WorldWideScience

Sample records for igs electronic mail

  1. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  2. UNSOLICITED ELECTRONIC MAIL

    CERN Multimedia

    Judy RICHARDS

    1999-01-01

    Since November 1997 we have been actively trying to reduce the amount of unsolicited electronic mail, commonly known as SPAM mail that arrives in CERN mailboxes. Unfortunately this is not an easy job since the spammers are constantly finding new ways of breaking our defences! Today spammers are 'forging' addresses in the headers and envelopes of mail in such a way that it is difficult to distinguish between legitimate mail and spams. An additional problem, that does not directly affect most CERN users but does use CERN resources and affects the reputation of CERN, is caused by the spammers who try to make mail look as if it comes from a CERN machine.They either try to route the mail via a CERN machine or simply forge the mail headers to a CERN address so it will have less chance of being blocked by the recipient's anti-spam defences.Although some anti-spam measures can be automated, for many someone has to look at the system logs and spam reports from users and make a human judgement as to what should be bloc...

  3. Social Studies by Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Hugh

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that electronic mail provides opportunities to engage students actively in cross-cultural contact with students in other nations. Discusses advantages and problems with using electronic mail in the social studies classroom. Describes electronic mail projects that link students in New Zealand, England, and the United States. (CFR)

  4. Electronic Computer Originated Mail Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Takao

    Electronic mail originated by computer is exactly a new communication media which is a product of combining traditional mailing with electrical communication. Experimental service of this type of mailing started in June 10, 1985 at Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. Its location in various communication media, its comparison with facsimile type electronic mailing, and status quo of electronic mailing in foreign countries are described. Then, this mailing is briefed centering around the system organization and the services. Additional services to be executed in near future are also mentioned.

  5. Electronic Mail for Personal Computers: Development Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Christinger

    1994-01-01

    Examines competing, commercially developed electronic mail programs and how these technologies will affect the functionality and quality of electronic mail. How new standards for client-server mail systems are likely to enhance messaging capabilities and the use of electronic mail for information retrieval are considered. (Contains eight…

  6. Simulating Policy Processes through Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the use of electronic mail for teaching and learning about social welfare policy processes and compares electronic mail as a simulation medium to more structured computer applications. (Author)

  7. 34 CFR 300.505 - Electronic mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electronic mail. 300.505 Section 300.505 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.505 Electronic mail. A....508 by an electronic mail communication, if the public agency makes that option available. (Authority...

  8. Electronic Mail and the Writing Instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawisher, Gail E.; Moran, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of electronic mail among academicians. Offers a rhetoric and a pedagogy that include electronic mail in their fields of vision. Argues that writing instructors should continue to do research into the issues inherent in electronic mail. (HB)

  9. Using Electronic Mail to Conduct Survey Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Liz

    1995-01-01

    Describes public and private online networks and the characteristics of electronic mail. Reviews the literature on survey research conducted via electronic mail, and examines the issues of design, implementation, and response. A table displays advantages and disadvantages of electronic mail surveys. (AEF)

  10. Electronic Mail in the Library: A Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Becki

    1989-01-01

    Provides an overview of electronic mail in libraries. Topics discussed include general business applications; interlibrary loan; acquisition and claims systems; document delivery; complete text journal databases; reference requests and answers; obstacles to electronic mail usage; telecommunications; cost factors; and the impact of voice mail and…

  11. AstroMail: Electronic mail for the astrophysics community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Phillip H.; Bogart, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Science Internet User Support Services program, NASA Goddard was interested in R&D which could extend the SolarMail system developed by members of the Wilcox Space Observatory at Stanford University to support a larger astrophysics user community. Specific objectives of the R&D effort were to include: a clone of the existing SolarMail system with additional documentation, enabling a parallel mail system to be established by populating the database; a cloned version of SolarMail functioning with a user database similar to that of the High Energy Astrophysics Division (HEAD) of the American Astronomical Society; a report on the status and surveyed usage of SolarMail and its clones into an extendable distributed mail system to serve as the basis for AstroMail, including a draft declaration of policy; a prototype AstroMail system based on the above specifications and including at least SolarMail and one of its clones supporting a set of astronomy user databases as subsets; and a report on the status of the prototype AstroMail with recommendations for future modifications to AstroMail.

  12. Efficient communication in the electronic mail game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.

    The literature on the electronic mail game shows that players’ mutual expectations may lock them into requiring an inefficiently large number of confirmations and confirmations of confirmations from one another. This paper shows that this result hinges on the assumption that, with the exception of

  13. Electronic Mail in Academic Settings: A Multipurpose Communications Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Patricia Veasey

    1992-01-01

    Explores possible uses of electronic mail in three areas of the academic setting: instruction, research, and administration. Electronic mail is defined, the components needed to get started with electronic mail are discussed, and uses and benefits of electronic mail in diverse educational environments are suggested. (12 references) (DB)

  14. The Use of Electronic Mail in Biomedical Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Richard; Shaw, Anthony; Cheetham, Roz; Moots, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether there are statistically significant differences in the content of electronic mail (e-mail) and conventional mail sent to authors of papers published in medical journals.

  15. The use of electronic mail in biomedical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, R; Shaw, A; Cheetham, R; Moots, R J

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether there are statistically significant differences in the content of electronic mail (e-mail) and conventional mail sent to authors of papers published in medical journals. Prospective study by postal questionnaire. Over two one-month periods, corresponding authors of papers published in medical journals were asked to record details of the correspondence prompted by their publications. Conventional and e-mail correspondence received. Reprint requests. Content of correspondence. Quality of correspondence. Eighty-two of 96 authors replied. Fifty received e-mail (mean, 5.7+/-8.8 e-mails per author) and 72 received conventional mail (15.5+/-32.8 letters per author) (p mails and only 53% of correspondence sent by conventional mail (p electronic mail. However, the content of e-mail may be of greater scientific relevance. Electronic mail can be encouraged without fear of diminishing the quality of the communications received.

  16. Factors That Impact Nurses’ Utilization of Electronic Mail (E-Mail).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-21

    of a system but did little to influence behavior. A study by Golden, Beauclair , & Sussman (1992) surveyed 200 electronic mail account holders at an...Aldine Publishing. Golden, P. A., Beauclair , R., & Sussman, L. (1992). Factors affecting electronic mail use. Computers in Human Behavior, 8, 297-311

  17. Problem Resolution through Electronic Mail: A Five-Step Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandgenett, Neal; Grandgenett, Don

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of electronic mail within the general resolution and management of administrative problems and emphasizes the need for careful attention to problem definition and clarity of language. Presents a research-based five-step model for the effective use of electronic mail based on experiences at the University of Nebraska at Omaha.…

  18. Gender Differences in Perceived Gratifications Obtained through Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.; Harper, Erika J.

    2010-01-01

    Electronic mail provides users with unique positive psychological consequences that differentiate it from other media. These consequences or gratifications have been mentioned separately across the electronic mail literature, yet there is no specific measure for these gratifications. The study found that females (M = 7.7; SD = 1.8) achieve higher…

  19. Differences between Males and Females Concerning Perceived Electronic Mail Appropriateness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic mail is one of the most successfully diffused modern communication technologies. Yet, few researchers have investigated whether gender differences exist in perceptions of the types of appropriateness embedded within electronic mail messages. A framework originally created by Wiemann and Backlund (1980) served as the basis for the…

  20. Factors that impact nurses' use of electronic mail (e-mail).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J A; Pakieser, R A

    1999-01-01

    As electronic applications are used increasingly in healthcare, nurses are being challenged to adopt them. Electronic mail (e-mail) is an electronic tool with general as well as healthcare uses. E-mail use may be an opportunity to learn a tool that requires skills similar to those used in other applications. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators that impact nurses' use of e-mail in the workplace. Data for this study were gathered using focus group methodology. Content analysis identified and labeled factors into seven major categories. Specific factors identified were generally consistent with those previously described in the literature as affecting use of computers in general. However, there were several additional factors identified that were not reported in other previous studies: lack of face-to-face communication, individual writing skills, recency of any educational experience, volume of mail received, password integrity, and technical support. Findings from this study provide information for any individual involved in introducing or updating an e-mail system in a healthcare environment.

  1. Electronic mail : attitudes, self-efficacy, and effective communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kandies, Jerry T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the functional use of e-mail in a university setting and the relationship of attitudes toward and self-efficacy with email technology, and (b) to evaluate writing effectiveness in an electronic medium. The study also sought to determine if certain personal characteristics could serve as predictor variables for explaining e-mail use, attitudes toward email, and self-efficacy with e-mail technology. The population of inter...

  2. Program For Local-Area-Network Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    MailRoom is computer program for local-area network (LAN) electronic mail. Enables users of LAN to exchange electronically notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computers. Links all users of LAN into communication circle in which messages created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through series of menu-driven screens. Includes feature that enables users to determine whether messages sent have been read by receivers. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

  3. Using Computer Conferencing and Electronic Mail to Facilitate Group Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Margaret D.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the use of electronic mail and an electronic conferencing system to conduct group projects in three educational psychology courses at the State University of New York College at Cortland. Course design is explained and group project design is described, including assignments and oral presentations during regular class sessions.…

  4. The development of efficient coding for an electronic mail system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for efficiently representing scanned electronic documents were investigated. Major results include the definition and preliminary performance results of a Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), offering a potential order of magnitude improvement over standard facsimile techniques for representing textual material.

  5. Beneficial long communication in the multiplayer electronic mail game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the two-player electronic mail game (EMG), as is well-known, the probability of collective action is lower the more confirmations and reconfirmations are made available to players. In the multiplayer EMG, however, we show players may coordinate on equilibria where they require only few of the

  6. A proposed evolution for the Italian certified electronic mail system

    OpenAIRE

    Buzzi, Marina; Ferrucci, Luca; Francesco, Gennai; Petrucci, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    One the main objective of the European Commission is to innovate and bring ICT to its full potential in any sector, including eGovernment, eCommerce, and eHealth services. Certified Electronic Mail (CEM) systems of Member States are currently not interoperable, thus impacting on economic growth and competitiveness. The paper investigates the use of the DNSSec technology as a technological evolution of the Italian CEM System and the first step towards interoperability and adherence to internat...

  7. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Debbie; Warren, Jim; Price, Kay; Koch, Tina; Pignone, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; 'Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public-private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical

  8. Electronic Mail, Privacy, and the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986: Technology in Search of Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoriski, Jan H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the status of e-mail privacy under the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (ECPA). Examines current law and the paucity of definitive case law. A review of cases and literature suggests there is a gap in the existing ECPA that allows for potentially abusive electronic monitoring and interception of e-mail,…

  9. The Effect of Reticence on College Students' Use of Electronic Mail To Communicate with Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lynne; Duran, Robert L.; Zolten, J. Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of reticence on college students' use of electronic mail to communication with faculty. Notes the difference in the frequency of using electronic mail by reticent and non-reticent students. Considers how reticent students prefer to use electronic mail over speaking to faculty at their offices. (SG)

  10. Combating the corporate paper war: Electronic mail abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Botha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the research was to investigate the mailing practices and filing methods in a computer support or administrative environment involving the resulting abuse of paper. In applied research, an exploratory investigation focused on selected higher education institutions in Gauteng with a structured questionnaire as measuring instrument. In the analysis and interpretations of the findings, correlation and cross-tabulation on all sets of variables determined whether any meaningful associations could be found. The investigation indicated that the war against paper abuse is not over by any means. Perceptions regarding a paperless office and assumptions that technology could assist organisations to combat paper abuse were unfounded, mainly because of a lack of guidance, training interventions and control measures. Consequently, follow-up research is presently conducted whereby models will be designed and implemented concomitant with specified computer software features in order to counteract the abuse of paper and facilitate the effective use of information and communication technology interfaced work processes and procedures. This article focuses only on the electronic mail and filing components of the investigation.

  11. 32 CFR 806b.29 - Sending personal information over electronic mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information over electronic mail. (a) Exercise caution before transmitting personal information over e-mail to... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sending personal information over electronic mail. 806b.29 Section 806b.29 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...

  12. MAILROOM- A LOCAL AREA NETWORK ELECTRONIC MAIL PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mailroom program is a Local Area Network (LAN) electronic mail program. It allows LAN users to electronically exchange notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computer. The Mailroom program links all LAN users into a communication circle where messages can be created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through a series of menu-driven screens. Mailroom includes a feature which allows users to determine if a message they have sent has been read by the receiver. Each user must be separately installed and removed from Mailroom as they join or leave the network. Mailroom comes with a program that accomplishes this with minimum of effort on the part of the Network Administrator/Manager. There is also a program that allows the Network Administrator/Manager to install Mailroom on each user's workstation so that on execution of Mailroom the user's station may be identified and the configurations settings activated. It will create its own configuration and data/supporting files during the setup and installation process. The Mailroom program is written in Microsoft QuickBasic. It was developed to run on networked IBM XT/ATs or compatibles and requires that all participating workstations share a common drive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 71K. Mailroom was developed in 1988.

  13. Interoperability through standardization: Electronic mail, and X Window systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ashok T.

    1993-01-01

    Since the introduction of computing machines, there has been continual advances in computer and communication technologies and approaching limits. The user interface has evolved from a row of switches, character based interface using teletype terminals and then video terminals, to present day graphical user interface. It is expected that next significant advances will come in the availability of services, such as electronic mail and directory services, as the standards for applications are developed and in the 'easy to use' interfaces, such as Graphical User Interface for example Window and X Window, which are being standardized. Various proprietary electronic mail (email) systems are in use within organizations at each center of NASA. Each system provides email services to users within an organization, however the support for email services across organizations and across centers exists at centers to a varying degree and is often easy to use. A recent NASA email initiative is intended 'to provide a simple way to send email across organizational boundaries without disruption of installed base.' The initiative calls for integration of existing organizational email systems through gateways connected by a message switch, supporting X.400 and SMTP protocols, to create a NASA wide email system and for implementation of NASA wide email directory services based on OSI standard X.500. A brief overview of MSFC efforts as a part of this initiative are described. Window based graphical user interfaces make computers easy to use. X window protocol has been developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1984/1985 to provide uniform window based interface in a distributed computing environment with heterogenous computers. It has since become a standard supported by a number of major manufacturers. Z Windows systems, terminals and workstations, and X Window applications are becoming available. However impact of its use in the Local Area Network environment on the network

  14. 36 CFR 1236.22 - What are the additional requirements for managing electronic mail records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT ELECTRONIC RECORDS MANAGEMENT Additional... other related records. (3) If the electronic mail system identifies users by codes or nicknames or... accordance with the provisions of GRS 23, Item 5. (5) Draft documents that are circulated on electronic mail...

  15. A Comparison of Response Rate, Response Time, and Costs of Mail and Electronic Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, David M.; Bradshaw, Carol C.

    2002-01-01

    Compared response rates, response time, and costs of mail and electronic surveys using a sample of 377 college faculty members. Mail surveys yielded a higher response rate and a lower rate of undeliverable surveys, but response time was longer and costs were higher than for electronic surveys. (SLD)

  16. Electronic mail was not better than postal mail for surveying residents and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Maroun, Nancy; Klocke, Robert A; Montori, Victor; Schünemann, Holger J

    2005-04-01

    To compare response rate, time to response, and data quality of electronic and postal surveys in the setting of postgraduate medical education. A randomized controlled trial in a university-based internal medicine residency program. We randomized 119 residents and 83 faculty to an electronic versus a postal survey with up to two reminders and measured response rate, time to response, and data quality. For residents, the e-survey resulted in a lower response rate than the postal survey (63.3% versus 79.7%; difference -16.3%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -32.3% to -0.4%%; P=.049), but a shorter mean response time, by 3.8 days (95% CI 0.2-7.4; P=.042). For faculty, the e-survey did not result in a significantly lower response rate than the postal survey (85.4% vs. 81.0%; difference 4.4%, 95% CI -11.7 to 20.5%; P=.591), but resulted in a shorter average response time, by 8.4 days (95% CI 4.4 to 12.4; P < 0.001). There were no differences in the quality of data or responses to the survey between the two methods. E-surveys were not superior to postal surveys in terms of response rate, but resulted in shorter time to response and equivalent data quality.

  17. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  18. The Development and Implementation of a Global Network for Eurasia Educational Service Using Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algee, Alan

    The purpose of this study was to choose an appropriate network provider for educational consultants and to develop and implement the network at Eurasia Educational Services (EES) using electronic mail (e-mail). The following eight steps were undertaken: literature review, scanning and selecting of provider criteria, decision-making, participant…

  19. 75 FR 32143 - Submission of Electronic Documentation With Comailed and Copalletized Mailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    .... In accordance with DMM 705.22.0, Full-Service Automation Option, electronic documentation is... mailing job is updated by the consolidator through the original container data. The origin facility will... applicable provisions of that preparation option must also be met. Any combination of automation mailings and...

  20. Impact of Performance Feedback Delivered via Electronic Mail on Preschool Teachers' Use of Descriptive Praise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Snyder, Patricia; Kinder, Kiersten; Artman, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a professional development intervention that included data-based performance feedback delivered via electronic mail (e-mail) on preschool teachers' use of descriptive praise and whether increased use of descriptive praise was associated with changes in classroom-wide measures of child engagement and challenging behavior.…

  1. Send and Receive fax documents using electronic mail

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Any CERN Staff Member can now send and receive faxes directly through email using the new fax service. To do so, you need to register and obtain your “personal” fax number using the page http://cern.ch/fax. Once you have your fax number, you can fax someone by sending an email message to the address of the form name@number.mail2fax.cern.ch, for example: Joe.Bloggs@000441719999999.mail2fax.cern.ch In the example, “000441719999999” is the fax number to call, as seen from inside CERN, in this case, in London. “Joe.Bloggs” is the name of your correspondent and it will appear on the cover page along with your name, email address, your “personal” fax number, and the subject of the email. Documentation and additional examples of fax addresses are on http://cern.ch/fax The eventual text of your email will be transmitted in the fax, followed by the optional attachments, as extra pages. Attachments can be in Acrobat (.pdf), Text (.txt), Word (.doc) , Excel (.xls) or Powerpoint (.ppt) formats. Once the ...

  2. Send and Receive fax documents using electronic mail

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Any CERN Staff Member can now send and receive faxes directly through email using the new fax service. To do so, you need to register and obtain your “personal” fax number using the page http://cern.ch/fax. Once you have your fax number, you can fax someone by sending an email message to the address of the form name@number.mail2fax.cern.ch, for example: Joe.Bloggs@000441719999999.mail2fax.cern.ch In the example, “000441719999999” is the fax number to call, as seen from inside CERN, in this case, in London. “Joe.Bloggs” is the name of your correspondent and it will appear on the cover page along with your name, email address, your “personal” fax number, and the subject of the email. Documentation and additional examples of fax addresses are on http://cern.ch/fax The eventual text of your email will be transmitted in the fax, followed by the optional attachments, as extra pages. Attachments can be in Acrobat (.pdf), Text (.txt), Word (.doc) , Excel (.xls) or Powerpoint (.ppt) formats. Once ...

  3. Intelligent workflow driven processing for electronic mail management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Email has become one of the most efficient means of electronics communication for many years and email management has become a critical issue due to congestion. Different client/individuals encounter problems while processing their emails due to large volume of email being received and lot of request to be replied.

  4. Three is a crowd – inefficient communication in the multi-player electronic mail game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.; Rosenkranz, S.

    In a two-player stag hunt with asymmetric information, players may lock each other into requiring a large number of confirmations and confirmations of confirmations from one another before eventually acting. This intuition has been formalized in the electronic mail game (EMG). The literature

  5. Beneficial Long Communication in the Multi-Player Electronic Mail Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the two-player electronic mail game (EMG), as is well-known, the probability of collective action is lower the more confirmations and re-confirmations are made available to players. In the multi-player EMG, however, as we show players may coordinate on equilibria where they require only few of

  6. 46 CFR 67.218 - Optional filing of instruments in portable document format as attachments to electronic mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... format as attachments to electronic mail. 67.218 Section 67.218 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... format as attachments to electronic mail. (a) Any instrument identified as eligible for filing and recording under § 67.200 may be submitted in portable document format (.pdf) as an attachment to electronic...

  7. 16 CFR 316.4 - Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.4 Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. (a) Any...

  8. A Cost-Effective Approach for Migrating Enterprise Electronic Mail Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Omojokun

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail (E-mail is one of the most utilized application software systems in modern-day organizations. The major messaging application programs used in the enterprise are IBM Lotus Notes also known as Domino, Microsoft Exchange Servers, and Novel GroupWise. For various reasons – such as high cost of maintenance, undeliverable e-mail issue and loss of attachments, companies find it necessary to either migrate to newer versions of their messaging software or to an entirely different software. In either case, the process must be carefully planned, well designed and properly implemented to avoid disaster. In this paper, we present a cost-effective approach for migrating a particular messaging software. The approach was implemented and tested for the migration of GroupWise 5.5 to Exchange Server 2003. We present our success story and lessons learned from the case. A six-week and one-year post migration system-audits indicated that the organization derived several benefits including significant cost savings as a result of this particular approach. Chief information/technology officers and e-mail administrators will benefit immensely from the "best practice" strategy hereby presented.

  9. MAIL OFFICE Outgoing mail

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The Mail Office once again wishes to remind users that the Organisation's mail service is exclusively reserved for official mail._\tAll outgoing official mail must arrive at the Mail Office unfranked and with the sender's name and Division clearly marked under the Organsation's address (see example below).Private mail must be taken to the Post Offices at Meyrin (63-R-011) or Prévessin (866-R-C02)._\tPlease only use 'PRIORITY' envelopes for mail requiring priority handling. Internal mail_\tPlease do not forget to indicate your correspondent's 'MAILBOX' number on the internal mail envelopes either in the specific box provided (new envelopes) or next to his or her name (old envelopes). This will facilitate and accelerate the handling of your mail. Mailbox numbers can be found on: Macintosh\tin the 'Mailbox' field in 'VIPER'PC\tin the 'Mailbox' field of 'Phone book'Web: http://www.cern.ch/CERN/Phone.htmlin the 'MailBox' fieldonce you have selected your correspondent's name...

  10. An Electronic Mail List for a Network of Family Practice Residency Programs: A Good Idea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Summers Holtrop

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of an electronic mailing list as a means of communication among faculty in a network of university-affiliated family practice residency programs was evaluated. Faculty were automatically subscribed to the list by the list owner. Messages were tracked for one year and a written evaluation survey was sent. Ninety two messages were sent, with 52% of the messages being posted information. While most (65% survey respondents reported reading 61% or more of the messages, with only 33% ever actually posted at least one message to the list. Given that faculty were automatically subscribed and that there were only 84 total members, the list may have failed to reach a critical mass of active participants. It is concluded that an email list for network faculty did not function as an online discussion group, although it was extremely beneficial as a way of posting information to affiliated residency faculty.

  11. Is it too early to move to full electronic PROM data collection?: A randomized controlled trial comparing PROM's after hallux valgus captured by e-mail, traditional mail and telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, Leonieke N; Schrier, Joost C M; Scholten, Ruben; Jansen, Justus H W; Koëter, Sander

    2016-03-01

    Patient reported outcome measures (PROM's) after hallux valgus surgery are used to rate the effectiveness as perceived by the patient. The interpretability of these PROM's is highly dependent on participation rate. Data capture method may be an important factor contributing to the response rate. We investigated the effect on response rate of traditional paper mail, telephone and e-mail PROM's after hallux valgus surgery. All consecutive patients operated between January and September 2013, were identified. Included patients were randomized by envelope in three groups: traditional pen and paper mail, e-mail and telephone. They were asked to fill in a FFI and EQ-5D. Two weeks later non-responders were sent a reminder. Of the 73 included patients, 25 were approached by mail, 24 by e-mail and 24 patients by telephone. The response rate on traditional mail was highest (88%), while response on e-mail was lowest (33%). Response rate on telephone was also high (79%). Response rate on traditional mail and telephone was significantly higher (pmail. Though electronic data collection has enormous potential, this study shows that e-mail yields unacceptable low response rates. It is too early to replace traditional pen-and-paper PROM's by electronic questionnaires. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An additional DNS feature for different routing of electronic mail inside and outside of a campus network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobyshev, A.; Ernst, M.

    2001-01-01

    Several years ago DESY faced the need to change the Electronic Mail Service to support it on a central cluster of servers. The centralized architecture was necessary for deployment of unified internal E-Mail standards, better quality of service and security. To implement a new policy for Electronic Mail Service and avoid huge modifications to a few hundreds network nodes, an additional DNS feature has been added to ISC's (Internet Software Consortium) software bind-4.9.7. The DNS servers running at DESY are capable of distinguishing between DNS queries coming from inside and outside of the campus network and reply with different list of MX (Mail Exchanger) records. The external hosts always get a list of MX records pointing to the central mail servers while the internal hosts may use different paths for mail exchange within the campus network. A modified version of DNS software has been used at DESY since 1997. It is fully compliant with the original goal of the project and shows good operational performance and reliability

  13. "Need to Know" Versus "Spread the Word": Collective Action in the Multi-Player Electronic Mail Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.

    2008-01-01

    As shown by Rubinstein (1989, AER), in the two-player electronic mail game, players are better off if the extent to which they can check each other’s information, check each other’s information about each other’s information, etc., is limited. This paper investigates to what extent this result

  14. Big Comsats for big jobs at low user cost. [considering wrist telephony, electronic mail transmission and educational television applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, I.

    1979-01-01

    Three examples are used to illustrate what is possible with large space systems: (1) personal communications using wrist telephones, (2) electronic transmission of mail, and (3) wide dissemination of educational TV. Design concepts and costs are explored and compared to alternative ground-based concepts.

  15. Private mail

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Unit

    2008-01-01

    The internal mail service deals exclusively with the Organization’s official mail. Non-official mail with no stamp on the envelope will not be sent. Please write systematically your name and Department beneath CERN’s address so that the Mail Office can notify you in case of doubt. Anyone who has recently mailed goods is requested to call 75353 in order to make arrangements to recover them. Mail Office

  16. 75 FR 54287 - Submission of Electronic Documentation With Comailed and Copalletized Mailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... all of the requirements for the full-service automation option specified in DMM 705.22.0. This final... used to transport these pieces to the consolidator, as long as these pieces are in full compliance with... provisions of that preparation option must also be met. Any combination of automation mailings and...

  17. Mail Office

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, no mail will be distributed on Wednesday, 21 December 2011 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, it will be possible for you to bring your outgoing mail to building 555-R-002 until 12:00 noon.

  18. Mail office

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    In connection with CERN's annual closure, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 21 December 2012 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, it will be possible for you to bring us your mail for it to be delivered until 12:00 noon at building 555-R-002.

  19. Resident use of the Internet, e-mail, and personal electronics in the care of surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Mathew A; Fish, Joel S

    2015-01-01

    The use of smartphones, e-mail, and the Internet has affected virtually all areas of patient care. Current university and hospital policies concerning the use of devices may be incongruent with day-to-day patient care. The goal was to assess the current usage patterns of the Internet, e-mail, and personal electronics for clinical purposes by surgical residents as well as their communication habits and preferences. Also assessed was residents' knowledge regarding the institutional policies surrounding these issues. Surgical residents (n = 294) at a large teaching institution were surveyed regarding their knowledge of university policies as well as daily use of various communication technologies. Communication preferences were determined using theoretical clinical scenarios. Our survey with a response rate of 54.7% (n = 161) revealed that 93.8% of participants indicated daily Internet use for clinical duties. Most respondents (72%) were either completely unaware of the existence of guidelines for its use or aware but had no familiarity with their content. Use of e-mail for clinical duties was common (85%), and 74% of the respondents rated e-mail as "very important" or "extremely important" for patient care. Everyone who responded had a mobile phone with 98.7% being "smartphones," which the majority (82.9%) stated was "very important" or "extremely important" for patient care. Text messaging was the primary communication method for 57.8% of respondents. The traditional paging system was the primary communication method for only 1.3% of respondents and the preferred method for none. Daily use of technology is the norm among residents; however, knowledge of university guidelines was exceedingly low. Residents need better education regarding current guidelines. Current guidelines do not reflect current clinical practice. Hospitals should consider abandoning the traditional paging system and consider facilitating better use of residents' mobile phones.

  20. Mail Office

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    The Mail Office wishes to remind users that the CERN mail service is exclusively reserved for official CERN mail. All external official mail must be sent to the Mail Office in an unstamped envelope on which your name and Department must be clearly indicated below the official CERN address (see example) to help us to find you in the event that it cannot be delivered. If you wish to send private mail from the CERN site you must use the post offices at Meyrin (63-R-011) or Prévessin (866-R-C02). Please use "PRIORITY" envelopes only in the case of urgent mail. Any mail containing merchandise (i.e. anything other than documents) must be sent using an EDH shipping request form. INTERNAL MAIL Please remember to include the recipient’s MAILBOX number on the internal mail envelopes, either in the relevant box (new envelopes) or next to the name (old envelopes). This information, which can be found in the CERN PHONEBOOK, simplifies our t...

  1. Electronic mail communication between physicians and patients: a review of challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoun, Jumana

    2016-04-01

    Although promising benefits hold for email communication between physicians and patients in terms of lowering the costs of health care while maintaining or improving the quality of disease management and health promotion, physician use of email with patients is still low and lags behind the willingness of patients to communicate with their physicians through email. There is also a discrepancy between physicians' willingness and actual practice of email communication. Several factors may explain these discrepancies. They include physicians differ in their experience and attitude towards information technology; some may not be convinced that patients appreciate, need and can communicate by email with their doctors; others are still waiting for robust evidence on service performance and efficiency in addition to patient satisfaction and outcome that support such practice; and many are reluctant to do so because of perceived barriers. This report is a review of the literature on the readiness for and adoption of physician-patient email communication, and how can challenges be or have been addressed. The need for Governmental support and directives for email communication to move forward is iterated, and opportunities for future research are pointed out. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Electronic health record-based patient identification and individualized mailed outreach for primary cardiovascular disease prevention: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persell, Stephen D; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Friesema, Elisha M; Cooper, Andrew J; Baker, David W

    2013-04-01

    Many individuals at higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) do not receive recommended treatments. Prior interventions using personalized risk information to promote prevention did not test clinic-wide effectiveness. To perform a 9-month cluster-randomized trial, comparing a strategy of electronic health record-based identification of patients with increased CVD risk and individualized mailed outreach to usual care. Patients of participating physicians with a Framingham Risk Score of at least 5 %, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level above guideline threshold for drug treatment, and not prescribed a lipid-lowering medication were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Patients of physicians randomized to the intervention group were mailed individualized CVD risk messages that described benefits of using a statin (and controlling hypertension or quitting smoking when relevant). The primary outcome was occurrence of a LDL-cholesterol level, repeated in routine practice, that was at least 30 mg/dl lower than prior. A secondary outcome was lipid-lowering drug prescribing. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01286311. Fourteen physicians with 218 patients were randomized to intervention, and 15 physicians with 217 patients to control. The mean patient age was 60.7 years and 77% were male. There was no difference in the primary outcome (11.0 % vs. 11.1 %, OR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.56-1.74, P = 0.96), but intervention group patients were twice as likely to receive a prescription for lipid-lowering medication (11.9 %, vs. 6.0 %, OR 2.13, 95 % CI 1.05-4.32, p = 0.038). In post hoc analysis with extended follow-up to 18 months, the primary outcome occurred more often in the intervention group (22.5 % vs. 16.1 %, OR 1.59, 95 % CI 1.05-2.41, P = 0.029). In this effectiveness trial, individualized mailed CVD risk messages increased the frequency of new lipid-lowering drug prescriptions, but we observed no difference in proportions lowering LDL

  3. E-mail: Outlook Express

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Bakri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu layanan Internet yang sangat penting adalah electronic mail atau sering hanya disebut sebagai e-mail. Untuk menggunakan e-mail, diperlukan piranti lunak khusus supaya pengguna dapat mengirim dan menerima e-mail. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail diantaranya adalah Outlook Express yang merupakan satu paket yang didistribusikan bersama Internet Explorer versi 4. Piranti lunak ini dijalankan pada PC yang mempunyai sistem operasi Windows 95 atau 98. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail yang lain adalah Eudora, Pegasus dan sebagainya. Bahkan ada yang diintegrasikan dengan Web Browser (alat untuk menelusuri situs Web misalnya IE,dan Netscape.Sebagai layaknya pelayanan pos, maka setiap pengguna e-mail mempunyai alamat tertentu yang tidak mungkin dipunyai oleh pengguna lainnya diseluruh dunia. Untuk keperluan pendistribusian, maka e-mail mempunyai semacam kantor pos yang ditempatkan dalam sebuah komputer server (mail server atau sering disebut sebagai host. 

  4. Mail distribution

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, the mail distribution and collection times will be modified for the following buildings: 6, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 69, 40, 70, 101, 102, 109, 118, 152, 153, 154, 155, 166, 167, 169, 171, 174, 261, 354, 358, 576, 579 and 580. Complementary Information on the new times will be posted on the entry doors and left in the mail boxes of each building. TS/FM Group

  5. Mail Service

    CERN Multimedia

    TS-FM Group

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 19 October 2004 Please note that the distribution and collection of mail are likely to be disrupted on Tuesday, October 19, 2004, because of traffic and other restrictions enforced on that day in connection with CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The service may be completely interrupted in certain areas. Group TS-FM, Tel. 77551

  6. Smooth Mailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    In fundraising today, a wealth of communications tools makes it increasingly easier to contact prospective donors--but is it getting harder to really connect with them? Do the new tools work as well as the old ones? In the second decade of online marketing, all the tools of the trade are subject to scrutiny. Direct mail has been a mainstay of the…

  7. Non-official mail

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Mail Office wishes to remind users of the mail service that the latter is reserved exclusively for the Organization's official mail. Private mail, even if stamped, does not fall into this category, and any mail of this nature found in the 'Outgoing Mail' or 'Départ Courrier' boxes will no longer be collected or accepted by the Meyrin or Prévessin Mail Offices. The Mail Office declines all responsibility in the event of losses, delays or any other problems arising as a result of private mail being placed in these boxes. Thank you for your understanding. The Mail Office

  8. Idiolekto požymiai elektroninių laiškų leksikoje. Manifestations of idiolect in the lexis of electronic mail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintarė Žalkauskaitė

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to establish features of idiolect in electronic mail and describe word forms that account for differences among individual writers of electronic letters. The data has been derived from a corpus of 65,000 words consisting of electronic letters written in Lithuanian by six subjects over 2008-2010 years. The WordSmith Tools software was used to generate frequency lists of six subcorpora, representing each subject. The analysis of the frequency data revealed certain peculiarities of the subcorpora. For example, the shortened form da (30 occurrences of the adverb dar (‘still, yet, even more’ has been established in only one subcorpus. A list of 139 word forms significantly overused in a particular subcorpus was compiled. It was established, that words attributed to idiolect belong to different word classes, which proves that the features of idiolect can not be limited to one word class. The analysis of these words shows that the main part of them express modality and stance, e. g. some authors more often use modal verb galėti (‘can’, others – reikėti (‘need, have to’, others are chosen from possible synonyms and variants (e. g. shortened vs. full word forms, also there are groups of nonstandard word forms, used by some authors, and time reference words (e. g. one of the authors uses more concrete time references than others and etc. Thus the study has established some lexical evidence of idiolect features in the electronic mail. The results of the study might be applied in forensic linguistics authorship attribution.

  9. E-mail marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jurnečková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with e-mail marketing. It focuses on identifying factors that affect the behavior of users of e-mail and newsletter subscribers. It evaluates the role of e-mail marketing as a part of communication mix of companies and e-shops, current trends, e-mail campaigns, e-mail marketing software provider. To study the behavior of users of e-mail and newsletter subscribers a questionnaire survey was conducted on a sample of 610 respondents and in-depth interviews (n = 30). Content anal...

  10. Building mail server on distributed computing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akihiro Shibata; Osamu Hamada; Tomoko Oshikubo; Takashi Sasaki

    2001-01-01

    The electronic mail has become the indispensable function in daily job, and the server stability and performance are required. Using DCE and DFS we have built the distributed electronic mail sever, that is, servers such as SMTP, IMAP are distributed symmetrically, and provides the seamless access

  11. Federal Mail Expenditures

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Agencies annually report mail data using the Simplified Mail Accountability Reporting Tool (SMART), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by GSA and the Department...

  12. Did You Get My E-Mail? Moving E-Mails beyond the Inbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge today is how to make e-mail and other forms of electronic communication effective in motivating volunteer action. Is it possible to make e-mails feel personal and welcoming? E-mail, instant messaging, texting, and social media are tools that allow individuals to communicate quickly and inexpensively, but they are lifeless without the…

  13. Mail Delivery | 19 December

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2014-01-01

    Due to the annual closure of CERN, no mail will be distributed on Friday, 19 December but mail will still be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, it will be possible for you to bring outgoing mail to building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.

  14. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  15. E-mail marketing

    OpenAIRE

    TŮMOVÁ, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to specify the e-mail marketing and in the practical application to evaluate the pros and cons of e-mail marketing as a tool of targeted marketing communication.Based on personal interviews with representatives of the company was described their existing e-mail marketing.Through the survey it was found, how customers perceive the company's e-mail marketing.Based on the survey, changes were proposed at the end of the thesis.

  16. Genesis of B lymphocytes in the bone marrow: extravascular and intravascular localization of surface IgM-bearing cells in mouse bone marrow detected by electron-microscope radioautography after in vivo perfusion of 125I anti-IgM antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, D.G.; Batten, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The role of mammalian bone marrow in generating surface IgM (sIgM)-bearing B lymphocytes is reviewed. Precursor cells in the marrow give rise to large, rapidly dividing cells bearing free cytoplasmic mu chains (c mu). The progeny of the large c mu+ cells form a population of small, nondividing c mu+ cells that mature into small lymphocytes, progressively expressing sIgM and other B-cell surface membrane components. Newly formed sIgM+ cells soon migrate through the bloodstream to the spleen and other lymphoid tissues, where they may die after a short lifespan or be activated to produce antibody molecules. The large-scale lymphocytopoiesis in the bone marrow thus maintains a population of rapidly renewed virgin B lymphocytes in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. A technique for perfusing radiolabeled anti-IgM antibodies in young mice has now permitted sIgM+ cells to be detected radioautographically in histological preparations of bone marrow under the electron microscope. Small sIgM+ lymphocytes are situated either singly or in small groups throughout the extravascular hemopoietic compartment of the bone marrow, often near sinusoid walls adjacent to late erythroblasts and reticular cells. Some regional concentrations of sIgM+ cells are apparent. sIgM+ cells also appear in transit through the sinusoidal endothelium and are markedly concentrated in the lumen of some sinusoids. Intrasinusoidal sIgM+ small lymphocytes have high densities of sIgM and long microvilli, on which sIgM molecules are concentrated. These studies reveal the localization and cell associations of specifically identified sIgM+ small lymphocytes in the extravascular marrow compartment and suggest that these cells may also undergo a transient intravascular storage and maturation phase. Use of this in vivo immunolabeling technique to detect other cell-surface markers may further elucidate the microenvironmental basis of B lymphocyte genesis in the bone marrow

  17. E-mail security: mail clients must use encrypted protocols

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    In the coming weeks, users of mail clients other than Outlook (e.g. Pine, Mozilla, Mac Mail, etc.) may receive an e-mail from Mail-service@cern.ch with instructions to update the security settings of their mail client. The aim of this campaign is to enforce the use of encrypted and authenticated mail protocols in order to prevent the propagation of viruses and protect passwords from theft. As a first step, from 6 June 2006 onwards, access to mail servers from outside CERN will require a securely configured mail client as described in the help page http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=191040. On this page most users will also find tools that will update their mail client settings automatically. Note that Outlook clients and WebMail access are not affected. The Mail Team

  18. Internet versus mail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye

    In a choice experiment setup, this paper suggests that internet surveys can be a viable alternative to traditional mail surveys when gathering feedback from a sample of respondents. In a study concerning preferences for avoiding encroachment of nature areas in future motorway planning in Denmark......, two samples of respondents are surveyed – one by internet and one by mail. Results suggest that additional self-selection mechanisms in the internet survey mode lead to the internet sample being less representative of the survey population than is the case for the mail sample. Similar response rates...... are obtained in the two samples, but the internet sample is apparently less prone to protest bidding. A thorough parametric analysis cannot reject that stated preferences elicited by use of the two different modes of sampling are identical. This suggests that the fear of a potential survey mode effect...

  19. 75 FR 29893 - Business Reply Mail Online Application Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Business Reply Mail Online Application Option AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service TM will revise the Mailing Standards of the... option to obtain a Business Reply Mail[supreg] (BRM) permit online. Additionally, the electronic version...

  20. 76 FR 7114 - International Mail: Mailing Services Price Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail: Mailing Services Price Change AGENCY: Postal... States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM[supreg]) for Mailing Services. This price change correlates to the Postal Service's January 13, 2011 filing of Docket No. R2011-2, Notice of Price Adjustment...

  1. The project for virus mails and junk mails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Fazhi; Shou Xuejian

    2003-01-01

    Along with the application of network, Email is becoming more and more important for people's communication. But like other net work applications, Email is being infracted by Virus Mails and Junk mails. Sendmail and Procmail are used to deal with Virus Mails and Junk mails in this paper. It is effective to prevent the IHCP (Institute of High Energy Physics Academia Sinica) mail server from attacks now

  2. 76 FR 4820 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    .... The parcels do not bear a GS1-128 or Intelligent Mail package barcode. b. The parcels weigh less than... pieces in a mailing must be paid with the same method unless otherwise authorized by Business Mailer... pieces only if authorized by Business Mailer Support. 2.2 Affixed Postage for Presorted First-Class Mail...

  3. Abnormal distribution of low-latitude ionospheric electron density during November 2004 superstorm as reconstructed by 3-D CT technique from IGS and LEO/GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, R.; Ma, S.; Xu, J.; Xiong, C.; Yan, W.; Luhr, H.; Jakowski, N.

    2010-12-01

    Using time-dependent 3-D tomography method, the electron density distributions in the mid- and low-latitude ionosphere are reconstructed from GPS observations of joint ground-based IGS network and onboard CHAMP/GRACE satellites during November 2004 super-storm. For LEO satellite-based GPS receiving, both the occultation TEC data and that along the radio propagation paths above the LEO are used. The electron density images versus latitude/altitude/longitude are reconstructed for different sectors of America/Asia/Europe and produced every hour. The reconstructed electron densities are validated by satellite in situ measurements of CHAMP Langmuir probe and GRACE Ka-band SST (low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking) derived electron density averaged between the two satellites, as well as by CIT simulations. It reveals some very interesting storm-time structures of Ne distributions, such as top-hat-like F2-3 double layer and column-like enhanced electron densities (CEED). The double layer structure appeared over a large latitude range from about -30 degree to 20 degree along East-Asian/Australia longitudes before local noon, looking like one additional smaller EIA structure standing above the usual one of EIA. It is consistent with the F-3 layer observed by ionosonde at an Australian low-latitude station. The CEED are found just 1-2 hours before the minimum of Dst and in the longitudinal sector about 157 E. They extend from the topside ionosphere toward plasmasphere, reaching at least about 2000 km as high. Their footprints stand on the two peaks of the EIA. This CEED is also seen in the image of 30.4 nm He ++ radiation by IMAGE, showing a narrow channel of enhanced density extending from afternoon ionosphere to plasmsphere westward. The forming mechanism of CEED and its relationship with SED and plasmaspheric plumes are worthy of further study. Acknowledgement: This work is supported by NSFC (No.40674078).

  4. 76 FR 3679 - Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MT2011-3; Order No. 649] Market Test of Marketing Mail... recently-filed Postal Service proposal to conduct a 2-year market test involving the sale of Marketing Mail..., 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit comments electronically via the Commission's Filing Online system at http://www...

  5. Technology Corner: Analysing E-mail Headers For Forensic Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tariq Banday

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Mail (E-Mail, which is one of the most widely used applications of Internet, has become a global communication infrastructure service.  However, security loopholes in it enable cybercriminals to misuse it by forging its headers or by sending it anonymously for illegitimate purposes, leading to e-mail forgeries. E-mail messages include transit handling envelope and trace information in the form of structured fields which are not stripped after messages are delivered, leaving a detailed record of e-mail transactions.  A detailed header analysis can be used to map the networks traversed by messages, including information on the messaging software and patching policies of clients and gateways, etc. Cyber forensic e-mail analysis is employed to collect credible evidence to bring criminals to justice. This paper projects the need for e-mail forensic investigation and lists various methods and tools used for its realization. A detailed header analysis of a multiple tactic spoofed e-mail message is carried out in this paper. It also discusses various possibilities for detection of spoofed headers and identification of its originator. Further, difficulties that may be faced by investigators during forensic investigation of an e-mail message have been discussed along with their possible solutions.

  6. 76 FR 16588 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Standard Mail. These mailings must also be identified as Standard Mail when scheduling dropship... pending permit number), issue date, and advertising percentage. b. A consolidated postage statement...

  7. 76 FR 10757 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... to Standard Mail. These mailings must also be identified as Standard Mail when scheduling dropship... advertising percentage. b. A consolidated postage statement register and postage statement for each...

  8. 75 FR 68430 - Domestic Shipping Services Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... flats bearing Intelligent Mail[supreg] barcodes (IMb TM ). Delivery Confirmation TM service (electronic... Manager, Integrated Business Solutions. Prior to the first mailing of Critical Mail, 10 mailpiece samples must be provided to USPS Manager, Integrated Business Solutions or designee for review and approval...

  9. Direct e-mail marketing: Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Končar Jelena A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct e-mail marketing refers to approaching customers directly, without employing intermediaries. It represents a direct mode of communication with the target population, which affects the creation of stronger and more loyal relationships with prospective customers, compared to traditional direct marketing resources (TV, radio, print and advertising panels, etc. The main goal of direct e-mail marketing is building long-term "one to one" relationships with current and prospective customers. Direct e-mail marketing is not aimed at momentary sale, but at boosting certain product preferences due to the engagement of numerous electronic media.

  10. Mail2Print online tutorial

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Mail2print is a feature which allows you to send documents to a printer by mail. This tutorial (text attached to the event page) explains how to use this service. Content owner: Vincent Nicolas Bippus Presenter: Pedro Augusto de Freitas Batista Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) https://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  11. New Snail Mail Scanning Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Modernisation does not stop at the CERN postal service (GS/PS). “With more and more digitisation and the prevalence of e-mail throughout the site, we were hoping to provide more timely delivery of letters and make further saving in resources”, said Tueri Datta, head of GS/PS.   Instead of the standard delivery to your P.O. box, the CERN postal service will digitally scan all letters and books up to 100 pages on reception. These scans will subsequently be sent via e-mail to the corresponding recipient as PDF (Portable Data Format - you will need to install “Acrobat Reader” on your PC). Express mail will be handled with priority. Users without a valid CERN mailbox can register at mail.scan.service@cern.ch in order to have their letters read to them via the phone line (we are currently investigating whether we can use the voices of the last five DGs).   This service will start on 1st April 2012 on the Meyrin site and will gradually replace th...

  12. Analysis of E-mail Transactions in Virtual Reference Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astutik Nur Qomariyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the use of traditional reference desk in the academic libraries has been rarely used, thus expanding or even move to a virtual reference service. A minimum level of virtual reference services are provided in the academic library is currently in general is the electronic mail (e-mail. One of the academic library specifically provide virtual reference services via e-mail is a Petra Christian University (PCU Library (ref-desk@petra.ac.id.. In such services librarians provide assistance to users in finding information and answer questions. This study aimed to analyze the transaction reference services virtually through e-mail at the PCU Library, with a view of the types of questions based on user background, the writing style of language communication interaction used based on user background, and cultural values are revealed behind the user in virtual reference services (e-mail. This study uses content analysis (content analysis of the transcript e-mail received librarians of reference services began March 10 until June 16, 2015. The results showed that the types of questions asked in reference service virtual (e-mail in the Library UK Petra include: specific search, access online resources, operation of online resources, policies and procedures for services, and library holdings with background the student (PCU and non-PCU, faculty, and librarians. Based on the background of users found that overall more types of questions asked in virtual reference services (e-mail is a problem of access to online resources, and generally submitted by the students. Then, the writing style of the user's language in interaction reference service virtual (e-mail tends to be formal, which includes the word greeting, the message will be delivered, and regards cover, either by the student (PCU and non-PCU, lecturer, or librarians. While cultural values that revealed the background behind the user in virtual reference services (e-mail is obedience, courtesy and

  13. 39 CFR 121.3 - Standard Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard Mail. 121.3 Section 121.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.3 Standard Mail. (a) End-to-End. (1) The service standard for Sectional Center...

  14. 76 FR 16460 - Mail Classification Change for Priority Mail Flat Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... online model and the retail model. The online model will allow customers to purchase packs from a Web... offer those packs in their stores directly to their customers. The Postal Service includes five... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to provide Forever postage on Priority Mail Flat Rate...

  15. Comparing Two Survey Research Approaches: E-Mail and Web-Based Technology versus Traditional Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Colleen M.; Mailloux, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Contrasted two survey methodologies: e-mail-Web and traditional mail. Found that: (1) e-mail-Web respondents were proportionately more likely to be male and enrolled in school full-time; (2) more individual question non-response was present for the e-mail-Web sample; and (3) e-mail-Web respondents value different aspects of graduate school. (EV)

  16. Analysis of E-mail Transactions in Virtual Reference Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astutik Nur Qomariyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the use of traditional reference desk in the academic libraries has been rarely used, thus expanding or even move to a virtual reference service. A minimum level of virtual reference services are provided in the academic library is currently in general is the electronic mail (e-mail. One of the academic library specifically provide virtual reference services via e-mail is a Petra Christian University (PCU Library (refdesk@petra.ac.id.. In such services librarians provide assistance to users in finding information and answer questions. This study aimed to analyze the transaction reference services virtually through e-mail at the PCU Library, with a view of the types of questions based on user background, the writing style of language communication interaction used based on user background, and cultural values are revealed behind the user in virtual reference services (e-mail. This study uses content analysis (content analysis of the transcript e-mail received librarians of reference services began March 10 until June 16, 2015. The results showed that the types of questions asked in reference service virtual (e-mail in the Library UK Petra include: specific search, access online resources, operation of online resources, policies and procedures for services, and library holdings with background the student (PCU and non-PCU, faculty, and librarians. Based on the background of users found that overall more types of questions asked in virtual reference services (e-mail is a problem of access to online resources, and generally submitted by the students. Then, the writing style of the user's language in interaction reference service virtual (e-mail tends to be formal, which includes the word greeting, the message will be delivered, and regards cover, either by the student (PCU and non-PCU, lecturer, or librarians. While cultural values that revealed the background behind the user in virtual reference services (e-mail is obedience, courtesy and

  17. 75 FR 10529 - Mail Classification Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. MC2010-19; Order No. 415] Mail Classification Change...-filed Postal Service request to make a minor modification to the Mail Classification Schedule. The.... concerning a change in classification which reflects a change in terminology from Bulk Mailing Center (BMC...

  18. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium batteries to and from an APO, FPO, or DPO location. However, this...

  19. On the Efficiency of Spam Mailing and Portal Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Bandulet

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a simple approach endogenizing the welfare reducing or welfare enhancing effect of informative advertising. Using this approach, it is possible to analyse the welfare consequences of a technology shock that reduces unit information costs, and to explain whether electronic junk mails or portal advertising will cause welfare gains or losses in a competitive environment.

  20. How new subscribers use cancer-related online mailing lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimer, Barbara K; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Golin, Carol E; Forlenza, Michael J; Meier, Andrea

    2005-07-01

    Online cancer-related support is an under-studied resource that may serve an important function in the information seeking, care, and support of cancer patients and their families. With over 9.8 million cancer survivors (defined as anyone living with cancer) in the United States alone and the number growing worldwide, it is important to understand how they seek and use online resources to obtain the information they need, when they need it, and in a form and manner appropriate to them. These are stated cancer communication goals of the US National Cancer Institute. Our purposes are to (1) present background information about online mailing lists and electronic support groups, (2) describe the rationale and methodology for the Health eCommunities (HeC) study, and (3) present preliminary baseline data on new subscribers to cancer-related mailing lists. In particular, we describe subscribers' use of mailing lists, their reasons for using them, and their reactions to participating shortly after joining the lists. From April to August 2004, we invited all new subscribers to 10 Association of Cancer Online Resources mailing lists to complete Web-based surveys. We analyzed baseline data from the respondents to examine their perceptions about cancer-related mailing lists and to describe how cancer patients and survivors used these lists in the period shortly after joining them. Cumulative email invitations were sent to 1368 new mailing list subscribers; 293 Web surveys were completed within the allotted time frame (21.4% response rate). Most respondents were over age 50 (n = 203, 72%), white (n = 286, 98%), college graduates (n = 161, 55%), and had health insurance (n = 283, 97%). About 41% (n = 116) of new subscribers reported spending 1 to 3 hours per day reading and responding to list messages. They used the mailing lists for several reasons. Among the most frequently reported, 62% (n = 179) strongly agreed they used mailing lists to obtain information on how to deal

  1. Design of monitoring system for mail-sorting based on the Profibus S7 series PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Jia, S. H.; Wang, Y. H.; Liu, H.; Tang, G. C.

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the postal express, the workload of mail sorting is increasing, but the automatic technology of mail sorting is not mature enough. In view of this, the system uses Siemens S7-300 PLC as the main station controller, PLC of Siemens S7-200/400 is from the station controller, through the man-machine interface configuration software MCGS, PROFIBUS-DP communication, RFID technology and mechanical sorting hand achieve mail classification sorting monitoring. Among them, distinguish mail-sorting by scanning RFID posted in the mail electronic bar code (fixed code), the system uses the corresponding controller on the acquisition of information processing, the processed information transmit to the sorting manipulator by PROFIBUS-DP. The system can realize accurate and efficient mail sorting, which will promote the development of mail sorting technology.

  2. On Successful E-Mail Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vulić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to be a simplified guide for the efficient use of e-mail in business and private communication in English. E-mailing is frequently used as a substitute for other kinds of communication in today’s working environment, due in particular, to the fact that messages are transmitted instantly, irrespective of the distance of the recipient. Due to the speed and volume of e-mail, mastering the art of effective e-mail writing includes the knowledge of Network Etiquette or ‘Netiquette’ and it is therefore important that whether it be for business or private use, the basics of e-mail etiquette are followed. When writing an e-mail it is important to consider the recipient. Careful consideration will determine the content and style of the e-mail. No less important is knowing the points of detail in writing e-mail. That is, to be clear and concise in the specific information that the e-mail should contain. Furthermore, abbreviations, acronyms and emoticons are frequently found in e-mail and their use should also be considered. An e-mail is a valuable communication tool and it is essential to use it effectively in order to improve both professional and private communication.

  3. Assessing e-mail intent and tasks in e-mail messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sappelli, M.; Pasi, G.; Verberne, S.; Boer, M. de; Kraaij, W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze corporate e-mail messages as a medium to convey work tasks. Research indicates that categorization of e-mail could alleviate the common problem of information overload. Although e-mail clients provide possibilities of e-mail categorization, not many users spend effort on

  4. A Comparative Analysis of E-Mail and Face-to-Face Communication in an Educational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Jay M.

    2006-01-01

    Electronic mail (e-mail) is an extremely important medium for Internet-based education. Due to its unique characteristics, there is reason to be concerned that students do not put appropriate care into writing messages that are sent via e-mail. This has significant implications for the effectiveness of online learning environments. This paper…

  5. Securing E-mail Communication Using Hybrid Cryptosystem on Android-based Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Zakariya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular internet services is electronic mail (e-mail. By using mobile devices with internet connection, e-mail can be widely used by anyone to exchange information anywhere and anytime whether public or confidential. Unfortunately, there are some security issues with email communication; e-mail is sent in over open networks and e-mail is stored on potentially insecure mail servers. Moreover, e-mail has no integrity protection so the body can be undectected altered in transit or on the e-mail server. E-mail also has no data origin authentication, so people cannot be sure that the emails they receive are from the e-mail address owner. In order to solve this problem, this study proposes a secure method of e-mail communication on Android-based mobile devices using a hybrid cryptosystem which combines symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption and hash function. The experimental results show that the proposed method succeeded in meeting those aspects of information security including confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation.

  6. Visuelle Analyse von E-mail-Verkehr

    OpenAIRE

    Mansmann, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Diese Arbeit beschreibt Methoden zur visuellen geographischen Analyse von E-mail Verkehr.Aus dem Header einer E-mail können Hostadressen und IP-Adressen herausgefiltert werden. Anhand einer Datenbank werden diesen Host- und IP-Adressen geographische Koordinaten zugeordnet.Durch eine Visualisierung werden in übersichtlicher Art und Weise mehrere tausend E-mail Routen dargestellt. Zusätzlich dazu wurden interktive Manipulationsmöglichkeiten vorgestellt, welche eine visuelle Exploration der Date...

  7. Application for automatic e-mail forwarding

    OpenAIRE

    Skupek, Rok

    2010-01-01

    The diploma thesis has two main goals: the first objective is to develop a dynamic library, which will contain methods able to download e-mail messages from mail server using POP3 protocol. The second objective involves development of application for processing and distribution of e-mail messages. Introduction cointains presentation of a practical application example in real time situation. Here are described procedures used for development of server - client communication library, which u...

  8. Transparent Proxy for Secure E-Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalák, Juraj; Hudec, Ladislav

    2010-05-01

    The paper deals with the security of e-mail messages and e-mail server implementation by means of a transparent SMTP proxy. The security features include encryption and signing of transported messages. The goal is to design and implement a software proxy for secure e-mail including its monitoring, administration, encryption and signing keys administration. In particular, we focus on automatic public key on-the-fly encryption and signing of e-mail messages according to S/MIME standard by means of an embedded computer system whose function can be briefly described as a brouter with transparent SMTP proxy.

  9. Take control of Apple Mail in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Go under the hood with new (and old) features in Apple Mail in Leopard! Are you using Apple Mail in Leopard effectively? In this book, completely updated from its previous Panther and Tiger editions, author Joe Kissell provides comprehensive guidance, with a focus on new and updated features. You'll learn how to use and customize the Mail window, control the size and styling of incoming messages, and make rules to move messages into different mailboxes automatically. The book covers outgoing mail, showing you smart ways to address messages, send attachments, and send HTML-based messages. Bu

  10. On Successful E-Mail Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Vulić

    2009-01-01

    This article is intended to be a simplified guide for the efficient use of e-mail in business and private communication in English. E-mailing is frequently used as a substitute for other kinds of communication in today’s working environment, due in particular, to the fact that messages are transmitted instantly, irrespective of the distance of the recipient. Due to the speed and volume of e-mail, mastering the art of effective e-mail writing includes the knowledge of Network Etiquette o...

  11. 78 FR 23137 - Implementation of Full-Service Intelligent Mail Requirements for Automation Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... re- work or pay the additional postage. The existing thresholds used to verify and qualify automation...-work or pay the additional postage to mail at a non- automation price. Full-Service Electronic... re-work or pay the additional postage to mail at a non-automation price. In addition to the full...

  12. E-mail marketing grows up: a primer for the managed care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysart, J

    2000-02-01

    Managed care plans are jumping onto the electronic marketing bandwagon in a big way, taking advantage of not only the basic E-mail system but also expanding on that medium and developing creative vehicles to send the health plan's message. In this article, the author describes how E-mail technology is being used to hone the marketing edge in MCOs.

  13. The Rhodotron sterilizes American mail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The Rhodotron, designed by CEA in 1986, is an accelerator that delivers and carries beams of electrons over a 10 or 20 meter distance without any loss. This accelerator that delivers electrons with an energy of 5 to 10 MeV was initially used to food processing and the study of polymers, now it is intensively used by the United States postal service (USPS) to prevent any contamination by anthrax. The IBA centre of Bridgeport (New-Jersey) operates round the clock and 7 days a week, its Rhodotron can process the loads of 200 postal trucks each month. The Rhodotron can also deliver X-ray (more penetrating than electrons) to deal with parcels. (A.C.)

  14. Management and Archiving e-mail Messages in Governmental Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohamed A.Mohsen

    2006-01-01

    The study deals great issue of digital preservation that is e-mail archiving, it covered all aspects of the topic; it discuss: e-mail system, components of e-mail message, advantages and disadvantages of e-mail, official e-mail messages, management of e-mail messages, organizing and arrangement of e-mail messages, keeping and deleting messages, archiving e-mail messages, and some related issues like: privacy and security.

  15. 77 FR 70849 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-2; Order No.1550] International Mail Contract... Service filing concerning a Type 2 rate adjustment in conjunction with a mail contract with China Post... Equivalent Agreement, November 15, 2012 (Notice). Contract history and scope. The Agreement is a successor to...

  16. 14 CFR 1212.603 - Mailing lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1212.603 Section 1212.603 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT-NASA REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.603 Mailing lists. NASA will not sell, rent, or otherwise disclose an...

  17. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... For purpose of these regulations, the following terms are hereby defined. (1) Mail cover is the... criminal law. (3) When time is of the essence, the Chief Postal Inspector, or designee, may act upon an... furnish information as defined in § 233.3(c)(1) to any person, except as authorized by a mail cover order...

  18. 77 FR 71643 - Standard Mail Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-1; Order No.1556] Standard Mail Pricing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning Standard Mail pricing and related matters. This notice informs the public of the filing...

  19. Human placenta: relative content of antibodies of different classes and subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) containing lambda- and kappa-light chains and chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Sedykh, Sergey E; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2015-06-01

    The specific organ placenta is much more than a filter: it is an organ that protects, feeds and regulates the growth of the embryo. Affinity chromatography, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry were used. Using 10 intact human placentas deprived of blood, a quantitative analysis of average relative content [% of total immunoglobulins (Igs)] was carried out for the first time: (92.7), IgA (2.4), IgM (2.5), kappa-antibodies (51.4), lambda-antibodies (48.6), IgG1 (47.0), IgG2 (39.5), IgG3 (8.8) and IgG4 (4.3). It was shown for the first time that placenta contains sIgA (2.5%). In the classic paradigm, Igs represent products of clonal B-cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen. There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monovalent molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. However, similarly to human milk Igs, placenta antibodies undergo extensive half-molecule exchange and the IgG pool consists of 43.5 ± 15.0% kappa-kappa-IgGs and 41.6 ± 17.0% lambda-lambda-IgGs, while 15.0 ± 4.0% of the IgGs contained both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained, respectively (%): IgG1 (47.7 and 34.4), IgG2 (36.3 and 44.5), IgG3 (7.4 and 11.8) and IgG4 (7.5 and 9.1), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 43.5 IgG1, 41.0 IgG2, 5.6 IgG3 and 7.9 IgG4. Our data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between placenta IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens, which explains a very well-known polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of different human IgGs. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Compulsory registration of mail servers in order to accept e-mail from the Internet

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    This announcement is intended only for administrators of a mail server (sendmail, postfix, etc.). It concerns e-mails sent from the Internet to addresses of the following type: somemailbox@somehost.cern.ch. Mail server managers are requested to register their servers so that they can accept e-mail from outside CERN. In future the CERN mail infrastructure will relay messages from outside CERN only to officially registered mail servers. This rule applies only to messages sent from the Internet. There will be NO change with respect to messages sent from inside CERN. If you are responsible for a mail server that accepts e-mails from outside CERN, please read the following page: http://cern.ch/mail/Help/?kbid=191090, where you can find information about the new rule and check if your host is already registered in the system. If you wish to register a mail server please send a message to: mailto:mail.support@cern.ch. This rule will be gradually enforced from 20 February 2008 onwards. Thank you for your cooperation...

  1. The kinetics of glomerular deposition of nephritogenic IgA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Yamaji

    Full Text Available Whether IgA nephropathy is attributable to mesangial IgA is unclear as there is no correlation between intensity of deposits and extent of glomerular injury and no clear mechanism explaining how these mesangial deposits induce hematuria and subsequent proteinuria. This hinders the development of a specific therapy. Thus, precise events during deposition still remain clinical challenge to clarify. Since no study assessed induction of IgA nephropathy by nephritogenic IgA, we analyzed sequential events involving nephritogenic IgA from IgA nephropathy-prone mice by real-time imaging systems. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy showed that serum IgA from susceptible mice had strong affinity to mesangial, subepithelial, and subendothelial lesions, with effacement/actin aggregation in podocytes and arcade formation in endothelial cells. The deposits disappeared 24-h after single IgA injection. The data were supported by a fluorescence molecular tomography system and real-time and 3D in vivo imaging. In vivo imaging showed that IgA from the susceptible mice began depositing along the glomerular capillary from 1 min and accumulated until 2-h on the first stick in a focal and segmental manner. The findings indicate that glomerular IgA depositions in IgAN may be expressed under the balance between deposition and clearance. Since nephritogenic IgA showed mesangial as well as focal and segmental deposition along the capillary with acute cellular activation, all glomerular cellular elements are a plausible target for injury such as hematuria.

  2. Immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA and IgM) and acute phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that USS or pregnancy changes different aspects of humoral immunity, thus the co-existence of pregnancy and S. haematobium infection may ... Résultats et conclusions: IgG, IgA et IgM étaient remarquablement élevés chez les femmes enceintes atteintes de la schistose urinaire par rapport aux femmes ...

  3. INTELLIGENT E-MAIL PERSONALIZATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANMUGASUNDARAM HARIHARAN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Internet era E-mail has become the most important mode of communication in every day life. E-mail offers several advantages like secure delivery, speed, cheaper cost, acknowledgement report, transparent service, and distributed environment. As spammers try to induce large amount of spam or unsolicited mails, managing these E-mails’s in an efficient manner requires huge attention. This paper focus on personalizing the E-mail messages after eliminating the spam messages. The basic step starts with pre-processing the documents and classifying the contents into several folders or categories. The next step is to cluster the documents based on the relativeness they have using cosine similarity metric. This clustering approach is carried out using unsupervised method. The mail messages are the parsed through a filter that would identify the spam immediately. Studies on personalization of mails after spam identification, prioritizing the E-mail’s based on the importance and summarization of were also proposed. The results were quiet promising leading to efficient spam identification providing a platform for further improvements to build a domain independent personalizer system.

  4. Detection of Human Ig G Using Photoluminescent Porous Silicon Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bomin; Kim, Seongwoong; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Kim, Sungsoo; Sohn, Honglae

    2015-02-01

    Photoluminescent porous silicon (PSi) interferometers having dual optical properties, both Fabry-Pérot fringe and photolumincence (PL), have been developed and used as biosensors for detection of Human Immunoglobin G (Ig G). PSi samples were prepared by electrochemical etching of p-type silicon under white light exposure. The surface of PSi was characterized using a cold field emission scanning electron microscope. The sensor system studied consisted of a single layer of porous silicon modified with Protein A. The system was probed with various fragments of aqueous human immunoglobin G (Ig G) analyte. Both reflectivity and PL were simultaneously measured under the exposure of human Ig G. An increase of optical thickness and decrease of PL were obtained under the exposure of human Ig G. Detection limit of 500 fM was observed for the human Ig G.

  5. Factors That Impact Nurses' Utilization of Electronic Mail (E-Mail)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Judith

    1998-01-01

    .... This qualitative study employed a descriptive research design. Data were gathered through three separate focus group interviews with a total of 17 nurses representing three different nurse populations...

  6. Troubleshooting Requests e-mail Confirmation

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2004-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve quality of the repair requests, a new e-mail confirmation automatic system will be implemented starting from the 21st October. All repair requests transmitted to the TCR (72201) or the FM Helpdesk (77777) will be confirmed in an e-mail to the requestor, provided that the latter has a valid e-mail address in the HR database. The e-mail will contain a reference number, a brief description of the problem, the location and a contact where more information can be obtained. A second e-mail will be sent when the processing of the repair request is finished. We hope that this initiative will improve the transparency and quality of our service. Helpdesk Troubleshooting Requests (reminder) We remind you that all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN machine buildings have to be transmitted to the TCR via 72201, whereas the ones concerning tertiary buildings are handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equ...

  7. E-mail to SMS service change

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    If you have a CERN e-mail account, you have probably already used one of the popular services that CERN’s IT Department offers to CERN users: the mail2SMS service. It allows any CERN e-mail account holder to send short messages (SMS) free of charge to CERN GSM phone numbers. Further to recent negotiations with our GSM operator, this service has been extended. It is now possible to send short messages free of charge to any Swiss mobile number. This extension of service aims at replacing the similar service that was made available by SWITCH(1) to CERN users (address: mobilenumber@sms.switch.ch). Because of repeated abuse, this service will be definitively stopped for CERN users on 15th January 2010. Please keep in mind that CERN’s e-mail to SMS service still has some restrictions: messages can only be sent from CERN mail accounts, and not from personal ones, such as GMAIL, MSN, Yahoo; the maximum length of the message is 160 characters (standard maximum SMS length); and only Swiss mobile...

  8. COMMUNICATION TOPICS AND STRATEGIES IN E-MAIL CONSULTATION: COMPARISON BETWEEN AMERICAN AND INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun Biesenbach-Lucas

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available On today's "wired" college campuses, students avail themselves in increasing numbers of electronic channels, most notably e-mail, as a means to consult with their professors. While some research has investigated the purposes for which university students communicate with their instructors via e-mail, little research has examined differences in e-mail use between American and international students. In the present study, e-mail messages sent by American and international students enrolled in a teacher-preparation program to their professor were collected over the course of one semester. The messages were examined for three major communication topics (facilitative, substantive, relational and communication strategies (requesting, negotiating, reporting. Results indicate quantitative and qualitative differences in American and international students' e-mail topics and strategies, suggesting, similar to findings for face-to-face academic advising sessions, that American students demonstrate greater initiative and ability to adapt to the spatial and temporal remoteness between interlocutors in e-mail interaction, especially when using e-mail to solicit face-to-face appointments and input on projects. Findings also show that messages from both groups of students contained substantial relational communication, perhaps in an attempt to compensate for the lack of visual and paralinguistic clues in the e-mail medium.

  9. Mailing lists are preferred to newsgroups as teaching tools for undergraduate biology classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machart, J M; Silverthorn, D U

    2000-06-01

    Effective communication between instructors and students is a challenge regardless of the instructor-to-student ratio. Instructors of large classes, in particular, have resorted to various forms of Internet communication, such as mailing lists and newsgroups, to supplement class time and office hours. Mailing lists are closed discussions among subscribers who receive and send messages via an electronic mail program (e.g., Eudora). Newsgroups are public discussions to which anyone can gain access and respond via a newsreader program (e.g., Nuntius). Newsgroup messages are posted to a bulletin board that the subscriber must visit to read. Mailing lists and newsgroups share many advantages (convenience, greater anonymity, and speed of communication) and disadvantages (computer access required, impersonal nature, junk mail, and lack of graphics in older programs). However, surveys of both faculty and students in biology indicate that mailing lists are generally favored over newsgroups. Reasons given for mailing list popularity included greater familiarity with the E-mail format and ease of access.

  10. Recombinant human immunoglobulin (Ig)A1 and IgA2 anti-D used for detection of IgA deficiency and anti-IgA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Leif K; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2008-01-01

    To avoid anaphylactic reactions, immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient patients with anti-IgA should be transfused with IgA-deficient blood components. There is a need for fast and robust assays for demonstration of IgA deficiency and for detection of anti-IgA.......To avoid anaphylactic reactions, immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient patients with anti-IgA should be transfused with IgA-deficient blood components. There is a need for fast and robust assays for demonstration of IgA deficiency and for detection of anti-IgA....

  11. Effectiveness and Limitations of E-Mail Security Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tariq Banday

    2011-01-01

    Simple Mail Transport Protocol is the most widely adopted protocol for e-mail delivery. However, it lackssecurity features for privacy, authentication of sending party, integrity of e-mail message, nonrepudiationand consistency of e-mail envelope. To make e-mail communication secure and private,e-mail servers incorporate one or more security features using add-on security protocols. The add-onsecurity protocols provide a reasonable security but have several limitations. This paper discussesli...

  12. Take control of spam with Apple Mail

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Questions answered in this book include: How does Mail's Junk Mail filtering really work?How does the spam filter use my Previous Recipients list?How could a spammer's email addresses get on my Previous Recipients list?What can I do to not get so much spam in the first place?What's the deal with email that pretends to come from my bank?What features should I look for in a spam-fighting utility or service?Should I try server-based filtering?

  13. 78 FR 63915 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... action, regardless of the class of mail or the extra service being purchased. This has resulted in... accountable mail, including a Return Receipt (Form 3811) purchased with the applicable extra service. Although... require a Form 1508 submission with the claim. Also, gift cards, most of which are replaceable, are being...

  14. 76 FR 76619 - International Mail: New Prices and Fee Changes-Mailing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... fraction thereof)......... 0.80 Duplicate copy of PS Form 3606 1.15 * * * * * International Business Reply Service (382) [For each country that offers International Business Reply Service, revise the fees to read... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail: New Prices and Fee Changes--Mailing Services...

  15. 78 FR 12234 - Promotions and Incentive Programs for First-Class Mail and Standard Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... No. R2013-1) on October 11, 2012 to offer six new promotions in 2013 and the PRC approved the 2013... Promotional Programs The six promotional programs, in calendar order are: 1. Direct Mail Mobile Coupon and... preparer in the by/for fields. Full-service mailings are limited to 9,999 pieces if submitted via Postal...

  16. 76 FR 37655 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Periodicals flats to be made using a minimum of six (6) pieces, as is currently permitted for Periodicals... Regulations to reflect that the Standard Mail service standards apply to all Periodicals flats pieces entered... for Standard Mail of 200 pieces or 50 pounds. Periodicals publications must be authorized or have a...

  17. 76 FR 47614 - Mail Classification Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MC2011-27; Order No. 785] Mail Classification Change...-filed Postal Service request for a change in classification to the ``Reply Rides Free'' program. The... Service filed a notice of classification change pursuant to 39 CFR 3020.90 and 3020.91 concerning the...

  18. 7 CFR 352.11 - Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., plant pests, and soil which arrive in the United States in closed dispatches by international mail or international parcel post and which are in transit through the United States to another country shall be allowed... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 77 FR 75200 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional international mail contract. This... contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR 3015.5. Notice at 1. The Postal...

  20. 78 FR 11237 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-49; Order No. 1654] International Mail Contract... Service filing concerning an additional Global Reseller Expedited Package Contract 1 Negotiated Service... additional Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts 1 negotiated service agreement (Agreement).\\1\\ It...

  1. 77 FR 73699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-24; Order No. 1566] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal... Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as the addition of several articles...

  2. 77 FR 72412 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-22; Order No. 1557] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal... Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as the deletion of an article, the...

  3. 77 FR 75452 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional international mail contract. This... contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks to have the Agreement included within the GEPS 3 product...

  4. 76 FR 72452 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2012-4; Order No. 981] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional bilateral agreement with HongKong Post Group...

  5. 77 FR 73062 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-23; Order No. 1562] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal.... The Postal Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as revisions to...

  6. 24 CFR 3500.11 - Mailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.11 Mailing. The provisions of this part requiring or... obtained by the lender or settlement agent, except that a revised address shall be used where the lender or settlement agent has been expressly informed in writing of a change in address. ...

  7. 78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-6; Order No. 1702] Temporary Mailing Promotion... offering a Technology Credit Promotion. This notice informs the public of the Postal Service's filing and... changes associated with offering a Technology Credit Promotion.\\1\\ The promotion is planned to begin on...

  8. 75 FR 41989 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... the current advertising limitation on loose supplements, except for unwrapped copies of loose... discernable undesired movement of printed advertising materials, or other matter, from Standard Mail to... 1995 changes, although welcome, unduly limit creativity in designing publications that appeal to their...

  9. E-mail security a pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Furnell, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This pocket guide will help businesses to address the most important issues. Its comprehensive approach covers both the technical and the managerial aspects of the subject, offering valuable insights for IT professionals, managers and executives, as well as for individual users of e-mail.

  10. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  11. 78 FR 21632 - International Mail Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-59; Order No. 1692] International Mail Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal... have the Agreement included within the existing IBRS Competitive Contract 3 product on grounds of...

  12. 78 FR 21633 - International Mail Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-58; Order No. 1691] International Mail Product... have the Agreement included within the existing IBRS Competitive Contract 3 product on grounds of... Contract 3 product in Docket No. CP2012-17, and is on behalf of the same customer as in Docket No. CP2012...

  13. 78 FR 21171 - International Mail Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-57; Order No. 1690] International Mail Product... have the Agreement included within the existing IBRS Competitive Contract 3 product on grounds of... Contract 3 product in Docket No. CP2012-18. Id. at 3. [[Page 21172

  14. 76 FR 74078 - Standard Mail Market Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MT2011-3; Order No. 998] Standard Mail Market Test AGENCY... Service application for an exemption from the annual revenue limitation that applies to market tests of... limitation in any year during the test of an experimental market dominant product.\\1\\ Pursuant to 39 U.S.C...

  15. Secure e-mail and Web browsing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    This is an entry-level 1.5-hour training course aimed to show how to detect and avoid typical security pitfalls encountered when e-mailing and browsing the Web. It is designed for non-technical users of Internet Explorer and Outlook. Register at CTA

  16. 78 FR 29785 - Priority Mail Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-7; Order No. 1714] Priority Mail Pricing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal... that after the price change, the unused pricing authority available for the Special Services class will...

  17. 77 FR 74033 - Standard Mail Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2012-5; Order No. 1568] Standard Mail Pricing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an amendment to an existing negotiated service agreement with Canada Post Corporation...

  18. Don’t let your mail leak

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    At CERN, data privacy is of paramount importance, and we are currently developing a comprehensive data protection policy. For example, your CERN mailbox and your “private” folders on AFS and DFS are considered yours...   You might feel like you have nothing to hide, but we are not only talking about personal e-mail: data privacy also pertains to financial mail (acquisitions, tenders), mail related to HR (contracts, assessments), medical information, etc.  As this is considered “private” even if it is work-related, the data cannot normally be accessed by your supervisor, the AFS/DFS/mail service administrators or even the Computer Security Team. Tight procedures have been established for the rare cases where such access is necessary, and these require the prior approval of the CERN Computer Security Officer or the IT Department Head, the Legal Service and the DG (see here for more details). Data privacy is not only the responsibility of the O...

  19. Censoring the Mails: What Is Your Opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mary, Ed.; Childress, Marilyn, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains a primary source document--a letter written in 1916 protesting U.S. Postal Service censorship of an anarchist publication--and suggests ways to use the document in secondary U.S. history classes. Samples of student surveys on mail censorship and a document analysis worksheet are included. (AM)

  20. IgG4 Cholangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoh Zen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4 cholangiopathy can involve any level of the biliary tree which exhibits sclerosing cholangitis or pseudotumorous hilar lesions. Most cases are associated with autoimmune pancreatitis, an important diagnostic clue. Without autoimmune pancreatitis, however, the diagnosis of IgG4-cholangiopathy is challenging. Indeed such cases have been treated surgically. IgG4-cholangiopathy should be diagnosed based on serological examinations including serum IgG4 concentrations, radiological features, and histological evidence of IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration. Steroid therapy is very effective even at disease relapse. A Th2-dominant immune response or the activation of regulatory T cells seems to be involved in the underlying immune reaction. It is still unknown why IgG4 levels are specifically elevated in patients with this disease. IgG4 might be secondarily overexpressed by Th2 or regulatory cytokines given the lack of evidence that IgG4 is an autoantibody.

  1. IgA nephropathy enigma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Městecký, Jiří; Novák, J.; Moldoveanu, Z.; Raška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 172, NOV 2016 SI (2016), s. 72-77 ISSN 1521-6616 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-33686A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : IgA nephropathy * IgA subclasses * Autoimmunity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.990, year: 2016

  2. 21 CFR 1321.01 - DEA mailing addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false DEA mailing addresses. 1321.01 Section 1321.01 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEA MAILING ADDRESSES § 1321.01 DEA mailing addresses. The following table provides information regarding mailing addresses to be used...

  3. Discovery and analysis of e-mail-driven business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuit, Marco; Wortmann, Hans

    E-mail is used as the primary tool for business communication and collaboration. This paper presents a novel e-mail interaction mining method to discover and analyze e-mail-driven business processes. An e-mail-driven business process is perceived as a human collaboration process that consists of

  4. 39 CFR 121.1 - First-Class Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 121.1 Section 121.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.1 First-Class Mail. (a) For all intra-Sectional Center Facility (SCF) domestic...

  5. 75 FR 39477 - New Standards for Domestic Mailing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... markets, test new mailpieces, and increase the frequency of their mailings at reduced net postage prices... growth of automation letter-size mail, particularly pieces that are part of full-service Intelligent Mail[supreg] automation mailings entered at PostalOne![supreg] acceptance facilities. Accordingly, we propose...

  6. Radioimmunoassay of IgM, IgG, and IgA brucella antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrett, D.; Nielson, K.H.; White, R.G.; Payne, D.J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (R.I.A.) has been devised to measure the serum antibody against Brucella abortus in each of the immunoglobulin classes IgM, IgG, and IgA. This test was applied to 46 sera from individuals with various clinical types of brucellosis, and the results were compared with the results of conventional direct and indirect agglutination and complement-fixation tests. The R.I.A. provided a highly sensitive primary-type assay which avoided the difficulties with blocking or non-agglutinating antibody, and thus has many advantages in the diagnosis of acute and chronic stages of brucella infection in man. The R.I.A. was successful in detection of antibody in many instances in which conventional serological tests were negative, and such antibody could (if IgM) be associated with acute or (if IgG or IgA) with chronic cases of brucellosis. One case in which B.abortus was isolated by blood culture but which failed to yield antibody by conventional tests, nevertheless showed substantial levels of IgM and IgG antibody by R.I.A. In other cases the R.I.A. test helped to eliminate the diagnosis of brucellosis by revealing absent or low antibody levels. (author)

  7. Atypical IgG4+ Plasmacytic Proliferations and Lymphomas: Characterization of 11 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jacob R; Wallace, Zachary S; Deshpande, Vikram; Richter, Joshua R; Klapman, Jason; Cowan, Andrew; Stone, John H; Ferry, Judith A

    2017-09-01

    To report the clinicopathologic features of monotypic immunoglobulin G4+ (IgG4+) lymphoid and plasmacytic proliferations. Cases were identified from the pathology files. Pathology and clinical materials were reviewed. Eleven cases of monotypic IgG4+ proliferations were identified at nodal, orbital, or salivary sites. Six cases (three men, three women; age, 57-94 years) met criteria for lymphoma or plasma cell neoplasia. Most contained frequent Mott cells. Five cases (three men, two women; age, 40-80 years) had restricted proliferations of atypical/monotypic IgG4+ plasma cells in a background of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia or inflammation. Monotypic IgG4+ proliferations include lymphomas, plasmacytic neoplasms, and a previously uncharacterized group of proliferations not meeting criteria for conventional hematolymphoid neoplasia. Distinct features included prominent Mott cells and/or monotypic plasma cells within follicles. The proliferations were infrequently associated with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Our findings raise questions regarding the relationship between clonal IgG4+ proliferations, reactive/inflammatory processes, and IgG4-RD. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. PERANCANGAN MAIL SERVER ZIMBRA MENGGUNAKAN TEKNOLOGI VIRTUALISASI STUDI KASUS : SMK PANCAKARYA KOTA TANGERANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Prasetiawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of information technology is growing rapidly spur the emergence of new technologies are constantly evolving. The development of technologies that generate more reliable, efficient, economical, and powerful than previous technology. Electronic mail (email is a form of communication and correspondence electronically through a computer system and transmitted to another computer that is intended to traverse the computer network. The existence of mail server is needed to support the communication needs via email. Zimbra Mail Server is implemented using virtualization technology with the operating system Proxmox which is a Linux distribution based on Debian and to guestnya operating system SLES (Suse Linux Enterprise Server. This research was conducted at the agency already has a previous computer networking facilities, so that the research was conducted to complement the needs of the mail server at the institution. The result achieved is a mail application server using virtualization technology that has the facilities and the web-based mail client applications, antivirus and antispam.

  9. Contrast enhancement of mail piece images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Chul; Sridhar, Ramalingam; Demjanenko, Victor; Palumbo, Paul W.; Hull, Jonathan J.

    1992-08-01

    A New approach to contrast enhancement of mail piece images is presented. The contrast enhancement is used as a preprocessing step in the real-time address block location (RT-ABL) system. The RT-ABL system processes a stream of mail piece images and locates destination address blocks. Most of the mail pieces (classified into letters) show high contrast between background and foreground. As an extreme case, however, the seasonal greeting cards usually use colored envelopes which results in reduced contrast osured by an error rate by using a linear distributed associative memory (DAM). The DAM is trained to recognize the spectra of three classes of images: with high, medium, and low OCR error rates. The DAM is not forced to make a classification every time. It is allowed to reject as unknown a spectrum presented that does not closely resemble any that has been stored in the DAM. The DAM was fairly accurate with noisy images but conservative (i.e., rejected several text images as unknowns) when there was little ground and foreground degradations without affecting the nondegraded images. This approach provides local enhancement which adapts to local features. In order to simplify the computation of A and (sigma) , dynamic programming technique is used. Implementation details, performance, and the results on test images are presented in this paper.

  10. Cryptography: It’s Not Just For Electronic Mail Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    David Chaum . Security without identification: Transaction systems to make big brother obsolete. Communications of the ACM, 28(10): 1030-1044, Oc- tober...Jeannette Wing, Maurice Herlihy, Stewart Clamen, David Detlefs, Karen Kietzke, Richard Lerner, and Su-Yuen Ling. The Avalon language: A tutorial

  11. Developing a Hypercard-UNIX Interface for Electronic Mail Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    My thanks to Greqg for his support. Many of the comments for -- the MacTCP version are his. His code is set ,%ppart by borders. on openStacK put the...HUES-ModemVersion......- *-*-*-* STACK SCRIPTi "-*-*-* on openStack put the seconds into card fid theTime of card interface hide menubar global...34Loqin" hide fid receiving put empty into cd tia msqname of card theoessaqe end openStack on closeStack global logoutme put eqFpty into card fld text of

  12. Management of Electronic Mail: A Challenge for Archivists and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , there seem to be no proper systems and procedures in place for the systematic capture and management of this format of records. A study I carried out in Botswana, Namibia and. South Africa, which forms part of my PhD thesis, found that ...

  13. Voting-based Classification for E-mail Spam Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Awad Al-Shboul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of spam e-mail has gained a tremendous amount of attention. Although entities tend to use e-mail spam filter applications to filter out received spam e-mails, marketing companies still tend to send unsolicited e-mails in bulk and users still receive a reasonable amount of spam e-mail despite those filtering applications. This work proposes a new method for classifying e-mails into spam and non-spam. First, several e-mail content features are extracted and then those features are used for classifying each e-mail individually. The classification results of three different classifiers (i.e. Decision Trees, Random Forests and k-Nearest Neighbor are combined in various voting schemes (i.e. majority vote, average probability, product of probabilities, minimum probability and maximum probability for making the final decision. To validate our method, two different spam e-mail collections were used.

  14. Analysis of O-glycan heterogeneity in IgA1 myeloma proteins by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: implications for IgA nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renfrow, MB; Mackay, CL; Chalmers, MJ

    2007-01-01

    deficiency in IgA1 proteins occurs randomly or preferentially at specific sites. We have previously demonstrated the first direct localization of multiple O-glycosylation sites on a single IgA1 myeloma protein by use of activated ion-electron capture dissociation (AI-ECD) Fourier transform ion cyclotron...... resonance (FT-ICR) tandem mass spectrometry. Here, we report the analysis of IgA1 O-glycan heterogeneity by use of FT-ICR MS and liquid chromatography FT-ICR MS to obtain unbiased accurate mass profiles of IgA1 HR glycopeptides from three different IgA1 myeloma proteins. Additionally, we report the first AI......-ECD fragmentation on an individual IgA1 O-glycopeptide from an IgA1 HR preparation that is reproducible for each IgA1 myeloma protein. These results suggest that future analysis of IgA1 HR from IgAN patients and normal healthy controls should be feasible....

  15. Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  16. E-mail, decisional styles, and rest breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R; Phillips, James G

    2007-10-01

    E-mail is a common but problematic work application. A scale was created to measure tendencies to use e-mail to take breaks (e-breaking); and self-esteem and decisional style (vigilance, procrastination, buck-passing, hypervigilance) were used to predict the self-reported and actual e-mail behaviors of 133 participants (students and marketing employees). Individuals who were low in defensive avoidance (buck-passing) engaged in more e-mailing per week, both in time spent on e-mail and message volume. E-breakers were more likely to engage in behavioral procrastination and spent more time on personal e-mail.

  17. Legal and policy issues associated with monitoring employee E-mail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, M.A.; Rither, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the legal issues involved with employer monitoring of employee e-mail. In addition to identifying pertinent legal issues, the paper provides guidelines that will help the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) establish a program for monitoring outgoing e-mail to insure compliance with company policies, particularly those regarding protection of trade secrets and proprietary information, and to comply with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) procedures for protecting Export Controlled Information (ECI). Electronic communication has allowed companies to enhance efficiency, responsiveness and effectiveness. E-mail allows employees to transmit all types of data to other individuals inside and outside of their companies. The ease with which information can be transmitted by e-mail has placed trade secrets, proprietary information, and other sensitive data at risk from inadvertent disclosure by employees. As employers attempt to protect their interests through measures such as monitoring e-mail, they may expose themselves to liability under federal and state laws for violating employee privacy. Business use of e-mail has proliferated so rapidly that the federal and state legal systems have not been able to adequately address the issues arising out of its use in the workplace.

  18. Kajian Kesantunan dalam E-Mail Permohonan yang Ditulis oleh Penutur Jepang dan Pembelajar Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Wahyuningtias

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays electronic mail (e-mail is a communication tool that is often used in everyday life. One of the utilizations of e-mail is used in practical purposes such as making a request. This paper provided views on linguistic politeness in submitting an e-mail containing the request based on e-mail data written by native speakers of Japanese (J and the Indonesian Japanese language learners (IJL. The data was analyzed using the theory of politeness expressed by Brown and Levinson. This paper focused on the strategy that what more likely was to be used by J and IJL in the expression of request. In the final part, it concluded the view about what should be considered in connection with the linguistic politeness in Japanese e-mail containing request. It was intended for learners of foreign language, especially Indonesian people, to know the limitation of politeness, so that IJL will not repeat the same mistakes in the future.

  19. Histopathologie der IgG4-RD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, S; Klöppel, G

    2016-01-01

    infiltrate, 2) storiform fibrosis and 3) obliterative phlebitis. The diagnosis is further supported by immunohistochemical demonstration of an increased infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and an elevated IgG4/IgG ratio. The morphological criteria of IgG4-RD are in most cases detectable in biopsies...

  20. Teleradiology applications with DICOM-e-mail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, G.; Ruggiero, S.; Runa, A.; Engelmann, U.; Schroeter, A.; Baur, S.; Walz, M.

    2007-01-01

    For the connection of several partners to a Dicom-e-mail based teleradiology network concepts were developed to allow the integration of different teleradiology applications. The organisational and technical needs for such an integration were analysed. More than 60 institutions including 23 hospitals in the Rhein-Neckar-Region, Germany were connected. The needed functionality was grouped in six teleradiology applications (emergency consultation, tele-guided examinations, expert consultations, cooperative work, scientific cooperations and homework with on call services) and their technical and organisational needs according to availability, speed of transfer, workflow definitions and data security needs was analysed. For the local integration of teleradiology services the setup and workflow is presented for a standalone teleradiology workstation and a server based teleradiology gateway. The line type needed for different groups of applications and users is defined. The security concept and fallback strategies are laid out, potential security problems and sources of errors are discussed. The specialties for the emergency teleradiology application are presented. The DICOM-e-mail protocol is a flexible and powerful protocol that can be used for a variety of teleradiology applications. It can meet the conditions for emergency applications but is limited if synchronous applications like teleconferences are needed. (orig.)

  1. 7 CFR 319.55-7 - Importations by mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign mailing point by a special mailing tag directing the package to a Plant Protection and Quarantine... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importations by mail. 319.55-7 Section 319.55-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  2. 31 CFR 560.508 - Telecommunications and mail transactions authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Telecommunications and mail... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.508 Telecommunications and mail... telecommunications and mail between the United States and Iran are authorized. For purposes of this section, the term...

  3. 19 CFR 145.2 - Mail subject to Customs examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mail subject to Customs examination. 145.2 Section 145.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS General Provisions § 145.2 Mail subject to Customs...

  4. IgG4-Related Tubulointerstitial Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingchuan; Cornell, Lynn D

    2017-03-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder that can involve nearly any organ. The disorder has increasingly become known as a distinct clinical entity during the last decade. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) is the most common manifestation of IgG4-RD in the kidney. Many patients with IgG4-TIN are diagnosed after IgG4-RD has been recognized in other organ systems, but the kidney may also be the first or only site involved. The presenting clinical features of IgG4-TIN are most commonly kidney insufficiency, kidney mass lesion(s), or both. On biopsy, IgG4-TIN shows a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, increased IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and often tubular basement membrane immune complex deposits. Elevation of serum IgG4 often accompanies IgG4-RD; however, it is not specific in reaching the diagnosis. Like IgG4-RD in other organs, IgG4-TIN characteristically responds promptly to steroids, although there is a high relapse rate on discontinuation of immunosuppression. The pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is not understood. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of mailing design characteristics on direct mail campaign performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, S.; Frenzen, H.; Krafft, Manfred; Peters, K.; Verhoef, P.C.

    Designing effective direct mail pieces is considered a key success factor in direct marketing. However, related published empirical research is scarce while design recommendations are manifold and often conflicting. Compared with prior work, our study aims to provide more elaborate and empirically

  6. 78 FR 76533 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... accountable mail, including a Return Receipt (Form 3811) purchased with the applicable extra service. Although..., and for firearms to require a Form 1508 submission with the claim. Also, gift cards, most of which are... delivery record by purchasing a return receipt. Bulk proof of delivery service (6.0) is also available if...

  7. 77 FR 64775 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...'s Web site at www.prc.gov . The Postal Service's proposed rule includes several mail classification... Tracing \\TM\\ We are removing language concerning the old Confirm[supreg] service from DMM 503.15.0, because all Confirm subscriptions will end by January of 2013. IMb Tracing now provides a service similar...

  8. Pathogenicity of IgG in patients with IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Masahiro; Kodama, Yuzo; Kuriyama, Katsutoshi; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Tomono, Teruko; Morita, Toshihiro; Kakiuchi, Nobuyuki; Matsumori, Tomoaki; Mima, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Tatsuki; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Yamauchi, Yuki; Minami, Ryuki; Sakuma, Yojiro; Ota, Yuji; Maruno, Takahisa; Kurita, Akira; Sawai, Yugo; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Uza, Norimitsu; Matsumura, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Tomohiro; Notohara, Kenji; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Seno, Hiroshi; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease characterised by elevated serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the affected tissues. The pathogenic role of IgGs, including IgG4, in patients with IgG4-RD, however, is unknown. We examined the pathogenic activity of circulating IgGs in patients with IgG4-RD by injecting their IgGs into neonatal male Balb/c mice. Binding of patient IgGs to pancreatic tissue was also analysed in an ex vivo mouse organ culture model and in tissue samples from patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Subcutaneous injection of patient IgG, but not control IgG, resulted in pancreatic and salivary gland injuries. Pancreatic injury was also induced by injecting patient IgG1 or IgG4, with more destructive changes induced by IgG1 than by IgG4. The potent pathogenic activity of patient IgG1 was significantly inhibited by simultaneous injection of patient IgG4. Binding of patient IgG, especially IgG1 and IgG4, to pancreatic tissue was confirmed in both the mouse model and AIP tissue samples. IgG1 and IgG4 from patients with IgG4-RD have pathogenic activities through binding affected tissues in neonatal mice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. 39 CFR 111.2 - Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.2 Section 111.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] GENERAL INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.2...

  10. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... the approval of the Director of the Federal Register.” In conformity with that provision, and with 39...

  11. A brain-computer interface controlled mail client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Wang, Cong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a brain-computer interface (BCI) based mail client. This system is controlled by hybrid features extracted from scalp-recorded electroencephalographic (EEG). We emulate the computer mouse by the motor imagery-based mu rhythm and the P300 potential. Furthermore, an adaptive P300 speller is included to provide text input function. With this BCI mail client, users can receive, read, write mails, as well as attach files in mail writing. The system has been tested on 3 subjects. Experimental results show that mail communication with this system is feasible.

  12. Oxidation Behavior of IG-11, IG-110 and IG-430 Graphites in Air Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jin Ki; Chi, Se Hwan

    2006-01-01

    In high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), graphite is used as a moderator and a reflector as well as a major structural component. During operation or in the event of an accident, subsequent graphite oxidation due to the graphite out-gassing or heat exchanger tube leakage results in changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the components. For this reason, a lot of studies on oxidation have long been performed to understand the high temperature oxidation behavior and to find a proper countermeasure over the expected operating range. In this study, the oxidation rates of IG-11, IG-110 and IG-430 nuclear graphites were determined at high temperature and evaluated in view of the grades and the oxidation mechanisms at different temperature range

  13. Radioimmunoassay of IgG and IgM rheumatoid factors reacting with human IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, D.A.; Lawrance, S.; Catalano, M.A.; Vaughan, J.H.; Abraham, G.

    1977-01-01

    Although IgG rheumatoid factor may play a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, previously there have been no precise methods for its specific measurement in serum and synovial fluid. This paper describes a solid phase radioimmunoassay for the independent quantification of IgM and IgG rheumatoid factor reacting with the Fc fragment of human IgG. As measured by this assay, serum IgG rheumatoid factor levels differed significantly between patients with seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and normal control subjects. In addition, several sera and joint fluids from patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, even without vasculitis, were shown by gel chromatography to have acid-dissociable complexes of IgG rheumatoid factor suggestive of IgG-IgG dimer or trimer formation

  14. Anti-PGL1 salivary IgA/IgM, serum IgG/IgM, and nasal Mycobacterium leprae DNA in individuals with household contact with leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito e Cabral, Paula; Júnior, José Evandro Cunha; de Macedo, Alexandre Casimiro; Alves, Alexandre Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Brito e Cabral, Tereza Cristina; Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Pinto, Maria Isabel Moraes; Oseki, Karen Tubono; Camara, Lilia Maria Carneiro; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2013-11-01

    Leprosy household contacts represent a group at high risk of developing the disease. The aim of this study was to detect Mycobacterium leprae subclinical infection in this group through serological and molecular parameters. Serum anti-PGL1 IgG/IgM and salivary anti-PGL1 IgA/IgM was investigated using an ELISA, and nasal carriage of M. leprae DNA was detected by PCR, in leprosy household contacts of paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) household leprosy patients (n=135), their index cases (n=30), and in persons living in a low endemic city (n=17). Salivary anti-PGL1 IgA and IgM and serum anti-PGL1 IgG showed good correlation comparing contacts and index cases (p0.05). A high frequency of anti-PGL1 IgM positivity was found in IgG-negative samples (pleprae DNA was found in the nasal swabs of nine out of the 85 MB household leprosy contacts (10.6%) and in three out of the 50 PB household leprosy contacts (6.0%). We strongly suggest that serum IgG/IgM and salivary anti-PGL1 IgA/IgM measurements are used to follow leprosy household contacts. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The mechanism of reduced IgG/IgE-binding of β-lactoglobulin by pulsed electric field pretreatment combined with glycation revealed by ECD/FTICR-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenhua; Tu, Zongcai; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lu; Kaltashov, Igor A; Zhao, Yunlong; Niu, Chendi; Yao, Honglin; Ye, Wenfeng

    2018-01-24

    Bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) is a major allergen existing in milk and causes about 90% of IgE-mediated cow's milk allergies. Previous studies showed that pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment could partially unfold the protein, which may contribute to the improvement of protein glycation. In this study, the effect of PEF pretreatment combined with glycation on the IgG/IgE-binding ability and the structure of β-Lg was investigated. The result showed that PEF pretreatment combined with glycation significantly reduced the IgG and IgE binding abilities, which was attributed to the changes of secondary and tertiary structure and the increase in glycation sites and degree of substitution per peptide (DSP) value determined by electron capture dissociation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ECD/FTICR-MS). Unexpectedly, glycation sites (K47, K91 and K135) added by two mannose molecules were identified in glycated β-Lg with PEF pretreatment. Moreover, the results indicated that PEF pretreatment at 25 kV cm -1 for 60 μs promoted the reduction of IgG/IgE-binding capacity by increasing the glycation degree of β-Lg, whereas single PEF treatment under the same conditions markedly enhanced the IgG/IgE-binding ability by partially unfolding the structure of β-Lg. The results suggested that ECD/FTICR-MS could help us to understand the mechanism of reduction in the IgG/IgE-binding of β-Lg by structural characterization at the molecular level. Therefore, PEF pretreatment combined with glycation may provide an alternative method for β-Lg desensitization.

  16. Important update of CERN Mail Services

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Mail Services are evolving. In the course of June and July 2009, all CERN mailboxes will be updated with a new infrastructure for hosting mailboxes, running Exchange 2007. This update is taking place in order to provide the capacity upgrade for the constantly growing volume of CERN mailboxes. It is also the opportunity to provide a number of improvements to CERN mailboxes: new and improved Outlook Web Access (the web interface used to access your mailbox from a web browser, also known as "webmail"), new features in the Out-of-Office auto-reply assistant, easier spam management... The update will preserve the mailbox configuration and no specific action is required by users. During the next weeks, each mailbox will be individually notified of the upcoming update the day before it takes place. We invite all users to carefully read this notification as it will contain the latest information for this update. The mailbox will be unavailable for a short time during the ni...

  17. IgG4-related disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Klöppel, Günter

    2018-01-01

    disease (IgG4-RD). The histologic key findings are lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells combined with storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis. Among the organs mainly affected by IgG4-RD are the pancreas and the extrahepatic bile ducts. The pancreatic and biliary...... alterations have been described under the terms autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and sclerosing cholangitis, respectively. These diseases are currently more precisely called IgG4-related pancreatitis (or type 1 AIP to distinguish it from type 2 AIP that is unrelated to IgG4-RD) and IgG4-related sclerosing...... cholangitis (IgG4-related SC). Clinically and grossly, both diseases commonly imitate pancreatic and biliary adenocarcinoma, tumors that are well known for their dismal prognosis. As IgG4-RD responds to steroid treatment, making a resection of a suspected tumor unnecessary, a biopsy is often required...

  18. Role of Natural IgM Autoantibodies (IgM-NAA) and IgM Anti-Leukocyte Antibodies (IgM-ALA) in Regulating Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Peter I

    2017-01-01

    Natural IgM autoantibodies (IgM-NAA) are rapidly produced to inhibit pathogens and abrogate inflammation mediated by invading microorganisms and host neoantigens. IgM-NAA achieve this difficult task by being polyreactive with low binding affinity but with high avidity, characteristics that allow these antibodies to bind antigenic determinants shared by pathogens and neoantigens. Hence the same clones of natural IgM can bind and mask host neoantigens as well as inhibit microorganisms. In addition, IgM-NAA regulate the inflammatory response via mechanisms involving binding of IgM to apoptotic cells to enhance their removal and binding of IgM to live leukocytes to regulate their function. Secondly, we review how natural IgM prevents autoimmune disorders arising from pathogenic IgG autoantibodies as well as by autoreactive B and T cells that have escaped tolerance mechanisms. Thirdly, using IgM knockout mice, we show that regulatory B and T cells require IgM to effectively regulate inflammation mediated by innate, adaptive and autoimmune mechanisms. It is therefore not surprising why the host positively selects such autoreactive B1 cells that generate protective IgM-NAA, which are also evolutionarily conserved. Fourthly, we show that IgM anti-leukocyte autoantibodies (IgM-ALA) levels and their repertoire can vary in normal humans and disease states and this variation may partly explain the observed differences in the inflammatory response after infection, ischemic injury or after a transplant. Finally we also show how protective IgM-NAA can be rendered pathogenic under non-physiological conditions. IgM-NAA have therapeutic potential. Polyclonal IgM infusions can be used to abrogate ongoing inflammation. Additionally, inflammation arising after ischemic kidney injury, e.g., during high-risk elective cardiac surgery or after allograft transplantation, can be prevented by pre-emptively infusing polyclonal IgM, or DC pretreated ex vivo with IgM, or by increasing in vivo Ig

  19. E-mail security: new restriction on attachments

    CERN Multimedia

    The Mail Team

    2006-01-01

    In order to further protect CERN mail users against viruses that spread using malicious files, from 1st March onwards dangerous file types already forbidden as mail attachments will also be forbidden as contents of an archive attachment (.zip and .rar compressed files). More details, including a list of blocked file types, can be found at http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=171010 The Mail Team

  20. E-mail security: new restriction on attachments

    CERN Multimedia

    The Mail Team

    2006-01-01

    In order to further protect CERN mail users against viruses that spread using malicious files, from 1st March onwards dangerous file types already forbidden as mail attachments will also be forbidden as contents of an archive attachment (.zip and .rar compressed files). More details, including a list of blocked file types, can be found at http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=171010. The Mail Team

  1. IgG4 breaking the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, Rob C.; Schuurman, Janine

    2002-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies have been known for some time to be functionally monovalent. Recently, the structural basis for this monovalency has been elucidated: the in vivo exchange of IgG half-molecules (one H-plus one L-chain) among IgG4. This process results in bispecific antibodies that

  2. JSI-124 inhibits IgE production in an IgE B cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Lulu; Bi, Jiacheng; Yan, Dehong; Ye, Xiufeng; Zheng, Mingxing; Yu, Guang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    IgE is a key effector molecule in atopic diseases; however, the regulation mechanisms of IgE production in IgE B cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that JSI-124 (cucurbitacin I), a selective STAT3 inhibitor, selectively inhibits production of IgE by a human IgE B cell line, CRL-8033 cells, while does not affect the IgG production by IgG B cell lines. In the aspect of molecular mechanism, we found that Igλ, but not Ighe, gene expression was suppressed by JSI-124. The above effects of JSI-124 were not mediated by affecting cellular proliferation or apoptosis. Furthermore, multiple B cell differentiation-related genes expression was not significantly affected by JSI-124. Taken together, we demonstrate a potential strategy of therapeutically suppressing IgE production without affecting IgG production in atopic patients. - Highlights: • JSI-124 inhibits IgE production in an IgE B cell line, CRL-8033 cells. • JSI-124 does not affect IgG production by IgG B cell lines. • JSI-124 inhibits IgE production mainly by suppressing transcription of Igλ.

  3. Glycation, oxidation and glycoxidation of IgG: a biophysical, biochemical, immunological and hematological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sidra; Moinuddin; Mir, Abdul Rouf; Raghav, Alok; Habib, Safia; Alam, Khursheed; Ali, Asif

    2017-09-12

    Glycation and oxidation induce structural alterations in the proteins in an interdependent manner with consequent pathological implications. The published literature presents wide range of modifications in conformational characteristics of proteins by glycation and oxidation; however, there is little data that could elaborate the cumulative effect of both the processes. This study has analysed the modifications in IgG by methylglyoxal (MG) (glycative stress), hydroxyl radical ([Formula: see text]) (oxidative stress) and by their combined action i.e. [Formula: see text] treatment of MG glycated IgG (glycoxidation). It further addresses the implications of the altered structural integrity of IgG on its immunological characteristics and impact on haematological parameters in rabbits. Using circular dichroism, FTIR, SDS-PAGE analysis, thioflavin-T fluorescence assay, congo red absorbance analysis, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, ELISA, blood cell counts and rectal temperature studies, we report that the glycoxidative modification caused maximum alteration in the IgG as compared to the glycatively and oxidatively modified protein. Far-UV CD results confirmed the highest decline in the beta-pleated sheet content of the protein by glycoxidation. The damage led to the reduced flexibility and enhanced electronic interactions in IgG as observed by near-UV CD. Modifications caused cross-linking and adduct formation in the serum protein. The electron micrograph confirmed amorphous aggregation in modified IgG. The modifications increased the hydrodynamic radius of IgG by allowing the attachment of [Formula: see text] and MG residues. The glycoxidatively modified IgG induced the maximum antibody titres that showed high specificity towards the altered IgG. The glycoxidation of IgG leads to activation of inflammatory pathways.

  4. Enterovirus IgM detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisk, G.; Nilsson, E.; Diderholm, H.

    1989-01-01

    A predominantly type-specific L-capture radio-immunoassay (RIA) of IgM antibodies to Coxsackie B1-B5 (CB1-CB5) viruses was previously described. The present study is concerned with the specificity of this assay, using as antigen different strains of one serotype (CB5) and procapsids of two serotypes (CB3 and CB5). Eight strains of CB5 virions were tested against acute and/or convalescent sera from 10 patients from whom CB5 had been isolated. It is concluded that the choice of strain is important if a high frequency of homotypic titres with no or only a few heterotypic reactions is to be obtained. When procapsids were used as antigen, both homotypic and heterotypic titres were seen to a large extent. All patients with homotypic IgM against CB3 or CB5 virions showed IgM against the CB3 or the CB5 procapsids, respectively. It is concluded that the use of two or more procapsids in combination is of value for the diagnosis of a recent or current enterovirus infection (author). 18 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  5. The Impact of a Targeted Training Program on E-Mail System Processing Capabilities and Self-Perception of E-Mail Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    As business e-mail volumes continue to grow and employees spend increasingly larger portions of their day processing e-mail, there is strong evidence of the negative impacts of e-mail processing, especially with respect to e-mail overload. This study sought to determine whether a training program focused on select e-mail features and processing…

  6. Control of IgE and IgGl antibody production in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Macedo, M.S.; Braga, F.; Mota, I.

    1976-01-01

    The production of IgE and IgCl was studied in untreated, thymectomized, splenectomized, anti-thymocyte serum-treated, or sublethally X-irradiated mice. Dinitrophenyl, Ascaris, and ovalbumin were used as antigens, and aluminum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. A suppression of IgE production was observed in adult thymectomized mice, although the kinetic pattern of the antibody response was the same as in control animals. IgGl antibody production was not affected by thymectomy. Splenectomy did not change either IgE or IgGl production. A single dose of rabbit antithymocyte serum (ATS) given 8 days after immunization inhibited IgE antibody production. The effect of ATS was dose dependent and also varied with the amount of antigen used, the immune response to high doses being more susceptible to the effect of ATS. No alteration in IgGl production was caused by ATS even when IgE antibody formation was completely inhibited. When preceding immunization, sublethal irradiation enhanced IgE antibody formation and partially suppressed IgGl production; applied after immunization, irradiation caused an enhancement of IgE production which was inversely proportional to the interval elapsed between the two procedures. On the other hand, the IgGl antibody production was fairly resistant to the same treatment. The results suggest a clearcut separation between the mechanisms regulating IgE and IgGl production in mice

  7. Target Marketing and Direct Mail: A Smart Campaign Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brostoff, Mark J.

    1994-01-01

    Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that helps identify and classify a camp's product or service and determine the needs of a targeted market for the purpose of allocating marketing resources. Offers strategies for defining a target market and discusses the benefits of direct mail, deriving a mailing list, and suggestions for using a…

  8. PENGIRIMAN E-MAIL SPAM SEBAGAI KEJAHATAN CYBER DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Nugraha Putra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is part of the development of technology, where the internet provides many impacts, both positive and negative. Currently, privacy issues on the internet have also become a complicated legal issue, this is due to quite a number of privacy-related issues, but not all countries in the world manage privacy issues on the internet. As a means of communicating the Internet has introduced e-mail that provides convenience and practicality. But in its development e-mail has an adverse impact on its users in the form of e-mail spam. In terms of its actions, sending spam e-mail is quite a disadvantage, even violate the privacy. Some countries have also set it to one type of cybercrime (cybercrime. This research will discuss e-mail spam in Indonesia, how the legislation in Indonesia see the action of this spam e-mail, is there any possibility of spam e-mail is criminalized as a cybercrime. The research will also look at how spam e-mails violate privacy and review and analyze internet privacy settings in Indonesia in relation to the criminalization of spam email.

  9. 20 CFR 638.516 - Laundry, mail, and telephone service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laundry, mail, and telephone service. 638.516... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.516 Laundry, mail, and telephone service. (a) The center operator shall provide adequate laundry services and supplies at...

  10. 9. mail Moskvasse minna ei tohi / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Autori arvates tähendaks Eesti Vabariigi presidendi visiit 9. mail Moskvasse sõjaroimarite õigeksmõistmist. Lisa: Kas Eesti president peaks minema 9. mail Moskvasse? Küsimusele vastavad: Heiki Ahonen, Dimitri Klenski, Karmo Tüür

  11. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... primary and secondary lithium cells or lithium batteries internationally, or to and from an APO, FPO, or... prohibited the mailing of lithium batteries and cells internationally and when sent to and from any Army Post...

  12. 76 FR 55799 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... would incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries to international, or... equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries that were to be effective October 3, 2011. These...

  13. 76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries. This is consistent with [email protected] , with a subject line of ``International Lithium Batteries.'' Faxed comments are not...

  14. 15 CFR 748.2 - Obtaining forms; mailing addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining forms; mailing addresses... APPLICATIONS (CLASSIFICATION, ADVISORY, AND LICENSE) AND DOCUMENTATION § 748.2 Obtaining forms; mailing addresses. (a) You may obtain the forms required by the EAR from any U.S. Department of Commerce District...

  15. A Discourse Analysis of School Counseling Supervisory E-Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Melissa; Gordon, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This article is a discourse analysis of weekly computer-mediated communications between 8 school counseling interns and their e-mail supervisor over a 16-week semester. Course-required e-mail supervision was provided as an adjunct to traditional face-to-face individual and group supervision. School counselor supervisees and supervisor enacted 3…

  16. 76 FR 61947 - Timely Mailing Treated as Timely Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... regulations affect taxpayers who mail Federal tax documents to the Internal Revenue Service or the United... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 [TD 9543] RIN 1545-BA99 Timely Mailing Treated as Timely Filing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury. ACTION: Correcting amendment...

  17. 76 FR 62607 - Timely Mailing Treated as Timely Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... affect taxpayers who mail Federal tax documents to the Internal Revenue service or the United States Tax... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 [TD 9543] RIN 1545-BA99 Timely Mailing Treated as Timely Filing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to...

  18. Private E-Mail Requests and the Diffusion of Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Greg; Yechiam, Eldad

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of e-mail technology and requesting information from multiple sources simultaneously focuses on an experiment demonstrating that addressing e-mails simultaneously to multiple recipients may actually reduce the number of helpful responses. Discusses diffusion of responsibility and implications for the application of social cueing theory…

  19. E-Mail at Work: Is it Really Private?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Cindy

    This paper examines the controversy of e-mail privacy in the workplace. Once an employee uses an e-mail system that belongs to the employer, according to recent case law, their privacy rights are forfeited. Employers will now have to start creating policies to safeguard themselves from expensive litigation, and employees will have to be more…

  20. 1 CFR 5.7 - Delivery and mailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery and mailing. 5.7 Section 5.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.7 Delivery and mailing. The Government Printing Office shall distribute the Federal Register by delivery or by deposit at...

  1. IgG4 antibodies in Egyptian patients with schistosomiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskander, R.; Das, P. K.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins were determined in 40 Egyptian patients with schistosomiasis. In addition to the well-established elevation in total IgE, a striking imbalance in the IgG subclass levels was found: IgG3 and IgG4 levels were markedly elevated, whereas IgG2 levels were normal. The IgG4 level did

  2. BEBAN JARINGAN SAAT MENGAKSES EMAIL DARI BEBERAPA MAIL SERVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Thamrin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Expensive internet facilities require prudent in its use both as a source of information and communication media. This paper discusses observations of the perceived burden of network bandwidth when accessing some of the mail server using a webmail application. Mail server in question consists of three commercial server and 2 non-commercial server. Data when it download home page, while logged in, open the email, and during idle logout recorded with sniffer Wireshark. Observations in various situations and scenarios indicate that access Yahoo email gives the network load is very high while the SquirrelMail gives the network load is very low than 5 other mail servers. For an institution, use a local mail server (institutional is highly recommended in the context of banddwidth savings.

  3. Predictive value of IgE/IgG4 antibody ratio in children with egg allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shindou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of specific IgG4 antibodies to hen’s egg white and determine their utility as a marker for the outcome of oral challenge test in children sensitized to hen’s egg Methods The hen’s egg oral food challenge test was performed in 105 sensitized children without atopic dermatitis, and the titers of egg white-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies were measured. To set the cut-off values of IgG4, IgE, and the IgE/IgG4 ratio for predicting positive results in oral challenges, receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted and the area under the curves (AUC were calculated. Results Sixty-four of 105 oral challenges with whole eggs were assessed as positive. The AUC for IgE, IgG4, and IgE/IgG4 for the prediction of positive results were 0.609, 0.724, and 0.847, respectively. Thus, the IgE/IgG4 ratio generated significantly higher specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (%, and negative predictive value (% than the individual IgE and IgG4. The negative predictive value of the IgE/IgG4 ratio was 90% at a value of 1. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the egg white-specific serum IgE/IgG4 ratio is important for predicting reactivity to egg during food challenges.

  4. 75 FR 76282 - Domestic Shipping Services Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[reg]), to reflect changes to prices and mailing standards for the following Shipping Services: Express Mail[reg], Priority Mail[reg], Parcel Select[reg... following changes to Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM...

  5. Serum IgG2 and tissue IgG2 plasma cell elevation in orbital IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD): Potential use in IgG4-RD assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Anita S Y; Mudhar, Hardeep; Shen, Sunny Yu; Lang, Stephanie S; Fernando, Malee; Hilmy, Maryam Hazly; Guppy, Naomi Jayne; Rennie, Ian; Dunkley, Lisa; Al Jajeh, Issam

    2017-11-01

    To determine the role of serum and tissue IgG2 in orbital biopsies with the histological features of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in comparison with non-IgG4-related orbital inflammatory disorders (OID), including autoimmune disorders. This is an international (Sheffield, UK, and Singapore) collaborative, retrospective case review of 69 patients (38 from Singapore National Eye Centre and 31 from Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield) with orbital inflammatory biopsies between 2002 and 2016. Clinical information and histology were reviewed and cases were classified into three groups: Group 1: IgG4-RD orbital inflammation (n=43); Group 2: idiopathic OID (n=12) and Group 3: autoimmune OID (n=14). Serum IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were collated where available and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for tissue IgG2 plasma cells was performed. Dual IHC showed IgG2 plasma cells as a distinct population from IgG4 plasma cells. Significant (twofold) serum IgG2 elevation was noted among IgG4-RD (group 1), idiopathic (group 2) and autoimmune OID (group 3). Similarly, significant elevation of tissue IgG2 plasma cells was also seen among IgG4-RD (group 1), idiopathic and autoimmune OID (groups 2 and 3). Significant elevations of serum IgG2 and tissue IgG2 plasma cells are present in orbital IgG4-RD in comparison with non-IgG4 orbital inflammation (idiopathic and autoimmune OID), suggesting that IgG2 may play a role in IgG4-RD. A serum IgG2 cut-off >5.3 g/L was found to be 80% sensitive and 91.7% specific for orbital IgG4-RD, with an accuracy of 0.90. Tissue IgG2 and IgG4 subclass reporting may provide additional insight regarding the 'IgG4-RD' pathogenesis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Data Leakage Prevention: E-Mail Protection via Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kamaljeet; Gupta, Ishu; Singh, Ashutosh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Protection of digital assets and intellectual property is becoming a challenge for most of the companies. Due to increasing availability of database services on internet, data may be insecure after passing through precarious networks. To protect intellectual property (IP) is a major concern for today's organizations, because a leakage that compromises IP means, sensitive information of a company is in the hands of biggest competitors. Electronic information processing and communication is replacing paper in many applications increasingly. Instead of paper, an email is being used for communication at workplace and from social media logins to bank accounts. Nowadays an email is becoming a mainstream business tool. An email can be misused to leave company’s sensitive data open to compromise. So, it may be of little surprise that attacks on emails are common. So, here we need an email protection system (EPS) that will protect information to leave organization via mail. In this paper, we developed an algorithm that will offer email protection via gateway during data transfer. This algorithm matches the patterns with the keywords stored in the database and then takes the actions accordingly to protect the data. This paper describes why email protection is important? How companies can protect their confidential information from being leaked by insiders.

  7. Toxicological Effects of Nickel Chloride on IgA+ B Cells and sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyuan Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of dietary NiCl2 on IgA+ B cells and the immunoglobulins including sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM in the small intestine and cecal tonsil of broilers by the methods of immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Compared with the control group, the IgA+ B cell number and the sIgA, IgA, IgG, and IgM contents in the NiCl2-treated groups were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01. It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in the excess of 300 mg/kg had negative effects on the IgA+ B cell number and the abovementioned immunoglobulin contents in the small intestine and the cecal tonsil. NiCl2-reduced sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM contents is due to decrease in the population and/or the activation of B cell. The results suggest that NiCl2 at high levels has intestinal mucosal humoral immunotoxicity in animals.

  8. Amylolytic activity of IgM and IgG antibodies from patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Andrew N; Ivanen, Dina R; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Ershova, Nadezhda A; Kanyshkova, Tat'yana G; Buneva, Valentina N; Mogelnitskii, Alexander S; Doronin, Boris M; Favorova, Olga O; Nevinsky, Georgy A; Neustroev, Kirill N

    2003-05-01

    IgG and IgM antibodies from the sera of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were found to possess amylolytic activity hydrolyzing alpha-(1-->4)-glucosyl linkages of maltooligosaccharides, glycogen, and several artificial substrates. Individual IgM fractions isolated from 54 analyzed patients with the clinically definite diagnoses of MS had approximately three orders of magnitude higher specific amylolytic activity than that for healthy donors, whereas IgG from only a few patients had high amylolytic activity. Strict criteria were used to prove that the amylolytic activity of IgMs and IgGs is their intrinsic property and is not due to any enzyme contamination. Fab fragments produced from IgM and IgG fractions of the MS patients displayed the same amylolytic activity. IgMs from various patients demonstrated different modes of action in hydrolyzing maltooligosaccharides.

  9. 76 FR 17787 - Market Dominant Negotiated Service Agreement (NSA) for First-Class Mail and Standard Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Market Dominant Negotiated Service Agreement (NSA) for First- Class....1, to establish a new Negotiated Service Agreement (NSA) Market Dominant product for First-Class... Gifford at 202-268-8082. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This new NSA for First-Class Mail and Standard Mail is...

  10. Serum total IgG and IgG4 levels in thyroid eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aileen Sy, Rona Z Silkiss Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: To investigate the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD and thyroid eye disease (TED with respect to IgG levels. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of total IgG, IgG subclass, and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI levels in 24 patients with TED. Results: Five patients (20.8% demonstrated serum IgG4 levels consistent with IgG4-RD without any additional systemic disease. Total IgG and IgG subclass levels were found to be an inadequate proxy for TSI elevation. Conclusion: There may be a subtype of TED patients with elevated IgG4 in the absence of IgG4-RD systemic findings. Keywords: thyroid eye disease, IgG subclass, IgG4, Graves’ disease, Graves’ ophthalmopathy, IgG4-RD

  11. Three IgH isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY are expressed in Gentoo penguin and zebra finch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyue Han

    Full Text Available Previous studies on a limited number of birds suggested that the IgD-encoding gene was absent in birds. However, one of our recent studies showed that the gene was definitely expressed in the ostrich and emu. Interestingly, we also identified subclass diversification of IgM and IgY in these two birds. To better understand immunoglobulin genes in birds, in this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata and Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, belonging respectively to the order Passeriformes, the most successful bird order in terms of species diversity and numbers, and Sphenisciformes, a relatively primitive avian order. Similar to the results obtained in chickens and ducks, only three genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY, were identified in both species. Besides, we detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound IgA lacking the last two CH exons in the Gentoo penguin. We did not find any evidence supporting the presence of IgD gene or subclass diversification of IgM/IgY in penguin or zebra finch. The obtained data in our study provide more insights into the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in birds and may help to better understand the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in tetrapods.

  12. Three IgH isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY are expressed in Gentoo penguin and zebra finch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haitang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Pan, Qingjie; Ren, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on a limited number of birds suggested that the IgD-encoding gene was absent in birds. However, one of our recent studies showed that the gene was definitely expressed in the ostrich and emu. Interestingly, we also identified subclass diversification of IgM and IgY in these two birds. To better understand immunoglobulin genes in birds, in this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), belonging respectively to the order Passeriformes, the most successful bird order in terms of species diversity and numbers, and Sphenisciformes, a relatively primitive avian order. Similar to the results obtained in chickens and ducks, only three genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY, were identified in both species. Besides, we detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound IgA lacking the last two CH exons in the Gentoo penguin. We did not find any evidence supporting the presence of IgD gene or subclass diversification of IgM/IgY in penguin or zebra finch. The obtained data in our study provide more insights into the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in birds and may help to better understand the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in tetrapods. PMID:28403146

  13. Three IgH isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY are expressed in Gentoo penguin and zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Binyue; Li, Yan; Han, Haitang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Pan, Qingjie; Ren, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on a limited number of birds suggested that the IgD-encoding gene was absent in birds. However, one of our recent studies showed that the gene was definitely expressed in the ostrich and emu. Interestingly, we also identified subclass diversification of IgM and IgY in these two birds. To better understand immunoglobulin genes in birds, in this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), belonging respectively to the order Passeriformes, the most successful bird order in terms of species diversity and numbers, and Sphenisciformes, a relatively primitive avian order. Similar to the results obtained in chickens and ducks, only three genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY, were identified in both species. Besides, we detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound IgA lacking the last two CH exons in the Gentoo penguin. We did not find any evidence supporting the presence of IgD gene or subclass diversification of IgM/IgY in penguin or zebra finch. The obtained data in our study provide more insights into the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in birds and may help to better understand the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in tetrapods.

  14. Determination of IgE rheumatoid factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.; Schlenvoigt, G.; Jaeger, L.

    1987-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have been developed for the identification of IgE rheumatoid factor (IgE RF). For both, human IgG was used as antigen. Bound IgE RF was detected by means of commercially available rabbit anti-human IgE antiserum and 125 I-labelled sheep anti-rabbit IgG as well as monoclonal anti-human-ε-chain antibody and horse-radish peroxidase-labelled sheep anti-mouse IgG. The presence of IgM RF did not cause false positive results. Correlation in the results of both assays were significant, the reproducibility was very good. In 50.6% of 79 sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis IgE RF has been detected with both or one of the methods. Only in 1 out of 12 seronegative rheumatoid arthritis sera IgE RF was identified. (author)

  15. Mouse allergen exposure and immunologic responses: IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG and IgG4 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Krop, Esmeralda J. M.; Diette, Gregory B.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Smith, Abigail L.; Eggleston, Peyton A.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is evidence that contact with mice is associated with IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific antibody responses, the exposure-response relationships remain unclear. To determine whether IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG (mIgG) and mIgG4 levels

  16. Comparison of e-mail communication skills among first- and fourth-year dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Marnie; Horvath, Zsuzsa; Weinberg, Seth M; Bhatt, Jaya; Spallek, Heiko

    2013-11-01

    As e-mail and other forms of electronic communication increase in popularity, it is important for dental schools to consider a curriculum that prepares their graduates to understand and apply effective electronic communication strategies to their patients. Reflecting this shift in communication behavior, the American Medical Association has developed specific e-mail communication guidelines. Some behavioral examples in these guidelines include protecting patients' protected health information (PHI), ensuring proper record keeping, and using professional, courteous, and understandable language. In this study, a sample of first- and fourth-year dental students (n=160) at the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine participated in an assignment assessing their patient-provider e-mail communication skills. A rubric was used to evaluate and compare the data between dental student classes. The results reveal a generalized lack of compliance with several of these guidelines by both classes (e.g., failure to protect PHI), despite efforts to expose students to these concepts in the curriculum. In an effort to train emerging dentists to function in a rapidly changing technological environment, these findings suggest a need for growth and development of curricula and perhaps guidelines/recommendations for behavioral competencies regarding dental students' use of electronic communication in the patient care environment.

  17. Cutoff Values of Serum IgG4 and Histopathological IgG4+ Plasma Cells for Diagnosis of Patients with IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a new disease classification established in Japan in the 21st century. Patients with IgG4-related disease display hyper-IgG4-gammaglobulinemia, massive infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells into tissue, and good response to glucocorticoids. Since IgG4 overexpression is also observed in other disorders, it is necessary to diagnose IgG4-related disease carefully and correctly. We therefore sought to determine cutoff values for serum IgG4 and IgG4/IgG and for IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cells in tissue diagnostic of IgG4-related disease. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed serum IgG4 concentrations and IgG4/IgG ratio and IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratio in tissues of 132 patients with IgG4-related disease and 48 patients with other disorders. Result. Serum IgG4 >135  mg/dl demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.0% and a specificity of 79.6% in diagnosing IgG4-related disease, and serum IgG4/IgG ratios >8% had a sensitivity and specificity of 95.5% and 87.5%, respectively. IgG4+cell/IgG+ cell ratio in tissues >40% had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.4% and 85.7%, respectively. However, the number of IgG4+ cells was reduced in severely fibrotic parts of tissues. Conclusion. Although a recent unanimous consensus of all relevant researchers in Japan recently established the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease, findings such as ours indicate that further discussion is needed.

  18. Save our inboxes! Use e-mail wisely

    CERN Multimedia

    Achintya Rao

    2013-01-01

    At CERN, with collaborators all over the world, e-mail is inevitably the primary means of communication: we use it for everything from coordinating projects to organising lunches. But e-mail can also be one of the most inefficient means of communication we have! Here's how to fix it.   Let’s get straight to the point: we receive too many e-mails. Think about all the e-mails that you deleted without a second thought. Think about the times you’ve unnecessarily been in CC. Take a look at the unread e-mails sitting in your inbox at this very moment, ones that you have no intention of ever looking at. You can, however, tame this overload with a few simple measures and turn e-mail into an important communication and productivity tool. Many recommendations for improving e-mail etiquette suggest an abrasive approach riddled with bullet points. In a vastly multi-cultural setting such as CERN, however this approach may fail. So, here are a few dos and don’ts based o...

  19. Did Your Mailed Ballot Count: The Unrecognized Unreliability of Voting By Mail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Yasinsac

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Voting By Mail (VBM was developed to support absentee voters. It was originally intended to handle canonical absentee voters who now fall under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Voting Act (UOCAVA and those with legally acceptable reasons for being unable to appear at the polls on Election Day. Its use slowly expanded to more casual justifications, such as those with planned Election Day travel. More recently, there has been a trend of further expansion to on-demand VBM in many states. As a result, the percentage of VBM ballots has skyrocketed, with little research regarding its impacts on security, privacy, reliability, and accuracy on U. S. elections. In virtually every close election, the outcome must await tabulation of VBM ballots. Yet, VBM may be the least reliable voting approach in wide spread use today. Vote By Mail fraud is recognized by some as possibly the single greatest security vulnerability in U. S. elections. The lack of in-person, at-the-polls accountability makes absentee ballots the tool of choice for those inclined to commit fraud," the Florida Department of Law Enforcement concluded in 1998, after a mayoral election in Miami was thrown out when officials learned that "vote brokers" had signed hundreds of phony absentee ballots.1 Conversely, others recognize theoretical weaknesses in VBM, but generally dismiss its practical impact [1, 2]. Others continue to promote VBM expansion [3, 4]. In this paper, we identify inherent, widespread vulnerability in VBM systems and illustrate their practical impact with numerous examples. We show specifically why VBM systems are not auditable and demonstrate how their unreliability can negatively impact real elections.

  20. Comparison of four methods to assess colostral IgG concentration in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Tyler, Jeff W; Middleton, John R; Spain, James N; Dill, Jeffrey S; Steevens, Barry J

    2008-09-01

    To determine sensitivity and specificity of 4 methods to assess colostral IgG concentration in dairy cows and determine the optimal cutpoint for each method. Cross-sectional study. 160 Holstein dairy cows. 171 composite colostrum samples collected within 2 hours after parturition were used in the study. Test methods used to estimate colostral IgG concentration consisted of weight of the first milking, 2 hydrometers, and an electronic refractometer. Results of the test methods were compared with colostral IgG concentration determined by means of radial immunodiffusion. For each method, sensitivity and specificity for detecting colostral IgG concentration hydrometer 1, 0.75; hydrometer 2, 0.76; refractometer, 0.75), but no significant differences were identified among the other 3 methods with regard to sensitivity. Specificities at the optimal cutpoint were similar for all 4 methods. Results suggested that use of either hydrometer or the electronic refractometer was an acceptable method of screening colostrum for low IgG concentration; however, the manufacturer-defined scale for both hydrometers overestimated colostral IgG concentration. Use of weight of the first milking as a screening test to identify bovine colostrum with inadequate IgG concentration could not be justified because of the low sensitivity.

  1. IGS polar motion measurement accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ray

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate an error budget for the long-term accuracy of IGS (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service polar motion estimates, concluding that it is probably about 25–30 μas (1-sigma overall, although it is not possible to quantify possible contributions (mainly annual that might transfer directly from aliases of subdaily rotational tide errors. The leading sources are biases arising from the need to align daily, observed terrestrial frames, within which the pole coordinates are expressed and which are continuously deforming, to the secular, linear international reference frame. Such biases are largest over spans longer than about a year. Thanks to the very large number of IGS tracking stations, the formal covariance errors are much smaller, around 5 to 10 μas. Large networks also permit the systematic frame-related errors to be more effectively minimized but not eliminated. A number of periodic errors probably also influence polar motion results, mainly at annual, GPS (Global Positioning System draconitic, and fortnightly periods, but their impact on the overall error budget is unlikely to be significant except possibly for annual tidal aliases. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised in interpreting geophysical excitations near any of the suspect periods.

  2. Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvilla, S A; Dubois, A E J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J

    2014-01-01

    of the impact of, and investigations and interventions for, IgE-mediated food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Using a sensitive search strategy, we searched seven electronic bibliographic databases to identify disease-specific quality of life (QOL) tools relating to IgE-mediated food allergy...

  3. Serum levels of IgG and IgG4 in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Sachiko-Tsukamoto; Tagami, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kanako; Nanba, Kazutaka; Tamanaha, Tamiko; Usui, Takeshi; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Mori, Yusuke; Tsuji, Jun; Tanaka, Issei; Shimatsu, Akira

    2014-03-01

    Although IgG4-related disease is characterized by extensive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes of various organs, the details of this systemic disease are still unclear. We screened serum total IgG levels in the patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) to illustrate the prevalence of IgG4-related thyroiditis in HT. Twenty-four of 94 patients with HT (25.5%) had elevated serum IgG levels and their serum IgG4 was measured. Five of the 24 cases had more than 135 mg/dL of IgG4, which is the serum criterion of IgG4-related disease. One was a female patient who was initially treated as Graves' disease and rapidly developed a firm goiter and hypothyroidism. The biopsy of her thyroid gland revealed that follicular cells were atrophic with squamous metaplasia, replaced with fibrosis, which was compatible with the fibrous variant of HT. Immunohistochemical examination revealed diffuse infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and the serum IgG4 level was 179 mg/dL. The levels of IgG and IgG4 were positively correlated with the titers of anti-thyroglobulin antibody or anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody. In conclusion, at least a small portion of patients with HT with high titers of anti-thyroid antibodies may overlap the IgG4-related thyroiditis.

  4. IgG4-related nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchio, Giacomo; Roccatello, Dario

    2016-08-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized disorder, often with multiple organ involvement, characterized by dense tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis and frequently elevated serum IgG4 concentration. The kidney can be involved either directly or indirectly. The most frequent direct renal manifestations of IgG4-RD are IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) and membranous glomerulonephropathy. Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is another condition that is frequently IgG4-related and that can indirectly affect the kidney causing ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis. Contrast-enhanced computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography show different imaging findings and are useful tools for monitoring therapeutic response. Steroid treatment is the first line of therapy, but relapsing or refractory forms of the disease are frequently observed and require more aggressive therapeutic approaches. At our centre, we treated three cases of aggressive IgG4-related TIN and two cases of IgG4-related RPF with an intensified, immune suppressive protocol, obtaining good results without severe adverse effects.

  5. IgG4-Related Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takahiro; Shimizu, Shuya; Naitoh, Itaru

    2016-08-01

    More men than women develop immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). Age at clinical onset is significantly older in patients with IgG4-SC. Patients with IgG4-SC appear similar to those with cholangiocarcinoma and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The association between IgG4-SC and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is useful for the diagnosis of IgG4-SC. However, some IgG4-SC cases are isolated from AIP and are difficult to diagnose. The authors focus on three distinct features of IgG4-SC. First, diffuse inflammation induces a longer stenosis on cholangiography in contrast to the short stenosis of patients with PSC. Second, fibroinflammatory involvement is observed mainly in the stroma of the bile duct wall, whereas the bile duct epithelium is intact. Third, steroid therapy results in remarkable improvement. Although the prognosis of patients with IgG4-SC is good, some cases have developed portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis during their clinical course. Further study is needed to elucidate the long-term outcomes and mechanism of IgG4-SC. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Quantitative immunochemistry using IgG and IgY against plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative immunochemistry using IgG and IgY against plant hormones. ... both of animal origin, using chemical couplings to their respective functional groups. ... enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ELISA) to detect and quantify these ...

  7. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any carrier authorized to engage in foreign air transportation may transport...

  8. Direct e-mail marketing: Case of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Končar Jelena A.; Vukmirović Goran; Katai Žita

    2005-01-01

    Direct e-mail marketing refers to approaching customers directly, without employing intermediaries. It represents a direct mode of communication with the target population, which affects the creation of stronger and more loyal relationships with prospective customers, compared to traditional direct marketing resources (TV, radio, print and advertising panels, etc). The main goal of direct e-mail marketing is building long-term "one to one" relationships with current and prospective customers....

  9. Cord blood IgE. I. IgE screening in 2814 newborn children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L G; Høst, A; Halken, S

    1992-01-01

    Screening of total IgE in 2814 cord blood samples was analysed by Phadebas IgE PRIST in 2 1-year birth cohorts (1983-1984 and 1985-1986) in Denmark (n = 1189 + 1625). 48.6% of the sera contained less IgE than the detection limit 0.1 kU/l. Cord blood IgE values greater than or equal to 0.5 kU/l we...

  10. Evidence of a common regulation of IgE and IgG-subclass antibodies in humans during immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, I; Poulsen, L K; Osterballe, O

    1992-01-01

    Based on a 3-year prospective study of 20 pollen-allergic patients, where a detailed analysis of the IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 immune response was performed, we propose that a common regulatory mechanism exists between the IgE and IgG1 synthesis and between IgE and IgG4 synthesis during immunotherapy. I...

  11. Clinicopathological features of Riedel's thyroiditis associated with IgG4-related disease in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Ken; Inaba, Hidefumi; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishi, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Akira; Imai, Ryoukichi; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic fibrosing disorder characterized by a hard, infiltrative lesion in the thyroid gland, which is often associated with multifocal fibrosclerosis. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is typified by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into multiple organs, resulting in tissue fibrosis and organ dysfunction. In order to evaluate the clinicopathological features of RT and its relationship with IgG4-RD, we performed a Japanese literature search using the keywords "Riedel" and "Riedel's thyroiditis." We used the electronic databases Medline and Igaku Chuo Zasshi, the latter of which is the largest medical literature database in Japan. The diagnosis of RT was based on the presence of a fibroinflammatory process with extension into surrounding tissues. Only 10 patients in Japan fulfilled RT diagnostic criteria during the 25-year period between 1988 and 2012. Two patients with confirmed IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical findings demonstrated 43 and 13 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field, respectively, and the IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cell ratios of 20% and less than 5%. Of the 10 patients with RT, two received glucocorticoids, one of whom experienced marked shrinkage of the thyroid lesion. One patient had extra-thyroid involvement in the form of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Although the clinicopathological features of RT suggest that IgG4-RD may be the underlying condition in some cases, further investigation is needed to clarify the etiology of RT in relation to IgG4-RD.

  12. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:- To evaluate serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs), immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA and IgM) and Complement Components (C3c, C4 and Factor B) in Nigerians with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design:- Case control study. Setting:- University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

  13. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM and associated risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM and associated risk factors among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in Vhembe district of South Africa. ... shown a high prevalence of T. gondii (IgG) among patients attending different HIV clinics in the Vhembe district with no current infections among pregnant women.

  14. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  15. PHS terminal 'TEGACKY' dedicated to e-mailing; Mail senyo PHS tanmatsu 'TEGACKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The e-mail utilization rate at mobile communication terminals is increasing at a remarkable rate, as if to grow above the rate of communication by voice. Under the circumstances, a PHS (Personal Handyphone System) terminal 'TEGACKY' (type name: PM-T101) has been developed, designed exclusively for use for e-mailing. 'TEGACKY' is characterized in that its icons may be activated with pen, that input may be made by handwriting, and that its large screen allows a 48-character message consisting of 4 lines of 12 characters to be displayed at one time despite its compact size. It can also perform communication directly with other terminals or e-mail via center, and is provided with an information service function. 'TEGACKY' having such distinguished features has created a new category of terminals which are at once e-mailing tools. (translated by NEDO)

  16. The value of ProMED-mail for the Early Warning Committee in the Netherlands : more specific approach recommended

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeldenrust, M E; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; Postma, M.J.; van Vliet, J A

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a retrospective and descriptive study into the added value of ProMED-mail--the global electronic reporting system for outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases and toxins maintained by the International Society for Infectious Diseases--as an early warning system for The

  17. IgG4-gerelateerde ziekte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maillette de Buy Wenniger, Lucas J.; Doorenspleet, Marieke E.; Verheij, Joanne; de Vries, Niek; Beuers, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is often difficult to make. The clinical spectrum is diverse, with a variety of organ systems that may be affected simultaneously or sequentially. Patients often present with symptoms that mimic a malignant disease, for example, symptoms compatible with a

  18. IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzalla Cassione, Emanuele; Stone, John H

    2017-05-01

    Remarkable insights have been gleaned recently with regard to the pathophysiology of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). These findings have direct implications for the development of targeted strategies for the treatment of this condition. Oligoclonal expansions of cells of both the B and T lymphocyte lineages are present in the blood of patients with IgG4-RD. Oligoclonal expansions of plasmablasts are a good biomarker for disease activity. An oligoclonally expanded population of CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes is found not only in the peripheral blood but also at tissue sites of active disease. This cell elaborates cytokines that may drive the fibrosis characteristic of IgG4-RD. T follicular helper cells (Tfhc), particularly the Tfhc2 subset, appear to play a major role in driving the class switch to IgG4 that typifies this disease. The relationship between malignancy and IgG4-RD remains an area of interest. Advances in understanding the pathophysiology of IgG4-RD have proceeded swiftly, leading to the identification of a number of potential targeted treatment strategies. The completion of classification criteria for IgG4-RD, an effort supported jointly by the American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism, will further facilitate studies on this disease.

  19. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l [fr

  20. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l.

  1. 75 FR 70132 - New Incentive Programs and Other Changes for Domestic Mailing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...) Intelligent Mail prices. b. Letters must include a reply card or envelope, either Business Reply Mail or... pieces that are part of full-service Intelligent Mail [supreg] automation mailings entered at PostalOne... conditions. Reply pieces must bear an Intelligent Mail barcode as of May 1, 2011. This new program provides...

  2. The Educational Impact of E-Mail: Extraverted versus Introverted Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunderewicz, Larisa; Michener, Stacey; Chambliss, Catherine

    College students (N=151) completed surveys assessing the relationship between e-mail use and extraversion. The variables studied included time spent on e-mail; the frequency of e-mail usage; and the purposes e-mail served for each student. The results suggest that extraverts use e-mail as a form of procrastination more than introverts, and that…

  3. Immunochemical characteristics of IgG4 antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, J. S.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Although a small part of the IgG4 subclass probably can bind to basophils (and mast cells), IgG4 antibodies usually do not behave as anaphylactic antibodies. Therefore, detection of IgG4 antibodies in serum is not a suitable in vitro assay for IgG-S-TS activity. Furthermore, differences between IgG4

  4. Persistent Lymphadenopathy due to IgG4-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    capsid IgM negative), CMV (IgM negative, IgG negative), parvovirus B19 (IgM negative, IgG negative), Hepatitis (HBs Ag negative, HBc Ab negative, HBs...lymphadenopathy). Figure 2: Hematoxylin and eosin stain of a resected lymph node, 2x magnification. This preparation shows nonspecific reactive follicular

  5. IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhang; Tongxi, Liu; Jie, Luo; Yujuan, Jiao; Wei, Jiang; Xia, Liu; Yumin, Zheng; Xin, Lu

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to study the clinical, laboratory, imaging pathology, and prognosis features of IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis. We worked with a 55-year-old man suffering from IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis who had the most widespread lesion in his dura mater. We also review previous related studies and discuss the clinical characteristics of this rare disease. In total, eight IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis patients have been reported in the literature since 2009. They were mostly male patients, 51.7 ± 11.9 years old on average. Cervical and thoracic vertebrae were the most common sites for lesions. The most prominent symptom was varying numbness and weakness of the limbs and/or body associated with spinal cord compression. There was one patient (1/5) with elevated serum IgG4 levels and three patients (3/3) with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG4 index. Positive histopathologic findings are the strongest basis for a diagnosis. All the patients with IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis responded well to glucocorticoid therapy. IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis is an orphan disease that mainly occurs in cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Older males are the most susceptible group. Serum IgG4 levels were consistently normal in these cases, so analysis of CSF for IgG4 production (IgG4 index) could become a useful tool. Pathological findings remain the gold standard for diagnosis. Most patients responded favorably to glucocorticoid treatment.

  6. SPAM: Beware of e-mails asking for passwords

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN’s Computing Rules (Operational Circular No. 5) require that passwords remain confidential and never be given to anyone, not even helpdesk or other support personnel. If you think that your password could have been exposed then you must immediately change it. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake e-mail messages and Web sites to steal account and identity information from users. This technique is called ‘phishing’. The fake e-mails often look real and try to trick you into giving your password or other personal data. CERN has recently been targeted by a fake e-mail message which requested users to send their username, password and date of birth. This case was promptly blocked by the CERN Mail Service, but future cases may still occur. Users need to be vigilant regarding any requests for passwords or personal data. Fake e-mails should be immediately deleted. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact mailto:helpdesk@cern.ch. CERN IT Department

  7. Towards understanding and managing the learning process in mail sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, M; Karltun, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper was based on case study research at the Swedish Mail Service Division and it addresses learning time to sort mail at new districts and means to support the learning process on an individual as well as organizational level. The study population consisted of 46 postmen and one team leader in the Swedish Mail Service Division. Data were collected through measurements of time for mail sorting, interviews and a focus group. The study showed that learning to sort mail was a much more complex process and took more time than expected by management. Means to support the learning process included clarification of the relationship between sorting and the topology of the district, a good work environment, increased support from colleagues and management, and a thorough introduction for new postmen. The identified means to support the learning process require an integration of human, technological and organizational aspects. The study further showed that increased operations flexibility cannot be reinforced without a systems perspective and thorough knowledge about real work activities and that ergonomists can aid businesses to acquire this knowledge.

  8. Human IgG4 binds to IgG4 and conformationally altered IgG1 via Fc-Fc interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Theo; Ooievaar-de Heer, Pleuni; Vermeulen, Ellen; Schuurman, Janine; van der Neut Kolfschoten, Marijn; Aalberse, Rob C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fc fragment of IgG4 can interact with the Fc fragment of another IgG molecule. This interaction is a confounding factor when measuring IgG4 rheumatoid factor levels. Recently, we demonstrated that half-molecules of IgG4 can exchange to form a bispecific Ab. We expected these two phenomena to be

  9. Ethical issues in transnational "mail order" oocyte donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, B C

    2006-12-01

    The rising demand for donor oocytes in developed countries has led to what is referred to as transnational or international oocyte donation, or the outsourcing of oocyte donation to poorer countries. In a further twist, frozen sperm from a recipient's partner can also be mailed to a foreign clinic to fertilize donor oocytes, and the resulting embryos are mailed back, cryopreserved, for transfer to the recipient. Among the numerous ethical concerns raised by this practice of mail order oocyte donation, the most obvious are that underprivileged women from poorer countries are often exploited; fertility physicians from richer counties abdicate responsibility for the welfare of donors; and responsibility could become an issue of contention if transmission of disease to the oocyte recipient or congenital defects in offspring born from such oocyte donation were to occur. Moreover, savings from utilizing donors from poorer countries ought to be shared with oocyte recipients.

  10. Nonresponse Error in Mail Surveys: Top Ten Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Daly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting mail surveys can result in nonresponse error, which occurs when the potential participant is unwilling to participate or impossible to contact. Nonresponse can result in a reduction in precision of the study and may bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe and make readers aware of a top ten list of mailed survey problems affecting the response rate encountered over time with different research projects, while utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service. These ten mishaps can potentiate nonresponse errors, but there are ways to minimize their frequency. Suggestions offered stem from our own experiences during research projects. Our goal is to increase researchers' knowledge of nonresponse error problems and to offer solutions which can decrease nonresponse error in future projects.

  11. The Manufacture of Mail in Medieval Europe: A technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Alan R.

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available THE oldest specimen of interlinked mail yet found has been excavated from a 3rd cent. B. C. Celtic grave in Romania, and this was probably developed from protective garments made up of rings threaded onto cords, like netting. A fragment of such a garment has been found in a Hallstatt grave, perhaps of the 8th cent. B. C. in Bohemia. Representations of Roman soldiers prior to the 1st cent. A. D. show them clad in mail-shirts rather than in plate. Mail returned to favour in the straitened economic circumstances of the Migration Period. and. indeed. remained the basis of most personal armour in the Middle Ages until gradually replaced by plate again in the 15th cent.

    No disponible.

  12. Anti Helicobacter pylori IgG and IgA response in patients with gastric cancer and chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, Nebojsa; Babic, Dragana; Filipovic-Ljeshovic, Ivana; Pilcevic, Dijana

    2008-01-01

    Immune response against Helicobacter pylori is important for the course and outcome of infection. We conducted study looking for the difference in anti H. pylori IgG and IgA between patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer, superficial and atrophic gastritis. For this study, 133 patients infected with H. pylori were enrolled: 50 with superficial gastritis, 42 with atrophic gastritis and 41 with gastric cancer. Anti H. pylori IgG and IgA ELISA tests were performed. The difference in antibody titers of IgG and IgA, frequency of IgA > IgG ratio and combination of low IgG and IgA > IgG ratio were analyzed. The patients with gastritis had higher titer of IgG that the patients with gastric cancer (p gastritis had higher titer of IgA than the patients with gastric cancer (p IgG ratio is more frequent in patients with gastric cancer than in the patients with superficial gastritis (p IgG is more frequent in the patients with gastric cancer than in the patients with gastritis (p cancer elicit different anti H. pylori IgG and IgA response than the patients with superficial and atrophic gastritis. Low IgG and IgA predominance seems characteristic for gastric cancer.

  13. The Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric Patients with IgE-Mediated Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David A; Dudley, Jesse W; Spergel, Jonathan M

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic inflammatory disease that is triggered by food allergens and characterized by progressive esophageal dysfunction. Recently, EoE has been identified in patients who underwent oral immunotherapy (OIT) for IgE-mediated food allergy, suggesting an association. We sought to ascertain whether significant associations exist between IgE-mediated food allergies and EoE. Using the analysis of electronic medical record data and manual chart review, we examined our subspecialty care network of 35,528 children and adolescents to identify and characterize patients with IgE-mediated and EoE food allergy. The most common food allergens were defined, and the prevalence of EoE in patients with IgE-mediated food allergy was determined. Logistic regression was used to measure the extent to which IgE-mediated food allergy to specific foods is associated with EoE. The most common causes of EoE were milk, soy, egg, grains, and meats, an allergen pattern that is distinct from that of IgE-mediated food allergy. The prevalence of EoE in patients with IgE-mediated food allergy was higher than that reported in the general population (4.7% vs 0.04%). The distribution of IgE-mediated food allergens in patients with EoE was similar to that of the general population, and IgE-mediated allergy to egg (2.27; 1.91-2.64), milk (4.19; 3.52-4.97), or shellfish (1.55; 1.24-1.92) was significantly associated with an EoE diagnosis. Our findings support a clinical association between these conditions that has implications for the management of children with food allergy, and particular relevance to patients undergoing OIT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dujuan; Kan, Yunzhen; Fu, Fangfang; Wang, Shuhuan; Shi, Ligang; Liu, Jie; Kong, Lingfei

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described inflammatory disease involving multiple organs. Prostate involvement with IgG4-RD is very rare. In this report, we describe a case of IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This patient was present with urine retention symptoms. MRI and CT examination revealed the prostatic enlargement and the multiple lymphadenopathy. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated. Prostatic tissue samples resected both this time and less than 1 year earlier showed the same histological type of prostatitis with histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings characteristic of IgG4-RD. The right submandibular lymph nodes excised 2 years earlier were eventually proven to be follicular hyperplasia-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This is the first case of IgG4-RD that began as localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy and progressed into a systemic disease involving prostate and multiple lymph nodes. This patient showed a good response to steroid therapy. This leads us to advocate a novel pathogenesis of prostatitis, and a novel therapeutic approach against prostatitis. Pathologists and urologists should consider this disease entity in the patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels and the symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia to avoid ineffective medical or unnecessary surgical treatment.

  15. Publication’s e-mail marketing procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-01-01

    Your research findings and publications have to reach thousands of your peers and colleagues by sending an email. If you have recently published a study that would be of interest to others in your field, market it through email. “E-mail marketing” allow the researchers to increase the research impact and citations for their publications. This workshop will provide various techniques to increase the visibility and enhance the impact of researcher’s output by employing the publications E-mail m...

  16. Discourse strategies in professional e-mail negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on some of the preliminary results of an on-going study on the use of discourse strategies in e-mail negotiation. The analysis aims at showing how relations between the participants develop through the use of specific discourse strategies in their e......-mail communication which covers a period of three months, during which the relationship progresses from initial contact to on-going business. Drawing on Hyland's (2005) concept of metadiscourse combined with Charles' (1996) categories of ‘old and new relationship negotiations', this study provides insights...

  17. BEWARE OF OPENING ATTACHMENTS IN E-MAIL

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Following the recent e-mail viruses you are asked to be cautious when opening e-mail attachments on your PC. Attachments that are apparently harmless might hide active content producing nasty effects as soon as they are opened. Some of these so called 'Trojan horses' can conceal themselves in very attractive pictures and funny slide shows.On the PC Windows infrastructure, CERN runs software to protect users from known viruses, but new ones can sometimes arrive before our software recognises them. They can enter your system when you open an attachment. To remove them it may be necessary to re-install the Windows software on your PC.

  18. Promotion and communication through e-mail marketing campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to try to emphasize the e-mail marketing campaigns importance and efficiency and the way they increase the interaction between a company and potential customers and to increase their interest in a company’s products and services and finally trigger the buying decision. Also the present paper’s aim is to exemplify how business can gain benefits by using marketing automation tools like e-mail marketing campaigns which is considered nowadays a form of direct marketing which is less expensive than the traditional direct marketing alternatives.

  19. Unraveling mulitple translatorship through an e-mail correspondence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to shed light on questions of “multiple translatorship” and particularly on translation collaboration processes. The empirical material consists of more than three hundred e-mails exchanged between two co-translators who translated Claudio Magris’s novel Alla cieca (2005......) into Danish. The theoretical framework presents a double perspective through which the e-mail correspondence is studied: on the one hand, as an ethnographic “thick description” (focusing on translation as an event), with the aim of uncovering who the agents involved are, how they interact, and what...

  20. Generation and characterization of antibodies against Asian elephant (Elephas maximus IgG, IgM, and IgA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F Humphreys

    Full Text Available Asian elephant (Elephas maximus immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV, which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV.

  1. Oxidation behavior of IG and NBG nuclear graphites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woong-Ki; Kim, Byung-Joo [Jeonju Institute of Machinery and Carbon Composites Palbokdong-2ga, 817, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-844 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eung-Seon; Chi, Se-Hwan [Dept. of Nuclear Hydrogen Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.k [Dept. of Chemistry, Inha Univ., 253, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Water contact angles on nuclear graphite before and after oxidation treatments: the pictures show the contact angles obtained under deionized water on oxidation-treated and untreated nuclear graphite. The water contact angles are decreased after oxidation due to the increase in the hydrophilic. Display Omitted Research highlights: The average pore size of graphites shows an increase after the oxidation treatments. They also show that oxidation produces the surface functional groups on the graphite surfaces. The surface area of each graphite behaves in a unique manner. - Abstract: This work studies the oxidation-induced characteristics of four nuclear graphites (NBG-17, NBG-25, IG-110, and IG-430). The oxidation characteristics of the nuclear graphites were measured at 600 {sup o}C. The surface properties of the oxidation graphites were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle methods. The N{sub 2}/77 K adsorption isotherm characteristics, including the specific surface area and micropore volume, were investigated by means of BET and t-plot methods. The experimental results show an increase in the average pore size of graphites; they also show that oxidation produces the surface functional groups on the graphite surfaces. The surface area of each graphite behaves in a unique manner. For example the surface area of NBG-17 increases slightly whereas the surface area of IG-110 increases significantly. This result confirms that the original surface state of each graphite is unique.

  2. 77 FR 11383 - Change of Address and Electronic Submission of FOIA Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... electronic mail and facsimile. DATES: This rule is effective April 12, 2012 without further action, unless... submission of FOIA requests by electronic mail and facsimile. Regulatory Flexibility Act I certify that this... Request'' must be clearly marked on both the letter and the envelope. (2) By electronic mail at...

  3. Hyper IgM Syndrome with low IgM and thrombocytosis: an unusual case of immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Ejaz; Arshad Alvi, M

    2016-09-01

    We report a 5 years old male child with low serum IgG, IgA and IgM levels, who presented with recurrent perianal and oral ulcers, intermittent fever, and protracted diarrhea. Despite the lack of typical respiratory symptoms, low serum IgM level and persistent thrombocytosis, an X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (X-HIGM) was considered. Laboratory investigations revealed a diagnosis of hyper-IgM syndrome caused by CD40L deficiency.

  4. La messagerie électronique, principal métronome des activités de cadre Electronic mail as the main metronome of supervisory activities Mensajería electrónica, principal metrónomo de la actividad de los ejecutivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bretesché

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article met en perspective la façon dont la messagerie concourt à structurer un nouveau rapport au travail chez les cadres. En s’appuyant sur les travaux d’Elias, il s’agit d’étudier la façon dont la messagerie électronique imprime une unité de temps qui structure l’ensemble des activités des cadres et les transforme. L’analyse proposée s’appuie sur une étude de cas qui interroge les transformations des rôles dédiés aux cadres et plus spécifiquement aux cadres de la fonction publique territoriale à travers l’usage du mail. Les résultats mettent en lumière dans un premier temps la façon dont la messagerie structure d’un point de vue temporel les pratiques professionnelles. Celles-ci s’articulent autour de la gestion et de la hiérarchisation continue d’informations reçues sur le mode du flux continu. Ainsi, ce sont des activités de temporation et de synchronisation de l’information qui constituent les nouvelles formes d’exercice de l’activité. En effet, la particularité du travail des cadres au travers de la messagerie est d’intégrer dans une même unité de temps des données au caractère contradictoire. Si l’outil facilite l’intégration en temps réel des multiples niveaux d’activités, il crée paradoxalement une nouvelle forme de dépendance temporelle qui questionne l’autonomie traditionnellement déléguée au cadre.The paper seeks to determine how e-mail helps to restructure supervisory activities. In France, socio-professional categories such as professionals, managers and executives are all classified as supervisors. Based on Elias’ conception of time, the study analyses how e-mail creates time units that structure and transform supervisory activities. A case study involving a local authority is then mobilized to ask questions about how email use has transformed dedicated supervisory roles. Findings reveal that e-mail tends to structure professional practices along

  5. E-mail communication in pain practice: The importance of being earnest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Irene Solera; García, Guadalupe Población; Riquelme, Irene

    2014-07-01

    Information technology can play a vital role in meeting patient needs and reinforcing the relationship among patients and their pain physicians. However, strong resistance remains on the medical side to this type of non-frontal care. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an E-mail intervention on customers' satisfaction. The secondary goals were to analyze the messages from patients to their clinician (not only the volume but also the content) and the impact on client, professional and health services outcomes. A prospective, non-randomized evaluation of patients undergoing treatment for chronic pain from September 2011 to May 2012. A private, specialty referral center in Spain. Participants were users visiting the Pain Management Unit evaluated by one physician. The E-mail address of the facility was written in every medical report provided. Patient satisfaction at the end of the 8-month trial period was assessed and outcomes recorded. Patients reported better communication with their therapist and greater satisfaction with overall care. 780 E-mails were read. Specialists received an average of 5 messages per day (standard deviation 0,3). None of them was unsuitable. This is a prospective, single center evaluation performed by one doctor. There was no control group due to ethical considerations. Electronic communication is a cheap, easy and feasible way to address a wide range of concerns, thus enhancing patients' satisfaction. More efforts are needed to implement routinely usage of this tool. If used appropriately, E-mail can facilitate physician-dependent interactions, promote access to care, save time and reduce costs. Concerns about billing, improper utilization, privacy and confidentiality might complicate its introduction and acceptance. Internet access remains a significant barrier to online patient-provider transference.

  6. E-mail communication in pain practice: The importance of being earnest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Solera Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information technology can play a vital role in meeting patient needs and reinforcing the relationship among patients and their pain physicians. However, strong resistance remains on the medical side to this type of non-frontal care. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an E-mail intervention on customers′ satisfaction. The secondary goals were to analyze the messages from patients to their clinician (not only the volume but also the content and the impact on client, professional and health services outcomes. Study Design: A prospective, non-randomized evaluation of patients undergoing treatment for chronic pain from September 2011 to May 2012. Setting: A private, specialty referral center in Spain. Materials and Methods: Participants were users visiting the Pain Management Unit evaluated by one physician. The E-mail address of the facility was written in every medical report provided. Patient satisfaction at the end of the 8-month trial period was assessed and outcomes recorded. Results: Patients reported better communication with their therapist and greater satisfaction with overall care. 780 E-mails were read. Specialists received an average of 5 messages per day (standard deviation 0,3. None of them was unsuitable. Limitations: This is a prospective, single center evaluation performed by one doctor. There was no control group due to ethical considerations. Conclusion s : Electronic communication is a cheap, easy and feasible way to address a wide range of concerns, thus enhancing patients′ satisfaction. More efforts are needed to implement routinely usage of this tool. If used appropriately, E-mail can facilitate physician-dependent interactions, promote access to care, save time and reduce costs. Concerns about billing, improper utilization, privacy and confidentiality might complicate its introduction and acceptance. Internet access remains a significant barrier to online

  7. Electronic payment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mláka, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis analysis issue of electronic payment systems. It discusses their use for payments on the internet and sending funds via e-mail. The first part is devoted to the theoretical definition and legislation of the issuance of electronic money and activities of electronic money institutions. The main part of the work clearly focuses on the use of e-wallets, which is an integral part of electronic payment systems. E-wallet of electronic payment system Moneybookers is considered as...

  8. IgG and IgE antibodies to Chironomidae in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, N; Ito, K; Nakagawa, T; Haida, M; Okudaira, H; Nakada, S; Miyamoto, T; Shibuya, T; Kamei, K; Sasa, M

    1987-01-01

    IgG antibodies to Chironomidae and its correlations to radioallergosorbent and skin reactions were examined with the aim of clarifying the relationship between asthma and Chironomidae. The level of specific IgG antibody in asthmatic patients (0.698 +/- 0.034, n = 104) was significantly greater than that in normal subjects (0.367 +/- 0.032, n = 52) (P less than 0.01). The specific IgG level was not correlated to skin reaction, nor to IgE RAST scores. Specific IgG1 and IgG4 levels in asthmatic patients were significantly greater than in control subjects (n = 14) (P less than 0.01). Images Fig. 5 PMID:3652516

  9. 78 FR 68868 - First-Class Mail Postage Payment Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Option AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent... the option of increasing the value of the pre-approved envelopes by applying a customized Picture... encourages increased mail volume (factors 1 and 7) and, by providing a more convenient option for sending...

  10. E-mail et Web : pour une navigation sans risque

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en anglais. À travers des exemples concrets, vous consoliderez vos connaissances et pourrez ainsi réajuster vos habitudes concernant l’utilisation sécurisée de votre boîte e-mail et de votre navigateur Web.

  11. 7 CFR 319.41-6 - Importations by mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the package to a Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs inspection station for inspection in... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importations by mail. 319.41-6 Section 319.41-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  12. 76 FR 50414 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... of providing affordable, universal mail service. It continues to: (1) increase the user's ability to find information; (2) increase the users' confidence that they have found the information they need...] Internet site at http://pe.usps.com . List of Subjects in 39 CFR Part 20 Foreign relations; Incorporation...

  13. Changing a Course of Action: Teachers' E-mail Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    This study examined the e-mail interactions of teachers who were graduate students in an educational leadership program at a commuter university. Participants attended a 3-hour-per-week course. The instructor inserted into the course syllabus an assessment plan that required computer use, making the students responsible for accessing the…

  14. Communicative In-Betweens of E-mail Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I seek to deconstruct internet-based communication. I highlight Derrida’s focus on the margins and in-betweens of communication, and relate it to the genre of e-mail. I argue (i) that the silence between the dialogic turns becomes more marked, while (ii) the separation of present an...

  15. Colleges Get out of E-Mail Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Frantic troubleshooting by an overworked staff versus someone else fixing problems smoothly. A sliver of server space per person versus a five-gigabyte chunk. Half a million dollars versus free. That's what colleges are faced with as they decide whether to continue running their own e-mail services or outsource them to a professional service like…

  16. E-Mail from Professor Enhances Student Motivation and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Angela M.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, professors use the first day of class to build rapport. However, current technology allows professors to contact students prior to the first day of class. This study assessed how the receipt of a welcoming e-mail from a female professor 1 week before the first day of class affected student motivation and attitudes toward the…

  17. Analysis of the Spanish-speaking mailing list RADIOLOGIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Recio, Francisco Javier; Sendra-Portero, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the mailing list RADIOLOGIA during its first 5 years of operation (from 1998 to 2003). A survey questionnaire was sent to evaluate the characteristics of subscribers and to score (from 0 to 9) the functionality, usefulness and quality of the mailing list. All messages sent to the list during the evaluated period were classified and quantified. A social network analysis was performed from all messages replied to during 2001 and 2002 with the option 'reply to' included in the subject. One hundred and forty (36.8%) responses were collected from 380 subscribers, mainly radiologists (90.0%). 80% of responders were located in Spain, 16% in Latin America, and 4% in other places. The obtained scores (mean ± standard deviation) were: functionality 7.4 ± 1.3; usefulness 7.0 ± 1.4; and quality of e-mail contents 6.0 ± 1.4. During the evaluated period 2700 e-mail messages were sent to the list, with a monthly distribution of 44.3 ± 26.0. The list functioning has been based on an active minority of subscribers that provided information and responses to the rest of the subscribers, a ring of active members that participated in discussions, and about 50% of passive members

  18. The non addressed mail; Le courrier non adresse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 1999, the non addressed mail aggregated i million tons. Today there is no selective collection of these wastes. The ADEME (french agency for the environment and the energy mastership) drove a study to propose and evaluate the cost of a selective collection. This document presents the results of the study. (A.L.B.)

  19. Võidupüha 8. mail? / Leonti Kährik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kährik, Leonti

    2005-01-01

    Eesti peaks väärikalt tähistama võidupüha kui euroopalike demokraatlike väärtuste võitu natsismi ja fašismi üle. Lähtudes 1940. a. juunini Eestis kehtinud vööndiajast, võiks võidupüha tähistada 8. mail

  20. 75 FR 56922 - Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... in planning for future mailings and preparing for system changes necessary to adopt the new IMpb... Code 128 barcodes, which make use of Application Identifiers (AI) to define the encoded data and how it... capabilities, the Postal Service is providing advance notice of a future proposal to require customers to...

  1. The Communicative Functions of Emoticons in Workplace E-Mails :-)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovholt, Karianne; Grønning, Anette; Kankaanranta, Anne

    2014-01-01

    CMC research presents emoticons as visual representations of writers' emotions. We argue that the emoticons in authentic workplace e-mails do not primarily indicate writers' emotions. Rather, they provide information about how an utterance is supposed to be interpreted. We show that emoticons...

  2. 37 CFR 1.8 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 1.8 Section 1.8 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and...

  3. A comparative analysis of mail and internet surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin D. Poole; David K. Loomis

    2010-01-01

    Th e field of survey research is constantly evolving with the introduction of new technologies. Each new mini-revolution brings criticism about the accuracy of the new survey method. The latest development in the survey research field has been increased reliance on Internet surveys. This paper compares data collected through a mixed-mode (mail and Internet) survey of...

  4. Hesitative introduction of E-mail consultations in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, R.; Ton, C.; Tates, K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care reported in 2005 that 70% of internet users would want to have the opportunity to consult their own general practitioner by e-mail [1]. Since January 1, 2006, general practitioners in the Netherlands are reimbursed 4.50 euro for

  5. An assesment of measurement invariance between online and mail surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutskens, E.C.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Wetzels, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the latest trends in marketing research is the increasing use of online surveys, which offer lower costs and faster responses. Yet, critics question whether data collected via online surveys are equivalent to data collected via traditional mail surveys. Since existing evidence from the

  6. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2014-05-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis.

  7. Comparison of in-house IgM and IgG ELISAs for the serodiagnosis of melioidosis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Shirley Yi Fen; Ali, Noor Azila; Ahmad, Norazah; Amran, Fairuz

    2017-11-01

    Melioidosis is an endemic infectious disease in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. However, the incidence rate in Malaysia is not well documented. The high mortality rate and broad range of clinical presentations require rapid and accurate diagnosis for appropriate treatment. This study compared the efficacy of in-house IgM and IgG ELISA methods using a local B. pseudomallei strain. The diagnostic accuracy of the in-house IgG ELISA was better than that of the IgM ELISA: sensitivity (IgG: 84.71 %, IgM: 76.14 %) and specificity (IgG: 93.64 %, IgM: 90.17 %); positive predictive value (IgG: 86.75 %, IgM: 79.76 %) and negative predictive value (IgG: 92.57 %, IgM: 89.66 %); likelihood ratio (LR) [IgG: 13.32, IgM: 7.75 (LR+); IgG: 0.16, IgM: 0.26 (LR-)], and was supported by the observation of the absorbance value in comparisons between culture and serology sampling. In-house IgG ELISA was shown to be useful as an early diagnostic tool for melioidosis.

  8. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 75 FR 14076 - Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute Changes and Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... tray boxes to address Open and Distribute customers' concerns on the security of their mail in a letter tray during processing. The current tray box sizes were a result of customer feedback. The decision to... processing of Open and Distribute containers. In response to customer needs, the Postal Service is...

  10. 39 CFR 20.3 - Availability of the International Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of the International Mail Manual. 20.3 Section 20.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL POSTAL SERVICE § 20.3 Availability of the International Mail Manual. Copies of the International Mail Manual may...

  11. 39 CFR 20.2 - Effective date of the International Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date of the International Mail Manual. 20.2 Section 20.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL POSTAL SERVICE § 20.2 Effective date of the International Mail Manual. The provisions of the International Mail...

  12. 39 CFR 20.4 - Amendments to the International Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendments to the International Mail Manual. 20.4 Section 20.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL POSTAL SERVICE § 20.4 Amendments to the International Mail Manual. New issues of the International Mail Manual will be...

  13. 77 FR 65279 - Domestic Competitive Products Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Domestic Competitive Products Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes... and mailing standards for the following competitive products: Express Mail[supreg], Priority Mail.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This final rule describes new prices and product features for competitive products...

  14. 41 CFR 102-192.130 - What are your general responsibilities as an agency mail manager?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities as an agency mail manager? 102-192.130 Section 102-192.130 Public Contracts and Property... ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Agency Mail Manager Requirements § 102-192.130 What are your general responsibilities as an agency mail manager? In addition to carrying out the responsibilities in Subparts B, C, D...

  15. 41 CFR 102-192.145 - Which program levels should have a mail manager?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... should have a mail manager? 102-192.145 Section 102-192.145 Public Contracts and Property Management... have a mail manager? Every program level within a Federal agency that generates a significant quantity of outgoing mail should have its own mail manager. Each agency must decide which programs will have a...

  16. 41 CFR 102-192.120 - Must we have an agency mail manager?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mail manager? 102-192.120 Section 102-192.120 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Agency Mail Manager Requirements § 102-192.120 Must we have an agency mail manager? Yes, every Federal agency as defined in § 102-192.35 must have an agency mail manager. Agencies that are not “large...

  17. Epithelial-microbial crosstalk in polymeric Ig receptor deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reikvam, D.H.; Derrien, M.M.N.; Islam, R.; Erofeev, A.; Grcic, V.; Sandvik, A.; Gaustad, P.; Meza-Zepeda, L.A.; Jahnsen, F.L.; Smidt, H.; Johansen, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Innate and adaptive mucosal defense mechanisms ensure a homeostatic relationship with the large and complex mutualistic gut microbiota. Dimeric IgA and pentameric IgM are transported across the intestinal epithelium via the epithelial polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) and provide a significant portion of

  18. Class switch recombination in selective IgA-deficient subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj; Ryder, L P; Nielsen, L K

    2006-01-01

    Selective IgA deficiency is a common immunodeficiency in Caucasians, but the molecular basis of the disorder remains elusive. To address this issue we examined the molecular events leading to IgA production. Naive IgD positive B cells were purified from four donors with IgA deficiency and four...

  19. Cleavage of a recombinant human immunoglobulin A2 (IgA2)-IgA1 hybrid antibody by certain bacterial IgA1 proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senior, B; Dunlop, JI; Batten, MR

    2000-01-01

    , Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. sanguis, Neisseria meningitidis types 1 and 2, N. gonorrhoeae types 1 and 2, and Haemophilus influenzae type 2. Thus, for these enzymes the recognition site for IgA1 cleavage is contained within half of the IgA1 hinge region; additional distal elements, if required, are provided...... by either an IgA1 or an IgA2 framework. In contrast, the IgA2/A1 hybrid appeared to be resistant to cleavage with S. oralis and some H. influenzae type 1 IgA1 proteases, suggesting these enzymes require additional determinants for efficient substrate recognition....

  20. A systematic review: can one prescribe carbapenems to patients with IgE-mediated allergy to penicillins or cephalosporins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Brittany; Djordjevic, Gordana; Robinson, Joan L

    2014-10-15

    Cross-reactivity between penicillins or cephalosporins and carbapenems is anticipated as all have a beta lactam ring. However, the true incidence of immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated cross-reactivity is not known. A systematic review was conducted to collect and combine all published data on children and adults reported to have a clinical history of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to a penicillin and/or cephalosporin who were subsequently given a carbapenem. Reactions were classified as proven, suspected, or possible IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated. Ten studies and 12 case reports describing 854 participants fit the study criteria. For patients with previous proven, suspected, or possible IgE-mediated penicillin reactions (N = 838), the incidence of any type of suspected hypersensitivity reaction to a carbapenem was 36/838 (4.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1%-5.9%) and the incidence of proven (1/838), suspected (0/838), or possible (19/838) IgE-mediated reactions was 20/838 (2.4%; 95% CI, 1.6%-3.7%). Of the subset of patients with positive penicillin skin tests (n = 295), only 1 had a hypersensitivity reaction (0.3%; 95% CI, .06%-1.9%), and this was a possible IgE-mediated reaction. For patients with previous proven, suspected, or possible IgE-mediated cephalosporin reactions (N = 12), the incidence of any type of hypersensitivity reaction to a carbapenem was 3/12 (25%); this included 2 non-IgE-mediated reactions and 1 possible IgE-mediated reaction. The cross-reactivity between penicillins and carbapenems for IgE-mediated reactions is very low, but caution is still advised. Cross-reactivity rates may be higher between cephalosporins and carbapenems; however, minimal data are available. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Treatment of IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, J; Feehally, J

    2006-06-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is an important cause of progressive kidney disease with 25-30% of patients developing end-stage renal disease within 20 years of diagnosis. There is still no treatment to modify mesangial IgA deposition and available treatments are those extrapolated from the management of other patterns of chronic glomerulonephritis. There remains no consensus on the use of immunosuppressive agents for treatment of progressive IgAN and this is compounded by the relative lack in IgAN of randomized controlled trials relevant to current clinical practice. Patients with recurrent macroscopic hematuria or isolated microscopic hematuria and proteinuria renal biopsy should be managed as for minimal change nephropathy. There is no evidence to support the use of corticosteroids for nephrotic IgAN outside this group of patients. Patients presenting with acute renal failure require evaluation to distinguish acute tubular necrosis, which requires supportive therapy only, from crescentic IgAN, for which treatment with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids in a regimen similar to that for renal small vessel vasculitis is indicated in the absence of significant chronic histologic injury. Patients at greatest risk of progressive renal impairment are those with hypertension, proteinuria >1 g/24 h, and reduced glomerular filtration rate at diagnosis. All such patients should be treated to a blood pressure of 125/75 mm Hg with dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin receptor blockade. At present, there is insufficient evidence for the additional use of immunosuppressive agents, antiplatelet agents, or anticoagulants.

  2. IgG4 and IgE co-positive group found in idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Xiang Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To reveal the cytokines involved in idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease (IOID and the relationship between Th17 cells, IgE and IOID pathogenesis. METHODS: Whole blood samples were processed immediately after collection and serological IgG4, IgG, and IgE antibodies were tested using ELISA. IOID and orbital cavernous hemangioma (CH tissue samples underwent Bio-Plex multiplex cytokine detection. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE staining of all paraffin samples suggested the histological features of IOIDs, and expressions of IgG4 and IL-17A in affected tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Among 40 IOID plasma samples, 52.5% (21/40 were positive for IgG4 and 25% (10/40 were positive for IgE. Overlapped IgG4 or IgE positive samples accounted for 22.5% (9/40. Therefore, IOID samples were separated into three groups. The IgE+/IgG4+ group had a relevantly lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. IL-4 (Th2 cell related, IL-10 and TGF-β1 (Treg cell immunity related were elevated in all three groups. Some of the Th17 cell related cytokines (i.e. IL-17A/F, IL-25, IL-23, and IL-33 displayed higher expression levels in the IgE-/IgG4- group compared to the other two groups. CONCLUSION: We discovered an IgG4-IgE co-positive group as well as Th17 cell immune involvement in IgG4-IgE co-negative subgtroup in IOID for the first time. The pathogenesis of IOID could differ from different subgroups according to the IgG4 and IgE detection. Therefore, we recommend that, Treatment stratagy should be made according to the clinical assessment of IgG4-IgE and Th17 profile detection.

  3. Aberrantly Glycosylated IgA1 as a Factor in the Pathogenesis of IgA Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mototsugu Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Predominant or codominant immunoglobulin (Ig A deposition in the glomerular mesangium characterizes IgA nephropathy (IgAN. Accumulated glomerular IgA is limited to the IgA1 subclass and usually galactose-deficient. This underglycosylated IgA may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IgAN. Recently, antibodies against galactose-deficient IgA1 were found to be well associated with the development of IgAN. Several therapeutic strategies based on corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents have been shown to at least partially suppress the progression of IgAN. On the other hand, several case reports of kidney transplantation or acquired IgA deficiency uncovered a remarkable ability of human kidney to remove mesangial IgA deposition, resulting in the long-term stabilization of kidney function. Continuous exposure to circulating immune complexes containing aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 and sequential immune response seems to be essential in the disease progression of IgAN. Removal of mesangial IgA deposition may be a challenging, but fundamental approach in the treatment of IgAN.

  4. On the role of IgG4 in inflammatory conditions: lessons for IgG4-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trampert, David C.; Hubers, Lowiek M.; van de Graaf, Stan F. J.; Beuers, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and its most common manifestations, IgG4-associated (sclerosing) cholangitis and autoimmune pancreatitis, remains largely unknown, but IgG4 is presumably involved. IgG4 is a promiscuous antibody, which could be directly pathogenic,

  5. Analysis of IgG4-positive clones in affected organs of IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuchi, Yasushi; Yamada, Kazunori; Ito, Kiyoaki; Hara, Satoshi; Fujii, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We investigated class switch reaction (CSR) in affected organs and evaluated whether the same or genetically related clones exist in IgG4-RD. We studied three patients with IgG4-RD. Total cellular RNA was extracted from salivary glands and peripheral blood and lung tissue. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and immunoglobulin heavy chain third complementarity determining region (IgVH-CDR3) of IgM and IgG4 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We analyzed the clonal relationship of infiltrating IgG4-positive cells, as compared with IgM. We determined the existence of common clones among organs and patients. AID was expressed in salivary glands of all patients and lung tissue in one. Closely related IgVH-CDR3 sequences in infiltrating IgG4-positive cells were detected in salivary glands and lung tissue. Identical IgVH-CDR3 sequence between IgM and IgG4 in salivary glands was detected in one patient, indicating CSR in salivary glands. Identical IgVH-CDR3 sequences of IgG4-positive cells were detected between salivary glands and peripheral blood in two patients. Four identical sequences of IgVH-CDR3 existed between patients. Interestingly, one of the four sequences was detected in all patients. Our results demonstrate the existence of common antigen(s) shared by patients with IgG4-RD.

  6. IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis: expanding the morphological spectrum of IgG4 related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Abhijit; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Singh, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    IgG4 related disease (IgG4RD) is a recently recognised condition characterised by mass forming lesions associated with storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4 positive plasma cells and elevated serum IgG4 levels. Although rare, mammary involvement has been reported as IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis, the morphological counterpart of a growing family of IgG4 related diseases. A total of 17 cases belonging to mass forming benign inflammatory breast lesions such as plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis, non-specific mastitis and inflammatory pseudotumour were investigated as a possible member of IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis. Clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings were noted in all cases. Cases diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumour showed all the histopathological features of IgG4RD along with increased number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio >40%. However, only a few IgG4 positive cells were seen in plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis and non-specific mastitis cases. These cases also did not fulfill the morphological criteria for the diagnosis of IgG4 related diseases. IgG4RD should be excluded in plasma cell rich lesions diagnosed on core biopsies by IgG4 immunostaining. This can avoid unnecessary surgery as IgG4 related diseases respond to simple and effective steroid treatment.

  7. IgD in the reptile leopard gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambón-Deza, Francisco; Espinel, Christian Sánchez

    2008-07-01

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) has been a mysterious antibody ever since it was discovered in mammals 40 years ago. It shares with IgM the role of antigen-receptor in the membrane of mature B cells. The absence of IgD in birds and its description in bony fishes contributed to the confusion about its evolutionary origins. Recent studies have established the presence of IgD in the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis. It is essential to study IgD genes in reptiles in order to better understand the evolution of this immunoglobulin in vertebrates. We describe in this report the IgM and IgD genes of the reptile Eublepharis macularius. The IgM gene has characteristics that are similar to those described in other species whereas IgD gene departs from the normal structure described for this antibody class in other species. It is made up of 11 immunoglobulins domains without evidence of recent intragenic duplications of exons as described in IgD genes of fish and X.tropicalis. It is possible that the immunoglobulin is comprised of domains inherited from earlier species and that this form of IgD is close to that present in animals that left the sea to live on land. Furthermore, domains CH7 and CH8 of E. macularius IgD are orthologues to domains CH2 and CH3 of mammalian IgD. The present study also describes a second IgD (IgD2) which must have appeared recently by duplication of an older immunoglobulin gene and recombination with the IgA-like gene described in this specie. Tissue expression of IgD and IgD2 mRNA is similar to that of IgM mRNA, suggesting a functional role of reptilian IgD.

  8. High seropositivity of IgG and IgM antibodies against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study reports on the high seropositivity of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M antibodies against CMV and the risk factors for CMV ... sex, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were not statistically associated with CMV seropositivity in this study. ... are infected with HIV have detectable IgG antibodies to CMV ...

  9. Genus and species-specific IgG and IgM antibodies pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; Abbassi, S.A.; Ahmad, R.N.; Mahmood, A.; Karamat, K.A; Malik, H.S.; Anwar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate three different enzyme immunoassays for serological diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and to compare their diagnostic accuracy in different combinations. Subjects and Methods: Sera from patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis (n=94) with sputum positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB) and sera from control group of healthy individuals (n=90) with sputum negative for AFB were tested by Pathozyme-Myco G EIA, Pathozyme-TB Complex Plus EIA and Pathozyme Myco M EIA kits for the genus-specific IgG and IgM, and the species-specific IgG antibodies against antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: The detection of IgG against genus-specific antigens by Pathozyme-Myco G had a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 93%, of IgG against species-specific antigens by Pathozyme- TB Complex Plus had a sensitivity of 64% and specificity of 97% and of IgM against genus-specific antigens by Pathozyme Myco M had a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 98%. When the results of these immunoassays were evaluated in combination, their sensitivity improved. Combination of genus-specific IgM and species-specific IgG yielded best results with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 93%. Conclusion: The sensitivity of serological diagnosis of tuberculosis is low, but it can be increased by utilizing a combination of several antigens. (author)

  10. IgA Nephropathy and Thrombotic Microangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela De Rosa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the association between thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA and IgA nephropathy (IgAN is a known fact, its prevalence, pathogenesis and progression are not clear yet. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study involving 12 patients with IgAN and TMA (IgAN-TMA was carried out; patients were diagnosed by a renal biopsy performed in our hospital in order to analyze clinicopathologic features. All the biopsy samples were processed for light microscopy and immunofluorescence. Results: The prevalence of patients with IgAN-TMA was 4.4% (12/274. The mean age was 33 and 58.3% of the subjects were men, showing, during diagnosis, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of 171.3±53 mmHg and 97.5±19.8 mmHg, respectively. The average amount of protein in urine was 5.3 ± 3.7g/24 h and 8 patients had nephrotic- range proteinuria. Impairment of renal function was found in 11 patients, with a mean serum creatinine level of 7.2±4.7 mg/dL. No clinical or laboratory findings suggested thrombotic microangiopathy in any of the patients. The renal biopsy showed acute TMA with arteriolar fibrin thrombi in 75% of the subjects and ‘onion-skin-like’ chronic lesions with concentric intimal hyperplasia in 83.3% of them, which were associated with a high percentage of global glomerulosclerosis (72%, moderate tubular atrophy (38.6% and/or interstitial fibrosis (31.3%. In 91.7% of the cases, TMA was related to histological grade 5. Conclusions: The prevalence and significance of the relationship between IgAN and TMA pose the question of whether TMA is the cause or consequence of advanced stage IgAN. Several clinicopathologic studies have proved that TMA plays a major role in IgAN progression. The connection of TMA with creatinine serum and proteinuria levels seems to support this conclusion. While systemic TMA usually affects multiple organs, in these cases, the kidney was the only one compromised. Endothelial injury and the

  11. Salivary IgA and dental caries in HIV patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sonu; Mandal, Pradip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The interrelationship of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and dental caries, as well as Salivary IgA (S-IgA) level, appear to remain underexplored while a manual and electronic search of the literature was made. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess the relationship of S-IgA and dental caries status in HIV +ve children. The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of S-IgA antibody with dental caries by measuring the concentration of IgA in saliva of HIV +ve and HIV -ve children and to determine the dental caries status in HIV +ve and HIV -ve children, which may help in treatment planning and prevention of the same. Twenty-eight HIV +ve children aged between 6 and 14 years and 28 age matched HIV -ve children were included in this study, and both samples were randomly selected from the same nongovernmental organization (NGO). The HIV status of both these samples was confirmed from their medical records provided by the NGO. 2 cc of unstimulated saliva was collected from both groups in special tubes coded numerically using the method described by Collins and Dawes, and the samples were analyzed to measure the concentration of IgA using commercially available ELISA kit (DRG Diagnostics, Germany). Examination of dental caries was carried out according to the WHO criteria (1997) using a flat mouth mirror and Community periodontal index (CPI) probe. In HIV +ve group, mean salivary IgA level was calculated as 81.61 ± 6.20 μg/ml, mean decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) was 3.86 ± 3.37, mean decayed, extracted and filled teeth (deft) was 4.75 ± 2.86. In HIV -ve group, the mean salivary IgA level was calculated as 145.57 ±17.83 μg/ml, mean DMFT was 2.54 ± 0.69, mean deft was 2.43 ± 2.01. Strong -ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.781, t = 6.38, P 0.05) between S-IgA and deft was found in HIV +ve group. Strong -ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.655, t = 4.42, P caries than normal individuals.

  12. A case developing minimal change disease during the course of IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazunori; Zoshima, Takeshi; Ito, Kiyoaki; Mizushima, Ichiro; Hara, Satoshi; Horita, Shigeto; Nuka, Hiromi; Hamano, Ryoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2017-07-01

    We describe a 66-year-old male with immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) presenting with minimal change disease (MCD). Three years prior to this admission, the patient had been diagnosed with IgG4-RD. The development of sudden massive proteinuria (4+; 16.7 g/gCr) with a weight gain of 8 kg within a two-week period was noted, and nephrotic syndrome was suspected. The patient's serum IgG4 level did not increase and hypocomplementemia was not found. A renal biopsy showed no cellular infiltration in the renal interstitium, and no spiking or bubbling was found on periodic acid methenamine silver staining. On electron microscopy, foot process effacement was seen, but no subepithelial electron-dense deposits were found. The patient was diagnosed with MCD. Ten days after starting prednisolone (60 mg/day), proteinuria was negative. Since IgG4-RD and MCD share a T-helper 2-dominant immunoreaction, the development of MCD in IgG4-RD patients may reflect more than a mere coincidence.

  13. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. So starting on 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  14. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    The AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on the 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. Thus starting on the 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  15. Optimization of territory control of the mail carrier by using Hungarian methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supian, S.; Wahyuni, S.; Nahar, J.; Subiyanto

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the territory control of the mail carrier from the central post office Bandung in delivering the package to the destination location was optimized by using Hungarian method. Sensitivity analysis against data changes that may occur was also conducted. The sampled data in this study are the territory control of 10 mail carriers who will be assigned to deliver mail package to 10 post office delivery centers in Bandung. The result of this research is the combination of territory control optimal from 10 mail carriers as follows: mail carrier 1 to Cikutra, mail carrier 2 to Ujung Berung, mail carrier 3 to Dayeuh Kolot, mail carrier 4 to Padalarang, mail carrier 5 to Situ Saeur, mail carrier 6 to Cipedes, mail carrier 7 to Cimahi, mail carrier 8 to Soreang, mail carrier 9 to Asia-Afrika, mail carrier 10 to Cikeruh. Based on this result, manager of the central post office Bandung can make optimal decisions to assign tasks to their mail carriers.

  16. IgG4-Related Perineural Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Inoue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To elucidate characteristics of IgG4-related disease involving the peripheral nervous system. Methods. Retrospective review of 106 patients with IgG4-related disease identified 21 peripheral nerve lesions in 7 patients. Clinicopathological and radiological features were examined. Results. Peripheral nerve lesions were commonly identified in orbital or paravertebral area, involving orbital (=9, optic (=4, spinal (=7, and great auricular nerves (=1. The predominant radiological feature was a distinct perineural soft tissue mass, ranging 8 to 30 mm in diameter. Histologically, the epineurium was preferentially involved by massive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4+ plasma cells. All lesions were neurologically asymptomatic and steroid-responsive at the first presentation, but one recurrent lesion around the optic nerve caused failing vision. Conclusion. IgG4-related disease of the peripheral nervous system is characterized by orbital or paravertebral localization, perineural mass formation, and rare neurologic symptoms. The term “IgG4-related perineural disease” seems appropriate to describe this entity.

  17. Methods of quantifying circulating IgE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, T.G.; Merrett, J.

    1978-01-01

    Four radioimmunoassay techniques, two conventional and two sandwich, have been used to measure circulating IgE levels in 100 sera. The test sera had IgE levels ranging from 1.0 to 20,000 u/ml, and each was measured at five dilutions, ranging from three-fold to 400-fold. The same IgE standards were used throughout, and the optimal range for each assay was determined by assessing data for quality control sera and the WHO standard 69/204. To be of general use in the United Kingdom an IgE test must measure accurately levels as low as 20-30 u IgE/ml. The Phadebas RIST method failed to meet this criterion, and of the remaining tests the double antibody method had the most useful operating range and produced the most reliable results. However, the double antibody method is not available commercially and so, for the majority of laboratories, the Phadebas PRIST technique should be the method chosen. (author)

  18. Cholangiocarcinoma with respect to IgG4 Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Harada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4 reactions marked by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in affected organs occur in cancer patients and in patients with IgG4-related diseases. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas including gall bladder cancer are often accompanied by significant IgG4 reactions; these reactions show a negative correlation with CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, suggesting that the evasion of immune surveillance is associated with cytotoxic T cells. The regulatory cytokine IL-10 may induce IgG4-positive plasma cell differentiation or promote B cell switching to IgG4 in the presence of IL-4. Cholangiocarcinoma cells may function as nonprofessional antigen presenting cells that indirectly induce IgG4 reactions via the IL-10-producing cells and/or these may act as Foxp3-positive and IL-10-producing cells that directly induce IgG4 reactions. Moreover, IgG4-related disease is a high-risk factor for cancer development; IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC cases associated with cholangiocarcinoma or its precursor lesion biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN have been reported. IgG4-positive cell infiltration is an important finding of IgG4-SC but is not a histological hallmark of IgG4-SC. For the diagnosis of IgG4-SC, its differentiation from cholangiocarcinoma remains important.

  19. Generation and characterisation of murine monoclonal antibodies specific for cervine immunoglobulin light chain, IgM and IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibma, M.; Griffin, J.F.T.

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) which react with cervine immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain, IgM and IgG were produced using conventional cell fusion technology. Hybridoma supernatants were initially screened for specificity against cervine Ig using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The specificity of supernatants against size-fractionated cervine Ig was further determined. Supernatants were characterised using western blotting and autoradiographic techniques. The mAb OU1G, OU2G and OU3G were specific for cervine gamma-chain of IgG, whereas OU1L was specific for light chain of Ig. A further mAb (OU1M) bound IgM and not IgG. These mAb were found to have varying cross-reactivity against Ig from other species

  20. E-mail communication patterns and job burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A considerable body of research has documented the negative effects of job burnout on employees and their organizations, emphasizing the importance of the identification of early signs of the phenomenon for the purposes of prevention and intervention. However, such timely identification is difficult due to the time and cost of assessing the burnout levels of all employees in an organization using established scales. In this paper, we propose an innovative way to identify employees at risk of job burnout by analyzing their e-mail communication patterns. Building on the Job Demands–Resources model, we theorize about the relationship between e-mail communication patterns and levels of employee exhaustion and disengagement (two dimensions of burnout). We analyzed 52,190 e-mails exchanged between 57 employees of a medium sized R&D company over a five-month period. We then related these employees’ communication patterns to their levels of burnout, collected using an established scale (the OLBI–Oldenburg Burnout Inventory). Our results provide support for the overall proposition of the paper, that e-mail communications can be used to identify individuals at risk of job burnout. Our models explain up to 34% of the variance of burnout and up to 37% and 19% respectively of the variance of exhaustion and disengagement. They also successfully distinguish between employees with a higher risk of burnout and those with lower levels of risk (F1 score of 84% with recall of 100% and 73% precision). We discuss the implications of our results and present suggestions for future research. PMID:29518128

  1. 77 FR 62446 - Every Door Direct Mail-Retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ..., the maximum number of EDDM-Retail pieces per day is 5000 per 5-digit ZIP Code. 1.3 Delivery Statistics...) under 145, using delivery statistics obtained from the EDDM web tool at the Web site eddm.usps.com/eddm... title and introductory text of 2.2.2 as follows:] 2.2.2 Dimensions for Standard Mail and EDDM-Retail...

  2. Analyzing E-mail communication of prospective learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag SAXENA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing E-mail communication of prospective learners Vibha JOSHIAnurag SAXENA Reader School of Management IGNOU, New Delhi, INDIA ABSTRACT Today, computer has replaced all means of communication significantly. E-mail is the most popular means of communication through computers. It has vanished the boundaries between the cities, countries and continents. Earlier Studies that used this medium, had shown evidence of higher quality of responses and also significant cost savings feature of this method (mainly for convenience of dispatch for research purposes. In this communication, an attempt has been made to utilize email responses of prospective learners in education discipline based programs offered through open learning system. The inception of this study is linked to the creation of website (http://www.ignou.ac.in/ and availability of information related to all activated and prospective programs of studies, various school of studies, faculty email addresses and faculty vis-à-vis program coordinator in the University. The present study analyzed 65 email responses received from July 2002 to till date by the researcher on her email ID. These respondents got the email ID from the University website and due to their eagerness to attain qualifications in the field of education/guidance/educational management, sent an e-mail to the program coordinator(s. These email responses were analyzed in order to visualize the learner profiles and viability of the ongoing as well as prospective programs of studies. This paper tries to analyze the e-mail responses of the people who either by surfing IGNOU’s website or from other sources came to know about the various programs of studies offered by the School of Education. The study validates that there is an amount of hidden information even in the curiosity of the learners.

  3. Alanine dosimetry at NPL - the development of a mailed reference dosimetry service at radiotherapy dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, P.H.G.; Sephton, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe the work that has been carried out at National Physical Laboratory (NPL) to develop a mailed alanine reference dosimetry service for radiotherapy dose levels. The service is based on alanine/paraffin wax dosimeters produced at NPL. Using a data analysis technique based on spectrum fitting, it has been possible to achieve a precision of dose measurement better than ±0.05 Gy (1σ). A phantom set has been developed for use in high energy photon beams, which enables simultaneous irradiation of alanine dosimeters and ionisation chambers in a well defined geometry. Studies in photon beams of energies between 60 Co and 20 MeV have shown no significant energy dependence (<1%) for alanine relative to dose determination using a graphite calorimeter. Work is underway to extend the service to electron beams, and preliminary results are presented on the direct calibration of alanine in electron beams using a graphite calorimeter. (author)

  4. Electronic Identities: The Strategic Use of Email for Impression Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Larry; Phillips, Stephen R.

    Traditionally, e-mail (electronic mail) has been seen as an efficient communications medium for the transmission of simple, routine, unambiguous messages. More recent research has argued that the simple, efficient view of e-mail is incomplete. Future research should be extended into the strategic and symbolic functions of email, such as the use of…

  5. Mail survey on cardiovascular disease study, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroo; Johnson, K G; Yano, Kasuhiko

    1966-07-21

    A mail survey was conducted on 13,000 males in the JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study population aged 40 to 69 in January 1965. The information sought was largely related to what are considered to be risk factors in the development of cerebral and cardiovascular diseases. The questionnaire included such items as residential history, occupation, physical activity, smoking, dietary custom, educational history, medical history, and family history. The final response rate was high (93%) after three mailings and supplemental field visits. As a preliminary analysis, the distribution of these variables was compared by city and exposure status. This analysis revealed that Hiroshima subjects were more educated, were more often managers, clerical workers, and sales workers, performed less physical activity, had more living space and ate a more Western type diet than Nagasaki subjects. It was also shown that the distribution of such variables as place of birth, present address, occupation, marital status, and education differed by the exposure status of subjects. Some methodological problems inherent in a mail survey such as completeness and reliability of obtained information were discussed. 15 references, 1 figure, 28 tables.

  6. Development of a Mailing List on Variable Stars, VSNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, D.; Kato, T.; Baba, H.; Kunjaya, C.

    Various usages of the Internet have been developed and made remarkable progress these years, which is now dramatically changing the style of astronomical study. Among those, the maing list is thought to be most useful to study of unpredictable objects for the characteristics, especially rapidness and equality. We started a mailing list (VSNET) on variable stars, mainly on cataclysmic variables and supernovae, in 1994 July for mutual exchange of information and ideas between astronomers including professionals and amateurs. Up to now, the various articles have been distributed, for example, calls for follow up observations of transient objects discovered in the UV or X-ray region, calls for ground-based observations simultaneous with ones by the space telescopes, discoveries of supernovae, alert notices of outbursts in long dormant dwarf novae (EG Cnc, AL Com, UZ Boo, HT Cas, etc), and so on. You can get long-term light curves of variable stars drawn using VSNET data on the VSNET web pages http://www.kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp/vsnet/. The archives of VSNET mails are available via VSNET web pages and anonymous ftp ftp://ftp.kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp/pub/vsnet/Mail/. If you have any questions and suggestions on VSNET, please feel free to contact us (vsnet-adm@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp).

  7. Determination of Antibodies (IgG, IgM against Toxoplasma gondii in Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pedram

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was determination of antibodies (IgG, IgM against Toxoplasma in malignant patients in order to refer the patients on time to the physician for treatment.Methods: This study was carried out on 252 malignant patients and 252 healthy normal subjects (as control obtained from Shafa Hospital and Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (Iran-Zamin, in Ahwaz city. Patient's information was recorded in a questionnaire before sampling. Serum samples of patients were examined for IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA technique using Trinity kits. Results: The results of this study revealed the presence of Toxoplasma antibodies in 114 (45.2% cases of patients who were positive for Toxoplasma IgG antibodies, and 26 (10.3% cases were confirmed to be positive for Toxoplasma IgM antibodies and also 17 (6.7% of cases had both IgG and IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. In control group 92 (36.5% cases and 15 (6% cases revealed seropositive for IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. There were no significant differences between sex, close contact with cat, living region, chemotherapy, and seropositivity rate of toxoplasmosis in patients. Comparing the age groups, the highest seropositive rate showed in the age of 51 years or higher, and their rates had tendency to increase with age in both groups. No seropositivity significant relationship was found between patients and control group.Conclusion: According to the prevalence of positive cases in these patients, it is necessary to examine the patients for toxoplasmosis before, during and after chemotherapy.

  8. Serological analysis of human IgG and IgE anti-insulin antibodies by solid-phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.G.; Rendell, M.; Adkinson, N.F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A single solid-phase assay system which is useful for quantitative measurement of both IgG and IgE anti-insulin antibodies in human serum has been developed. Insulin-specific immunoglobulins are absorbed from human serum by excess quantities of insulin-agarose. After washes to remove unbound immunoglobulins, radioiodinated Staph A or rabbit anti-human IgE is added to detect bound IgG or IgE anbitodies, respectively

  9. Histopathology of IgG4-Related Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4-Related Hepatopathy in IgG4-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Ishizu, Yoji; Zen, Yoh; Harada, Kenichi; Umemura, Takeji

    2016-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease involving many organs; it includes IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory pseudotumor in the hepatobiliary system. Two types of hepatic parenchymal involvement have been reported in IgG4-RD: IgG4-related autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and IgG4-hepatopathy. Moreover, only three cases of IgG4-related AIH have been reported. Immunoglobulin G4-related AIH is clinicopathologically similar to AIH, except for an elevated serum IgG4 level and heavy infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the liver tissue. Interestingly, IgG4-related AIH can be complicated by well-known IgG4-RD(s). Immunoglobulin G4-hepatopathy, which includes various histopathological lesions encountered in the liver of patients with type I autoimmune pancreatitis, is classified into five histological categories: portal inflammation, large bile duct damage, portal sclerosis, lobular hepatitis, and cholestasis. Immunoglobulin G4-hepatopathy is currently a collective term covering hepatic lesions primarily or secondarily related to IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis. In conclusion, the liver is not immune to IgG4-RD, and at least two types of hepatic involvement in IgG4-RD have been reported: IgG4-related AIH and IgG4-hepatopathy. Additional studies are required to clarify their precise clinical significance with respect to IgG4-RD and inherent liver diseases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumfelt, Lynn L; Lohr, Rebecca L; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F

    2004-05-06

    Adult cartilaginous fish express three immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, IgM, IgNAR and IgW. Newborn nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, produce 19S (multimeric) IgM and monomeric/dimeric IgM1gj, a germline-joined, IgM-related VH, and very low amounts of 7S (monomeric) IgM and IgNAR proteins. Newborn IgNAR VH mRNAs are diverse in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) with non-templated nucleotide (N-region) addition, which suggests that, unlike in many other vertebrates, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) expressed at birth is functional. IgW is present in the lungfish, a bony fish sharing a common ancestor with sharks 460 million years ago, implying that the IgW VH family is as old as the IgM VH family. This nurse shark study examined the IgM and IgW VH repertoire from birth through adult life, and analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of these gene families. IgM and IgW VH cDNA clones isolated from newborn nurse shark primary and secondary lymphoid tissues had highly diverse and unique CDR3 with N-region addition and VDJ gene rearrangement, implicating functional TdT and RAG gene activity. Despite the clear presence of N-region additions, newborn CDR3 were significantly shorter than those of adults. The IgM clones are all included in a conventional VH family that can be classified into five discrete groups, none of which is orthologous to IgM VH genes in other elasmobranchs. In addition, a novel divergent VH family was orthologous to a published monotypic VH horn shark family. IgW VH genes have diverged sufficiently to form three families. IgM and IgW VH serine codons using the potential somatic hypermutation hotspot sequence occur mainly in VH framework 1 (FR1) and CDR1. Phylogenetic analysis of cartilaginous fish and lungfish IgM and IgW demonstrated they form two major ancient gene groups; furthermore, these VH genes generally diversify (duplicate and diverge) within a species. As in ratfish, sandbar and horn sharks, most nurse shark IgM VH

  11. Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dooley Helen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult cartilaginous fish express three immunoglobulin (Ig isotypes, IgM, IgNAR and IgW. Newborn nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, produce 19S (multimeric IgM and monomeric/dimeric IgM1gj, a germline-joined, IgM-related VH, and very low amounts of 7S (monomeric IgM and IgNAR proteins. Newborn IgNAR VH mRNAs are diverse in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3 with non-templated nucleotide (N-region addition, which suggests that, unlike in many other vertebrates, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT expressed at birth is functional. IgW is present in the lungfish, a bony fish sharing a common ancestor with sharks 460 million years ago, implying that the IgW VH family is as old as the IgM VH family. This nurse shark study examined the IgM and IgW VH repertoire from birth through adult life, and analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of these gene families. Results IgM and IgW VH cDNA clones isolated from newborn nurse shark primary and secondary lymphoid tissues had highly diverse and unique CDR3 with N-region addition and VDJ gene rearrangement, implicating functional TdT and RAG gene activity. Despite the clear presence of N-region additions, newborn CDR3 were significantly shorter than those of adults. The IgM clones are all included in a conventional VH family that can be classified into five discrete groups, none of which is orthologous to IgM VH genes in other elasmobranchs. In addition, a novel divergent VH family was orthologous to a published monotypic VH horn shark family. IgW VH genes have diverged sufficiently to form three families. IgM and IgW VH serine codons using the potential somatic hypermutation hotspot sequence occur mainly in VH framework 1 (FR1 and CDR1. Phylogenetic analysis of cartilaginous fish and lungfish IgM and IgW demonstrated they form two major ancient gene groups; furthermore, these VH genes generally diversify (duplicate and diverge within a species. Conclusion As in ratfish

  12. Asma y deficiencia de subclases de IgG Asthma and IgG subclases deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Santamaría Ortiz

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudiaron 45 pacientes asmáticos adultos de difícil manejo, de más de 5 años de evolución, 37 de ellos esteroide dependientes y 8 no dependientes, con asma alérgica o intrínseca y algunos con Infecciones respiratorias recurrentes de predominio viral. Por nefelometría se midieron los niveles séricos de las IgsG, M y A, y por ELISA se determinó la IgE total. Se encontraron 4 pacientes con deficiencia de IgG total, en el grupo de los esteroide dependientes. Mediante ELISA tipo sandwich y con anticuerpos monoclonales específicos para las sub clases de IgG se investigaron los niveles sé ricos de IgG1, 2, 3 y 4. En el 55.6% de los enfermos se encontraron una O más deficiencias de sub clases. No hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos esteroide y no esteroide dependientes, ni entre los asmáticos alérgicos e intrínsecos, ni entre los con infección recurrente o sin ella. predominó la deficiencia de IgG1; en total el 46.7% de los pacientes tenían deficiencia aislada o combinada de IgG1, el 31.1% de IgG2, el 24.4% de IgG3 y el 17.8% de Igd4. La alta incidencia de deficiencia de sub clases podría deberse a la acción de los esteroides o a una alteración en la regulación de la síntesis de Igs producida por un defecto Inmune primario. Esta deficiencia sería la responsable del comportamiento agresivo de la enfermedad.

    We studied 45 adult asthmatic patients with difficult to care disease and who had more than five years of evolution; they suffered from elther allergic or intrinsic asthma and some had experienced recurrent respiratory tract infections. predominantly of viral etiology. Serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by nephelometry and total lgE was determined by an Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Total lg

  13. The Induction of IgM and IgG Antibodies against HLA or MICA after Lung Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelieke W. M. Paantjens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of IgG HLA antibodies after lung transplantation (LTx is considered to be a major risk factor for the development of chronic rejection, represented by the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS. It has recently been observed that elevated levels of IgM HLA antibodies also correlates with the development of chronic rejection in heart and kidney transplantation. This study investigates the relationship between IgM and IgG antibodies against HLA and MICA after lung transplantation. Serum was collected from 49 patients once prior to transplantation and monthly for up to 1 year after lung transplantation was analyzed by Luminex to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against HLA and MICA. The presence of either IgM or IgG HLA and/or MICA antibodies prior to or after transplantation was not related to survival, gender, primary disease, or the development of BOS. Additionally, the production of IgG alloantibodies was not preceded by an increase in levels of IgM, and IgM levels were not followed by an increase in IgG. Under current immune suppressive regimen, although the presence of IgM antibodies does not correlate with BOS after LTx, IgM high IgG low HLA class I antibody titers were observed more in patients with BOS compared to patients without BOS.

  14. Uncoupling of glomerular IgA deposition and disease progression in alymphoplasia mice with IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Aizawa

    Full Text Available Previous clinical and experimental studies have indicated that cells responsible for IgA nephropathy (IgAN, at least in part, are localized in bone marrow (BM. Indeed, we have demonstrated that murine IgAN can be experimentally reconstituted by bone marrow transplantation (BMT from IgAN prone mice in not only normal mice, but also in alymphoplasia mice (aly/aly independent of IgA+ cells homing to mucosa or secondary lymphoid tissues. The objective of the present study was to further assess whether secondary lymph nodes (LN contribute to the progression of this disease. BM cells from the several lines of IgAN prone mice were transplanted into aly/aly and wild-type mice (B6. Although the transplanted aly/aly showed the same degree of mesangial IgA and IgG deposition and the same serum elevation levels of IgA and IgA-IgG immune-complexes (IC as B6, even in extent, the progression of glomerular injury was observed only in B6. This uncoupling in aly/aly was associated with a lack of CD4+ T cells and macrophage infiltration, although phlogogenic capacity to nephritogenic IC of renal resident cells was identical between both recipients. It is suggested that secondary LN may be required for the full progression of IgAN after nephritogenic IgA and IgA/IgG IC deposition.

  15. [IgE myeloma. Laboratory typing difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovone, Nora S; Fuente, María Cristina; Gastiazoro, Ana María; Alfonso, Graciela; Freitas, María Josefina

    2014-01-01

    The IgE multiple myeloma is a rare neoplasm of plasma cell accounting for 0.01% of all plasma cell dyscrasias. They are generally of more aggressive development and to date there are no more than 50 cases published in current literature. Laboratory studies are, in these cases, essential for the classification of the monoclonal component in serum and urine. The aim of this presentation is to report a patient diagnosed with IgE myeloma and to point out that the laboratory difficulties noted in these rare cases can lead to an erroneous report.

  16. 39 CFR 111.3 - Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United.... 39 June 16, 1991 56 FR 56015 40 September 15, 1991 56 FR 56013 41 December 15, 1991 57 FR 21611 42... July 1, 1997 62 FR 30457 53 January 1, 1998 62 FR 63851 54 January 10, 1999 64 FR 39 55 January 10...

  17. Human antibodies to immunoglobulin A (IgA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munster, P.J.J. van; Nadorp, J.H.S.M.; Shuurman, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the sera of 12 out of 27 individuals with IgA deficiency (serum level below 0.02 mg IgA/m) class-specific anti-IgA antibodies were demonstrated by haemagglutination. These sera showed false-positive results in a solid-phase inhibition radioimmunoassay (RIST) (apparent IgA concentration between 0.6 and 13.7 μg IgA/ml) indicating that the RIST is not an appropriate test for the analysis of serum of IgA seficient individuals. A modification of the RIST is proposed (titration RIA) that permits differentiation between low levels of IgA and class-specific anti-IgA antibodies. With this test IgA deficient individuals could be classified as those with low but detectable levels of IgA and those with class-specific anti-IgA antibodies. A computer procedure was developed to calculate both the amount and the avidity (K) of the anti-IgA antibodies and to simulate the assay system. The K value calculated from experimental points proved to be an overestimation of the K value which fitted most adequately in the simulation. The comparison of the results with clinical findings indicated a possible correlation between the amount and the avidity of the anti-IgA antibodies and the appearence of anaphylactic reactions after transfusion of IgA. (Auth.)

  18. IgG4-related kidney disease – an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized systemic inflammatory disorder that can affect most organs/tissues such as sarcoidosis. The kidney is a frequently affected organ with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), the representative lesion of IgG4-RD. This review focuses on the latest knowledge of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD). Recent findings A wide range of renal manifestations of IgG4-RD, that is TIN, membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) and other glomerular lesions, and pyelitis, are collectively referred to as IgG4-RKD. Clinically, decreased renal function, or characteristic imaging findings such as multiple low-density lesions on contrast-enhanced computed tomography or diffuse thickening of the renal pelvic wall, are typical presenting features. Although a rapid response to corticosteroid therapy is a very important feature of IgG4-TIN, in cases in which renal function is moderately to severely decreased before therapy, only partial recovery of renal function is obtained. Summary TIN with characteristic imaging findings is a typical manifestation of IgG4-RKD in the interstitium, while MGN is a representative manifestation of the glomerular lesions. Although IgG4 is a central feature of IgG4-RD, the recent discovery of IgG4-negative IgG4-RD raises questions about the causative role of the IgG4 molecule in this context. PMID:25594543

  19. Cellular Signaling and Production of Galactose-Deficient IgA1 in IgA Nephropathy, an Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Reily

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin A (IgA nephropathy (IgAN, the leading cause of primary glomerulonephritis, is characterized by IgA1-containing immunodeposits in the glomeruli. IgAN is a chronic disease, with up to 40% of patients progressing to end-stage renal disease, with no disease-specific treatment. Multiple studies of the origin of the glomerular immunodeposits have linked elevated circulating levels of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 (galactose-deficient in some O-glycans; Gd-IgA1 with formation of nephritogenic Gd-IgA1-containing immune complexes. Gd-IgA1 is recognized as an autoantigen in susceptible individuals by anti-glycan autoantibodies, resulting in immune complexes that may ultimately deposit in the kidney and induce glomerular injury. Genetic studies have revealed that an elevated level of Gd-IgA1 in the circulation of IgAN patients is a hereditable trait. Moreover, recent genome-wide association studies have identified several immunity-related loci that associated with IgAN. Production of Gd-IgA1 by IgA1-secreting cells of IgAN patients has been attributed to abnormal expression and activity of several key glycosyltransferases. Substantial evidence is emerging that abnormal signaling in IgA1-producing cells is related to the production of Gd-IgA1. As Gd-IgA1 is the key autoantigen in IgAN, understanding the genetic, biochemical, and environmental aspects of the abnormal signaling in IgA1-producing cells will provide insight into possible targets for future disease-specific therapy.

  20. Impact of educational mailing on the blood pressure of primary care patients with mild hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jacquelyn S; Siemienczuk, Joseph; Touchette, Dan; Payne, Nicola

    2004-09-01

    To assess the effectiveness of mailed hypertension educational materials. Prospective, randomized, controlled single-blind trial. Primary care practice-based research network in which 9 clinics located in Portland, Oregon participated. Patients with mildly uncontrolled hypertension as defined as a last blood pressure of 140 to 159/90 to 99 mmHg from query of an electronic medical record database. Patients randomized to intervention were mailed 2 educational packets approximately 3 months apart. The first mailer included a letter from each patient's primary care provider. The mailer included a booklet providing an overview of hypertension and lifestyle modification and a refrigerator magnet noting target blood pressure. The second mailing also included a letter from the patient's primary care provider, a second educational booklet focused on medication compliance and home blood pressure monitoring, and a blood pressure logbook. The control group consisted of similar patients receiving usual care for hypertension. Patients from each group were randomly selected for invitation to participate in a study visit to measure blood pressure and complete a survey (intervention n= 162; control n= 150). No significant difference was found in mean blood pressure between intervention and control patients (135/77 mmHg vs 137/77 mmHg; P=.229). Patients in the intervention arm scored higher on a hypertension knowledge quiz (7.48 +/- 1.6 vs 7.06 +/- 1.6; P=.019), and reported higher satisfaction with several aspects of their care. No significant difference was seen in the prevalence of home blood pressure monitoring ownership or use. In patients with mildly uncontrolled hypertension, educational mailers did not yield a significant decrease in blood pressure. However, significant improvement in patient knowledge, frequency of home monitoring, and satisfaction with care were demonstrated.

  1. Omalizumab decreases IgE production in patients with allergic (IgE-mediated) asthma; PKPD analysis of a biomarker, total IgE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Philip J; Renard, Didier

    2011-01-01

    AIM To determine whether excessive IgE production by patients with atopic allergic asthma decreases with omalizumab therapy. METHODS Omalizumab, free and total IgE data were obtained from an epidemiological study and six randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in patients with allergic asthma. The binding between omalizumab and IgE together with the production and elimination of IgE were modelled as previously, except that, in order to explain why total IgE was decreasing over a period of 5 years, the expression of IgE was allowed to change. RESULTS The prior constant IgE production model failed to converge on the data once long-term observations were included, whereas models allowing IgE production to decrease fitted. A feedback model indicated that, on average, IgE production decreased by 54% per year. This model was further developed with covariate searches indicating clinically small but statistically significant effects of age, gender, body mass index and race on some parameters. Model predictions were checked internally and externally against 3–5 year data from paediatric and adult atopic asthmatic patients and externally against extensive total IgE data from a long-duration (>1 year) phase 1 study which was not used in the model building. CONCLUSIONS A pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model incorporating omalizumab–IgE binding and feedback for control of IgE production indicates that omalizumab reduces production of IgE. This raises the possibility that indefinite treatment may not be required, only for perhaps a few years. After the initial accumulation, total IgE should provide a means to monitor IgE production and guide individual treatment decisions. PMID:21392073

  2. Neo-Epitopes Generated on Hydroxyl Radical Modified GlycatedIgG Have Role in Immunopathology of Diabetes Type 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Islam

    Full Text Available Glycoxidation plays a crucial role in diabetes and its associated complications. Among the glycoxidation agents, methylglyoxal (MG is known to have very highglycationpotential witha concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS during its synthesis and degradation. The presentstudy probes the MG and ROSinduced structural damage to immunoglobulin G (IgG and alterations in its immunogenicity in diabetes type 2 patients (T2DM. Human IgG was first glycated with MG followed by hydroxyl radical (OH• modification. Glycoxidation mediated effects on IgG were evaluated by various physicochemical techniques likeultraviolet (UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS binding studies, carbonyl andfree sulfhydryl groups assay, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry-time of flight (MALDI-TOF, red blood cell (RBC haemolysis assay, Congored (CR staining analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results revealed hyperchromicityin UV, advanced glycation end product (AGEspecific and ANS fluorescence, quenching in tyrosine and tryptophan fluorescence intensity,enhanced carbonyl content,reduction in free sulfhydryl groups,pronounced shift in m/z value of IgGand decrease in antioxidant activity in RBC induced haemolysis assayupon glycoxidation. SEM and CRstaining assay showed highly altered surface morphology in glycoxidised sample as compared to the native. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and band shift assay were performed to assess the changes in immunogenicity of IgG upon glyoxidation and its role in T2DM. The serum antibodies derived from T2DM patients demonstrated strong affinity towards OH• treated MG glycatedIgG (OH•-MG-IgG when compared to native IgG (N-IgG or IgGs treated with MG alone (MG-IgG or OH• alone (OH•-IgG. This study shows the cumulating effect of OH• on the glycation potential of MG. The results point towards the modification of IgG in diabetes patients

  3. Toxoplasmosis serology: an efficient hemagglutination procedure to detect IgG and IgM antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Camargo

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available In search of an efficient but simple, low cost procedure for the serodiagnosis of Toxoplasmosis, especially suited for routine laboratories facing technical and budget limitations as in less developed countries, the diagnostic capability of Hematoxo® , an hemagglutination test for toxoplasmosis, was evaluated in relation to a battery of tests including IgG- and IgM-immunofluorescence tests, hemagglutination and an IgM-capture enzymatic assay. Detecting a little as 5 I.U. of IgG antitoxoplasma antibodies, Hematoxo® showed a straight agreement as to reactivity and non-reactivity for the 443 non-reactive and the 387 reactive serum samples, included in this study. In 23 cases presenting a serological pattern of acute toxoplasmosis and showing IgM antibodies, Hematoxo® could detect IgM antibodies in 18, indicated by negativation or a significant decrease in titers as a result of treating samples with 2-mercapto-ethanol. However, a neat increase in sensitivity for IgM specific antibodies could be achieved by previously removing IgG from the sample, as demonstrated in a series of acute toxoplasmosis sera. A simple procedure was developed for this purpose, by reconstituting a lyophilized suspension of Protein A - rich Staphylococcus with the lowest serum dilution to be tested. Of low cost and easy to perform, Hematoxo® affords not only a practical qualitative procedure for screening reactors and non-reactors, as in prenatal services, but also quantitative assays that permit to titrate antibodies as well as to identify IgM antibodies.

  4. Interaction between the macrophage system and IgA immune complexes in IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccatello, D; Coppo, R; Basolo, B; Martina, G; Rollino, C; Cordonnier, D; Busquet, G; Picciotto, G; Sena, L M; Piccoli, G

    1983-01-01

    In nine patients with IgA nephropathy, the function of the mononuclear phagocyte system was assessed by measuring in vivo clearance of anti-D coated red blood cells (RBC) and in vitro phagocytosis of sensitised RBC by monocytes. A strict correlation was found between in vivo macrophage function and in vitro monocyte phagocytosis. Statistical correlations were also found between in vivo clearance values and IgAIC and C3d values. A defective macrophage and monocyte function affects patients with major signs of clinical activity, highest IgAIC values, signs of complement activation and the most unfavourable clinical course.

  5. Detection of Serum IgG4 Levels in Patients with IgG4-Related Disease and Other Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenqiong; Wu, Xuefen; Miao, Ye; Xiong, Hui; Bai, Lin; Dong, Lingli

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated serum IgG4 levels are an important hallmark for diagnosing IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), but can also be observed in other diseases. This study aimed to compare two different testing methods for IgG4: ELISA and nephelometric assay. Both assays were used to measure serum IgG4 concentrations, and to assess the prevalence of high serum IgG4 levels in both IgG4-RD and non-IgG4-RD diseases. Methods A total of 80 serum samples were tested using the nephelometric assay and ELISA method that we established. Serum IgG4 concentrations were determined by ELISA for 957 patients with distinct diseases, including 12 cases of IgG4-RD and 945 cases of non-IgG4-RD. Results IgG4 levels from 80 selected serum samples examined by ELISA were in agreement with those detected using the nephelometry assay. Meanwhile, the serum IgG4 concentrations measured by ELISA were also consistent with the clinical diagnoses of patients with IgG4-RD during the course of disease. The Elevated levels of serum IgG4 (>1.35 g/L) were detected in all IgG4-RD (12/12) patients, and the prevalence of high IgG4 serum levels was 3.39% in non-IgG4-RD cases. Among them, the positive rates of serum IgG4 were 2.06% in patients with carcinoma and 6.3% in patients with other non-IgG4 autoimmune diseases. Conclusion Our established ELISA method is a reliable and convenient technique, which could be extensively used in the clinic to measure serum IgG4 levels. High levels of IgG4 were observed in IgG4-RD. However, this phenomenon could also be observed in other diseases, such as carcinomas and other autoimmune diseases. Thus, a diagnosis of IgG4 disease cannot only be dependent on the detection of elevated serum IgG4 levels. PMID:25885536

  6. Selective excretion of IgA in rat bronchial secretions: lack of significant contribution from plasma IgA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre-Coelho, I.; Yamakido, M.; Montgomery, P.C.; Langendries, A.E.; Vaerman, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrated rat bronchial washings (BW) were analyzed by gel-filtration and immunochemical methods. BW contained mainly albumin, transferrin and IgG. Free secretory component and secretory IgA were identified in BW; the BW-IgA had the same three sedimentation coefficients, i.e. +/- 11 S, 13 S, 15 S by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, as rat milk and rat bile IgA; the three peaks were secretory IgA. Compared to serum, and relatively to albumin, BW were significantly enriched in IgA, although much less than rat bile. Purified polyclonal rat polymeric 125 I-IgA was injected intravenously into normal rats, and into rats with bile duct ligation or partial hepatectomy, which decrease the liver plasma-to-bile transfer of IgA. BW were then collected, one or four hours later, to assess the recovery of the 125 I-IgA in BW and to estimate the contribution of serum IgA to BW-IgA. Very little 125 I-IgA (less than 0.2%) was recovered in all BW. The specific activity, measured only in the rat with the highest recovery in BW, was 20 times lower in BW than in serum. The data demonstrate that rat serum IgA does not contribute significantly to IgA in BW

  7. Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lings, Kristina; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LAD) is an autoimmune, chronic bullous disease affecting primarily young children and adults. Studies on LAD are relatively sparse and from Scandinavia we could only find a few case reports. Therefore we decided to conduct a retrospective investigation of patients...

  8. Anticuerpos antinucleares, imágenes y características obtenidas por inmunofluorescencia: Importancia de los isotipos IgA, IgM e IgG Antinuclear antibodies, patterns and characteristics obtained by immunofluorescence: The importance of the IgA, IgM and IgG isotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Arcavi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La técnica de elección para el screening de anticuerpos antinucleares (ANA es la inmunofluorescencia indirecta que utiliza como sustrato una línea de células epiteliales de carcinoma de laringe humano (IFI-HEp2, y como antisuero, anti-IgG o anti-Ig totales. Los ANA-IgG son los más importantes para el diagnóstico y monitoreo de las enfermedades del tejido conectivo (ETC, mientras los ANA-IgM son de menor relevancia clínica en estos pacientes. Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los ANA-IgA ya que estos Ac han sido menos investigados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la prevalencia de los diferentes isotipos de inmunoglobulinas de anticuerpos antinucleares en los pacientes con ETC y evaluar la conveniencia de utilizar conjugados monovalentes o polivalentes. Se procesaron 100 sueros de pacientes con diversas ETC empleando IFI-HEp2, en los cuales se detectó 38% de ANA-IgA (títulos ≥ 1:80 y 12% de ANA-IgM (títulos ≤ 1:160. En 29 casos se detectó IgA en ausencia de IgM, en 3 casos IgM en ausencia de IgA. En todos los casos los ANA-IgG estuvieron presentes. En 6 sueros se observó un cambio de imagen con conjugado anti-IgA y en 3 con conjugado anti-IgM. Debido a la alta prevalencia de ANA-IgA detectada por IFI-HEp2, se destaca la conveniencia de utilizar conjugado anti-Ig totales en lugar de anti-IgG, mientras se desconozca la relevancia de los ANA-IgA en el diagnóstico, pronóstico y seguimiento de las enfermedades reumáticas sistémicas.The indirect immunofluorescence with epitelial cell line from human laryngeal carcinoma as substrate (IIF-HEp2 and anti-IgG or anti-total Ig as antisera, is the technique currently used for the detection of antinuclear antibodies. The most important antibodies for the diagnosis and follow-up of connective tissue diseases (CTD are the IgG-ANA, while the IgM-ANA have no clinical relevance. However the IgA-ANA have not been thoroughly investigated so far. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence

  9. Anti-GM2 gangliosides IgM paraprotein induces neuromuscular block without neuromuscular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santafé, Manel M; Sabaté, M Mar; Garcia, Neus; Ortiz, Nico; Lanuza, M Angel; Tomàs, Josep

    2008-11-15

    We analyzed the effect on the mouse neuromuscular synapses of a human monoclonal IgM, which binds specifically to gangliosides with the common epitope [GalNAc beta 1-4Gal(3-2 alpha NeuAc)beta 1-]. We focused on the role of the complement. Evoked neurotransmission was partially blocked by IgM both acutely (1 h) and chronically (10 days). Transmission electron microscopy shows important nerve terminal growth and retraction remodelling though axonal injury can be ruled out. Synapses did not show mouse C5b-9 immunofluorescence and were only immunolabelled when human complement was added. Therefore, the IgM-induced synaptic changes occur without complement-mediated membrane attack.

  10. Role and Redirection of IgE against Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa A. Nigro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available IgE is a highly elusive antibody class, yet a tremendously powerful elicitor of immune reactions. Despite huge efforts spent on the characterization and understanding of the IgE system many questions remain either unanswered or only marginally addressed. One above all relates to the role of IgE. A common doubt is based on whether IgE mode of action should only be relegated to anti-parasite immunity and allergic manifestations. In search for a hidden role of IgE, reports from several laboratories are described herein in which a natural IgE link to cancer or the experimental redirection of IgE against cancer have been investigated. Epidemiological and investigational studies are trying to elucidate a possible direct intervention of endogenous IgE against cancer, raising thus far no definitive evidence. Conversely, experimental approaches implementing several strategies and engineered IgE formats built up a series of convincing results indicating that cancer might be tackled by the effector functions of this immunoglobulin class. Because of its peculiar immune features, IgE may present a superior anti-tumor performance as compared to IgG. However, extreme care should be taken on how IgE-based anti-tumor approaches should be devised. Overall, IgE appears as a promising resource, likely destined to enrich the anti-cancer arsenal.

  11. Minimal Change Disease and IgA Deposition: Separate Entities or Common Pathophysiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S. Oberweis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Minimal Change Disease (MCD is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children, while IgA nephropathy is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis worldwide. MCD is responsive to glucocorticoids, while the role of steroids in IgA nephropathy remains unclear. We describe a case of two distinct clinical and pathological findings, raising the question of whether MCD and IgA nephropathy are separate entities or if there is a common pathophysiology. Case Report. A 19-year old man with no medical history presented to the Emergency Department with a 20-day history of anasarca and frothy urine, BUN 68 mg/dL, Cr 2.3 mg/dL, urinalysis 3+ RBCs, 3+ protein, and urine protein : creatinine ratio 6.4. Renal biopsy revealed hypertrophic podocytes on light microscopy, podocyte foot process effacement on electron microscopy, and immunofluorescent mesangial staining for IgA. The patient was started on prednisone and exhibited dramatic improvement. Discussion. MCD typically has an overwhelming improvement with glucocorticoids, while the resolution of IgA nephropathy is rare. Our patient presented with MCD with the uncharacteristic finding of hematuria. Given the improvement with glucocorticoids, we raise the question of whether there is a shared pathophysiologic component of these two distinct clinical diseases that represents a clinical variant.

  12. Prodduction of clone secretor of antibodies (IgG againt of infection bursal disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Yuliet Marín

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Marín S.Y., dos Santos B.M., Patarroyo J.H. & Vargas M.I. [Prodduction of clone secretor of antibodies (IgG againt of infection bursal disease virus.] Produção de clones secretores de anticorpos (IgG contra o vírus da doença infecciosa bursal. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:238-144, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida PH Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, MG 36570- 000, Brasil. E-mail: bmsantos@ufv.br Three clones secreting of antibodies (Abs IgG against infection bursal disease virus IBDV was development. The IBDV was strain S706 (the intermediate vaccine was replicated in VERO cell and purified by sucrose gradient, for ELISA and mice inoculation. For the immunization of the mice BALB/c using as a saponin adjuvant, that allowed an inflammation reaction which enhanced the antibody response, detectable by ELISA. The fusion of splenic cells of the immunized mice and the mieloma SP2/0 resulted in 2 hybridoma families (2H11 and 5C7. After cloning by limiting dilution, 3 clones secretors of Abs from IgG class were obtained. The 3 obtained Abs were capable to reveal the proteins turn VPX and VP2 by “western blotting”, respectively of 47 kDa and 41 kDa. The definition of the isotypes recognized by obtained Abs must be object of characterization to allow the use of the antibodies in immunodiagnostic tests such as immunofluorescence, immunocitochemistry or capture ELISA, for epidemiologic of the disease researches or to differentiate vaccine’s virus of the field virus.

  13. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Guidant... workers and former workers of Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division, Engineering... reviewed the certification to clarify the subject worker group's identity. Additional information revealed...

  14. Ombuds' corner: Code of Conduct and e-mails

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2011-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Luke* holds a key position in the coordination of a large project. He is also a recognized expert in modeling complicated structures. Because of his expertise in the field, he receives a considerable number of e-mails every day which he has trouble responding to in addition to his responsibilities of management and development. Constantly interrupted, he tends to answer his emails quickly, sometimes even in an instinctive way, which leads to somewhat laconic messages. One day he receives an e-mail from Dave* challenging some of the decisions taken by the project’s management. Luke agrees with Dave’s remarks, which seem justified given his own expertise of the su...

  15. AN EFFECTIVE SPAM FILTERING FOR DYNAMIC MAIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arun Mozhi Selvi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spam is commonly defined as unsolicited email messages and the goal of spam categorization is to distinguish between spam and legitimate email messages. The economics of spam details that the spammer has to target several recipients with identical and similar email messages. As a result a dynamic knowledge sharing effective defense against a substantial fraction of spam has to be designed which can alternate the burdens of frequent training stand alone spam filter. A weighted email attribute based classification is proposed to mainly focus to encounter the issues in normal email system. These type of classification helps to formulate an effective utilization of our email system by combining the concepts of Bayesian Spam Filtering Algorithm, Iterative Dichotmiser 3(ID3 Algorithm and Bloom Filter. The details captured by the system are processed to track the original sender causing disturbances and prefer them to block further mails from them. We have tested the effectiveness of our scheme by collecting offline data from Yahoo mail & Gmail dumps. This proposal is implemented using .net and sample user-Id for knowledge base.

  16. Stability of carboxyhemoglobin in stored and mailed blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2008-02-01

    Elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels are used to confirm a clinical diagnosis of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and, in some instances, assess severity of poisoning. However, many hospital laboratories cannot measure COHb because they do not have CO-oximeters. In such instances, blood samples are often sent to outside laboratories or with a transported patient for measurement at the receiving hospital. This study was conducted to assess the stability of COHb in stored and mailed blood samples anticoagulated with heparin. Adult human blood was drawn into standard sample tubes anticoagulated with sodium heparin. Carbon monoxide gas was infused to raise the COHb level to 25% to 35%. Samples were then refrigerated or stored at room temperature, and serial COHb determinations were performed for 28 days. Additional samples were measured after being mailed locally or across the United States and back. No significant changes in COHb levels were seen in samples stored either in refrigeration or at room temperature over a period of 28 days or in samples shipped without refrigeration locally or across the United States. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in whole blood samples anticoagulated with heparin are stable with or without refrigeration for up to 4 weeks. If COHb measurement capability is not available, such samples may be shipped or transported with patients with confidence that the COHb level will be stable when measured at a later time.

  17. Saliva and sera IgA and IgG in Egyptian Giardia-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gebaly, Naglaa Saad M; Halawa, Eman Fawzy; Moussa, Hanaa M Ezzat; Rabia, Ibrahim; Abu-Zekry, Maha

    2012-08-01

    Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal infection of wide distribution that is more prevalent in childhood. Easy and rapid diagnosis of giardiasis is essential for reduction of this infection. This cross-sectional study included 62 children in which collection of saliva, stool and serum samples was performed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was evaluated to detect IgA and IgG responses in both saliva and serum samples. Twenty-two children were positive for Giardia duodenalis infection by direct examination of faecal specimens, 20 non-infected and 20 infected with other parasites. Salivary and serum IgA and IgG responses against G. duodenalis infection were significantly higher in Giardia parasitized than non-Giardia parasitized children (p < 0.001). This concludes that specific salivary IgA may serve as a diagnostic tool and specific salivary IgG as a screening tool in monitoring the exposure of various populations to Giardia duodenalis. The advantage of salivary assays over serum immunoglobulin assay is being easy and non-invasive in sampling technique which is important especially for young children.

  18. Comparison of NBG-18, NBG-17, IG-110 and IG-11 oxidation kinetics in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jo Jo; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2018-03-01

    The oxidation rates of several nuclear-grade graphites, NBG-18, NBG-17, IG-110 and IG-11, were measured in air using thermogravimetry. Kinetic parameters and oxidation behavior for each grade were compared by coke type, filler grain size and microstructure. The thickness of the oxidized layer for each grade was determined by layer peeling and direct density measurements. The results for NBG-17 and IG-11 were compared with those available in the literature and our recently reported results for NBG-18 and IG-110 oxidation in air. The finer-grained graphites IG-110 and IG-11 were more oxidized than medium-grained NBG-18 and NBG-17 because of deeper oxidant penetration, higher porosity and higher probability of available active sites. Variation in experimental conditions also had a marked effect on the reported kinetic parameters by several studies. Kinetic parameters such as activation energy and transition temperature were sensitive to air flow rates as well as sample size and geometry.

  19. Association of IgG co-deposition with serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in pediatric IgA nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eison, T. Matthew; Hastings, M. Colleen; Moldoveanu, Zina; Sanders, John T.; Gaber, Lillian; Walker, Patrick D.; Lau, Keith K; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan; Wyatt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the absence of mesangial IgG deposits is associated with the absence of elevated blood levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Design and methods: Serum Gd-IgA1 levels were determined by ELISA using an N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin from Helix aspersa. Levels of Gd-IgA1 above the 90th percentile for healthy pediatric controls were considered to be elevated. Renal biopsy samples were examined by immunofluorescence for presence and intensity of staining for IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 and C1q and by light microscopy for histological changes. Findings were graded by a single pathologist (L. Gaber) at UTHSC until 2007 and by NephropathTM (Little Rock, AR, USA) thereafter. Staining for the mesangial deposits was considered negative when intensity was trace or less, and positive at greater intensity. Fisher’s exact-test was used to determine significance of 2 × 2 tables. Results: Serum samples were obtained from 30 patients with IgAN diagnosed before age 18 years. Male : female ratio was 2.3 : 1. Twenty were Caucasian and 10 were African-American. Blood was obtained within 3 months of biopsy (incident cases) for 12, while 18 provided blood > 3 months after biopsy (prevalent cases). Serum Gd-IgA1 level was elevated in 23 (77%) of cases and 20 (67%) had a biopsy positive for IgG. Of those 20 patients, 18 (90%) had an elevated serum Gd-IgA1 level, whereas 5 (50%) of patients with biopsies without IgG had a normal serum Gd-IgA1 level (p = 0.026). Summary: In this small study we found a weak association between the absence of IgG in the biopsy and normal serum Gd-IgA1 level. PMID:23006340

  20. Gluten sensitivity in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerud, Hilde Kloster; Fellström, Bengt; Hällgren, Roger; Osagie, Sonia; Venge, Per; Kristjánsson, Gudjón

    2009-08-01

    Coeliac disease is more frequent in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients compared to the healthy population. Several hypotheses postulate that food antigens like gluten may be involved in the onset of IgAN. In this study, we used a recently developed mucosal patch technique to evaluate the rectal mucosal inflammatory reaction to gluten in patients with IgAN (n = 27) compared to healthy subjects (n = 18). The rectal mucosal production of nitric oxide (NO) and release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were measured. Serum samples were analysed for IgA and IgG antigliadin antibodies (AGA), IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies. Gluten reactivity, defined as increase in MPO and/or NO after gluten exposure, was observed in 8 of 27 IgAN patients. The prevalence of HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 was not increased among gluten-sensitive patients, and the total prevalence among IgAN patients was the same as for the normal population. An elevated serum IgA AGA response was seen in 9 of 27 IgAN patients. The increase in IgA AGA did not correlate with the gluten sensitivity as measured by NO and/or MPO. A specific serum IgG AGA response was seen in one patient only. Antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium were not observed. It is concluded that approximately one-third of our IgAN patients have a rectal mucosal sensitivity to gluten, but without signs of coeliac disease, and we hypothesize that such sub-clinical inflammation to gluten might be involved in the pathogenesis of IgAN in a subgroup of patients.

  1. Extensive diversification of IgD-, IgY-, and truncated IgY(δFc)-encoding genes in the red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxiao; Wang, Tao; Sun, Yi; Cheng, Gang; Yang, Hui; Wei, Zhiguo; Wang, Ping; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Ren, Liming; Meng, Qingyong; Zhang, Ran; Guo, Ying; Hammarström, Lennart; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-10-15

    IgY(ΔFc), containing only CH1 and CH2 domains, is expressed in the serum of some birds and reptiles, such as ducks and turtles. The duck IgY(ΔFc) is produced by the same υ gene that expresses the intact IgY form (CH1-4) using different transcriptional termination sites. In this study, we show that intact IgY and IgY(ΔFc) are encoded by distinct genes in the red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans). At least eight IgY and five IgY(ΔFc) transcripts were found in a single turtle. Together with Southern blotting, our data suggest that multiple genes encoding both IgY forms are present in the turtle genome. Both of the IgY forms were detected in the serum using rabbit polyclonal Abs. In addition, we show that multiple copies of the turtle δ gene are present in the genome and that alternative splicing is extensively involved in the generation of both the secretory and membrane-bound forms of the IgD H chain transcripts. Although a single μ gene was identified, the α gene was not identified in this species.

  2. 75 FR 52378 - Transfer of Commercial Standard Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ..., 2010, the United States Postal Service[reg] filed with the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to transfer commercial Standard Mail Parcels from the Mail... POSTAL SERVICE Transfer of Commercial Standard Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List AGENCY...

  3. Cost and performance tradeoffs between mail and internet survey modes in a nonmarket valuation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Campbell; Tyron Venn; Nathaniel M. Anderson

    2018-01-01

    Using the results of a choice modeling survey, internet, mail-only and mixed internet and mail survey modes were examined with regards to their cost-effectiveness, representativeness, and willingness to pay (WTP). The topical focus of the study was biomass energy generation preferences of the residents of Montana, Colorado and Arizona, USA. Compared to the mail and...

  4. 41 CFR 102-192.30 - What types of mail does this part apply to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Introduction to this Part § 102-192.30 What types of mail does this part apply to... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of mail does this part apply to? 102-192.30 Section 102-192.30 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  5. 76 FR 62000 - Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature... days to 30 days after the date of mailing, and to change the Express Mail ``waiver of signature'' standard for domestic items by obtaining an addressee's signature only when the mailer selects the...

  6. 76 FR 75461 - Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature... to 30 days after the date of mailing, and to change the Express Mail ``waiver of signature'' standard for domestic items by obtaining an addressee's signature only when the mailer selects the ``signature...

  7. 25 CFR 115.405 - How frequently will a minor's statement of performance be mailed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How frequently will a minor's statement of performance be mailed? 115.405 Section 115.405 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL... minor's statement of performance be mailed? We will mail a minor's statement of performance to the...

  8. 78 FR 63433 - International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes-CPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes--CPI AGENCY... mailing services price adjustments with the Postal Regulatory Commission (PRC), effective on January 26... Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM[supreg]) to reflect these new price changes. DATES: We...

  9. How Colleges, Universities, and Other Educational Institutions Can Use Direct Mail More Effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Glenn L.

    This series of magazine articles stresses ways in which educational institutions can use direct mail advertising to promote lectures, concerts, and other programs to off-campus audiences. The application of direct mail principles to selling education is suggested, and the advantages and disadvantages of direct mailings by colleges and universities…

  10. Filling in the Gaps: Conservation and Reconstruction of Archaeological Mail Armour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Mail armour is made of many interlinking metal rings. It has been a popular type of defensive gear through the centuries, and this popularity has in part been due to mail armour’s flexibility. However, this very flexibility today hinders its conservation, interpretation and display. Mail pieces

  11. The Application of E-Mail to College English Teaching in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guofeng

    2010-01-01

    With the development of information technology in the past 10 years, e-mail has been widely used in the field of English teaching. This paper, based on an analysis of the ways of using e-mail in college English teaching in China, probes the feasibility and the benefits of application of e-mail to college English teaching.

  12. 21 CFR 1314.100 - Sales limits for mail-order sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a) Each...

  13. 41 CFR 102-192.135 - Must we have a mail center manager at our facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... center manager at our facility? 102-192.135 Section 102-192.135 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Mail Center Manager Requirements § 102-192.135 Must we have a mail center manager at our facility? Yes, every facility that has more than two full time people dedicated to...

  14. IgG4-related Disease of the Genitourinary Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul K. Divatia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently established albeit well recognized fibro-inflammatory condition with distinctive features including a characteristic histopathological appearance; a propensity to develop tumefactive lesions in multiple body sites; and oft elevated serum IgG4 levels. The consensus statement on IgG-4 RD equips practicing pathologists with a set of working guidelines for the diagnosis of pathologic lesions identified in a host of different organ system affected with this disease. The diagnosis of IgG4-RD requires the combined presence of the characteristic histopathological appearance and increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The essential histopathological features include a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, a storiform pattern of fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. Tissue IgG4-positive plasma cell counts and IgG4: IgG ratios are significant ancillary aids in establishing the diagnosis. The spectrum of IgG4-RD continues to expand and involve multiple body sites. The genitourinary system comprising of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, prostate gland, testes and penis is one of the multiple organ systems to be affected by IgG4-RD. This review describes the clinical and histopathologic patterns of involvement of the genitourinary system by IgG4-RD, in association with serologic and radiological features. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(1.000: 3-18

  15. Inhibition of complement activation by IgG4 antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, J. S.; van Swieten, P.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to antigens may result in high IgG4 antibody titres as was shown in a previous paper (Aalberse et al., 1983b). In novice bee keepers, a shift in the IgG1/IgG4 ratio of the response against phospholipase-A (PLA; a major component of bee venom) occurred. This resulted in an

  16. Measurement of anti-IgA antibodies by a two-site immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homburger, H.A.; Smith, J.R.; Jacob, G.L.; Laschinger, C.; Naylor, D.H.; Pineda, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    To enable the detection of IgG class, anti-IgA antibodies and to investigate the possible occurrence of IgE class, anti-IgA antibodies, we developed a solid phase immunoradiometric assay, which uses purified IgA coupled covalently to microcrystalline cellulose as an immunosorbent. Radiolabeled, Fc specific anti-IgG and anti-IgE antibodies were used to detect specific aIgA after incubation of test sera or controls with the immunosorbent. IgG-aIgA were detected by the IRA in 100 and 67% of control sera with class specific and limited specificity aIgA. The IRA was sensitive to approximately two ng of class specific IgG-aIgA. IgG-aIgA also were detected by IRA in 7.9% of sera from patients with urticarial transfusion reactions and 73% of sera from patients with ataxia telangiectasia and IgA deficiency. Sera from 50 normal blood donors did not have detectable IgG-aIgA. Tests for IgE-aIgA were negative in all cases, including control sera with class specific IgG-aIgA. We conclude that the IRA is a sensitive and reproducible method for detection of class specific and limited specificity IgG-aIgA, and that IgE-aIgA do not mediate urticarial transfusion reactions

  17. 41 CFR 102-192.140 - What are your general responsibilities as a Federal mail center manager?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities as a Federal mail center manager? 102-192.140 Section 102-192.140 Public Contracts and Property... ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Mail Center Manager Requirements § 102-192.140 What are your general responsibilities as a Federal mail center manager? A Federal mail center manager should— (a) Implement policies and...

  18. 41 CFR 102-192.125 - What is the appropriate managerial level for an agency mail manager?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... managerial level for an agency mail manager? 102-192.125 Section 102-192.125 Public Contracts and Property... ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Agency Mail Manager Requirements § 102-192.125 What is the appropriate managerial level for an agency mail manager? The agency mail manager should be at a managerial...

  19. The Induction of IgM and IgG Antibodies against HLA or MICA after Lung Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Paantjens, Annelieke W. M.; van de Graaf, Ed A.; Kwakkel-van Erp, Johanna M.; Hoefnagel, Tineke; van Ginkel, Walter G. J.; Fakhry, Farzia; van Kessel, Diana A.; van den Bosch, Jules M. M.; Otten, Henny G.

    2011-01-01

    The production of IgG HLA antibodies after lung transplantation (LTx) is considered to be a major risk factor for the development of chronic rejection, represented by the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). It has recently been observed that elevated levels of IgM HLA antibodies also correlates with the development of chronic rejection in heart and kidney transplantation. This study investigates the relationship between IgM and IgG antibodies against HLA and MICA after lung transplantati...

  20. Dendritic cells support production of IgA and other non-IgM isotypes in clonal microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, C E; George, A; Kerlin, R L; Cebra, J J

    1990-01-01

    Microcultures of helper T (Th) cells and a few appropriately primed murine B cells can be used to detect cognate T-B interactions which lead to clonal production of IgM, IgG1, and IgE. However, IgG2, IgG3, and IgA are very rarely expressed. We have found that the addition of dendritic cells to such cultures creates an extremely supportive environment for clones expressing IgA with other isotypes, as well as clones expressing only detectable IgA. Typically, 400 dendritic cells were added to 3000 conalbumin-specific Th cells (D10.G4.1) and 30 hapten-specific Peyer's patch (PP) B cells with antigen in 15 microliters. The response was antigen dependent and clonal. Almost half of the clones expressed only non-IgM isotypes, 43% expressed some IgA, and 14% expressed some IgG3; isotype diversity increased over time. Dendritic cells from PP and spleen were found to be equally supportive, and allowed the number of T cells required in microculture to be decreased from 3000 to 400. However, T cell proliferation was not required for the supportive effect of dendritic cells. Surface IgD-bearing cells were also found to switch to IgA production in microculture as judged by their generating clones expressing IgM along with IgA and other isotypes. Again, IgA was usually expressed only in the presence of dendritic cells. The mechanism may involve dendritic cell-induced T cell activation and/or dendritic cell factors, and is under investigation.

  1. Transfer of maternal IgE can be a common cause of increased IgE levels in cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Bisgaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    IgE in cord blood is thought to be a product of the fetus. A high level of total IgE is therefore used as a measure of atopic propensity in the newborn. We recently found strong evidence that allergen-specific IgE in cord blood was the result of transfer of maternal IgE to fetal blood or cord blood...

  2. New radioimmunoassay for IgM and IgG rheumatoid factors, based on a double antibody method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordfang, O. (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Hoeier-Madsen, M.; Lieberkind, J. (Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Halberg, P. (Medical Department, Division of Rheumatology, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark)

    1981-11-30

    A new radioimmunoassay has been developed for measuring IgM and IgG rheumatoid factors. Diluted sera from donors and patients were incubated with immunoprecipitates prepared from sheep serum and rabbit anti-sheep IgG antiserum. The precipitates were washed, and radioiodinated rabbit F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments specific for human IgM or IgG were added. The precipitates were isolated by filtration and measured in a gamma counter. With this assay IgM rheumatoid factors were detected in sera from all patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and in sera from 40% of patients with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. IgG rheumatoid factors were found in sera from 68% of the seropositive and 40% of the seronegative patients. Gel filtration experiments demonstrated that it is possible to detect monomeric IgG rheumatoid factors and IgM rheumatoid factors of molecular weight smaller than pentameric IgM. Furthermore it has been shown that IgG rheumatoid factor activity is still present after reduction of IgM rheumatoid factors with dithiotreitol.

  3. Differential expression of IgE and IgG4 specific antibody responses in asymptomatic and chronic human filariasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurniawan, A.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R.; Selkirk, M. E.; Partono, F.; Maizels, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    A population of 164 adult individuals resident in an area endemic for Brugia malayi lymphatic filariasis has been studied for humoral immune responses to filarial parasites. Antibody levels to Ag extracted from adult worms were determined for each of the IgG subclasses, for IgM and for IgE. The

  4. A radiolabeled antiglobulin assay to identify human cervical mucus immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG antisperm antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, G.G. Jr.; D'Cruz, O.J.

    1989-01-01

    Antisperm immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG antibodies in human cervical mucus (CM) were identified by a radiolabeled antiglobulin assay. Cervical mucus samples from fertile and infertile women were exposed to a 1:3,200 dilution of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), and 5 micrograms of the solubilized CM protein were assayed for the presence of IgA and IgG antisperm and anti-Candida activity by the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay. Purified human secretory IgA and IgG exposed to 2-ME retained the molecular integrity and functional activity of the untreated antibody molecules. CM aliquots collected after high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation were assessed for antisperm antibody activity; antisperm antibody activity was retained in the appropriate IgA or IgG CM fractions. The incidence of CM antisperm antibodies was minimally affected when the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay was performed with a motile sperm population. Approximately 70% of the CM IgA antisperm antibodies were of the IgA1 subclass; CM IgG was primarily of the IgG4 subclass. When Candida antigen was substituted for sperm in the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay, the CM antisperm antibodies were found to be exclusively sperm-specific. These data indicate that the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay using 2-ME to extract CM antibodies is a specific method for the assay of antisperm antibodies in CM

  5. Dokumentaalfilm "Maile Grünbergi värvilised maailmad" = "Maile Grünberg's colourful worlds": a documentary / Karin Paulus, Priit Põldme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2015-01-01

    Sisearhitekt Maile Grünbergist ja 2014. aastal temast valminud dokumentaalfilmist "Maile Grünbergi värvilised maailmad". Režissöör Peeter Brambat, tegevprodutsent Priit Põldme, käsikiri Karin Paulus, Peeter Brambat, Priit Põldme. 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  6. Chlamydial serum IgG, IgA and local IgA antibodies in patients with genital-tract infections measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terho, P.; Meurman, O.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for IgG and IgA class antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was developed with C. trachomatis serotype L2 as antigen. The assay was sensitive, reproducible and correlated well with an immunofluorescence test (r = 0.85). Serum IgG antibodies were detected in 79% of Chlamydia isolation-positive versus 43% of isolation-negative male patients with urethritis and serum IgA antibodies in 53% and 21%, respectively. Urethral IgA antibodies, measured from specimens taken for chlamydial isolation, could be detected in 94% and 38%, respectively. From 737 male urethral and 909 female cervical secretions screened for the presence of IgA antibodies, about half were isolation and IgA negative. Only 4% (6/151) of male and 5.4% (2/37) of female isolation-positive specimens were IgA negative. The determination of local IgA antibodies may be used as a screening test in chlamydial genital infections. (author)

  7. Comparing Levels of Serum IgA, IgG, IgM and Cortisol in the Professional Bodybuilding Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hadi Naghib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bodybuilding athlete's bodies are placed under much pressure in during the exercise, which is causing changes in the immune and hormone system in the long term. The purpose of this study was to compare levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, immunoglobulin M (IgM and cortisol in the professional bodybuilding athletes (BA and the non-athletes (NA male. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic and 29 volunteer subjects in the professional BA and NA men participated. Levels of serum IgA, IgG, IgM using Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID and levels of serum cortisol using Radioimmunoassay (RIA were measured with blood sampling from brachial vein at rest and fasting. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (p0.05, while, the levels of serum cortisol (22.10±2.60 vs. 15.41±3.44 μg/dl, U=0.001, p=0.001 significantly greater in the BA than the NA.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that participation in training and competitions bodybuilding has no effect on serum levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, but increased levels of serum cortisol.

  8. Quantitation of sperm bindable IgA and IgG in seminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, S E; Lynch, D M

    1986-05-01

    Seminal fluid and serum from 95 infertile males were assayed for sperm bindable immunoglobulins using an indirect ELISA with whole target sperm. The ELISA method was compared to seminal fluid and serum immobilization and agglutination assays (functional assays). In this infertile group, the ELISA assay was positive in 22% of seminal fluids (greater than 1.2 fg IgA/sperm and greater than 0.3 fg IgG/sperm). The seminal fluid antibodies were IgA and had an accompanying elevated IgG component in 78% of patients. There was a 96% correlation between negative seminal fluid functional assays and negative ELISA, and a 95% correlation between positive seminal fluid functional assays and positive ELISA. Positive serum sperm antibody tests were found in 71% of the infertile males with positive seminal fluid sperm antibodies, but 29% of the infertile males with strongly positive IgA seminal fluid sperm antibodies showed normal levels of serum sperm antibodies by either ELISA or functional assays. The ELISA method gives reproducible quantitation of sperm antibodies in seminal fluid and correlates well with accepted functional assays. Comparisons with serum sperm antibody assays suggests that seminal fluid sperm antibody analysis complements the serum analysis of sperm antibodies.

  9. IgG4-Related Disease of Bilateral Temporal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lilun; Ward, Bryan; Cocks, Margaret; Kheradmand, Amir; Francis, Howard W

    2017-03-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that causes pseudotumor formation in single or multiple organs, including those of the head and neck. Temporal bone involvement is rare, with only 3 cases of unilateral temporal bone IgG4-RD described in the literature. We report the first known case of IgG4-RD of bilateral temporal bones and describe its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. The patient was a 52-year-old man with latent tuberculosis (TB) who presented with a 10-year history of bilateral profound hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated bilateral labyrinthine destruction with invasion of the posterior fossa. Immunoglobulin level testing showed elevated total serum IgG levels with normal IgG4 levels. Bilateral mastoidectomies were performed, with biopsy samples demonstrating IgG4 staining with IgG4-positive plasma cells up to 40/HPF (high power field) on the right and 20/HPF on the left, consistent with bilateral IgG4-RD. IgG4-RD of bilateral temporal bones presents with chronic and progressive bilateral hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Clinical presentation and radiologic findings are nonspecific, and definitive diagnosis must be made with histopathology and immunostaining. Corticosteroids are therapeutic, but surgical resection may be necessary for temporal bone IgG4-RD to improve long-term remission.

  10. Antibodies recognizing both IgM isotypes in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedfors, Ida Aagård; Bakke, Hege; Skjødt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    these molecules. The present study aimed at identifying tools to separate IgM positive (IgM(+)) B cells from IgM negative (IgM(-)) non-B cell populations using flow cytometry. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and one polyclonal antibody (pAb) to both rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon...... (Salmo salar) IgM, either commercially available or locally produced were tested for their recognition of Atlantic salmon IgM(+) cells. Leukocytes were isolated from peripheral blood (PB), spleen (S) and head kidney (HK) and stained with all mAbs and the pAb, to possibly verify the approximate number...... of IgM(+) cells in the respective tissues in salmon. To our surprise, this seemingly simple task did not reveal similar staining patterns for all antibodies as expected, but rather large differences in the number of positively stained cells were discovered. In short, positively stained cells by each...

  11. IgG4 Aortitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marketkar, Shivali; LeGolvan, Mark

    2017-04-03

    IgG4 aortitis is one of the entities seen in the spectrum of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). It is characterized by serologic (elevated serum IgG4) and histologic features including a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis. Some studies have described a correlation between infections and IgG4 aortitis. We describe a patient with an aneurysm of the infrarenal descending abdominal aorta with features of IgG4-RD, as well as culture evidence of Streptococcus sanguis. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-04.asp].

  12. IgG4-related disease in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Annick A J M; Seidl, Maximilian; Drendel, Vanessa; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Voll, Reinhard E; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Speckmann, Carsten; Ehl, Stephan; Warnatz, Klaus; Kollert, Florian

    2017-07-01

    A patient with autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorder (ALPS) developed IgG4-related disease. In retrospect, he had high levels of serum IgG4 for several years prior to presenting with IgG4-related pancreatitis. These high IgG4 levels were masked by hypergammaglobulinemia, a common feature of ALPS. We next screened 18 ALPS patients; four of them displayed increased levels of IgG4. Hence, IgG4-related disease should be considered in ALPS patients, especially in those manifesting lymphocytic organ infiltration or excessive hypergammaglobulinaemia. Screening of IgG4-related disease patients for ALPS-associated mutations would provide further information on whether this disease could be a late-onset atypical presentation of ALPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cocoa and cocoa fibre differentially modulate IgA and IgM production at mucosal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Àngels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that a 10 % cocoa (C10) diet, containing polyphenols and fibre among others, modifies intestinal and systemic Ig production. The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of C10 on IgA and IgM production in the intestinal and extra-intestinal mucosal compartments, establishing the involvement of cocoa fibre (CF) in such effects. Mechanisms by which C10 intake may affect IgA synthesis in the salivary glands were also studied. To this effect, rats were fed either a standard diet, a diet containing C10, CF or inulin. Intestinal (the gut wash (GW), Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN)) and extra-intestinal (salivary glands) mucosal tissues and blood samples were collected for IgA and IgM quantification. The gene expressions of IgA production- and homing-related molecules were studied in the salivary glands. The C10 diet decreased intestinal IgA and IgM production. Although the CF diet decreased the GW IgA concentration, it increased PP, MLN and serum IgA concentrations. Both the C10 and the CF diets produced a down-regulatory effect on IgA secretion in the extra-intestinal tissues. The C10 diet interacted with the mechanisms involved in IgA synthesis, whereas the CF showed particular effects on the homing and transcytosis of IgA across the salivary glands. Overall, CF was able to up-regulate IgA production in the intestinal-inductor compartments, whereas it down-regulated its production at the mucosal-effector ones. Further studies must be directed to ascertain the mechanisms involved in the effect of particular cocoa components on gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

  14. Tobacco industry marketing: an analysis of direct mail coupons and giveaways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Betsy; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly

    2015-09-01

    Despite marketing prohibitions, tobacco company marketing expenditures in the USA have continued to grow with tobacco companies shifting focus towards point-of-sale-marketing and direct marketing to consumers through the mail and on the web. The purpose of this observational study was to investigate the content of direct marketing sent in response to registrations on select industry websites. An analysis of 659 tobacco company direct mail marketing pieces received between July 2011 and June 2012 was conducted. Mailings were coded for type and value of tobacco coupons, type of tobacco products promoted with coupons and number and type of giveaways offered. The most common type of mailing was tobacco coupon distribution; 86.5% of the mailings contained at least one coupon. Mailings with coupons had an average estimated coupon value of $4.17. The total coupon value of each mailing varied by the type of coupon offer and product promoted. The Camel and Marlboro coupon mailings heavily promoted snus, with over half of Camel coupon mailings (60.9%) and nearly half (44.8%) of Marlboro coupon mailings promoting snus alone. In addition, 47.9% of Marlboro coupon mailings and 11.4% of Camel mailings promoted snus alongside cigarettes. Tobacco companies use direct mail marketing to communicate with consumers and provide valuable tobacco coupons. More research is needed to understand the content of these mailings and how they are used by tobacco consumers in order to develop effective policy solutions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. [IgG4 immunohistochemistry in Riedle thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Luo, Y F; Cao, J L; Zhang, H; Shi, X H; Liang, Z Y; Feng, R E

    2017-03-08

    Objective: To observe the histopathological changes and immunohistochemical expression of IgG4 in Riedle thyroiditis (RT) and to study the relationship between RT and IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RD). Methods: A total of 5 RT patients were collected from the Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital during April 2012 to August 2014. The clinical and immunohistochemical features were analyzed in the 5 patients. Histopathologic analysis was performed on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Results: There were one male and four female patients, aged 52 to 78 years (median 59 years). Five cases were characterized by multiple nodules of thyroid, which increased year by year. All patients were found to have surrounding tissue compression symptoms and signs. Two female patients were found to have hypothyroidism. The serum concentration of IgG was elevated in 2 cases, and the serum concentration of IgG was not tested before operation in the remaining patients. By ultrasound, all presented as low echo or medium low echo. Strong echo occasionally appeared in hypoechoic nodules. Microscopically, fibrous tissue hyperplasia was infiltrated with varying numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells. The occlusion of phlebitis was found in 4 cases and eosinophils were found in 3 cases. IgG4 counts and IgG4/IgG ratios in 5 cases were 20/HPF, 16%; 60/HPF, 82%; 22/HPF, 28%; 400/HPF, 266% and 33/HPF, 71%, respectively. Conclusions: With the similar pathological manifestations between RT and IgG4-RD, immunohistochemical staining shows that the number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio of RT are increased in varying degrees. Some cases meet the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD, and speculate that some cases of RT belong to IgG4-RD.

  16. IgM rheumatoid factor removal and performance of the FTA-ABS (IgM) test in congenital syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, M P; Roditi, D; Louw, S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the performance of the FTA-ABS (IgM) test in congenital syphilis after eliminating interference by IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) and preventing competitive inhibition by IgG. DESIGN--The FTA-ABS (IgM) test was carried out before and after RF removal (achieved by immunoprecipitation of the IgG) in infants with congenital syphilis and controls. SETTING--Newborns delivered in the Peninsula Maternal and Neonatal Services in Cape Town and infants presenting at Red Cross War Me...

  17. Biased Iglambda expression in hypermutated IgD multiple myelomas does not result from receptor revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, M.; Bende, R. J.; Aarts, W. M.; Langerak, A. W.; van Dongen, J. J. M.; van Noesel, C. J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Normal IgM(-)IgD(+) CD38(+) B cells and IgM(-)IgD(+) multiple myelomas (MM) are characterized by Cmu deletion, biased Iglambda expression and hypermutated IgV regions. The predominant Iglambda usage has been proposed as resulting from secondary Ig gene rearrangements during extensive clonal

  18. Filmer le travail dans un train postal. À propos de Night Mail Filming work in a mail train. A study of Night Mail Filmar el trabajo en un tren de correos. Acerca de Night Mail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Maillot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Night Mail est un documentaire de court-métrage sur le travail du tri postal dans les transports ferroviaires de nuit, produit par le service cinéma du GPO (General Post Office, Ministère des Postes du Royaume-Uni, en 1936. C’est d’abord, pour l’organisme d’État qui le produit, un film sur la Poste et les postiers qu’ils soient sur le terrain, à bord du train, ou dans les bureaux. Le film est nécessairement conduit à traiter aussi le travail de la compagnie de chemin de fer qui achemine le courrier, et donc celui des cheminots, de tous les cheminots. Ceux qui sont à la manipulation des machines, sur la voie, dans les gares traversées au long du trajet, et ceux des bureaux qui assurent les liaisons par téléphone, morse, et l’ensemble des télécommunications de l’époque en plein développement (1936. Le film devient ainsi une réflexion sur l’institution, les institutions, leur organisation, et leur collaboration sans laquelle il n’y a pas de travail possible. L’objectif central de cet article est d’offrir à ceux des sociologues qui s’intéressent à la sociologie filmique, des éléments pour comprendre les possibilités conceptuelles de l’écriture filmique.Night Mail, a short documentary about mail sorting on night trains, was produced by the UK General Post Office’s cinema department back in 1936. The first thing that can be said about this state-produced film is that it talks about the post office but also its employees, with some doing their pick-up rounds and others working on the train or in an office. It also necessarily highlights the work done by the rail company carrying the mail, focusing on different kinds of rail workers including machine operators, line maintenance crews or staff from the stations that the train passes through during the movie. On top of this, there are also railway office employees responsible for telephone connections, telegraph messages and all kinds of

  19. Relation between IgG antibodies to foods and IgE antibodies to milk, egg, cat, dog and/or mite in a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eysink, P. E.; de Jong, M. H.; Bindels, P. J.; Scharp-van der Linden, V. T.; de Groot, C. J.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Because IgG antibodies to foods can be detected before IgE antibodies to inhalants, increased levels of IgG antibodies to foods might be used as a predictor of IgE-mediated allergy in initially nonatopic children. To examine the cross-sectional relation between IgG to foods (i.e. mixture of wheat

  20. The Impact of Electronic Communication Technology on Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Mohd. Sahandri Gani B.; Ghorbani, Mohd. Reza; Abdullah, Saifuddin Kumar B.

    2009-01-01

    Communication technology is changing things. Language is no exception. Some language researchers argue that language is deteriorating due to increased use in electronic communication. The present paper investigated 100 randomly selected electronic mails (e-mails) and 50 short messaging system (SMS) messages of a representative sample of…

  1. Diagnostic accuracy and comparison of two assays for Borrelia-specific IgG and IgM antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram

    2013-01-01

    characteristic (ROC) curves to optimize and standardize test interpretation, it was shown that testing with both IDEIA IgG and IgM was comparable to testing with Liaison IgG alone by comparing the area under the curve of the diagnostically relevant 25 % partial ROC curve (P = 0.1). When using the Liaison Osp......M combined) were 85 and 95 % and for the Liaison (VlsE IgG) method were 67 and 96 %, respectively. Methods for test evaluation, test interpretation and statistical testing are presented and discussed. In conclusion, Liaison VlsE IgG alone and IDEIA IgG/IgM combined showed a high and comparable discriminatory...

  2. Nefropatia por IgA nas espondiloartrites IgA nephropathy in spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Castelo Azevedo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com espondiloartrites poderiam ser mais acometidos pela nefropatia por IgA do que a população geral, havendo, possivelmente, um mecanismo etiopatogênico comum. O seguinte artigo relaciona quatro casos que exemplificam essa possível associaçãoSpondyloarthritis patients can be more frequently affected by IgA nephropathy than the general population, and a common etiopathogenic mechanism can be involved. We report four cases that may exemplify that association

  3. E-mail survey with an attached Form: an off-line data collection alternative via the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Reis Graeml

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As people start incorporating the Internet in their daily routine, using its resources to carry out their usual activities, it becomes easier to use the Web's environment also to collect data by means of electronic surveys. This paper reports the use of a quantitative research survey, which used an "intelligent" MS Word form, which was sent through e-mail to industrial manufacturers in the state of Sao Paulo - Brazil. The response speed was much better than usually achieved using the conventional procedure of sending the survey through regular mail. The return rate was satisfactory and the cost was much lower than usually incurred, due to the virtualization of the contact with the respondent. The initiative was so successful that the authors decided to share their experience with the academic community, contributing to the maturing of the e-mail survey methodology. Although the focus of this study was strictly academic, the authors believe that the adopted procedures are also suitable for market research, feedback gathering and other entrepreneurial needs.

  4. Macrophage triggering by aggregated immunoglobulins. II. Comparison of IgE and IgG aggregates or immune complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, J; Dessaint, J P; Joseph, M; Bazin, H; Capron, A

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages incubated with complexed or aggregated IgE released beta-glucuronidase (beta-G) within 30 min. In contrast in the presence of aggregated or complexed IgG, macrophages liberated equivalent amount of beta-G only after 6 h incubation. In addition the rapid macrophage stimulation induced by aggregated IgE was also followed by a faster 3H-glucosamine incorporation when compared to the delayed activation caused by aggregated IgG. However, macrophages stimulated either by IgG or by IgE oligomers produced the same percentage of plasminogen activator at 24 h. In contrast, while the interaction between macrophages and aggregated IgE was only followed by a peak of cyclic GMP and a beta-G release during the first 30 min of incubation, the interaction between macrophages and IgG oligomers was accompanied by a simultaneous increase of cyclic GMP and AMP nucleotides and by an absence of beta-G exocytosis. Moreover, the beta-G release induced by aggregated IgE was increased when macrophages were preincubated with aggregated IgG. This additive effect was not observed in the reverse situation. Finally macrophages activated by IgG oligomers were demonstrated to exert a cytotoxic effect on tumour cells and to kill schistosomula in the presence of a low level of complement. Taken together these results underline the peculiar ability of aggregated or complexed IgE to trigger rapidly the macrophage activation compared to aggregated IgG and can explain the important role of complexed IgE in some macrophage dependent cytotoxicity mechanisms (i.e. in parasitic diseases). PMID:6088135

  5. DNA methylation in Cosmc promoter region and aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 associated with pediatric IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sun

    Full Text Available IgA nephropathy (IgAN is one of the most common glomerular diseases leading to end-stage renal failure. Elevation of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 is a key feature of it. The expression of the specific molecular chaperone of core1ß1, 3galactosyl transferase (Cosmc is known to be reduced in IgAN. We aimed to investigate whether the methylation of CpG islands of Cosmc gene promoter region could act as a possible mechanism responsible for down-regulation of Cosmc and related higher secretion of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1in lymphocytes from children with IgA nephropathy. Three groups were included: IgAN children (n = 26, other renal diseases (n = 11 and healthy children (n = 13. B-lymphocytes were isolated and cultured, treated or not with IL-4 or 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA. The levels of DNA methylation of Cosmc promotor region were not significantly different between the lymphocytes of the three children populations (P = 0.113, but there were significant differences between IgAN lymphocytes and lymphocytes of the other two children populations after IL-4 (P<0.0001 or AZA (P<0.0001. Cosmc mRNA expression was low in IgAN lymphocytes compared to the other two groups (P<0.0001. The level of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 was markedly higher in IgAN group compared to the other groups (P<0.0001. After treatment with IL-4, the levels of Cosmc DNA methylation and aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in IgAN lymphocytes were remarkably higher than the other two groups (P<0.0001 with more markedly decreased Cosmc mRNA content (P<0.0001. After treatment with AZA, the levels in IgAN lymphocytes were decreased, but was still remarkably higher than the other two groups (P<0.0001, while Cosmc mRNA content in IgAN lymphocytes were more markedly increased than the other two groups (P<0.0001. The alteration of DNA methylation by IL-4 or AZA specifically correlates in IgAN lymphocytes with alterations in Cosmc mRNA expression and with the level of aberrantly glycosylated

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF E-MAIL LITERACY: FROM WRITING TO PEERS TO WRITING TO AUTHORITY FIGURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Fen Emily Chen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Though e-mail has become a common interpersonal communication medium, it does not mean that this medium is used without difficulty. While people can write e-mails to peers in any manner they like, writing e-mails to authority figures requires higher pragmatic competence and critical language awareness of how discourse shapes and reflects power asymmetry in an institutional context. For L2 learners, the challenge of composing this type of e-mail can be greater due not only to their limited linguistic ability but also their unfamiliarity with the target culture's norms and values. To provide a deeper understanding of how an L2 learner develops e-mail literacy in the target language environment, this paper presents a longitudinal case study of a Taiwanese graduate student’s e-mail practice in English during her studies at a U.S. university for two and a half years. Using a critical discourse analysis approach, the study reveals the complexity of an L2 learner’s evolving e-mail practice and struggle for appropriateness, particularly in her e-mail communication with professors. Her development of e-mail literacy is discussed in relation to her evolving understanding of the e-mail medium, changing performance of student identity, increasing knowledge of student-professor interaction and realization of culture-specific politeness.

  7. Circulating IgA immune complexes in patients with psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.P.; Peck, G.L.; Lawley, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    The sera of 21 patients with psoriasis were examined for the presence of IgA-containing circulating immune complexes (CIC) using the Raji IgA radioimmunoassay. In addition, the Raji IgG radioimmunoassay and 125I-Clq binding assay were used to detect IgG- and IgM-containing CIC. Twenty-five patients with other hyperkeratotic skin disorders were studied as controls. Patients were studied before institution of systemic therapy with etretinate (20 patients) or 13-cis-retinoic acid (1 patient). In addition, sera of 15 of the patients treated with etretinate were studied before, during, and after therapy. The extent of pretreatment disease involvement as well as response to therapy were evaluated in a blinded fashion. Fourteen of 21 (67%) patients with psoriasis had evidence of IgA-containing CIC at some time during the course of their disease, as compared to only 1 of 25 patients with other hyperkeratotic skin disorders. In contrast, only 2 of 19 (11%) had evidence of IgG-containing CIC using the Raji IgG assay, and only 1 of 19 (5%) had evidence of IgG- or IgM-containing CIC using the 125I-Clq binding assay. A positive correlation was found between the extent of pretreatment disease involvement and the level of IgA-containing CIC by linear regression analysis (p . 0.01). There was, however, no correlation between clinical improvement and the presence or level of IgA-containing CIC in 15 patients followed during therapy. Sucrose density gradient analysis of the IgA-containing CIC found in 2 of these patients demonstrated IgA-containing CIC in the 9S to 13S region. The finding of IgA-containing CIC in a significant number of patients with psoriasis and the relative absence of IgG- or IgM-containing CIC suggest that IgA-containing CIC may play a role in psoriasis

  8. Image-guided, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) for skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma: preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahgal, Arjun; Chan, Michael W; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Masson-Cote, Laurence; Bahl, Gaurav; Yu, Eugene; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Chung, Caroline; Catton, Charles; O'Sullivan, Brian; Irish, Jonathan C; Gilbert, Ralph; Zadeh, Gelareh; Cusimano, Michael; Gentili, Fred; Laperriere, Normand J

    2015-06-01

    We report our preliminary outcomes following high-dose image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma. Forty-two consecutive IG-IMRT patients, with either skull base chordoma (n = 24) or chondrosarcoma (n = 18) treated between August 2001 and December 2012 were reviewed. The median follow-up was 36 months (range, 3-90 mo) in the chordoma cohort, and 67 months (range, 15-125) in the chondrosarcoma cohort. Initial surgery included biopsy (7% of patients), subtotal resection (57% of patients), and gross total resection (36% of patients). The median IG-IMRT total doses in the chondrosarcoma and chordoma cohorts were 70 Gy and 76 Gy, respectively, delivered with 2 Gy/fraction. For the chordoma and chondrosarcoma cohorts, the 5-year overall survival and local control rates were 85.6% and 65.3%, and 87.8% and 88.1%, respectively. In total, 10 patients progressed locally: 8 were chordoma patients and 2 chondrosarcoma patients. Both chondrosarcoma failures were in higher-grade tumors (grades 2 and 3). None of the 8 patients with grade 1 chondrosarcoma failed, with a median follow-up of 77 months (range, 34-125). There were 8 radiation-induced late effects-the most significant was a radiation-induced secondary malignancy occurring 6.7 years following IG-IMRT. Gross total resection and age were predictors of local control in the chordoma and chondrosarcoma patients, respectively. We report favorable survival, local control and adverse event rates following high dose IG-IMRT. Further follow-up is needed to confirm long-term efficacy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Human IgG4: a structural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anna M; Sutton, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    IgG4, the least represented human IgG subclass in serum, is an intriguing antibody with unique biological properties, such as the ability to undergo Fab-arm exchange and limit immune complex formation. The lack of effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity, is desirable for therapeutic purposes. IgG4 plays a protective role in allergy by acting as a blocking antibody, and inhibiting mast cell degranulation, but a deleterious role in malignant melanoma, by impeding IgG1-mediated anti-tumor immunity. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the interaction between IgG4 and Fcγ receptors. Despite a wealth of structural information for the IgG1 subclass, including complexes with Fcγ receptors, and structures for intact antibodies, high-resolution crystal structures were not reported for IgG4-Fc until recently. Here, we highlight some of the biological properties of human IgG4, and review the recent crystal structures of IgG4-Fc. We discuss the unexpected conformations adopted by functionally important Cγ2 domain loops, and speculate about potential implications for the interaction between IgG4 and FcγRs. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Development of an IgG4-RD Responder Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie N. Carruthers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a multiorgan inflammatory disease in which diverse organ manifestations are linked by common histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Prospective studies of IgG4-RD patients are required to clarify the natural history, long-term prognosis, and treatment approaches in this recently recognized condition. Patients with IgG4-RD have different organ manifestations and are followed by multiple specialties. Divergent approaches to the assessment of patients can complicate the interpretation of studies, emphasizing the critical need for validated outcome measures, particularly assessments of disease activity and response to treatment. We developed a prototype IgG4-RD Responder Index (IgG4-RD RI based on the approach used in the development of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener’s granulomatosis (BVAS/WG. The IgG4-RD RI was refined by members of the International IgG4-RD Symposium Organizing Committee in a paper case exercise. The revised instrument was applied retrospectively to fifteen IgG4-RD patients at our institution. Those scores were compared to physician’s global assessment scale for the same visits. This paper describes the philosophy and goals of the IgG4-RD RI, the steps in the development of this instrument to date, and future plans for validation of this instrument as an outcome measure.

  11. MOG-IgG in NMO and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pache, Florence; Zimmermann, Hanna; Mikolajczak, Janine

    2016-01-01

    -IgG-positive patients (pRNFL = 59 ± 23 μm; GCIP = 1.50 ± 0.34 mm(3)) compared with healthy controls (pRNFL = 99 ± 6 μm, p Visual acuity was impaired in eyes after ON in MOG-IgG-positive patients (0.35 ± 0.88 logMAR). There were no significant differences in any structural......: Retinal neuro-axonal damage and visual impairment after ON in MOG-IgG-positive patients are as severe as in AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD patients. In MOG-IgG-positive patients, damage accrual may be driven by higher relapse rates, whereas AQP4-IgG-positive patients showed fewer but more severe episodes of ON...... in the retina of MOG-IgG-positive patients in comparison with AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD patients. METHODS: Afferent visual system damage following ON was bilaterally assessed in 16 MOG-IgG-positive patients with a history of ON and compared with that in 16 AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD patients. In addition, 16 healthy...

  12. IgG4 plasma cell myeloma: new insights into the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Julia T; Niesvizky, Ruben; Jayabalan, David S; Mathew, Susan; Subramaniyam, Shivakumar; Geyer, Alexander I; Orazi, Attilio; Ely, Scott A

    2014-03-01

    IgG4-related disease is a newly described systemic fibroinflammatory process, characterized by increase in IgG4-positive plasma cells. Its pathogenesis, including the role of IgG4, remains poorly understood. Plasma cell myeloma is typically associated with a large monoclonal serum spike, which is frequently of IgG isotype. We sought to identify and characterize a subset of IgG4-secreting myeloma, as it may provide a biological model of disease with high serum levels of IgG4. Six out of 158 bone marrow biopsies (4%) from patients with IgG myeloma expressed IgG4. Four patients were men and two were women, with a mean age of 64 (range 53-87) years. Imaging showed fullness of pancreatic head (1), small non-metabolic lymphadenopathy (1), and bone lytic lesions (6). Two patients developed necrotizing fasciitis. All had elevated serum M-protein (mean 2.4, range 0.5-4.2 g/dl), and none had definite signs or symptoms of IgG4-related disease. Four myelomas had plasmablastic morphology. Four had kappa and two had lambda light chain expression. Three cases expressed CD56. Two patients had a complex karyotype. In conclusion, the frequency of IgG4 myeloma correlates with the normal distribution of IgG4 isoform. The patients with IgG4 myeloma appear to have a high rate of plasmablastic morphology and could be predisposed to necrotizing fasciitis. Despite high serum levels of IgG4, none had evidence of IgG4-related disease. These findings suggest that the increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells is not the primary etiologic agent in IgG4-related disease. Elevated serum levels of IgG4 is not sufficient to produce the typical disease presentation and should not be considered diagnostic of IgG4-related disease.

  13. Diagnosis and follow-up of genital chlamydial infection by direct methods and by detection of serum IgG, IgA and secretory IgA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresse A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a high-risk population by direct and indirect methods and to evaluate the diagnosis of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA. Patients and Methods: Urethral or endocervical specimens from 78 patients (48 females and 30 males were examined by cell culture, direct fluorescence assay, PCR Cobas Amplicor (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, and sIgA was detected by the recombinant lipopolysaccharide (LPS-enzyme-linked immunoassay (rELISA. Serum from each patient was also obtained and analysed for the presence of IgG and IgA antibody by in-house microimmunofluorescence (MIF and by the rELISA method (Medac, Hamburg, Germany. Results: The overall C. trachomatis prevalence determined by direct methods was 28%. The detection of sIgA antibodies was significantly higher in the group of patients with a positive direct detection (50% than in the group of negative direct detection (10.7%. The Chlamydia-specific IgA antibodies were detected by the rELISA in 40.9 and 53.6% of group I (positive direct detection and group II patients (negative direct detection, respectively. The species-specific IgA antibodies were detected by the MIF method in 18.2 and 16.1% of group I and II patients, respectively. Chlamydia genus-specific IgG antibodies were detected by the rELISA in 86.4 and 83.9% of group I and group II patients and, C. trachomatis specific IgG were present in 81.8 and 73.2% of group I and group II patients, respectively, as assessed by the MIF test. Conclusion: Combining the positive direct methods and/or positive sIgA antibody results from cervical or urethral specimens had an indication of current C. trachomatis infection.

  14. IgM and IgD B cell receptors differentially respond to endogenous antigens and control B cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviski, Mark; Mueller, James L; Satterthwaite, Anne; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann; Brombacher, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Naive B cells co-express two BCR isotypes, IgM and IgD, with identical antigen-binding domains but distinct constant regions. IgM but not IgD is downregulated on autoreactive B cells. Because these isotypes are presumed to be redundant, it is unknown how this could impose tolerance. We introduced the Nur77-eGFP reporter of BCR signaling into mice that express each BCR isotype alone. Despite signaling strongly in vitro, IgD is less sensitive than IgM to endogenous antigen in vivo and developmental fate decisions are skewed accordingly. IgD-only Lyn−/− B cells cannot generate autoantibodies and short-lived plasma cells (SLPCs) in vivo, a fate thought to be driven by intense BCR signaling induced by endogenous antigens. Similarly, IgD-only B cells generate normal germinal center, but impaired IgG1+ SLPC responses to T-dependent immunization. We propose a role for IgD in maintaining the quiescence of autoreactive B cells and restricting their differentiation into autoantibody secreting cells. PMID:29521626

  15. Tear and serum IgE concentrations by Tandem-R IgE immunoradiometric assay in allergic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insler, M.S.; Lim, J.M.; Queng, J.T.; Wanissorn, C.; McGovern, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied a population of 39 allergic and 15 nonallergic patients, and determined their tear and serum IgE concentrations. Samples of tear and serum were tested for IgE by the Tandem-R immunoradiometric assay, which uses monoclonal antibody to produce a specific assay for IgE. The serum IgE levels in the study group showed a range from 23,280 to 16 IU/ml compared with controls of 72 to 2 IU/ml. Tear IgE in the study group varied from 159 IU/ml to less than 1 IU/ml compared with controls of 8 IU/ml to less than 1 IU/ml. A statistically significant correlation between tear and serum IgE exists in the allergic patients with eye symptoms. It also exists when serum IgE was greater than 100 IU/ml, the tear IgE greater than 4 IU/ml, or when both the serum IgE was greater than 100 IU/ml and the tear IgE greater than 4 IU/ml

  16. Falsely low immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 in routine analysis: how not to miss IgG4 disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, W; Swallow, K; Lock, R J; Patel, D

    2016-10-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 disease can have apparently 'normal' levels of IgG4 due to antigen excess conditions. IgG4 measurement therefore appears falsely low. UK National External Quality Assurance Scheme (UK NEQAS) data and other reports have suggested that this problem occurred despite pre-existing antigen excess detection steps. To determine the clinical relevance of the problem, we examined the prevalence and characteristics of prozoning in our laboratory and patient cohorts. We establish that the prevalence of raised IgG4 in routine IgG4 analysis is low (IgG4 samples in our patients. This may explain the previous reports of low sensitivity of raised IgG4 for IgG4RD, and predictive values should be re-evaluated in this disease using modified prozone-resistant protocols. All laboratories providing IgG4 measurements should verify that their assays are fit for the clinical quality requirement of detection raised IgG4 levels and must verify the upper limit of their reference ranges and freedom from prozoning. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  17. Limitations of a hemolytic plaque assay for IgG-anti-IgG rheumatoid factor-producing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, A J; Dresser, D W

    1987-09-24

    An attempt has been made to develop a hemolytic plaque assay capable of detecting homophile IgG rheumatoid factor (RF)-producing cells. Anti-immunoglobulin allotype-developing reagents were used to distinguish between target and effector IgG. The hemolytic assay has been used to demonstrate an apparently high level of homophile IgM and IgG RF-producing cells in the spleens and lymph nodes of mice stimulated by LPS. However, it appears that a large proportion of the plaques obtained in these assays are due to an artefact resulting from cross-linking of target and effector molecules by the developing reagents. In the case of IgM RF the artefact depends on the presence of a small contamination of the target IgG by IgM, allowing cross-linking of target and effector IgM by the anti-mu-specific developing reagent. With the IgG RF, cross-reactivity of the rabbit anti-Ighb allotype-developing serum for the 'wrong' (Igha) allotype, normally undetectable, becomes sufficient to be biologically relevant when the developing antibody is complexed by being bound to its target (Ighb) allotype. Nevertheless anti-allotype reagents may afford an accurate means of detecting homophile IgG RF producing cells using other assay systems.

  18. Using electronic mail to improve MMR uptake amongst third level students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, F; Ryan, A; Schinaia, N; Breslin, A

    2010-03-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of email in informing third level students about special MMR clinics being provided on campus during a mumps outbreak in the North West of Ireland. Email messages were sent directly to students, informing them of the clinics, inviting them to make a clinic appointment by email and providing details of walk-in clinics. At the clinics, all 177 attendees were asked to fill out a questionnaire and the response rate was 89% (n=158). Regarding the main sources of information about the vaccination clinics, email was selected by 117 (74%) students, word-of-mouth by 27 (17%), posters/leaflets by 8 (5%), and other sources by 6 (4%). Use of email as a source of information was rated as very good/excellent by 115 (73%), as good by 35 (22%) and poor/fair by 8 (5%). This study demonstrates that email is a useful and acceptable way of informing third level students about immunisation clinics in an outbreak situation.

  19. Using electronic mail to improve MMR uptake amongst third level students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, F

    2010-03-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of email in informing third level students about special MMR clinics being provided on campus during a mumps outbreak in the North West of Ireland. Email messages were sent directly to students, informing them of the clinics, inviting them to make a clinic appointment by email and providing details of walk-in clinics. At the clinics, all 177 attendees were asked to fill out a questionnaire and the response rate was 89% (n=158). Regarding the main sources of information about the vaccination clinics, email was selected by 117 (74%) students, word-of-mouth by 27 (17%), posters\\/leaflets by 8 (5%), and other sources by 6 (4%). Use of email as a source of information was rated as very good\\/excellent by 115 (73%), as good by 35 (22%) and poor\\/fair by 8 (5%). This study demonstrates that email is a useful and acceptable way of informing third level students about immunisation clinics in an outbreak situation.

  20. The IgA nephropathy Biobank. An important starting point for the genetic dissection of a complex trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulos Efstathios

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IgA nephropathy (IgAN or Berger's disease, is the most common glomerulonephritis in the world diagnosed in renal biopsied patients. The involvement of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of the IgAN is evidenced by ethnic and geographic variations in prevalence, familial clustering in isolated populations, familial aggregation and by the identification of a genetic linkage to locus IGAN1 mapped on 6q22–23. This study seems to imply a single major locus, but the hypothesis of multiple interacting loci or genetic heterogeneity cannot be ruled out. The organization of a multi-centre Biobank for the collection of biological samples and clinical data from IgAN patients and relatives is an important starting point for the identification of the disease susceptibility genes. Description The IgAN Consortium organized a Biobank, recruiting IgAN patients and relatives following a common protocol. A website was constructed to allow scientific information to be shared between partners and to divulge obtained data (URL: http://www.igan.net. The electronic database, the core of the website includes data concerning the subjects enrolled. A search page gives open access to the database and allows groups of patients to be selected according to their clinical characteristics. DNA samples of IgAN patients and relatives belonging to 72 multiplex extended pedigrees were collected. Moreover, 159 trios (sons/daughters affected and healthy parents, 1068 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN and 1040 healthy subjects were included in the IgAN Consortium Biobank. Some valuable and statistically productive genetic studies have been launched within the 5th Framework Programme 1998–2002 of the European project No. QLG1-2000-00464 and preliminary data have been published in "Technology Marketplace" website: http://www.cordis.lu/marketplace. Conclusion The first world IgAN Biobank with a readily accessible database has been constituted. The knowledge gained

  1. Avian IgY antibodies: characteristics and applications in immunodiagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Silveira Munhoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin Y (IgY is the major antibody isotype in birds, reptiles, amphibia, and lungfish, playing a similar biological role as mammal IgG. Due to its phylogenetic distance, immune diversification and presence in the egg yolk, IgY provide a number of advantages in immunodiagnostic compared to IgG from mammals. Moreover, IgY production is in agreement with international efforts to reduce, refine and if possible, to replace animals in experimentation, contributing substantially in favor of animal welfare. This article presents an overview about structural and functional features, production and applications of IgY in immunodiagnostic, as well as the advantages of chicken antibodies use.

  2. Mechanisms of Anaphylaxis Beyond IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cano, R; Picado, C; Valero, A; Bartra, J

    2016-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening, multisystem syndrome resulting from the sudden release of mediators derived from mast cells and basophils. Food allergens are the main triggers of anaphylaxis, accounting for 33%-56% of all cases and up to 81% of cases of anaphylaxis in children. Human anaphylaxis is generally thought to be mediated by IgE, with mast cells and basophils as key players, although alternative mechanisms have been proposed. Neutrophils and macrophages have also been implicated in anaphylactic reactions, as have IgG-dependent, complement, and contact system activation. Not all allergic reactions are anaphylactic, and the presence of the so-called accompanying factors (cofactors or augmenting factors) may explain why some conditions lead to anaphylaxis, while in other cases the allergen elicits a milder reaction or is even tolerated. In the presence of these factors, allergic reactions may be induced at lower doses of allergen or become more severe. Cofactors are reported to be relevant in up to 30% of anaphylactic episodes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and exercise are the best-documented cofactors, although estrogens, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, lipid-lowering drugs, and alcohol have also been involved. The mechanisms underlying anaphylaxis are complex and involve several interrelated pathways. Some of these pathways may be key to the development of anaphylaxis, while others may only modulate the severity of the reaction. An understanding of predisposing and augmenting factors could lead to the development of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches.

  3. Advances in Anti-IgE Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Didem Yalcin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omalizumab depletes free IgE in the blood and interstitial space and inhibits IgE binding to FcεRI on basophils, mast cells, and dendritic cells. We stopped omalizumab treatment after four years. Recurrences of urticaria symptoms were found to be higher in patients with chronic urticaria than recurrences of asthmatic symptoms in severe persistent asthma patients. For the very first time, we used omalizumab in symptomatic therapy of recurrent laryngeal oedema and urticaria attacks in a patient with postoperative pulmonary carcinoid tumor for eight months. During the four years of follow-up, no recurrence was noted in pulmonary carcinoid tumor. Control PET CT results revealed normal findings. After omalizumab treatment, laryngeal oedema and urticaria symptoms were decreased. The most common adverse reaction from omalizumab is injection site induration, injection site itching, injection site pain, and bruising but the package insert contains warnings regarding parasitic infections. While there are no reports of fatal anaphylaxis as a result of omalizumab, some cases have been serious and potentially life-threatening. Therefore, the FDA requires that people receiving omalizumab be monitored in the physician’s office for a period of time after their injections.

  4. Monovalent IgG4 molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ian C.; Fowler, Susan B.; Machiesky, LeeAnn; Miller, Kenneth; Hayes, David B.; Adib, Morshed; Her, Cheng; Borrok, M. Jack; Tsui, Ping; Burrell, Matthew; Corkill, Dominic J.; Witt, Susanne; Lowe, David C.; Webster, Carl I.

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies have become the fastest growing class of biological therapeutics, in part due to their exquisite specificity and ability to modulate protein-protein interactions with a high biological potency. The relatively large size and bivalency of antibodies, however, limits their use as therapeutics in certain circumstances. Antibody fragments, such as single-chain variable fragments and antigen binding-fragments, have emerged as viable alternatives, but without further modifications these monovalent formats have reduced terminal serum half-lives because of their small size and lack of an Fc domain, which is required for FcRn-mediated recycling. Using rational engineering of the IgG4 Fc domain to disrupt key interactions at the CH3-CH3 interface, we identified a number of point mutations that abolish Fc dimerization and created half-antibodies, a novel monovalent antibody format that retains a monomeric Fc domain. Introduction of these mutations into an IgG1 framework also led to the creation of half-antibodies. These half-antibodies were shown to be soluble, thermodynamically stable and monomeric, characteristics that are favorable for use as therapeutic proteins. Despite significantly reduced FcRn binding in vitro, which suggests that avidity gains in a dimeric Fc are critical to optimal FcRn binding, this format demonstrated an increased terminal serum half-life compared with that expected for most alternative antibody fragments. PMID:23567207

  5. A rural mail-carrier index of North Dakota red foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S.H.; Sargeant, A.B.

    1975-01-01

    Rural mail-carrier sightings of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) during mid-April, -July, and -September of 1969-73 were compared to spring fox family estimates derived by aerial searches of six townships. The mid-April mail-carrier index reflected annual fox density changes on the six townships (correlation coefficient = 0.958) . Random exclusions of individual mail-carrier reports indicated participation could decline 40 percent without affecting index accuracy.

  6. Health system tests CRM data base. Community Health Network uses direct mail to boost physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Judith D

    2003-01-01

    A six-month pilot patient retention project for Community Health Network (CHN), Indianapolis, ran from July 2002 to January 2003. It was a direct mail campaign on behalf of some members of the group practices owned by CHN, designed to test the use of the system's CRM database. Patients of the physicians received personal, dynamically-generated cards reminding them to schedule appointments and tests. Each mailing cost $1.76, including production and mailing.

  7. MAIL1 is essential for development of the primary root but not of anchor roots

    OpenAIRE

    Ühlken, Christine; Hoth, Stefan; Weingartner, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    MAIN-LIKE1 (MAIL1) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein, which has a crucial function during root development. We have recently described loss of function mutants for MAIL1, in which the organization and function of the primary root meristem is lost soon after germination. Moreover cell differentiation is impaired resulting in primary root growth arrest soon after emergence. Here we show that mail1 mutants form several anchor roots from the hypocotyl to root junction. These anchor root...

  8. Advantages of the mailing lists as source of personal and professional information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Böhmerwald

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the characteristics and functionality of mailing lists, aiming at filling a gap in the literature of library and information science in Portuguese and disseminating their use among information professionals. It presents the commands for three list management software (Listserv, Listproc and Majordomo, compares and contrasts mailing lists, Usenet groups and chats, lists some Netiquette rules and presents several examples of Brazilian and foreign mailing lists in the area of library and information science.

  9. Electronic communication and collaboration in a health care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, C; Jones, P C; Rind, D; Bush, B; Cytryn, K N; Patel, V L

    1998-02-01

    Using cognitive evaluation techniques, this study examines the effects of an electronic patient record and electronic mail on the interactions of health care providers. We find that the least structured communication methods are also the most heavily used: face-to-face, telephone, and electronic mail. Positive benefits of electronically-mediated interactions include improving communication, collaboration, and access to information to support decision-making. Negative factors include the potential for overloading clinicians with unwanted or unnecessary communications.

  10. Netiquette in Electronic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kozík

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail and electronic communications systems are considered significant and effective tools of communication. One of the most widespread electronic communication tools is e - mail communication. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the report on the side of the recipient, it is need to pay attention to the writing of e - mail messages as well as to their content. With the continuous expansion of the use of electronic communication there have gradually developed certain rules of etiquette in electronic communications. The existing rules of the propriety ones are expressed in the term " etiqutte " and are not automatically applied in the new communications environment - media. For electronic communication, the new rules of etiquette have been stabilised into a term NETIQUETTE. The word netiquette was created by combining words NET (net and ETIKETA (a set of rules of social behavior and habits. Netiquette constitutes the rules of the behavior of users on a network. Although the netiquette is merely "an unwritten set of rules", their not using can be understood as a type of disrespect. Analysis of knowledge of domestic and foreign sources as well as results of a survey confirmed the justification of paying attention to the education of individuals in NETIQUETTE, irrespective of the degree of education.

  11. Determination of specific IgG antibody by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordvall, S.L.; Uhlin, T.; Einarsson, R.

    1983-01-01

    A crossed radioimmunoelectrophoretic method was developed for detection of honey bee venom specific IgG antibodies in patient sera. At the serum concentration 1/200 the contrast between specific binding and backgroud was the most favourable. The detection limit was fairly low, approximately 30 kU/l(IgG RAST units). A reference system based on the reference kits in Phadebas IgG-RAST was elaborated. (author)

  12. Fluorescent IgG fusion proteins made in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Yael; Raichlin, Dina; Benhar, Itai

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are among the most powerful tools in biological and biomedical research and are presently the fastest growing category of new bio-pharmaceutics. The most common format of antibody applied for therapeutic, diagnostic and analytical purposes is the IgG format. For medical applications, recombinant IgGs are made in cultured mammalian cells in a process that is too expensive to be considered for producing antibodies for diagnostic and analytical purposes. Therefore, for such purposes, mouse monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal sera from immunized animals are used. While looking for an easier and more rapid way to prepare full-length IgGs for therapeutic purposes, we recently developed and reported an expression and purification protocol for full-length IgGs, and IgG-based fusion proteins in E. coli, called “Inclonals.” By applying the Inclonals technology, we could generate full-length IgGs that are genetically fused to toxins. The aim of the study described herein was to evaluate the possibility of applying the “Inclonals” technology for preparing IgG-fluorophore fusion proteins. We found that IgG fused to the green fluorescent proteins enhanced GFP (EGFP) while maintaining functionality in binding, lost most of its fluorescence during the refolding process. In contrast, we found that green fluorescent Superfolder GFP (SFGFP)-fused IgG and red fluorescent mCherry-fused IgG were functional in antigen binding and maintained fluorescence intensity. In addition, we found that we can link several SFGFPs in tandem to each IgG, with fluorescence intensity increasing accordingly. Fluorescent IgGs made in E. coli may become attractive alternatives to monoclonal or polyclonal fluorescent antibodies derived from animals. PMID:22531449

  13. Local IgE production in nonatopic nasal polyposis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheahan, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) represents an eosinophilic T-helper 2 inflammatory response. Local production of IgE within nasal polyps (NPs) has been demonstrated, suggesting a role for local IgE in the pathogenesis of NP in atopic CRS patients. We hypothesized that local IgE specific to inhalant allergens may also play a role in the genesis of NP in nonatopic CRS patients. METHODS: Sinus and inferior turbinate tissue was obtained from nonatopic CRSwNP patients (n = 7), chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) patients (n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 9) at the time of surgery. ImmunoCAP analysis (Phadia AB, Portage, MI) for 14 common inhalant antigens was performed on tissue homogenates to determine the antigen-specific response. RESULTS: Total IgE levels did not differ in sinus or turbinate tissue between CRSwNP, CRSsNP, or control patients. CRSwNP sinus tissue had higher levels of specific IgE for cockroach and plantain (p = .03) than other groups and elevated Alternaria IgE levels when compared with CRSsNP sinus tissue (p < .05). No significant differences were found for any of the other antigen-specific IgE levels. Fifty-seven percent of CRSwNP polyps demonstrated a polyclonal IgE response, whereas the other 43% had no demonstrable antigen-specific IgE. In contrast, only 17% of CRSsNP patients demonstrated a polyclonal response within sinus tissue, whereas 67% had no detectable antigen-specific IgE. There was no significant difference in levels of IgE in inferior turbinate tissue between the groups (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Localized mucosal IgE specific to common inhalant allergens appears to play a role in a subset of CRSwNP patients without evidence of systemic atopy.

  14. Determination of specific IgG antibody by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordvall, S.L. (Dept. of Paediatrics, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden); Uhlin, T.; Einarsson, R. (Allergy Research, Pharmacia Diagnostics AB, Uppsala, Sweden)

    1983-01-01

    A crossed radioimmunoelectrophoretic method was developed for detection of honey bee venom specific IgG antibodies in patient sera. At the serum concentration 1/200 the contrast between specific binding and backgroud was the most favourable. The detection limit was fairly low, approximately 30 kU/l(IgG RAST units). A reference system based on the reference kits in Phadebas IgG-RAST was elaborated.

  15. Overview of IgG4 - Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriţă, R; Opriţă, B; Berceanu, D; Diaconescu, I B

    2017-01-01

    Rationale (hypothesis): IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a pathological entity recently recognized by the medical world that can affect any organ or system. However, there is insufficient data about this disease in medical literature. Aim (objective): A more extensive clarification of the IgG4 molecule, the diversified aspects of IgG4-related disease, and the response of this disease to treatment, will provide a crucial understanding of the immune system and other diseases now known to be associated with IgG4. The MEDLINE online medical database was used, and, after a comprehensive review of medical articles regarding IgG4-RD, published after 2003, using the search words "IgG4- related disease" and "IgG4 molecule", we have described the clinical, pathological and therapeutic features of IgG4-RD, as well as the presence of the IgG4 molecule in the evolution, diagnosis and management of this syndrome. We characterized the potential disease mechanisms and discussed early observations related to treatment. Given the response to immunosuppressive therapy, it is hypothesized that IgG4-related disease is most likely an autoimmune disease. Therefore, IgG4-related disease is a fibro-inflammatory condition that can affect any organ and can lead to the formation of pseudotumoral lesions requiring differential diagnosis with various malignancies. Positive diagnostic criteria are histopathological and require at least two features out of the following three: dense limphoplasmocitary infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis.

  16. Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgA in Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina D'Arco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is currently dependent on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. The significance of serum IgA against B. burgdorferi remains unclear. The production of intrathecal IgA has been noted in patients with the late Lyme disease manifestation, neuroborreliosis, but production of antigen-specific IgA during early disease has not been evaluated. In the current study, we assessed serum IgA binding to the B. burgdorferi peptide antigens, C6, the target of the FDA-cleared C6 EIA, and FlaB(211-223-modVlsE(275-291, a peptide containing a Borrelia flagellin epitope linked to a modified VlsE sequence, in patients with early and late Lyme disease. Specific IgA was detected in 59 of 152 serum samples (38.8% from early Lyme disease patients. Approximately 50% of early Lyme disease patients who were seropositive for peptide-specific IgM and/or IgG were also seropositive for peptide-specific IgA. In a subpopulation of patients, high peptide-specific IgA could be correlated with disseminated disease, defined as multiple erythema migrans lesions, and neurological disease complications. These results suggest that there may be an association between elevated levels of antigen-specific IgA and particular disease manifestations in some patients with early Lyme disease.

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgA in Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arco, Christina; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M

    2017-05-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is currently dependent on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. The significance of serum IgA against B. burgdorferi remains unclear. The production of intrathecal IgA has been noted in patients with the late Lyme disease manifestation, neuroborreliosis, but production of antigen-specific IgA during early disease has not been evaluated. In the current study, we assessed serum IgA binding to the B. burgdorferi peptide antigens, C6, the target of the FDA-cleared C6 EIA, and FlaB(211-223)-modVlsE(275-291), a peptide containing a Borrelia flagellin epitope linked to a modified VlsE sequence, in patients with early and late Lyme disease. Specific IgA was detected in 59 of 152 serum samples (38.8%) from early Lyme disease patients. Approximately 50% of early Lyme disease patients who were seropositive for peptide-specific IgM and/or IgG were also seropositive for peptide-specific IgA. In a subpopulation of patients, high peptide-specific IgA could be correlated with disseminated disease, defined as multiple erythema migrans lesions, and neurological disease complications. These results suggest that there may be an association between elevated levels of antigen-specific IgA and particular disease manifestations in some patients with early Lyme disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tobacco industry direct mail receipt and coupon use among young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Lewis, M; Bover Manderski, Michelle T; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-02-01

    To examine young adult smokers' receipt of tobacco industry direct mail and use of coupons to purchase cigarettes. A total of 699 young adults from a 2011 national survey who reported smoking every day/some days provided self-report data on past-six month receipt of direct mail and past-six month use of coupons to purchase cigarettes. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds of direct mail receipt and coupon use. Overall, 25.1% of young adult smokers reported receiving direct mail from a tobacco company and 24.2% had used a coupon to buy cigarettes in the past 6 months. Direct mail receipt and coupon use to purchase cigarettes were significantly higher among females, daily smokers, and whites. Nearly 70% of smokers who received direct mail had also used a coupon to purchase cigarettes in the preceding 6 months. Brand websites were the most commonly reported means of joining a direct mailing list. This study adds to limited research showing receipt of direct mail and use of price reducing coupons by young adults. Also, higher rates of direct mail receipt and coupon use among females suggest that these strategies may be especially effective in encouraging smoking in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioimmunoassay for detection of IgM domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A [Osaka Univ. (Japan); Watanabe, S; Kiyotaki, C; Yamamura, Y

    1979-09-01

    IgM from two macroglobulinemia patients was digested with trypsin, and Fab monomer, Fab dimer and Fc fragments of the IgM were isolated. Using these fragments as antigens and rabbit antisera prepared against another IgM from a macroglobulinemia patient, a radioimmunoassay system for the C..mu..1, C..mu..2 and Fc..mu.. was established. This system can be used as a tool for immunochemical characterization of IgM present on the surface of lymphoid cells.

  20. IgG4-Associated Cholangitis Can Mimic Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaydfudim, Victor M; Wang, Andrew Y; de Lange, Eduard E; Zhao, Zimin; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Bauer, Todd W; Adams, Reid B

    2015-07-01

    IgG4-associated cholangitis can mimic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Previously reported patients with IgG4-associated cholangitis mimicking cholangiocarcinoma had elevated serum IgG4 levels and long-segment biliary strictures. However, in the absence of other diagnostic criteria for malignancy, IgG4-associated cholangitis should remain a consideration among patients with normal serum IgG4 and a hilar mass suspicious for cholangiocarcinoma. The presence of a hilar mass and a malignant-appearing biliary stricture in two patients with normal serum IgG4 prompted further evaluation and subsequent concomitant liver and bile duct resection and reconstruction. The diagnosis of IgG4-associated cholangitis was established during the pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens. IgG4-associated cholangitis is a known imitator of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and should be considered in the differential diagnosis even among serologically IgG4-negative patients with a hilar mass prior to operative resection.

  1. Intrathoracic Manifestations of IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Yik Lim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic involvement with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is frequently overlooked in IgG4-related disease patients. In this article we review the intrathoracic findings of IgG4-RD which are variable and protean. IgG4-related disease has been reported to affect the lung parenchyma, pleura, mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes, vasculature, and pericardium within the thorax. Mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy is the most common intrathoracic manifestation of IgG4-RD. Four main patterns of pulmonary disease have been described, including the solid nodular type, the bronchovascular type, the alveolar interstitial type, and the round shaped ground glass type. When feasible, a biopsy should be obtained to confirm the diagnosis. Most lesions show characteristic pathologic findings of IgG4-RD: dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. While this helps establish the diagnosis, the interpretation of pathology findings in the clinical context is key in making an accurate diagnosis. Mimickers of IgG4-RD should be ruled out, before making a diagnosis. The intrathoracic findings of IgG4-RD can be treated effectively with prednisone, but may require additional immunosuppressive therapies, including rituximab.

  2. Granulocyte-associated IgG in neutropenic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cines, D.B.; Passero, F.; Guerry, D.; Bina, M.; Dusak, B.; Schreiber, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    We applied a radiolabeled antiglobulin test to a study of patients with a variety of neutropenic disorders. After defining the nature of the interaction of radiolabeled anti-IgG with the neutrophil, we studied 16 patients with neutropenia of uncertain etiology and adequate bone marrow granulocyte precursors. Twelve of these 16 patients had increased neutrophil-associated IgG (PMN-IgG). Patients with the highest levels of PMN-IgG had the lowest neutrophil counts. The majority of patients with neutropenia and increased PMN-IgG had an underlying immunologic disorder that included immune thrombocytopenic purpura in 5 patients and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in 1 patient. In some patients, elevated PMN-IgG preceded other evidence for immunologic disease. The direct antiglobulin test helped to distinguish neutropenic patients with increased PMN-IgG both from patients with neutropenia due to a known nonimmune disorder and from nonneutropenic patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosis. Each of four patients with increased neutrophil-associated IgG treated with systemic corticosteroids responded clinically with an associated fall in neutrophil IgG and a rise in the circulating neutrophil count. The radiolabeled antiglobulin test appears useful in defining a subpopulation of patients with neutropenia due to an underlying immunologic disorder

  3. Diagnosis of IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takahiro; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Simizu, Shuya; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is often associated with autoimmune pancreatitis. However, the diffuse cholangiographic abnormalities observed in IgG4-SC may resemble those observed in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and the presence of segmental stenosis suggests cholangiocarcinoma (CC). IgG4-SC responds well to steroid therapy, whereas PSC is only effectively treated with liver transplantation and CC requires surgical intervention. Since IgG4-SC was first described, it has become a third distinct clinical entity of sclerosing cholangitis. The aim of this review was to introduce the diagnostic methods for IgG4-SC. IgG4-SC should be carefully diagnosed based on a combination of characteristic clinical, serological, morphological, and histopathological features after cholangiographic classification and targeting of a disease for differential diagnosis. When intrapancreatic stenosis is detected, pancreatic cancer or CC should be ruled out. If multiple intrahepatic stenoses are evident, PSC should be distinguished on the basis of cholangiographic findings and liver biopsy with IgG4 immunostaining. Associated inflammatory bowel disease is suggestive of PSC. If stenosis is demonstrated in the hepatic hilar region, CC should be discriminated by ultrasonography, intraductal ultrasonography, bile duct biopsy, and a higher cutoff serum IgG4 level of 182 mg/dL. PMID:24282356

  4. Serological blind spots for variants of human IgG3 and IgG4 by a commonly used anti-immunoglobulin reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Heather L; Delaney, Meghan; Wang, Xiaohong; Er, Lay See; Vidarsson, Gestur; Stegmann, Tamara C; Kapp, Linda; Lebedev, Jenna N; Wu, Yanyun; AuBuchon, James P; Zimring, James C

    2016-12-01

    Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) includes four different subtypes (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4), and it is also now appreciated that there are genetic variations within IgG subtypes (called isoallotypes). Twenty-nine different isoallotypes have been described, with 7, 4, 15, and 3 isoallotypes described for IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, respectively. The reactivity of anti-IgG with different isoallotypes has not been characterized. A novel monoclonal anti-K antibody (PugetSound Monoclonal Antibody 1 [PUMA1]) was isolated and sequenced, and a panel of PUMA1 variants was expressed, consisting of the 29 known IgG isoallotypes. The resulting panel of antibodies was preincubated with K-positive red blood cells (RBCs) and then subjected to testing with currently approved anti-IgG by flow cytometry, solid phase systems, gel cards, and tube testing. A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved monoclonal anti-IgG (gamma-clone) failed to recognize 2 of 15 IgG3 isoallotypes (IgG3-03 and IgG3-13) and 3 of 3 IgG4 isoallotypes (IgG4-01, IgG4-02, and IgG4-03). In contrast, an FDA-approved rabbit polyclonal anti-IgG recognized each of the known human IgG isoallotypes. These findings demonstrate "blind spots" in isoalloantibody detection by a monoclonal anti-IgG. If a patient has anti-RBC antibodies predominantly of an IgG3 subtype (the IgG3-03 and/or IgG3-13 variety), then it is possible that a clinically significant alloantibody would be missed. IgG-03 and IgG-13 have an estimated frequency of 1% to 3% in Caucasian populations and 20% to 30% in certain African populations. Nonreactivity with IgG4 is a known characteristic of this monoclonal anti-IgG, but IgG4 isoallotypes have not been previously reported. © 2016 AABB.

  5. You've got mail! An examination of a statewide direct-mail marketing campaign to promote deceased organ donor registrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L; LaVoie, Nicole R; Morgan, Susan E; Bosch, Dave

    2015-11-01

    This study extends previous direct-mail campaigns by evaluating the effectiveness of a marketing campaign promoting organ donation message strategies from the vantage point of organ donors, organ recipients, individuals on the waiting list, or a combination of these three frames. Illinois residents were randomly assigned to one of four organ donation brochures disseminated via U.S. postal mail. Registrations occurred via the Internet and U.S. postal mail. Individuals register at a greater rate following exposure to the combination framed message compared to organ donor, organ recipient, and waiting list narratives. The campaign revealed that individuals are more likely to register via U.S. postal mail than the Internet. Direct-mail marketing efforts were shown to be an effective approach to promote organ and tissue donation registrations. The results demonstrated a preference for the combination framed brochure. The results are discussed with an emphasis on the practical implications of utilizing direct-mail marketing efforts to promote organ donation among young adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 77 FR 23643 - Advance Notice of Implementation of Full-Service Intelligent Mail Required for Automation Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... of the technology evolution. The plan is that effective with the proposed starting date of January...), business mail acceptance procedures will be scaled down, with automation mailings verified during mail... tools, to make it easier for mailers to prepare and submit Full-Service mailings. In support of the...

  7. Interaction between target and mailing characteristics in direct marketing, with an application to health care fund raising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, J..R.; van der Scheer, H.R.; Wansbeek, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The major decision variables for the development of a direct mail campaign are the characteristics of the mailing and the characteristics of the tar ets receiving the mailing. Traditional direct mail research treats both aspects separately although a they are likely to interact. We present a new

  8. 41 CFR 102-192.150 - What are your general responsibilities as a program level mail manager?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities as a program level mail manager? 102-192.150 Section 102-192.150 Public Contracts and Property... general responsibilities as a program level mail manager? Your responsibilities at the program level include— (a) Working closely with the agency mail manager and mail center managers who handle significant...

  9. The prevalence of toxoplasma igG and IgM in pregnant women residing in Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, N.; Akhtar, S.; Ikram, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG/IgM) among pregnant women visiting Military Hospital Rawalpindi and to develop a relationship between various risk factors and disease prevalence. Methods: One thousand pregnant women reporting in out patient Gynaecology department of Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi from October 2008 through January 2009 for antenatal check up were included in the study. Their serum samples were tested for the presence of Toxoplasma IgM and IgG immunoglobulins. Enzyme Linked immunosorbent assay test kits for both IgG and IgM were used to detect 1: gondii immunoglobulins in serum samples. Rest of the serum was stored at -20 degree C. Results: Of the 1000 women sampled at hospital, 46 (4.6%) had evidence of past infection and were seropositive for immunoglobulins of T. gondii IgG, while none of them were seropositive for IgM immunoglobulin, suggesting absence of recent infections during pregnancy. Conclusion: In twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, the sero prevalence of T. gondii IgG in pregnant women is relatively high (4.6%) as compared to other areas nearby. Consequently, the risk of, primary infection during pregnancy and the potential for congenital infection of foetus remains there as a large number of pregnant women were sero-negative for both the antibodies.

  10. Detection of IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes reactive against potato apyrase in schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Faria-Pinto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we showed for the first time that the conserved domains within Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms, shared with potato apyrase, possess epitopes for the IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes, as 24 (80% of the 30 schistosomiasis patients were seropositive for this vegetable protein. The analyses for each patient cured (n = 14 after treatment (AT with praziquantel revealed variable IgG1 and IgG4 reactivity against potato apyrase. Different antigenic epitopes shared between the vegetable and parasite proteins could be involved in susceptibility or resistance to S. mansoni AT with praziquantel and these possibilities should be explored.

  11. IgE- and IgG mediated severe anaphylactic platelet transfusion reaction in a known case of cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Shanthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic reactions occur commonly in transfusion practice. However, severe anaphylactic reactions are rare; anti-IgA (IgA: Immunoglobulin A in IgA-deficient patients is one of the well-illustrated and reported causes for such reactions. However, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction through blood component transfusion may be caused in parasitic hyperimmunization for IgG and IgE antibodies. Case Report: We have evaluated here a severe anaphylactic transfusion reaction retrospectively in an 18year-old male, a known case of cerebral malaria, developed after platelet transfusions. The examination and investigations revealed classical signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis along with a significant rise in the serum IgE antibody level and IgG by hemagglutination method. Initial mild allergic reaction was followed by severe anaphylactic reaction after the second transfusion of platelets. Conclusion: Based on these results, screening of patients and donors with mild allergic reactions to IgE antibodies may help in understanding the pathogenesis as well as in planning for preventive desensitization and measures for safe transfusion.

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of IgG4-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2017-01-01

    It is critical to differentiate IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) from malignant tumor and similar disease of the affected organ to apply appropriate therapy and avoid unnecessary surgery. IgG4-RD is diagnosed on combination of typical radiological findings; elevation of serum IgG4 levels; histopathological findings of abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes, storiform fibrosis , and obliterative phlebitis ; association with other IgG4-related diseases; and response to steroids. Histopathological approach is particularly recommended. Systemic glucocorticoids are currently the first-line approach for IgG4-RD, and the indications are symptoms. The initial recommended dose of oral prednisolone for induction of remission is 0.6 mg/kg/day, administered for 2-4 weeks. This dose is gradually tapered to a maintenance dose of 2.5-5 mg/day over a period of 2-3 months. As IgG4-RD sometimes relapses after steroids, maintenance therapy is usually performed in Japan. However, as IgG4-RD patients are typically elderly and are at high risk of developing steroid-related complications, cessation of the medication should be attempted at least within 3 years. For relapsed IgG4-RD, re-administration or dose up of steroid is effective, but the addition of immunomodulatory drugs such as azathioprine has been considered to be appropriate. B cell depletion with rituximab (an anti-CD20 antibody) is effective, even in many patients in whom treatment with immunomodulatory drugs was unsuccessful. The short-term clinical, morphological, and functional outcomes of most IgG4-RD patients treated with steroid therapy are good, but the long-term outcomes are less clear due to several unknown factors such as relapse, developed fibrosis, and associated malignancy.

  13. The autoimmune IgG4 -associated endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yu. Yukina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4-associated diseases (IgG4-AD arethe group of chronic progressive autoimmune fibro-inflammatory pathology of various organs and tissues, characterized by their enlargement and abundant infiltration of immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cells, as well as an increase in the level of serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4.In most patients, the disease is characterized by a mild course.However, there is evidence of a high incidence of malignancies in patients with IgG4-AD.Among endocrine IgG4-associated pathologies, pancreatitis with outcome in diabetes mellitus, hypophysitis and thyroiditis are described. Laboratory examination usually reveals an increased level of IgG4. However, the concentration of IgG4 could not be used as the only diagnostic criterion.The possibility of plasmablastsdetermining as a marker of the disease is discussed.Among the imaging techniques CT, MRI and 18F-FDG-PET/CT are used.However, the most informative method of diagnosis is biopsy. Randomized clinical trials to determine clear recommendations for the treatment of IgG4-AD were not conducted.In most cases, glucocorticoids are prescribed, and immunosuppressive therapy is sometimes used.According to the results of recent studies, the genetically engineered drug rituximab is relatively effective in inducing remission of the disease.Given the high recurrence rate and the risk of malignancy, patients with IgG4-AD require careful long-term follow-up. Thus, the review describes the clinical manifestations of IgG4-AD, examines the possibilities of their diagnosis and presents the existing methods of treatment.However, given the fact that IgG4-AD became a separate group of autoimmune pathology less than 20 years ago, there are insufficient data on these diseases. Researches related to epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and effective treatment of IgG4-AD are actual.

  14. IgA Nephropathy and Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura Nephritis: Aberrant Glycosylation of IgA1, Formation of IgA1-Containing Immune Complexes, and Activation of Mesangial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, J.; Moldoveanu, Z.; Renfrow, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    IgA1 in the circulation and glomerular deposits of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is aberrantly glycosylated; the hinge-region O-linked glycans are galactose-deficient. The circulating IgA1 of patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) has a similar defect. This aberrancy...

  15. IgA nephropathy: A clinicopathologic study from two centers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawajah Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 42 patients, who were diagnosed to have primary Immunoglobulin A neph-ropathy (IgAN at the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Jeddah over the last seven years, were studied. The objective was to analyze their clinical and pathological fea-tures and to classify them according to Hass Classification by using light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Majority of the study cases were males in the second, third and fourth decades of life. Hematuria was the most common clinical complaint followed by proteinuria. There were varying degrees of mesangial proliferation. Majority of the cases presented with class-2 followed by class-3. Immunofluorescence demonstrated diffuse granular deposition of IgA in the glomerular mesangium in majority of the cases. Ultrastructural analysis showed electron dense deposits within the matrix of the mesangium and paramesangium in majority of the cases. Sub-endothelial deposits and mesangial interposition were demonstrated in few cases. Extensive effacement with fusion of the visceral epithelial foot processes was detected in only few patients while focal effacement was demonstrated in many cases. Irregularities of the glomerular basement membrane were seen in some cases. We conclude that IgA nephropathy is an immune-complex glomerular disease, which occurs at all ages and with higher frequency in males and presents mostly with hematuria and proteinuria. Public health awareness is seriously needed to perform the investigations at an early stage.

  16. Identification of distinct glycoforms of IgA1 in plasma from patients with IgA nephropathy and healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehoux, Sylvain; Mi, Rongjuan; Aryal, Rajindra P

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis worldwide and is histologically characterized by the deposition of IgA1 and consequent inflammation in the glomerular mesangium. Prior studies suggested that serum IgA1 from IgAN patients contains aberrant, undergal......Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis worldwide and is histologically characterized by the deposition of IgA1 and consequent inflammation in the glomerular mesangium. Prior studies suggested that serum IgA1 from IgAN patients contains aberrant...... there are different glycoforms of IgA1 in plasma from patients with IgAN and healthy individuals. While total plasma IgA in IgAN patients was elevated ~1.6-fold compared to that in healthy donors, IgA1 in all samples was unexpectedly separable into two distinct glycoforms: one with core 1 based O......-glycans, and the other exclusively containing Tn/STn structures. Importantly, Tn antigen present on IgA1 from IgAN patients and controls was convertible into the core 1 structure in vitro by recombinant T-synthase. Our results demonstrate that undergalactosylation of O-glycans in IgA1 is not restricted to Ig...

  17. A condition closely mimicking IgG4-related disease despite the absence of serum IgG4 elevation and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Satoshi; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Mizushima, Ichiro; Yamada, Kazunori; Fujita, Kentaro; Harada, Kenichi; Matsumura, Masami; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Sato, Yasuharu; Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Nagata, Michio

    2016-09-01

    We describe a 74-year-old Japanese man with systemic fibroinflammatory conditions closely resembling those of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Radiology and histology showed characteristics of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis, despite normal serum IgG4 value and scanty IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in each organ. This case suggests that a condition closely mimicking IgG4-RD may develop without IgG4-positive plasma cells and those exceptional cases should also be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of IgG4-RD.

  18. Perceptions and use of e-mail among Universiti Utara Malaysia staff: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shafinah Farvin Packeer; Ku-Mahamud, Ku Ruhana; Ramli, Razamin; Abdullah, Kamarudin

    2017-10-01

    The use of e-mail has become common either for work purposes or personal usage. Despite its usefulness, complain about the overwhelming messages received which cause the users to have problem in managing those messages. Similar situation occurred among Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) staff. Thus, a pilot study was conducted to investigate its staff's perception and use of e-mail in order to improve the e-mail service provided to them. This paper discusses the findings from the pilot study, which involves 41 UUM staff. Self-administered questionnaires were used to gather the data, while descriptive statistical analysis was used for data analysis. The findings of the study reveal that UUM staff appreciate the e-mail service. However they faced problems like limited storage size and overwhelming e-mails. They think that UUM e-mail is being abused by the repeating advertisements and news sent to them. The output of this study can be used as a guideline by the UUM management in revising its e-mail policy to serve better quality of e-mail service.

  19. 78 FR 24132 - New Mailing Standards for Live Animals and Special Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 New Mailing Standards for Live Animals and Special Handling AGENCY... require special handling service for shipments containing certain types of live animals, to limit the mail classes available for use when shipping certain types of live animals, and to expand the mailability of...

  20. 76 FR 13000 - Transfer of Commercial First-Class Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ...: On February 24, 2011, the United States Postal Service[supreg] filed with the Postal Regulatory Commission a Request of the United States Postal Service to transfer commercial First-Class Mail Parcels from... POSTAL SERVICE Transfer of Commercial First-Class Mail Parcels to Competitive Product List AGENCY...

  1. 76 FR 396 - Product Change-Priority Mail-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Priority Mail--Non-Published Rates AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Postal Service notice of filing of a request with the Postal Regulatory... States Postal Service Concerning Priority Mail--Non-Published Rates and Notice of Filing Materials Under...

  2. An E-mail Service in a Military Adolescent Medicine Clinic: will teens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to determine utilization patterns of an Adolescent Medicine Clinic e-mail service. An e-mail service was offered to 6134 patients presenting for care to a military Adolescent Medicine Clinic in San Antonio, Texas over a 6-month period. Families had to complete an authorization form acknowledging ...

  3. Con Artists Attack Colleges with Fake Help-Desk E-Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    An e-mail scam has hit tens of thousands of users at dozens of colleges over the past few weeks, leaving network administrators scrambling to respond before campus computer accounts are taken over by spammers. Students, professors, and staff members at the affected colleges received e-mail messages that purported to come from the colleges' help…

  4. 39 CFR 20.1 - International Mail Manual; incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Mail Manual; incorporation by reference. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL... Director of the Federal Register. In conformity with that provision, with 39 U.S.C. 410(b)(1), and as...

  5. 31 CFR 515.542 - Mail and telecommunications-related transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mail and telecommunications-related... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.542 Mail and telecommunications-related..., incident to the provision of telecommunications services between the United States and Cuba, the provision...

  6. 41 CFR 102-192.170 - What are GSA's responsibilities in mail management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are GSA's responsibilities in mail management? 102-192.170 Section 102-192.170 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROGRAMS 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT GSA's Responsibilities and Services § 102-192.170 What are GSA's...

  7. 75 FR 39475 - International Mail: Proposed Changes in Prices and Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Fee International Reply Coupons International Business Reply Service Registered Mail TM Return Receipt....3a to change the price to $2.20.] * * * * * 382 International Business Reply Service * * * * * 382.4... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail: Proposed Changes in Prices and Fees AGENCY...

  8. 76 FR 77942 - Service Standards for Market-Dominant Mail Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... from Wednesday. \\10\\ If the following day is a Sunday or holiday, then the service standard is... that originates or destinates in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or other U.S... contiguous forty-eight states, specifically: Mail between Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; and mail...

  9. Location Is Everything: The Use and Marketing of Reference E-Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan L.

    2006-01-01

    Reference e-mail continues to be a vital reference service. This article studies the trends in reference e-mail use over an eight year period. Usage statistics are analyzed particularly in light of the marketing of the service via changes in the location of the service on the official university libraries' Web pages. Included are recommendations…

  10. The opening and reading behavior of business-to-business direct mail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wulf, K; Hoekstra, JC; Commandeur, HR

    Companies who are able to optimize their target audience's opening and reading behavior of commercial business-to-business mailings realize two objectives at the same time: increase response rates of these mailings and lift the level of exposure of their company, its products, and/or services.

  11. Direct Mail Marketing for Cooperative Education. Cooperative Education Marketing Digest Series 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGookey, Kathy

    Seven guidelines for enhancing direct mail marketing are as follows: target the most promising audience; frame the right message for the audience; state the benefits of making a positive response; send the message at an appropriate time; tell the reader what response is desired; plan follow-up mailings or other contact; and measure results.…

  12. The STRENGTH Ezine: an application of e-mail for health promotion in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abroms, Lorien C; Fagan, Pebbles; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lee, Hye-Seung H; Remba, Natania; Sorensen, Glorian

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the efficacy of e-mail for promoting behavior change. This study evaluates the participation in and outcomes associated with an e-mail-based health promotion program. Adolescent girls aged 15 to 17 years were recruited at a shopping mall. Participants with an e-mail address were assigned to the interactive e-mail magazine (Ezine) group (n = 37), whereas those not reporting an e-mail address were assigned to the non-Ezine group (n = 33). Participants in the Ezine group received the health Ezine, which included a quiz and an advice column, on a weekly basis. Results indicate that among the Ezine group, there was a high recall of the Ezine (81.1%), and more than one third of the participants replied to Ezine volumes with quiz answers or an advice question (36.6%). Differences in health behavior change between the Ezine and non-Ezine groups were not significant. E-mails on health-related matters can generate moderate levels of involvement in adolescent girls. Given the widespread use of e-mail, more studies are needed on the effective application of e-mail for health behavior change.

  13. 77 FR 19391 - Notice of Proposed Intelligent Mail Indicia Performance Criteria With Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Notice of Proposed Intelligent Mail Indicia Performance Criteria With Request for... replacement of the current Information-Based Indicia Performance Criteria (IBI PC) with new Intelligent Mail... the Payment Technology office. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marlo Kay Ivey, Business Programs...

  14. 76 FR 77133 - Domestic Shipping Services Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... advantage of Regional Rate boxes. Box C is not available for mailers using Business Reply Mail (BRM) or... by Business Mailer Support. Parcel Select Machinable Dimensions The Postal Service has explored the... an Intelligent Mail[supreg] package barcode (IMpb), a unique tracking barcode, or an extra services...

  15. Shared Semantics and the Use of Organizational Memories for E-Mail Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David G.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the use of shared semantics information to link concepts in an organizational memory to e-mail communications. Presents a framework for determining shared semantics based on organizational and personal user profiles. Illustrates how shared semantics are used by the HyperMail system to help link organizational memories (OM) content to…

  16. Mapping network development of international new ventures with the use of company e-mails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakkee, I.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    International new ventures use e-mail frequently to communicate with globally dispersed contacts. In this paper we present and discuss a qualitative research method to map international network development based on company e-mails. Our approach also allows for combinations of inductive and deductive

  17. A Structural Equation Model of Customer Satisfaction and Future Purchase of Mail-Order Speciality Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai, L.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses the relationship between satisfaction with mail-order speciality food attributes, overall satisfaction, and likelihood of future purchase using a structural equation model. The results indicate that customer satisfaction is associated with both service and product features of mail order speciality food.

  18. The risk function approach to profit maximizing estimation in direct mailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muus, Lars; Scheer, Hiek van der; Wansbeek, Tom

    1999-01-01

    When the parameters of the model describing consumers' reaction to a mailing are known, addresses for a future mailing can be selected in a profit-maximizing way. Usually, these parameters are unknown and are to be estimated. Standard estimation are based on a quadratic loss function. In the present

  19. Test of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of an E-Mail Marketing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Menon, R. G. Vishnu; Sigurdarson, Johannes Pall; Kristjansson, Jon Skafti; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    An e-mail marketing experiment based on the behavioral perspective model was conducted to investigate consumer choice. Conversion e-mails were sent to two groups from the same marketing database of registered consumers interested in children's books. The experiment was based on A-B-A-C-A and A-C-A-B-A withdrawal designs and consisted of sending B…

  20. Effects of a Mail and Telephone Intervention on Breast Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Deborah J.; Powers, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a mail and telephone intervention to improve breast health behaviors while maintaining quality of life. Women recruited from the general public were randomized to a stepped-intensity intervention consisting of mailings, telephone calls, and counseling (if requested or appropriate given a woman's genetic risk for breast cancer)…