resulted from doses in the same range as those for mortality. Fifty percent of early treated males had wing deformities at a dose of 10.81 krad while a dose of 12.5 and 12.89 krad was necessary for 50% wing deformities in males and females, respectively, when treated late in the 5th instar. Fecundity and fertility were affected at lower dosages of radiation than for mortality. The treatment of both sexes produced the greatest effect. Fecundity was reduced by 50% at 1.22 krad, while 50% reduction in fertility occurred at about half that dose, or 0.66 krad. Somewhat greater doses were required when females alone were treated and mated with untreated males. In this case a 50% reduction occurred with 1.87 and 1.07 krad for fecundity and fertility, respectively. When males alone were treated, ED50 values were 2.24 and 1.58 krad for fecundity and fertility, respectively

  18. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development. Keywords: Gonad transcriptome, Testis, Ovary, Rock bream

  19. In vivo locomotor strain in the hindlimb bones of alligator mississippiensis and iguana iguana: implications for the evolution of limb bone safety factor and non-sprawling limb posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blob; Biewener

    1999-05-01

    Limb postures of terrestrial tetrapods span a continuum from sprawling to fully upright; however, most experimental investigations of locomotor mechanics have focused on mammals and ground-dwelling birds that employ parasagittal limb kinematics, leaving much of the diversity of tetrapod locomotor mechanics unexplored. This study reports measurements of in vivo locomotor strain from the limb bones of lizard (Iguana iguana) and crocodilian (Alligator mississippiensis) species, animals from previously unsampled phylogenetic lineages with non-parasagittal limb posture and kinematics. Principal strain orientations and shear strain magnitudes indicate that the limb bones of these species experience considerable torsion during locomotion. This contrasts with patterns commonly observed in mammals, but matches predictions from kinematic observations of axial rotation in lizard and crocodilian limbs. Comparisons of locomotor load magnitudes with the mechanical properties of limb bones in Alligator and Iguana indicate that limb bone safety factors in bending for these species range from 5.5 to 10.8, as much as twice as high as safety factors previously calculated for mammals and birds. Limb bone safety factors in shear (3.9-5.4) for Alligator and Iguana are also moderately higher than safety factors to yield in bending for birds and mammals. Finally, correlations between limb posture and strain magnitudes in Alligator show that at some recording locations limb bone strains can increase during upright locomotion, in contrast to expectations based on size-correlated changes in posture among mammals that limb bone strains should decrease with the use of an upright posture. These data suggest that, in some lineages, strain magnitudes may not have been maintained at constant levels through the evolution of a non-sprawling posture unless the postural change was accompanied by a shift to parasagittal kinematics or by an evolutionary decrease in body size.

  20. Diet, digestion, and food preferences of Galapagos land iguanas. [Conolophus pallidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, K.A.; Tracy, C.R.; Porter, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    The choice of food types and the length of time food passed through the gastrointestinal tract were determined in free-ranging Conolophus pallidus on Isla Santa Fe, Galapogos throughout the year. Natural foods were analyzed for energy, percent cellulose, percent nitrogen, and calcium as indices of the quality of food. Foods of highest quality were found to be among the preferred foods, but not all preferred foods were of high quality with respect to the nutrients measured. Passage time of food through the gastrointestinal tract, digestive efficiency, and digestion of cellulose were determined on captive Conolophus subcristatus. Ability to digest cellulose and digestive efficiency varied among five caged iguanas. Intra- and interspecific variabilities in digestive capacities result from variability in ecological factors, and interspecific variability among iguanines probably reflects differences in colic anatomy and the ability to absorb nutrients from the hindgut. 23 references, 4 tables.

  1. A likely microendemic new species of terrestrial iguana, genus Chalarodon, from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Aurelien; Glaw, Frank; Ratsoavina, Fanomezana M; Vences, Miguel

    2015-04-09

    A new species of the hitherto monotypic genus Chalarodon is described from southern Madagascar and a lectotype (ZMB 4360) is designated for C. madagascariensis Peters, 1854. The new species of terrestrial iguana, Chalarodon steinkampi sp. nov., is defined by several morphological characters and by concordant differentiation in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA with >5% uncorrected pairwise genetic distance in the 16S rRNA gene. It can be most clearly recognized by the presence of smooth (vs. keeled) gular and ventral scales, a spotted pattern extending from flanks onto belly, and an unpigmented throat. The new species is known from only a small area between the villages of Amboasary Sud and Esomony, located west of the Andohahela Massif, while C. madagascariensis appears to be widespread over much of southern and western Madagascar. We highlight the need for further exploration of this unprotected region which might host several other microendemic species.

  2. Invasive black spiny-tailed iguanas (Ctenosaura similis) on Gasparilla Island, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Michael L; Tillman, Eric A; Spurfeld, Conny; Engeman, Richard M; Maciejewski, Kelin P; Brown, Jessica D; Fetzer, Emily A

    2014-11-01

    The native range of Ctenosaura similis extends from southern Mexico through Panama. From an initial introduction of 3 animals in 1979, the species now numbers in the thousands on Gasparilla Island in southwest Florida. In response to complaints of property damage from residents and threats to native species, local officials and the US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services began a removal program in 2008. Through 2011, trappers removed 9467 ctenosaurs. The number removed declined from 32 iguanas/day in 2008 to 1.9 iguanas/day in 2011 despite no easing of the control effort. We necropsied 2757 ctenosaurs to document aspects of their natural history. Females outnumbered males overall, although the largest size class (>300 mm snout-vent length) included 32 males and just 2 females. Reproduction was seasonal. We found oviducal eggs in females from early Apr to early Jun, approximately 2 months later than C. similis in its native range. We trapped hatchlings from late Jul to early Oct coincident with the summer rainy season. Clutch size increased with female body size, with 62 being the largest clutch size recorded. In general, the biology of the invasive population on Gasparilla Island resembles native C. similis populations in Central America, except for the lack of large individuals. We suggest that shorter day length and colder temperatures create environmental conditions that are suboptimal for individual growth compared to those in the native range. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Abandoning the ship: spontaneous mass exodus of Clinostomum complanatum (Rudolphi, 1814) progenetic metecercariae from the dying intermediate host Trichogaster fasciatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Asim; Alam, Md Maroof; Parveen, Saltanat; Saleemuddin, M; Abidi, S M A

    2012-04-01

    The dramatic and spontaneous exodus of live Clinostomum complanatum progenetic metacercaria from the gill slits of the dying intermediate host, Trichogaster fasciatus is reported. Basic water parameter tests for dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature revealed slightly lower level of dissolved oxygen in tank water used for water change. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of a digenean metacercariae, en mass leaving their intermediate host, upon its death in search of an alternative host to support their survival and help in continuing their life cycle.

  4. Metagenomic-based study of the phylogenetic and functional gene diversity in Galápagos land and marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Mao, Yuejian; Ortiz-Kofoed, Shannon; Shah, Rushabh; Cann, Isaac; Mackie, Roderick I

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a metagenome-based analysis of the fecal samples from the macrophytic algae-consuming marine iguana (MI; Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and terrestrial biomass-consuming land iguanas (LI; Conolophus spp.) was conducted. Phylogenetic affiliations of the fecal microbiome were more similar between both iguanas than to other mammalian herbivorous hosts. However, functional gene diversities in both MI and LI iguana hosts differed in relation to the diet, where the MI fecal microbiota had a functional diversity that clustered apart from the other terrestrial-biomass consuming reptilian and mammalian hosts. A further examination of the carbohydrate-degrading genes revealed that several of the prevalent glycosyl hydrolases (GH), glycosyl transferases (GT), carbohydrate binding modules (CBM), and carbohydrate esterases (CE) gene classes were conserved among all examined herbivorous hosts, reiterating the important roles these genes play in the breakdown and metabolism of herbivorous diets. Genes encoding some classes of carbohydrate-degrading families, including GH2, GH13, GT2, GT4, CBM50, CBM48, CE4, and CE11, as well as genes associated with sulfur metabolism and dehalogenation, were highly enriched or unique to the MI. In contrast, gene sequences that relate to archaeal methanogenesis were detected only in LI fecal microbiome, and genes coding for GH13, GH66, GT2, GT4, CBM50, CBM13, CE4, and CE8 carbohydrate active enzymes were highly abundant in the LI. Bacterial populations were enriched on various carbohydrates substrates (e.g., glucose, arabinose, xylose). The majority of the enriched bacterial populations belong to genera Clostridium spp. and Enterococcus spp. that likely accounted for the high prevalence of GH13 and GH2, as well as the GT families (e.g., GT2, GT4, GT28, GT35, and GT51) that were ubiquitously present in the fecal microbiota of all herbivorous hosts.

  5. Minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in green iguanas and the effect of butorphanol on minimum alveolar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Craig A E; Dyson, Doris; Smith, Dale A

    2003-06-01

    To determine minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in green iguanas and effects of butorphanol on MAC. Prospective randomized trial. 10 healthy mature iguanas. in each iguana, MAC was measured 3 times: twice after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and once after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and IM administration of butorphanol (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]). A blood sample was collected from the tail vein for blood-gas analysis at the beginning and end of the anesthetic period. The MAC was determined with a standard bracketing technique; an electrical current was used as the supramaximal stimulus. Animals were artificially ventilated with a ventilator set to deliver a tidal volume of 30 mL/kg (14 mL/lb) at a rate of 4 breaths/min. Mean +/- SD MAC values during the 3 trials (2 without and 1 with butorphanol) were 2.0 +/- 0.6, 2.1 +/- 0.6, and 1.7 +/- 0.7%, respectively, which were not significantly different from each other. Heart rate and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 were also not significantly different among the 3 trials. Mean +/- SD heart rate was 48 +/- 10 beats/min; mean end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 was 22 +/- 10 mm Hg. There were no significant differences in blood-gas values for samples obtained at the beginning versus the end of the anesthetic period. Results suggest that the MAC of isoflurane in green iguanas is 2.1% and that butorphanol does not have any significant isoflurane-sparing effects.

  6. Isolation of the highly pathogenic and zoonotic agent Burkholderia pseudomallei from a pet green Iguana in Prague, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschner, Mandy C; Hnizdo, Jan; Stamm, Ivonne; El-Adawy, Hosny; Mertens, Katja; Melzer, Falk

    2014-11-28

    Melioidosis caused by Burkholderia (B.) pseudomallei is an endemic zoonotic disease mainly reported from northern Australia and Southeast Asia. In Europe, cases of human melioidosis have been reported only from patients travelling to endemic regions. Besides humans, B. pseudomallei has a very broad host range in domestic and wild animals. There are some reports about importation of B. pseudomallei-infected animals from endemic areas into Europe. The present report describes the first case of B. pseudomallei infection of a pet iguana in Europe. In a 5-year-old pet Iguana iguana living in a private household in Prague, Czech Republic, B. pseudomallei was isolated from pus of an abscess. The isolate VB976100 was identified by Vitek®2, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction as B. pseudomallei. The molecular typing resulted in multi-locus sequence type 436 hitherto, which has been found only once worldwide in a B. pseudomallei strain isolated in the USA and originating from Guatemala. The identification as internal transcribed spacer type G indicates a close relatedness to strains mainly isolated in the Western Hemisphere. These findings support the hypothesis that the iguana became infected in this region or in a breeding facility through contact to other infected animals. The present case highlights the risk of importation of the highly pathogenic and zoonotic B. pseudomallei into non-endemic regions through animal trade. Therefore, veterinarians treating animals from these areas and physicians examining patients owning such animals should include melioidosis in differential diagnosis whenever specific symptoms appear. Furthermore, veterinary authorities responsible for supervision of traders and pet shops should be aware of this risk of zoonotic transmission.

  7. Characterization of Salmonella Occurring at High Prevalence in a Population of the Land Iguana Conolophus subcristatus in Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Alessia; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Lorenzetti, Serena

    2011-01-01

    swabs from animals (n = 63) in their natural environment on in the island of Santa Cruz. A high prevalence (62/63, 98.4%) was observed with heterogeneity of Salmonella subspecies and serovars, all known to be associated with reptiles and with reptile-associated salomonellosis in humans. Serotyping...... possible exposure of the iguanas and the biocenosis to direct or indirect environmental factors influenced by the use of antimicrobials in agriculture, in human medicine or in veterinary medicine....

  8. Metagenomic-Based Study of the Phylogenetic and Functional Gene Diversity in Galápagos Land and Marine Iguanas

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2014-12-19

    In this study, a metagenome-based analysis of the fecal samples from the macrophytic algae-consuming marine iguana (MI; Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and terrestrial biomass-consuming land iguanas (LI; Conolophus spp.) was conducted. Phylogenetic affiliations of the fecal microbiome were more similar between both iguanas than to other mammalian herbivorous hosts. However, functional gene diversities in both MI and LI iguana hosts differed in relation to the diet, where the MI fecal microbiota had a functional diversity that clustered apart from the other terrestrial-biomass consuming reptilian and mammalian hosts. A further examination of the carbohydrate-degrading genes revealed that several of the prevalent glycosyl hydrolases (GH), glycosyl transferases (GT), carbohydrate binding modules (CBM), and carbohydrate esterases (CE) gene classes were conserved among all examined herbivorous hosts, reiterating the important roles these genes play in the breakdown and metabolism of herbivorous diets. Genes encoding some classes of carbohydrate-degrading families, including GH2, GH13, GT2, GT4, CBM50, CBM48, CE4, and CE11, as well as genes associated with sulfur metabolism and dehalogenation, were highly enriched or unique to the MI. In contrast, gene sequences that relate to archaeal methanogenesis were detected only in LI fecal microbiome, and genes coding for GH13, GH66, GT2, GT4, CBM50, CBM13, CE4, and CE8 carbohydrate active enzymes were highly abundant in the LI. Bacterial populations were enriched on various carbohydrates substrates (e.g., glucose, arabinose, xylose). The majority of the enriched bacterial populations belong to genera Clostridium spp. and Enterococcus spp. that likely accounted for the high prevalence of GH13 and GH2, as well as the GT families (e.g., GT2, GT4, GT28, GT35, and GT51) that were ubiquitously present in the fecal microbiota of all herbivorous hosts.

  9. Are hotshots always hot? A longitudinal study of hormones, behavior, and reproductive success in male marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Nelson, Karin N; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-07-01

    Polygynous lek-mating systems are characterized by high reproductive skew, with a small number of males gaining a disproportionate share of copulations. In lekking species, where female choice drives male mating success and patterns of reproductive skew, female preferences for 'good genes' should lead to preferred males having high reproductive success in all years. Here we investigate whether these 'hotshot' males have steroid hormone patterns that are consistent over time (between two mating seasons), and whether hormone levels consistently predict display behavior. We test these questions in the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), a lekking vertebrate with high male reproductive skew. We found that male mating success and testosterone levels were not consistent across years. The most successful males showed an inverse relationship in copulation success between years. Similarly, territorial males that had high testosterone in one year had low levels in the next. Across years, testosterone was strongly associated with head-bob display, suggesting that this steroid plays a key role in mate attraction. These results suggest that female marine iguanas are not choosing the same 'hotshot' males in every year, but instead base their reproductive decisions on male behavioral traits that are hormonally mediated and variable across years. By using testosterone to regulate their costly display behaviors male marine iguanas appear to have a mechanism that allows them to adjust their reproductive effort depending on extrinsic and/or intrinsic factors.

  10. Corticosterone levels predict survival probabilities of Galápagos marine iguanas during El Niño events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L. Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Plasma levels of corticosterone are often used as a measure of “stress” in wild animal populations. However, we lack conclusive evidence that different stress levels reflect different survival probabilities between populations. Galápagos marine iguanas offer an ideal test case because island populations are affected differently by recurring El Niño famine events, and population-level survival can be quantified by counting iguanas locally. We surveyed corticosterone levels in six populations during the 1998 El Niño famine and the 1999 La Niña feast period. Iguanas had higher baseline and handling stress-induced corticosterone concentrations during famine than feast conditions. Corticosterone levels differed between islands and predicted survival through an El Niño period. However, among individuals, baseline corticosterone was only elevated when body condition dropped below a critical threshold. Thus, the population-level corticosterone response was variable but nevertheless predicted overall population health. Our results lend support to the use of corticosterone as a rapid quantitative predictor of survival in wild animal populations. PMID:11416210

  11. Effect of tidal cycle and food intake on the baseline plasma corticosterone rhythm in intertidally foraging marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Sarah K; Painter, Danika L; Moore, Michael C; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2003-06-15

    In most species, plasma levels of baseline glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (B) have a circadian rhythm. This rhythm can be entrained by both photoperiod and food intake and is related to aspects of energy intake and metabolism. Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) offer a unique opportunity to better understand the relative importance of the light:dark cycle versus food intake in influencing the rhythm in baseline B in a natural system. Compared to other species, food intake is not as strictly determined by the phase of the light:dark cycle. Animals feed in the intertidal zone so feeding activity is heavily influenced by the tidal cycle. We measured baseline plasma B levels in free-living iguanas over several 24-h periods that varied in the timing of low tide/foraging activity. We found that baseline B levels were higher during the day relative to night. However, when low tide occurred during the day, baseline B levels dropped coincident with the timing of low tide. Whether the baseline B rhythm (including the drop during foraging) is an endogenous rhythm with a circatidal component, or is simply a result of feeding and associated physiological changes needs to be tested. Together, these data suggest that the baseline B rhythm in marine iguanas is influenced by the tidal cycle/food intake as well as the light:dark cycle.

  12. Uneven frequency of Vibrio alginolyticus-group isolates among different populations of Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Maria C; Ciambotta, Marco; Sapochetti, Manuela; Migliore, Luciana; Tapia, Whashington; Cedeño, Virna; Gentile, Gabriele

    2010-02-01

    The presence of Vibrio isolates was investigated in cloacal swabs from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhyncus cristatus). Such unique iguana is endemic to the Galápagos Archipelago, it is listed as vulnerable in the IUCN Red List (2009), and is strictly protected by CITES and Ecuador laws. Our results revealed an uneven isolation frequency of vibrios from animals living in different settings: maximal among the Santa Fe population, scarce at Bahía Tortuga but practically absent in the samples from Puerto Ayora and Plaza Sur. A 16S sequencing confirmed that the isolates belonged to the genus Vibrio, placing them within the V. alginolyticus group; the biochemical identification was, indeed, consistent with V. alginolyticus features. The reason of the observed discrepancy is not clear, but could be either linked to a higher pollution in the inhabited or more touristic places or to differential influence of chemical and physical parameters at a local scale. As V. alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen for man and it is known to cause disease in sea-living animals, the ability of these vibrios to enter and persist to a certain extent in the marine iguana gut should be regarded as a risk for health of both the animals and the human personnel involved in monitoring activities. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Effects of dietary protein levels on growth performance and body composition of juvenile parrot fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Woong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, biometrics, hematology and body composition in juvenile parrot fish Oplegnathus fasciatus. Fish averaging 7.1 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD was randomly distributed into 15 net cages (each size: 60 × 40 × 90 cm, W × L × H as groups of 20 fish. Five isocaloric diets (16.7 kJ/g energy were formulated to contain crude protein levels (CP as 35 (CP35, 40 (CP40, 45 (CP45, 50 (CP50 and 60 % (CP60 in the diets. Fish were fed one of the experimental diets at apparent satiation twice a day in triplicate groups. At the end of 8-week feeding trial, weight gain (WG of fish fed with CP50 and CP60 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed with CP35, CP40 and CP45 diets. Fish fed with CP45, CP50 and CP60 diets had higher feed efficiency (FE and specific growth rate (SGR than those of fish fed with CP35 and CP40 diets. Protein retention efficiency (PRE decreased with increase of dietary protein levels among fish fed with the experimental diets. Whole-body crude protein and lipid contents increased with the dietary protein level up to CP50 diet. In conclusion, analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that the optimum dietary protein level could be 50 % for maximum growth of juvenile parrot fish, while the broken-line analysis of WG suggested that the level could be 48.5 %, in a diet containing 16.7 kJ/g energy.

  14. DNA vaccine encoding myristoylated membrane protein (MMP) of rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) induces protective immunity in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2018-02-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) in Korea. In this study, we investigated the potential of viral membrane protein to induce antiviral status protecting rock bream against RBIV infection. We found that fish administered with ORF008L (myristoylated membrane protein, MMP) vaccine exhibited significantly higher levels of survival compared to ORF007L (major capsid protein, MCP). Moreover, ORF008L-based DNA vaccinated fish showed significant protection at 4 and 8 weeks post vaccination (wpv) than non-vaccinated fish after infected with RBIV (6.7 × 10 5 ) at 23 °C, with relative percent survival (RPS) of 73.36% and 46.72%, respectively. All of the survivors from the first RBIV infection were strongly protected (100% RPS) from re-infected with RBIV (1.1 × 10 7 ) at 100 dpi. In addition, the MMP (ORF008L)-based DNA vaccine significantly induced the gene expression of TLR3 (14.2-fold), MyD88 (11.6-fold), Mx (84.7-fold), ISG15 (8.7-fold), PKR (25.6-fold), MHC class I (13.3-fold), Fas (6.7-fold), Fas ligand (6.7-fold), caspase9 (17.0-fold) and caspase3 (15.3-fold) at 7 days post vaccination in the muscle (vaccine injection site). Our results showed the induction of immune responses and suggest the possibility of developing preventive measures against RBIV using myristoylated membrane protein-based DNA vaccine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The occurence of black spot disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus(characiformes: characidae in the Guaíba Lake basin, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Flores-Lopes

    Full Text Available Black spot disease is common in freshwater fish and is usually caused by the metacercaria stage of digenetic trematodes, normally from the Diplostomidae family. The present study evaluated the prevalence and intensity of this disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus(Teleostei: Characiformes in the Guaíba Lake basin (RS, Brazil, including body parts assessment and the points of sampling with higher occurrence of black spots. Fish samples were taken seasonally from December 2002 until October 2004. The samples were collected with the use of a seine net at eleven points. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and stored in 70% ethanol. Black spot disease showed a low frequency in the Guaíba lake basin (2.07% and no specificity to the species Astyanax aff. fasciatus was observed. A high prevalence among the individuals and high intensity of infection levels was found in the ventral and dorsal regions in relation to other body parts (e.g., pectoral, pelvic and anal regions. Among the sampling points studied, we observed a higher prevalence on samples collected at points Gasômetro, Saco da Alemoa and Sinos, located in open areas with less occurrence of mollusks.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of the fecal microbial community in herbivorous land and marine iguanas of the Galápagos Islands using 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Wheeler, Emily; Cann, Isaac K O; Mackie, Roderick I

    2011-09-01

    Herbivorous reptiles depend on complex gut microbial communities to effectively degrade dietary polysaccharides. The composition of these fermentative communities may vary based on dietary differences. To explore the role of diet in shaping gut microbial communities, we evaluated the fecal samples from two related host species--the algae-consuming marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and land iguanas (LI) (genus Conolophus) that consume terrestrial vegetation. Marine and LI fecal samples were collected from different islands in the Galápagos archipelago. High-throughput 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing was used to provide a comparative analysis of fecal microbial diversity. At the phylum level, the fecal microbial community in iguanas was predominated by Firmicutes (69.5±7.9%) and Bacteroidetes (6.2±2.8%), as well as unclassified Bacteria (20.6±8.6%), suggesting that a large portion of iguana fecal microbiota is novel and could be involved in currently unknown functions. Host species differed in the abundance of specific bacterial groups. Bacteroides spp., Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae were significantly more abundant in the marine iguanas (MI) (P-value>1E-9). In contrast, Ruminococcaceae were present at >5-fold higher abundance in the LI than MI (P-value>6E-14). Archaea were only detected in the LI. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the LI (356-896 OTUs) was >2-fold higher than in the MI (112-567 OTUs), and this increase in OTU diversity could be related to the complexity of the resident bacterial population and their gene repertoire required to breakdown the recalcitrant polysaccharides prevalent in terrestrial plants. Our findings suggest that dietary differences contribute to gut microbial community differentiation in herbivorous lizards. Most importantly, this study provides a better understanding of the microbial diversity in the iguana gut; therefore facilitating future efforts to discover novel bacterial-associated enzymes that

  17. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area

  18. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the

  19. Effects of island seabird subsidies and invasive species dynamics on the body size and foraging ecology of the Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata)

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Kristen Mundie

    2015-01-01

    Island systems have long been valuable to ecological research as they provide natural experiments for the study of ecosystem processes. We examined Allen, Leaf, U and Flat Rock Reef Cays in the Bahamas to study the effects of seabird driven marine subsidies and invasive mice on island food webs on the body size and foraging ecology of the Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata). Iguanas on an island with nesting seabirds (Allen Cay) had 6 times the body mass and 1.7 times the snout...

  20. From a thriving past to an uncertain future: Zooarchaeological evidence of two millennia of human impact on a large emblematic lizard (Iguana delicatissima) on the Guadeloupe Islands (French West Indies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, C.; Bailon, S.; Ineich, I.; Breuil, M.; Tresset, A.; Grouard, S.

    2016-10-01

    Among the lizards in the Lesser Antillean Islands, iguanas are undoubtedly the most emblematic, especially the endemic species, Iguana delicatissima. However, although much effort is currently made for the conservation of this species as a result of the present biodiversity crisis, nearly nothing is known of the history of this animal on these islands during the last millennia. Here we present the first data relating to the distribution, morphology, and interaction of past iguanas with human populations in the Lesser Antilles. To do so, we review the archaeological Iguana remains collected over the past 15 years on the Guadeloupe Islands. Our results show that the only Iguana species occurring in pre-Columbian archaeological deposits is Iguana delicatissima. Moreover, we demonstrate that this species occurred on all the islands of Guadeloupe during pre-Columbian times and then suddenly became extinct between 1960 and 1990 on most of these islands. We also confirm the modern introduction of I. iguana to the Guadeloupe Islands. In addition, zooarchaeological research demonstrates that pre-Columbian human populations occasionally used iguanas as a source of food, but with no apparent impact on the native population. However, the first data relating to past size variations of I. delicatissima on the Guadeloupe Islands indicate that archaeological iguanas were much larger than the largest remnant modern specimens and that a marked decrease in body length (more than 20%) occurred in these lizards after contact with European populations. This evidence of widespread extinction and morphological change during modern times is another demonstration of the extensive effects of disturbance and selection induced by modern human societies on endemic insular faunas.

  1. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae from a hypersaline environment in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyse Tine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea. A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas. Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2. This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt. Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide

  2. Corticosterone suppresses immune activity in territorial Galápagos marine iguanas during reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Silke; Martin, Lynn B; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Vitousek, Maren N; Rödl, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Individuals that display elaborate sexually selected characters often show reduced immune function. According to the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis, testosterone (T) is responsible for this result as it drives the development and maintenance of sexual characters and causes immunosuppression. But glucocorticoids also have strong influences on immune function and may also be elevated in reproductively active males. Here, we compared immune activity using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test in three discrete groups of male marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus): territorials, satellites, and bachelors. Males of these three reproductive phenotypes had indistinguishable T concentrations during the height of the breeding season, but their corticosterone (cort) concentrations, body condition and hematocrit were significantly different. Territorial males, the animals with the most elaborate sexual ornaments and behaviors, had lower immune responses and body condition but higher cort concentrations and hematocrit than satellites or bachelors. To test directly cort's immunosuppressive role, we elevated cort by either restraining animals or additionally injecting cort and compared their PHA swelling response with the response of free-roaming animals. Such experimental elevation of cort significantly decreased immune activity in both restrained and cort-injected animals. Our data show that cort can induce immunosuppression, but they do not support the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in its narrow sense because T concentrations were not related to immunosuppression.

  3. Human disturbance alters endocrine and immune responses in the Galapagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; DeNardo, Dale F.; Greives, Timothy J.; Strand, Christine R.; Demas, Gregory E.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a relevant and widespread facilitator of environmental change and there is clear evidence that it impacts natural populations. While population-level responses to major anthropogenic changes have been well studied, individual physiological responses to mild disturbance can be equally critical to the long-term survival of a species, yet they remain largely unexamined. The current study investigated the impact of seemingly low-level anthropogenic disturbance (ecotourism) on stress responsiveness and specific fitness-related immune measures in different breeding stages of the marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Specifically, we found stress-induced elevations in plasma corticosterone among tourist-exposed populations relative to undisturbed populations. We also found changes in multiple immunological responses associated with stress-related effects of human disturbance, including bacterial killing ability, cutaneous wound healing, and hemolytic complement activity, and the responses varied according to reproductive state. By identifying health-related consequences of human disturbance, this study provides critical insight into the conservation of a well-known species that has a very distinct ecology. The study also broadens the foundation of knowledge needed to understand the global significance of various levels of human disturbance. PMID:20708010

  4. Field-Based Radiographic Imaging of Marine Megafauna: Marine Iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Lewbart

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of marine megafauna requires a thorough understanding of the ecology, physiology, population dynamics, and health of vulnerable species. Assessing the health of large, mobile marine animals poses particular challenges, in part because the subjects are difficult to capture and restrain, and in part because standard laboratory and diagnostic tools are difficult to apply in a field setting. Radiography is a critically important diagnostic tool used routinely by veterinarians, but it has seldom been possible to image live marine vertebrates in the field. As a first step toward assessing the feasibility of incorporating radiography into studies of vulnerable species in remote locations, we used portable radiographic equipment to acquire the first digital internal images of living marine iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, an iconic lizard endemic only to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador. The radiographic machinery was powered by batteries and performed well on a rocky beach environment of an uninhabited island, despite high heat and humidity. The accuracy of radiographic measurements was validated by computing a snout-vent length (SVL using bone dimensions and comparing this to standard measurements of SVL made externally with a tape measure. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using radiography to study animals in remote sites, a technique that may prove useful for a variety of physiological, ecological, and biomechanical studies in which reliable measurements of skeletal and soft-tissue dimensions must be acquired under challenging field conditions. Refinements are discussed that will help the technology reach its full potential in field studies.

  5. Human disturbance alters endocrine and immune responses in the Galapagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; DeNardo, Dale F; Greives, Timothy J; Strand, Christine R; Demas, Gregory E

    2010-11-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a relevant and widespread facilitator of environmental change and there is clear evidence that it impacts natural populations. While population-level responses to major anthropogenic changes have been well studied, individual physiological responses to mild disturbance can be equally critical to the long-term survival of a species, yet they remain largely unexamined. The current study investigated the impact of seemingly low-level anthropogenic disturbance (ecotourism) on stress responsiveness and specific fitness-related immune measures in different breeding stages of the marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Specifically, we found stress-induced elevations in plasma corticosterone among tourist-exposed populations relative to undisturbed populations. We also found changes in multiple immunological responses associated with stress-related effects of human disturbance, including bacterial killing ability, cutaneous wound healing, and hemolytic complement activity, and the responses varied according to reproductive state. By identifying health-related consequences of human disturbance, this study provides critical insight into the conservation of a well-known species that has a very distinct ecology. The study also broadens the foundation of knowledge needed to understand the global significance of various levels of human disturbance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic diversity and structure in the Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura inornata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplasca, Andrea C.; Iverson, John B.; Welch, Mark E.; Colosimo, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata) is endemic to the Allen Cays, a tiny cluster of islands in the Bahamas. Naturally occurring populations exist on only two cays (<4 ha each). However, populations of unknown origin were recently discovered on four additional cays. To investigate patterns of genetic variation among these populations, we analyzed nuclear and mitochondrial markers for 268 individuals. Analysis of three mitochondrial gene regions (2,328 bp) and data for eight nuclear microsatellite loci indicated low genetic diversity overall. Estimates of effective population sizes based on multilocus genotypes were also extremely low. Despite low diversity, significant population structuring and variation in genetic diversity measures were detected among cays. Genetic data confirm the source population for an experimentally translocated population while raising concerns regarding other, unauthorized, translocations. Reduced heterozygosity is consistent with a documented historical population decline due to overharvest. This study provides the first range-wide genetic analysis of this subspecies. We suggest strategies to maximize genetic diversity during ongoing recovery including additional translocations to establish assurance populations and additional protective measures for the two remaining natural populations. PMID:26989628

  7. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the

  8. Genetic diversity and structure in the Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura inornata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Aplasca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata is endemic to the Allen Cays, a tiny cluster of islands in the Bahamas. Naturally occurring populations exist on only two cays (<4 ha each. However, populations of unknown origin were recently discovered on four additional cays. To investigate patterns of genetic variation among these populations, we analyzed nuclear and mitochondrial markers for 268 individuals. Analysis of three mitochondrial gene regions (2,328 bp and data for eight nuclear microsatellite loci indicated low genetic diversity overall. Estimates of effective population sizes based on multilocus genotypes were also extremely low. Despite low diversity, significant population structuring and variation in genetic diversity measures were detected among cays. Genetic data confirm the source population for an experimentally translocated population while raising concerns regarding other, unauthorized, translocations. Reduced heterozygosity is consistent with a documented historical population decline due to overharvest. This study provides the first range-wide genetic analysis of this subspecies. We suggest strategies to maximize genetic diversity during ongoing recovery including additional translocations to establish assurance populations and additional protective measures for the two remaining natural populations.

  9. Inferred vs Realized Patterns of Gene Flow: An Analysis of Population Structure in the Andros Island Rock Iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosimo, Giuliano; Knapp, Charles R.; Wallace, Lisa E.; Welch, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological data, the primary source of information on patterns and rates of migration, can be integrated with genetic data to more accurately describe the realized connectivity between geographically isolated demes. In this paper we implement this approach and discuss its implications for managing populations of the endangered Andros Island Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura cychlura. This iguana is endemic to Andros, a highly fragmented landmass of large islands and smaller cays. Field observations suggest that geographically isolated demes were panmictic due to high, inferred rates of gene flow. We expand on these observations using 16 polymorphic microsatellites to investigate the genetic structure and rates of gene flow from 188 Andros Iguanas collected across 23 island sites. Bayesian clustering of specimens assigned individuals to three distinct genotypic clusters. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicates that allele frequency differences are responsible for a significant portion of the genetic variance across the three defined clusters (Fst =  0.117, p0.01). These clusters are associated with larger islands and satellite cays isolated by broad water channels with strong currents. These findings imply that broad water channels present greater obstacles to gene flow than was inferred from field observation alone. Additionally, rates of gene flow were indirectly estimated using BAYESASS 3.0. The proportion of individuals originating from within each identified cluster varied from 94.5 to 98.7%, providing further support for local isolation. Our assessment reveals a major disparity between inferred and realized gene flow. We discuss our results in a conservation perspective for species inhabiting highly fragmented landscapes. PMID:25229344

  10. Inferred vs realized patterns of gene flow: an analysis of population structure in the Andros Island Rock Iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosimo, Giuliano; Knapp, Charles R; Wallace, Lisa E; Welch, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Ecological data, the primary source of information on patterns and rates of migration, can be integrated with genetic data to more accurately describe the realized connectivity between geographically isolated demes. In this paper we implement this approach and discuss its implications for managing populations of the endangered Andros Island Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura cychlura. This iguana is endemic to Andros, a highly fragmented landmass of large islands and smaller cays. Field observations suggest that geographically isolated demes were panmictic due to high, inferred rates of gene flow. We expand on these observations using 16 polymorphic microsatellites to investigate the genetic structure and rates of gene flow from 188 Andros Iguanas collected across 23 island sites. Bayesian clustering of specimens assigned individuals to three distinct genotypic clusters. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicates that allele frequency differences are responsible for a significant portion of the genetic variance across the three defined clusters (Fst =  0.117, p<0.01). These clusters are associated with larger islands and satellite cays isolated by broad water channels with strong currents. These findings imply that broad water channels present greater obstacles to gene flow than was inferred from field observation alone. Additionally, rates of gene flow were indirectly estimated using BAYESASS 3.0. The proportion of individuals originating from within each identified cluster varied from 94.5 to 98.7%, providing further support for local isolation. Our assessment reveals a major disparity between inferred and realized gene flow. We discuss our results in a conservation perspective for species inhabiting highly fragmented landscapes.

  11. Variation in the thermal ecology of an endemic iguana from Mexico reduces its vulnerability to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Ceballos, Sara; Castañeda, Gamaliel; Rioja-Paradela, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Bastiaans, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    The persistence of reptile populations in a specific location is influenced by individuals' capacity to regulate their body temperatures, among other factors. Anthropogenic climate change may pose a risk to the survival of ectothermic animals due to their dependence on external heat sources to thermoregulate. In this study, we calculated indices of thermal habitat quality, thermoregulatory precision, and thermoregulatory effectiveness for the endemic spiny-tailed iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana. We evaluated these indices and the thermoregulatory behavior of the iguanas in the four types of vegetation that provide the most favorable conditions for thermoregulation. We also performed our experiments during both the wet and dry seasons to capture the full range of thermal conditions available to C. oaxacana over the course of a year. Finally, we evaluated the potential niche for the iguana in the years 2020, 2050, and 2080. Thermoregulation depends on both seasonal and environmental factors in this species. We found that thermoregulation effectiveness in both wet and dry seasons depends not only on the thermal conditions of the immediate environment, but also on the cover vegetation and habitat structure available across the range of habitats the species uses. Thus, heterogeneous habitats with dispersed vegetation may be most suitable for this species' thermoregulatory strategy. Likewise, niche modeling results suggested that suitable habitat for our study species may continue to be available for the next few decades, despite global warming tendencies, as long as cover vegetation remains unaltered. Our results suggest that thermoregulation is a complex process that cannot be generalized for all ectothermic species inhabiting a given region. We also found that temperature changes are not the only factor one must consider when estimating the risk of species loss. To understand the necessary thermal conditions and extinction risk for any ectothermic species, it is necessary

  12. Inferred vs realized patterns of gene flow: an analysis of population structure in the Andros Island Rock Iguana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Colosimo

    Full Text Available Ecological data, the primary source of information on patterns and rates of migration, can be integrated with genetic data to more accurately describe the realized connectivity between geographically isolated demes. In this paper we implement this approach and discuss its implications for managing populations of the endangered Andros Island Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura cychlura. This iguana is endemic to Andros, a highly fragmented landmass of large islands and smaller cays. Field observations suggest that geographically isolated demes were panmictic due to high, inferred rates of gene flow. We expand on these observations using 16 polymorphic microsatellites to investigate the genetic structure and rates of gene flow from 188 Andros Iguanas collected across 23 island sites. Bayesian clustering of specimens assigned individuals to three distinct genotypic clusters. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicates that allele frequency differences are responsible for a significant portion of the genetic variance across the three defined clusters (Fst =  0.117, p<<0.01. These clusters are associated with larger islands and satellite cays isolated by broad water channels with strong currents. These findings imply that broad water channels present greater obstacles to gene flow than was inferred from field observation alone. Additionally, rates of gene flow were indirectly estimated using BAYESASS 3.0. The proportion of individuals originating from within each identified cluster varied from 94.5 to 98.7%, providing further support for local isolation. Our assessment reveals a major disparity between inferred and realized gene flow. We discuss our results in a conservation perspective for species inhabiting highly fragmented landscapes.

  13. Isolation and characterization of 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci for a West Indian iguana (Cyclura pinguis) from the British Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennie; Alberts, Allison C; Chemnick, Leona G; Gerber, Glenn P; Jones, Kenneth C; Mitchell, Adele A; Ryder, Oliver A

    2009-09-01

    Twenty-three polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified and characterized for Cyclura pinguis, a critically endangered species of lizard (Sauria: Iguanidae) native to Anegada Island in the British Virgin Islands. We examined variation at these loci for 39 C. pinguis, finding up to five alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.55. Allele frequency estimates for these microsatellite loci will be used to characterize genetic diversity of captive and wild C. pinguis populations and to estimate relatedness among adult iguanas at the San Diego Zoo that form the nucleus of a captive breeding programme for this critically endangered species. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Population Genetic Structure of Rock Bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus Temminck & Schlegel, 1884) Revealed by mtDNA COI Sequence in Korea and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Suk; Kim, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sung; Park, Yong-Joo; Choi, Hee-Jung; Xiao, Zhizhong; Li, Jun; Xiao, Yongshuang; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2018-04-01

    The rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, is a common rocky reef game fish in East Asia and recently has become an aquaculture species. Despite its commercial importance, the population genetic structure of this fish species remains poorly understood. In this study, 163 specimens were collected from 6 localities along the coastal waters of Korea and China and their genetic variation was analyzed with mtDNA COI sequences. A total of 34 polymorphic sites were detected which determined 30 haplotypes. The genetic pattern reveals a low level of nucleotide diversity (0.04 ± 0.003) but a high level of haplotype diversity (0.83 ± 0.02). The 30 haplotypes are divided into two major genealogical clades: one that consists of only Zhoushan (ZS, East China Sea) specific haplotypes from the southern East China Sea and the other that consists of the remaining haplotypes from the northern East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Korea Strait, and East Sea/Sea of Japan. The two clades are separated by approximately 330 435 kyBP. Analyses of AMOVA and F st show a significant population differentiation between the ZS sample and the other ones, corroborating separation of the two genealogical clades. Larval dispersal and the fresh Yangtze River plume are invoked as the main determining factors for this population genetic structure of O. fasciatus. Neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analyses indicate late Pleistocene population expansion along the coastal waters of Korea and China approximately 133-183 kyBP during which there were periodic cycles of glaciations and deglaciations. Such population information needs to be taken into account when stock enhancement and conservation measures are implemented for this fisheries species.

  15. Expression of UV-Sensitive Parapinopsin in the Iguana Parietal Eyes and Its Implication in UV-Sensitivity in Vertebrate Pineal-Related Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

    2012-01-01

    The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles. PMID:22720013

  16. Expression of UV-sensitive parapinopsin in the iguana parietal eyes and its implication in UV-sensitivity in vertebrate pineal-related organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

    2012-01-01

    The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles.

  17. Expression of UV-sensitive parapinopsin in the iguana parietal eyes and its implication in UV-sensitivity in vertebrate pineal-related organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Wada

    Full Text Available The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles.

  18. Growth hormone reverses excitotoxic damage induced by kainic acid in the green iguana neuroretina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Mora, Janeth; Carranza, Martha; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    It is known that growth hormone (GH) is expressed in extrapituitary tissues, including the nervous system and ocular tissues, where it is involved in autocrine/paracrine actions related to cell survival and anti-apoptosis in several vertebrates. Little is known, however, in reptiles, so we analyzed the expression and distribution of GH in the eye of green iguana and its potential neuroprotective role in retinas that were damaged by the intraocular administration of kainic acid (KA). It was found, by Western blotting, that GH-immunoreactivity (GH-IR) was expressed as two isoforms (15 and 26kDa, under reducing conditions) in cornea, vitreous, retina, crystalline, iris and sclera, in varying proportions. Also, two bands for the growth hormone receptor (GHR)-IR were observed (70 and 44kDa, respectively) in the same tissues. By immunofluorescence, GH-IR was found in neurons present in several layers of the neuroretina (inner nuclear [INL], outer nuclear [ONL] and ganglion cell [GCL] layers) as determined by its co-existence with NeuN, but not in glial cells. In addition, GH and GHR co-expression was found in the same cells, suggesting paracrine/autocrine interactions. KA administration induced retinal excitotoxic damage, as determined by a significant reduction of the cell density and an increase in the appearance of apoptotic cells in the INL and GCL. In response to KA injury, both endogenous GH and Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) expression were increased by 70±1.8% and 33.3±16%, respectively. The addition of exogenous GH significantly prevented the retinal damage produced by the loss of cytoarchitecture and cell density in the GCL (from 4.9±0.79 in the control, to 1.45±0.2 with KA, to 6.35±0.49cell/mm(2) with KA+GH) and in the INL (19.12±1.6, 10.05±1.9, 21.0±0.8cell/mm(2), respectively) generated by the long-term effect of 1mM KA intraocular administration. The co-incubation with a specific anti-GH antibody, however, blocked the protective effect of GH

  19. Differential responses of the somatotropic and thyroid axes to environmental temperature changes in the green iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Carranza, Martha; Villalobos, Patricia; Olvera, Aurora; Orozco, Aurea; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH), together with thyroid hormones (TH), regulates growth and development, and has critical effects on vertebrate metabolism. In ectotherms, these physiological processes are strongly influenced by environmental temperature. In reptiles, however, little is known about the direct influences of this factor on the somatotropic and thyroid axes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the effects of both acute (48h) and chronic (2weeks) exposure to sub-optimal temperatures (25 and 18°C) upon somatotropic and thyroid axis function of the green iguana, in comparison to the control temperature (30-35°C). We found a significant increase in GH release (2.0-fold at 25°C and 1.9-fold at 18°C) and GH mRNA expression (up to 3.7-fold), mainly under chronic exposure conditions. The serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was significantly greater after chronic exposure (18.5±2.3 at 25°C; 15.92±3.4 at 18°C; vs. 9.3±1.21ng/ml at 35°C), while hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression increased up to 6.8-fold. Somatotropic axis may be regulated, under acute conditions, by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) that significantly increased its hypothalamic concentration (1.45 times) and mRNA expression (0.9-fold above control), respectively; and somatostatin (mRNA expression increased 1.0-1.2 times above control); and under chronic treatment, by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP mRNA expression was increased from 0.4 to 0.6 times). Also, it was shown that, under control conditions, injection of TRH stimulated a significant increase in circulating GH. On the other hand, while there was a significant rise in the hypothalamic content of TRH and its mRNA expression, this hormone did not appear to influence the thyroid axis activity, which showed a severe diminution in all conditions of cold exposure, as indicated by the decreases in thyrotropin (TSH) mRNA expression (up to one-eight of the control), serum T4 (from 11.6±1.09 to

  20. Phylogeography and Ecological Niche Modeling of the Desert Iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis, Baird & Girard 1852) in the Baja California Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Carrillo, Tania; García-De León, Francisco J; Blázquez, Ma Carmen; Gutiérrez-Flores, Carina; González Zamorano, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the factors that explain the patterns of genetic structure or phylogeographic breaks at an intraspecific level is key to inferring the mechanisms of population differentiation in its early stages. These topics have been well studied in the Baja California region, with vicariance and the dispersal ability of individuals being the prevailing hypothesis for phylogeographic breaks. In this study, we evaluated the phylogeographic patterns in the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis), a species with a recent history in the region and spatial variation in life history traits. We analyzed a total of 307 individuals collected throughout 19 localities across the Baja California Peninsula with 15 microsatellite DNA markers. Our data reveal the existence of 3 geographically discrete genetic populations with moderate gene flow and an isolation-by-distance pattern presumably produced by the occurrence of a refugium in the Cape region during the Pleistocene Last Glacial Maximum. Bayesian methods and ecological niche modeling were used to assess the relationship between population genetic structure and present and past climatic preferences of the desert iguana. We found that the present climatic heterogeneity of the Baja California Peninsula has a marked influence on the population genetic structure of the species, suggesting that there are alternative explanations besides vicariance. The information obtained in this study provides data allowing a better understanding of how historical population processes in the Baja California Peninsula can be understood from an ecological perspective. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Steroid hormones and aggression in female Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Dustin R; Wikelski, Martin

    2005-09-01

    We studied steroid hormone patterns and aggression during breeding in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Females display vigorously towards courting males after copulating (female-male aggression), as well as fight for and defend nest sites against other females (female-female aggression). To understand the neuroendocrine basis of this aggressive behavior, we examined changes in testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), corticosterone (CORT), and progesterone (P4) during the mating and nesting periods, and then measured levels in nesting females captured during aggressive interactions. Testosterone reached maximal levels during the mating stage when female-male aggression was most common, and increased slightly, but significantly, during the nesting stage when female-female aggression was most common. However, fighting females had significantly lower T, but higher E2 and P4, than non-fighting females. It remains unclear whether these changes in hormone levels during aggressive interactions are a cause or a consequence of a change in behavior. Our results support the "challenge hypothesis", but suggest that E2 and/or P4 may increase in response to aggressive challenges in females just as T does in males. Females may be rapidly aromatizing T to elevate circulating levels of E2 during aggressive interactions. This hypothesis could explain why non-fighting females had slightly elevated baseline T, but extremely low E2, during stages when aggressive interactions were most common. Although P4 increased rapidly during aggressive encounters, it is unclear whether it acts directly to affect behavior, or indirectly via conversion to E2. The rapid production and conversion of E2 and P4 may be an important mechanism underlying female aggression in vertebrates.

  2. Endocrine-reproductive-immune interactions in female and male Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; French, Susannah S

    2017-02-01

    Endocrine-immune interactions are variable across species and contexts making it difficult to discern consistent patterns. There is a paucity of data in non-model systems making these relationships even more nebulous, particularly in reptiles. In the present study, we have completed a more comprehensive test of the relationship among steroid hormones and ecologically relevant immune measures. We tested the relationship between baseline and stress-induced levels of sex and adrenal steroid hormones and standard ecoimmunological metrics in both female and male Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). We found significant associations between adrenal activity and immunity, whereby females that mounted greater corticosterone responses to stress had lower basal and stress-induced immunity (i.e., bactericidal ability). Males showed the opposite relationship, suggesting sex-specific immunomodulatory actions of corticosterone. In both sexes, we observed a stress-induced increase in corticosterone, and in females a stress-induced increase in bactericidal ability. Consistent with other taxa, we also found that baseline corticosterone and testosterone in males was inversely related to baseline bactericidal ability. However, in females, we found a positive relationship between both testosterone and progesterone and bactericidal ability. Multivariate analysis did not discern any further endocrine-immune relationships, suggesting that interactions between adrenal, sex steroid hormones, and the immune system may not be direct and instead may be responding to other common stimuli, (i.e., reproductive status, energy). Taken together, these data illustrate significant endocrine-immune interactions that are highly dependent on sex and the stress state of the animal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultraviolet light and heat source selection in captive spiny-tailed iguanas (Oplurus cuvieri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, H.C.; Fa, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Three experimental manipulations were conducted to assess the influence of heat source selection and active thermoregulation on ultraviolet (UV) light exposure in captive spiny-tailed iguanas (Oplurus cuvieri) at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Four replicates per manipulation were conducted on six individual lizards. All animals were tested in a separate enclosure to which they were acclimated before observations. Data on choice of thermal sources were collected during the first 2 hr of light, when lizards were actively thermoregulating. Animals were allowed to choose between incandescent light, UV light and a non-light heat source (thermotube) in different combinations. Recorded temperatures close to the incandescent light (37°C) were always significantly higher than at the thermotube (33°C) and at the UV light (29°C). Manipulation 1 offered the animals a choice of an UV light and an incandescent light as thermal sources. Manipulation 2 presented animals with the thermal choices in Manipulation 1, but substrates under each source in Manipulation 1 were switched. In Manipulation 3, animals could choose between an incandescent light and the thermotube. All studied lizards were significantly more attracted to the incandescent light than to the UV light or thermotube. Incandescent light elicited a significantly higher proportion of basking behaviors in all individuals than the other sources. A high proportion of time basking was also spent in front of the thermotube but fewer individuals and less time were spent basking under the UV light. Heat source selection was generally found to be independent of substrate. Management applications of this preference are suggested for juvenile diurnal heliothermic iguanids. (author)

  4. Ecological drift and local exposures drive enteric bacterial community differences within species of Galápagos iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W; Hong, Pei-Ying; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-04-01

    Diet strongly influences the intestinal microbial communities through species sorting. Alternatively, these communicates may differ because of chance variation in local microbial exposures or species losses among allopatric host populations (i.e. ecological drift). We investigated how these forces shape enteric communities of Galápagos marine and land iguanas. Geographically proximate populations shared more similar communities within a host ecotype, suggesting a role for ecological drift during host colonization of the islands. Additionally, evidence of taxa sharing between proximate heterospecific host populations suggests that contemporary local exposures also influence the gut community assembly. While selective forces such as host-bacterial interactions or dietary differences are dominant drivers of intestinal community differences among hosts, historical and contemporary processes of ecological drift may lead to differences in bacterial composition within a host species. Whether such differences in community structure translate into geographic variation in benefits derived from these intimate microbial communities remains to be explored. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Bir Yeşil İguana'da {İguana iguana) Saptanan Peritonitle Beraber Seyreden Oxyurid Enfestasyonu

    OpenAIRE

    KOENHEMSİ, Lora; ULUTAŞ ESATGİL, Meltem; BAYRAKAL, Alper; ERDOĞAN, Özge; GÖNÜL, Remzi

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETBu olgunun materyalini halsizlik ve iştahsızlık şikayeti ile kliniğimize getirilen 18 aylık bir iguana oluşturdu. Yapılan klinik muayene ve radyolojik incelemeler sonucunda toraks ve sölomda sıvı toplanması saptandı. Hastada yapılan aspirasyon biyopsisi sonucunda yapılan sitolojik incelemede peritonit olduğu tespit edildi. Diğer taraftan dışkısında mukus görülmesi şikayeti nedeniyle yapılan parazitolojik incelemede Pharyngodonidae ailesinden: Alaeuris sp. veya Ozolamius sp. cinslerinden h...

  6. Use of statistical models based on radiographic measurements to predict oviposition date and clutch size in rock iguanas (Cyclura nubila)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The ability to noninvasively estimate clutch size and predict oviposition date in reptiles can be useful not only to veterinary clinicians but also to managers of captive collections and field researchers. Measurements of egg size and shape, as well as position of the clutch within the coelomic cavity, were taken from diagnostic radiographs of 20 female Cuban rock iguanas, Cyclura nubila, 81 to 18 days prior to laying. Combined with data on maternal body size, these variables were entered into multiple regression models to predict clutch size and timing of egg laying. The model for clutch size was accurate to 0.53 ± 0.08 eggs, while the model for oviposition date was accurate to 6.22 ± 0.81 days. Equations were generated that should be applicable to this and other large Cyclura species. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  7. Development of 10 highly-polymorphic microsatellite markers in the vulnerable Galápagos land iguanas (genus Conolophus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sabrina F P; Monteyne, Daniel; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2009-01-01

    The two species of Galápagos land iguanas (Conolophus subcristatus and C. pallidus) are listed as 'vulnerable' species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List; http://www.iucnredlist.org). Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of 10 microsatellite markers using 562 individuals sampled on all Galápagos islands where Conolophus species occur today. We show that these 10 loci are highly polymorphic and display diagnostic alleles for five out of the six island populations. These markers will be useful for Conolophus population genetic analyses as well as for guiding ongoing captive breeding programmes. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The relationship between heart rate and rate of oxygen consumption in Galapagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) at two different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J; Frappell, Peter B; Wang, Tobias; Wikelski, Martin

    2002-07-01

    To enable the use of heart rate (fH) for estimating field metabolic rate (FMR) in free-ranging Galapagos marine iguanas Amblyrhynchus cristatus, we determined the relationships between fH and mass-specific rate of oxygen consumption (sVO2) in seven iguanas before and during exercise on a treadmill and during the post-exercise period. The experiments were conducted at 27 and 35 degrees C, which are the temperatures that represent the lowest and highest average body temperatures of these animals in the field during summer. There were linear and significant relationships between fH and sVO2 at both temperatures (r(2)=0.86 and 0.91 at 27 degrees C and 36 degrees C, respectively). The slopes of the two regression lines did not differ, but there were significant differences in their intercepts. Thus, while heart rate can be used to predict FMR, the effects of temperature on the intercept of the regression must be taken into account when converting fH to sVO2. On the basis of our data, this can be achieved by applying the following formula: sVO2=0.0113fH-0.2983Q(10)((T(b)-27)/10). The increase in sVO2 with elevated body temperature results from an increase in fH, with no significant change in mass-specific oxygen pulse (sO(2) pulse; cardiac stroke volume times the difference in oxygen content between arterial and mixed venous blood). However, during exercise at both temperatures, increases in fH are insufficient to provide all of the additional O(2) required and there are also significant increases in the sO(2) pulses. This creates the situation whereby the same fH at the two temperatures can represent different values of sVO2.

  9. Characterization and evolution of MHC class II B genes in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Moreno, Maria A; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2009-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play a key role in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Class II B genes appear to evolve in a very different manner in mammals and birds. Orthology is commonly observed among mammal loci, while genes tend to cluster phylogenetically within bird species. Here we present class II B data from a representative of another major group of amniotes, the squamates (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians), with the ultimate goal of placing mammalian and avian MHC evolution into a broader context. In this study, eight class II B cDNA sequences were obtained from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) which were divided into five locus groups, Amcr-DAB1 through -DAB5, based on similarities along most of the coding and noncoding portions of the transcribed gene. All marine iguana sequences were monophyletic with respect to class II genes from other vertebrates indicating that they originated from a common ancestral locus after squamates split from other reptiles. The beta-1 domain, which is involved in antigen binding, exhibited signatures of positive selection as well as interlocus gene conversion in both long and short tracts-a pattern also observed in birds and fish, but not in mammals. On the other hand, the beta-2 domain was divergent between gene groups, which is characteristic of mammals. Based on these results, we preliminarily show that squamate class II B genes have been shaped by a unique blend of evolutionary forces that have been observed in differing degrees in other vertebrates.

  10. Characterization of Salmonella Occurring at High Prevalence in a Population of the Land Iguana Conolophus subcristatus in Galápagos Islands, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Alessia; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Lorenzetti, Serena; Onorati, Roberta; Gentile, Gabriele; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Battisti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the association between the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella and a population of land iguana, Colonophus subcristatus, endemic to Galapagos Islands in Ecuador. We assessed the presence of Salmonella subspecies and serovars and estimated the prevalence of the pathogen in that population. Additionally, we investigated the genetic relatedness among isolates and serovars utilising pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on XbaI-digested DNA and determined the ant...

  11. Soft tissue influence on ex vivo mobility in the hip of Iguana: comparison with in vivo movement and its bearing on joint motion of fossil sprawling tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Fischer, Martin S; Nyakatura, John A

    2014-07-01

    The reconstruction of a joint's maximum range of mobility (ROM) often is a first step when trying to understand the locomotion of fossil tetrapods. But previous studies suggest that the ROM of a joint is restricted by soft tissues surrounding the joint. To expand the limited informative value of ROM studies for the reconstruction of a fossil species' locomotor characteristics, it is moreover necessary to better understand the relationship of ex vivo ROM with the actual in vivo joint movement. To gain insight into the relationship between ex vivo mobility and in vivo movement, we systematically tested for the influence of soft tissues on joint ROM in the hip of the modern lizard Iguana iguana. Then, we compared the ex vivo mobility to in vivo kinematics of the hip joint in the same specimens using X-ray sequences of steady-state treadmill locomotion previously recorded. With stepwise removal of soft tissues and a repeated-measurement protocol, we show that soft tissues surrounding the hip joint considerably limit ROM, highlighting the problems when joint ROM is deduced from bare bones only. We found the integument to have the largest effect on the range of long-axis rotation, pro- and retraction. Importantly, during locomotion the iguana used only a fragment of the ROM that was measured in our least restrictive dissection situation (i.e. pelvis and femur only conjoined by ligaments), demonstrating the discrepancy between hip joint ROM and actual in vivo movement. Our study emphasizes the necessity for caution when attempting to reconstruct joint ROM or even locomotor kinematics from fossil bones only, as actual in vivo movement cannot be deduced directly from any condition of cadaver mobility in Iguana and likely in other tetrapods. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  12. A conserved function of the zinc finger transcription factor Sp8/9 in allometric appendage growth in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeper, Nina D; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-08-01

    The genes encoding the closely related zinc finger transcription factors Buttonhead (Btd) and D-Sp1 are expressed in the developing limb primordia of Drosophila melanogaster and are required for normal growth of the legs. The D-Sp1 homolog of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, Sp8 (appropriately termed Sp8/9), is also required for the proper growth of the leg segments. Here we report on the isolation and functional study of the Sp8/9 gene from the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. We show that Sp8/9 is expressed in the developing appendages throughout development and that the downregulation of Sp8/9 via RNAi leads to antennae, rostrum, and legs with shortened and fused segments. This supports a conserved role of Sp8/9 in allometric leg segment growth. However, all leg segments including the claws are present and the expression of the leg genes Distal-less, dachshund, and homothorax are proportionally normal, thus providing no evidence for a role of Sp8/9 in appendage specification.

  13. Functional analyses in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera) support a role for Wnt signaling in body segmentation but not appendage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, David R; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2005-07-15

    Specification of the proximal-distal (PD) axis of insect appendages is best understood in Drosophila melanogaster, where conserved signaling molecules encoded by the genes decapentaplegic (dpp) and wingless (wg) play key roles. However, the development of appendages from imaginal discs as in Drosophila is a derived state, while more basal insects produce appendages from embryonic limb buds. Therefore, the universality of the Drosophila limb PD axis specification mechanism has been debated since dpp expression in more basal insect species differs dramatically from Drosophila. Here, we test the function of Wnt signaling in the development of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a species with the basal state of appendage development from limb buds. RNA interference of wg and pangolin (pan) produce defects in the germband and eyes, but not in the appendages. Distal-less and dachshund, two genes regulated by Wg signaling in Drosophila and expressed in specific PD domains along the limbs of both species, are expressed normally in the limbs of pan-depleted Oncopeltus embryos. Despite these apparently paradoxical results, Armadillo protein, the transducer of Wnt signaling, does not accumulate properly in the nuclei of cells in the legs of pan-depleted embryos. In contrast, engrailed RNAi in Oncopeltus produces cuticular and appendage defects similar to Drosophila. Therefore, our data suggest that Wg signaling is functionally conserved in the development of the germband, while it is not essential in the specification of the limb PD axis in Oncopeltus and perhaps basal insects.

  14. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  15. Molecular cloning of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its effect on the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Hwang, Yoon Jung; Yoon, Ki Joon; Zenke, Kosuke; Nam, Yoon Kwon; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2009-11-01

    Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rbTNF-alpha) gene was cloned, recombinantly produced, and the effect of the recombinant rbTNF-alpha on the respiratory burst activity of rock bream phagocytes was analyzed. Structurally, genomic DNA of rbTNF-alpha was comprised with four exons and three introns, and deduced amino acid sequence of its cDNA possessed the TNF family signature, a transmembrane domain, a protease cleavage site, and two cysteine residues, which are the typical characteristics of TNF-alpha gene in mammals and fish. The chemiluminescent (CL) response of rock bream phagocytes was significantly enhanced by pre-incubation with recombinant rbTNF-alpha, when opsonized zymosan was used as a stimulant of the respiratory burst. However, CL enhancing effect of the recombinant rbTNF-alpha was very weak when the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes was triggered with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) instead of zymosan. These results suggest that rock bream TNF-alpha might have an ability to prime the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes against receptor-mediated phagocytosis inducing stimulants, such as zymosan, but have little ability against stimulants not accompanying receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

  16. VARIAÇÃO SAZONAL DA BIOQUÍMICA SANGUÍNEA EM IGUANAS: ASPECTOS FISIOPATOLÓGICOS E ANÁLISE DE 4 CASOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máyra Dias SILVEIRA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assim como os demais répteis, as iguanas são animais ectotérmicos e o clima e outros fatores ambientais podem exercer forte influência sobre a fisiologia e os parâmetros hematológicos desta espécie e com a crescente introdução destes animais como pets exóticos torna-se grande a necessidade de maiores informações sobre as alterações fisiológicas e patológicas na clínica de répteis. O presente estudo tem como objetivo investigar as variações sazonais de parâmetros bioquímicos de iguanas-verdes (Iguana iguana criadas em cativeiro na cidade de Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro. Foram utilizadas 4 iguanas-verdes adultas, das quais foram colhidas amostras de sangue em janeiro e julho de 2014 e analisadas as concentrações de colesterol, triglicerídeos, glicose, ácido úrico, ureia, cálcio e fósforo. Também foram monitorados os índices meteorológicos de umidade, precipitação e temperatura em ambos os meses. Nossos resultados apontaram aumento na concentração sanguínea de ureia em julho em relação a janeiro (6,3±0,70 mg/dL e 3,8±1,03, respectivamente e aumento na relação Ca:P de 1,08±0,15 em janeiro para 2,45±0,40 na segunda avaliação. Os demais parâmetros não apresentaram alterações significantes nas comparações entre os meses estudados. Conclui-se que a temperatura, estação do ano, dieta, sexo e as condições de manejo às quais estes animais são submetidos têm importante impacto nos resultados de exames laboratoriais. Espera-se que o conjunto de resultados observados neste trabalho possa servir como referência para outros trabalhos com o mesmo caráter de observação. 

  17. Insights into molecular profiles and genomic evolution of an IRAK4 homolog from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): immunogen- and pathogen-induced transcriptional expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Whang, Ilson; Lim, Bong-Soo; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2015-04-01

    As a pivotal signaling mediator of toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling cascades, the IL-1R-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) is engaged in the activation of host immunity. This study investigates the molecular and expressional profiles of an IRAK4-like homolog from Oplegnathus fasciatus (OfIRAK4). The OfIRAK4 gene (8.2 kb) was structured with eleven exons and ten introns. A putative coding sequence (1395bp) was translated to the OfIRAK protein of 464 amino acids. The deduced OfIRAK4 protein featured a bipartite domain structure composed of a death domain (DD) and a kinase domain (PKc). Teleost IRAK4 appears to be distinct and divergent from that of tetrapods in terms of its exon-intron structure and evolutionary relatedness. Analysis of the sequence upstream of translation initiation site revealed the presence of putative regulatory elements, including NF-κB-binding sites, which are possibly involved in transcriptional control of OfIRAK4. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed to assess the transcriptional expression of OfIRAK4 in different juvenile tissues and post-injection of different immunogens and pathogens. Ubiquitous basal mRNA expression was widely detected with highest level in liver. In vivo flagellin (FLA) challenge significantly intensified its mRNA levels in intestine, liver and head kidney indicating its role in FLA-induced signaling. Meanwhile, up-regulated expression was also determined in liver and head kidney of animals challenged with potent immunogens (LPS and poly I:C) and pathogens (Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV)). Taken together, these data implicate that OfIRAK4 might be engaged in antibacterial and antiviral immunity in rock bream. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. RNAi analysis of Deformed, proboscipedia and Sex combs reduced in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus: novel roles for Hox genes in the hemipteran head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C L; Kaufman, T C

    2000-09-01

    Insects have evolved a large variety of specialized feeding strategies, with a corresponding variability in mouthpart morphology. We have, however, little understanding of the developmental mechanisms that underlie this diversity. Until recently it was difficult to perform any analysis of gene function outside of the genetic model insects Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum. In this paper, we report the use of dsRNA-mediated interference (RNAi) to dissect gene function in the development of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, which has specialized suctorial mouthparts. The Hox genes Deformed (Dfd), proboscipedia (pb) and Sex combs reduced (Scr) have previously been shown to be expressed in the gnathal appendages of this species. Strikingly, the milkweed bug was found to have an unusual expression pattern of pb. Here, by analyzing single and combination RNAi depletions, we find that Dfd, pb and Scr are used in the milkweed bug to specify the identity of the mouthparts. The exact roles of the genes, however, are different from what is known in the two genetic model insects. The maxillary appendages in the bug are determined by the activities of the genes Dfd and Scr, rather than Dfd and pb as in the fly and beetle. The mandibular appendages are specified by Dfd, but their unique morphology in Oncopeltus suggests that Dfd's target genes are different. As in flies and beetles, the labium is specified by the combined activities of pb and Scr, but again, the function of pb appears to be different. Additionally, the regulatory control of pb by the other two genes seems to be different in the bug than in either of the other species. These novelties in Hox function, expression pattern and regulatory relationships may have been important for the evolution of the unique Hemipteran head.

  19. Effect of different wavelengths of light on the antioxidant and immunity status of juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, exposed to thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Ryeol; Shin, Yoon Sub; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the effect of light wavelengths on antioxidant and immunity parameters in juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, exposed to thermal stress (25 and 30°C). We exposed the fish to light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting green (520 nm) and red light (630 nm) of 0.25 and 0.5 W/m2 intensity, and measured the activity, and mRNA and protein expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We also determined the levels of plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), melatonin, and lysozyme. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of caspase-3 were measured and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed. We observed that mRNA expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma H2O2 levels were significantly higher after exposure to high temperatures. However, increases in these parameters were significantly lower after exposure to green LED light. The plasma melatonin and lysozyme levels were significantly lower in the different groups after exposure to high temperatures; however, in groups exposed to green LED light, their levels were significantly higher than those in the control group. The expression pattern of caspase-3 mRNA was similar to that of H2O2. The TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis was markedly higher at higher water temperatures than that at 20°C. These results indicate that high water temperatures induce oxidative stress and decrease the immunity in juvenile rock bream but green LED light inhibits the rise in oxidative stress and combats the decrease in immunity and should, thus, be useful in the culture of rock bream.

  20. Genetic impact of a severe El Niño event on Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfartz, Sebastian; Glaberman, Scott; Lanterbecq, Deborah; Marquez, Cruz; Rassmann, Kornelia; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2007-12-12

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a major source of climatic disturbance, impacting the dynamics of ecosystems worldwide. Recent models predict that human-generated rises in green-house gas levels will cause an increase in the strength and frequency of El Niño warming events in the next several decades, highlighting the need to understand the potential biological consequences of increased ENSO activity. Studies have focused on the ecological and demographic implications of El Niño in a range of organisms, but there have been few systematic attempts to measure the impact of these processes on genetic diversity in populations. Here, we evaluate whether the 1997-1998 El Niño altered the genetic composition of Galápagos marine iguana populations from eleven islands, some of which experienced mortality rates of up to 90% as a result of El Niño warming. Specifically, we measured the temporal variation in microsatellite allele frequencies and mitochondrial DNA diversity (mtDNA) in samples collected before (1991/1993) and after (2004) the El Niño event. Based on microsatellite data, only one island (Marchena) showed signatures of a genetic bottleneck, where the harmonic mean of the effective population size (N(e)) was estimated to be less than 50 individuals during the period between samplings. Substantial decreases in mtDNA variation between time points were observed in populations from just two islands (Marchena and Genovesa). Our results suggests that, for the majority of islands, a single, intense El Niño event did not reduce marine iguana populations to the point where substantial neutral genetic diversity was lost. In the case of Marchena, simultaneous changes to both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation may also be the result of a volcanic eruption on the island in 1991. Therefore, studies that seek to evaluate the genetic impact of El Niño must also consider the confounding or potentially synergistic effect of other environmental and biological

  1. Genetic impact of a severe El Niño event on Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Steinfartz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a major source of climatic disturbance, impacting the dynamics of ecosystems worldwide. Recent models predict that human-generated rises in green-house gas levels will cause an increase in the strength and frequency of El Niño warming events in the next several decades, highlighting the need to understand the potential biological consequences of increased ENSO activity. Studies have focused on the ecological and demographic implications of El Niño in a range of organisms, but there have been few systematic attempts to measure the impact of these processes on genetic diversity in populations. Here, we evaluate whether the 1997-1998 El Niño altered the genetic composition of Galápagos marine iguana populations from eleven islands, some of which experienced mortality rates of up to 90% as a result of El Niño warming. Specifically, we measured the temporal variation in microsatellite allele frequencies and mitochondrial DNA diversity (mtDNA in samples collected before (1991/1993 and after (2004 the El Niño event. Based on microsatellite data, only one island (Marchena showed signatures of a genetic bottleneck, where the harmonic mean of the effective population size (N(e was estimated to be less than 50 individuals during the period between samplings. Substantial decreases in mtDNA variation between time points were observed in populations from just two islands (Marchena and Genovesa. Our results suggests that, for the majority of islands, a single, intense El Niño event did not reduce marine iguana populations to the point where substantial neutral genetic diversity was lost. In the case of Marchena, simultaneous changes to both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation may also be the result of a volcanic eruption on the island in 1991. Therefore, studies that seek to evaluate the genetic impact of El Niño must also consider the confounding or potentially synergistic effect of other environmental

  2. Characterization and distribution of GHRH, PACAP, TRH, SST and IGF1 mRNAs in the green iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Urban-Sosa, Valeria; Carranza, Martha; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The somatotropic axis (SA) regulates numerous aspects of vertebrate physiology such as development, growth, and metabolism and has influence on several tissues including neural, immune, reproductive and gastric tract. Growth hormone (GH) is a key component of SA, it is synthesized and released mainly by pituitary somatotrophs, although now it is known that virtually all tissues can express GH, which, in addition to its well-described endocrine roles, also has autocrine/paracrine/intracrine actions. In the pituitary, GH expression is regulated by several hypothalamic neuropeptides including GHRH, PACAP, TRH and SST. GH, in turn, regulates IGF1 synthesis in several target tissues, adding complexity to the system since GH effects can be exerted either directly or mediated by IGF1. In reptiles, little is known about the SA components and their functional interactions. The aim of this work was to characterize the mRNAs of the principal SA components in the green iguana and to develop the tools that allow the study of the structural and functional evolution of this system in reptiles. By employing RT-PCR and RACE, the cDNAs encoding for GHRH, PACAP, TRH, SST and IGF1 were amplified and sequenced. Results showed that these cDNAs coded for the corresponding protein precursors of 154, 170, 243, 113, and 131 amino acids, respectively. Of these, GHRH, PACAP, SST and IGF1 precursors exhibited a high structural conservation with respect to its counterparts in other vertebrates. On the other hand, iguana's TRH precursor showed 7 functional copies of mature TRH (pyr-QHP-NH 2 ), as compared to 4 and 6 copies of TRH in avian and mammalian proTRH sequences, respectively. It was found that in addition to its primary production site (brain for GHRH, PACAP, TRH and SST, and liver for IGF1), they were also expressed in other peripheral tissues, i.e. testes and ovaries expressed all the studied mRNAs, whereas TRH and IGF1 mRNAs were observed ubiquitously in all tissues considered. These

  3. Proyecto de inversión para la creación de un criadero de iguanas en el Ecuador para la exportación de su carne al mercado colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Galarza Carrera, Kelly; Solis Moncada, Jahaira; Mejia Coronel, Marco Tulio

    2009-01-01

    El presente proyecto fue elaborado con el objetivo de incrementar fuentes de trabajo en zonas rurales de la provincia del guayas, incentivando de esta manera a que la población conozca del cuidado de ciertas especies y su forma de vida, además, las utilidades que se le puede dar a este reptil (IGUANA), resultan una buena inversión a largo plazo. Tomando en consideración, la extensa población de iguanas que existe en el litoral ecuatoriano, y la gran demanda de este producto en nuestro país ve...

  4. Diurnal and nocturnal differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-01-15

    Temporal modulation of the stress response is a ubiquitous characteristic of animals. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms underlying daily changes in corticosterone release in an ectotherm model system. Earlier work indicated that free-living Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) have lower corticosterone concentrations during the night than during the day. This could result from: (i) a lower circadian secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as seen in mammals; (ii) from an increase in corticosterone negative feedback; or (iii) reflect lower metabolic activity during the night when core body temperature falls (from 35 degrees C during the day to as low as 21 degrees C during the night). To begin to distinguish between these three possibilities, exogenous ACTH was used to compare diel differences in adrenocortical tissue responsiveness, and dexamethasone was used to compare diel differences in the efficacy of corticosterone negative feedback. Low levels of exogenous ACTH (30 IU/kg body weight) potently stimulated both daytime and nighttime corticosterone release. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) inhibited only daytime, but not nighttime endogenous corticosterone release. Because the response to ACTH was similar between day and night we suggest that a simple lowering of core body temperature cannot explain the nighttime reduction in corticosterone release. However, the failure of negative feedback at night suggests that the response is not equivalent to the controlled downregulation seen in mammals.

  5. Salmonella strains isolated from Galápagos iguanas show spatial structuring of serovar and genomic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily W Lankau

    Full Text Available It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome.

  6. Salmonella strains isolated from Galápagos iguanas show spatial structuring of serovar and genomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W; Cruz Bedon, Lenin; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome.

  7. Salmonella Strains Isolated from Galápagos Iguanas Show Spatial Structuring of Serovar and Genomic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W.; Cruz Bedon, Lenin; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome. PMID:22615968

  8. New insight into the evolution of the vertebrate respiratory system and the discovery of unidirectional airflow in iguana lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieri, Robert L; Craven, Brent A; Schachner, Emma R; Farmer, C G

    2014-12-02

    The generally accepted framework for the evolution of a key feature of the avian respiratory system, unidirectional airflow, is that it is an adaptation for efficiency of gas exchange and expanded aerobic capacities, and therefore it has historically been viewed as important to the ability of birds to fly and to maintain an endothermic metabolism. This pattern of flow has been presumed to arise from specific features of the respiratory system, such as an enclosed intrapulmonary bronchus and parabronchi. Here we show unidirectional airflow in the green iguana, a lizard with a strikingly different natural history from that of birds and lacking these anatomical features. This discovery indicates a paradigm shift is needed. The selective drivers of the trait, its date of origin, and the fundamental aerodynamic mechanisms by which unidirectional flow arises must be reassessed to be congruent with the natural history of this lineage. Unidirectional flow may serve functions other than expanded aerobic capacity; it may have been present in the ancestral diapsid; and it can occur in structurally simple lungs.

  9. Diversification in the northern neotropics: mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogeography of the iguana Ctenosaura pectinata and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarza, Eugenia; Reynoso, Victor H; Emerson, Brent C

    2008-07-01

    While Quaternary climatic changes are considered by some to have been a major factor promoting speciation within the neotropics, others suggest that much of the neotropical species diversity originated before the Pleistocene. Using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data, we evaluate the relative importance of Pleistocene and pre-Pleistocene events within the evolutionary history of the Mexican iguana Ctenosaura pectinata, and related species. Results support the existence of cryptic lineages with strong mitochondrial divergence (> 4%) among them. Some of these lineages form zones of secondary contact, with one of them hybridizing with C. hemilopha. Evolutionary network analyses reveal the oldest populations of C. pectinata to be those of the northern and southern Mexican coastal regions. Inland and mid-latitudinal coastal populations are younger in age as a consequence of a history of local extinction within these regions followed by re-colonization. Estimated divergence times suggest that C. pectinata originated during the Pliocene, whereas geographically distinct mitochondrial DNA lineages first started to diverge during the Pliocene, with subsequent divergence continuing through the Pleistocene. Our results highlight the influence of both Pliocene and Pleistocene events in shaping the geographical distribution of genetic variation within neotropical lowland organisms. Areas of high genetic diversity in southern Mexico were detected, this finding plus the high levels of genetic diversity within C. pectinata, have implications for the conservation of this threatened species.

  10. Progressive colonization and restricted gene flow shape island-dependent population structure in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snell Howard L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus inhabit the coastlines of large and small islands throughout the Galápagos archipelago, providing a rich system to study the spatial and temporal factors influencing the phylogeographic distribution and population structure of a species. Here, we analyze the microevolution of marine iguanas using the complete mitochondrial control region (CR as well as 13 microsatellite loci representing more than 1200 individuals from 13 islands. Results CR data show that marine iguanas occupy three general clades: one that is widely distributed across the northern archipelago, and likely spread from east to west by way of the South Equatorial current, a second that is found mostly on the older eastern and central islands, and a third that is limited to the younger northern and western islands. Generally, the CR haplotype distribution pattern supports the colonization of the archipelago from the older, eastern islands to the younger, western islands. However, there are also signatures of recurrent, historical gene flow between islands after population establishment. Bayesian cluster analysis of microsatellite genotypes indicates the existence of twenty distinct genetic clusters generally following a one-cluster-per-island pattern. However, two well-differentiated clusters were found on the easternmost island of San Cristóbal, while nine distinct and highly intermixed clusters were found on youngest, westernmost islands of Isabela and Fernandina. High mtDNA and microsatellite genetic diversity were observed for populations on Isabela and Fernandina that may be the result of a recent population expansion and founder events from multiple sources. Conclusions While a past genetic study based on pure FST analysis suggested that marine iguana populations display high levels of nuclear (but not mitochondrial gene flow due to male-biased dispersal, the results of our sex-biased dispersal tests and the

  11. Progressive colonization and restricted gene flow shape island-dependent population structure in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfartz, Sebastian; Glaberman, Scott; Lanterbecq, Deborah; Russello, Michael A; Rosa, Sabrina; Hanley, Torrance C; Marquez, Cruz; Snell, Howard L; Snell, Heidi M; Gentile, Gabriele; Dell'Olmo, Giacomo; Powell, Alessandro M; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2009-12-22

    Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) inhabit the coastlines of large and small islands throughout the Galápagos archipelago, providing a rich system to study the spatial and temporal factors influencing the phylogeographic distribution and population structure of a species. Here, we analyze the microevolution of marine iguanas using the complete mitochondrial control region (CR) as well as 13 microsatellite loci representing more than 1200 individuals from 13 islands. CR data show that marine iguanas occupy three general clades: one that is widely distributed across the northern archipelago, and likely spread from east to west by way of the South Equatorial current, a second that is found mostly on the older eastern and central islands, and a third that is limited to the younger northern and western islands. Generally, the CR haplotype distribution pattern supports the colonization of the archipelago from the older, eastern islands to the younger, western islands. However, there are also signatures of recurrent, historical gene flow between islands after population establishment. Bayesian cluster analysis of microsatellite genotypes indicates the existence of twenty distinct genetic clusters generally following a one-cluster-per-island pattern. However, two well-differentiated clusters were found on the easternmost island of San Cristóbal, while nine distinct and highly intermixed clusters were found on youngest, westernmost islands of Isabela and Fernandina. High mtDNA and microsatellite genetic diversity were observed for populations on Isabela and Fernandina that may be the result of a recent population expansion and founder events from multiple sources. While a past genetic study based on pure FST analysis suggested that marine iguana populations display high levels of nuclear (but not mitochondrial) gene flow due to male-biased dispersal, the results of our sex-biased dispersal tests and the finding of strong genetic differentiation between islands do

  12. Reproductive biomarkers responses induced by xenoestrogens in the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus inhabiting a South American reservoir: An integrated field and laboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Paula S.; Pinheiro, Ana Paula B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, C.P. 486, 30161-970, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Bazzoli, Nilo [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia de Vertebrados, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, PUC Minas, Belo Horizonte 30535-610, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Rizzo, Elizete, E-mail: ictio@icb.ufmg.br [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, C.P. 486, 30161-970, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    Field studies evaluating the effects of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) on the fish reproduction are scarce worldwide. The goal of this study was to assess hepatic levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), and relating them to reproductive endpoints in a wild fish population habiting a reservoir that receive domestic sewage, agricultural and industrial residues. Adult fish Astyanax fasciatus were sampled during the reproductive season in five sites from the Furnas Reservoir, Grande River, and Paraguay–Paraná basin. As a control to field data, fish were experimentally exposed via dietary intake, to oestradiol benzoate (OB) for 7 days. Fish from site with little anthropogenic interference showed hepatic levels of Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II similar to those from the non-treated experimental group. In sites located immediately downstream from the municipal wastewater discharges, the water total oestrogen was >120 ng/l, and male fish displayed increased Vtg and Zrp and decreased IGF-I levels similar to OB treated fish. In females, levels of Vtg, Zrp, IGF-I and IGF-II suggest an impairment of final oocyte maturation and spawning, as also detected by frequency of over-ripening, follicular atresia and fecundity. At the sites that receive agricultural and industrial residues, the water total oestrogen was <50 ng/l and females showed decreased Zrp and increased IGF-II levels associated to reduced diameter of vitellogenic follicles, indicating an inhibition of oocyte growth. Overall, the current study reports oestrogenic contamination impairing the reproduction of a wild fish from a hydroeletric reservoir and, the data contribute to improving the current knowledge on relationship between hepatic Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II, and reproductive endpoints in a teleost fish. In addition, our data point out novel reproductive biomarkers (IGF-I, IGF-II and over-ripening) to assessing xenoestrogenic

  13. Plasma concentrations of progesterone and estradiol and the relation to reproduction in Galápagos land iguanas, Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus (Squamata, Iguanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Michela; Sancesario, Giulia; Pastore, Donatella; Bernardini, Sergio; Carrión, Jorge E; Carosi, Monica; Vignoli, Leonardo; Lauro, Davide; Gentile, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    In a combined approach, endocrine and ultrasonic analyses were performed to assess reproduction of two syntopic populations of terrestrial Galápagos iguanas the Conolophus marthae (the Galápagos Pink Land Iguana) and C. subcristatus on the Volcán Wolf (Isabela Island). The ELISA methods (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were used to measure plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and 17β-estradiol (E2) from samples collected over the course of three different seasons: July 2010, June 2012-2014. As for C. subcristatus, the large number of females with eggs in 2012 and 2014 were associated with increased plasma P4 concentrations and the corresponding absence of females with eggs in July 2010 when concentrations of both hormones levels were basal indicating reproduction was still ongoing in June and had ended in July. In C. marthae, even though there was a positive relationship between egg-development stages and hormone concentrations, P4 concentrations were basal through the three years that samples were collected, with some females having a lesser number of eggs compared with C. subcristatus. In C. marthae P4 and E2 patterns did not allow for defining a specific breeding season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of parasitic infection and reproduction on corticosterone plasma levels in Galápagos land iguanas, Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Michela; Sancesario, Giulia; Pastore, Donatella; Bernardini, Sergio; Cruz, Marilyn; Carrión, Jorge E; Carosi, Monica; Vignoli, Leonardo; Lauro, Davide; Gentile, Gabriele

    2017-08-01

    In vertebrates, one main feature of stress response is the release of glucocorticoids (corticosterone in reptiles), steroid hormones whose synthesis is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). In the Galápagos Islands, populations of land iguanas are differentially impacted by a tick-transmitted apicomplexan hemoparasite of genus Hepatozoon , which could cause diseases and ultimately reduce fitness. Using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we examined baseline plasma corticosterone levels of two syntopic and highly parasitized populations of the land iguana species Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus in Wolf volcano (Isabela Island). We also used a poorly parasitized population of C. subcristatus from the same island (Bahia Urbina) as a reference. To better interpret the observed glucocorticoids patterns, we simultaneously performed the count of white blood cells (WBCs) in all individuals and investigated the reproductive status of females. We did not find evidence in support of either a positive or negative relationship between the tick load, hemoparasite infection, and glucocorticoid plasma concentration in C. marthae and C. subcristatus at Wolf volcano. The comparison between parasitized and non-parasitized sites (V. Wolf and Bahia Urbina) would instead suggest an inverse relationship between corticosterone and parasites. Our findings support association between corticosterone plasma levels and reproduction.

  15. Characterization of a Nonclassical Class I MHC Gene in a Reptile, the Galápagos Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Du Pasquier, Louis; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-01-01

    Squamates are a diverse order of vertebrates, representing more than 7,000 species. Yet, descriptions of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in this group are nearly absent from the literature, while the number of MHC studies continues to rise in other vertebrate taxa. The lack of basic information about MHC organization in squamates inhibits investigation into the relationship between MHC polymorphism and disease, and leaves a large taxonomic gap in our understanding of amniote MHC evolution. Here, we use both cDNA and genomic sequence data to characterize a class I MHC gene (Amcr-UA) from the Galápagos marine iguana, a member of the squamate subfamily Iguaninae. Amcr-UA appears to be functional since it is expressed in the blood and contains many of the conserved peptide-binding residues that are found in classical class I genes of other vertebrates. In addition, comparison of Amcr-UA to homologous sequences from other iguanine species shows that the antigen-binding portion of this gene is under purifying selection, rather than balancing selection, and therefore may have a conserved function. A striking feature of Amcr-UA is that both the cDNA and genomic sequences lack the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains that are necessary to anchor the class I receptor molecule into the cell membrane, suggesting that the product of this gene is secreted and consequently not involved in classical class I antigen-presentation. The truncated and conserved character of Amcr-UA lead us to define it as a nonclassical gene that is related to the few available squamate class I sequences. However, phylogenetic analysis placed Amcr-UA in a basal position relative to other published classical MHC genes from squamates, suggesting that this gene diverged near the beginning of squamate diversification. PMID:18682845

  16. Genetic differentiation between marine iguanas from different breeding sites on the island of Santa Fe (Galapagos Archipelago).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanterbecq, Deborah; Glaberman, Scott; Vitousek, Maren Noelani; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Benavides, Edgar; Wikelski, Martin; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2010-01-01

    We studied patterns of genetic diversity within and among 5 populations (318 individuals) of Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) from the island Santa Fé. Populations were separated by distances of 0.2 to 9.9 km. We sequenced 1182 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region and screened 13 microsatellite loci for variability. We also added data from 5 populations (397 individuals) sampled on 4 neighboring islands (Santa Cruz, Floreana, Espanola, and San Cristobal). The 5 Santa Fé populations, revealed as genetically distinct from populations on other islands, present relatively low levels of genetic diversity, which are similar for both microsatellite (average observed heterozygosity from 0.7686 to 0.7773) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers (haplotypic and nucleotide diversity from 0.587 to 0.728 and from 0.00079 to 0.00293, respectively), and comparable with those observed in similar-sized sampling sites on other islands. There was frequency-based evidence of genetic structure between northern and southern sites on Santa Fé (F(st) of 0.0027-0.0115 for microsatellite and 0.0447-0.2391 for mtDNA), but the 4 southern sites showed little differentiation. Most of the intra-island genetic variation was allocated within rather than between sites. There was no evidence of sex-biased dispersal or population substructuring due to lek-mating behavior, suggesting that these 2 observed behaviors are not strong enough to leave an evolutionary signal on genetic patterns in this species.

  17. Tracking acquired antibiotic resistance in commensal bacteria of Galápagos land iguanas: no man, no resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Maria Cristina; Migliore, Luciana; Marquez, Cruz; Tapia, Washington; Cedeño, Virna; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Gentile, Gabriele

    2010-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance, evolving and spreading among bacterial pathogens, poses a serious threat to human health. Antibiotic use for clinical, veterinary and agricultural practices provides the major selective pressure for emergence and persistence of acquired resistance determinants. However, resistance has also been found in the absence of antibiotic exposure, such as in bacteria from wildlife, raising a question about the mechanisms of emergence and persistence of resistant strains under similar conditions, and the implications for resistance control strategies. Since previous studies yielded some contrasting results, possibly due to differences in the ecological landscapes of the studied wildlife, we further investigated this issue in wildlife from a remote setting of the Galapagos archipelago. Screening for acquired antibiotic resistance was carried out in commensal enterobacteria from Conolophus pallidus, the terrestrial iguana of Isla Santa Fe, where: i) the abiotic conditions ensure to microbes good survival possibilities in the environment; ii) the animal density and their habits favour microbial circulation between individuals; and iii) there is no history of antibiotic exposure and the impact of humans and introduced animal species is minimal except for restricted areas. Results revealed that acquired antibiotic resistance traits were exceedingly rare among bacteria, occurring only as non-dominant strains from an area of minor human impact. Where both the exposure to antibiotics and the anthropic pressure are minimal, acquired antibiotic resistance traits are not normally found in bacteria from wildlife, even if the ecological landscape is highly favourable to bacterial circulation among animals. Monitoring antibiotic resistance in wildlife from remote areas could also be a useful tool to evaluate the impact of anthropic pressure.

  18. Tracking acquired antibiotic resistance in commensal bacteria of Galápagos land iguanas: no man, no resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Thaller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance, evolving and spreading among bacterial pathogens, poses a serious threat to human health. Antibiotic use for clinical, veterinary and agricultural practices provides the major selective pressure for emergence and persistence of acquired resistance determinants. However, resistance has also been found in the absence of antibiotic exposure, such as in bacteria from wildlife, raising a question about the mechanisms of emergence and persistence of resistant strains under similar conditions, and the implications for resistance control strategies. Since previous studies yielded some contrasting results, possibly due to differences in the ecological landscapes of the studied wildlife, we further investigated this issue in wildlife from a remote setting of the Galapagos archipelago. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Screening for acquired antibiotic resistance was carried out in commensal enterobacteria from Conolophus pallidus, the terrestrial iguana of Isla Santa Fe, where: i the abiotic conditions ensure to microbes good survival possibilities in the environment; ii the animal density and their habits favour microbial circulation between individuals; and iii there is no history of antibiotic exposure and the impact of humans and introduced animal species is minimal except for restricted areas. Results revealed that acquired antibiotic resistance traits were exceedingly rare among bacteria, occurring only as non-dominant strains from an area of minor human impact. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Where both the exposure to antibiotics and the anthropic pressure are minimal, acquired antibiotic resistance traits are not normally found in bacteria from wildlife, even if the ecological landscape is highly favourable to bacterial circulation among animals. Monitoring antibiotic resistance in wildlife from remote areas could also be a useful tool to evaluate the impact of anthropic pressure.

  19. Among-Individual Variation in Desert Iguanas (Squamata: Dipsosaurus dorsalis): Endurance Capacity Is Positively Related to Home Range Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jennifer M; Garland, Theodore

    Among species of lizards, endurance capacity measured on a motorized treadmill is positively related to daily movement distance and time spent moving, but few studies have addressed such relationships at the level of individual variation within a sex and age category in a single population. Both endurance capacity and home range size show substantial individual variation in lizards, rendering them suitable for such studies. We predicted that these traits would be positively related because endurance capacity is one of the factors that has the potential to limit home range size. We measured the endurance capacity and home range size of adult male desert iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). Lizards were field captured for measurements of endurance, and home range data were gathered using visual identification of previously marked individuals. Endurance was significantly repeatable between replicate trials, conducted 1-17 d apart ([Formula: see text] for log-transformed values, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The log of the higher of two endurance trials was positively but not significantly related to log body mass. The log of home range area was positively but not significantly related to log body mass, the number of sightings, or the time span from first to last sighting. As predicted, log endurance was positively correlated with log home range area ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], one-tailed [Formula: see text]; for body-mass residual endurance values: [Formula: see text], one-tailed [Formula: see text]). These results suggest that endurance capacity may have a permissive effect on home range size. Alternatively, individuals with larger home ranges may experience training effects (phenotypic plasticity) that increase their endurance.

  20. Characterization of a nonclassical class I MHC gene in a reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Glaberman

    Full Text Available Squamates are a diverse order of vertebrates, representing more than 7,000 species. Yet, descriptions of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes in this group are nearly absent from the literature, while the number of MHC studies continues to rise in other vertebrate taxa. The lack of basic information about MHC organization in squamates inhibits investigation into the relationship between MHC polymorphism and disease, and leaves a large taxonomic gap in our understanding of amniote MHC evolution. Here, we use both cDNA and genomic sequence data to characterize a class I MHC gene (Amcr-UA from the Galápagos marine iguana, a member of the squamate subfamily Iguaninae. Amcr-UA appears to be functional since it is expressed in the blood and contains many of the conserved peptide-binding residues that are found in classical class I genes of other vertebrates. In addition, comparison of Amcr-UA to homologous sequences from other iguanine species shows that the antigen-binding portion of this gene is under purifying selection, rather than balancing selection, and therefore may have a conserved function. A striking feature of Amcr-UA is that both the cDNA and genomic sequences lack the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains that are necessary to anchor the class I receptor molecule into the cell membrane, suggesting that the product of this gene is secreted and consequently not involved in classical class I antigen-presentation. The truncated and conserved character of Amcr-UA lead us to define it as a nonclassical gene that is related to the few available squamate class I sequences. However, phylogenetic analysis placed Amcr-UA in a basal position relative to other published classical MHC genes from squamates, suggesting that this gene diverged near the beginning of squamate diversification.

  1. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758 (Squamata: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre, 11º58'15.7"S, 68º00'22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores: Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero. Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre de Dios.

  2. Using the reactive scope model to understand why stress physiology predicts survival during starvation in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L Michael

    2012-05-01

    Even though the term "stress" is widely used, a precise definition is notoriously difficult. Notwithstanding this difficulty, stress continues to be an important concept in biology because it attempts to describe how animals cope with environmental change under emergency conditions. Without a precise definition, however, it becomes nearly impossible to make testable a priori predictions about how physiological and hormonal systems will respond to emergency conditions and what the ultimate impact on the animal will be. The reactive scope model is a recent attempt to formulate testable predictions. This model provides a physiological basis to explain why corticosterone negative feedback, but not baseline corticosterone concentrations, corticosterone responses to acute stress, or the interrenal capacity to secrete corticosterone, is correlated with survival during famine conditions in Galápagos marine iguanas. Reactive scope thus provides a foundation for interpreting and predicting physiological stress responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the black spiny tailed iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata) and their cross-utility in other Ctenosaura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarza, Eugenia; Pereyra, Ricardo T; Reynoso, Victor H; Emerson, Brent C

    2009-01-01

    We isolated and characterized 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Mexican black iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata) and assessed levels of polymorphism in sampling sites located in the northern areas of the species' distribution range. Two to 19 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.15 to 0.96 were detected. These markers will be useful to describe population genetic structure, the extent of gene flow in contact zones, to study the mating system of the species and to address conservation genetics issues. Additionally, we evaluated the potential utility of these markers for studies of other species within the genus Ctenosaura (i.e. C. hemilopha, C. similis and C. oaxacana). © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Characterization of Salmonella occurring at high prevalence in a population of the land iguana Conolophus subcristatus in Galápagos Islands, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alessia; Hendriksen, Rene S; Lorenzetti, Serena; Onorati, Roberta; Gentile, Gabriele; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Aarestrup, Frank M; Battisti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the association between the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella and a population of land iguana, Colonophus subcristatus, endemic to Galápagos Islands in Ecuador. We assessed the presence of Salmonella subspecies and serovars and estimated the prevalence of the pathogen in that population. Additionally, we investigated the genetic relatedness among isolates and serovars utilising pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on XbaI-digested DNA and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials. The study was carried out by sampling cloacal swabs from animals (n = 63) in their natural environment on in the island of Santa Cruz. A high prevalence (62/63, 98.4%) was observed with heterogeneity of Salmonella subspecies and serovars, all known to be associated with reptiles and with reptile-associated salomonellosis in humans. Serotyping revealed 14 different serovars among four Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 48), S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2), S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (n = 1), and S. enterica subsp. houtenae (n = 7). Four serovars were predominant: S. Poona (n = 18), S. Pomona (n = 10), S. Abaetetuba (n = 8), and S. Newport (n = 5). The S. Poona isolates revealed nine unique XbaI PFGE patterns, with 15 isolates showing a similarity of 70%. Nine S. Pomona isolates had a similarity of 84%. One main cluster with seven (88%) indistinguishable isolates of S. Abaetetuba was observed. All the Salmonella isolates were pan-susceptible to antimicrobials representative of the most relevant therapeutic classes. The high prevalence and absence of clinical signs suggest a natural interaction of the different Salmonella serovars with the host species. The interaction may have been established before any possible exposure of the iguanas and the biocenosis to direct or indirect environmental factors influenced by the use of antimicrobials in agriculture

  5. Rickettsia sp. strain colombianensi (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae): a new proposed Rickettsia detected in Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae) from iguanas and free-living larvae ticks from vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jorge; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A; Mattar, Salim

    2012-07-01

    From January to December 2009, 55 Amblyomma dissimile (Koch) ticks removed from iguanas in the municipality of Monteria and 3,114 ticks [458 Amblyomma sp. larvae, 2,636 Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) larvae and 20 Amblyomma sp. nymphs] collected over vegetation in Los Cordobas were included in the study. The ticks were pooled into groups from which DNA was extracted. For initial screening of Rickettsia sp., each pool was analyzed by gltA real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive pools were further studied using gltA, ompA, and ompB conventional PCR assays. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were also conducted. Rickettsial DNA was found in 28 pools of ticks (16 A. dissimile pools and 12 free-living larvae pools) out of 113 (24.7%) using real-time PCR. The same 28 pools were also positive using conventional PCR assays aimed to amplify gltA, ompA, and ompB. For each gene analyzed, PCR products obtained from 4/28 pools (two pools of A. dissimile, one pool of Amblyomma sp. larvae and one pool of Rh. microplus larvae) were randomly chosen and sequenced twice. Nucleotide sequences generated were identical to each other for each of the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB, and showed 99.4, 95.6, and 96.4% identity with those of Rickettsia tamurae. They were deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers JF905456, JF905458, and JF905457, respectively. In conclusion, we present the first molecular evidence of a novel Rickettsia (Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi) infecting A. dissimile ticks collected from iguanas, and also Rh. microplus and unspeciated Amblyomma larvae from vegetation in Colombia.

  6. Characterization of Salmonella Occurring at High Prevalence in a Population of the Land Iguana Conolophus subcristatus in Galápagos Islands, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alessia; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Lorenzetti, Serena; Onorati, Roberta; Gentile, Gabriele; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Battisti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the association between the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella and a population of land iguana, Colonophus subcristatus, endemic to Galápagos Islands in Ecuador. We assessed the presence of Salmonella subspecies and serovars and estimated the prevalence of the pathogen in that population. Additionally, we investigated the genetic relatedness among isolates and serovars utilising pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on XbaI-digested DNA and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials. The study was carried out by sampling cloacal swabs from animals (n = 63) in their natural environment on in the island of Santa Cruz. A high prevalence (62/63, 98.4%) was observed with heterogeneity of Salmonella subspecies and serovars, all known to be associated with reptiles and with reptile-associated salomonellosis in humans. Serotyping revealed 14 different serovars among four Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 48), S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2), S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (n = 1), and S. enterica subsp. houtenae (n = 7). Four serovars were predominant: S. Poona (n = 18), S. Pomona (n = 10), S. Abaetetuba (n = 8), and S.Newport (n = 5). The S. Poona isolates revealed nine unique XbaI PFGE patterns, with 15 isolates showing a similarity of 70%. Nine S. Pomona isolates had a similarity of 84%. One main cluster with seven (88%) indistinguishable isolates of S. Abaetetuba was observed. All the Salmonella isolates were pan-susceptible to antimicrobials representative of the most relevant therapeutic classes. The high prevalence and absence of clinical signs suggest a natural interaction of the different Salmonella serovars with the host species. The interaction may have been established before any possible exposure of the iguanas and the biocenosis to direct or indirect environmental factors influenced by the use of antimicrobials in agriculture

  7. Characterization of Salmonella occurring at high prevalence in a population of the land iguana Conolophus subcristatus in Galápagos Islands, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Franco

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to elucidate the association between the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella and a population of land iguana, Colonophus subcristatus, endemic to Galápagos Islands in Ecuador. We assessed the presence of Salmonella subspecies and serovars and estimated the prevalence of the pathogen in that population. Additionally, we investigated the genetic relatedness among isolates and serovars utilising pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE on XbaI-digested DNA and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials. The study was carried out by sampling cloacal swabs from animals (n = 63 in their natural environment on in the island of Santa Cruz. A high prevalence (62/63, 98.4% was observed with heterogeneity of Salmonella subspecies and serovars, all known to be associated with reptiles and with reptile-associated salomonellosis in humans. Serotyping revealed 14 different serovars among four Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 48, S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (n = 1, and S. enterica subsp. houtenae (n = 7. Four serovars were predominant: S. Poona (n = 18, S. Pomona (n = 10, S. Abaetetuba (n = 8, and S. Newport (n = 5. The S. Poona isolates revealed nine unique XbaI PFGE patterns, with 15 isolates showing a similarity of 70%. Nine S. Pomona isolates had a similarity of 84%. One main cluster with seven (88% indistinguishable isolates of S. Abaetetuba was observed. All the Salmonella isolates were pan-susceptible to antimicrobials representative of the most relevant therapeutic classes. The high prevalence and absence of clinical signs suggest a natural interaction of the different Salmonella serovars with the host species. The interaction may have been established before any possible exposure of the iguanas and the biocenosis to direct or indirect environmental factors influenced by the use of antimicrobials in

  8. Diet-tissue stable isotope (delta¹³C and delta¹⁵N) discrimination factors for multiple tissues from terrestrial reptiles (rock iguanas, Cyclura species)

    OpenAIRE

    Steinitz, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    Trophic interactions can drive community structure; therefore, studying food webs is key in understanding ecological communities. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool for reconstructing foraging patterns. However, stable isotope discrimination factors (delta¹³C and delta¹⁵N) are needed to best use this tool. We determined the first delta¹³C and delta¹⁵N values for Rock Iguanas (Cyclura spp.) to better understand isotope fractionation patterns in reptiles and estimate wild reptile diets....

  9. Variation in parental investment and relative clutch mass of the spiny-tail iguana, Ctenosaura pectinata (Squamata: Iguanidae in central México Variación en la inversión parental y masa relativa de la nidada en la iguana de cola espinosa Ctenosaura pectinata (Squamata: Iguanidae en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Castro-Franco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured the length, width, volume, and weight of 871 freshly laid eggs of 28 clutches of Ctenosaura pectinata. The iguanas were obtained from a tropical dry forest area in central Mexico. The relative clutch mass was related positively to the average egg weight but not to average egg volume. Unlike what usually occurs in lizards, where the body length strongly predicts egg production, in C. pectinata clutch size and egg size were not correlated with female weight or snout-vent length. Observed differences revealed variation in the weight-size of the egg within an individual clutch. Therefore, there is not an optimization of the egg in the studied population of Ctenosaura, as usually occurs in small lizards. This variation associated with reproduction takes place in the middle of the dry season, and may be interpreted as an adaptation to facilitate the adjustment of different phenotypes in environments with extreme drought.Medimos la longitud, amplitud, volumen, y peso de 871 huevos recién puestos de 28 nidadas de Ctenosaura pectinata. Las iguanas fueron obtenidas en un área de bosque tropical seco en el centro de México. La masa relativa de la nidada estuvo relacionada positivamente con el peso promedio de los huevos pero no con el volumen promedio del huevo. A diferencia de lo que ocurre usualmente en lagartijas, donde la longitud del cuerpo determina la producción de huevos, en C. pectinata el tamaño de la puesta y el tamaño del huevo no se correlacionan con el peso y tamaño de las hembras. Las diferencias observadas revelan variación en el tamaño y peso de los huevos dentro de las puestas individuales. En consecuencia, no hay una optimización del huevo en la población estudiada de Ctenosaura, como usualmente ocurre en lagartijas de tamaño pequeño. Esta variación asociada con la reproducción tiene lugar a mitad de la estación seca, y puede ser interpretada como una adaptación para facilitar el ajuste de diferentes

  10. THE AMINO-ACID-SEQUENCE OF IGUANA (IGUANA-IGUANA) PANCREATIC RIBONUCLEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHAO, W; BEINTEMA, JJ; HOFSTEENGE, J

    1994-01-01

    The pyrimidine-specific ribonuclease superfamily constitutes a group of homologous proteins so far found only in higher vertebrates. Four separate families are found in mammals, which have resulted from gene duplications in mammalian ancestors. To learn more about the evolutionary history of this

  11. Fecal glucocorticoid response to environmental stressors in green iguanas (Iguana iguana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Timm, Jeanette; Ibsen, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces has been shown to be a powerful tool in evaluating well-being in vertebrates. Little is known however about the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response to stressors, and consequent glucocorticoid excretion, in reptiles. In a longitudinal...

  12. Please Give Your Iguana a Diamond Collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Harriet S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses conflict resolution and describes the experiences of dealing with conflict encountered by a new chair of the foreign language department at the University of Nebraska. (six references) (VWL)

  13. In inhomogeneity and emission characteristics of Iguana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Yoichi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)]. E-mail: kawakami@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Omae, Kunimichi; Kaneta, Akio; Okamoto, Koichi; Fujita, Shigeo [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Narukawa, Yukio; Mukai, Takashi [Nitride Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Nichia Corporation, Oka, Kaminaka, Anan, Tokushima (Japan)

    2001-08-13

    Recombination dynamics of spontaneous and stimulated emissions have been assessed in InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs), by employing time-resolved photoluminescence and pump and probe spectroscopy. As for an In{sub 0.02}Ga{sub 0.98}N ultraviolet LED, excitons are weakly localized by 15 meV at low temperature, but they become almost free at room temperature (RT). It was found that addition of a small amount of In results in the reduction of nonradiative recombination centres originating from point defects. The internal electric field does exist in InGaN active layers, and induces a large modification of excitonic transitions. However, it alone does not explain the feature of spontaneous emission observed in an In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N blue LED such as an anomalous temperature dependence of peak energy, almost temperature independence of radiative lifetimes and mobility-edge type behaviour, indicating an important role of exciton localization. The lasing mechanism was investigated for In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N near ultraviolet (390 nm), In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N violet-blue (420 nm) and In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N blue (440 nm) LDs. The optical gain was contributed from the nearly delocalized states (the lowest quantized levels (LQLs) within quantum wells) in the violet LD, while it was from highly localized levels with respect to the LQL by 250 meV for the violet-blue LD, and by 500 meV for the blue LD. It was found that the photo-generated carriers rapidly (less than 1 ps) transferred to the LQL, and then relaxed to the localized tail within the timescale of a few ps, giving rise to the optical gain. Such gain spectra were saturated and other bands appeared in the vicinity of the LQL under higher photo-excitation. (author)

  14. The Incredible Shrinking Iguana: Impact of Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtugudde, R.; Karnauskas, K.

    2007-05-01

    Galapagos Islands are well known for Darwin's epiphany about evolution after his 'discovery' of the islands. The incredible transformation that the key species on this island undergo on ENSO time-scales is recorded extensively. The impact of Galapagos on SSTs and ocean primary production has been conjectured but some recent work demonstrates that their influence extdends thousands of kilometers via stronger TIWs and modulations of the termination of EUC and related air-sea interactions. Tropical Pacific is not only the theater of action for ENSO dynamics but the ecosystem is the most studied iron limited region due to its HNLC characteristics. This study addresses the physical and biogeochemical impacts of the Galapagos islands with a OGCM-biogeochemical model coupled to a simple wind-anomaliy model. The impact of Galapagos is to warm the cold-tongue by upto 1C with a major impact on the termination of the EUC that results in large-scale circulation changes that extend to the South American coast as far south as 20S. If the islands are not included, then the equatorial Kelvin waves extend their impact on thermocline variability all the way to the eastern boundary and lead to a quasi-biennial ENSO whereas the impact of Galapagos islands shifts the frequency to a quasi- quadrennial time-scale. The impacts on the ecosystem are commensurate with the seasonal and interannual variability changes with the addition of dissolved iron supply related to EUC changes. Bio-physical feedbacks in the deep tropical Pacific also tend to warm SSTs and the impact of Galapagos is thus to flatten the east-west SST gradient resulting in less-frequent and weaker ENSO events. The relevance of these results to longer time-scale variability and any potential analogs to global warming and sea level change are discussed in detail.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana) , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps)

    OpenAIRE

    Banzato, Tommaso; Selleri, Paolo; Veladiano, Irene A; Martin, Andrea; Zanetti, Emanuele; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to desc...

  16. I WHATSAPP AN IGUANA: AN ATTEMPT TO APPLY UBIQUITOUS LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Haryanti

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting how Whatsapp provides alternative method to enhance writing skills on personal letter for senior high school student. This method Whatsapps inspired by the concept called ubiquitous learning (U-Learning), which means ―learning supported by ICT resources held anytime, anywhere and fits the context of the learner‖ (de Sousa Monteiro et al., 2014). Participants were 40 11-th grade students in one class in Cirebon High School. A short story in the form of personal le...

  17. The medical care of iguanas and other common pet lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barten, S L

    1993-11-01

    The majority of health problems in captive lizards result from improper diets, caging, and environmental conditions. This article discusses recommended husbandry and management techniques. A clinical approach to evaluating the health status of lizards, including assessing patient history, physical examination, clinical pathology, anesthesia, and surgery, is reviewed. Common health maladies of captive lizards are discussed, and rapid diagnosis and treatment are emphasized.

  18. Iguana: a practical data-dependent parsing framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Afroozeh (Ali); A. Izmaylova (Anastasia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractData-dependent grammars extend context-free grammars with arbitrary computation, variable binding, and constraints. These features provide the user with the freedom and power to express syntactic constructs outside the realm of context-free grammars, e.g., indentation rules in Haskell

  19. 78 FR 54479 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... (Caiman latirostris), Cuban ground iguana (Cyclura nubila nubila), Grand Cayman blue iguana (Cyclura lewisi), and Cayman Brac ground iguana (Cyclura nubila caymanensis) to enhance the species' propagation...

  20. Structural polarity and dynamics of male germline stem cells in the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Esther D; Dorn, August

    2004-11-01

    The male germline stem cells (GSCs) of the milkweed bug present an extraordinary structural polarity that is, to our knowledge, unequalled by any other type of stem cells. They consist of a perikaryon and numerous projections arising from the cell pole directed toward the apical cells, the proposed niche of the GSCs. The projections can traverse a considerable distance until their terminals touch the apical cells. From hatching until death, the GSC projections undergo conspicuous changes, the sequence of which has been deduced from observations of all developmental stages. Projection formation starts from lobular cell protrusions showing trabecular ingrowths of the cell membrane. Finger-like projections result from a process of growth and "carving out". The newly formed projections contain mostly only free ribosomes other than a few mitochondria. A stereotyped degradation process commences in the projection terminals: profiles of circular, often concentric, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum appear and turn into myelin bodies, whereas mitochondria become more numerous. The cytoplasm vesiculates, lysosomal bodies appear, and mitochondria become swollen. At the same time, the projection terminals are segregated by transverse ingrowths of the cell membrane. Finally, autophagic vacuoles and myelin bodies fill the segregated terminals, which then rupture. Simultaneously, new projections seem to sprout from the perikaryon of the GSCs. These dynamics, which are not synchronized among the GSCs, indicate that a novel type of signal exchange and transduction between the stem cells and their niche is involved in the regulation of asymmetric versus symmetric division of GSCs.

  1. Distillery effluent induced alterations in the haematological profile of fingerlings of Colisa fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anuradha; Shukla, J P

    2013-09-01

    Present study deals with the impact of Gorakhpur distillery effluent at various concentration levels (5, 10 and 20%) on the blood profile of fingerling of, Colisa fosciotus after 30 days of exposure. Observations revealed that 5% of effluent concentration produced no significant alterations in various haematological parameters except for clotting time and immature erythrocytes. However, 10% of effluent concentration brought significant alterations in hematocrit as well as clotting time and 20% of effluent concentration produced highly significant (P<0.001) alteration in most of the haematological parameters except for hemoglobin percentage.

  2. Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) replication in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) exposed for different time periods to susceptible water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Vinay, Tharabenahalli-Nagaraju; Lee, Jehee; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-11-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus that causes severe mortality to rock bream. Water temperature is known to affect the immune system and susceptibility of fish to RBIV infection. In this study, we evaluated the time dependent virus replication pattern and time required to completely eliminate virus from the rock bream body against RBIV infection at different water temperature conditions. The rock bream was exposed to the virus and held at 7 (group A1), 4 (group A2) and 2 days (group A3) at 23 °C before the water temperature was reduced to 17 °C. A total of 28% mortality was observed 24-35 days post infection (dpi) in only the 7 day exposure group at 23 °C. In all 23 °C exposure groups, virus replication peaked at 20 to 22 dpi (10 6 -10 7 /μl). In recovery stages (30-100 dpi), the virus copy number was gradually reduced, from 10 6 to 10 1 with faster decreases in the shorter exposure period group at 23 °C. When the water temperature was increased in surviving fish from 17 to 26 °C at 70 dpi, they did not show any mortality or signs of disease and had low virus copy numbers (below 10 2 /μl). Thus, fish need at least 50 days from peaked RBIV levels (approximately 20-25 dpi) to inhibit the virus. This indicates that maintaining the fish at low water temperature (17 °C) for 70 days is sufficient to eradicate RBIV from fish body. Thus, RBIV could be eliminated slowly from the fish body and the virus may be completely eliminated under the threshold of causing mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Innate immune responses against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following poly (I:C) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-12-01

    Poly (I:C) showed promise as an immunoprotective agents in rock bream against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection. In this study, we evaluated the time-dependent virus replication pattern and antiviral immune responses in RBIV-infected rock bream with and without poly (I:C) administration. In the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, virus copy numbers were more than 18.9-, 24.0- and 479.2-fold lower than in the virus only injected group at 4 (4.73 × 10 4 and 8.95 × 10 5 /μl, respectively), 7 (3.67 × 10 5 and 8.81 × 10 6 /μl, respectively) and 10 days post infection (dpi) (1.26 × 10 5 and 6.02 × 10 7 /μl, respectively). Moreover, significantly high expression levels of TLR3 (8.6- and 7.7-fold, at 4 and 7 dpi, respectively) and IL1β (3.6-fold at 2 dpi) were observed in the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, but the expression levels were not significantly in the virus-injected group. However, IL8 and TNFα expression levels showed no statistical significance in both groups. Mx, ISG15 and PKR were significantly highly expressed from 4 to 10 dpi in the virus-injected group. Nevertheless, in the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, Mx and ISG15 expression were significantly expressed from 2 dpi. In summary, poly (I:C) administration in rock bream induces TLR3, IL1β, Mx and ISG15-mediated immune responses, which could be a critical factor for inhibition of virus replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced stress responses and metabolic adjustments linked to diapause and onset of migration in the large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dean, C. A. E.; Teets, N. M.; Košťál, Vladimír; Šimek, Petr; Denlinger, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2016), s. 152-161 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diapause * heat shock proteins * metabolome Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.364, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/phen.12140/abstract

  5. Expression Analysis of Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15 in the Rock Bream Oplegnathus fasciatus against Rock Bream Iridovirus (RSIV) Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, In Jung; Kim, Woo-Jin; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Noh, Gyeong Eon; Lee, Seunghyung; Lee, Young Mee; Hwang, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Chul

    2017-12-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is known to interfere with viral replication and infection by limiting the viral infection of cells. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) interferes with viral replication and infectivity by limiting viral infection in cells. It also plays an important role in the immune response. In this study, tissue-specific expression of ISG15 in healthy rock bream samples and spatial and temporal expression analysis of rock bream ISG15 (RbISG15) were performed following rock bream iridovirus (RSIV) infection. RbISG15 expression was significantly higher in the eye, gill, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, spleen, and stomach, but low in the brain. There were particularly high levels of expression in the liver and muscle. RbISG15 expression was also examined in several tissues and at various times following RSIV infection. ISG15 expression increased within 3 h in the whole body and decreased at 24 h after infection. In addition, temporal expression of several tissues following RSIV infection showed a similar pattern in the muscle, kidney, and spleen, increasing at 3 h and decreasing at 72 h. These results suggest that ISG15 plays an important role in the immune response of rock bream. Overall, this study characterizes the response of RbISG15 following RSIV infection.

  6. Eating Iguana: A Qualitative Analysis of Faculty Expectations and Assessments of a Mexican Sojourn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss-Reineck, Marilyn

    As part of a thrust to increase multiculturalism in the curriculum, Concordia-St. Paul faculty applied for summer sojourn grants, provided by the Bush Foundation. The rationale for the sojourn was that "change in faculty will affect change in the curriculum and in students" (Wentzel 1990). Sixteen faculty members who participated in a…

  7. Cretaceous park of sex determination: sex chromosomes are conserved across iguanas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovatsos, M.; Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, M.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2014), s. 20131093 ISSN 1744-9561 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Anolis * lizard * male heterogamety Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2014

  8. Minute Y chromosomes and karyotype evolution in Madagascan iguanas (Squamata: Iguania: Opluridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altmanová, M.; Rovatsos, M.; Kratochvíl, L.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 3 (2016), s. 618-633 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Anolis * comparative genome hybridization * Chalarodon * heterochromatin * interstitial telomeric sequences Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  9. Auriculostoma astyanace n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Allocreadiidae), from the banded astyanax, Astyanax fasciatus (Characiformes: Characidae), from Nicaragua, with a reevaluation of neotropical Crepidostomum spp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Aguirre-Macedo, M. L.; Choudhury, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2004), s. 1128-1132 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Digenea * Allocraediidae * Auriculostoma Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2004

  10. Molecular cloning, transcriptional profiling, and subcellular localization of signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) ortholog from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Thulasitha, William Shanthakumar; Jayasinghe, J D H E; Wan, Qiang; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Jehee

    2017-08-30

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) is a key element that transduces signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus via the type I interferon-signaling pathway. Although the structural and functional aspects of STAT proteins are well studied in mammals, information on teleostean STATs is very limited. In this study, a STAT paralog, which is highly homologous to the STAT2 members, was identified from a commercially important fish species called rock bream and designated as RbSTAT2. The RbSTAT2 gene was characterized at complementary DNA (cDNA) and genomic sequence levels, and was found to possess structural features common with its mammalian counterparts. The complete cDNA sequence was distributed into 24 exons in the genomic sequence. The promoter proximal region was analyzed and found to contain potential transcription factor binding sites to regulate the transcription of RbSTAT2. Phylogenetic studies and comparative genomic structure organization revealed the distinguishable evolution for fish and other vertebrate STAT2 orthologs. Transcriptional quantification was performed by SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the ubiquitous expression of RbSTAT2 transcripts was observed in all tissues analyzed from healthy fish, with a remarkably high expression in blood cells. Significantly (Prock bream irido virus; RBIV), bacterial (Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae), and immune stimulants (poly I:C and LPS). Antiviral potential was further confirmed by WST-1 assay, by measuring the viability of rock bream heart cells treated with RBIV. In addition, results of an in vitro challenge experiment signified the influence of rock bream interleukin-10 (RbIL-10) on transcription of RbSTAT2. Subcellular localization studies by transfection of pEGFP-N1/RbSTAT2 into rock bream heart cells revealed that the RbSTAT2 was usually located in the cytoplasm and translocated near to the nucleus upon poly I:C administration. Altogether, these findings suggest that RbSTAT2 is involved in various biologically crucial mechanisms, and provides immune protection to the rock bream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The nuclear receptor E75A has a novel pair-rule-like function in patterning the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erezyilmaz, Deniz F; Kelstrup, Hans C; Riddiford, Lynn M

    2009-10-01

    Genetic studies of the fruit fly Drosophila have revealed a hierarchy of segmentation genes (maternal, gap, pair-rule and HOX) that subdivide the syncytial blastoderm into sequentially finer-scale coordinates. Within this hierarchy, the pair-rule genes translate gradients of information into periodic stripes of expression. How pair-rule genes function during the progressive mode of segmentation seen in short and intermediate-germ insects is an ongoing question. Here we report that the nuclear receptor Of'E75A is expressed with double segment periodicity in the head and thorax. In the abdomen, Of'E75A is expressed in a unique pattern during posterior elongation, and briefly resembles a sequence that is typical of pair-rule genes. Depletion of Of'E75A mRNA caused loss of a subset of odd-numbered parasegments, as well as parasegment 6. Because these parasegments straddle segment boundaries, we observe fusions between adjacent segments. Finally, expression of Of'E75A in the blastoderm requires even-skipped, which is a gap gene in Oncopeltus. These data show that the function of Of'E75A during embryogenesis shares many properties with canonical pair-rule genes in other insects. They further suggest that parasegment specification may occur through irregular and episodic pair-rule-like activity.

  12. Protective immunity against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection and TLR3-mediated type I interferon signaling pathway in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following poly (I:C) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the potential of poly (I:C) to induce antiviral status for protecting rock bream from RBIV infection. Rock bream injected with poly (I:C) at 2 days before infection (1.1 × 10 4 ) at 20 °C had significantly higher protection with RPS 13.4% and 33.4% at 100 and 200 μg/fish, respectively, through 100 days post infection (dpi). The addition of boost immunization with poly (I:C) at before/post infection at 20 °C clearly enhanced the level of protection showing 33.4% and 60.0% at 100 and 200 μg/fish, respectively. To investigate the development of a protective immune response, rock bream were re-infected with RBIV (1.1 × 10 7 ) at 200 dpi. While 100% of the previously unexposed fish died, 100% of the previously infected fish survived. Poly (I:C) induced TLR3 and Mx responses were observed at several sampling time points in the spleen, kidney and blood. Moreover, significantly high expression levels of IRF3 (2.9- and 3.1-fold at 1 d and 2 days post administration (dpa), respectively), ISG15 and PKR expression (5.4- and 10.2-fold at 2 dpa, respectively) were observed in the blood, but the expression levels were low in the spleen and kidney after poly (I:C) administration. Our results showed the induction of antiviral immune responses and indicate the possibility of developing long term preventive measures against RBIV using poly (I:C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CpG ODN 1668 induce innate and adaptive immune responses in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-10-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream in Korea. CpG ODN 1668 showed promise as immunoprotective agents against RBIV infection in rock bream. In this study, we assessed innate/adaptive-related gene expression patterns in RBIV-infected rock bream with and without CpG ODN 1668 administration to determine important immune defense related factors that may affect fish survival. In the CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group, virus copies were more than 7.4- to 790591-fold lower than in the virus-injected group at 4 d (8.79 × 10 4 and 6.58 × 10 5 /μl, respectively), 7 d (5.30 × 10 2 and 2.29 × 10 7 /μl, respectively) and 10 dpi (7.79 × 10 1 and 6.16 × 10 7 /μl, respectively). Furthermore, in the CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group, significantly higher levels of MyD88 (6 h, 1 d, 4 d and 7 dpi), IL1β (1 d, 2 d and 7 dpi) and perforin/granzyme (1 dpi) expression were observed, whereas these genes were not significantly expressed in the virus-injected group at that time points. Mx, ISG15 and PKR were significantly highly expressed at 4 d and 7 dpi and reduced when low viral loads at 10 dpi in the CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group. Conversely, in the virus-injected group, Mx, ISG15 and PKR expression were significantly higher than the control group until 10 dpi. However, MHC class I, CD8, Fas, Fas ligand and caspases (3, 8 and 9) expression levels showed no statistically significant differences between virus- and CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group. In summary, CpG ODN 1668 administration in fish induces innate immune response or cell death pathway, which could be a major contributing factor to effective fish control over viral transcription on 4 d to 10 dpi. Expression of MyD88, IL1β, perforin and granzyme-related immune gene response is critical factor for inhibition of RBIV replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diploglossus fasciatus Gray, 1831 (Diploglossa: Anguidae. Primer registro para el Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Madidi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Domic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Franz Tamayo, Municipio Apolo, Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Madidi, TCO Pueblo Indígena de San José de Uchupiamonas, Campamento Corazón del Madidi, cerca de encuentro al arroyo Eslabón y río Tuichi (14°32'32.58"S 67°45'44.91"W; 288 m.s.n.m.. Colectores: Jesús Martínez y Mileniusz Spanowicz. 15 de Marzo del 2013. Macho (SVL: 180 mm; LT: 379 mm; Peso: 130 g. Depositado en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF 3699, La Paz, Bolivia.

  15. Light emission ranging from blue to red from a series of Iguana/GaN single quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.W.; Edwards, P.R.; Pecharroman-Gallego, R.; O'Donnell, K.P.; Liu, C.; Deatcher, C.J.; Watson, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the growth and characterization of InGaN single quantum wells with emission peaks in the blue, green, amber and red spectral regions, grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. Starting from the growth of a blue-emitting (peak ∼430 nm) InGaN quantum well at 860 deg. C the InGaN growth temperature was progressively reduced. The photoluminescence peak wavelength, measured at low temperature, shifts through the green and orange spectral regions and reaches 670 nm for an InGaN growth temperature of 760 deg. C. This corresponds to an energy lower than the currently accepted band-gap of the binary compound, InN. Spectral characteristics of the luminescence peaks will be discussed, including an analysis of the phonon-assisted contribution. Low energy secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis provides information on the indium content and thickness of the 'blue' and 'red' quantum wells. The results are combined to discuss the origin of the 'sub-band-gap' luminescence in terms of the combined influence of InN-GaN segregation and the effect of intense piezoelectric fields. (author)

  16. Reduced foraging in the presence of predator cues by the Black Spiny-tailed Iguana, Ctenosaura similis (Sauria: Iguanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent R. Farallo; Mahmood Sasa; Dennis K. Wasko; Michael R. J. Forstner

    2010-01-01

    The presence of a predator may have direct and indirect effects on the behavior of the prey. Although altered behavior may help prey avoid predators, it also can have a potential impact on critical activities such as foraging. Predator-prey interactions are routinely studied in laboratory-based experiments owing to theperceived difficulties of conducting such experiments in natural settings. We conducted an experimental study under field conditions in Palo Verde National Park in northwestern ...

  17. Light emission ranging from blue to red from a series of Iguana/GaN single quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.W. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.w.martin@strath.ac.uk; Edwards, P.R.; Pecharroman-Gallego, R.; O' Donnell, K.P. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Liu, C.; Deatcher, C.J.; Watson, I.M. [Institute of Photonics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-07

    In this paper, we describe the growth and characterization of InGaN single quantum wells with emission peaks in the blue, green, amber and red spectral regions, grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. Starting from the growth of a blue-emitting (peak {approx}430 nm) InGaN quantum well at 860 deg. C the InGaN growth temperature was progressively reduced. The photoluminescence peak wavelength, measured at low temperature, shifts through the green and orange spectral regions and reaches 670 nm for an InGaN growth temperature of 760 deg. C. This corresponds to an energy lower than the currently accepted band-gap of the binary compound, InN. Spectral characteristics of the luminescence peaks will be discussed, including an analysis of the phonon-assisted contribution. Low energy secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis provides information on the indium content and thickness of the 'blue' and 'red' quantum wells. The results are combined to discuss the origin of the 'sub-band-gap' luminescence in terms of the combined influence of InN-GaN segregation and the effect of intense piezoelectric fields. (author)

  18. a survey of the artisanal fisheries of kontagora reservoir, niger state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    , Nigeria. Fish families /Species. English. Local Name. Cichlidae. Tilapia melanopleura. Tilapia. Gargaza. Hemichromis fasciatus. Tiliapia. Kulkula. Cyprinidae. Barilius niloticus. Barb. Dankursa. Bagridae. Auchenoglanis occidentalis. Cat fish.

  19. Ophiotaenia bungari n. sp. (Cestoda), a parasite of Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Ophidia: Elapidae) from Vietnam, with comments on relative ovarian size as a new and potentially useful diagnostic character for proteocephalidean tapeworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Binh, T. T.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2012), s. 39-50 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : PALEARCTIC REGION * EUCESTODA * identification * COLUBRIDAE * PHYLOGENY * EVOLUTION * PARAGUAY * FISHES Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2012

  20. Rice by Weight, Other Produce by Bulk, and Snared Iguanas at So Much Per One. A Talk on Measurement Standards and on Metric Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Harold Don

    This script for a short radio broadcast on measurement standards and metric conversion begins by tracing the rise of the metric system in the international marketplace. Metric units are identified and briefly explained. Arguments for conversion to metric measures are presented. The history of the development and acceptance of the metric system is…

  1. A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C

    2008-11-01

    Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana).

  2. Reptile-associated ticks from Dominica and the Bahamas with notes on hyperparasitic erythraeid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, Lance A; Knapp, Charles R; Beati, Lorenza; Dold, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    Ticks were collected or recorded from 522 individual reptiles on Dominica and from 658 reptiles from the Bahamas. Two species of ticks were collected on Dominica: Amblyomma antillorum and Amblyomma rotundatum. Similarly, 2 species were collected in the Bahamas: Amblyomma albopictum and Amblyomma torrei. On Dominica, A. antillorum was recorded from 517 Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima), 2 boa constrictors (Boa nebulosa), 1 Antilles snake (Alsophis sibonius), and 1 Dominican ground lizard (Ameiva fuscata), whereas A. rotundatum was recorded from 1 Lesser Antillean skink (Mabuya mabouya). In the Bahamas, A. albopictum was recorded from 131 Andros iguanas (Cyclura cychlura cychlura), 271 Exuma Island iguanas (Cyclura cychlura figginsi), and 1 Andros curlytail lizard (Leiocephalus carinatus coryi), whereas A. torrei was recorded from 255 Exuma Island iguanas. In the Bahamas, A. albopictum parasitized iguanas on Andros Island and the central Exuma Islands, and A. torrei parasitized iguanas in the southern Exumas. An exception to this trend was that A. torrei was collected from iguanas on Pasture Cay in the central Exumas, an anomaly that is explained by the fact that iguanas (with attached ticks) on Pasture Cay were introduced by humans in the past from islands further south. External hyperparasitic larval erythraeid mites ( Leptus sp.) were recorded from A. torrei in the Bahamas.

  3. Distinct classical and molecular cytogenetics of Astyanax marionae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DIOVANI PISCOR

    2017-08-24

    Aug 24, 2017 ... and A. fasciatus (Characiformes: Characidae): a comparative study of the organization of heterochromatin and repetitive genes. DIOVANI PISCOR1 ..... 7, 363–367. Mirande J. M. 2010 Phylogeny of the family Characidae.

  4. Contaminations Of Heavy Metals In Water And Hemichromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in water and Hemichromis fasciatus (a piscivore) in the burrow pit constructed by Shell Petroleum Development Company were studied. Water and fish samples were collected monthly from January to December 2000. The range values (mg/l) ...

  5. 50 CFR 665.421 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... harlequin tuskfish, red-breasted wrasse Cheilinus fasciatus. ring-tailed wrasse Oxycheilinus unifasciatus... margaritacous. three-spot wrasse Halichoeres trimaculatus. surge wrasse Thalassoma purpureum. red ribbon wrasse... javanicus. undulated moray eel Gymnothorax undulatus. Octopodidae (Octopus) gamsun octopus Octopus cyanea...

  6. Gli2a protein localization reveals a role for Iguana/DZIP1 in primary ciliogenesis and a dependence of Hedgehog signal transduction on primary cilia in the zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eeden Freek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mammalian cells, the integrity of the primary cilium is critical for proper regulation of the Hedgehog (Hh signal transduction pathway. Whether or not this dependence on the primary cilium is a universal feature of vertebrate Hedgehog signalling has remained contentious due, in part, to the apparent divergence of the intracellular transduction pathway between mammals and teleost fish. Results Here, using a functional Gli2-GFP fusion protein, we show that, as in mammals, the Gli2 transcription factor localizes to the primary cilia of cells in the zebrafish embryo and that this localization is modulated by the activity of the Hh pathway. Moreover, we show that the Igu/DZIP1protein, previously implicated in the modulation of Gli activity in zebrafish, also localizes to the primary cilium and is required for its proper formation. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate a conserved role of the primary cilium in mediating Hedgehog signalling activity across the vertebrate phylum and validate the use of the zebrafish as a representative model for the in vivo analysis of vertebrate Hedgehog signalling.

  7. Experimental infestation with the immatures of Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae on Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae and Oryctolagus cuniculus Infestação experimental com as fases imaturas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae e Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.T. Freitas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas provenientes de duas fêmeas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, naturalmente ingurgitadas em uma iguana (Iguana iguana e provenientes do Estado do Mato Grosso, foram utilizadas na infestação experimental de lagartos da espécie Tropidurus torquatus e coelhos domésticos. As larvas alimentadas em ambos os hospedeiros realizaram ecdise para ninfas. As ninfas apenas ingurgitaram no lagarto e mudaram para machos e fêmeas. Este é o primeiro registro do parasitismo de larvas e ninfas de A. dissimile em T. torquatus e de larvas em coelhos.

  8. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may carry rabies. Enjoy wildlife from a distance. Pets can also make you sick. Reptiles pose a particular risk. Turtles, snakes and iguanas can transmit Salmonella bacteria to their owners. You ...

  9. Nuevos registros de nemátodes parásitos de animales de vida silvestre en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registran, por primera vez para el Perú, 4 especies de nemátodes: Dipetalonema graciliformis Freitas, 1964 parásito de Saguinus labiatus; Evaginuris branickii (McCiure, 1932 Quentín, 1973 de Dinomys branickii; Alaeuris caudatus (Lent & Freitas, 1948 de Iguana iguana y Serpinema amazonicus de Podocnemis expansa. También, se considera a Saguinus labiatus como un nuevo huésped para Dipetalonema graciliformis.

  10. Review of the Indo-Pacific labrid fish genus Hemigymnus

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The labrid fish genus Hemigymnus Günther consists of three relatively large coral-reef species: the wide-ranging Indo-Pacific H. fasciatus (Bloch) and H. melapterus (Bloch), and H. sexfasciatus (Rüppell) of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, usually regarded as a synonym of H. fasciatus. It is treated here as a species, distinguished by color pattern, longer pelvic fins of the terminal male, and fewer gill rakers. These three fishes are generally found as solitary individuals over sand or sand-and...

  11. Insects in the Classroom: A Study of Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon S.

    2004-01-01

    These activities allow students to investigate behavioral responses of the large Milkweed bug, "Oncopeltus fasciatus," and the mealworm, "Tenebrio molitor" or "Tenebrio obscurus," to external stimuli of light, color, and temperature. During the activities, students formulate hypotheses to research questions presented. They also observe insects for…

  12. BISA ULAR MENINGKATKAN DAYA FAGOSITOSIS MAKROFAG PERITONEUM MENCIT TERHADAP KUMAN STREPTOKOKUS GRUP B SNAKE VENOM ENHANCES THE PHAGOCYTIC CAPABILITY OF PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES OF MICE AGAINST THE GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramaya Siska Damayanti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efek pemberian bisa ular tanah (Calloselasma rhodostoma, ular kobra (Naja naja sputatrix, dan ular welang Bungarus fasciatus pada daya fagositosis makrofag peritoneal mencit terhadap kuman streptokokus grup B. Mencit diberi berbagai dosis bisa ular secara peroral selama 7 hari atau secara intravena sebanyak 3 kali dengan selang waktu penyuntikan 3 hari sekali. Di akhir percobaan

  13. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genus Astyanax is well distributed in Neotropical freshwater environments and its taxonomic position is uncertain, as is the case with other Characidae genera allocated in the group incertae sedis. This study aimed to analyse the karyotype of different populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Corumbataí River basin) using ...

  14. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two novel high molecular weight glutenin subunit genes in Aegilops markgrafii ..... Distinct classical and molecular cytogenetics of Astyanax marionae and A. fasciatus ... Clinical utility of a 377 gene custom next-generation sequencing epilepsy panel .... Contact | Site index.

  15. WILDLIFE USE BY RURAL COMMUNITIES IN THE CATAZAJÁ - LA LIBERTAD WETLANDS, CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasminda García-Del Valle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of wild vertebrates was analyzed for rural communities in Catazajá and La Libertad municipalities, Chiapas state. From interviews (n=190 and two workshops (January 2007-December 2008 applied to four communities (Playas, Punta Arena, Morelos and La Libertad, species, uses, sites and hunting seasons were recorder. A total of 24 species were recognized by local people as resources for food, sale, pet, craft and traditional medicine. Jicotea tortoise (Trachemys scripta, nine banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcintus, Morelet´s crocodile (Crocodylus moreletti, green iguana (Iguana iguana and white front parrot (Amazona albifrons were recognized as species with high use value. We analyzed the problematic and the communities propose some strategies that would favor the population increment and the diversity maintenance of wildlife in this region.

  16. Dermatomycosis in a pet inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) caused by a Chrysosporium species related to Nannizziopsis vriesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Martorell, J; Castellá, G; Ramis, A; Cabañes, F J

    2009-08-01

    A Chrysosporium sp. related to Nannizziopsis vriesii was isolated in pure culture from squames and biopsies of facial lesions in a pet inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) in Spain. The presence in histological sections of morphologically consistent fungal elements strongly incriminates this fungus as the aetiological agent of infection. Lesions regressed following treatment with oral ketoconazole and topical chlorhexidine and terbinafine until the lizard was lost to follow up 1 month later. The ITS-5.8S rRNA gene of the isolate was sequenced and a search on the GenBank database revealed a high match with the sequences of two Chrysosporium sp. strains recently isolated from green iguanas (Iguana iguana) with dermatomycosis, also in Spain. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed that all these strains are related to N. vriesii. This is the first report of dermatomycoses caused by a Chrysosporium species related to N. vriesii in a bearded dragon outside North America.

  17. Interspecific Differences in Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Temperature Sensitivity Create Distinct Thermal Ecological Niches in Lizards (Plestiodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles M; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-01-01

    Three congeneric lizards from the southeastern United States (Plestiodon fasciatus, P. inexpectatus, and P. laticeps) exhibit a unique nested distribution. All three skink species inhabit the US Southeast, but two extend northward to central Ohio (P. fasciatus and P. laticeps) and P. fasciatus extends well into Canada. Distinct interspecific differences in microhabitat selection and behavior are associated with the cooler temperatures of the more Northern ranges. We hypothesized that interspecific differences in metabolic temperature sensitivity locally segregates them across their total range. Resting oxygen consumption was measured at 20°, 25° and 30°C. Plestiodon fasciatus, from the coolest habitats, exhibited greatly elevated oxygen consumption compared to the other species at high ecologically-relevant temperatures (0.10, 0.17 and 0.83 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Yet, P. inexpectatus, from the warmest habitats, exhibited sharply decreased oxygen consumption compared to the other species at lower ecologically-relevant temperatures (0.09, 0.27 and 0.42 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Plestiodon laticeps, from both open and closed microhabitats and intermediate latitudinal range, exhibited oxygen consumptions significantly lower than the other two species (0.057, 0.104 and 0.172 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Overall, Plestiodon showed metabolic temperature sensitivities (Q10s) in the range of 2-3 over the middle of each species' normal temperature range. However, especially P. fasciatus and P. inexpectatus showed highly elevated Q10s (9 to 25) at the extreme ends of their temperature range. While morphologically similar, these skinks are metabolically distinct across the genus' habitat, likely having contributed to their current distribution.

  18. Análisis de los deslizamiento en la cuenca de la Quebrada La Iguana de la ciudad de Medellín a partir de la integración lluvia _pendiente_ formación geológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Echeverri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el lapso comprendido entre 1980 y 2001 se han registrado un total de 40 deslizamientos sobre las laderas de la cuenca de la quebrada La Iguaná al occidente de la ciudad de Medellín. En esta investigación se han analizado las relaciones de la ocurrencia de deslizamientos con los registros de precipitación precedente, la pendiente de la ladera y las distintas formaciones geológicas superficiales locales, estableciendo comparaciones con cada una de las mencionadas y con la interacción conjunta de las tres variables de análisis. El trabajo desarrollado ha permitido proponer un umbral de amenaza para precipitaciones antecedentes de 3 días y precedentes de 15 días, reconocer la susceptibilidad al deslizamiento de cada formación superficial y las pendientes más propensas a los movimientos en masa. La conjugación de las tres variables (precipitación, pendiente y formación superficial ha facilitado la elaboración de un mapa de amenaza por deslizamiento que se estima puede ser empleado como elemento en la ejecución de programas de prevención de desastres. La metodología propuesta permite, mediante la actualización de la información pluviométrica, que se detecten con antelación las áreas dentro de la cuenca en las cuales se puede presentar un deslizamiento, y puedan tomarse las acciones preventivas del caso. La concepción metodológica planteada permite en cualquier momento conocer la amenaza por deslizamiento con solo disponer de los registros de lluvia, lo que la constituye en una herramienta innovadora y de fácil manejo.

  19. GUANA Architecture, Framework and Toolkit for Interactive Graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Alverson, G; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Tuura, L A; Taylor, L

    2003-01-01

    IGUANA is a generic interactive visualisation framework based on a C++ component model. It provides powerful user interface and visualisation primitives in a way that is not tied to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The article describes interactive visualisation tools built using IGUANA for the CMS and D0 experiments, as well as generic GEANT4 and GEANT3 applications. It covers features of the graphical user interfaces, 3D and 2D graphics, high-quality vector graphics output for print media, various textual, tabular and hierarchical data views, and integration with the application through control panels, a command line and different multi-threading models.

  20. Nematofauna de tres especies de lagartijas (Sauria: Tropiduridae y Gekkonidae de la Reserva Nacional de Paracas, Ica, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los nemátodos Thubunaea iguanae y Spauligodon viracochai son reportados para tres especies Spauligodon viracochai son reportados para tres especies Spauligodon viracochai de lagartijas en la Reserva Nacional de Paracas, Ica, Perú. El primer nematodo fue registrado para Microlophus peruvianus y Microlophus peruvianus y Microlophus peruvianus Microlophus thoracicus thoracicus, mientras que el segundo fue registrado para Phyllodactylus angustidigitus. Estos reportes representan dos nuevos hospederos y una nueva localidad para T. iguanae, nematodo reportado por primera vez para Sudamérica, además del registro de un nuevo hospedero para S. viracochai .

  1. Systematics and evolution in the West Indian iguanid genus Cyclura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert; Carey, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Throughout the Greater Antilles, the Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Bahama Islands, and the Turks and Caicos islands occurs a group of moderate to very large lizards of the iguanid genus Cyclura. These ground iguanas form a conspicuous element of the herpetofaunas of their respective

  2. Salmonella enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a hospital, nursing home, or other long-term health facility Have a pet iguana or other lizards, turtles, or snakes (reptiles ... Your health care provider will perform a physical exam. You may ... abdomen and tiny pink spots, called rose spots, on your skin. ...

  3. Towards Distributed Intelligence: A High Level Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Some of the first research in multi-robot systems came in the foraging /sorting area by Parker [77] and Beckers [9] and was likely fueled by the bio...chapter 24, pages 28–39. Artificial Intelligence at MIT. The MIT Press, 1989. 15. R.A. Brooks. Robotic Science, chapter 11, The Whole Iguana , pages 432

  4. First reports of ectoparasites collected from wild-caught exotic reptiles in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Joseph L; Mertins, James W; Hanson, Britta; Snow, Skip

    2011-01-01

    We collected ectoparasites from 27 of 51 wild-caught, free-ranging exotic reptiles examined in Florida from 2003 to 2008. Sampled animals represented eight species, five of which yielded ectoparasites. Reported new parasite distribution records for the United States include the following: the first collection of the African tick Amblyomma latum (Koch) from a wild-caught animal [ball python, Python regius (Shaw)] in the United States; the first collection of the lizard scale mite Hirstiella stamii (Jack) from any wild-caught animal [green iguana, Iguana iguana (L.)]; and the first collection of the lizard scale mite Geckobia hemidactyli (Lawrence) in the continental United States from a wild-caught tropical house gecko, Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès). We also report the first collections of the Neotropical ticks Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch) and Amblyomma dissimile (Koch) from wild-caught Burmese pythons, Python molurus bivittatus (Kuhl); the first collections of A. dissimile from a wild-caught African savannah monitor, Varanus exanthematicus (Bosc); and from wild-caught green iguanas in the United States; and the first collections of the native chiggers Eutrombicula splendens (Ewing) and Eutrombicula cinnabaris (Ewing) from wild-caught Burmese pythons. These reports may only suggest the diversity of reptile ectoparasites introduced and established in Florida and the new host-parasite relationships that have developed among exotic and native ectoparasites and established exotic reptiles.

  5. The Galapagos Islands: Darwin and Modern Conservation Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The author visited the Galapagos Islands in 2009 and here looks at their biodiversity through pictures taken then. The diverse habitats of the Islands are reflected in the great diversity of flora and fauna found on them, with many species endemic to the Islands. The stories of the land iguanas, control of introduced species and the giant…

  6. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transported through salt water than could the slimy spawn of frogs?" The Galapagos iguanas never jumped in water even if driven and cornered on a rock, facing the sea. Darwin wonders about this apparent stupidity and traces it back to the fact that they had, so far, no enemy on land but could fall prey to sharks in the sea.

  7. All about Reptiles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Dinosaurs may be extinct, but reptiles are distant cousins to the beasts that once walked the earth. From snakes and lizards to iguanas and tuataras, children learn what factors make them different from other animals. In this videotape, students explore the mysterious, often misunderstood, world of reptiles and learn about their characteristics…

  8. Self-Assessing of the Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Intelligence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagiene, Valentina; Juškeviciene, Anita; Carneiro, Roberto; Child, Camilla; Cullen, Joe

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an evaluation of the Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Organisational Intelligence (OI) competences self-assessment tools developed and applied by the IGUANA project. In the paper Emotional Intelligence and Organisational Intelligence competences are discussed, their use in action research experiments to assess and…

  9. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    contaminated and polluted water than from all forms of violence , including wars, notes the UNEP report, Sick Water? Some two million tons of waste...list—some species of iguanas, an entire genus of tree frogs from Central America, and Kaiser’s newt salamander from Iran. In the meantime, the EU

  10. Exotic reptile bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J; Ehrlich, M; Henderson, S O

    1997-09-01

    Reptiles are a growing part of the exotic pet trade, and reptile bites have been considered innocuous in the emergency medicine literature. Two cases are reported of reptile bites, one from a green iguana and the other from a reticulated python. The treatment concerns associated with reptile bites are discussed.

  11. Salmonella infection acquired from reptilian pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, D; Douglas, T; Roberts, R

    1997-10-01

    Two children presented with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis. Salmonella chameleon was isolated from the stool of one child and also from an iguana kept in the home as a pet. Salmonella arizonae was isolated from the stool of the other child and also from four snakes sharing the same household. Exotic reptiles are unsuitable pets to share the home environment with infants.

  12. Diet-tissue stable isotope (Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N) discrimination factors for multiple tissues from terrestrial reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, Ronnie; Lemm, Jeffrey M; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Kurle, Carolyn M

    2016-01-15

    Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool for reconstructing trophic interactions to better understand drivers of community ecology. Taxon-specific stable isotope discrimination factors contribute to the best use of this tool. We determined the first Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N values for Rock Iguanas (Cyclura spp.) to better understand isotopic fractionation and estimate wild reptile foraging ecology. The Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N values between diet and skin, blood, and scat were determined from juvenile and adult iguanas held for 1 year on a known diet. We measured relationships between iguana discrimination factors and size/age and quantified effects of lipid extraction and acid treatment on stable isotope values from iguana tissues. Isotopic and elemental compositions were determined by Dumas combustion using an elemental analyzer coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer using standards of known composition. The Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N values ranged from -2.5 to +6.5‰ and +2.2 to +7.5‰, respectively, with some differences among tissues and between juveniles and adults. The Δ(13)C values from blood and skin differed among species, but not the Δ(15)N values. The Δ(13)C values from blood and skin and Δ(15)N values from blood were positively correlated with size/age. The Δ(13)C values from scat were negatively correlated with size (not age). Treatment with HCl (scat) and lipid extraction (skin) did not affect the isotope values. These results should aid in the understanding of processes driving stable carbon and nitrogen isotope discrimination factors in reptiles. We provide estimates of Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N values and linear relationships between iguana size/age and discrimination factors for the best interpretation of wild reptile foraging ecology. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Antimoulting Activity of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Resumo. Os extratos e metabólitos secundários de plantas podem agir como agentes tóxicos e inibidores do da alimentação e do desenvolvimento em insetos. Neste estudo foi utilizado Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas (Hemiptera como modelo experimental a fim de avaliar as atividades do extrato etanólico bruto e frações obtidos das flores ou caules de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, na mortalidade e sobre o desenvolvimento do inseto. A fração butanólica obtida do extrato etanólico mostrou toxidade sobre as ninfas de O. fasciatus, bem como atividade de inibição do crescimento. Os resultados sugerem que a fração butanólica de E. erythropappus possui substâncias ativas sobre a fisiologia, crescimento e desenvolvimento de insetos.

  14. [Characteristics of ichthyoplankton assemblages in Yangtze Estuary and adjacent waters in spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-De; Xian, Wei-Wei; Liu, Dong

    2008-10-01

    Based on the investigation data of ichthyoplankton assemblages and environmental factors in Yangtze Estuary and adjacent waters in May 1999 and 2001, the characteristics of ichthyoplankton assemblages in these areas in spring were studied by using TWINSPAN (two-way indicator species analysis) and CCA (canonical correspondence analysis). A total of 11 540 ichthyoplankton individuals were taxonomically identified, belonging to 11 orders, 18 families and 32 species, of which, Coilia mystus, Engraulis japonicus, Chaeturichthys hexanema, Allanetta bleekeri, and Trachidermis fasciatus were the dominant species. The ichthyoplankton communities were classified into three assemblages by using TWINSPAN, i.e., estuarine assemblage dominated by C. mystus, coastal assemblage dominated by A. bleekeri and T. fasciatus; and shelf assemblage featured by E. japonicus and C. hexanema. The CCA ordination of the interrelations among the three assemblages and their correlations to the environmental variables revealed that salinity, depth, dissolved oxygen, and total suspended particulate matter were the major factors affecting the ichthyoplankton assemblages in the study areas.

  15. Mitochondrial phylogeny of Chinese barred species of the cyprinid genus Acrossocheilus Oshima, 1919 (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) and its taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Le-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Xiang; Zhang, E

    2015-12-21

    Sequences from the mitochondrial control region of 14 putative species of Acrossocheilus (Cyprinidae) were examined to elucidate phylogenetic relationships within species of the barred group in that genus. Phylogenetic reconstructions were generated using three tree-building methods: maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The resultant phylogenies were consistent with monophyly of the majority of the morphologically recognized species. However, mitochondrial DNA sequence evidence is incongruent with monophyly of A. fasciatus, as currently conceived. This species occurs only in the upper Qiantang-Jiang basin in Zhejiang and Anhui provinces, and coastal rivers in the Zhejiang Province. The species formerly recognized as A. paradoxus from Zhejiang Province is A. fasciatus. The specimens previously reported as A. fasciatus from river basins in Fujian Province are misidentified A. wuyiensis. The barred group of Acrossocheilus is shown to be polyphyletic. Acrossocheilus is restricted to the barred species here placed in "Clade II," containing A. paradoxus and relatives. Separate generic status is recommended for A. monticola and for A. longipinnis and their closest relatives, although more information on phylogenetic relationships based on multiple genes is required to develop robust phylogenetic hypotheses and diagnoses. Masticbarbus Tang, 1942 is available for A. longipinnis and three allied species (A. iridescens, A. microstomus and A. lamus).

  16. CMS Tracker Visualisation

    CERN Document Server

    Mennea, Maria Santa; Zito, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    To provide improvements in the performance of existing tracker data visualization tools in IGUANA, a 2D visualisation software has been developed, using the object oriented paradigm and software engineering techniques. We have designed 2D graphics objects and some of them have been implemented. The access to the new objects is made in ORCA plugin of IGUANA CMS. A new tracker object oriented model has been designed for developing these 2D graphics objects. The model consists of new classes which represent all its components (layers, modules, rings, petals, rods).The new classes are described here. The last part of this document contains a user manual of the software and will be updated with new releases.

  17. Percepción y patronos de uso de la fauna silvestre o comunidades indigenas Embera - Katíos en la cuenca del río San Jorge, zona amortiguadora del PNN - Paramillo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alfonso Racero - Casarrubia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In workshops with four indigenous communities in the Embera-Katíos communal lands (resguardo , located in the upper San Jorge River Valley (Tres Playitas, Las Piedras, Boca San Cipriano, San Juan Medio, information about the wild fauna that they recognized inside their hunting grounds was collected. Mammals, reptiles, and birds, especially the Psittacidae family, are the vertebrates most used by the indigenous communities. No kind of use was found for amphibians. The consumption of reptiles such as Iguana iguana, Tupinambis teguixin, Caiman crocodylus fuscus, and Crocodylus acutus show them to be an important part of their culture. The indigenous communities associate environmental problems with habitat destruction due to the cultivation of illicit crops and forest clearing in the buffer zone around Paramillo National Park.

  18. Snakes in the wrong places: Gordon Rodda’s career in invasive species research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    When USGS research zoologist Gordon G. Rodda was a graduate student at Cornell University studying behavioral biology of alligators —or later, completing a post-doc at the Smithsonian Institute studying the social behavior of green iguanas in Venezuela or following that, as a statistics and sociobiology instructor at the University of Tennessee—he did not foresee that his professional future was in snakes. Lots of snakes, and in places they don’t belong.

  19. Archaeological Investigations at Nelson Wash, Fort Irwin, California. Fort Irwin Archaeological Project Research Report Number 23. Volume 1. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    causing the stream to meander across a broad shallow. In moist years a small 25 stream, fed by snow pack on the Granite Mountains, groundwater and...identifiable to genus or species; fragments were assigned to ordinal groupings (eg. Rodenria, Arriodacryla) on the basis of size and wall thickness. When...Crotaphytsv collaris Leopard Lizard Crotaphytus wislizenii Desert Iguana Dipsosaurus dorsalis Desert Horned Lizard Phrynosoma platyrhinos Chuckwalla

  20. A Short History of the NCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    marched with the Army of the West, leaving Fort Leavenworth on 26 June 1846. Marching in detachments to ensure that enough forage and water would be...anything in his last will and testament. His clothing records for 1898 are as follows: 2 Blouses #5 1 Forage Cap 2 Cap Devices 1 CL Chevrons 1 Coat...food. They ate horses, iguanas , monkeys, crows, and carabao (water buffalo). Men had dreams that centered on fresh bread, plum butter, blackberry

  1. Diet-tissue stable isotope (Δ13C and Δ15N) discrimination factors for multiple tissues from terrestrial reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Steinitz, R; Lemm, JM; Pasachnik, SA; Kurle, CM

    2016-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Rationale Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool for reconstructing trophic interactions to better understand drivers of community ecology. Taxon-specific stable isotope discrimination factors contribute to the best use of this tool. We determined the first Δ 13 C and Δ 15 N values for Rock Iguanas (Cyclura spp.) to better understand isotopic fractionation and estimate wild reptile foraging ecology. Methods The Δ 13 C and Δ 15 N values between di...

  2. Predator Force Structure Changes at Indian Springs Air Force Auxiliary Field, Nevada Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    for bird-aircraft strikes is greatest in bird migration corridors (flyways) or where birds congregate for foraging or resting (e.g., open water bodies...AFB, primarily outside of the fences, are as follows (Dames & Moore 1996a; USAF 1997, 1999): 1. A diverse herpetofauna that includes desert iguana ...site, and insufficient quantity and quality of forage species as well as a lack of suitable substrate for burrowing due to the shallow depth and rocky

  3. Detsibill : Rock'n'roll Arnie. White label : Kreatiivmootor. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: "Kreatiivmootor", Method Man "4:21...the day after", OutKast "Idlewood", R.E.M. "The best of the I.R.S. years 1982-1987", t.A.T.u. "The Best", Mrs. Etta Baker, Family and Frends "Instrumental music of the Southern Appalachians", Louie Austen "Iguana", Hatebreed "Supermacy", "Jazz-Travels Compiled By Casbah 73", 36 Crazyfists "Rest inside the flames", "Toatuur", Robb Scott "Afro Odyssey"

  4. Metodología de análisis multiobjetivo supervisado para la priorización de zonas de intervención y proyectos en cuenca hidrográficas.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Álvarez, Gloria Patricia; Smith Quintero, Ricardo Agustín; Vélez Upegui, Jaime Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    Se presenta una propuesta metodológica para la priorización de zonas de intervención y proyectos a realizar en esas zonas, en un programa de ordenamiento de cuencas, con base en un método de análisis multicriterio bajo incertidumbre. La metodología se aplica a la cuenca urbana La Iguana [Antioquia, Colombia], la cual presenta graves problemas ambientales y sociales.

  5. Human salmonellosis associated with exotic pets.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, D L; Khakhria, R; Johnson, W M

    1997-01-01

    During the period from 1994 to 1996, an increase in the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis associated with exposure to exotic pets including iguanas, pet turtles, sugar gliders, and hedgehogs was observed in Canada. Pet turtle-associated salmonellosis was recognized as a serious public health problem in the 1960s and 1970s, and in February 1975 legislation banning the importation of turtles into Canada was enacted by Agriculture Canada. Reptile-associated salmonellosi...

  6. Searching Before It Is Too Late: A Survey of Blood Parasites in Ctenosaura melanosterna, a Critically Endangered Reptile of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K.; Benz, Andrew C.; Ruyle, Leslie E.; Kistler, Whitney M.; Shock, Barbara C.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    For species at risk of extinction, any parasites they have would be expected to face a similar fate. In such cases, time is running out for efforts to identify and study their parasitic fauna before they are gone. We surveyed the hemoparasite fauna of 50 black-chested, spiny-tailed iguanas (Ctenosaura melanosterna), a critically-endangered species, on an island off the coast of Honduras. Blood samples from captured animals were tested for hemoparasites by thin blood smear and molecular analyses. Based on microscopy, two parasites were identified, a Plasmodium sp. in 14% of iguanas and a Hepatozoon sp. in 32%. For both parasites, parasitemia levels were iguanas with microscopy-confirmed Plasmodium infections, sequence analysis of 454 bp of the cytochrome b gene indicated that the Plasmodium species was distinct from known Plasmodium and was most closely related to P. chiricahuae (96.5% similarity) followed by P. mexicanum (95.8% similarity). Efforts to amplify the Hepatozoon parasite using PCR were not successful. Additional surveys and studies of this host-parasite system would be valuable, both to science and to the management of this endangered animal. PMID:27335849

  7. A coherent and non-invasive open analysis architecture and framework with applications in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverson, G.; Osborne, I.; Taylor, L.; Tuura, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The CMS IGUANA project has implemented an open analysis architecture that enables the creation of an integrated analysis environment. In this 'analysis desktop' environment a physicist is able to perform most analysis-related tasks, not just the presentation and visualisation steps usually associated with analysis tools. The motivation behind IGUANA's approach is that physics analysis includes much more than just the visualisation and data presentation. Many factors contribute to the increasing importance of making analysis and visualisation software an integral part of the experiment's software: object oriented and ever more advanced data models, GRID, and automated hierarchical storage management systems to name just a few. At the the same time the analysis toolkits should be modular and non-invasive to be usable in different contexts within one experiment and generally across experiments. Ideally the analysis environment would appear to be perfectly customised to the experiment and the context, but would mostly consist of generic components. The authors describe how the IGUANA project is addressing these issues and present both the architecture and examples of how different aspects of analysis appear to the users and the developers

  8. When top-down becomes bottom up: behaviour of hyperdense howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) trapped on a 0.6 ha island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, Gabriela; Terborgh, John; Ceballos, Natalia; Glander, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Predators are a ubiquitous presence in most natural environments. Opportunities to contrast the behaviour of a species in the presence and absence of predators are thus rare. Here we report on the behaviour of howler monkey groups living under radically different conditions on two land-bridge islands in Lago Guri, Venezuela. One group of 6 adults inhabited a 190-ha island (Danto) where they were exposed to multiple potential predators. This group, the control, occupied a home range of 23 ha and contested access to food resources with neighbouring groups in typical fashion. The second group, containing 6 adults, was isolated on a remote, predator-free 0.6 ha islet (Iguana) offering limited food resources. Howlers living on the large island moved, fed and rested in a coherent group, frequently engaged in affiliative activities, rarely displayed agonistic behaviour and maintained intergroup spacing through howling. In contrast, the howlers on Iguana showed repulsion, as individuals spent most of their time spaced widely around the perimeter of the island. Iguana howlers rarely engaged in affiliative behaviour, often chased or fought with one another and were not observed to howl. These behaviors are interpreted as adjustments to the unrelenting deprivation associated with bottom-up limitation in a predator-free environment.

  9. Ranavirus infections associated with skin lesions in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Anke C; Blahak, Silvia; Heckers, Kim O; Wiechert, Jutta; Behncke, Helge; Mathes, Karina; Günther, Pascale; Zwart, Peer; Ball, Inna; Rüschoff, Birgit; Marschang, Rachel E

    2013-09-27

    Ranaviral disease in amphibians has been studied intensely during the last decade, as associated mass-mortality events are considered to be a global threat to wild animal populations. Several studies have also included other susceptible ectothermic vertebrates (fish and reptiles), but only very few cases of ranavirus infections in lizards have been previously detected. In this study, we focused on clinically suspicious lizards and tested these animals for the presence of ranaviruses. Virological screening of samples from lizards with increased mortality and skin lesions over a course of four years led to the detection of ranaviral infections in seven different groups. Affected species were: brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), Asian glass lizards (Dopasia gracilis), green anoles (Anolis carolinensis), green iguanas (Iguana iguana), and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Purulent to ulcerative-necrotizing dermatitis and hyperkeratosis were diagnosed in pathological examinations. All animals tested positive for the presence of ranavirus by PCR and a part of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of each virus was sequenced. Three different ranaviruses were isolated in cell culture. The analyzed portions of the MCP gene from each of the five different viruses detected were distinct from one another and were 98.4-100% identical to the corresponding portion of the frog virus 3 (FV3) genome. This is the first description of ranavirus infections in these five lizard species. The similarity in the pathological lesions observed in these different cases indicates that ranaviral infection may be an important differential diagnosis for skin lesions in lizards.

  10. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Wedson M S; Barboza, Raynner R D; Rocha, Michelle S P; Alves, Rômulo R N; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W), Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman), who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89), crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79), common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79), and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758) (UV=0.74). The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use.

  11. When top-down becomes bottom up: behaviour of hyperdense howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus trapped on a 0.6 ha island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Orihuela

    Full Text Available Predators are a ubiquitous presence in most natural environments. Opportunities to contrast the behaviour of a species in the presence and absence of predators are thus rare. Here we report on the behaviour of howler monkey groups living under radically different conditions on two land-bridge islands in Lago Guri, Venezuela. One group of 6 adults inhabited a 190-ha island (Danto where they were exposed to multiple potential predators. This group, the control, occupied a home range of 23 ha and contested access to food resources with neighbouring groups in typical fashion. The second group, containing 6 adults, was isolated on a remote, predator-free 0.6 ha islet (Iguana offering limited food resources. Howlers living on the large island moved, fed and rested in a coherent group, frequently engaged in affiliative activities, rarely displayed agonistic behaviour and maintained intergroup spacing through howling. In contrast, the howlers on Iguana showed repulsion, as individuals spent most of their time spaced widely around the perimeter of the island. Iguana howlers rarely engaged in affiliative behaviour, often chased or fought with one another and were not observed to howl. These behaviors are interpreted as adjustments to the unrelenting deprivation associated with bottom-up limitation in a predator-free environment.

  12. Metazoários parasitos de seis espécies de peixes do Reservatório de Lajes, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Metazoan parasites of six fishes species from Lajes Reservoir in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline R. Paraguassú

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre abril de 2002 e julho de 2003, foram necropsiados 231 espécimes de peixes: 39 Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, 79 A. fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819, 23 Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner, 1877, 26 Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794, 30 Loricariichthys castaneus (Castelnau, 1855 e 34 Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1876 provenientes do Reservatório de Lajes (22º42' - 22º50'S, 43º53' 44º05'O, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estudo das suas comunidades parasitárias. A maioria dos espécimes de H. affinis (95,6% e H. malabaricus (84,6% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de metazoário. Em A. bimaculatus, A. fasciatus, L. castaneus e T. striatulus 41%, 39,2%, 56,7% e 14,7% dos espécimes estavam parasitados, respectivamente. Foram coletadas oito diferentes espécies de metazoários parasitos: 2 em A. bimaculatus, 3 em A. fasciatus, 3 em H. affinis, 4 em H. malabaricus, 4 em L. castaneus e 1 em T. striatulus. As comunidades de metazoários parasitos das seis espécies de peixes estudadas apresentaram típico padrão de distribuição agregada. Foram observados dois casos de correlação negativa entre a abundância e a prevalência parasitárias e o comprimento total dos hospedeiros. A comunidade parasitária de L. castaneus apresentou os maiores valores de intensidade média, índice de dispersão e diversidade. As comunidades parasitárias dos peixes estudados apresentaram escassez de correlação entre a abundância, riqueza parasitária e diversidade com o comprimento total dos hospedeiros. Os baixos valores de riqueza e diversidade das comuni-dades parasitárias podem ser atribuídos as características oligotróficas do Reservatório de Lajes.From April 2002 to July 2003, 231 freshwater fishes from Lajes Reservoir in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (22º42' - 22º50'S, 43º53' - 44º05'W were necropsied to study their community metazoan parasites: 39 Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, 79 A. fasciatus

  13. Natural radiation dose to Gammarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Wrenn, M.E.; Eisenbud, M.

    1975-01-01

    The natural radiation dose rate to whole body and components of the Gammarus species (i.e., G. Tigrinus, G. Fasciatus and G. Daiberi) that occurs in the Hudson River is evaluated and the results compared with the upper limits of dose rates from man made sources to the whole body of the organisms. Methods were developed to study the distribution of alpha emitters from 226 Ra plus daughter products in Gammarus using autoradiographic techniques, taking into account the amount of radon that escapes from the organisms. This methodology may be adapted to study the distribution of alpha emitters in contaminated tissues of plants and animals

  14. The attached algae community near Pickering GS: III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between attached algae and macro-invertebrates in the nearshore zone of Lake Ontario was investigated in the vicinity of the Pickering 'A' NGS. Measures of faunal density, richness, evenness, and biomass were generally higher from areas which supported attached algae. Gammarus fasciatus, Cricotopus bicinctus, Dicrotendipes spp., Orthocladius obumbratus, Cladotanytarsus spp., Orthocladius spp., and Parakiefferiella spp., were significantly correlated with algal standing crop. All of the above dominant invertebrates ingested epiphytes associated with Cladophora glomerata. Attempts to explain the distribution of the zoobenthic assemblages using the physical/biological characteristics of the study area indicated algal cover, substrate size, wind velocity and water temperature were most important

  15. Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. J. Pinent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thrips are tiny insects responsible for the reduction of strawberry fruit quality. The work aimed to record and quantify the thysanopterofauna present in two strawberry production systems, low tunnel and semi-hydroponic. Leaves, flowers and fruits were collected weekly, from July 2005 to December 2006 in Caxias do Sul and Bom Princípio municipalities, RS. A total of 664 individuals were collected, representing two families, four genus and 10 species: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895, F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910, F. rodeos Moulton, 1933, F. simplex (Priesner, 1924, F. williamsi (Hood, 1915, F. gemina (Bagnall, 1919, Frankliniella sp., Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande 1895 from Thripidae and Heterothrips sp. from Heterothripidae. Frankliniella occidentalis represented 89.7% of the samples with 95.8% of the species collected in flowers, 3.9% in fruits and 0.8% in leaves. The results show that flowers are the most important food resource for these insects on strawberry plants. Frankliniella rodeos, F. simplex, F. williamsi, C. fasciatus, and Heterothrips sp. are new records on strawberry for Brazil.

  16. Chromosomal mapping of H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes in eight species of Astyanax (Pisces, Characiformes) with different diploid numbers: syntenic conservation of repetitive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscor, Diovani; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali

    2016-03-01

    The genus Astyanax is widely distributed from the southern United States to northern Patagonia, Argentina. While cytogenetic studies have been performed for this genus, little is known about the histone gene families. The aim of this study was to examine the chromosomal relationships among the different species of Astyanax. The chromosomal locations of the 5S rRNA and H3 histone genes were determined in A. abramis, A. asuncionensis, A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni, A. eigenmanniorum, A. mexicanus (all 2n = 50), A. fasciatus (2n = 46), and A. schubarti (2n = 36). All eight species exhibited H3 histone clusters on two chromosome pairs. In six species (A. abramis, A. asuncionensis, A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni, A. eigenmanniorum, and A. fasciatus), syntenic clusters of H3 histone and 5S rDNA were observed on metacentric (m) or submetacentric (sm) chromosomes. In seven species, clusters of 5S rDNA sequences were located on one or two chromosome pairs. In A. mexicanus, 5S rDNA clusters were located on four chromosome pairs. This study demonstrates that H3 histone clusters are conserved on two chromosome pairs in the genus Astyanax, and specific chromosomal features may contribute to the genomic organization of the H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes.

  17. A diminutive new species of cave-dwelling Wolf Snake (Colubridae: Lycodon Boie, 1826) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar M S, Shahrul; Muin, Mohd Abdul; Wood, Perry L; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2014-06-12

    A newly discovered, diminutive, cave-dwelling, lowland species of the colubrid snake genus Lycodon Boie is described from a limestone cave along the Thai-Malaysian border in the state of Perlis, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. Lycodon cavernicolus sp. nov. is most closely related to L. butleri Boulenger, an endemic, upland, forest-dwelling species from Peninsular Malaysia of the fasciatus group but is separated from L. butleri and all other species of the L. fasciatus group and the closely related L. ruhstrati group by having the combination of 245 (male) and 232 (female) ventral scales; 113 (male) and 92 (female) paired, subcaudal scales; a single precloacal plate; nine or 10 supralabials; 10 or 11 infralabials; a maximum total length of 508 mm (female); a relative tail length of 0.25-0.27; an immaculate venter in juveniles and dark-brown, posterior, ventral scale margins in adults; and dorsal and caudal bands in juveniles white. The discovery of L. cavernicolus sp. nov. adds to a rapidly growing list of newly discovered reptiles from karst regions and limestone forests of Peninsular Malaysia, underscoring the fact that these areas should be studied before they are quarried as they harbor a significant portion of the Peninsular Malaysia's herpetological diversity.

  18. The impact of water pollution on fish species in southeast region of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz S Silva, Sabrina; Dias, Aurélio Henrique C; Dutra, Elaine S; Pavanin, Alfredo L; Morelli, Sandra; Pereira, Boscolli B

    2016-01-01

    The rivers from the region of Catalão, Southeast Goiás State, Brazil, are exposed to intense anthropogenic influences including agricultural activities, industry, and urban waste. The aim of this study was to determine the severity of water pollution by conducting an experiment involving in situ biomonitoring of water constituents on genotoxicity in fish inhabiting these sites. The genotoxicity of three sites of the region were analyzed utilizing the micronucleus (MN) test. It was of interest to determine whether there were differences between sampling sites such as urban perimeter, agriculture, and fertilizer industry in control, and monitored species including Astyanax fasciatus, Astyanax altiparanae, and Characidium fasciatum. Data demonstrated that the species at sites 1, 2, and 3 exhibited a marked increase in frequency of MN compared to fish from site 4. Significant elevation in frequency of MN occurred in erythrocytes of A. fasciatus and A. altiparanae at sites 1 and 2. At site 3 higher frequencies of MN were observed in C. fasciatum. MN induction in C. fasciatum was correlated with chromium levels in water and sediment, while A. fasciatum and A. altiparanae showed an association with zinc in water and sediment. Data suggest that benthic and nektonic fish species display different sensitivities in relation to anthropogenic contaminant influences.

  19. Ichthyoplankton assemblage structure of springs in the Yangtze Estuary revealed by biological and environmental visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Xian, Weiwei; Liu, Shude

    2015-01-01

    The ichthyoplankton assemblage structure in the Yangtze Estuary was analyzed based on four springs in 1999, 2001, 2004 and 2007 in order to provide detailed characterizations of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in springs, examine the long-term dynamics of spring ichthyoplankton assemblages, and evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and inter-annual variations of ichthyoplankton assemblages associated with the Yangtze Estuary. Forty-two ichthyoplankton species belonging to 23 families were collected. Engraulidae was the most abundant family, including six species and comprising 67.91% of the total catch. Only four species (Coilia mystus, Engraulis japonicus, Trachidermis fasciatus and Allanetta bleekeri) could be considered dominant, accounting for 88.70% of total abundance. The structure of the ichthyoplankton spring assemblage persisted on an annual basis, with the dominant species reappearing consistently even though their abundance fluctuated from year to year. This inter-annual variation probably reflects variable environmental conditions influenced by jellyfish blooms, declining river flow, and overfishing. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated aspatial structure of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in three areas: (1) an inner assemblage dominated by C. mystus; (2) a central assemblage dominated by A. bleekeri and T. fasciatus; and (3) a shelf assemblage featuring E. japonicus. The observed ichthyoplankton assemblage structure appears to be strongly influenced by depth, salinity and suspended particulate matter gradients.

  20. Protein profile analysis of Malaysian snake venoms by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Vejayan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms comprise a highly complex mixture of proteins, which requires for their characterization the use of versatile two-dimensional electrophoresis techniques. In the present study, venoms obtained from eight snakes (Ophiophagus hannah, Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana, Bungarus fasciatus, Trimeresurus sumatranus, Tropidolaemus wagleri, Enhydrina schistosa and Calloselasma rhodostoma commonly found in Malaysia were separated based on two independent properties, isoelectric point (pI and molecular weight (MW. Many differences in snake venoms at the inter-family, inter-subfamily, inter-genus and inter-species levels were revealed. Notably, proteins from individuals of the Viperidae family - Trimeresurus sumatranus, Tropidolaemus wagleri and Calloselasma rhodostoma - were found to be numerous and scattered by the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE specifically in regions between 37 and 100 kDa compared to the Elapidae venom proteins. The latter were clustered at the basic and lower molecular mass region (less than 20 kDa. Trains of spots were commonly observed, indicating that these proteins may be derived from post-translational modifications. Ophiophagus hannah (Elapidae revealed a great amount of protein spots in the higher molecular mass range when compared to Enhydrina schistosa, Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana and Bungarus fasciatus. Overall 2DE showed large differences in the venom profile of each species, which might be employed as an ancillary tool to the identification of venomous snake species.

  1. COMERCIO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN COLOMBIA WILDLIFE TRADE IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Javier Mancera Rodríguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo ofrece un panorama sobre las actividades relacionadas con el comercio de bienes derivados de las especies de fauna silvestre en Colombia, abordando el tema desde el desarrollo que ha tenido su actividad productiva, el aprovechamiento extractivo, así como la dinámica de su comercio legal e ilegal en el país y el desarrollo y promoción de alternativas productivas sustentadas en su aprovechamiento. Se analizó la información secundaria de entidades como el Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial, las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales y Autoridades Ambientales Urbanas, el Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo Rural-INCODER, las Autoridades Policiales, los Institutos de Investigación, el Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, la Dirección de Impuestos y Aduanas Nacionales-DIAN, el Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo, y PROEXPORT. entre otras. En Colombia, el comercio de especies de fauna silvestre está centrado principalmente en la extracción de ejemplares de forma ilegal, lo cual ha generado desequilibrios en las poblaciones naturales y ha repercutido en el deterioro de la dinámica de los ecosistemas. El comercio legal de fauna silvestre se basa en la producción de unas pocas especies entre las que se destacan la babilla (Caiman crocodilus, el chigüiro (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, cerca de 200 especies de peces ornamentales y en menor medida el lobo pollero (Tupinambis nigropunctatus, la iguana (Iguana iguana, la boa (Boa constrictor, escarabajos (Dynastes hercules y mariposas. En el país no se tiene información exacta sobre el número de incautaciones realizadas en los operativos de control al tráfico ilegal de fauna, y no existe un conocimiento de la dinámica de este comercio ilegal.This work offers a current view on the activities related to the trade of derived from the wildlife species in Colombia, approaching the topic from the development that has had its productive activity

  2. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pinowski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October. During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be expected to strike 350 spectacled caimans Caiman crocodilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Alligatoridae during the rainy season alone. Similar calculations for other species yield 313 snakes and lizards, 294 opossums Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphidae, 220 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1776 (Canidae, 129 tamanduas Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae, 55 capybaras Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae and 37 eastern cottontails Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, 1890 (Leporidae. Numerous papers have been published on vertebrates killed by vehicles on roads in Europe, North America, and Australia, and several papers are available regarding vertebrate roadkills in Africa and Asia. From South America there are several papers on vertebrates, birds, and mammals, whereas from Venezuela only one and it deals with iguanas (Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Iguanidae.Este trabalho apresenta uma análise de vertebrados mortos em estrada em cinco habitats tropicais diferentes na América do Sul. As observações dos vertebrados mortos em estrada foram feitas em 1978, a 572 km da rodovia entre Caracas e Mantecal/Apure na Venezuela, durante a estação das chuvas (junho-outubro. Durante cinco passagens nesta rota, a qual inclui cinco habitats diferentes, foram encontradas 79 carcaças de vertebrados - répteis e mamíferos. Assumindo que as carcaças permaneçam por dois dias na estrada, é esperado que veículos matem 350

  3. Identification of a novel splicing form of amelogenin gene in a reptile, Ctenosaura similis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Wang

    Full Text Available Amelogenin, the major enamel matrix protein in tooth development, has been demonstrated to play a significant role in tooth enamel formation. Previous studies have identified the alternative splicing of amelogenin in many mammalian vertebrates as one mechanism for amelogenin heterogeneous expression in teeth. While amelogenin and its splicing forms in mammalian vertebrates have been cloned and sequenced, the amelogenin gene, especially its splicing forms in non-mammalian species, remains largely unknown. To better understand the mechanism underlying amelogenin evolution, we previously cloned and characterized an amelogenin gene sequence from a squamate, the green iguana. In this study, we employed RT-PCR to amplify the amelogenin gene from the black spiny-tailed iguana Ctenosaura similis teeth, and discovered a novel splicing form of the amelogenin gene. The transcript of the newly identified iguana amelogenin gene (named C. Similis-T2L is 873 nucleotides long encoding an expected polypeptide of 206 amino acids. The C. Similis-T2L contains a unique exon denominated exon X, which is located between exon 5 and exon 6. The C. Similis-T2L contains 7 exons including exon 1, 2, 3, 5, X, 6, and 7. Analysis of the secondary and tertiary structures of T2L amelogenin protein demonstrated that exon X has a dramatic effect on the amelogenin structures. This is the first report to provide definitive evidence for the amelogenin alternative splicing in non-mammalian vertebrates, revealing a unique exon X and the splicing form of the amelogenin gene transcript in Ctenosaura similis.

  4. Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Agonists and Other Contraceptive Medications in Exotic Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Nico J

    2018-05-01

    The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist slow-release implant (GnRH A-SRI) has become increasingly popular as an alternative for surgical contraception in many species. Although these implants have proven to be very effective in some species (eg, ferrets, rats, chicken, psittacines, and iguanas), they have been found less effective in other species (eg, male guinea pigs and rabbits, veiled chameleons, slider turtles, and leopard geckos). This review provides an overview of the available literature on the effects of GnRH A-SRIs in companion exotic animals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CMS tracker visualization tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, G; Osborne, I; Regano, A

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  6. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter V. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Cold blooded, backboned, animals which have adapted to live in water and on land. Animal Unit Month (AUM) The amount of forage necessary for the...Nevada. Techn. Rep. Serv. H-W. Hydrol. and Water Resources. Publ. No. 17. DRI, IJniv. Nevada, Reno. Beale, Dl. M., and A. D. Smith, 1970. Forage Use...Impact of Feral Cats and Dogs on Populations of the West Indian Rock Iguana , Cyclura carinata. Biol. Conserv. 14:63-73. Jense, G. K., and J. S. Burruss

  7. CMS tracker visualization tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennea, M.S. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Osborne, I. [Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Regano, A. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Zito, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: giuseppe.zito@ba.infn.it

    2005-08-21

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  8. CMS tracker visualization tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennea, M.S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking

  9. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B

    2008-01-01

    Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given.

  10. Composition, abundance and diversity of the Family Cichlidae in Oyan Dam, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLANIYI ALABA OLOPADE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Olopade OA, Rufai OP. 2014. Composition, abundance and diversity of the Family Cichlidae in Oyan Dam, Ogun State, Nigeria. Biodiversitas 15: 195-199.This study was conducted to determine status of the family Cichlidae in Oyan Dam, Nigeria, during the wet and dry seasons of 2011. Samples were collected using multi-mesh gillnets ranging between 30 mm to 80 mm. Simpson's Diversity Index was used to determine the species richness, while dominance and evenness were given by Shannon's index. A total of 547 individuals were caught from Imala (S1 and Ibaro (S2 sites of the dam. Species collected include Sarotherodon galilaeus (42.60%, Oreochromis niloticus (17.92%, Tilapia zillii (25.41%, Hemichromis fasciatus (10.61% and Tilapia mariae (3.48%. Juveniles and sub-adults and adults were among the catch, the sizes were as big as 12.85±0.29cm SL, 109.22±6.00g BW in Tilapia zillii and small as 6.09±0.05cm SL and 8.07±0.15g BW in Hemichromis fasciatus. The diversity indexes showed that the diversity of Cichlids was lower in the two sites observed in Oyan Dam. The estimates of diversity indexes showed lower value for site 1 (0.284 than for site 2 (0.294; Simpson's diversity index was 0.716 for site 1 and 0.703 for site 2 while reciprocal indexes for site 1(3.521 was slightly lower than site 2 (3.367. Shannon-Wiener’s Index recorded in the site 1 (1.36 was slightly lower than site 2 (1.37. Pielou’s Index value recorded for site 1 was 0.845 and 0.852 for site 2. Sarotherodon galilaeus, Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii and Tilapia mariae exhibited a positive allometric growth pattern while only Hemichromis fasciatus showed a negative allometric growth.

  11. A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C. Strikis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

  12. Acetaminophen and zinc phosphide for lethal management of invasive lizards Ctenosaura similis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. AVERY, John D. EISEMANN, Kandy L. KEACHER,Peter J. SAVARIE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing populations of invasive lizards through trapping and shooting is feasible in many cases but effective integrated management relies on a variety of tools, including toxicants. In Florida, using wild-caught non-native black spiny-tailed iguanas Ctenosaura similis, we screened acetaminophen and zinc phosphide to determine their suitability for effective population management of this prolific invasive species. Of the animals that received acetaminophen, none died except at the highest test dose, 240 mg per lizard, which is not practical for field use. Zinc phosphide produced 100% mortality at dose levels as little as 25 mg per lizard, equivalent to about 0.5% in bait which is lower than currently used in commercial baits for commensal rodent control. We conclude that zinc phosphide has potential as a useful tool for reducing populations of invasive lizards such as the black spiny-tailed iguana provided target-selective delivery methods are developed [Current Zoology 57 (5: 625–629, 2011].

  13. Conserved sex chromosomes across adaptively radiated Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Altmanová, Marie; Pokorná, Martina; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-07-01

    Vertebrates possess diverse sex-determining systems, which differ in evolutionary stability among particular groups. It has been suggested that poikilotherms possess more frequent turnovers of sex chromosomes than homoiotherms, whose effective thermoregulation can prevent the emergence of the sex reversals induced by environmental temperature. Squamate reptiles used to be regarded as a group with an extensive variability in sex determination; however, we document how the rather old radiation of lizards from the genus Anolis, known for exceptional ecomorphological variability, was connected with stability in sex chromosomes. We found that 18 tested species, representing most of the phylogenetic diversity of the genus, share the gene content of their X chromosomes. Furthermore, we discovered homologous sex chromosomes in species of two genera (Sceloporus and Petrosaurus) from the family Phrynosomatidae, serving here as an outgroup to Anolis. We can conclude that the origin of sex chromosomes within iguanas largely predates the Anolis radiation and that the sex chromosomes of iguanas remained conserved for a significant part of their evolutionary history. Next to therian mammals and birds, Anolis lizards therefore represent another adaptively radiated amniote clade with conserved sex chromosomes. We argue that the evolutionary stability of sex-determining systems may reflect an advanced stage of differentiation of sex chromosomes rather than thermoregulation strategy. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Ticks on captive and free-living wild animals in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Débora R A; de Melo, Louise M; Lima, Polly-Ana C P; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-de-Albuquerque, Luciana C; de Melo, Adriana V; Ramos, Janaina A C

    2010-02-01

    From 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara and Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos) located in northeastern Brazil were identified. Ticks found on two veterinarians working in one of the parks (i.e., Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park's territory, were also identified. The following tick-host associations were recorded: Amblyomma fuscum Neumann on Boa constrictor L.; Amblyomma longirostre Koch on Ramphastos vitellinus ariel Vigors and Coendou prehensilis (L.); Amblyomma varium Koch on Bradypus variegates Schinz; Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Chelonoidis denticulata (L.), Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem), Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl, Iguana iguana (L.) and B. variegatus; Amblyomma nodosum Neumann on Myrmecophaga tridactyla L. and Tamandua tetradactyla (L.); and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Nasua nasua (L.). The ticks found on the veterinarians were identified as nine Amblyomma larvae. The presence of Am. nodosum in Pernambuco and Am. rotundatum and Am. varium in Paraíba is recorded for the first time and the occurrence of Am. longirostre in Pernambuco is confirmed. Ramphastos vitellinus ariel is a new host record for Am. longirostre whereas M. ibiboboca and B. variegatus are new host records for Am. rotundatum. Finally, the human parasitism by Amblyomma ticks is reported for the first time in Pernambuco, highlighting the potential of tick-borne pathogen transmission in this state.

  15. Behavioral implications of mechanistic ecology II: the African rainbow lizard, Agama agama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.; James, F.C.

    1979-01-01

    The daily and seasonal activity of the African rainbow lizard, Agama agama is predicted in terms of heat transfer models for the microenvironment and the lizard. The models, originally developed for the temperate Mohave Desert and for the desert iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis, have been refined and are applicable to a tropical area and a tropical species. Field microclimate measurements and observations of lizard activity and food consumption by different sizes of lizards are consistent with these models. Environmental constraints on activity times, sun vs shade locations, height above the ground and postures are described. The sensitivity of the metabolic predictions to different maximum temperature preferences and behavioral options are discussed. The balance between maintenance energy savings via lower thermoregulatory temperatures and time available in different parts of the microenvironment are examined. A simple predator-prey interaction illustrates the substantial effect of climate in modifying amount of time both prey and predator would be expected to be active simultaneously in the tropics vs a temperate desert. Comparisons are made between A. agama and the desert iguana, D. dorsalis for daily and seasonal maintenance requirements and their implications for seasonal changes in growth and reproductive potential.

  16. Evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Vukić, Jasna; Lymberakis, Petros; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-12-22

    Amniote vertebrates possess various mechanisms of sex determination, but their variability is not equally distributed. The large evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and birds was believed to be connected with their endothermy. However, some ectotherm lineages seem to be comparably conserved in sex determination, but previously there was a lack of molecular evidence to confirm this. Here, we document a stability of sex chromosomes in advanced snakes based on the testing of Z-specificity of genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) across 37 snake species (our qPCR technique is suitable for molecular sexing in potentially all advanced snakes). We discovered that at least part of sex chromosomes is homologous across all families of caenophidian snakes (Acrochordidae, Xenodermatidae, Pareatidae, Viperidae, Homalopsidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Lamprophiidae). The emergence of differentiated sex chromosomes can be dated back to about 60 Ma and preceded the extensive diversification of advanced snakes, the group with more than 3000 species. The Z-specific genes of caenophidian snakes are (pseudo)autosomal in the members of the snake families Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae, Boidae, Erycidae and Sanziniidae, as well as in outgroups with differentiated sex chromosomes such as monitor lizards, iguanas and chameleons. Along with iguanas, advanced snakes are therefore another example of ectothermic amniotes with a long-term stability of sex chromosomes comparable with endotherms. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Fred; Campbell, Earl W.; Allison, Allen; Pratt, Thane K.

    1999-01-01

    As an oceanic archipelago isolated from continental source areas, Hawaii lacks native terrestrial reptiles and amphibians, Polynesians apparently introduced seven gecko and skink species after discovering the islands approximately 1500 years ago, and another 15 reptiles and five frogs have been introduced in the last century and a half (McKeown 1996). The Polynesian introductions are probably inadvertent because the species involved are known stowaway dispersers (Gibbons 1985; Dye and Steadman 1990), In contrast, most of the herpetological introductions since European contact with Hawaii have been intentional. Several frog species were released for biocontrol of insects (e.g., Dendrobates auratus, Bufo marinus, Rana rugosa, Bryan 1932; Oliver and Shaw 1953), and most of the remaining species are released or escaped pets (e.g., Phelsuma spp., Chamaeleo jacksonii, Iguana iguana, McKeown 1996), Government-approved releases have not occurred for many years, but the rate of establishment of new species has increased in the past few decades because of the importation and subsequent release of pets.

  18. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil Carrapatos infestando anfíbios e répteis em Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials. New tick-host associations and locality records are given.Os carrapatos encontrados infestando anfíbios e répteis no Estado de Pernambuco são revisados com base na literatura atual e em novas coletas realizadas recentemente pelos autores. Até o momento, três espécies de carrapatos foram encontradas sobre anfíbios e répteis em Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum parece estar exclusivamente associado à Boa constrictor, seu hospedeiro-tipo. Amblyomma rotundatum tem uma especificidade parasitária relativamente baixa, sendo encontrado em sapos, serpentes e iguana. Amblyomma dissimile já foi encontrado sobre um lagarto e também sobre pequenos mamíferos (isto é, roedores e marsupiais. Novas associações carrapato-hospedeiro e novos registros de localidades são apresentados.

  19. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedson M.S. Souto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W, Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman, who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89, crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79, common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79, and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758 (UV=0.74. The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use.Este trabalho registra as práticas zooterapêuticas na medicina etnoveterinária no município de Pedra Lavrada, Nordeste do Brasil. Entrevistaram-se 23 pessoas (22 homens e uma mulher os quais forneceram informações sobre as espécies usadas como remédios, as partes do corpo usadas para preparar os remédios e as doenças tratadas. Calculou-se o Valor de Uso a fim de determinar quais espécies eram mais importantes. Os entrevistados reportaram 11 animais usados medicinalmente. As

  20. Absence of domestic triatomine colonies in an area of the coastal region of Ecuador where Chagas disease is endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J Grijalva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is considered the second most important vector of Chagas disease in Ecuador. It is distributed across six of the 24 provinces and occupies intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and sylvatic habitats. This study was conducted in six communities within the coastal province of Guayas. Triatomine searches were conducted in domestic and peridomestic habitats and bird nests using manual searches, live-bait traps and sensor boxes. Synantrhopic mammals were captured in the domestic and peridomestic habitats. Household searches (n = 429 and randomly placed sensor boxes (n = 360 produced no live triatomine adults or nymphs. In contrast, eight nymphs were found in two out of six searched Campylorhynchus fasciatus (Troglodytidae nests. Finally, Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was amplified from the blood of 10% of the 115 examined mammals. Environmental changes in land use (intensive rice farming, mosquito control interventions and lack of intradomestic adaptation are suggested among the possible reasons for the lack of domestic triatomine colonies.

  1. In vitro screening of snake venom against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kumar Bhunia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The re-emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has brought to light the importance of screening effective novel drugs. In the present study, in vitro activities of different snake (Naja naja, Bungarus fasciatus, Daboia russelli russelli, Naja kaouthia venoms have been investigated against clinical isolate of MDR-TB strains. The treatment with all the venoms inhibited the mycobacterial growth for at least a week in common and two of them (Naja naja and Naja kaouthia showed significantly longer inhibition up to two weeks against the MDR-TB strain with single dose and a repetition of those two venoms exhibited inhibition up to more than four weeks.

  2. Phytomonas serpens: immunological similarities with the human trypanosomatid pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, André L S; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M; Elias, Camila G R; Vermelho, Alane B; Branquinha, Marta H

    2007-07-01

    The present review provides an overview of recent discoveries concerning the immunological similarities between Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, and human trypanosomatid pathogens, with special emphasis on peptidases. Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi express peptidases that are well-known virulence factors, named leishmanolysin and cruzipain. P. serpens synthesizes two distinct classes of proteolytic enzymes, metallo- and cysteine-type peptidases, that share common epitopes with leishmanolysin and cruzipain, respectively. The leishmanolysin-like and cruzipain-like molecules from P. serpens participate in several biological processes including cellular growth and adhesion to the salivary glands of Oncopeltus fasciatus, a phytophagous insect experimental model. Since previous reports demonstrated that immunization of mice with P. serpens induced a partial protective immune response against T. cruzi, this plant trypanosomatid may be a suitable candidate for vaccine studies. Moreover, comparative approaches in the Trypanosomatidae family may be useful to understand kinetoplastid biology, biochemistry and evolution.

  3. The Tribe Anisoscelini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Coreidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Pall, José Luis

    2015-10-23

    Eight genera and 21 species of the tribe Anisoscelini (Coreidae, Coreinae) are recorded in Argentina: Anisoscelis foliaceus (Fabricius); Coribergia declivicollis (Berg); Dalmatomammurius vandoesburgi (Brailovsky); Holymenia hystrio (Fabricius); Leptoglossus chilensis (Spinola); L. cinctus (Herrich-Schaeffer); L. concolor Walker; L. crassicornis (Dallas); L. dentatus Berg; L. fasciatus (Westwood); L. gonagra (Fabricius); L. impictus (Stål); L. ingens (Mayr); L. neovexillatus Allen; L. quadricollis (Westwood); L. stigma (Herbst); L. vexillatus (Stål); L. zonatus (Dallas); Phthia lunata (Fabricius); Phthiacnemia picta (Drury) and Ugnius kermesinus (Linnaeus). A key to genera belonging to the tribe is provided. L. stigma is recorded for the first time in Argentina with new locality records for La Rioja, Salta and San Juan.

  4. Histopathologic alterations observed in fish gills as a tool in environmental monitoring Alterações histopatológicas observadas nas brânquias de peixes como instrumento no monitoramento ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Flores-Lopes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The gills of fish have a great external contact surface and are particularly sensitive to chemical and physical changes in the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to examine the histopathologic alterations in the gills of Astyanax fasciatus and Cyanocharax alburnus and to determine if there is a correlation between the severity of the alterations and environmental degradation and if this biological system can be used as a tool for evaluating water quality in monitoring programmes. The gills of 107 specimens of Astyanax fasciatus and 116 of Cyanocharax alburnus were collected seasonally and processed using routine histologic techniques for fixing and embedding in paraffin and staining of sections with haematoxylin and eosin. The main alterations observed in both species were alteration of the structure of the epithelium, vacuolisation, hyperplasia of the epithelium of the primary lamella, epithelial lifting, and alteration of the structure and occurrence of aneurysms in the secondary lamella. The locations Gasometer and F. do Celupa were the ones that showed the highest frequencies of moderate and severe alterations as the highest "histopathologic alterations index" means. The most severe alterations were found to be related to the most impacted environment, indicating the presence of stressors in the water.As brânquias de peixes apresentam uma grande superfície de contato com o meio externo e são particularmente sensíveis às mudanças químicas e físicas do ambiente aquático. Este trabalho descreve as alterações histopatológicas observadas nas brânquias das espécies Astyanax fasciatus e Cyanocharax alburnus, testando-se a presença de correlação entre o grau de severidade das alterações e degradação ambiental. Pode ser utilizada na avaliação da qualidade da água em programas de monitoramento. Brânquias de 107 exemplares de Astyanax fasciatus e 116 de Cyanocharax alburnus, coletados sazonalmente, foram preparadas

  5. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon and L. kasmira occupied the highest position (T=4.50), L. nebulosus occupied the lower one (TL=3.41). The role of the increasing abundance of small pelagic fish in the diet of many species after the upwelling event is evident, but also different feeding strategies are reported, according to fish ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Which is the best environment for the development of the early life stages of fish during the dry season? Qual o melhor ambiente para o desenvolvimento das fases jovens de peixes durante a estação seca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Henríques Esguícero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of this study was to investigate the quality of habitats for early life stages of fish in the Jacaré-Guaçu River, during the dry phase; METHODS: For assessing the quality of the habitats for the development of early life stages, the relative condition factor was applied to the juveniles of five species of fishes, captured in four different habitats (reservoir, floodplain lake, main river, and tributary. The juveniles were caught in macrophytes of the littoral zone by a rectangular sieve, in the dry season of 2008 and 2009; RESULTS: The species Astyanax altiparanae thrived similarly in the four habitats, and A. fasciatus, Hyphessobrycon eques, Hoplias malabaricus and Serrapinnus notomelas, showed higher values of relative condition factors in the reservoir and in the lake. Among the species, A. fasciatus showed the highest values of the relative condition factor in these two habitats; CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the complexity of the macrophytes' stands and the current velocity were the main factors influencing the development of juveniles. It was found that a lower current velocity can propitiated the establishment of a greater richness of macrophytes, which in turn can influence positively the development of fish juveniles. Moreover, a higher current velocity ends in a higher energy demand for swimming.OBJETIVO: O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar a qualidade dos habitats para as primeiras fases de vida dos peixes no Rio Jacaré-Guaçu, durante a estação seca; MÉTODOS: Para avaliar a qualidade dos hábitats para o desenvolvimento das primeiras fases, o fator de condição relativo foi aplicado aos juvenis de cinco espécies de peixes, capturados em quatro habitats diferentes (reservatório, lago de planície de inundação, canal principal e tributário. Os juvenis foram coletados em macrófitas litorâneas com uma peneira retangular, na estação seca de 2008 e 2009; RESULTADOS: Somente Astyanax

  7. A new species of Cacatuocotyle (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) parasitizing Astyanax spp. (Characiformes, Characidae) from Brazil, including molecular data and a key to species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Aline Cristina; Franceschini, Lidiane; Müller, Maria Isabel; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2018-06-26

    The present study describes Cacatuocotyle papilionis n. sp. (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the skin of the characid fishes Astyanax lacustris (Lütken, 1875) (=Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000) and Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) (Characiformes, Characidae) from the Southeast of Brazil, supported by morphological and molecular data. The new species differs from all congeners, mainly due to the morphology of the ventral bar (resembling a butterfly), accessory piece, and the number of rings of the male copulatory organ (MCO), comprising a coiled tube with 4.5-5.5 counterclockwise rings. The first molecular data for this monogenean genus is provided in this study, using the partial sequences of the ribosomal gene (28S), as well as providing an identification key to the species.

  8. Records of new localities and hosts for crustacean parasites in fish from the eastern Amazon in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Corrêa, Lincoln Lima; Oliveira Ferreira, Drielly; Neves, Lígia Rigor; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate parasites crustacean fauna in Arapaima gigas , Cichla monoculus , Cichla ocellaris , Cichla jariina , Satanoperca jurupari , Leporinus friderici , Leporinus fasciatus , Hoplias malabaricus , Phractocephalus hemioliopterus , Serrasalmus altispinis , Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum and Potamotrygon motoro of the State Amapá and Pará, in northern Brazil. A total of 242 parasites, including Argulus elongatus , Argulus multicolor, Argulus juparanaensis , Argulus nattereri , Dolops discoidalis , Dolops longicauda , Braga patagonica , Braga fluviatilis , Livoneca guianensis and undetermined Lernaeidae, were collected from these hosts. The Argulus species had the greatest richness among the community of parasitic crustaceans. There was a low abundance of parasites among the hosts, other than D. discoidalis , was most abundant in the integument of A. gigas and P. tigrinum . Finally, the present study reported nine new hosts for the crustacean parasite species and expanded knowledge of the occurrence of some parasite species in the Jari River basin, in eastern Amazon.

  9. O fator de condição de peixes de duas bacias no Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1368 The condition factor of fishes from two river basins in São Paulo state, Southeast of Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1368

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Muller Gomiero

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi obtido o fator de condição relativo de Hypostomus strigaticeps, Astyanax altiparanae, Astyanax scabripinnis, Astyanax fasciatus, Astyanax sp1., Characidium aff. zebra, Piabina argentea, Hypostomus ancistroides, Hypostomus sp1., Parodon tortuosus, Serrapinus heterodon e Bryconamericus sp. da APA de São Pedro e Analândia (22°-23°S e 47°30’-48°30’W. O fator de condição fornece indicações do estado de bem estar do peixe no ambiente. Para a comparação de espécies distintas foi utilizado o fator de condição relativo, relacionando as variações deste fator ao longo do ano e conseqüentes alterações fisiológicas dos peixes. O fator de condição relativo mostrou-se eficaz como ferramenta para evidenciar as mudanças nas condições dos peixes durante as estações do anoThis work describes the relative condition factor of the Hypostomus strigaticeps, Astyanax altiparanae, Astyanax scabripinnis, Astyanax fasciatus, Astyanax sp1., Characidium aff. zebra, Piabina argentea, Hypostomus ancistroides, Hypostomus sp1., Parodon tortuosus, Serrapinus heterodon, and Bryconamericus sp., of the APA of São Pedro and Analândia (22° - 23°S and 47°30’ - 48°30’W. The condition factor provides information about the physical state of the animal in the environment. In order to compare different species, the relative condition factor was used. Variations in this factor were correlated with variations through the year and with subsequent alterations in the physiological state of the fishes. The relative condition factor was shown to be efficient in indicating changes in fish condition throughout the year

  10. Biology and ecomorphology of stream fishes from the rio Mogi-Guaçu basin, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available The córrego Paulicéia is a direct tributary of the rio Mogi-Guaçu, located in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. This stream runs inside a savannah-like (cerrado environment and it associated vegetation. Biological and ecomorphological aspects of its fish community were studied in three stretches of the stream, denominated herein as the upper, middle and lower courses. The fish fauna recorded in this study consisted of 15 species, belonging to five orders and nine families, based in a total of 715 collected individuals representing 1,450 kg of biomass. The most important abiotic factors related to the occurrence and distribution of the fish fauna were the substrate, current speed, and presence or absence of riparian vegetation. The analysis of 336 stomach contents of 13 species demonstrated that 65% of food items are autochthonous, 32% allochthonous, and 3% are of unknown origin. Four alimentary guilds could be identified, based on the predominant food items: omnivores with tendency to insectivory - Astyanax paranae, A. fasciatus and Piabina argentea; larvivores - Corydoras difluviatilis, Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Phenacorhamdia tenebrosa, Characidium gomesi, Eigenmannia virescens, and Rhamdia quelen; periphyton feeders - Hisonotus sp., Hypostomus ancistroides and Synbranchus marmoratus; and piscivore - Hoplias malabaricus. Reproductions data are presented for Astyanax altiparanae and Hisontus sp. Three ecomorphological groups could be established, based on swimming, feeding, and microhabitat strategies: nektonic (A. fasciatus, A. paranae, Bryconamericus stramineus, P. argentea, H. malabaricus and Phallotorynus jucundus, benthic (C. gomesi, P. tenebrosa, C. iheringi, R. quelen, C. difluviatilis, H. ancistroides and Hisonotus sp., and necktobenthic (E. virescens and S. marmoratus.

  11. Iktiofauna Sungai Sangkir Kabupaten Rokan Hulu Provinsi Riau (Ichthyofauna of Sangkir River, Rokan Hulu District Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunuk Dian Pranata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Sangkir river branch of Rokan Kiri river Sangkir village, Rokan Hulu district, Riau Province from May of July 2016. The aim of this study was to inventory the fish species in Sangkir river branch of Rokan Kiri River with direct observation (survey. Five sampling locations were determined purposely based on the environmental condition that could be represented by the river condition. A total of 288 individuals of fish belonging to 3 orders, 7 families, 13 genera and 16 species were recorded in this study, namely Barbodes balleroides, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbichthys leavis, Channa striata, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Labiobarbus fasciatus, Mystus nigriceps, Ompok eugeneiatus, Osteochilus hasseltii, Osteochilus mycrocephalus, Pangio semicincta, Pristolepis grooti, Thynnichthys polylepis, Trichogaster leerii, Trichogaster trichopterus and Trichopsis vittata. Cyprinidae was the most abundance fish in this study. Penelitian ini telah dilaksanakan di sungai Sangkir, anak sungai Rokan Kiri, desa Sangkir, Kabupaten Rokan Hulu, Provinsi Riau pada bulan Mei sampai Juli 2016. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis ikan di sungai Sangkir anak Sungai Rokan Kiri dengan metode pengamatan langsung (survei dengan penetapan stasiun pengambilan sampel secara purposive sampling. Penetapan stasiun berdasarkan kondisi lingkungan yang terdiri dari 5 stasiun penelitian. Hasil penelitian  didapatkan sebanyak 288 individu ikan yang terdiri dari 3 ordo, 7 famili 13 genus dan 16 spesies. Spesies yang didapatkan yaitu Barbodes balleroides, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbichthys leavis, Channa striata, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Labiobarbus fasciatus, Mystus nigriceps, Ompok eugeneiatus, Osteochilus hasseltii, Osteochilus mycrocephalus, Pangio semicincta, Pristolepis grooti, Thynnichthys polylepis Trichogaster leerii, Trichogaster trichopterus dan Trichopsis vittata. Cyprinidae merupakan kelompok ikan yang paling banyak dalam penelitian ini.

  12. Further investigations at the Naigani Lapita site (VL 21/5), Fiji : excavation, radiocarbon dating and palaeofaunal extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, G.; Worthy, T.H.; Best, S.; Hawkins, S.; Carpenter, J.; Matararaba, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper brings up-to-date a report by S. Best of initial excavations at Naigani in 1981. The results of subsequent fieldwork in 2000 include the excavation and dating of Lapita-age ovens associated with early settlement and extinct palaeofauna. These include the giant megapode (Megavitiornis altirostris), a species of Ducula pigeon, the giant iguana (Lapitiguana impensa), and probably the endemic crocodile (Volia athollandersoni). The Lapita site of VL 21/5 dates from 900 BC and represents an initial colonising settlement within the Fiji Islands. The period of occupation ended around 750 BC. The significance of Naigani is considered in terms of chronology, ceramic history, economy, extinctions, origins and interactions. (author). 33 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Chasing Science at Sea: Racing Hurricanes, Stalking Sharks, and Living Undersea With Ocean Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cindy

    2008-12-01

    Ellen Prager's new book, Chasing Science at Sea, is a personal account of why fieldwork is so important in many areas of ocean science, and how exciting that fieldwork can be. Prager has interwoven her own story of studying carbonates at the interface between biology and geology with stories from friends and colleagues. Storm stories and up-close-and-personal encounters with ocean creatures such as reef squid, marine iguanas, and whales abound. Throughout the book, she emphasizes the idea that the combination of observations and serendipity plays a critical role in science, and she gives examples of where this combination has led to especially important discoveries (e.g., that of hydrothermal vent organisms).

  14. CMS Data Analysis: Current Status and Future Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Innocente, V

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of CMS data analysis architecture and describe work on future Grid-based distributed analysis prototypes. CMS has two main software frameworks related to data analysis: COBRA, the main framework, and IGUANA, the interactive visualisation framework. Software using these frameworks is used today in the world-wide production and analysis of CMS data. We describe their overall design and present examples of their current use with emphasis on interactive analysis. CMS is currently developing remote analysis prototypes, including one based on Clarens, a Grid-enabled client-server tool. Use of the prototypes by CMS physicists will guide us in forming a Grid-enriched analysis strategy. The status of this work is presented, as is an outline of how we plan to leverage the power of our existing frameworks in the migration of CMS software to the Grid.

  15. Generación de Energia Eléctrica Empleando Biomasa para la Ciudad de Guayaquil

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Alvarado Cadena, Damaris; Pazmiño Muñoz, Jorge; Pérez Pachito, Luis

    2015-01-01

    La empresa Biomax se constituirá como una compañía de sociedad anónima. El servicio que ofrece estará orientado a dar una solución integral y definitiva al problema del crecimiento de la basura en la ciudad de Guayaquil, a través de su tratamiento utilizando la tecnología del arco plasma y su posterior conversación en energía eléctrica. este proyecto se lo construirá en la zona de pascuales, al lado del relleno sanitario las iguanas. Guayaquil Magíster en Administración de Empresas...

  16. Atlas de Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae. Anatomía externa, osteología y bibliografía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero, Ricardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Los lagartos que en Argentina se conocen como "iguana roja" o "caraguay" pertenecen al género Tupinambis, uno de los saurios de mayor talla del continente; tienen importancia económica, tanto por su cuero como por su carne. Se reconocen seis especies actuales, que se distribuyen en América del Sur desde Colombia hasta el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina (Cei, 1993. Por su amplia distribución y abundancia son utilizados como animales de laboratorio por lo que es importante el conocimiento detallado de su anatomía. Es por ello que aquí presentamos en un Atlas fotográfico la morfología externa y osteología de Tupinambis rufescens.

  17. Biological risks associated with consumption of reptile products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnino, S.; Colin, P.; Dei-Cas, E.

    2009-01-01

    recently increased in some areas of the world. Biological risks associated with the consumption of products from both farmed and wild reptile meat and eggs include infections caused by bacteria (Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp.). parasites (Spirometra, Trichinella, Gnathostoma, pentastomids), as well...... to increase the occurrence of biological hazards in reptile meat. Application of GHP, GMP and HACCP procedures, respectively at farm and slaughterhouse level, is crucial for controlling the hazards.......The consumption of a wide variety of species of reptiles caught from the wild has been an important source of protein for humans world-wide for millennia. Terrapins. snakes, lizards, crocodiles and iguanas are now farmed and the consumption and trade of their meat and other edible products have...

  18. Use of Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS222) for Euthanasia of Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, CJ; Papenfuss, T; Parker, J; Hahn, NE

    2009-01-01

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) injected into the intracoelomic cavity of reptiles was evaluated as a chemical euthanasia method. Three western fence lizards, 2 desert iguanas, 4 garter snakes, and 6 geckos were euthanized by intracoelomic injection of 250 to 500 mg/kg of 0.7% to 1% sodium-bicarbonate–buffered MS222 solution followed by intracoelomic injection of 0.1 to 1.0 ml unbuffered 50% (v/v) MS222 solution. A simple 2-stage protocol for euthanasia of reptiles by using MS222 is outlined. In addition, the conditions for safe use of MS222 are discussed. MS222 offers an alternative to sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia of reptiles. PMID:19245747

  19. New Entamoeba group in howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) associated with parasites of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-García, Claudia; Gordillo-Chávez, Elías José; Baños-Ojeda, Carlos; Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Muñoz-García, Claudia Irais; Carrero, Julio César; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Maravilla, Pablo; Galian, José; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; Villalobos, Guiehdani

    2017-08-01

    Our knowledge of the parasite species present in wildlife hosts is incomplete. Protozoans such as amoebae of the genus Entamoeba infect a large variety of vertebrate species, including NHPs. However, traditionally, their identification has been accomplished through microscopic evaluation; therefore, amoeba species have not always been identified correctly. We searched for Entamoeba spp. using a fragment of the small subunit rDNA in free-ranging howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata and A. pigra) from southeast Mexico. One hundred fifty five samples were collected, with 46 from A. palliata and 109 from A. pigra and 8 of the total samples were positive. We detected a new clade of Entamoeba, which was separated from other described species but closer to E. insolita, as well as an unnamed sequence typically found in iguana species with low shared identity values (reptiles.

  20. Reptiles and Amphibians as Potential Reservoir Hosts of Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A

    2018-03-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus of significant human-health concern. Little is known about its sylvatic cycle, including whether ectothermic vertebrates are permissive to infection. In this study, individuals from ten species of reptiles and amphibians were inoculated with chikungunya virus and samples of blood were tested to characterize viremia and seroconversion. Viremia was not detected in cane toads, house geckos, or American alligators, but most of the green iguanas, red-eared sliders, ball and Burmese pythons, leopard frogs, Texas toads, and garter snakes developed viremia. Peak virus titers in serum of up to 4.5, 4.7, and 5.1 log 10 plaque-forming units per milliliter were observed for garter snakes, ball pythons, and Texas toads, respectively. These results add to those of other studies that have suggested a possible role for ectothermic vertebrates in the ecology of arbovirus maintenance and transmission in nature.

  1. Stress responsiveness predicts individual variation in mate selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael

    2013-06-15

    Steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids, mediate a variety of behavioral and physiological processes. Circulating hormone concentrations vary substantially within populations, and although hormone titers predict reproductive success in several species, little is known about how individual variation in circulating hormone concentrations is linked with most reproductive behaviors in free-living organisms. Mate choice is an important and often costly component of reproduction that also varies substantially within populations. We examined whether energetically costly mate selection behavior in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) was associated with individual variation in the concentrations of hormones previously shown to differ between reproductive and non-reproductive females during the breeding season (corticosterone and testosterone). Stress-induced corticosterone levels - which are suppressed in female marine iguanas during reproduction - were individually repeatable throughout the seven-week breeding period. Mate selectivity was strongly predicted by individual variation in stress-induced corticosterone: reproductive females that secreted less corticosterone in response to a standardized stressor assessed more displaying males. Neither baseline corticosterone nor testosterone predicted variation in mate selectivity. Scaled body mass was not significantly associated with mate selectivity, but females that began the breeding period in lower body condition showed a trend towards being less selective about potential mates. These results provide the first evidence that individual variation in the corticosterone stress response is associated with how selective females are in their choice of a mate, an important contributor to fitness in many species. Future research is needed to determine the functional basis of this association, and whether transient acute increases in circulating corticosterone directly mediate mate choice behaviors

  2. Estudo evolutivo da anatomia das artérias coronárias em espécies de vertebrados com técnica de moldagem em acetato de vinil (vinilite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGUES Tânia Maria de Andrade

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram produzidos 30 moldes anatômicos de corações de vertebrados, visando contribuir para o estudo das artérias coronárias direita e esquerda de diferentes espécies: peixes, anfíbios, répteis, aves e mamíferos. Os corações foram injetados com acetato de vinil, submetidos a corrosão e semicorrosão pelo ácido clorídrico, a fim de evidenciar o padrão anatômico apresentado pelas artérias coronárias no tocante à evolução das espécies e adaptações morfológicas (estrutura e arquitetura. Com base na morfologia das peças estudadas foram obtidas as seguintes conclusões: a técnica utilizando acetato de vinil, associada à corrosão, mostrou-se eficaz na produção de modelos de coração de diferentes espécies, apresentando detalhamento capaz de permitir visibilização dos ramos colaterais, quando existentes; o número de estruturas e a complexidade vascular cardíaca aumenta na medida em que os seres evoluem na escala zoológica. No réptil iguana iguana foi encontrado ventrículo duplo com tríplice via de saída, como único padrão evolutivo da anatomia dos ventrículos e grandes vasos da base ainda não descrito como cardiopatia congênita em humanos.

  3. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria varies among sites in Galapagos reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Emily; Hong, Pei-Ying; Bedon, Lenin Cruz; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-01-01

    Increased overlap between humans and wildlife populations has increased the risk for novel disease emergence. Detecting contacts with a high risk for transmission of pathogens requires the identification of dependable measures of microbial exchange. We evaluated antibiotic resistance as a molecular marker for the intensity of human-wildlife microbial connectivity in the Galápagos Islands. We isolated Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from the feces of land iguanas (Conolophus sp.), marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra), and seawater, and tested these bacteria with the use of the disk diffusion method for resistance to 10 antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were found in reptile feces from two tourism sites (Isla Plaza Sur and La Galapaguera on Isla San Cristóbal) and from seawater close to a public use beach near Puerto Baquerizo Moreno on Isla San Cristóbal. No resistance was detected at two protected beaches on more isolated islands (El Miedo on Isla Santa Fe and Cape Douglas on Isla Fernandina) and at a coastal tourism site (La Lobería on Isla San Cristóbal). Eighteen E. coli isolates from three locations, all sites relatively proximate to a port town, were resistant to ampicillin, doxycycline, tetracycline, and trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole. In contrast, only five S. enterica isolates showed a mild decrease in susceptibility to doxycycline and tetracycline from these same sites (i.e., an intermediate resistance phenotype), but no clinical resistance was detected in this bacterial species. These findings suggest that reptiles living in closer proximity to humans potentially have higher exposure to bacteria of human origin; however, it is not clear from this study to what extent this potential exposure translates to ongoing exchange of bacterial strains or genetic traits. Resistance patterns and bacterial exchange in this system warrant further investigation to understand better how human associations

  4. A new species of Oochoristica (Cyclophyllidea: Linstowiidae) from non-native Mediterranean geckos, Hemidactylus turcicus (Sauria: Gekkonidae), from Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R

    2017-06-01

    A new species of cyclophyllidean tapeworm, Oochoristica harschi sp. nov. is described from 2 of 18 (11%) non-native Mediterranean geckos (Hemidactylus turcicus) collected in June 2016 from Tom Green County, Texas, USA The new species has few characteristics in common with 17 species of Oochoristica previously described from Nearctic reptiles. Of this group, O. harschi is most similar to O. macallisteri Bursey and Goldberg, 1996 from the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana from Arizona and California, USA, in number of testes, 14-20 vs. 12-20. However, O. harschi has oval suckers and a long neck compared to the circular suckers and absent neck in O. macallisteri. On comparison with other species of Oochoristica, it was found O. chinensis Jensen, Schmidt and Kuntz, 1983 from the Sino-Japanese realm, O. iguanae Bursey and Goldberg, 1996 from the Neotropical realm, and O. maccoyi Bursey and Goldberg, 1966 from the Panamanian realm were most similar to the new species. However, O. harschi can be differentiated by possessing a much longer neck and a shorter cirrus pouch. It can be further differentiated from O. chinensis by possessing an ovoid vs. an irregular vitellarium, from O. iguanae by having a smaller strobilus (65 vs. 110 mm) as well as an ovoid vs. a triangular vitellarium, and from O. maccoyi by having significantly more proglottids (145 vs. 89) and a longer strobilus (65 vs. 20 mm). The new species is the fifth species of Oochoristica reported from non-native H. turcicus and the 18th species described from the Nearctic region.

  5. Peptidomic and transcriptomic profiling of four distinct spider venoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Oldrati

    Full Text Available Venom based research is exploited to find novel candidates for the development of innovative pharmacological tools, drug candidates and new ingredients for cosmetic and agrochemical industries. Moreover, venomics, as a well-established approach in systems biology, helps to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of the production of such a great molecular biodiversity. Today the advances made in the proteomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics fields, favor venomics, allowing the in depth study of complex matrices and the elucidation even of minor compounds present in minute biological samples. The present study illustrates a rapid and efficient method developed for the elucidation of venom composition based on NextGen mRNA sequencing of venom glands and LC-MS/MS venom proteome profiling. The analysis of the comprehensive data obtained was focused on cysteine rich peptide toxins from four spider species originating from phylogenetically distant families for comparison purposes. The studied species were Heteropoda davidbowie (Sparassidae, Poecilotheria formosa (Theraphosidae, Viridasius fasciatus (Viridasiidae and Latrodectus mactans (Theridiidae. This led to a high resolution profiling of 284 characterized cysteine rich peptides, 111 of which belong to the Inhibitor Cysteine Knot (ICK structural motif. The analysis of H. davidbowie venom revealed a high richness in term of venom diversity: 95 peptide sequences were identified; out of these, 32 peptides presented the ICK structural motif and could be classified in six distinct families. The profiling of P. formosa venom highlighted the presence of 126 peptide sequences, with 52 ICK toxins belonging to three structural distinct families. V. fasciatus venom was shown to contain 49 peptide sequences, out of which 22 presented the ICK structural motif and were attributed to five families. The venom of L. mactans, until now studied for its large neurotoxins (Latrotoxins, revealed the presence of 14

  6. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Senteio Smith

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpioSe realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y

  7. Diet of Astyanax species (Teleostei, Characidae in an Atlantic Forest River in Southern Brazil

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    Fábio Silveira Vilella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of six species of Astyanax from river Maquiné are described. Fishes were sampled bi-monthly from November/95 to September/96 in two zones of the river. Items were identified, counted and had their abundance estimated according to a semi-quantitative scale. Frequency of occurrence, alimentary importance index (IFI values and a similarity analysis of diets for each species-river zone sample were examined. All the species were considered typically omnivorous, with insects and vegetal matter being the most important items in their diet. These species could act as seed dispersers, particularly for macrophytes. Intra-specific spatial differences were not observed in comparisons of samples from two diferent regions of the river, except for A. fasciatus. The presence of Podostemaceae macrophytes in the mid-course of the river seemed to be important both as an autochthonous food resource and as habitat for several organisms preyed by the Astyanax species.Seis espécies do gênero Astyanax, presentes no rio Maquiné, RS, foram estudadas quanto aos seus hábitos alimentares. Os exemplares foram amostrados bimensalmente de novembro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 nas zonas ritral e potamal do rio. Os itens alimentares foram identificados e quantificados de acordo com uma escala semi-quantitativa de abundância, utilizando-se para análise a frequência de ocorrência e um índice de importância alimentar para cada espécie e zona do rio. Análises multivariadas de agrupamento e ordenação foram utilizadas para comparar as dietas intra e interespecíficas. Todas as espécies foram consideradas onivoras, sendo que os itens mais importantes foram os insetos e restos de vegetais superiores. Sugere-se que as espécies estudadas possam atuar como dispersoras de sementes, particularmente para macrófitas. Diferenças espaciais intraespecíficas não foram encontradas, exceto para A. fasciatus. A presença de Podostemaceae no curso médio do rio parece

  8. Insect radiosensitivity: dose curves and dose-fractionation studies of dominant lethal mutations in the mature sperm of 4 insect species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Graham, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Males of 4 species of insects: Musca domestica L. (housefly) (Diptera), Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (milkweed bug) (Hemiptera), Anagasta kuhniella (Zeller) (mealmoth) (Lepidoptera) and Heliothis virescens (Fab.) (tobacco budworm) (Lepidoptera) were irradiated as adults. Dose-response curves for the induction of dominant lethal mutations in the mature sperm were constructed. The curves were analyzed mathematically and compared with theoretical computer simulated curves requiring 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 'hits' for the induction of a dominant lethal mutation. The 4 species belonging to 3 different orders of insects showed a wide range in radiation sensitivity and vastly different dose-response curves. When the data were analyzed by several mathematical models the authors found that a logistic response curve gave reasonably good fit with vastly different parameters for the 4 species. Dose-fractionation experiments showed no reduction in the frequency of lethal mutations induced in any species when an acute dose was fractionated into 2 equal exposures separated by an 8-h period. (Auth.)

  9. Ecological investigation of Hudson River macrozooplankton in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginn, T.C.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were conducted on selected Hudson River macrozooplankton species to determine temporal and spatial distributions and responses to power plant operation. Distinguishing morphological and habitat characteristics were determined for the three gammarid amphipods (Gammarus daiberi, G. tigrinus, and G. fasciatus) occurring in the Hudson River. The oedicerotid amphipod Monoculodes edwardsi and the mysid Neomysis americana, in addition to the gammarid amphipods, displayed characteristic diel and seasonal abundances which affect their potential availability for power plant entrainment. The selected macrozooplankton species were utilized in temperature and chlorine bioassays in order to predict responses to cooling water entrainment. Although amphipods (Gammarus spp. and M. edwardsi) survived typical Indian Point cooling water temperatures, N. americana had high mortalities during a 30-minute, 8.3 0 C ΔT at 25 0 C ambient temperature. The bioassay results were substantiated by generally high survivals of entrained amphipods at the Indian Point plant. Neomysis americana were more heat sensitive, as indicated in bioassays, with average entrainment mortalities ranging from 30 to 60 percent during the summer. All species examined had higher immediate and latent mortalities during plant condenser chlorination. The ability of Gammarus to survive condenser passage and exposure to the Indian Point thermal discharge plume indicates that power plant operation on the lower Hudson River Estuary has no adverse impact on local gammarid amphipod populations. Entrained N. americana experience considerable mortalities; however, the impact on Atlantic Coast populations is minimized by the limited exposure of the population fringe to the Indian Point power plant

  10. Identification and characterization of novel reptile cathelicidins from elapid snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Gan, Tong-Xiang; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Jin, Yang; Lee, Wen-Hui; Shen, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Yun

    2008-10-01

    Three cDNA sequences coding for elapid cathelicidins were cloned from constructed venom gland cDNA libraries of Naja atra, Bungarus fasciatus and Ophiophagus hannah. The open reading frames of the cloned elapid cathelicidins were all composed of 576bp and coded for 191 amino acid residue protein precursors. Each of the deduced elapid cathelicidin has a 22 amino acid residue signal peptide, a conserved cathelin domain of 135 amino acid residues and a mature antimicrobial peptide of 34 amino acid residues. Unlike the highly divergent cathelicidins in mammals, the nucleotide and deduced protein sequences of the three cloned elapid cathelicidins were remarkably conserved. All the elapid mature cathelicidins were predicted to be cleaved at Valine157 by elastase. OH-CATH, the deduced mature cathelicidin from king cobra, was chemically synthesized and it showed strong antibacterial activity against various bacteria with minimal inhibitory concentration of 1-20microg/ml in the presence of 1% NaCl. Meanwhile, the synthetic peptide showed no haemolytic activity toward human red blood cells even at a high dose of 200microg/ml. Phylogenetic analysis of cathelicidins from vertebrate suggested that elapid and viperid cathelicidins were grouped together in the tree. Snake cathelicidins were evolutionary closely related to the neutrophilic granule proteins (NGPs) from mouse, rat and rabbit. Snake cathelicidins also showed a close relationship with avian fowlicidins (1-3) and chicken myeloid antimicrobial peptide 27. Elapid cathelicidins might be used as models for the development of novel therapeutic drugs.

  11. Isolation and cloning of a metalloproteinase from king cobra snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xi; Zeng, Lin; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun; Jin, Yang

    2007-06-01

    A 50 kDa fibrinogenolytic protease, ohagin, from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah was isolated by a combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange and heparin affinity chromatography. Ohagin specifically degraded the alpha-chain of human fibrinogen and the proteolytic activity was completely abolished by EDTA, but not by PMSF, suggesting it is a metalloproteinase. It dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, TMVA and stejnulxin. The full sequence of ohagin was deduced by cDNA cloning and confirmed by protein sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting. The full-length cDNA sequence of ohagin encodes an open reading frame of 611 amino acids that includes signal peptide, proprotein and mature protein comprising metalloproteinase, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, suggesting it belongs to P-III class metalloproteinase. In addition, P-III class metalloproteinases from the venom glands of Naja atra, Bungarus multicinctus and Bungarus fasciatus were also cloned in this study. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that metalloproteinases from elapid snake venoms form a new subgroup of P-III SVMPs.

  12. Ubx regulates differential enlargement and diversification of insect hind legs.

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    Najmus Mahfooz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential enlargement of hind (T3 legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug and Acheta domesticus (house cricket. In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs.

  13. Oosorption in response to poor food: complexity in the trade-off between reproduction and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patricia J; Attisano, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Plasticity in reproductive physiology is one avenue by which environmental signals, such as poor quality food, can be coordinated with adaptive responses. Insects have the ability to resorb oocytes that are not oviposited. Oosorption is proposed to be an adaptive mechanism to optimize fitness in hostile environments, recouping resources that might otherwise be lost, and reinvesting them into future reproductive potential. We tested the hypothesis that oosorption is an evolved mechanism by which females can reallocate resources from current reproductive effort to survival and future reproduction, when conditions for reproduction are poor, by examining the reproductive physiology and life-history outcome under poor quality food in populations of the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus) that have adapted to live on sunflower seed. Females fed a diet of pumpkin seeds, known to be a poor host food, had higher levels of ovarian apoptosis (oosorption), lower reproductive output, but no reduction in life span under poor nutrition, as predicted under the oosorption hypothesis. However, the schedule of reproduction was surprising given the “wait to reproduce” assumption of oosorption as early fecundity was unaffected. PMID:22393481

  14. The role of the pupal determinant broad during embryonic development of a direct-developing insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynerson, Melody R.; Truman, James W.; Riddiford, Lynn M.

    2010-01-01

    Metamorphosis is one of the most common, yet dramatic of life history strategies. In insects, complete metamorphosis with morphologically distinct larval stages arose from hemimetabolous ancestors that were more direct developing. Over the past century, several ideas have emerged that suggest the holometabolous pupa is developmentally homologous to the embryonic stages of the hemimetabolous ancestor. Other theories consider the pupal stage to be a modification of a hemimetabolous nymph. To address this question, we have isolated an ortholog of the pupal determinant, broad (br), from the hemimetabolous milkweed bug and examined its role during embryonic development. We show that Oncopeltus fasciatus br (Of'br) is expressed in two phases. The first occurs during germ band invagination and segmentation when Of'br is expressed ubiquitously in the embryonic tissues. The second phase of Of'br expression appears during the pronymphal phase of embryogenesis and persists through nymphal differentiation to decline just before hatching. Knock-down of Of'br transcripts results in defects that range from posterior truncations in the least-affected phenotypes to completely fragmented embryonic tissues in the most severe cases. Analysis of the patterning genes engrailed and hunchback reveal loss of segments and a failure in neural differentiation after Of'br depletion. Finally, we show that br is constitutively expressed during embyrogenesis of the ametabolous firebrat, Thermobia domestica. This suggests that br expression is prominent during embryonic development of ametabolous and hemimetabolous insects but was lost with the emergence of the completely metamorphosing insects. PMID:20127251

  15. Structure dynamics of a fish community over ten years of formation in the reservoir of the hydroelectric power plant in upper Uruguay River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schork, G; Zaniboni-Filho, E

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure of the fish assemblage in the ten years following the closing of the lake of the Itá Hydroelectric Power Plant. Seasonal collections were conducted from 2001 to 2010. During this period, 44,834 fish were captured, totaling 3,818.01 kg, among 8 orders, 24 families and 84 species. In general, profound changes were not observed in the fish assemblage in the ten years after the formation of the Itá lake. Few species changed in dominance over time, while many were rare in the environment. The ichthyofauna in the reservoir was dominated by small and medium size opportunist species that conduct short or no migratory movements. Among the most abundant, six species were responsible for more than 50% of the numeric representation: Steindachnerina brevipinna, Astyanax fasciatus, Apareiodon affinis, Hypostomus isbrueckeri, Iheringichthys labrosus and Loricariichthys anus. The increase in the representation of the later species stood out. The biomass was dominated by Steindachneridion scriptum, Prochilodus lineatus, I. laborsus, Schizodon nasutus, Hoplias malabaricus, Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro, Hoplias lacerdae, H. isbrueckeri and L. anus. Despite the presence of large migrators in the region of the reservoir, their vulnerability was revealed by the low numeric abundance and accidental capture. The k-dominance curve of numerical abundance and biomass indicates a moderately disturbed community, in which the representation of small species was also important to the amounts of biomass.

  16. Biology of Pityophthorus pulchellus tuberculatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Lodgepole Pine in Northern Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Malcolm M; Kegley, Sandra J

    2018-04-19

    The twig beetle, Pityophthorus pulchellus tuberculatus Eichhoff, infests dead branches of pines in western United States and Canada, including lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas, in northern Idaho. Adult broods overwintered in their host and emerged and colonized new hosts in late April. Males initiated galleries and were joined by up to seven females, each of which constructed an egg gallery radiating from a central chamber. Galleries had an average of 4.7 egg niches each with an egg that was large relative to the mother beetle. Two larval instars were recognized. Dentition of larval mandibles differed in shape from that in literature. Mature larvae pupated either in a cell excavated on the wood surface or in a cell below the wood surface. First-generation adults mined extensively in the inner bark and wood before emerging to infest new trees in late June. Their progeny became adults beginning in early August and likewise mined and fed on the inner bark and wood before overwintering. Predacious beetles present as larvae in the galleries included Enoclerus lecontei (Wolcott) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Lasconotus sp. (Coleoptera: Zopheridae). Parasitoid Hymenoptera reared from infested trees were Cosmophorus pityophthori Rohwer (Braconidae), Phasmidiasta n. sp. (Braconidae), Spathius sp. (Braconidae), Acerocephala n. sp. (Pteromalidae), Metacolus fasciatus Girault (Pteromalidae), Rhaphitelus maculatus Walker (Pteromalidae), Rhopalicus sp. (Pteromalidae), and an unidentified pteromalid.

  17. Wild Rodent Ectoparasites Collected from Northwestern Iran

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    Zabihollah Zarei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rodents play an important role as reservoir of some pathogens, and the host of some ectoparasites as well. These ectoparasites can transmit rodents’ pathogens to human or animals. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and infestation load of ectoparasites on rodents in Meshkin-Shahr District, northwestern Iran.Method: Rodents were captured using baited live traps in spring 2014 from Meshkin-Shahr District and were trans­ferred to the laboratory for identification to the species level. Their ectoparasites were collected, mounted and identi­fied.Results: Three rodent species including Meriones persicus (74%, Mus musculus (16.9% and Cricetulus migrato­rius (9% were identified. Among all rodents, 185 specimens (90.69% were infested with a total of 521 ectopara­sites. Overall, 10 arthropods species were collected, including fleas (97.6%, one mite (1.6% and one louse species (0.6% as follows: Xenopsylla nubica, X. astia, X. buxtoni, X. cheopis, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, N. iranus, Cten­ocephalides felis, Ctenophthalmus rettigismiti, Ornithonyssus sp and one species of genus Polyplax. The most prev­alent ectoparasites species was X. nubica (89%.Conclusion: Nearly all rodent species were infested with Xenopsylla species. Monitoring of ectoparasites on infested rodents is very important for awareness and early warning towards control of arthropod-borne diseases.

  18. The tribe Acutalini Fowler (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae: new genera, new species and some nomenclatural changes

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    Albino M Sakakibara

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Acutalini Fowler is redescribed as well as the genera Acutalis Fairmaire, Euritea Stål, and Thrasymedes Kirkaldy. The following new taxa and nomenclatural changes are presented: Thrasymedes mexicana sp.n. (from Mexico, Oaxaca; Bordonia gen.n., with B. venezuelana sp.n. (type-species (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, B. clypeata sp.n. (from Colombia, Cuesta Boba, B. majuscula sp.n. (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, and Cornutalis gen.n., with C. cauca sp.n. (type-species (from Colombia, Cauca, and C. validu sp.n. (from Ecuador, Sto. Domingo. Acutalis fusconervosa Fairmaire, 1846 = Horiola venosa Walker, 1858, syn.n.; Euritea munda (Walker, 1858 = Stictolobus nitidus Funkhouser, 1940, syn.n.; Bordonia nigricosta (Goding, 1926, comb.n.; Bordonia virescens (Funkhouser, 1940, comb.n.. One species is transferred to Smiliinae-Ceresini: Tapinolobus curvispina (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Thrasymedes = Tapinolobus fasciatus Sakakibara, 1969, syn.n.; another one is transferred to Darninae-Cymbomorphini: Eumela darnioides (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Euritea.

  19. ESTABILIDADE QUÍMICA E MICROBIOLÓGICA DE "MINCED FISH" DE PEIXES AMAZÔNICOS DURANTE O CONGELAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESUS Rogério Souza de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a estabilidade química e microbiológica de "minced fish" produzidos, em condições industriais, com espécies de peixes da Amazônia: aracú-comum (Schizodon fasciatus, branquinha-comum (Potamorhina latior, branquinha-de-cabeça-lisa (P. altamazonica, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraqui-de-escama-fina (Semaprochilodus taeniurus, jaraqui-de-escama-grossa (S. insignis, mapará (Hypophthalmus edentatus, pacú-comum (Metynnis hypsauchen, pacú-manteiga (Mylossoma duriventre e pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomum, durante 150 dias sob congelamento a -18±1°C e -36±1°C. Com base no pH, nitrogênio das bases voláteis totais (N-BVT, substâncias reagentes ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS e contagens de aeróbios mesófilos a 35°C e psicrotróficos a 7°C, e de coliformes totais e fecais (NMP, os "minced fish" obtidos a partir das espécies de peixes estudadas e de misturas de espécies (aracú+curimatã+pirapitinga; jaraqui+branquinha mantiveram-se em condições de consumo, durante o período experimental. Os resultados obtidos são altamente promissores sob o ponto de vista tecnológico.

  20. Cloning and expression analysis of innate immune genes from red sea bream to assess different susceptibility to megalocytivirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J W; Kim, Y C; Hong, S; Kim, M S; Jeong, J B; Jeong, H D

    2017-04-01

    As suggested by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), fishes belonging to the genus Oplegnathus are more sensitive to megalocytivirus infection than other fish species including red sea bream (Pagrus major). To assess the roles of the innate immune response to these different susceptibilities, we cloned the genes encoding inflammatory factors including IL-8 and COX-2, and the antiviral factor like Mx from red sea bream for the first time and performed phylogenetic and structural analysis. Analysed expression levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and COX-2 and the antiviral factor like Mx genes performed with in vivo challenge experiment showed no difference in inflammatory gene expression or respiratory burst activity between red sea bream and rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). However, the Mx gene expression levels in red sea bream were markedly higher than those in rock bream, suggesting the importance of type I interferon (IFN)-induced proteins, particularly Mx, during megalocytivirus infection, rather than inflammation-related genes. The in vitro challenge experiments using embryonic primary cultures derived from both fish species showed no difference in cytopathic effects (CPE), viral replication profiles, and inflammatory and Mx gene expression pattern between the two fish species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.