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Sample records for ighv genes utilized

  1. Not all IGHV3-21 chronic lymphocytic leukemias are equal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baliakas, Panagiotis; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    An unresolved issue in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is whether IGHV3-21 gene usage, in general, or the expression of stereotyped B-cell receptor immunoglobulin defining subset #2 (IGHV3-21/IGLV3-21), in particular, determines outcome for IGHV3-21-utilizing cases. We reappraised this issue...

  2. Not all IGHV3-21 chronic lymphocytic leukemias are equal: Prognostic considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Baliakas (P.); A. Agathangelidis (Andreas); A. Hadzidimitriou (A.); L.-A. Sutton (L.); E. Minga (Evangelia); A. Tsanousa (Athina); L. Scarfó (L.); Z. Davis (Zadie); X.-J. Yan (Xiao-Jie); T. Shanafelt (Tait); K. Plevova (K.); Y. Sandberg (Yorick); F.J. Vojdeman (Fie Juhl); M. Boudjogra (Myriam); T. Tzenou (T.); M. Chatzouli (Maria); C.C. Chu (Charles C.); S. Veronese (Silvio); A. Gardiner (Anne); A. Mansouri (Ahmed); O. Smedby; L.B. Pedersen (Lone Bredo); D. Moreno (Denis); K. van Lom (Kirsten); V. Giudicelli (Veronique); H.S. Francova (Hana Skuhrova); F. Nguyen-Khac (Florence); P. Panagiotidis (P.); G. Juliusson (Gunnar); L. Angelis (Lefteris); C. Anagnostopoulos (Constantinos); M.-P. Lefranc (Marie-Paule); M. Facco (Monica); L. Trentin (Livio); M. Catherwood (M.); M. Montillo (Marco); C.H. Geisler (Christian); A.W. Langerak (Anton); D. Pospisilova (Dagmar); N. Chiorazzi (Nicholas); D.G. Oscier (David Graham); D.F. Jelinek (Diane F.); N. Darzentas (Nikos); C. Belessi (C.); F. Davi (Frédéric); P. Ghia (Paolo); R. Rosenquist (R.); K. Stamatopoulos (Kostas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAn unresolved issue in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is whether IGHV3-21 gene usage, in general, or the expression of stereotyped B-cell receptor immunoglobulin defining subset #2 (IGHV3-21/IGLV3-21), in particular, determines outcome for IGHV3-21-utilizing cases. We reappraised

  3. The restricted use of IGHV3 superspecies genes in anti-Rh is not limited to hyperimmunized anti-D donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, Serge E.; Verhagen, Onno J. H. M.; Muit, Jessica; Ligthart, Peter C.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies produced against the D antigen make use of IGHV genes restricted to the IGHV3 superfamily. These findings are based on the IGHV gene analysis in anti-D-producing B cells from hyperimmunized donors, however, and therefore the restriction might be due to the hyperimmunization.

  4. The Number of Overlapping AID Hotspots in Germline IGHV Genes Is Inversely Correlated with Mutation Frequency in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chaohui; Chu, Charles C; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Bagnara, Davide; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; MacCarthy, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of mutations by Activation-Induced Deaminase (AID) is a key step in generating antibody diversity at the Immunoglobulin (Ig) loci but is also implicated in B-cell malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). AID has previously been shown to preferentially deaminate WRC (W = A/T, R = A/G) hotspots. WGCW sites, which contain an overlapping WRC hotspot on both DNA strands, mutate at much higher frequency than single hotspots. Human Ig heavy chain (IGHV) genes differ in terms of WGCW numbers, ranging from 4 for IGHV3-48*03 to as many as 12 in IGHV1-69*01. An absence of V-region mutations in CLL patients ("IGHV unmutated", or U-CLL) is associated with a poorer prognosis compared to "IGHV mutated" (M-CLL) patients. The reasons for this difference are still unclear, but it has been noted that particular IGHV genes associate with U-CLL vs M-CLL. For example, patients with IGHV1-69 clones tend to be U-CLL with a poor prognosis, whereas patients with IGHV3-30 tend to be M-CLL and have a better prognosis. Another distinctive feature of CLL is that ~30% of (mostly poor prognosis) patients can be classified into "stereotyped" subsets, each defined by HCDR3 similarity, suggesting selection, possibly for a self-antigen. We analyzed >1000 IGHV genes from CLL patients and found a highly significant statistical relationship between the number of WGCW hotspots in the germline V-region and the observed mutation frequency in patients. However, paradoxically, this correlation was inverse, with V-regions with more WGCW hotspots being less likely to be mutated, i.e., more likely to be U-CLL. The number of WGCW hotspots in particular, are more strongly correlated with mutation frequency than either non-overlapping (WRC) hotspots or more general models of mutability derived from somatic hypermutation data. Furthermore, this correlation is not observed in sequences from the B cell repertoires of normal individuals and those with autoimmune diseases.

  5. 14q deletions are associated with trisomy 12, NOTCH1 mutations and unmutated IGHV genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Adrien; Chapiro, Elise; Belhouachi, Nabila; Cung, Hong-Anh; Keren, Boris; Damm, Frederik; Algrin, Caroline; Lefebvre, Christine; Fert-Ferrer, Sandra; Luquet, Isabelle; Gachard, Nathalie; Mugneret, Francine; Terre, Christine; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnes; Michaux, Lucienne; Rafdord-Weiss, Isabelle; Talmant, Pascaline; Veronese, Lauren; Nadal, Nathalie; Struski, Stephanie; Barin, Carole; Helias, Catherine; Lafage, Marina; Lippert, Eric; Auger, Nathalie; Eclache, Virginie; Roos-Weil, Damien; Leblond, Veronique; Settegrana, Catherine; Maloum, Karim; Davi, Frederic; Merle-Beral, Helene; Lesty, Claude; Nguyen-Khac, Florence

    2014-08-01

    Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 14 [del(14q)] are rare but recurrently observed in mature B-cell neoplasms, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To further characterize this aberration, we studied 81 cases with del(14q): 54 of CLL and 27 of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), the largest reported series to date. Using karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the most frequent additional abnormality was trisomy 12 (tri12), observed in 28/79 (35%) cases, followed by del13q14 (12/79, 15%), delTP53 (11/80, 14%) delATM (5/79, 6%), and del6q21 (3/76, 4%). IGHV genes were unmutated in 41/53 (77%) patients, with a high frequency of IGHV1-69 (21/52, 40%). NOTCH1 gene was mutated in 14/45 (31%) patients. There was no significant difference in cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities between CLL and SLL. Investigations using FISH and SNP-array demonstrated the heterogeneous size of the 14q deletions. However, a group with the same del(14)(q24.1q32.33) was identified in 48% of cases. In this group, tri12 (P = 0.004) and NOTCH1 mutations (P = 0.02) were significantly more frequent than in the other patients. In CLL patients with del(14q), median treatment-free survival (TFS) was 27 months. In conclusion, del(14q) is associated with tri12 and with pejorative prognostic factors: unmutated IGHV genes (with over-representation of the IGHV1-69 repertoire), NOTCH1 mutations, and a short TFS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia with Mutated IGHV4-34 Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xochelli, Aliki; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Kavakiotis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to investigate whether B cell receptor immunoglobulin (BcR IG) stereotypy is associated with particular clinicobiological features among chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients expressing mutated BcR IG (M-CLL) encoded by the IGHV4-34 gene, and also ascertain whether...

  7. Clinical significance of productive immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsibardi, Katerina; Braoudaki, Maria; Papathanasiou, Chrissa; Karamolegou, Kalliopi; Tzortzatou-Stathopoulou, Fotini

    2011-09-01

    We analyzed the CDR3 region of 80 children with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) using the ImMunoGeneTics Information System and JOINSOLVER. In total, 108 IGH@ rearrangements were analyzed. Most of them (75.3%) were non-productive. IGHV@ segments proximal to IGHD-IGHJ@ were preferentially rearranged (45.3%). Increased utilization of IGHV3 segments IGHV3-13 (11.3%) and IGHV3-15 (9.3%), IGHD3 (30.5%), and IGHJ4 (34%) was noted. In pro-B ALL more frequent were IGHV3-11 (33.3%) and IGHV6-1 (33.3%), IGHD2-21 (50%), IGHJ4 (50%), and IGHJ6 (50%) segments. Shorter CDR3 length was observed in IGHV@6, IGHD7, and IGHJ1 segments, whereas increased CDR3 length was related to IGHV3, IGHD2, and IGHJ4 segments. Increased risk of relapse was found in patients with productive sequences. Specifically, the relapse-free survival rate at 5 years in patients with productive sequences at diagnosis was 75% (standard error [SE] ±9%), whereas in patients with non-productive sequences it was 97% (SE ±1.92%) (p-value =0.0264). Monoclonality and oligoclonality were identified in 81.2% and 18.75% cases at diagnosis, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed IGHV@ to IGHDJ joining only in 6.6% cases with oligoclonality. The majority (75%) of relapsed patients had monoclonal IGH@ rearrangements. The preferential utilization of IGHV@ segments proximal to IGHDJ depended on their location on the IGHV@ locus. Molecular mechanisms occurring during IGH@ rearrangement might play an essential role in childhood ALL prognosis. In our study, the productivity of the rearranged sequences at diagnosis proved to be a significant prognostic factor.

  8. IGHV1-69 B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia antibodies cross-react with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus antigens as well as intestinal commensal bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Ki Hwang

    Full Text Available B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL patients expressing unmutated immunoglobulin heavy variable regions (IGHVs use the IGHV1-69 B cell receptor (BCR in 25% of cases. Since HIV-1 envelope gp41 antibodies also frequently use IGHV1-69 gene segments, we hypothesized that IGHV1-69 B-CLL precursors may contribute to the gp41 B cell response during HIV-1 infection. To test this hypothesis, we rescued 5 IGHV1-69 unmutated antibodies as heterohybridoma IgM paraproteins and as recombinant IgG1 antibodies from B-CLL patients, determined their antigenic specificities and analyzed BCR sequences. IGHV1-69 B-CLL antibodies were enriched for reactivity with HIV-1 envelope gp41, influenza, hepatitis C virus E2 protein and intestinal commensal bacteria. These IGHV1-69 B-CLL antibodies preferentially used IGHD3 and IGHJ6 gene segments and had long heavy chain complementary determining region 3s (HCDR3s (≥21 aa. IGHV1-69 B-CLL BCRs exhibited a phenylalanine at position 54 (F54 of the HCDR2 as do rare HIV-1 gp41 and influenza hemagglutinin stem neutralizing antibodies, while IGHV1-69 gp41 antibodies induced by HIV-1 infection predominantly used leucine (L54 allelic variants. These results demonstrate that the B-CLL cell population is an expansion of members of the innate polyreactive B cell repertoire with reactivity to a number of infectious agent antigens including intestinal commensal bacteria. The B-CLL IGHV1-69 B cell usage of F54 allelic variants strongly suggests that IGHV1-69 B-CLL gp41 antibodies derive from a restricted B cell pool that also produces rare HIV-1 gp41 and influenza hemagglutinin stem antibodies.

  9. IGHV1-69-Encoded Antibodies Expressed in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia React with Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde Adduct, an Immunodominant Oxidation-Specific Epitope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Que, Xuchu; Widhopf Ii, George F; Amir, Shahzada

    2013-01-01

    The immunoglobulins expressed by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells are highly restricted, suggesting they are selected for binding either self or foreign antigen. Of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IGHV) genes expressed in CLL, IGHV1-69 is the most common, and often is expressed...... are products of enhanced lipid peroxidation and a major target of innate natural antibodies. Specifically, CLL69C bound immunodominant OSE adducts termed MAA (malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-adducts), which are found on apoptotic cells, inflammatory tissues, and atherosclerotic lesions. It also reacted...

  10. Structural Determination of the Broadly Reactive Anti-IGHV1-69 Anti-idiotypic Antibody G6 and Its Idiotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avnir, Yuval; Prachanronarong, Kristina L; Zhang, Zhen; Hou, Shurong; Peterson, Eric C; Sui, Jianhua; Zayed, Hatem; Kurella, Vinodh B; McGuire, Andrew T; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Hilbert, Brendan J; Bohn, Markus-Frederik; Kowalik, Timothy F; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Finberg, Robert W; Wang, Jennifer P; Goodall, Margaret; Jefferis, Roy; Zhu, Quan; Kurt Yilmaz, Nese; Schiffer, Celia A; Marasco, Wayne A

    2017-12-12

    The heavy chain IGHV1-69 germline gene exhibits a high level of polymorphism and shows biased use in protective antibody (Ab) responses to infections and vaccines. It is also highly expressed in several B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. G6 is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal Ab that selectively binds to IGHV1-69 heavy chain germline gene 51p1 alleles that have been implicated in these Ab responses and disease processes. Here, we determine the co-crystal structure of humanized G6 (hG6.3) in complex with anti-influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly neutralizing Ab D80. The core of the hG6.3 idiotope is a continuous string of CDR-H2 residues starting with M53 and ending with N58. G6 binding studies demonstrate the remarkable breadth of binding to 51p1 IGHV1-69 Abs with diverse CDR-H3, light chain, and antigen binding specificities. These studies detail the broad expression of the G6 cross-reactive idiotype (CRI) that further define its potential role in precision medicine. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural Determination of the Broadly Reactive Anti-IGHV1-69 Anti-idiotypic Antibody G6 and Its Idiotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Avnir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The heavy chain IGHV1-69 germline gene exhibits a high level of polymorphism and shows biased use in protective antibody (Ab responses to infections and vaccines. It is also highly expressed in several B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. G6 is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal Ab that selectively binds to IGHV1-69 heavy chain germline gene 51p1 alleles that have been implicated in these Ab responses and disease processes. Here, we determine the co-crystal structure of humanized G6 (hG6.3 in complex with anti-influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly neutralizing Ab D80. The core of the hG6.3 idiotope is a continuous string of CDR-H2 residues starting with M53 and ending with N58. G6 binding studies demonstrate the remarkable breadth of binding to 51p1 IGHV1-69 Abs with diverse CDR-H3, light chain, and antigen binding specificities. These studies detail the broad expression of the G6 cross-reactive idiotype (CRI that further define its potential role in precision medicine.

  12. Change in IgHV Mutational Status of CLL Suggests Origin From Multiple Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Afaf; Gocke, Christopher D; Gladstone, Douglas E

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain variable-region (IgHV) mutational status are used to predict outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although DNA aberrations change over time, IgHV sequences and mutational status are considered stable. In a retrospective review, 409 CLL patients, between 2008 and 2015, had IgHV analysis: 56 patients had multiple analyses performed. Seven patients' IgHV results changed: 2 from unmutated to mutated and 5 from mutated to unmutated IgHV sequence. Three concurrently changed their variable heavy-chain sequence. Secondary to allelic exclusion, 2 of the new variable heavy chains produced were biologically nonplausible. The existence of these new nonplausible heavy-chain variable regions suggests either the CLL cancer stem-cell maintains the ability to rearrange a previously silenced IgH allele or more likely that the cancer stem-cell produced at least 2 subclones, suggesting that the CLL cancer stem cell exists before the process of allelic exclusion occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pnp gene modification for improved xylose utilization in Zymomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Perry G G; Qi, Min; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V; Yang, Jianjun

    2014-12-16

    The endogenous pnp gene encoding polynucleotide phosphorylase in the Zymomonas genome was identified as a target for modification to provide improved xylose utilizing cells for ethanol production. The cells are in addition genetically modified to have increased expression of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) activity, as compared to cells without this genetic modification, and are not limited in xylose isomerase activity in the absence of the pnp modification.

  14. Clinical utility of a 377 gene custom next-generation sequencing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JEN BEVILACQUA

    2017-07-26

    Jul 26, 2017 ... Clinical utility of a 377 gene custom next-generation sequencing epilepsy panel ... number of genes, making it a very attractive option for a condition as .... clinical value of various test offerings to guide decision making.

  15. Production of recombinant Ig molecules from antigen-selected single B cells and restricted usage of Ig-gene segments by anti-D antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, Serge E.; Mulder, Arend; Verhagen, Onno J. H. M.; Eijsink, Chantal; Franke-van Dijk, Marry E. I.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The Ig-genes of the heavy chains in anti-D-specific hybridomas and Fab/scFv-fragments selected from phage-display libraries are restricted to a group of closely related genes (IGHV3s genes). We analyzed the Ig-gene repertoire in anti-D-specific B cells of two hyperimmunized donors using a completely

  16. Utility and Limitations of Using Gene Expression Data to Identify Functional Associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra Uygun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene co-expression has been widely used to hypothesize gene function through guilt-by association. However, it is not clear to what degree co-expression is informative, whether it can be applied to genes involved in different biological processes, and how the type of dataset impacts inferences about gene functions. Here our goal is to assess the utility and limitations of using co-expression as a criterion to recover functional associations between genes. By determining the percentage of gene pairs in a metabolic pathway with significant expression correlation, we found that many genes in the same pathway do not have similar transcript profiles and the choice of dataset, annotation quality, gene function, expression similarity measure, and clustering approach significantly impacts the ability to recover functional associations between genes using Arabidopsis thaliana as an example. Some datasets are more informative in capturing coordinated expression profiles and larger data sets are not always better. In addition, to recover the maximum number of known pathways and identify candidate genes with similar functions, it is important to explore rather exhaustively multiple dataset combinations, similarity measures, clustering algorithms and parameters. Finally, we validated the biological relevance of co-expression cluster memberships with an independent phenomics dataset and found that genes that consistently cluster with leucine degradation genes tend to have similar leucine levels in mutants. This study provides a framework for obtaining gene functional associations by maximizing the information that can be obtained from gene expression datasets.

  17. Utilizing Social Media to Study Information-Seeking and Ethical Issues in Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise; Johnson, Thomas Wade; Lim, Jonathan; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Illes, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Background The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups. Objective To address this gap, we utilized social media to investigate the kind of information public users are seeking about gene therapy and the hopes, concerns, and attitudes they express. Methods We conducted a content ...

  18. Utilization of gene mapping and candidate gene mutation screening for diagnosing clinically equivocal conditions: a Norrie disease case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Vasiliki; Stambouli, Danai; Nedelea, Florina Mihaela; Filipescu, George Alexandru; Mina, Diana; Kambouris, Marios; El-Shantil, Hatem

    2014-06-01

    Prenatal diagnosis was requested for an undiagnosed eye disease showing X-linked inheritance in a family. No medical records existed for the affected family members. Mapping of the X chromosome and candidate gene mutation screening identified a c.C267A[p.F89L] mutation in NPD previously described as possibly causing Norrie disease. The detection of the c.C267A[p.F89L] variant in another unrelated family confirms the pathogenic nature of the mutation for the Norrie disease phenotype. Gene mapping, haplotype analysis, and candidate gene screening have been previously utilized in research applications but were applied here in a diagnostic setting due to the scarcity of available clinical information. The clinical diagnosis and mutation identification were critical for providing proper genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for this family.

  19. Major prognostic value of complex karyotype in addition to TP53 and IGHV mutational status in first-line chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bris, Yannick; Struski, Stéphanie; Guièze, Romain; Rouvellat, Caroline; Prade, Naïs; Troussard, Xavier; Tournilhac, Olivier; Béné, Marie C; Delabesse, Eric; Ysebaert, Loïc

    2017-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder of remarkable heterogeneity as demonstrated by cytogenetics and molecular analyses. Complex karyotype (CK), TP53 deletions and/or mutations (TP53 disruption), IGVH mutational status, and, more recently, recurrent somatic mutations have been identified as prognostic markers in CLL. On a cohort of 110 patients with CLL treated with first-line fludarabin, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab treatment compared with 33 untreated (watch and wait) patients with CLL, we report more frequent complex karyotypes (34 vs 15%; P = .05), unmutated IGHV (70 vs 21%; P < .0001), ATM deletion (25 vs 6%, P = .02), and NOTCH mutation (3 vs 17%, P = .04). Among treated patients, 39 relapsed during the follow-up period. These patients were characterized before treatment by a higher incidence of trisomy 12 (38 vs 11%, P < .001) and TP53 disruption (31 vs 4%, P = .0002). A significantly shorter 5-year overall survival was found for treated patients with CK (72.4 vs 85.8%; P = .007), unmutated IGHV (70 vs 100%; P = .04), or TP53 disruption (55.7 vs 82.7%; P < .0001). Three risk groups were defined based on the status of TP53 disruption or unmutated IGVH, which differed significantly in terms of 5-year overall survival. Moreover, the presence of CK impacted pejoratively 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival in all these 3 groups. Conventional karyotyping therefore appears to be of value, CK being an additional factor, undetectable in classical FISH, in patients with CLL at the stage when therapy becomes required. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Utility of Multi-Gene Loci for Forensic Species Diagnosis of Blowflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Wei, Shu-jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-xin

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary studies in forensic entomology exhaustively evaluate gene sequences because these constitute the fastest and most accurate method of species identification. For this purpose single gene segments, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in particular, are commonly used. However, the limitation of such sequences in identification, especially of closely related species and populations, demand a multi-gene approach. But this raises the question of which group of genes can best fulfill the identification task? In this context the utility of five gene segments was explored among blowfly species from two distinct geographic regions, China and Pakistan. COI, cytochrome b (CYTB), NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5), nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), were sequenced for eight blowfly species including Chrysomya megacephala F. (Diptera: Calliphoidae), Ch. pinguis Walker, Lucilia sericata Meigen L. porphyrina Walker, L. illustris Meigen Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann, Aldrichina grahami Aldrich, and the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Muscidae), from Hangzhou, China; while COI, CYTB, and ITS2 were sequenced for four species, i.e. Ch. megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, L. cuprina, and the flesh fly, Sarcophaga albiceps Meigen (Sarcophagidae), from Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan. The results demonstrate a universal utility of these gene segments in the molecular identification of flies of forensic importance. PMID:21864153

  1. Cloning and characterization of a Candida albicans maltase gene involved in sucrose utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, A; Williamson, P R; Rex, J H; Sweeney, E C; Bennett, J E

    1992-01-01

    In order to isolate the structural gene involved in sucrose utilization, we screened a sucrose-induced Candida albicans cDNA library for clones expressing alpha-glucosidase activity. The C. albicans maltase structural gene (CAMAL2) was isolated. No other clones expressing alpha-glucosidase activity. were detected. A genomic CAMAL2 clone was obtained by screening a size-selected genomic library with the cDNA clone. DNA sequence analysis reveals that CAMAL2 encodes a 570-amino-acid protein which shares 50% identity with the maltase structural gene (MAL62) of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. The substrate specificity of the recombinant protein purified from Escherichia coli identifies the enzyme as a maltase. Northern (RNA) analysis reveals that transcription of CAMAL2 is induced by maltose and sucrose and repressed by glucose. These results suggest that assimilation of sucrose in C. albicans relies on an inducible maltase enzyme. The family of genes controlling sucrose utilization in C. albicans shares similarities with the MAL gene family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and provides a model system for studying gene regulation in this pathogenic yeast. Images PMID:1400249

  2. Fundamental study on gene transfer utilizing magnetic force and jet injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Nakagami, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishjima, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Recently, DNA vaccination is attracting attentions as a new therapeutic method for lifestyle diseases and autoimmune diseases. However, its clinical applications are limited because a safe and efficient gene transfer method has not been established yet. In this study, a new method of gene transfer was proposed which utilizes the jet injection and the magnetic transfection. The jet injection is a method to inject medical liquid by momentary high pressure without needle. The injected liquid diffuses in the bio tissue and the endocytosis is considered to be improved by the diffusion. The magnetic transfection is a method to deliver the conjugates of plasmid DNA and magnetic particles to the desired site by external magnetic field. It is expected that jet injection of the conjugates causes slight membrane disruptions and the traction of the conjugates by magnetic field induces the efficient gene transfer. In conclusion, the possibility of improvement of the gene expression by the combination of jet injection and magnetic transfection was confirmed.

  3. Fundamental study on gene transfer utilizing magnetic force and jet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, T.; Nakagami, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishjima, S.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, DNA vaccination is attracting attentions as a new therapeutic method for lifestyle diseases and autoimmune diseases. However, its clinical applications are limited because a safe and efficient gene transfer method has not been established yet. In this study, a new method of gene transfer was proposed which utilizes the jet injection and the magnetic transfection. The jet injection is a method to inject medical liquid by momentary high pressure without needle. The injected liquid diffuses in the bio tissue and the endocytosis is considered to be improved by the diffusion. The magnetic transfection is a method to deliver the conjugates of plasmid DNA and magnetic particles to the desired site by external magnetic field. It is expected that jet injection of the conjugates causes slight membrane disruptions and the traction of the conjugates by magnetic field induces the efficient gene transfer. In conclusion, the possibility of improvement of the gene expression by the combination of jet injection and magnetic transfection was confirmed

  4. Quantitative utilization of prior biological knowledge in the Bayesian network modeling of gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shouguo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bayesian Network (BN is a powerful approach to reconstructing genetic regulatory networks from gene expression data. However, expression data by itself suffers from high noise and lack of power. Incorporating prior biological knowledge can improve the performance. As each type of prior knowledge on its own may be incomplete or limited by quality issues, integrating multiple sources of prior knowledge to utilize their consensus is desirable. Results We introduce a new method to incorporate the quantitative information from multiple sources of prior knowledge. It first uses the Naïve Bayesian classifier to assess the likelihood of functional linkage between gene pairs based on prior knowledge. In this study we included cocitation in PubMed and schematic similarity in Gene Ontology annotation. A candidate network edge reservoir is then created in which the copy number of each edge is proportional to the estimated likelihood of linkage between the two corresponding genes. In network simulation the Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm is adopted, and samples from this reservoir at each iteration to generate new candidate networks. We evaluated the new algorithm using both simulated and real gene expression data including that from a yeast cell cycle and a mouse pancreas development/growth study. Incorporating prior knowledge led to a ~2 fold increase in the number of known transcription regulations recovered, without significant change in false positive rate. In contrast, without the prior knowledge BN modeling is not always better than a random selection, demonstrating the necessity in network modeling to supplement the gene expression data with additional information. Conclusion our new development provides a statistical means to utilize the quantitative information in prior biological knowledge in the BN modeling of gene expression data, which significantly improves the performance.

  5. NGS testing for cardiomyopathy: Utility of adding RASopathy-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan-Birsoy, Ozge; Miatkowski, Maya M; Hynes, Elizabeth; Funke, Birgit H; Mason-Suares, Heather

    2018-04-25

    RASopathies include a group of syndromes caused by pathogenic germline variants in RAS-MAPK pathway genes and typically present with facial dysmorphology, cardiovascular disease, and musculoskeletal anomalies. Recently, variants in RASopathy-associated genes have been reported in individuals with apparently nonsyndromic cardiomyopathy, suggesting that subtle features may be overlooked. To determine the utility and burden of adding RASopathy-associated genes to cardiomyopathy panels, we tested 11 RASopathy-associated genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS), including NGS-based copy number variant assessment, in 1,111 individuals referred for genetic testing for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Disease-causing variants were identified in 0.6% (four of 692) of individuals with HCM, including three missense variants in the PTPN11, SOS1, and BRAF genes. Overall, 36 variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) were identified, averaging ∼3VUSs/100 cases. This study demonstrates that adding a subset of the RASopathy-associated genes to cardiomyopathy panels will increase clinical diagnoses without significantly increasing the number of VUSs/case. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Putative and unique gene sequence utilization for the design of species specific probes as modeled by Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of utilizing putative and unique gene sequences for the design of species specific probes was tested. The abundance profile of assigned functions within the Lactobacillus plantarum genome was used for the identification of the putative and unique gene sequence, csh. The targeted gene (cs...

  7. Gene expression studies on human keratinocytes transduced with human growth hormone gene for a possible utilization in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathor, Monica Beatriz.

    1994-01-01

    Taking advantage of the recent progress in the DNA-recombinant techniques and of the potentiality of normal human keratinocytes primary culture to reconstitute the epidermis, it was decided to genetically transform these keratinocytes to produce human growth hormone under controllable conditions that would be used in gene therapy at this hormone deficient patients. The first step to achieve this goal was to standardize infection of keratinocytes with retrovirus producer cells containing a construct which included the gene of bacterial b-galactosidase. The best result was obtained cultivating the keratinocytes for 3 days in a 2:1 mixture of retrovirus producer cells and 3T3-J2 fibroblasts irradiated with 60 Gy, and splitting these infected keratinocytes on 3T3-J2 fibroblasts feeder layer. Another preliminary experiment was to infect normal human keratinocytes with interleukin-6 gene (hIL-6) that, in pathologic conditions, could be reproduced by keratinocytes and secreted to the blood stream. Thus, we verify that infected keratinocytes secrete an average amount of 500 ng/10 6 cell/day of cytokin during the in vitro life time, that certify the stable character of the injection. These keratinocytes, when grafted in mice, secrete hIL-6 to the blood stream reaching levels of 40 pg/ml of serum. After these preliminary experiments, we construct a retroviral vector with the human growth hormone gene (h GH) driven by human metallothionein promoter (h PMT), designated DChPMTGH. Normal human keratinocytes were infected with DChPMTGH producer cells, following previously standardized protocol, obtaining infected keratinocytes secreting to the culture media 340 ng h GH/10 6 cell/day without promoter activation. This is the highest level of h GH secreted in human keratinocytes primary culture described in literature. The h GH value increases approximately 10 times after activation with 100 μM Zn +2 for 8-12 hours. (author). 158 refs., 42 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Mutation Status and Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangements in Patients from Northwest and Central Region of Spain with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. González-Gascón y Marín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and mutation status of the immunoglobulin heavy variable chain (IGHV in a cohort of 224 patients from northwest and central region of Spain diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, and to correlate it with cytogenetic abnormalities, overall survival (OS and time to first treatment (TTFT. 125 patients had mutated IGHV, while 99 had unmutated IGHV. The most frequently used IGHV family was IGHV3, followed by IGHV1 and IGHV4. The regions IGHV3-30, IGHV1-69, IGHV3-23, and IGHV4-34 were the most commonly used. Only 3.1% of the patients belonged to the subfamily IGHV3-21 and we failed to demonstrate a worse clinical outcome in this subgroup. The IGHV4 family appeared more frequently with mutated pattern, similar to IGHV3-23 and IGHV3-74. By contrast, IGHV1-69 was expressed at a higher frequency in unmutated CLL patients. All the cases from IGHV3-11 and almost all from IGHV5-51 subfamily belonged to the group of unmutated CLL.

  9. Utilizing social media to study information-seeking and ethical issues in gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise; Johnson, Thomas Wade; Lim, Jonathan; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Illes, Judy

    2013-03-04

    The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups. To address this gap, we utilized social media to investigate the kind of information public users are seeking about gene therapy and the hopes, concerns, and attitudes they express. We conducted a content analysis of questions containing the keywords "gene therapy" from the Q&A site "Yahoo! Answers" for the 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. From the pool of questions retrieved (N=903), we identified those containing at least one theme related to ethics, environment, economics, law, or society (n=173) and then characterized the content of relevant answers (n=399) through emergent coding. The results show that users seek a wide range of information regarding gene therapy, with requests for scientific information and ethical issues at the forefront of enquiry. The question sample reveals high expectations for gene therapy that range from cures for genetic and nongenetic diseases to pre- and postnatal enhancement of physiological attributes. Ethics questions are commonly expressed as fears about the impact of gene therapy on self and society. The answer sample echoes these concerns but further suggests that the acceptability of gene therapy varies depending on the specific application. Overall, the findings highlight the powerful role of social media as a rich resource for research into attitudes toward biomedicine and as a platform for knowledge exchange and public engagement for topics relating to health and disease.

  10. Identification and functional analysis of the gene cluster for fructan utilization in Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Haruka; Fukamachi, Haruka; Inoue, Mitsuko; Igarashi, Takeshi

    2013-02-25

    Fructanase enzymes hydrolyze the β-2,6 and β-2,1 linkages of levan and inulin fructans, respectively. We analyzed the influence of fructan on the growth of Prevotella intermedia. The growth of P. intermedia was enhanced by addition of inulin, implying that P. intermedia could also use inulin. Based on this finding, we identified and analyzed the genes encoding a putative fructanase (FruA), sugar transporter (FruB), and fructokinase (FruK) in the genome of strain ATCC25611. Transcript analysis by RT-PCR showed that the fruABK genes were co-transcribed as a single mRNA and semi-quantitative analysis confirmed that the fruA gene was induced in response to fructose and inulin. Recombinant FruA and FruK were purified and characterized biochemically. FruA strongly hydrolyzed inulin, with slight degradation of levan via an exo-type mechanism, revealing that FruA is an exo-β-d-fructanase. FruK converted fructose to fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of ATP, confirming that FruK is an ATP-dependent fructokinase. These results suggest that P. intermedia can utilize fructan as a carbon source for growth, and that the fructanase, sugar transporter, and fructokinase proteins we identified are involved in this fructan utilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Utility of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis using PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Norose, Kazumi; Li, Kexin; Hikosaka, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. Since this parasite causes severe clinical symptoms in immunocompromised patients, early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is essential. PCR is currently used for early diagnosis, but there is no consensus regarding the most effective method for amplifying Toxoplasma DNA. In this study, we considered the utility of the cytochrome c subunit I (cox1) gene, which is encoded in the mitochondrial DNA of this parasite, as a novel target of PCR for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. To do this, we compared its copy number per haploid nuclear genome and the detection sensitivity of cox1-PCR with the previously reported target genes B1 and 18S rRNA and the AF146527 repeat element. We found that the copy number of cox1 was high and that the PCR using cox1 primers was more efficient at amplifying Toxoplasma DNA than the other PCR targets examined. In addition, PCR using clinical samples indicated that the cox1 gene would be useful for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. These findings suggest that use of cox1-PCR would facilitate the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A crossing programme with mutants in peas: Utilization of a gene bank and a computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blixt, S.

    1976-01-01

    A gene bank for peas was established at Weibullsholm in 1930, comprising about 1500 lines and including a great number of spontaneous and induced mutants. A Wang 2200 computair system is used in the maintenance and utilization of the gene bank information. The system at present provides programs for establishing and maintaining data-files for lines and crosses, statistical programs for linkage calculations, and technical aids in growing and classifying the material. The system is very promising and can be handled without previous experience of computer work. This system is used in the planning of a specific plant breeding project, PMX and search for material to be used in the project. The PMX project as a whole aims at adapting the pea better to monoculture and to a highly mechanized agriculture, as well as at improving its nutritional value. The material used in the project up to now is four modern varieties, two primitive varieties, two cross-recombinants, one ecotype, three spontaneous mutants and five induced mutants. (author)

  13. Utilization of genetic tests: analysis of gene-specific billing in Medicare claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Julie A; Berse, Brygida; Dotson, W David; Khoury, Muin J; Coomer, Nicole; Kautter, John

    2017-08-01

    We examined the utilization of precision medicine tests among Medicare beneficiaries through analysis of gene-specific tier 1 and 2 billing codes developed by the American Medical Association in 2012. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. The primary source of data was 2013 Medicare 100% fee-for-service claims. We identified claims billed for each laboratory test, the number of patients tested, expenditures, and the diagnostic codes indicated for testing. We analyzed variations in testing by patient demographics and region of the country. Pharmacogenetic tests were billed most frequently, accounting for 48% of the expenditures for new codes. The most common indications for testing were breast cancer, long-term use of medications, and disorders of lipid metabolism. There was underutilization of guideline-recommended tumor mutation tests (e.g., epidermal growth factor receptor) and substantial overutilization of a test discouraged by guidelines (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase). Methodology-based tier 2 codes represented 15% of all claims billed with the new codes. The highest rate of testing per beneficiary was in Mississippi and the lowest rate was in Alaska. Gene-specific billing codes significantly improved our ability to conduct population-level research of precision medicine. Analysis of these data in conjunction with clinical records should be conducted to validate findings.Genet Med advance online publication 26 January 2017.

  14. Characterization and detection of a widely distributed gene cluster that predicts anaerobic choline utilization by human gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-del Campo, Ana; Bodea, Smaranda; Hamer, Hilary A; Marks, Jonathan A; Haiser, Henry J; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Balskus, Emily P

    2015-04-14

    Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the human gut microbiota's effects on health and disease has been complicated by difficulties in linking metabolic functions associated with the gut community as a whole to individual microorganisms and activities. Anaerobic microbial choline metabolism, a disease-associated metabolic pathway, exemplifies this challenge, as the specific human gut microorganisms responsible for this transformation have not yet been clearly identified. In this study, we established the link between a bacterial gene cluster, the choline utilization (cut) cluster, and anaerobic choline metabolism in human gut isolates by combining transcriptional, biochemical, bioinformatic, and cultivation-based approaches. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis and in vitro biochemical characterization of two cut gene products linked the entire cluster to growth on choline and supported a model for this pathway. Analyses of sequenced bacterial genomes revealed that the cut cluster is present in many human gut bacteria, is predictive of choline utilization in sequenced isolates, and is widely but discontinuously distributed across multiple bacterial phyla. Given that bacterial phylogeny is a poor marker for choline utilization, we were prompted to develop a degenerate PCR-based method for detecting the key functional gene choline TMA-lyase (cutC) in genomic and metagenomic DNA. Using this tool, we found that new choline-metabolizing gut isolates universally possessed cutC. We also demonstrated that this gene is widespread in stool metagenomic data sets. Overall, this work represents a crucial step toward understanding anaerobic choline metabolism in the human gut microbiota and underscores the importance of examining this microbial community from a function-oriented perspective. Anaerobic choline utilization is a bacterial metabolic activity that occurs in the human gut and is linked to multiple diseases. While bacterial genes responsible for

  15. Holocarboxylase Synthetase: A Moonlighting Transcriptional Coregulator of Gene Expression and a Cytosolic Regulator of Biotin Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Del-Río, Alfonso; Valadez-Graham, Viviana; Gravel, Roy A

    2017-08-21

    The vitamin biotin is an essential nutrient for the metabolism and survival of all organisms owing to its function as a cofactor of enzymes collectively known as biotin-dependent carboxylases. These enzymes use covalently attached biotin as a vector to transfer a carboxyl group between donor and acceptor molecules during carboxylation reactions. In human cells, biotin-dependent carboxylases catalyze key reactions in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and amino acid catabolism. Biotin is attached to apocarboxylases by a biotin ligase: holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) in mammalian cells and BirA in microbes. Despite their evolutionary distance, these proteins share structural and sequence similarities, underscoring their importance across all life forms. However, beyond its role in metabolism, HCS participates in the regulation of biotin utilization and acts as a nuclear transcriptional coregulator of gene expression. In this review, we discuss the function of HCS and biotin in metabolism and human disease, a putative role for the enzyme in histone biotinylation, and its participation as a nuclear factor in chromatin dynamics. We suggest that HCS be classified as a moonlighting protein, with two biotin-dependent cytosolic metabolic roles and a distinct biotin-independent nuclear coregulatory function.

  16. Gene Amplification on Demand Accelerates Cellobiose Utilization in Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eun Joong; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Kim, Soo Rin; Wei, Na; Turner, Timothy L; Maurer, Matthew J; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-06-15

    Efficient microbial utilization of cellulosic sugars is essential for the economic production of biofuels and chemicals. Although the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust microbial platform widely used in ethanol plants using sugar cane and corn starch in large-scale operations, glucose repression is one of the significant barriers to the efficient fermentation of cellulosic sugar mixtures. A recent study demonstrated that intracellular utilization of cellobiose by engineered yeast expressing a cellobiose transporter (encoded by cdt-1) and an intracellular β-glucosidase (encoded by gh1-1) can alleviate glucose repression, resulting in the simultaneous cofermentation of cellobiose and nonglucose sugars. Here we report enhanced cellobiose fermentation by engineered yeast expressing cdt-1 and gh1-1 through laboratory evolution. When cdt-1 and gh1-1 were integrated into the genome of yeast, the single copy integrant showed a low cellobiose consumption rate. However, cellobiose fermentation rates by engineered yeast increased gradually during serial subcultures on cellobiose. Finally, an evolved strain exhibited a 15-fold-higher cellobiose fermentation rate. To identify the responsible mutations in the evolved strain, genome sequencing was performed. Interestingly, no mutations affecting cellobiose fermentation were identified, but the evolved strain contained 9 copies of cdt-1 and 23 copies of gh1-1 We also traced the copy numbers of cdt-1 and gh1-1 of mixed populations during the serial subcultures. The copy numbers of cdt-1 and gh1-1 in the cultures increased gradually with similar ratios as cellobiose fermentation rates of the cultures increased. These results suggest that the cellobiose assimilation pathway (transport and hydrolysis) might be a rate-limiting step in engineered yeast and copies of genes coding for metabolic enzymes might be amplified in yeast if there is a growth advantage. This study indicates that on-demand gene amplification might be an

  17. Haloalkane-utilizing Rhodococcus strains isolated from geographically distinct locations possess a highly conserved gene cluster encoding haloalkane catabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, GJ; Bosma, T; Kulakov, LA; Larkin, MJ; Marchesi, [No Value; Weightman, AJ; Janssen, DB; Kulakov, Leonid A.; Larkin, Michael J.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Weightman, Andrew J.

    The sequences of the 16S rRNA and haloalkane dehalogenase (dhaA) genes of five gram-positive haloalkane-utilizing bacteria isolated from contaminated sites in Europe, Japan, and the United States and of the archetypal haloalkane-degrading bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain NCIMB13064 were compared.

  18. IMP2, a nuclear gene controlling the mitochondrial dependence of galactose, maltose and raffinose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, C; Lodi, T; Ferrero, I; Puglisi, P P

    1992-02-01

    The IMP2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in the nucleo-mitochondrial control of maltose, galactose and raffinose utilization as shown by the inability of imp2 mutants to grow on these carbon sources in respiratory-deficient conditions or in the presence of ethidium bromide and erythromycin. The negative phenotype cannot be scored in the presence of inhibitors of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, indicating that the role of the mitochondria in the utilization of the above-mentioned carbon sources in imp2 mutants is not at the energetical level. Mutations in the IMP2 gene also confer many phenotypic alterations in respiratory-sufficient conditions, e.g. leaky phenotype on oxidizable carbon sources, sensitivity to heat shock and sporulation deficiency. The IMP2 gene has been cloned, sequenced and disrupted. The phenotype of null imp2 mutants is indistinguishable from that of the originally isolated mutant.

  19. Bulk segregant analysis by high-throughput sequencing reveals a novel xylose utilization gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared W Wenger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation of xylose is a fundamental requirement for the efficient production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass sources. Although they aggressively ferment hexoses, it has long been thought that native Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains cannot grow fermentatively or non-fermentatively on xylose. Population surveys have uncovered a few naturally occurring strains that are weakly xylose-positive, and some S. cerevisiae have been genetically engineered to ferment xylose, but no strain, either natural or engineered, has yet been reported to ferment xylose as efficiently as glucose. Here, we used a medium-throughput screen to identify Saccharomyces strains that can increase in optical density when xylose is presented as the sole carbon source. We identified 38 strains that have this xylose utilization phenotype, including strains of S. cerevisiae, other sensu stricto members, and hybrids between them. All the S. cerevisiae xylose-utilizing strains we identified are wine yeasts, and for those that could produce meiotic progeny, the xylose phenotype segregates as a single gene trait. We mapped this gene by Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA using tiling microarrays and high-throughput sequencing. The gene is a putative xylitol dehydrogenase, which we name XDH1, and is located in the subtelomeric region of the right end of chromosome XV in a region not present in the S288c reference genome. We further characterized the xylose phenotype by performing gene expression microarrays and by genetically dissecting the endogenous Saccharomyces xylose pathway. We have demonstrated that natural S. cerevisiae yeasts are capable of utilizing xylose as the sole carbon source, characterized the genetic basis for this trait as well as the endogenous xylose utilization pathway, and demonstrated the feasibility of BSA using high-throughput sequencing.

  20. A Cluster of Five Genes Essential for the Utilization of Dihydroxamate Xenosiderophores in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obando S, Tobias A; Babykin, Michael M; Zinchenko, Vladislav V

    2018-05-21

    The unicellular freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is capable of using dihydroxamate xenosiderophores, either ferric schizokinen (FeSK) or a siderophore of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 (SAV), as the sole source of iron in the TonB-dependent manner. The fecCDEB1-schT gene cluster encoding a siderophore transport system that is involved in the utilization of FeSK and SAV in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was identified. The gene schT encodes TonB-dependent outer membrane transporter, whereas the remaining four genes encode the ABC-type transporter FecB1CDE formed by the periplasmic binding protein FecB1, the transmembrane permease proteins FecC and FecD, and the ATPase FecE. Inactivation of any of these genes resulted in the inability of cells to utilize FeSK and SAV. Our data strongly suggest that Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can readily internalize Fe-siderophores via the classic TonB-dependent transport system.

  1. The Comparative Utility of Viromer RED and Lipofectamine for Transient Gene Introduction into Glial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheendra Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of genes into glial cells for mechanistic studies of cell function and as a therapeutic for gene delivery is an expanding field. Though viral vector based systems do exhibit good delivery efficiency and long-term production of the transgene, the need for transient gene expression, broad and rapid gene setup methodologies, and safety concerns regarding in vivo application still incentivize research into the use of nonviral gene delivery methods. In the current study, aviral gene delivery vectors based upon cationic lipid (Lipofectamine 3000 lipoplex or polyethylenimine (Viromer RED polyplex technologies were examined in cell lines and primary glial cells for their transfection efficiencies, gene expression levels, and toxicity. The transfection efficiencies of polyplex and lipoplex agents were found to be comparable in a limited, yet similar, transfection setting, with or without serum across a number of cell types. However, differential effects on cell-specific transgene expression and reduced viability with cargo loaded polyplex were observed. Overall, our data suggests that polyplex technology could perform comparably to the market dominant lipoplex technology in transfecting various cells lines including glial cells but also stress a need for further refinement of polyplex reagents to minimize their effects on cell viability.

  2. Utilizing social media to study information-seeking and ethical issues in gene therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Johnson, Thomas Wade

    2013-01-01

    The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups.......The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups....

  3. An adenovirus vector incorporating carbohydrate binding domains utilizes glycans for gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius W Kim

    Full Text Available Vectors based on human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5 continue to show promise as delivery vehicles for cancer gene therapy. Nevertheless, it has become clear that therapeutic benefit is directly linked to tumor-specific vector localization, highlighting the need for tumor-targeted gene delivery. Aberrant glycosylation of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids is a central feature of malignant transformation, and tumor-associated glycoforms are recognized as cancer biomarkers. On this basis, we hypothesized that cancer-specific cell-surface glycans could be the basis of a novel paradigm in HAdV-5-based vector targeting.As a first step toward this goal, we constructed a novel HAdV-5 vector encoding a unique chimeric fiber protein that contains the tandem carbohydrate binding domains of the fiber protein of the NADC-1 strain of porcine adenovirus type 4 (PAdV-4. This glycan-targeted vector displays augmented CAR-independent gene transfer in cells with low CAR expression. Further, we show that gene transfer is markedly decreased in cells with genetic glycosylation defects and by inhibitors of glycosylation in normal cells.These data provide the initial proof-of-concept for HAdV-5 vector-mediated gene delivery based on the presence of cell-surface carbohydrates. Further development of this new targeting paradigm could provide targeted gene delivery based on vector recognition of disease-specific glycan biomarkers.

  4. Gene discovery for enzymes involved in limonene modification or utilization by the mountain pine beetle-associated pathogen Grosmannia clavigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Lim, Lynette; Madilao, Lina; Lah, Ljerka; Bohlmann, Joerg; Breuil, Colette

    2014-08-01

    To successfully colonize and eventually kill pine trees, Grosmannia clavigera (Gs cryptic species), the main fungal pathogen associated with the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), has developed multiple mechanisms to overcome host tree chemical defenses, of which terpenoids are a major component. In addition to a monoterpene efflux system mediated by a recently discovered ABC transporter, Gs has genes that are highly induced by monoterpenes and that encode enzymes that modify or utilize monoterpenes [especially (+)-limonene]. We showed that pine-inhabiting Ophiostomale fungi are tolerant to monoterpenes, but only a few, including Gs, are known to utilize monoterpenes as a carbon source. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that Gs can modify (+)-limonene through various oxygenation pathways, producing carvone, p-mentha-2,8-dienol, perillyl alcohol, and isopiperitenol. It can also degrade (+)-limonene through the C-1-oxygenated pathway, producing limonene-1,2-diol as the most abundant intermediate. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data indicated that Gs may utilize limonene 1,2-diol through beta-oxidation and then valine and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolic pathways. The data also suggested that at least two gene clusters, located in genome contigs 108 and 161, were highly induced by monoterpenes and may be involved in monoterpene degradation processes. Further, gene knockouts indicated that limonene degradation required two distinct Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs), an epoxide hydrolase and an enoyl coenzyme A (enoyl-CoA) hydratase. Our work provides information on enzyme-mediated limonene utilization or modification and a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between an economically important fungal pathogen and its host's defense chemicals.

  5. In vitro identification and in silico utilization of interspecies sequence similarities using GeneChip® technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Shui Q

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic approaches in large animal models (canine, ovine etc are challenging due to insufficient genomic information for these species and the lack of availability of corresponding microarray platforms. To address this problem, we speculated that conserved interspecies genetic sequences can be experimentally detected by cross-species hybridization. The Affymetrix platform probe redundancy offers flexibility in selecting individual probes with high sequence similarities between related species for gene expression analysis. Results Gene expression profiles of 40 canine samples were generated using the human HG-U133A GeneChip (U133A. Due to interspecies genetic differences, only 14 ± 2% of canine transcripts were detected by U133A probe sets whereas profiling of 40 human samples detected 49 ± 6% of human transcripts. However, when these probe sets were deconstructed into individual probes and examined performance of each probe, we found that 47% of human probes were able to find their targets in canine tissues and generate a detectable hybridization signal. Therefore, we restricted gene expression analysis to these probes and observed the 60% increase in the number of identified canine transcripts. These results were validated by comparison of transcripts identified by our restricted analysis of cross-species hybridization with transcripts identified by hybridization of total lung canine mRNA to new Affymetrix Canine GeneChip®. Conclusion The experimental identification and restriction of gene expression analysis to probes with detectable hybridization signal drastically increases transcript detection of canine-human hybridization suggesting the possibility of broad utilization of cross-hybridizations of related species using GeneChip technology.

  6. DrugSig: A resource for computational drug repositioning utilizing gene expression signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Wu

    Full Text Available Computational drug repositioning has been proved as an effective approach to develop new drug uses. However, currently existing strategies strongly rely on drug response gene signatures which scattered in separated or individual experimental data, and resulted in low efficient outputs. So, a fully drug response gene signatures database will be very helpful to these methods. We collected drug response microarray data and annotated related drug and targets information from public databases and scientific literature. By selecting top 500 up-regulated and down-regulated genes as drug signatures, we manually established the DrugSig database. Currently DrugSig contains more than 1300 drugs, 7000 microarray and 800 targets. Moreover, we developed the signature based and target based functions to aid drug repositioning. The constructed database can serve as a resource to quicken computational drug repositioning. Database URL: http://biotechlab.fudan.edu.cn/database/drugsig/.

  7. Clinical utility of a 377 gene custom next-generation sequencing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders with about 500 genes thought to be involved across the phenotypic spectrum (Busch et al. 2014; Ran et al. 2014), which includes monogenic, multigenic, epistatic and pleiotropic phenotype manifestations (Busch et al. 2014; Thomas et al. 2014), driving the need ...

  8. Utilization of a major brown rust resistance gene in sugarcane breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala has had devastating effects on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding programs and on commercial production. The discovery of Bru1, a major gene conferring resistance to brown rust represented a substantial breakthrough and markers for the detection of Bru1 ...

  9. Phylotype dynamics of bacterial P utilization genes in microbialites and bacterioplankton of a monomictic endorheic lake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valdespino-Castillo, P.M.; Alcantara-Hernandez, R.J.; Merino-Ibarra, M.; Alcocer, J.; Macek, Miroslav; Moreno-Guillen, O.A.; Falcon, L.I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 2 (2017), s. 296-309 ISSN 0095-3628 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : extracellular enzymes * DOP utilization * phytase * P turnover Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  10. Phylogenetic utility of ribosomal genes for reconstructing the phylogeny of five Chinese satyrine tribes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Satyrinae is one of twelve subfamilies of the butterfly family Nymphalidae, which currently includes nine tribes. However, phylogenetic relationships among them remain largely unresolved, though different researches have been conducted based on both morphological and molecular data. However, ribosomal genes have never been used in tribe level phylogenetic analyses of Satyrinae. In this study we investigate for the first time the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Elymniini, Amathusiini, Zetherini and Melanitini which are indicated to be a monophyletic group, and the Satyrini, using two ribosomal genes (28s rDNA and 16s rDNA and four protein-coding genes (EF-1α, COI, COII and Cytb. We mainly aim to assess the phylogenetic informativeness of the ribosomal genes as well as clarify the relationships among different tribes. Our results show the two ribosomal genes generally have the same high phylogenetic informativeness compared with EF-1α; and we infer the 28s rDNA would show better informativeness if the 28s rDNA sequence data for each sampling taxon are obtained in this study. The placement of the monotypic genus Callarge Leech in Zetherini is confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. In addition, our maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI trees consistently show that the involved Satyrinae including the Amathusiini is monophyletic with high support values. Although the relationships among the five tribes are identical among ML and BI analyses and are mostly strongly-supported in BI analysis, those in ML analysis are lowly- or moderately- supported. Therefore, the relationships among the related five tribes recovered herein need further verification based on more sampling taxa.

  11. The trehalose utilization gene thuA ortholog in Mesorhizobium loti does not influence competitiveness for nodulation on Lotus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Jensen, John Beck

    2014-03-01

    Competitiveness for nodulation is a desirable trait in rhizobia strains used as inoculant. In Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 mutation in either of the trehalose utilization genes thuA or thuB influences its competitiveness for root colonization and nodule occupancy depending on the interacting host. We have therefore investigated whether mutation in the thuA ortholog in Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 also leads to a similar competitive phenotype on its hosts. The results show that M. loti thuA mutant Ml7023 was symbiotically effective and was as competitive as the wild type in colonization and nodule occupancy on Lotus corniculatus and Lotus japonicus. The thuA gene in M. loti was not induced during root colonization or in the infection threads unlike in S. meliloti, despite its induction by trehalose and high osmolarity in in vitro assays.

  12. Spatial differentiation of gene expression in Aspergillus niger colony grown for sugar beet pulp utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Isabelle; Zhou, Miaomiao; Duarte, Alexandra Vivas; Downes, Damien J.; Todd, Richard B.; Kloezen, Wendy; Post, Harm; Heck, Albert J. R.; Altelaar, A. F. Maarten; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Degradation of plant biomass to fermentable sugars is of critical importance for the use of plant materials for biofuels. Filamentous fungi are ubiquitous organisms and major plant biomass degraders. Single colonies of some fungal species can colonize massive areas as large as five soccer stadia. During growth, the mycelium encounters heterogeneous carbon sources. Here we assessed whether substrate heterogeneity is a major determinant of spatial gene expression in colonies of Aspergillus nige...

  13. The MrCYP52 cytochrome P450 monoxygenase gene of Metarhizium robertsii is important for utilizing insect epicuticular hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangcai Lin

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens of plants and insects infect their hosts by direct penetration of the cuticle. Plant and insect cuticles are covered by a hydrocarbon-rich waxy outer layer that represents the first barrier against infection. However, the fungal genes that underlie insect waxy layer degradation have received little attention. Here we characterize the single cytochrome P450 monoxygenase family 52 (MrCYP52 gene of the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii, and demonstrate that it encodes an enzyme required for efficient utilization of host hydrocarbons. Expressing a green florescent protein gene under control of the MrCYP52 promoter confirmed that MrCYP52 is up regulated on insect cuticle as well as by artificial media containing decane (C10, extracted cuticle hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent long chain alkanes. Disrupting MrCYP52 resulted in reduced growth on epicuticular hydrocarbons and delayed developmental processes on insect cuticle, including germination and production of appressoria (infection structures. Extraction of alkanes from cuticle prevented induction of MrCYP52 and reduced growth. Insect bioassays against caterpillars (Galleria mellonella confirmed that disruption of MrCYP52 significantly reduces virulence. However, MrCYP52 was dispensable for normal germination and appressorial formation in vitro when the fungus was supplied with nitrogenous nutrients. We conclude therefore that MrCYP52 mediates degradation of epicuticular hydrocarbons and these are an important nutrient source, but not a source of chemical signals that trigger infection processes.

  14. Similarities in the immunoglobulin response and VH gene usage in rhesus monkeys and humans exposed to porcine hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borie Dominic C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of porcine cells and organs as a source of xenografts for human patients would vastly increase the donor pool; however, both humans and Old World primates vigorously reject pig tissues due to xenoantibodies that react with the polysaccharide galactose α (1,3 galactose (αGal present on the surface of many porcine cells. We previously examined the xenoantibody response in patients exposed to porcine hepatocytes via treatment(s with bioartficial liver devices (BALs, composed of porcine cells in a support matrix. We determined that xenoantibodies in BAL-treated patients are predominantly directed at porcine αGal carbohydrate epitopes, and are encoded by a small number of germline heavy chain variable region (VH immunoglobulin genes. The studies described in this manuscript were designed to identify whether the xenoantibody responses and the IgVH genes encoding antibodies to porcine hepatocytes in non-human primates used as preclinical models are similar to those in humans. Adult non-immunosuppressed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta were injected intra-portally with porcine hepatocytes or heterotopically transplanted with a porcine liver lobe. Peripheral blood leukocytes and serum were obtained prior to and at multiple time points after exposure, and the immune response was characterized, using ELISA to evaluate the levels and specificities of circulating xenoantibodies, and the production of cDNA libraries to determine the genes used by B cells to encode those antibodies. Results Xenoantibodies produced following exposure to isolated hepatocytes and solid organ liver grafts were predominantly encoded by genes in the VH3 family, with a minor contribution from the VH4 family. Immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (VH cDNA library screening and gene sequencing of IgM libraries identified the genes as most closely-related to the IGHV3-11 and IGHV4-59 germline progenitors. One of the genes most similar to IGHV3-11, VH3-11cyno, has

  15. Dynamic Gene-Resource Landscape Management of Norway Spruce: Combining Utilization and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Lstibůrek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices. Next, we discuss opportunities offered by novel technologies and, with the use of computer simulations, we propose and evaluate a dynamic landscape gene-resource management in Norway. Our suggested long-term management approach capitalizes on: (1 existing afforestation activities, natural crosses, and DNA-based pedigree assembly to create structured pedigree for evaluation, thus traditional laborious control crosses are avoided and (2 landscape level genetic evaluation, rather than localized traditional progeny trials, allowing for screening of adapted individuals across multiple environmental gradients under changing climate. These advantages lead to greater genetic response to selection in adaptive traits without the traditional breeding and testing scheme, facilitating conservation of genetic resources within the breeding population of the most important forest tree species in Norway. The use of in situ selection from proven material exposed to realistic conditions over vast territories has not been conducted in forestry before. Our proposed approach is in contrast to worldwide current programs, where genetic evaluation is constrained by the range of environments where testing is conducted, which may be insufficient to capture the broad environmental variation necessary to tackle adaptation under changing climate.

  16. Identification and utilization of cleistogamy gene cl7(t) in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Da-Hu; Li, Juan; Duan, Yong-Bo; Yang, Ya-Chun; Wei, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Rong-Fang; Li, Chun-Rong; Liang, Dan-Dan; Li, Hao; Song, Feng-Shun; Ni, Jin-Long; Li, Li; Yang, Jian-Bo

    2014-05-01

    Gene transformation is an important method for improvement of plants into elite varieties. However, the possibility of gene flow between genetically modified (GM) crops and similar species is a serious public issue that may potentially endanger ecological stability. Cleistogamy is expected to be an ideal genetic tool for preventing transgene propagation from GM crops. A rice mutant, cl7(t), was created by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The mutant exhibited cleistogamy, and had closed spikelets, reduced plant height, and altered morphology of the leaves, panicle, and seeds. Anatomical investigations revealed that the cl7(t) mutant contained more vascular bundles and thicker stems than the wild type, which increased the mechanical strength of its internodes, and anti-lodging ability. Further studies demonstrated that the force required to open the lemma and palea was higher in the cl7(t) mutant, and there was weak swelling ability in the lodicules, which leads to cleistogamy. Allelic analyses and complementation tests indicated that cl7(t) was a novel allele of dep2, a mutant that was previously reported to have similar panicle morphology. Sequence analysis showed that cl7(t) had a single nucleotide substitution (C to A) in the third exon that leads to a Ser substitution with a stop codon, giving a truncated DEP2 protein. Quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization tests demonstrated that there was lower CL7(t) expression level in the spikelets and weaker CL7(t) signals in the lodicules of the cl7(t) mutant compared with wild type, which implies that CL7(t) might participate in the development of lodicules. To improve the agronomic traits of cl7(t) to fit the needs of field production, the cl7(t) mutant was crossed with an intermediate-type rice variety named Guanghui102, which bears some important agronomic traits, including increased grain numbers and high rate of seed setting. Through multi-generational pedigree selection, cleistogamy lines with improved

  17. Utilizing Biomarker Signature Pairs To Develop Gene Therapeutic Viral Delivery Platforms For Treating Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Tamaro Hudson is currently an Assistant Professor at Howard University in the Department of Pharmacology and holds an appointment as a Health Research Specialist at the Washington VA Medical Center. Dr. Hudson received his Bachelor of Science from Iowa State University in Biology in 1994 and went on to receive a Master of Science in Preventive Medicine from Ohio State University in 2007. Afterwards, he received a Ph.D. from Ohio State University in 2002 where he focused on evaluating the functional differences among isothiocyanates in the rat esophageal tumor model. Following his Ph.D., Dr. Hudson was selected to complete a prestigious Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program at the National Institute of Health, National Cancer Institute, where he focused on utilizing in vitro and in vivo cancer models to assess the biological activity of bioactive compounds on prostate cancer molecular pathways. Concurrently, he completed a Master of Public Health degree from George Washington University in 2003 where he focused on assessing the degree of agreement between a food frequency questionnaire and a 4-day food record as it related to dietary fiber intake. Upon completion of his MPH and Fellowship, he was recruited by Howard University Cancer Center in 2007 as an Assistant Professor. Since joining the Howard faculty, Dr. Hudson has integrated his research focus by identifying novel signature biomarkers – that could have a significant impact on both the diagnosis and targeted treatment of prostate cancer – with the evaluation of new chemopreventive strategies, which have been evaluated in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. Dr. Hudson received the first five-year VA-HBCU Research, Scientist, and Training grant that focuses on developing a biomarker-based risk prediction model for prostate cancer. Dr. Hudson serves on several Howard University committees and has many peer-reviewed publications. Dr. Hudson's research interests continue to expand as he tries to build

  18. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. → Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. → Δpor1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in β-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the Δpor1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  19. The utility of optical detection system (qPCR) and bioinformatics methods in reference gene expression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is consider as the most reliable method for gene expression studies. However, the expression of target gene could be misinterpreted due to improper normalization. Therefore, the crucial step for analysing of qPCR data is selection of suitable reference genes, which should be validated experimentally. In order to choice the gene with stable expression in the designed experiment, we performed reference gene expression analysis. In this study genes described in the literature and novel genes predicted as control genes, based on the in silico analysis of transcriptome data were used. Analysis with geNorm and NormFinder algorithms allow to create the ranking of candidate genes and indicate the best reference for flower morphogenesis study. According to the results, genes CACS and CYCL were characterised the most stable expression, but the least suitable genes were TUA and EF.

  20. Characterization, expression, and mutation of the Lactococcus lactis galPMKTE genes, involved in galactose utilization via the Leloir pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groossiord, B.P.; Luesink, E.J.; Vaughan, E.E.; Arnaud, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2003-01-01

    A cluster containing five similarly oriented genes involved in the metabolism of galactose via the Leloir pathway in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 was cloned and characterized. The order of the genes is galPMKTE, and these genes encode a galactose permease (GalP), an aldose I-epimerase

  1. The 380 kb pCMU01 plasmid encodes chloromethane utilization genes and redundant genes for vitamin B12- and tetrahydrofolate-dependent chloromethane metabolism in Methylobacterium extorquens CM4: a proteomic and bioinformatics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Roselli

    Full Text Available Chloromethane (CH3Cl is the most abundant volatile halocarbon in the atmosphere and contributes to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. The only known pathway for bacterial chloromethane utilization (cmu was characterized in Methylobacterium extorquens CM4, a methylotrophic bacterium able to utilize compounds without carbon-carbon bonds such as methanol and chloromethane as the sole carbon source for growth. Previous work demonstrated that tetrahydrofolate and vitamin B12 are essential cofactors of cmuA- and cmuB-encoded methyltransferases of chloromethane dehalogenase, and that the pathway for chloromethane utilization is distinct from that for methanol. This work reports genomic and proteomic data demonstrating that cognate cmu genes are located on the 380 kb pCMU01 plasmid, which drives the previously defined pathway for tetrahydrofolate-mediated chloromethane dehalogenation. Comparison of complete genome sequences of strain CM4 and that of four other M. extorquens strains unable to grow with chloromethane showed that plasmid pCMU01 harbors unique genes without homologs in the compared genomes (bluB2, btuB, cobA, cbiD, as well as 13 duplicated genes with homologs of chromosome-borne genes involved in vitamin B12-associated biosynthesis and transport, or in tetrahydrofolate-dependent metabolism (folC2. In addition, the presence of both chromosomal and plasmid-borne genes for corrinoid salvaging pathways may ensure corrinoid coenzyme supply in challenging environments. Proteomes of M. extorquens CM4 grown with one-carbon substrates chloromethane and methanol were compared. Of the 49 proteins with differential abundance identified, only five (CmuA, CmuB, PurU, CobH2 and a PaaE-like uncharacterized putative oxidoreductase are encoded by the pCMU01 plasmid. The mainly chromosome-encoded response to chloromethane involves gene clusters associated with oxidative stress, production of reducing equivalents (PntAA, Nuo complex, conversion of

  2. Utility of in vivo transcription profiling for identifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa genes needed for gastrointestinal colonization and dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koh, Andrew Y; Mikkelsen, Per J; Smith, Roger S

    2010-01-01

    these mutants and WT P. aeruginosa PA14. To evaluate T3SS factors, we tested GI colonization and neutropenia-induced dissemination of both deletional (PAO1 and PAK) and insertional (PA14) mutants in four genes in the P. aeruginosa T3SS, exoS or exoU, exoT, and popB. There were no significant differences in GI......, increased transcription of genes during in vivo murine GI colonization is not predictive of an essential role for the gene product in either colonization or overall survival following induction of neutropenia....

  3. Utility of sequenced genomes for microsatellite marker development in non-model organisms: a case study of functionally important genes in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada Yukinori

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of genes involved in adaptation and speciation by targeting specific genes of interest has become a plausible strategy also for non-model organisms. We investigated the potential utility of available sequenced fish genomes to develop microsatellite (cf. simple sequence repeat, SSR markers for functionally important genes in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius, as well as cross-species transferability of SSR primers from three-spined (Gasterosteus aculeatus to nine-spined sticklebacks. In addition, we examined the patterns and degree of SSR conservation between these species using their aligned sequences. Results Cross-species amplification success was lower for SSR markers located in or around functionally important genes (27 out of 158 than for those randomly derived from genomic (35 out of 101 and cDNA (35 out of 87 libraries. Polymorphism was observed at a large proportion (65% of the cross-amplified loci independently of SSR type. To develop SSR markers for functionally important genes in nine-spined sticklebacks, SSR locations were surveyed in or around 67 target genes based on the three-spined stickleback genome and these regions were sequenced with primers designed from conserved sequences in sequenced fish genomes. Out of the 81 SSRs identified in the sequenced regions (44,084 bp, 57 exhibited the same motifs at the same locations as in the three-spined stickleback. Di- and trinucleotide SSRs appeared to be highly conserved whereas mononucleotide SSRs were less so. Species-specific primers were designed to amplify 58 SSRs using the sequences of nine-spined sticklebacks. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that a large proportion of SSRs are conserved in the species that have diverged more than 10 million years ago. Therefore, the three-spined stickleback genome can be used to predict SSR locations in the nine-spined stickleback genome. While cross-species utility of SSR primers is limited due

  4. Ataxin1L is a regulator of HSC function highlighting the utility of cross-tissue comparisons for gene discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette J Kahle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are rare quiescent cells that continuously replenish the cellular components of the peripheral blood. Observing that the ataxia-associated gene Ataxin-1-like (Atxn1L was highly expressed in HSCs, we examined its role in HSC function through in vitro and in vivo assays. Mice lacking Atxn1L had greater numbers of HSCs that regenerated the blood more quickly than their wild-type counterparts. Molecular analyses indicated Atxn1L null HSCs had gene expression changes that regulate a program consistent with their higher level of proliferation, suggesting that Atxn1L is a novel regulator of HSC quiescence. To determine if additional brain-associated genes were candidates for hematologic regulation, we examined genes encoding proteins from autism- and ataxia-associated protein-protein interaction networks for their representation in hematopoietic cell populations. The interactomes were found to be highly enriched for proteins encoded by genes specifically expressed in HSCs relative to their differentiated progeny. Our data suggest a heretofore unappreciated similarity between regulatory modules in the brain and HSCs, offering a new strategy for novel gene discovery in both systems.

  5. Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin genes reveals frequent clonal relatedness in double monoclonal gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschumper, R C; Dispenzieri, A; Abraham, R S; Henderson, K J; Jelinek, D F

    2013-04-19

    Monoclonal gammopathies (MGs) are hematological diseases characterized by high levels of a monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) or M-protein. Within this group are patients with more than one M-protein, referred to as double MGs (DMGs). The M-proteins in DMG patients may have different heavy chain (HC) isotypes that are associated with different light chains (LCs), or different HCs that are LC matched. In this study, we examined the clonal relatedness of the M-proteins in the latter type in a cohort of 14 DMG patients. By using PCR, we identified 7/14 DMG patients that expressed two Ig HC isotypes with identical Ig HC variable (IGHV), diversity (IGHD), joining (IGHJ), and complementarity determining region (HCDR3) sequences. Two additional DMG patients had two Ig transcripts using the same IGHV, IGHD and IGHJ genes but with slight differences in variable region or HCDR3 mutations. LC analysis confirmed that a single LC was expressed in 3/7 DMG patients with identical HC transcripts and in the two DMGs with highly similar transcripts. The PCR findings were confirmed by immunofluorescence for HC and LC expression. Clonally related HC-dissimilar/LC-matched DMGs may occur often and defines a new subtype of MG that may serve as a tool for studies of disease pathogenesis.

  6. Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin genes reveals frequent clonal relatedness in double monoclonal gammopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumper, R C; Dispenzieri, A; Abraham, R S; Henderson, K J; Jelinek, D F

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathies (MGs) are hematological diseases characterized by high levels of a monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) or M-protein. Within this group are patients with more than one M-protein, referred to as double MGs (DMGs). The M-proteins in DMG patients may have different heavy chain (HC) isotypes that are associated with different light chains (LCs), or different HCs that are LC matched. In this study, we examined the clonal relatedness of the M-proteins in the latter type in a cohort of 14 DMG patients. By using PCR, we identified 7/14 DMG patients that expressed two Ig HC isotypes with identical Ig HC variable (IGHV), diversity (IGHD), joining (IGHJ), and complementarity determining region (HCDR3) sequences. Two additional DMG patients had two Ig transcripts using the same IGHV, IGHD and IGHJ genes but with slight differences in variable region or HCDR3 mutations. LC analysis confirmed that a single LC was expressed in 3/7 DMG patients with identical HC transcripts and in the two DMGs with highly similar transcripts. The PCR findings were confirmed by immunofluorescence for HC and LC expression. Clonally related HC-dissimilar/LC-matched DMGs may occur often and defines a new subtype of MG that may serve as a tool for studies of disease pathogenesis

  7. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing for the functional characterization of maize genes during infection with the fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Karina; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    While in dicotyledonous plants virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is well established to study plant-pathogen interaction, in monocots only few examples of efficient VIGS have been reported so far. One of the available systems is based on the brome mosaic virus (BMV) which allows gene silencing in different cereals including barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays).Infection of maize plants by the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis leads to the formation of large tumors on stem, leaves, and inflorescences. During this biotrophic interaction, plant defense responses are actively suppressed by the pathogen, and previous transcriptome analyses of infected maize plants showed comprehensive and stage-specific changes in host gene expression during disease progression.To identify maize genes that are functionally involved in the interaction with U. maydis, we adapted a VIGS system based on the Brome mosaic virus (BMV) to maize at conditions that allow successful U. maydis infection of BMV pre-infected maize plants. This setup enables quantification of VIGS and its impact on U. maydis infection using a quantitative real-time PCR (q(RT)-PCR)-based readout.

  8. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of useful substance production technology utilizing gene combination technology; 1998 nendo idenshi kumikae gijutsu wo riyoshita yuyo busshitsu seisan gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In developing a useful substance producing technology utilizing gene combination technology, plants are taken as a kind of useful substance producing arena, wherein useful protein genes of animals are introduced and manifested in the plants. Thereupon, technological development was carried out for the following items with regard to mass production of useful substances that can be utilized industrially, such as cytokine, by means of plant and cell cultivation: 1. Development of a useful substance producing technology utilizing gene combination technology, and 2. Comprehensive surveys and researches. For the technology to obtain and design useful substance producing genes originated from animals, development of a technology to search and acquire useful genes originated from animals, and a design and modification technology for useful genes. For the technology to introduce genes into gene combined plants, creation of plants combined with useful substance producing genes, and development of an introduction technology using plant virus vector. For the technology to produce high-function chemical substances in the gene combined plants, establishment of technologies for mass breeding and activity analysis of gene combined plants and cultivated cells, and for extraction and refinement of useful substances from the gene combined plants. In the comprehensive surveys and researches, technologies were surveyed and items of information were collected inside and outside the country. (NEDO)

  9. The Aspergillus nidulans acuL gene encodes a mitochondrial carrier required for the utilization of carbon sources that are metabolized via the TCA cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipphi, Michel; Oestreicher, Nathalie; Nicolas, Valérie; Guitton, Audrey; Vélot, Christian

    2014-07-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, the utilization of acetate as sole carbon source requires several genes (acu). Most of them are also required for the utilization of fatty acids. This is the case for acuD and acuE, which encode the two glyoxylate cycle-specific enzymes, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, respectively, but also for acuL that we have identified as AN7287, and characterized in this study. Deletion of acuL resulted in the same phenotype as the original acuL217 mutant. acuL encodes a 322-amino acid protein which displays all the structural features of a mitochondrial membrane carrier, and shares 60% identity with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate/fumarate mitochondrial antiporter Sfc1p (also named Acr1p). Consistently, the AcuL protein was shown to localize in mitochondria, and partial cross-complementation was observed between the S. cerevisiae and A. nidulans homologues. Extensive phenotypic characterization suggested that the acuL gene is involved in the utilization of carbon sources that are catabolized via the TCA cycle, and therefore require gluconeogenesis. In addition, acuL proves to be co-regulated with acuD and acuE. Overall, our data suggest that AcuL could link the glyoxylate cycle to gluconeogenesis by exchanging cytoplasmic succinate for mitochondrial fumarate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution of red algal plastid genomes: ancient architectures, introns, horizontal gene transfer, and taxonomic utility of plastid markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Janouškovec

    Full Text Available Red algae have the most gene-rich plastid genomes known, but despite their evolutionary importance these genomes remain poorly sampled. Here we characterize three complete and one partial plastid genome from a diverse range of florideophytes. By unifying annotations across all available red algal plastid genomes we show they all share a highly compact and slowly-evolving architecture and uniquely rich gene complements. Both chromosome structure and gene content have changed very little during red algal diversification, and suggest that plastid-to nucleus gene transfers have been rare. Despite their ancient character, however, the red algal plastids also contain several unprecedented features, including a group II intron in a tRNA-Met gene that encodes the first example of red algal plastid intron maturase - a feature uniquely shared among florideophytes. We also identify a rare case of a horizontally-acquired proteobacterial operon, and propose this operon may have been recruited for plastid function and potentially replaced a nucleus-encoded plastid-targeted paralogue. Plastid genome phylogenies yield a fully resolved tree and suggest that plastid DNA is a useful tool for resolving red algal relationships. Lastly, we estimate the evolutionary rates among more than 200 plastid genes, and assess their usefulness for species and subspecies taxonomy by comparison to well-established barcoding markers such as cox1 and rbcL. Overall, these data demonstrates that red algal plastid genomes are easily obtainable using high-throughput sequencing of total genomic DNA, interesting from evolutionary perspectives, and promising in resolving red algal relationships at evolutionarily-deep and species/subspecies levels.

  11. Gene transfer device utilizing micron-spiked electrodes produced by the self-organization phenomenon of Fe-alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyano, Naoki; Inoue, Yuuki; Teramura, Yuji; Fujii, Keisuke; Tsumori, Fujio; Iwata, Hiroo; Kotera, Hidetoshi

    2008-07-01

    In the diffusional phase transformation of two-phase alloys, the new phase precipitates form the matrix phase at specific temperatures, followed by the formation of a mixed microstructure comprising the precipitate and the matrix. It has been found that by specific chemical-etching treatment, the precipitate in Fe-25Cr-6Ni alloy projects substantially and clusters at the surface. The configuration of the precipitate has an extremely high aspect ratio: it is several microns in width and several tens of microns in length (known as micron-spiked). This study targets the development of a gene transfer device with a micro-spike produced based on the self-organization phenomenon of the Fe-25Cr-6Ni alloy. With this spike-projected device, we tried to efficiently transfer plasmid DNA into adherent cells by electric pulse-triggered gene transfer using a plasmid-loaded electrode (electroporation-based reverse transfection). The spiked structure was applied to a substrate of the device to allow efficient gene transfer into adherent cells, although the general substrate was flat and had a smooth surface. The results suggest that this unique spike-projected device has potential applications in gene transfer devices for the analysis of the human genome in the post-genome period.

  12. The Utility of Next Generation Sequencing in Gene Discovery for Mutation-negative Patients with Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Anne Gold

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a rare, severe disorder of neuronal plasticity that predominantly affects girls. Girls with RTT usually appear asymptomatic in the first 6-18 months of life, but gradually develop severe motor, cognitive and behavioural abnormalities that persist for life. A predominance of neuronal and synaptic dysfunction, with altered excitatory-inhibitory neuronal synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity are overarching features of RTT in children and in mouse models. Approximately 95% of patients with classical RTT have mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding (MECP2 gene, whilst other genes, including cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5, Forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1, Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C and Transcription factor 4 (TCF4, have been associated with phenotypes overlapping with RTT. However, there remain a proportion of patients who carry a clinical diagnosis of RTT, but who are mutation negative. In recent years, next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies have revolutionized approaches to genetic studies, making whole-exome and even whole-genome sequencing possible strategies for the detection of rare and de novo mutations, aiding the discovery of novel disease genes. Here, we review the recent progress that is emerging in identifying pathogenic variations, specifically from exome sequencing in RTT patients, and emphasize the need for the use of this technology to identify known and new disease genes in RTT patients.

  13. Diagnostic yield, interpretation, and clinical utility of mutation screening of sarcomere encoding genes in Danish hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Paal Skytt; Havndrup, Ole; Hougs, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    persons. Index patients were screened for mutations in all coding regions of 10 sarcomere genes (MYH7, MYL3, MYBPC3, TNNI3, TNNT2, TPM1, ACTC, CSRP3, TCAP, and TNNC1) and five exons of TTN. Relatives were screened for presence of minor or major diagnostic criteria for HCM and tracking of DNA variants...

  14. Clinical Utility of promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes DKK3, and RASSF1A in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa H. Saied

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: DNA methylation is the commonest known epigenetic change that results in silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes has the potential for early detection of breast cancer. Aim: Aim is to examine the potential usefulness of blood based methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP of methylated DKK3 and RASSF1A genes in early detection of breast cancer. Method: Methylation status of DKK3 and RASSF1 was investigated in forty breast cancer patients, twenty fibroadenoma patients and twenty healthy ladies as control group using MSP. Results: Methylation of DKK3 promoter was found in 22.5% of breast cancer patients, while DKK3 methylation was absent in both fibroadenoma patients and control group. Similarly, methylation of RASSF1 promoter was found in 17.5% of breast cancer patients and in none of fibroadenoma and control group. Conclusion: Promoter methylation of DKK3 and RASSF1 was found in breast cancer patients while absent in control group suggesting that tumorspecific methylation of the two genes (DKK3 and RASSF1A might be a valuable biomarker for the early detection of breast cancer. Keywords: DNA methylation, Breast cancer, DKK3, RASSF1

  15. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  16. Insulin utilizes the PI 3-kinase pathway to inhibit SP-A gene expression in lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder Jeanne M

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that high insulin levels may cause delayed lung development in the fetuses of diabetic mothers. A key event in lung development is the production of adequate amounts of pulmonary surfactant. Insulin inhibits the expression of surfactant protein A (SP-A, the major surfactant-associated protein, in lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in insulin inhibition of SP-A gene expression. Methods H441 cells, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, or human fetal lung explants were incubated with or without insulin. Transcription run-on assays were used to determine SP-A gene transcription rates. Northern blot analysis was used to examine the effect of various signal transduction inhibitors on SP-A gene expression. Immunoblot analysis was used to evaluate the levels and phosphorylation states of signal transduction protein kinases. Results Insulin decreased SP-A gene transcription in human lung epithelial cells within 1 hour. Insulin did not affect p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation and the insulin inhibition of SP-A mRNA levels was not affected by PD98059, an inhibitor of the p44/42 MAPK pathway. In contrast, insulin increased p70 S6 kinase Thr389 phosphorylation within 15 minutes. Wortmannin or LY294002, both inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase, or rapamycin, an inhibitor of the activation of p70 S6 kinase, a downstream effector in the PI 3-kinase pathway, abolished or attenuated the insulin-induced inhibition of SP-A mRNA levels. Conclusion Insulin inhibition of SP-A gene expression in lung epithelial cells probably occurs via the rapamycin-sensitive PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

  17. [Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase gene]. Progress report, [March 15, 1989--April 14, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, T.W.

    1990-12-31

    The long term aim of this project is to assess the feasibility of increasing the conversion of photosynthate into starch via manipulation of the gene that encodes for ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, a key regulatory enzyme of starch biosynthesis. In developing storage tissues such as cereal seeds and tubers, starch biosynthesis is regulated by the gene activation and expression of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, branching enzyme and other ancillary starch modifying enzymes, as well as the allosteric-controlled behavior of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase activity. During the last two years we have obtained information on the structure of this enzyme from both potato tuber and rice endosperm, using a combination of biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Moreover, we present evidence that this enzyme may be localized at discrete regions of the starch grain within the amyloplast, and plays a role in controlling overall starch biosynthesis in potato tubers.

  18. Image-aided Suicide Gene Therapy Utilizing Multifunctional hTERT-targeting Adenovirus for Clinical Translation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Kyung Tae; Lee, Sang-Jin; Hong, Seung-Hee; Moon, Ju Young; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sukyoung; Kim, Eun Ok; Kang, Se Hun; Kim, Seok Ki; Choi, Sun Il; Goh, Sung Ho; Kim, Daehong; Lee, Seong-Wook; Ju, Mi Ha; Jeong, Jin Sook; Kim, In-Hoo

    2016-01-01

    Trans-splicing ribozyme enables to sense and reprogram target RNA into therapeutic transgene and thereby becomes a good sensing device for detection of cancer cells, judging from transgene expression. Previously we proposed PEPCK-Rz-HSVtk (PRT), hTERT targeting trans-splicing ribozyme (Rz) driven by liver-specific promoter phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) with downstream suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gene therapy. Here, we describe success of a re-engineered adenoviral vector harboring PRT in obtaining greater antitumor activity with less off-target effect for clinical application as a theranostics. We introduced liver-selective apolipoprotein E (ApoE) enhancer to the distal region of PRT unit to augment activity and liver selectivity of PEPCK promoter, and achieved better transduction into liver cancer cells by replacement of serotype 35 fiber knob on additional E4orf1-4 deletion of E1&E3-deleted serotype 5 back bone. We demonstrated that our refined adenovirus harboring PEPCK/ApoE-Rz-HSVtk (Ad-PRT-E) achieved great anti-tumor efficacy and improved ability to specifically target HCC without damaging normal hepatocytes. We also showed noninvasive imaging modalities were successfully employed to monitor both how well a therapeutic gene (HSVtk) was expressed inside tumor and how effectively a gene therapy took an action in terms of tumor growth. Collectively, this study suggests that the advanced therapeutic adenoviruses Ad-PRT-E and its image-aided evaluation system may lead to the powerful strategy for successful clinical translation and the development of clinical protocols for HCC therapy.

  19. Prognostic utility of the 21-gene assay in hormone receptor-positive operable breast cancer compared with classical clinicopathologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lori J; Gray, Robert; Badve, Sunil; Childs, Barrett H; Yoshizawa, Carl; Rowley, Steve; Shak, Steven; Baehner, Frederick L; Ravdin, Peter M; Davidson, Nancy E; Sledge, George W; Perez, Edith A; Shulman, Lawrence N; Martino, Silvana; Sparano, Joseph A

    2008-09-01

    Adjuvant! is a standardized validated decision aid that projects outcomes in operable breast cancer based on classical clinicopathologic features and therapy. Genomic classifiers offer the potential to more accurately identify individuals who benefit from chemotherapy than clinicopathologic features. A sample of 465 patients with hormone receptor (HR) -positive breast cancer with zero to three positive axillary nodes who did (n = 99) or did not have recurrence after chemohormonal therapy had tumor tissue evaluated using a 21-gene assay. Histologic grade and HR expression were evaluated locally and in a central laboratory. Recurrence Score (RS) was a highly significant predictor of recurrence, including node-negative and node-positive disease (P < .001 for both) and when adjusted for other clinical variables. RS also predicted recurrence more accurately than clinical variables when integrated by an algorithm modeled after Adjuvant! that was adjusted to 5-year outcomes. The 5-year recurrence rate was only 5% or less for the estimated 46% of patients who have a low RS (< 18). The 21-gene assay was a more accurate predictor of relapse than standard clinical features for individual patients with HR-positive operable breast cancer treated with chemohormonal therapy and provides information that is complementary to features typically used in anatomic staging, such as tumor size and lymph node involvement. The 21-gene assay may be used to select low-risk patients for abbreviated chemotherapy regimens similar to those used in our study or high-risk patients for more aggressive regimens or clinical trials evaluating novel treatments.

  20. Gene Sets for Utilization of Primary and Secondary Nutrition Supplies in the Distal Gut of Endangered Iberian Lynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, María; Messina, Enzo; Richter, Michael; Bargiela, Rafael; Peplies, Jörg; Huws, Sharon A.; Newbold, Charles J.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Simón, Miguel A.; López, Guillermo; Yakimov, Michail M.; Ferrer, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated the existence of an extensive trans-genomic trans-mural co-metabolism between gut microbes and animal hosts that is diet-, host phylogeny- and provenance-influenced. Here, we analyzed the biodiversity at the level of small subunit rRNA gene sequence and the metabolic composition of 18 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences and activity characteristics of bacterial intra-cellular extracts, in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) fecal samples. Bacterial signatures (14.43% of all of the Firmicutes reads and 6.36% of total reads) related to the uncultured anaerobic commensals Anaeroplasma spp., which are typically found in ovine and bovine rumen, were first identified. The lynx gut was further characterized by an over-representation of ‘presumptive’ aquaporin aqpZ genes and genes encoding ‘active’ lysosomal-like digestive enzymes that are possibly needed to acquire glycerol, sugars and amino acids from glycoproteins, glyco(amino)lipids, glyco(amino)glycans and nucleoside diphosphate sugars. Lynx gut was highly enriched (28% of the total glycosidases) in genes encoding α-amylase and related enzymes, although it exhibited low rate of enzymatic activity indicative of starch degradation. The preponderance of β-xylosidase activity in protein extracts further suggests lynx gut microbes being most active for the metabolism of β-xylose containing plant N-glycans, although β-xylosidases sequences constituted only 1.5% of total glycosidases. These collective and unique bacterial, genetic and enzymatic activity signatures suggest that the wild lynx gut microbiota not only harbors gene sets underpinning sugar uptake from primary animal tissues (with the monotypic dietary profile of the wild lynx consisting of 80–100% wild rabbits) but also for the hydrolysis of prey-derived plant biomass. Although, the present investigation corresponds to a single sample and some of the statements should be considered qualitative, the data most likely

  1. Gene sets for utilization of primary and secondary nutrition supplies in the distal gut of endangered Iberian lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alcaide

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated the existence of an extensive trans-genomic trans-mural co-metabolism between gut microbes and animal hosts that is diet-, host phylogeny- and provenance-influenced. Here, we analyzed the biodiversity at the level of small subunit rRNA gene sequence and the metabolic composition of 18 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences and activity characteristics of bacterial intra-cellular extracts, in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus fecal samples. Bacterial signatures (14.43% of all of the Firmicutes reads and 6.36% of total reads related to the uncultured anaerobic commensals Anaeroplasma spp., which are typically found in ovine and bovine rumen, were first identified. The lynx gut was further characterized by an over-representation of 'presumptive' aquaporin aqpZ genes and genes encoding 'active' lysosomal-like digestive enzymes that are possibly needed to acquire glycerol, sugars and amino acids from glycoproteins, glyco(aminolipids, glyco(aminoglycans and nucleoside diphosphate sugars. Lynx gut was highly enriched (28% of the total glycosidases in genes encoding α-amylase and related enzymes, although it exhibited low rate of enzymatic activity indicative of starch degradation. The preponderance of β-xylosidase activity in protein extracts further suggests lynx gut microbes being most active for the metabolism of β-xylose containing plant N-glycans, although β-xylosidases sequences constituted only 1.5% of total glycosidases. These collective and unique bacterial, genetic and enzymatic activity signatures suggest that the wild lynx gut microbiota not only harbors gene sets underpinning sugar uptake from primary animal tissues (with the monotypic dietary profile of the wild lynx consisting of 80-100% wild rabbits but also for the hydrolysis of prey-derived plant biomass. Although, the present investigation corresponds to a single sample and some of the statements should be considered qualitative, the data most likely

  2. Lactobacillus plantarum gene clusters encoding putative cell-surface protein complexes for carbohydrate utilization are conserved in specific gram-positive bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscariello Lidia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomes of gram-positive bacteria encode many putative cell-surface proteins, of which the majority has no known function. From the rapidly increasing number of available genome sequences it has become apparent that many cell-surface proteins are conserved, and frequently encoded in gene clusters or operons, suggesting common functions, and interactions of multiple components. Results A novel gene cluster encoding exclusively cell-surface proteins was identified, which is conserved in a subgroup of gram-positive bacteria. Each gene cluster generally has one copy of four new gene families called cscA, cscB, cscC and cscD. Clusters encoding these cell-surface proteins were found only in complete genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis and Bacillus cereus and in incomplete genomes of L. lactis ssp cremoris, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillius brevis, Oenococcus oeni, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus thuringiensis. These genes are neither present in the genomes of streptococci, staphylococci and clostridia, nor in the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, suggesting a niche-specific distribution, possibly relating to association with plants. All encoded proteins have a signal peptide for secretion by the Sec-dependent pathway, while some have cell-surface anchors, novel WxL domains, and putative domains for sugar binding and degradation. Transcriptome analysis in L. plantarum shows that the cscA-D genes are co-expressed, supporting their operon organization. Many gene clusters are significantly up-regulated in a glucose-grown, ccpA-mutant derivative of L. plantarum, suggesting catabolite control. This is supported by the presence of predicted CRE-sites upstream or inside the up-regulated cscA-D gene clusters. Conclusion We propose that the CscA, CscB, CscC and Csc

  3. Identification of Methyl Halide-Utilizing Genes in the Methyl Bromide-Utilizing Bacterial Strain IMB-1 Suggests a High Degree of Conservation of Methyl Halide-Specific Genes in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, C.A.; Warner, K.L.; Oremland, R.S.; Murrell, J.C.; McDonald, I.R.

    2001-01-01

    Strain IMB-1, an aerobic methylotrophic member of the alpha subgroup of the Proteobacteria, can grow with methyl bromide as a sole carbon and energy source. A single cmu gene cluster was identified in IMB-1 that contained six open reading frames: cmuC, cmuA, orf146, paaE, hutI, and partial metF. CmuA from IMB-1 has high sequence homology to the methyltransferase CmuA from Methylobacterium chloromethanicum and Hyphomicrobium chloromethanicum and contains a C-terminal corrinoid-binding motif and an N-terminal methyl-transferase motif. However, cmuB, identified in M. chloromethanicum and H. chloromethanicum, was not detected in IMB-1.

  4. Prognostic Utility of the 21-Gene Assay in Hormone Receptor–Positive Operable Breast Cancer Compared With Classical Clinicopathologic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lori J.; Gray, Robert; Badve, Sunil; Childs, Barrett H.; Yoshizawa, Carl; Rowley, Steve; Shak, Steven; Baehner, Frederick L.; Ravdin, Peter M.; Davidson, Nancy E.; Sledge, George W.; Perez, Edith A.; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Martino, Silvana; Sparano, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Adjuvant! is a standardized validated decision aid that projects outcomes in operable breast cancer based on classical clinicopathologic features and therapy. Genomic classifiers offer the potential to more accurately identify individuals who benefit from chemotherapy than clinicopathologic features. Patients and Methods A sample of 465 patients with hormone receptor (HR) –positive breast cancer with zero to three positive axillary nodes who did (n = 99) or did not have recurrence after chemohormonal therapy had tumor tissue evaluated using a 21-gene assay. Histologic grade and HR expression were evaluated locally and in a central laboratory. Results Recurrence Score (RS) was a highly significant predictor of recurrence, including node-negative and node-positive disease (P < .001 for both) and when adjusted for other clinical variables. RS also predicted recurrence more accurately than clinical variables when integrated by an algorithm modeled after Adjuvant! that was adjusted to 5-year outcomes. The 5-year recurrence rate was only 5% or less for the estimated 46% of patients who have a low RS (< 18). Conclusion The 21-gene assay was a more accurate predictor of relapse than standard clinical features for individual patients with HR-positive operable breast cancer treated with chemohormonal therapy and provides information that is complementary to features typically used in anatomic staging, such as tumor size and lymph node involvement. The 21-gene assay may be used to select low-risk patients for abbreviated chemotherapy regimens similar to those used in our study or high-risk patients for more aggressive regimens or clinical trials evaluating novel treatments. PMID:18678838

  5. Environmental selection pressures related to iron utilization are involved in the loss of the flavodoxin gene from the plant genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierella Karlusich, Juan J; Ceccoli, Romina D; Graña, Martín; Romero, Héctor; Carrillo, Néstor

    2015-02-16

    Oxidative stress and iron limitation represent the grim side of life in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The versatile electron transfer shuttle ferredoxin, an iron-sulfur protein, is particularly sensitive to these hardships, and its downregulation under adverse conditions severely compromises survival of phototrophs. Replacement of ferredoxin by a stress-resistant isofunctional carrier, flavin-containing flavodoxin, is a widespread strategy employed by photosynthetic microorganisms to overcome environmental adversities. The flavodoxin gene was lost in the course of plant evolution, but its reintroduction in transgenic plants confers increased tolerance to environmental stress and iron starvation, raising the question as to why a genetic asset with obvious adaptive value was not kept by natural selection. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the evolutionary history of flavodoxin is intricate, with several horizontal gene transfer events between distant organisms, including Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. The flavodoxin gene is unevenly distributed in most algal lineages, with flavodoxin-containing species being overrepresented in iron-limited regions and scarce or absent in iron-rich environments. Evaluation of cyanobacterial genomic and metagenomic data yielded essentially the same results, indicating that there was little selection pressure to retain flavodoxin in iron-rich coastal/freshwater phototrophs. Our results show a highly dynamic evolution pattern of flavodoxin tightly connected to the bioavailability of iron. Evidence presented here also indicates that the high concentration of iron in coastal and freshwater habitats may have facilitated the loss of flavodoxin in the freshwater ancestor of modern plants during the transition of photosynthetic organisms from the open oceans to the firm land. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Clinical Utility of a Coronary Heart Disease Risk Prediction Gene Score in UK Healthy Middle Aged Men and in the Pakistani Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Beaney

    Full Text Available Numerous risk prediction algorithms based on conventional risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD are available but provide only modest discrimination. The inclusion of genetic information may improve clinical utility.We tested the use of two gene scores (GS in the prospective second Northwick Park Heart Study (NPHSII of 2775 healthy UK men (284 cases, and Pakistani case-control studies from Islamabad/Rawalpindi (321 cases/228 controls and Lahore (414 cases/219 controls. The 19-SNP GS included SNPs in loci identified by GWAS and candidate gene studies, while the 13-SNP GS only included SNPs in loci identified by the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium.In NPHSII, the mean of both gene scores was higher in those who went on to develop CHD over 13.5 years of follow-up (19-SNP p=0.01, 13-SNP p=7x10-3. In combination with the Framingham algorithm the GSs appeared to show improvement in discrimination (increase in area under the ROC curve, 19-SNP p=0.48, 13-SNP p=0.82 and risk classification (net reclassification improvement (NRI, 19-SNP p=0.28, 13-SNP p=0.42 compared to the Framingham algorithm alone, but these were not statistically significant. When considering only individuals who moved up a risk category with inclusion of the GS, the improvement in risk classification was statistically significant (19-SNP p=0.01, 13-SNP p=0.04. In the Pakistani samples, risk allele frequencies were significantly lower compared to NPHSII for 13/19 SNPs. In the Islamabad study, the mean gene score was higher in cases than controls only for the 13-SNP GS (2.24 v 2.34, p=0.04. There was no association with CHD and either score in the Lahore study.The performance of both GSs showed potential clinical utility in European men but much less utility in subjects from Pakistan, suggesting that a different set of risk loci or SNPs may be required for risk prediction in the South Asian population.

  7. Time-based comparative transcriptomics in engineered xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies temperature-responsive genes during ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-09-01

    Agricultural residues comprising lignocellulosic materials are excellent sources of pentose sugar, which can be converted to ethanol as fuel. Ethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing requires a suitable microorganism to withstand the harsh fermentation environment of high temperature, high ethanol concentration, and exposure to inhibitors. We genetically enhanced an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, sun049, enabling it to uptake xylose as the sole carbon source at high fermentation temperature. This strain was able to produce 13.9 g/l ethanol from 50 g/l xylose at 38 °C. To better understand the xylose consumption ability during long-term, high-temperature conditions, we compared by transcriptomics two fermentation conditions: high temperature (38 °C) and control temperature (30 °C) during the first 12 h of fermentation. This is the first long-term, time-based transcriptomics approach, and it allowed us to discover the role of heat-responsive genes when xylose is the sole carbon source. The results suggest that genes related to amino acid, cell wall, and ribosomal protein synthesis are down-regulated under heat stress. To allow cell stability and continuous xylose uptake in order to produce ethanol, hexose transporter HXT5, heat shock proteins, ubiquitin proteins, and proteolysis were all induced at high temperature. We also speculate that the strong relationship between high temperature and increased xylitol accumulation represents the cell's mechanism to protect itself from heat degradation.

  8. Utilization of APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mice in Research of Alzheimer's Disease: Focus on Gene Therapy and Cell-Based Therapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Malm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most extensively used transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD is APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, which over express the Swedish mutation of APP together with PS1 deleted in exon 9. These mice show increase in parenchymal Aβ load with Aβ plaques starting from the age of four months, glial activation, and deficits in cognitive functions at the age of 6 months demonstrated by radial arm water maze and 12-13 months seen with Morris Water Maze test. As gene transfer technology allows the delivery of DNA into target cells to achieve the expression of a protective or therapeutic protein, and stem cell transplantation may create an environment supporting neuronal functions and clearing Aβ plaques, these therapeutic approaches alone or in combination represent potential therapeutic strategies that need to be tested in relevant animal models before testing in clinics. Here we review the current utilization of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice in testing gene transfer and cell transplantation aimed at improving the protection of the neurons against Aβ toxicity and also reducing the brain levels of Aβ. Both gene therapy and cell based therapy may be feasible therapeutic approaches for human AD.

  9. Gene-wide analysis detects two new susceptibility genes for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escott-Price, Valentina; Bellenguez, Céline; Wang, Li-San; Choi, Seung-Hoan; Harold, Denise; Jones, Lesley; Holmans, Peter; Gerrish, Amy; Vedernikov, Alexey; Richards, Alexander; DeStefano, Anita L; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Naj, Adam C; Sims, Rebecca; Jun, Gyungah; Bis, Joshua C; Beecham, Gary W; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Russo, Giancarlo; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Denning, Nicola; Smith, Albert V; Chouraki, Vincent; Thomas, Charlene; Ikram, M Arfan; Zelenika, Diana; Vardarajan, Badri N; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Schmidt, Helena; Kunkle, Brian; Dunstan, Melanie L; Vronskaya, Maria; Johnson, Andrew D; Ruiz, Agustin; Bihoreau, Marie-Thérèse; Reitz, Christiane; Pasquier, Florence; Hollingworth, Paul; Hanon, Olivier; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Campion, Dominique; Crane, Paul K; Baldwin, Clinton; Becker, Tim; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cruchaga, Carlos; Craig, David; Amin, Najaf; Berr, Claudine; Lopez, Oscar L; De Jager, Philip L; Deramecourt, Vincent; Johnston, Janet A; Evans, Denis; Lovestone, Simon; Letenneur, Luc; Hernández, Isabel; Rubinsztein, David C; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sleegers, Kristel; Goate, Alison M; Fiévet, Nathalie; Huentelman, Matthew J; Gill, Michael; Brown, Kristelle; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Keller, Lina; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; McGuinness, Bernadette; Larson, Eric B; Myers, Amanda J; Dufouil, Carole; Todd, Stephen; Wallon, David; Love, Seth; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Gallacher, John; George-Hyslop, Peter St; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleo, Alberto; Bayer, Anthony; Tsuang, Debby W; Yu, Lei; Tsolaki, Magda; Bossù, Paola; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Proitsi, Petra; Collinge, John; Sorbi, Sandro; Garcia, Florentino Sanchez; Fox, Nick C; Hardy, John; Naranjo, Maria Candida Deniz; Bosco, Paolo; Clarke, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Siciliano, Gabriele; Moebus, Susanne; Mecocci, Patrizia; Zompo, Maria Del; Maier, Wolfgang; Hampel, Harald; Pilotto, Alberto; Frank-García, Ana; Panza, Francesco; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Caffarra, Paolo; Nacmias, Benedetta; Perry, William; Mayhaus, Manuel; Lannfelt, Lars; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pichler, Sabrina; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Ingelsson, Martin; Beekly, Duane; Alvarez, Victoria; Zou, Fanggeng; Valladares, Otto; Younkin, Steven G; Coto, Eliecer; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L; Gu, Wei; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Pau; Mateo, Ignacio; Owen, Michael J; Faber, Kelley M; Jonsson, Palmi V; Combarros, Onofre; O'Donovan, Michael C; Cantwell, Laura B; Soininen, Hilkka; Blacker, Deborah; Mead, Simon; Mosley, Thomas H; Bennett, David A; Harris, Tamara B; Fratiglioni, Laura; Holmes, Clive; de Bruijn, Renee F A G; Passmore, Peter; Montine, Thomas J; Bettens, Karolien; Rotter, Jerome I; Brice, Alexis; Morgan, Kevin; Foroud, Tatiana M; Kukull, Walter A; Hannequin, Didier; Powell, John F; Nalls, Michael A; Ritchie, Karen; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Kauwe, John S K; Boerwinkle, Eric; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Boada, Mercè; Hiltunen, Mikko; Martin, Eden R; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rujescu, Dan; Dartigues, Jean-François; Mayeux, Richard; Tzourio, Christophe; Hofman, Albert; Nöthen, Markus M; Graff, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M; Haines, Jonathan L; Lathrop, Mark; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Launer, Lenore J; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Farrer, Lindsay A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ramirez, Alfredo; Seshadri, Sudha; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Amouyel, Philippe; Williams, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 m genotypes from 25,580 Alzheimer's cases and 48,466 controls. In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 8 (TP53INP1, p = 1.4×10-6) and 14 (IGHV1-67 p = 7.9×10-8) which indexed novel susceptibility loci. The additional genes identified in this study, have an array of functions previously implicated in Alzheimer's disease, including aspects of energy metabolism, protein degradation and the immune system and add further weight to these pathways as potential therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Gene-wide analysis detects two new susceptibility genes for Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Escott-Price

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 m genotypes from 25,580 Alzheimer's cases and 48,466 controls.In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 8 (TP53INP1, p = 1.4×10-6 and 14 (IGHV1-67 p = 7.9×10-8 which indexed novel susceptibility loci.The additional genes identified in this study, have an array of functions previously implicated in Alzheimer's disease, including aspects of energy metabolism, protein degradation and the immune system and add further weight to these pathways as potential therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Case study on the utility of hepatic global gene expression profiling in the risk assessment of the carcinogen furan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Anna Francina, E-mail: Francina.Jackson@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa K1A 0K9 (Canada); Recio, Leslie, E-mail: lrecio@ils-inc.com [ILS, Inc., P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Waters, Michael D., E-mail: mwaters@ils-inc.com [ILS, Inc., P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Lambert, Iain B., E-mail: Iain.Lambert@carleton.ca [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: Carole.Yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Furan is a chemical hepatocarcinogen in mice and rats. Its previously postulated cancer mode of action (MOA) is chronic cytotoxicity followed by sustained regenerative proliferation; however, its molecular basis is unknown. To this end, we conducted toxicogenomic analysis of B3C6F1 mouse livers following three week exposures to non-carcinogenic (0, 1, 2 mg/kg bw) or carcinogenic (4 and 8 mg/kg bw) doses of furan. We saw enrichment for pathways responsible for cytotoxicity: stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and death receptor (DR5 and TNF-alpha) signaling, and proliferation: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and TNF-alpha. We also noted the involvement of NF-kappaB and c-Jun in response to furan, which are genes that are known to be required for liver regeneration. Furan metabolism by CYP2E1 produces cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), which is required for ensuing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. NRF2 is a master regulator of gene expression during oxidative stress and we suggest that chronic NFR2 activity and chronic inflammation may represent critical transition events between the adaptive (regeneration) and adverse (cancer) outcomes. Another objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of toxicogenomics data in quantitative risk assessment. We modeled benchmark doses for our transcriptional data and previously published cancer data, and observed consistency between the two. Margin of exposure values for both transcriptional and cancer endpoints were also similar. In conclusion, using furan as a case study we have demonstrated the value of toxicogenomics data in elucidating dose-dependent MOA transitions and in quantitative risk assessment. - Highlights: • Global gene expression changes in furan-exposed mouse livers were analyzed. • A molecular mode of action for furan-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is proposed. • Key pathways include NRF2, SAPK, ERK and death receptor signaling. • Important roles for TNF-alpha, c-Jun, and NF

  12. Case study on the utility of hepatic global gene expression profiling in the risk assessment of the carcinogen furan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Anna Francina; Williams, Andrew; Recio, Leslie; Waters, Michael D.; Lambert, Iain B.; Yauk, Carole L.

    2014-01-01

    Furan is a chemical hepatocarcinogen in mice and rats. Its previously postulated cancer mode of action (MOA) is chronic cytotoxicity followed by sustained regenerative proliferation; however, its molecular basis is unknown. To this end, we conducted toxicogenomic analysis of B3C6F1 mouse livers following three week exposures to non-carcinogenic (0, 1, 2 mg/kg bw) or carcinogenic (4 and 8 mg/kg bw) doses of furan. We saw enrichment for pathways responsible for cytotoxicity: stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and death receptor (DR5 and TNF-alpha) signaling, and proliferation: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and TNF-alpha. We also noted the involvement of NF-kappaB and c-Jun in response to furan, which are genes that are known to be required for liver regeneration. Furan metabolism by CYP2E1 produces cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), which is required for ensuing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. NRF2 is a master regulator of gene expression during oxidative stress and we suggest that chronic NFR2 activity and chronic inflammation may represent critical transition events between the adaptive (regeneration) and adverse (cancer) outcomes. Another objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of toxicogenomics data in quantitative risk assessment. We modeled benchmark doses for our transcriptional data and previously published cancer data, and observed consistency between the two. Margin of exposure values for both transcriptional and cancer endpoints were also similar. In conclusion, using furan as a case study we have demonstrated the value of toxicogenomics data in elucidating dose-dependent MOA transitions and in quantitative risk assessment. - Highlights: • Global gene expression changes in furan-exposed mouse livers were analyzed. • A molecular mode of action for furan-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is proposed. • Key pathways include NRF2, SAPK, ERK and death receptor signaling. • Important roles for TNF-alpha, c-Jun, and NF

  13. Development of a Candida glabrata dominant nutritional transformation marker utilizing the Aspergillus nidulans acetamidase gene (amdS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianmin; Blaylock, Morganne; Wickes, Cameron F; Welte, William; Mehrtash, Adrian; Wiederhold, Nathan; Wickes, Brian L

    2016-05-01

    The gene encoding Aspergillus nidulans acetamidase (amdS) was placed under control of Candida albicans ACT1 promoter and terminator sequences and then cloned into a plasmid containing C. glabrata ARS10,CEN8 or ARS10+CEN8 sequences. All plasmids transformed C. glabrata wild-type cells to acetamide+, with the ARS-only containing plasmid transforming cells at the highest frequencies (>1.0 × 10(4) transformants μg(-1)). Plasmids were rapidly lost under non-selective conditions with the frequency dependent on chromosomal element, thus recycling the acetamide- phenotype. The amdS plasmid was used to transform a set of clinical isolates resistant to a variety of antifungal drugs. All strains were successfully transformed to the acetamide+ phenotype at high frequency, confirming that this plasmid construct could be used as a simple dominant marker on virtually any strain. Gap repair experiments demonstrated that just as in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, gap repair functions efficiently inC. glabrata, suggesting that C. glabrata has numerous similarities toS. cerevisiae with regard to ease of molecular manipulation. The amdS system is inexpensive and efficient, and combined with existing C. glabrata plasmid elements, confers a high transformation frequency for C. glabrata with a phenotype that can be easily recycled. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  15. Intraclonal Cell Expansion and Selection Driven by B Cell Receptor in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Reverberi, Daniele; Fabris, Sonia; Neri, Antonino; Fabbi, Marina; Quintana, Giovanni; Quarta, Giovanni; Ghiotto, Fabio; Fais, Franco; Ferrarini, Manlio

    2011-01-01

    The mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IGHV) genes utilized by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) clones defines two disease subgroups. Patients with unmutated IGHV have a more aggressive disease and a worse outcome than patients with cells having somatic IGHV gene mutations. Moreover, up to 30% of the unmutated CLL clones exhibit very similar or identical B cell receptors (BcR), often encoded by the same IG genes. These “stereotyped” BcRs have been classified into defined subsets. The presence of an IGHV gene somatic mutation and the utilization of a skewed gene repertoire compared with normal B cells together with the expression of stereotyped receptors by unmutated CLL clones may indicate stimulation/selection by antigenic epitopes. This antigenic stimulation may occur prior to or during neoplastic transformation, but it is unknown whether this stimulation/selection continues after leukemogenesis has ceased. In this study, we focused on seven CLL cases with stereotyped BcR Subset #8 found among a cohort of 700 patients; in six, the cells expressed IgG and utilized IGHV4-39 and IGKV1-39/IGKV1D-39 genes, as reported for Subset #8 BcR. One case exhibited special features, including expression of IgM or IgG by different subclones consequent to an isotype switch, allelic inclusion at the IGH locus in the IgM-expressing cells and a particular pattern of cytogenetic lesions. Collectively, the data indicate a process of antigenic stimulation/selection of the fully transformed CLL cells leading to the expansion of the Subset #8 IgG-bearing subclone. PMID:21541442

  16. Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin variable genes supports a germinal center experienced normal counterpart in primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Ledard, Anne; Prochazkova-Carlotti, Martina; Deveza, Mélanie; Laforet, Marie-Pierre; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Vergier, Béatrice; Parrens, Marie; Feuillard, Jean; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Gachard, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Immunophenotype of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type (PCLBCL-LT) suggests a germinal center-experienced B lymphocyte (BCL2+ MUM1+ BCL6+/-). As maturation history of B-cell is "imprinted" during B-cell development on the immunoglobulin gene sequence, we studied the structure and sequence of the variable part of the genes (IGHV, IGLV, IGKV), immunoglobulin surface expression and features of class switching in order to determine the PCLBCL-LT cell of origin. Clonality analysis with BIOMED2 protocol and VH leader primers was done on DNA extracted from frozen skin biopsies on retrospective samples from 14 patients. The clonal DNA IGHV sequence of the tumor was aligned and compared with the closest germline sequence and homology percentage was calculated. Superantigen binding sites were studied. Features of selection pressure were evaluated with the multinomial Lossos model. A functional monoclonal sequence was observed in 14 cases as determined for IGHV (10), IGLV (2) or IGKV (3). IGV mutation rates were high (>5%) in all cases but one (median:15.5%), with superantigen binding sites conservation. Features of selection pressure were identified in 11/12 interpretable cases, more frequently negative (75%) than positive (25%). Intraclonal variation was detected in 3 of 8 tumor specimens with a low rate of mutations. Surface immunoglobulin was an IgM in 12/12 cases. FISH analysis of IGHM locus, deleted during class switching, showed heterozygous IGHM gene deletion in half of cases. The genomic PCR analysis confirmed the deletions within the switch μ region. IGV sequences were highly mutated but functional, with negative features of selection pressure suggesting one or more germinal center passage(s) with somatic hypermutation, but superantigen (SpA) binding sites conservation. Genetic features of class switch were observed, but on the non functional allele and co-existing with primary isotype IgM expression. These data suggest that cell-of origin is

  17. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  18. Identification and utilization of inter-species conserved (ISC probesets on Affymetrix human GeneChip® platforms for the optimization of the assessment of expression patterns in non human primate (NHP samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Alma

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While researchers have utilized versions of the Affymetrix human GeneChip® for the assessment of expression patterns in non human primate (NHP samples, there has been no comprehensive sequence analysis study undertaken to demonstrate that the probe sequences designed to detect human transcripts are reliably hybridizing with their orthologs in NHP. By aligning probe sequences with expressed sequence tags (ESTs in NHP, inter-species conserved (ISC probesets, which have two or more probes complementary to ESTs in NHP, were identified on human GeneChip® platforms. The utility of human GeneChips® for the assessment of NHP expression patterns can be effectively evaluated by analyzing the hybridization behaviour of ISC probesets. Appropriate normalization methods were identified that further improve the reliability of human GeneChips® for interspecies (human vs NHP comparisons. Results ISC probesets in each of the seven Affymetrix GeneChip® platforms (U133Plus2.0, U133A, U133B, U95Av2, U95B, Focus and HuGeneFL were identified for both monkey and chimpanzee. Expression data was generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 12 human and 8 monkey (Indian origin Rhesus macaque samples using the Focus GeneChip®. Analysis of both qualitative detection calls and quantitative signal intensities showed that intra-species reproducibility (human vs. human or monkey vs. monkey was much higher than interspecies reproducibility (human vs. monkey. ISC probesets exhibited higher interspecies reproducibility than the overall expressed probesets. Importantly, appropriate normalization methods could be leveraged to greatly improve interspecies correlations. The correlation coefficients between human (average of 12 samples and monkey (average of 8 Rhesus macaque samples are 0.725, 0.821 and 0.893 for MAS5.0 (Microarray Suite version 5.0, dChip and RMA (Robust Multi-chip Average normalization method, respectively. Conclusion It is

  19. Transcription of two adjacent carbohydrate utilization gene clusters in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 is controlled by LacI- and repressor open reading frame kinase (ROK)-type regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kerry Joan; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Liedtke, Andrea; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Paul Ross, R; Stanton, Catherine; Zomer, Aldert; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-06-01

    Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of mammals, including humans, where their growth is presumed to be dependent on various diet- and/or host-derived carbohydrates. To understand transcriptional control of bifidobacterial carbohydrate metabolism, we investigated two genetic carbohydrate utilization clusters dedicated to the metabolism of raffinose-type sugars and melezitose. Transcriptomic and gene inactivation approaches revealed that the raffinose utilization system is positively regulated by an activator protein, designated RafR. The gene cluster associated with melezitose metabolism was shown to be subject to direct negative control by a LacI-type transcriptional regulator, designated MelR1, in addition to apparent indirect negative control by means of a second LacI-type regulator, MelR2. In silico analysis, DNA-protein interaction, and primer extension studies revealed the MelR1 and MelR2 operator sequences, each of which is positioned just upstream of or overlapping the correspondingly regulated promoter sequences. Similar analyses identified the RafR binding operator sequence located upstream of the rafB promoter. This study indicates that transcriptional control of gene clusters involved in carbohydrate metabolism in bifidobacteria is subject to conserved regulatory systems, representing either positive or negative control.

  20. Studies on the utility of artificial mutations in plant breeding, 16: Gene analysis of male sterility induced in rice [Oryza sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, T.; Yamagata, H.

    1987-01-01

    Eleven male-sterile mutants were induced from a rice variety Sasanishiki by ethyleneimine and γ-ray treatments of seeds. Nine of them produced no pollen grains or only abortive ones and the other two showed extremely low pollen fertilities. The eleven mutants were crossed with the original variety. All F 1 hybrids were fertile, i.e., normal in both pollen and seed fertilities. In eight of their F 2 progenies, fertile and male-sterile plants segregated in a ratio of 3 to 1, indicating that the male sterility of the eight mutants was controlled by a single recessive gene. In one of the other three, segregation ratio suggested the participation of two recessive genes, while in the remaining two, the number of the genes responsible for male sterility could not be determined. (author)

  1. [Construction of plant expression vectors with PMI gene as selection marker and their utilization in transformation of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ru; Zhang, You-Can; Fang, Qian; Shi, Ren-Jiu; Li, Yan-Ling; Huang, Lu-Qi; Hao, Gang-Ping

    2014-04-01

    To construct plant expression pCAMBIA1301-PMI by substituting PMI for hygromycin resistance gene in pCAMBIA1301 and obtain transgenic Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba using PMI-mannose selection system. The 6-phosphomannose isomerase gene (PMI) of Escherichia coli was amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis showed that it shared 100% amino acids identities with the sequences of PMI genes isolates reported in the NCBI. Based on pCAMBIA1305, the plant expression pCAMBIA1305-PMI was constructed successfully by substituting PMI for hygromycin resistance gene in pCAMBIA1305. pCAMBIA1305-PMI was transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, and then the leaves of S. miltiorrhiza f. alba were inoculated in LBA4404 with pCAMBIA1305-PMI. Plant expression pCAMBIA1301-PMI was successfully constructed and the leaves of S. miltiorrhiza f. alba inoculated in LBA4404 with pCAMBIA1305-PMI were selected on medium supplemented with a combination of 20 g x L(-1) mannose and 10 g x L(-1) sucrose as a carbon source. The transformation efficiency rate was 23.7%. Genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR, indicating that a new method for obtaining transgenic S. miltiorrhiza f. alba plants was developed using PMI-mannose selection system.

  2. Development of an androgen reporter gene assay (AR-LUX) utilizing a human cell line with an endogenously regulated androgen receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Groene, E.M. de; Meeteren-Kreikamp, A.P. van; Witkamp, R.F.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the work described in this report is to develop and characterize a cell-based androgen reporter assay. For this purpose, the androgen receptor (AR) expressing human breast cancer cell line T47D was stably transfected with a luciferase gene under transcriptional control of the PB-ARE-2

  3. Utility of combining morphological characters, nuclear and mitochondrial genes: An attempt to resolve the conflicts of species identification for ciliated protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yi, Zhenzhen; Gentekaki, Eleni; Zhan, Aibin; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Ciliates comprise a highly diverse protozoan lineage inhabiting all biotopes and playing crucial roles in regulating microbial food webs. Nevertheless, subtle morphological differences and tiny sizes hinder proper species identification for many ciliates. Here, we use the species-rich taxon Frontonia and employ both nuclear and mitochondrial loci. We attempt to assess the level of genetic diversity and evaluate the potential of each marker in delineating species of Frontonia. Morphological features and ecological characteristics are also integrated into genetic results, in an attempt to resolve conflicts of species identification based on morphological and molecular methods. Our studies reveal: (1) the mitochondrial cox1 gene, nuclear ITS1 and ITS2 as well as the hypervariable D2 region of LSU rDNA are promising candidates for species delineation; (2) the cox1 gene provides the best resolution for analyses below the species level; (3) the V2 and V4 hypervariable regions of SSU rDNA, and D1 of LSU rDNA as well as the 5.8S rDNA gene do not show distinct barcoding gap due to overlap between intra- and inter-specific genetic divergences; (4) morphological character-based analysis shows promise for delimitation of Frontonia species; and (5) all gene markers and character-based analyses demonstrate that the genus Frontonia consists of three groups and monophyly of the genus Frontonia is questionable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of improving dietary amino acid balance for lactating sows on efficiency of dietary amino acid utilization and transcript abundance of genes encoding lysine transporters in mammary tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Ernst, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Lactating multiparous Yorkshire sows (n = 64) were used in 2 experiments to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP intake and improving AA balance through crystalline AA (CAA) supplementation improves apparent dietary AA utilization efficiency for milk production and increases transcript ab...

  5. The phylogenetic position of Lygodactylus angularis and the utility of using the 16S rDNA gene for delimiting species in Lygodactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Castiglia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The African genus Lygodactylus Gray, is composed of roughly 60 species of diurnal geckos that inhabit tropical and temperate Africa, Madagascar, and South America. In this study, we assessed the phylogenetic position of L. angularis, for which molecular data were so far lacking, by means of sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene. We also compared intraspecific vs. interspecific genetic divergences using an extended data set (34 species, 153 sequences, to determine whether a fragment of this gene can be useful for species identification and to reveal the possible existence of new cryptic species in the genus. The analysis placed L. angularis in a monophyletic group together with members of “fischeri” and “picturatus” groups. Nevertheless, the independence of the “angularis” lineage is supported by the high genetic divergence. Comparison of intraspecific vs. interspecific genetic distances highlights that, assuming an equal molecular rate of evolution among the studied species for the used gene, the threshold value useful for recognising a candidate new species can be tentatively placed at 7%. We identified four species that showed an intraspecific divergence higher than, or close to, the 7% threshold: L. capensis (8.7%, L. gutturalis (9.3%, L. madagascariensis (6.5% and L. picturatus (8.1%. Moreover, two species, L. mombasicus and L. verticillatus, are paraphyletic in terms of gene genealogy. Thus, the study shows that a short fragment of the 16S rDNA gene can be an informative tool for species-level taxonomy in the genus Lygodactylus.

  6. Cloning and Characterization of an Outer Membrane Protein of Vibrio vulnificus Required for Heme Utilization: Regulation of Expression and Determination of the Gene Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Christine M.; Byrne, Burke L.

    1998-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic, marine pathogen that has been associated with septicemia and serious wound infections in patients with iron overload and preexisting liver disease. For V. vulnificus, the ability to acquire iron from the host has been shown to correlate with virulence. V. vulnificus is able to use host iron sources such as hemoglobin and heme. We previously constructed a fur mutant of V. vulnificus which constitutively expresses at least two iron-regulated outer membrane proteins, of 72 and 77 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 77-kDa protein purified from the V. vulnificus fur mutant had 67% homology with the first 15 amino acids of the mature protein of the Vibrio cholerae heme receptor, HutA. In this report, we describe the cloning, DNA sequence, mutagenesis, and analysis of transcriptional regulation of the structural gene for HupA, the heme receptor of V. vulnificus. DNA sequencing of hupA demonstrated a single open reading frame of 712 amino acids that was 50% identical and 66% similar to the sequence of V. cholerae HutA and similar to those of other TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors. Primer extension analysis localized one promoter for the V. vulnificus hupA gene. Analysis of the promoter region of V. vulnificus hupA showed a sequence homologous to the consensus Fur box. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcript was strongly regulated by iron. An internal deletion in the V. vulnificus hupA gene, done by using marker exchange, resulted in the loss of expression of the 77-kDa protein and the loss of the ability to use hemin or hemoglobin as a source of iron. The hupA deletion mutant of V. vulnificus will be helpful in future studies of the role of heme iron in V. vulnificus pathogenesis. PMID:9632577

  7. Gene ercA, encoding a putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase, is involved in regulation of ethanol utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Niels; Görisch, Helmut; Mern, Demissew S

    2013-09-01

    Several two-component regulatory systems are known to be involved in the signal transduction pathway of the ethanol oxidation system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17933. These sensor kinases and response regulators are organized in a hierarchical manner. In addition, a cytoplasmic putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (Fe-ADH) encoded by ercA (PA1991) has been identified to play an essential role in this regulatory network. The gene ercA (PA1991) is located next to ercS, which encodes a sensor kinase. Inactivation of ercA (PA1991) by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette created mutant NH1. NH1 showed poor growth on various alcohols. On ethanol, NH1 grew only with an extremely extended lag phase. During the induction period on ethanol, transcription of structural genes exa and pqqABCDEH, encoding components of initial ethanol oxidation in P. aeruginosa, was drastically reduced in NH1, which indicates the regulatory function of ercA (PA1991). However, transcription in the extremely delayed logarithmic growth phase was comparable to that in the wild type. To date, the involvement of an Fe-ADH in signal transduction processes has not been reported.

  8. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  9. Prognostic significance of equivocal human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 results and clinical utility of alternative chromosome 17 genes in patients with invasive breast cancer: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneige, Nour; Hess, Kenneth R; Multani, Asha S; Gong, Yun; Ibrahim, Nuhad K

    2017-04-01

    The 2013 testing guidelines for determining the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status include new cutoff points for the HER2/chromosome enumeration probe 17 (CEP17) ratio and the average HER2 copy number per cell, and they recommend using a reflex test with alternative chromosome 17 probes (Ch17Ps) to resolve equivocal HER2 results. This study sought to determine the clinical utility of alternative Ch17Ps in equivocal cases and the effects of equivocal results and/or a change in the HER2 status on patients' outcomes. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center database of HER2 dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization results from 2000 to 2010 was searched for cases of invasive breast cancer with HER2/CEP17 ratios Cancer 2017;123:1115-1123. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  10. Construction of engineering adipose-like tissue in vivo utilizing human insulin gene-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells with silk fibroin 3D scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Long; Liu, Yi; Hui, Ling

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the use of a combination of human insulin gene-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (hUMSCs) with silk fibroin 3D scaffolds for adipose tissue engineering. In this study hUMSCs were isolated and cultured. HUMSCs infected with Ade-insulin-EGFP were seeded in fibroin 3D scaffolds with uniform 50-60 µm pore size. Silk fibroin scaffolds with untransfected hUMSCs were used as control. They were cultured for 4 days in adipogenic medium and transplanted under the dorsal skins of female Wistar rats after the hUMSCs had been labelled with chloromethylbenzamido-1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (CM-Dil). Macroscopical impression, fluorescence observation, histology and SEM were used for assessment after transplantation at 8 and 12 weeks. Macroscopically, newly formed adipose tissue was observed in the experimental group and control group after 8 and 12 weeks. Fluorescence observation supported that the formed adipose tissue originated from seeded hUMSCs rather than from possible infiltrating perivascular tissue. Oil red O staining of newly formed tissue showed that there was substantially more tissue regeneration in the experimental group than in the control group. SEM showed that experimental group cells had more fat-like cells, whose volume was larger than that of the control group, and degradation of the silk fibroin scaffold was greater under SEM observation. This study provides significant evidence that hUMSCs transfected by adenovirus vector have good compatibility with silk fibroin scaffold, and adenoviral transfection of the human insulin gene can be used for the construction of tissue-engineered adipose. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Voluntary exercise and green tea enhance the expression of genes related to energy utilization and attenuate metabolic syndrome in high fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Rogers, Connie J; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-05-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are growing public health problems. We investigated the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) and voluntary running exercise (Ex) alone or in combination against obesity and metabolic syndrome in high fat (HF) fed C57BL/6J mice. After 16 wk, GTE + Ex treatment reduced final body mass (27.1% decrease) and total visceral fat mass (36.6% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE + Ex reduced fasting blood glucose (17% decrease), plasma insulin (65% decrease), and insulin resistance (65% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE or Ex alone had less significant effects. In the skeletal muscle, the combination of Ex and GTE increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 5 (mt-Nd5), mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cytb), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III (mt-Co3). An increase in hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (Ppara) and liver carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1α (Cpt1a) and a decrease in hepatic expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) mRNA was observed in GTE + Ex mice. GTE + Ex was more effective than either treatment alone in reducing diet-induced obesity. These effects are due in part to modulation of genes related to energy metabolism and de novo lipogenesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Serum-Based Quantification of MYCN Gene Amplification in Young Patients with Neuroblastoma: Potential Utility as a Surrogate Biomarker for Neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Yagyu

    Full Text Available We previously developed a method for determining MYCN gene amplification status using cell-free DNA fragments released from cancer cells into the blood of patients with neuroblastoma (NB. Here, we analyzed the relationship between MYCN amplification (MNA status and neuroblastoma prognosis. We screened serum samples from 151 patients with NB for MNA, using real-time quantitative PCR, and compared the results with MYCN status determined using paired tumor samples. We additionally investigated whether MNA status correlates with patient survival. When a cut-off value of 5 was used, serum-based MNA analysis was found to show good sensitivity (86% and very high specificity (95%. The sensitivities for stage 1 and 2 might be acceptable, even though it is not as good as for stage 3 and 4 (67% for stage 1 and 2, 92% for stage 3, and 87% for stage 4. MNA status correlated with overall survival in our cohort of 82 patients, with survival data available (p < 0.01. The hazard ratio of MNA status was 4.98 in patients diagnosed at less than 18 months of age (95% confidence interval, 1.00-24.78, and 1.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.63-3.14 for those diagnosed at 18 months of age or older. Serum-based MNA analysis is rapid and non-invasive compared with tumor-based MNA analysis, and has potential to predict tumor MNA status. There is still a room to improve the sensitivity of the test for tumors of stages 1 and 2, nonetheless this assay might help to determine therapeutic strategies prior to tumor biopsy, especially for patients with a life-threatening condition, as well as for patients of less than 18 months of age whose risk-grouping and treatment allocation depends on their MNA status.

  13. Dietary fish oil replacement by linseed oil: Effect on growth, nutrient utilization, tissue fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Madhusmita; Saha, Ashis; Pradhan, Avinash; Samanta, Mrinal; Giri, Shiba Shankar

    2017-03-01

    Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33.3%, 50%, 66.7% and 100% LO. Final weight, weight gain, percent weight gain, SGR decreased linearly (p0.05) affect the feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and whole body proximate composition. Furthermore, enhanced level of LO increased α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and decreased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) in muscle and liver. To understand the molecular mechanism of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized the fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase (Δ6 fad) cDNA and investigated its expression in various organs/tissues following replacement of FO with LO in the diet. The full-length Δ6 fad cDNA was 2056bp encoding 444 amino acids and was widely expressed in various organs/tissues. Replacement of FO with LO increased the expression of Δ6 fad mRNA in liver, muscle and intestine but no significant difference was found in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  15. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  16. Gene expression studies on human keratinocytes transduced with human growth hormone gene for a possible utilization in gene therapy; Estudos da expressao genica mediante utilizacao de queratinocitos humanos normais transduzidos com o gene do hormonio de crscimento humano. Possivel utilizacao em terapia genica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathor, Monica Beatriz

    1994-12-31

    Taking advantage of the recent progress in the DNA-recombinant techniques and of the potentiality of normal human keratinocytes primary culture to reconstitute the epidermis, it was decided to genetically transform these keratinocytes to produce human growth hormone under controllable conditions that would be used in gene therapy at this hormone deficient patients. The first step to achieve this goal was to standardize infection of keratinocytes with retrovirus producer cells containing a construct which included the gene of bacterial b-galactosidase. The best result was obtained cultivating the keratinocytes for 3 days in a 2:1 mixture of retrovirus producer cells and 3T3-J2 fibroblasts irradiated with 60 Gy, and splitting these infected keratinocytes on 3T3-J2 fibroblasts feeder layer. Another preliminary experiment was to infect normal human keratinocytes with interleukin-6 gene (hIL-6) that, in pathologic conditions, could be reproduced by keratinocytes and secreted to the blood stream. Thus, we verify that infected keratinocytes secrete an average amount of 500 ng/10{sup 6} cell/day of cytokin during the in vitro life time, that certify the stable character of the injection. These keratinocytes, when grafted in mice, secrete hIL-6 to the blood stream reaching levels of 40 pg/ml of serum. After these preliminary experiments, we construct a retroviral vector with the human growth hormone gene (h GH) driven by human metallothionein promoter (h PMT), designated DChPMTGH. Normal human keratinocytes were infected with DChPMTGH producer cells, following previously standardized protocol, obtaining infected keratinocytes secreting to the culture media 340 ng h GH/10{sup 6} cell/day without promoter activation. This is the highest level of h GH secreted in human keratinocytes primary culture described in literature. The h GH value increases approximately 10 times after activation with 100 {mu}M Zn{sup +2} for 8-12 hours. (author). 158 refs., 42 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. The phylogenetic position of Lygodactylus angularis and the utility of the 16S rDNA gene for delimiting species in Lygodactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Castiglia

    2011-06-01

    Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Emphasis" />

    The African genus Lygodactylus Gray, is composed of about 60 species of diurnal geckos inhabiting tropical and temperate Africa, Madagascar and South America. In this paper we analysed, by means of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene

  18. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  19. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  20. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  1. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  2. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute

  3. Utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaros, P.E.; Luxo, Armando; Bruant, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    The study of operational training systems for electro-nuclear utilities may be conducted through two different approaches. A first analytical approach consists of determining, for each position of a given organization chart, the necessary qualifications required and the corresponding complementary training to be provided. This approach applies preferentially to existing classical systems which are converted to nuclear operation with objectives of minimum structural changes and conservation of maximum efficiency. A second synthetical approach consists of determining the specific characteristics of nuclear plant operation, then, of deducting the training contingencies and the optimized organization chart of the plant, while taking into account, at each step, the parameters linked to local conditions. This last approach is studied in some detail in the present paper, taking advantage of its better suitability to the problems raised at the first stage of an electro-nuclear program development. In this respect, the possibility offered by this apprach to coordinate the training system of a given nuclear power station personnel with the overall problem of developing a skilled industrial labor force in the country, may lead to reconsideration of some usual priorities in the economy of operation of the nuclear power plant

  4. Characterizing and evaluating the expression of the type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (slc34a2) gene and its potential influence on phosphorus utilization efficiency in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang

    2016-02-01

    A sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter gene, NaPi-IIb (slc34a2), was isolated from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) intestine through homology cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of slc34a2 consisted of 2326 bp with an open reading frame encoding 621 amino acids, a 160-bp 5' untranslated region, and a 300-bp 3' untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 79.0 and 70.9% sequence identity to Astyanax mexicanus and Pundamilia nyererei, respectively. The membrane-spanning domains based on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of the deduced amino acids were predicted, and results showed that the putative protein had eight transmembrane domains, with the intracellular NH2 and COOH termini. Two functional regions including first intracellular loop and third extracellular loop as well as the six N-glycosylation sites in second extracellular loop were found. The slc34a2 mRNA in the tested tissues was examined through semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time PCR, with the highest level found in the anterior intestine, followed by the posterior and middle intestines. The slc34a2 mRNA expression in the whole intestine under different dietary phosphorus (P) treatments was detected using qPCR. The results showed that the slc34a2 expression levels in the low-P groups (0.33 and 0.56%) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than levels in the sufficient-P (0.81%) and high-P (1.15, 1.31, and 1.57%) groups. High expression of slc34a2 mRNA in low-P groups stimulated P utilization efficiency, indicating the close relationship between genotype and phenotype in yellow catfish. In contrast with conventional strategies (formula and feeding strategies), this study provided another possible approach by using molecular techniques to increase the P utilization in yellow catfish.

  5. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanavichit, Apichart [Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  6. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  7. Gene cluster statistics with gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, Narayanan; Durand, Dannie

    2009-05-01

    analysis in genomes of various sizes and illustrate the utility of our methods by applying them to gene clusters recently reported in the literature. Mathematical code to compute cluster probabilities using our methods is available as supplementary material.

  8. Development of a PCR-based marker utilizing a deletion mutation in the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene responsible for the lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunggil; Yoo, Kil Sun; Pike, Leonard M

    2005-02-01

    Bulb color in onions (Allium cepa) is an important trait, but the mechanism of color inheritance is poorly understood at the molecular level. A previous study showed that inactivation of the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene at the transcriptional level resulted in a lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions. The objectives of the present study were the identification of the critical mutations in the DFR gene (DFR-A) and the development of a PCR-based marker for allelic selection. We report the isolation of two additional DFR homologs (DFR-B and DFR-C). No unique sequences were identified in either DFR homolog, even in the untranslated region (UTR). Both genes shared more than 95% nucleotide sequence identity with the DFR-A gene. To obtain a unique sequence from each gene, we isolated the promoter regions. Sequences of the DFR-A and DFR-B promoters differed completely from one another, except for an approximately 100-bp sequence adjacent to the 5'UTR. It was possible to specifically amplify only the DFR-A gene using primers designed to anneal to the unique promoter region. The sequences of yellow and red DFR-A alleles were the same except for a single base-pair change in the promoter and an approximately 800-bp deletion within the 3' region of the yellow DFR-A allele. This deletion was used to develop a co-dominant PCR-based marker that segregated perfectly with color phenotypes in the F2 population. These results indicate that a deletion mutation in the yellow DFR-A gene results in the lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions.

  9. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene therapy Overview Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your ... that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new ...

  10. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  11. Mutation Pattern of Paired Immunoglobulin Heavy and Light Variable Domains in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ghiotto, Fabio; Marcatili, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV-diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥ 2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation analysis. Replacement (R) mutation frequency within IGK/LV chain CDRs correlated significantly with mutation frequency of paired IGHV CDRs in λ but not κ isotype CLL clones. CDRs of IGKV-J rearrangements displayed a lower percentage of R mutations than IGHVs. The frequency/pattern of mutations in kappa CLL Igs differed also from that in κ-expressing normal B cells described in the literature. Instead, the mutation frequency within the FRs of IGHV and either IGKV or IGLV was correlated. Notably, the amount of diversity introduced by replaced amino acids was comparable between IGHVs and IGKVs. The data indicate a different mutation pattern between κ and λ isotype CLL clones and suggest an antigenic selection that, in κ samples, operates against CDR variation.

  12. Comparison of the prognostic and predictive utilities of the 21-gene Recurrence Score assay and Adjuvant! for women with node-negative, ER-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-14 and NSABP B-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gong; Shak, Steven; Paik, Soonmyung; Anderson, Stewart J; Costantino, Joseph P; Geyer, Charles E; Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Wolmark, Norman

    2011-05-01

    The Oncotype DX Recurrence Score (RS) is a validated genomic predictor of outcome and response to adjuvant chemotherapy in ER-positive breast cancer. Adjuvant! was developed using SEER registry data and results from the Early Breast Cancer Clinical Trialists' overview analyses to estimate outcome and benefit from adjuvant hormonal therapy and chemotherapy. In this report we compare the prognostic and predictive utility of these two tools in node-negative, ER-positive breast cancer. RS and Adjuvant! results were available from 668 tamoxifen-treated NSABP B-14 patients, 227 tamoxifen-treated NSABP B-20 patients, and 424 chemotherapy plus tamoxifen-treated B-20 patients. Adjuvant! results were also available from 1952 B-20 patients. The primary endpoint was distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI). Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the prognostic and predictive utility of RS and Adjuvant!. Both RS (P < 0.001) and Adjuvant! (P = 0.002) provided strong independent prognostic information in tamoxifen-treated patients. Combining RS and individual clinicopathologic characteristics provided greater prognostic discrimination than combining RS and the composite Adjuvant!. In the B-20 cohort with RS results (n = 651), RS was significantly predictive of chemotherapy benefit (interaction P = 0.031 for DRFI, P = 0.011 for overall survival [OS], P = 0.082 for disease-free survival [DFS]), but Adjuvant! was not (interaction P = 0.99, P = 0.311, and P = 0.357, respectively). However, in the larger B-20 sub-cohort (n = 1952), Adjuvant! was significantly predictive of chemotherapy benefit for OS (interaction P = 0.009) but not for DRFI (P = 0.219) or DFS (P = 0.099). Prognostic estimates can be optimized by combining RS and clinicopathologic information instead of simply combining RS and Adjuvant!. RS should be used for estimating relative chemotherapy benefit.

  13. US utility partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities of the United States Energy Association were reviewed, as well as the manner in which its members are benefitting from the Association's programs. The principal cooperative program set up is the Utility Partnership Program, which was described. Through this program the Association is matching US companies, both electric utilities and gas utilities, with counterparts in Eastern Europe or the former Soviet Union. So far, about 25 partnerships were signed, e.g. in the Czech Republic, in Kazakhstan, in Poland, and in Slovakia. It was estimated that the return to the United States from the investments made by the American government in these Utility Partnership Programs has been well over 100-fold

  14. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  15. Expressão eficiente do gene reporter beta-glucuronidase nos tecidos vasculares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizando de um promotor específico (BRA3 de Agrobacterium rhizogenes Efficient expression of beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in vascular tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing a specific promoter (BRA3 from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotores tecido-específico controlam a transcrição de genes em diferentes tecidos vegetais bem como em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da planta, levando à indução de distintos níveis de atividade transiente e/ou estável do gene. Tais promotores podem ser empregados para a expressão seletiva de genes de interesse. O promotor rol A de Agrobacterium rhizogenes, por exemplo, é floema-específico, sugerindo que possa ser empregado em estratégias de defesa de plantas que são infectadas por vírus com replicação restrita ao floema. A expressão do gene marcador da ß-glucuronidase (gus dirigido pelo promotor rol A (pBRA3 foi observada em plantas transgênicas de batata (cvs. Macaca e Baronesa. Entrenós e secções de folhas foram submetidos ao cocultivo com A. tumefaciens. A atividade do gene gus avaliada em brotações resistentes à canamicina não se restringiu ao floema (alto nível de expressão do gene, mas também se manifestou no xilema dos caules. As expressões transiente e estável são, no entanto, tecido-específicas, localizadas sobretudo no sistema vascular de entrenós e ausente em raízes e folhas. As plantas gus positivas foram micropropagadas, plantadas em casa de vegetação e avaliadas por PCR, utilizando-se 'primers' específicos para o gene npt II. Nenhuma alteração fenotípica foi observada em plantas transgênicas, em relação às não transformadas.Tissue-especific promoters allow the modulation of gene transcription in different tissue types as well as in different stages of plant development, leading different levels of transient and stable activity of the gene product. These promoters have been employed for selective gene expression. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol A gene promoter (BRA3 controls phloem-specific expression indicating that this promoter might have an important role in plant defense strategies against virus which replicated only in the phloem. The expression of

  16. Prospective Clinical Utility Study of the Use of the 21-Gene Assay in Adjuvant Clinical Decision Making in Women With Estrogen Receptor-Positive Early Invasive Breast Cancer: Results From the SWITCH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Pivot, Xavier B; Jacot, William; Naman, Hervé L; Spaeth, Dominique; Misset, Jean-Louis; Largillier, Rémy; Sautiere, Jean-Loup; de Roquancourt, Anne; Pomel, Christophe; Rouanet, Philippe; Rouzier, Roman; Penault-Llorca, Frederique M

    2015-08-01

    The 21-gene Oncotype DX Recurrence Score assay is a validated assay to help decide the appropriate treatment for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), early-stage breast cancer (EBC) in the adjuvant setting. The choice of adjuvant treatments might vary considerably in different countries according to various treatment guidelines. This prospective multicenter study is the first to assess the impact of the Oncotype DX assay in the French clinical setting. A total of 100 patients with ER+, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative EBC, and node-negative (pN0) disease or micrometastases in up to 3 lymph nodes (pN1mi) were enrolled. Treatment recommendations, physicians' confidence before and after knowing the Recurrence Score value, and physicians' perception of the assay were recorded. Of the 100 patients, 95 were evaluable (83 pN0, 12 pN1mi). Treatment recommendations changed in 37% of patients, predominantly from chemoendocrine to endocrine treatment alone. The proportion of patients recommended chemotherapy decreased from 52% pretest to 25% post-test. Of patients originally recommended chemotherapy, 61% were recommended endocrine treatment alone after receiving the Recurrence Score result. For both pN0 and pN1mi patients, post-test recommendations appeared to follow the Recurrence Score result for low and high values. Physicians' confidence improved significantly. These are the first prospective data on the impact of the Oncotype DX assay on adjuvant treatment decisions in France. Using the assay was associated with a significant change in treatment decisions and an overall reduction in chemotherapy use. These data are consistent with those presented from European and non-European studies. ©AlphaMed Press.

  17. Utility portfolio diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffes, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses portfolio analysis as a method to evaluate utility supply decisions. Specifically a utility is assumed to increase the value of its portfolio of assets whenever it invests in a new supply technology. This increase in value occurs because the new asset either enhances the return or diversifies the risks of the firm's portfolio of assets. This evaluation method is applied to two supply innovations in the electric utility industry: jointly-owned generating plants and supply contracts with independent power producers (IPPs)

  18. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  19. Utility franchises reconsidered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, B.

    1981-11-01

    It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

  20. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  1. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  2. Utility, games, and narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...

  3. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  4. Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein-protein, cell signaling, metabolic, and transcriptional interaction networks are useful for identifying connections between lists of experimentally identified genes/proteins. However, besides physical or co-expression interactions there are many ways in which pairs of genes, or their protein products, can be associated. By systematically incorporating knowledge on shared properties of genes from diverse sources to build functional association networks (FANs), researchers may be able to identify additional functional interactions between groups of genes that are not readily apparent. Results Genes2FANs is a web based tool and a database that utilizes 14 carefully constructed FANs and a large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to build subnetworks that connect lists of human and mouse genes. The FANs are created from mammalian gene set libraries where mouse genes are converted to their human orthologs. The tool takes as input a list of human or mouse Entrez gene symbols to produce a subnetwork and a ranked list of intermediate genes that are used to connect the query input list. In addition, users can enter any PubMed search term and then the system automatically converts the returned results to gene lists using GeneRIF. This gene list is then used as input to generate a subnetwork from the user’s PubMed query. As a case study, we applied Genes2FANs to connect disease genes from 90 well-studied disorders. We find an inverse correlation between the counts of links connecting disease genes through PPI and links connecting diseases genes through FANs, separating diseases into two categories. Conclusions Genes2FANs is a useful tool for interpreting the relationships between gene/protein lists in the context of their various functions and networks. Combining functional association interactions with physical PPIs can be useful for revealing new biology and help form hypotheses for further experimentation. Our finding that disease genes in

  5. Gene function prediction based on Gene Ontology Hierarchy Preserving Hashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingwen; Fu, Guangyuan; Wang, Jun; Guo, Maozu; Yu, Guoxian

    2018-02-23

    Gene Ontology (GO) uses structured vocabularies (or terms) to describe the molecular functions, biological roles, and cellular locations of gene products in a hierarchical ontology. GO annotations associate genes with GO terms and indicate the given gene products carrying out the biological functions described by the relevant terms. However, predicting correct GO annotations for genes from a massive set of GO terms as defined by GO is a difficult challenge. To combat with this challenge, we introduce a Gene Ontology Hierarchy Preserving Hashing (HPHash) based semantic method for gene function prediction. HPHash firstly measures the taxonomic similarity between GO terms. It then uses a hierarchy preserving hashing technique to keep the hierarchical order between GO terms, and to optimize a series of hashing functions to encode massive GO terms via compact binary codes. After that, HPHash utilizes these hashing functions to project the gene-term association matrix into a low-dimensional one and performs semantic similarity based gene function prediction in the low-dimensional space. Experimental results on three model species (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus) for interspecies gene function prediction show that HPHash performs better than other related approaches and it is robust to the number of hash functions. In addition, we also take HPHash as a plugin for BLAST based gene function prediction. From the experimental results, HPHash again significantly improves the prediction performance. The codes of HPHash are available at: http://mlda.swu.edu.cn/codes.php?name=HPHash. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-05-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is the most widely recommended health outcome measure for use in economic evaluations. The QALY gives a value to the effect of a given health intervention in terms of both quantity and quality. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the duration of time spent in a given health state, in years, by the quality of life weighted, known as utility. Utility can range from 0 (the worst health state-the equivalent of death) to 1 (the best health state-full health). This paper provides an overview of the various methods that can be used to measure utility and outlines the recommended protocol for measuring utility, as described in the Guidelines for Health Technology Assessment in Thailand (second edition). The recommendations are as follows: Wherever possible, primary data collection using EQ-5D-3L in patients using Thai value sets generated from the general public should be used. Where the EQ-5D-3L is considered inappropriate, other methods such as Standard gamble (SG), Time-trade-off (TTO), Visual analogue scale (VAS), Health Utilities Index (HUI), SF-6D, or Quality of well being (QWB) can be used. However, justification and full details on the chosen instrument should always be provided.

  7. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.; Walters, R.A.; Enger, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn 2+ or Cd 2+ . We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  8. Image Guidance and Assessment of Radiation Induced Gene Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelizzari, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Image guidance and assessment techniques are being developed for combined radiation/gene therapy, which utilizes a radiation-inducible gene promoter to cause expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha...

  9. Electric utility report '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A collection of brief atricles describes the trends and developments in Canada's electric utilities for the 1980's. Generating stations planned or under construction are listed. The trends in technology discused at a recent Canadian Electrical Association meeting are summarized in such areas as turbine stability control, power line vibration control, system reliability, substations and transformer specifications. Developments in nuclear generation are discussed and compared on the world scale where Japan, for example, has the world's largest nuclear program. Progress on fusion is discussed. In Canada the electric utilities are receiving the support of the comprehensive nuclear R and D program of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. New innovations in utility technology such as street lighting contactors, superconductive fault limiters and demand profile analyzers are discussed. (T.I.)

  10. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  11. Markets: green utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Publicly owned utilities have consistently led the United States in the rate of customer participation in green power programmes. The US has about 2000 community and state-owned utilities, which serve 43 million customers and account for about 16.6% of kilowatt-hour sales to consumers. In all, public power is responsible for about 10% of the nation's installed electric capacity. Investor owned utilities account for 39%, with the remainder of the nation's power mostly from independent power generators. Although IOUs have almost four times as much electric capacity as public power, they edge out public power by only a small margin when it comes to renewable capacity. IOUs are responsible for 24,577.5 MW of renewable capacity, compared to the 21,338 MW installed by public power. The reasons discussed by the author range from small town advantage to clean and cheap power. (Author)

  12. Cellodextrin utilization by bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokusaeva, Karina; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Zomer, Aldert; Macsharry, John; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2011-03-01

    Cellodextrins, the incomplete hydrolysis products from insoluble cellulose, are accessible as a carbon source to certain members of the human gut microbiota, such as Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. Transcription of the cldEFGC gene cluster of B. breve UCC2003 was shown to be induced upon growth on cellodextrins, implicating this cluster in the metabolism of these sugars. Phenotypic analysis of a B. breve UCC2003::cldE insertion mutant confirmed that the cld gene cluster is exclusively required for cellodextrin utilization by this commensal. Moreover, our results suggest that transcription of the cld cluster is controlled by a LacI-type regulator encoded by cldR, located immediately upstream of cldE. Gel mobility shift assays using purified CldR(His) (produced by the incorporation of a His(12)-encoding sequence into the 3' end of the cldC gene) indicate that the cldEFGC promoter is subject to negative control by CldR(His), which binds to two inverted repeats. Analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) of medium samples obtained during growth of B. breve UCC2003 on a mixture of cellodextrins revealed its ability to utilize cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, and cellopentaose, with cellotriose apparently representing the preferred substrate. The cldC gene of the cld operon of B. breve UCC2003 is, to the best of our knowledge, the first described bifidobacterial β-glucosidase exhibiting hydrolytic activity toward various cellodextrins.

  13. Octopus: LLL's computing utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Laboratory's Octopus network constitutes one of the greatest concentrations of computing power in the world. This power derives from the network's organization as well as from the size and capability of its computers, storage media, input/output devices, and communication channels. Being in a network enables these facilities to work together to form a unified computing utility that is accessible on demand directly from the users' offices. This computing utility has made a major contribution to the pace of research and development at the Laboratory; an adequate rate of progress in research could not be achieved without it. 4 figures

  14. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  15. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  16. "Utilizing" signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-09-01

    What do inferring what a person is thinking or feeling, judging a defendant's guilt, and navigating a dimly lit room have in common? They involve perceptual uncertainty (e.g., a scowling face might indicate anger or concentration, for which different responses are appropriate) and behavioral risk (e.g., a cost to making the wrong response). Signal detection theory describes these types of decisions. In this tutorial, we show how incorporating the economic concept of utility allows signal detection theory to serve as a model of optimal decision making, going beyond its common use as an analytic method. This utility approach to signal detection theory clarifies otherwise enigmatic influences of perceptual uncertainty on measures of decision-making performance (accuracy and optimality) and on behavior (an inverse relationship between bias magnitude and sensitivity optimizes utility). A "utilized" signal detection theory offers the possibility of expanding the phenomena that can be understood within a decision-making framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Utility of RNA Sequencing for Analysis of Maize Reproductive Transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Davidson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome sequencing is a powerful method for studying global expression patterns in large, complex genomes. Evaluation of sequence-based expression profiles during reproductive development would provide functional annotation to genes underlying agronomic traits. We generated transcriptome profiles for 12 diverse maize ( L. reproductive tissues representing male, female, developing seed, and leaf tissues using high throughput transcriptome sequencing. Overall, ∼80% of annotated genes were expressed. Comparative analysis between sequence and hybridization-based methods demonstrated the utility of ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-seq for expression determination and differentiation of paralagous genes (∼85% of maize genes. Analysis of 4975 gene families across reproductive tissues revealed expression divergence is proportional to family size. In all pairwise comparisons between tissues, 7 (pre- vs. postemergence cobs to 48% (pollen vs. ovule of genes were differentially expressed. Genes with expression restricted to a single tissue within this study were identified with the highest numbers observed in leaves, endosperm, and pollen. Coexpression network analysis identified 17 gene modules with complex and shared expression patterns containing many previously described maize genes. The data and analyses in this study provide valuable tools through improved gene annotation, gene family characterization, and a core set of candidate genes to further characterize maize reproductive development and improve grain yield potential.

  18. Mutation Pattern of Paired Immunoglobulin Heavy and Light Variable Domains in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiotto, Fabio; Marcatili, Paolo; Tenca, Claudya; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Albesiano, Emilia; Bagnara, Davide; Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Chu, Charles C; Morabito, Fortunato; Bruno, Silvia; Ferrarini, Manlio; Tramontano, Anna; Fais, Franco; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV–diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation analysis. Replacement (R) mutation frequency within IGK/LV chain CDRs correlated significantly with mutation frequency of paired IGHV CDRs in λ but not κ isotype CLL clones. CDRs of IGKV-J rearrangements displayed a lower percentage of R mutations than IGHVs. The frequency/pattern of mutations in kappa CLL Igs differed also from that in κ-expressing normal B cells described in the literature. Instead, the mutation frequency within the FRs of IGHV and either IGKV or IGLV was correlated. Notably, the amount of diversity introduced by replaced amino acids was comparable between IGHVs and IGKVs. The data indicate a different mutation pattern between κ and λ isotype CLL clones and suggest an antigenic selection that, in κ samples, operates against CDR variation. PMID:21785810

  19. Metabolic Engineering for Substrate Co-utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawand, Pratish

    Production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals is being increasingly pursued by chemical industry to reduce its dependence on petroleum. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is an abundant source of sugars that can be used for producing biofuels and bio-based chemicals using fermentation. Hydrolysis of LCB results in a mixture of sugars mainly composed of glucose and xylose. Fermentation of such a sugar mixture presents multiple technical challenges at industrial scale. Most industrial microorganisms utilize sugars in a sequential manner due to the regulatory phenomenon of carbon catabolite repression (CCR). Due to sequential utilization of sugars, the LCB-based fermentation processes suffer low productivities and complicated operation. Performance of fermentation processes can be improved by metabolic engineering of microorganisms to obtain superior characteristics such as high product yield. With increased computational power and availability of complete genomes of microorganisms, use of model-based metabolic engineering is now a common practice. The problem of sequential sugar utilization, however, is a regulatory problem, and metabolic models have never been used to solve such regulatory problems. The focus of this thesis is to use model-guided metabolic engineering to construct industrial strains capable of co-utilizing sugars. First, we develop a novel bilevel optimization algorithm SimUp, that uses metabolic models to identify reaction deletion strategies to force co-utilization of two sugars. We then use SimUp to identify reaction deletion strategies to force glucose-xylose co-utilization in Escherichia coli. To validate SimUp predictions, we construct three mutants with multiple gene knockouts and test them for glucose-xylose utilization characteristics. Two mutants, designated as LMSE2 and LMSE5, are shown to co-utilize glucose and xylose in agreement with SimUp predictions. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in glucose-xylose co-utilization of the

  20. Discovery and utilization of sorghum genes (Ma5/Ma6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John E; Rooney, William L; Klein, Patricia E; Morishige, Daryl; Murphy, Rebecca; Brady, Jeff A

    2012-11-13

    Methods and composition for the production of non-flowering or late flowering sorghum hybrid. For example, in certain aspects methods for use of molecular markers that constitute the Ma5/Ma6 pathway to modulate photoperiod sensitivity are described. The invention allows the production of plants having improved productivity and biomass generation.

  1. RESEARCH NOTE Clinical Utility of a 377 gene custom NGS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-11

    Nov 11, 2016 ... panel, pre and post bioinformatic analysis protocols, as well as reporting criteria, ... panel/) resulted in a 47.8% decline inpositive reporting (Figure 1c)with a final yieldof 7.9% (24 .... as well as the analytical sensitivity and accuracy of reportable variants are what aid the ... Maple syrup urine disease, type Ia.

  2. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  3. Utilization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    About 200 research reactors are now in operation in different parts of the world, and at least 70 such facilities, which are in advanced stages of planning and construction, should be critical within the next two or three years. In the process of this development a multitude of problems are being encountered in formulating and carrying out programs for the proper utilization of these facilities, especially in countries which have just begun or are starting their atomic energy work. An opportunity for scientific personnel from different Member States to discuss research reactor problems was given at an international symposium on the Programing and Utilization of Research Reactors organized by the Agency almost immediately after the General Conference session. Two hundred scientists from 35 countries, as well as from the European Nuclear Energy Agency and EURATOM, attended the meeting which was held in Vienna from 16 to 21 October 1961

  4. Health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... containment measures affect the utilization of health services, and how these measures interact with the number of patients per provider. Based on very valid register data, this is investigated for 9.556 Danish physiotherapists between 2001 and 2008. We find that higher (relative) fees for a given service...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...

  5. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  6. Utility customer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Customer issues affected by the restructuring of the $250 billion US electric power industry were discussed. In the past the industry's vertically integrated utilities conducted their business in protected geographic markets. With deregulation and greater competition, that industry structure will change. This presentation highlighted the strategies that Unicom is using to react to the restructuring of the electric power industry. The underlying principle is for the utility to reinvent itself to change its market orientation and focus on customer services, such as reliability, responsiveness, custom tailored solutions, and guaranteed savings over time. Attempting to become total energy providers and delivering integrated solutions to meet the needs of large industrial and commercial consumers, intensive market research, improved service and installation, and sophisticated customer retention initiatives will also have to be high on the agenda

  7. Role of the utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, A.

    1986-03-01

    It is common to say that a nuclear programme needs basic infrastructures such as an appropriate educational system, governmental organizations for regulation, decision and inspection, engineering organizations for design and implementation, industrial infrastructures for manufacturing, erection and commissioning, operation organizations for running and maintaining power plants. This schematic organization is not sufficient to succeed in a nuclear programme: one has to consider very carefully the attribution of responsibilities. It appears, that, among all the different systems which exist in the world for the organization of a nuclear project, it is always the utility which bears the overall responsibility for the implementation of the project. It defines objectives such as production capacity, schedule, price; it takes part in the definition of a national policy for energy supply, for the choice of a type of reactor, for the implementation of a national nuclear industry; it selects sites and conducts feasibility studies including a preliminary project; it participates in the definition of organization charts and selects contractors; it calls for and obtains authorizations from regulatory bodies; it manages the project, coordinates contractors and permanently ensures that goals are attained as regards safety, quality, schedule, costs. The French utility has directly taken charge of all these basic responsibilities and this is commonly considered as a major reason of the success of the French nuclear programme. Depending on its capacities, the utility may delegate some of these responsibilities - mainly concerning engineering and project management - to experienced firms. Nevertheless, one has to remember that the utility bears the final responsibility and that it is probably the organization most fully aware of the fact that the final goal is not the construction of a nuclear power station but the production of nuclear electricity in the best and safest conditions

  8. Reactor utilization, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor was operated until August 1984 due to prohibition issued by the Ministry since the reactor does not have the emergency cooling system nor special filters in the ventilation system yet. This means that the operation plan was fulfilled by 69%. This annex includes detailed tables containing data about utilization of reactor experimental channels, irradiated samples, as well as interruptions of operation. Detailed data about reactor power during this period are shown as well

  9. Electric utilities in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

  10. Utilization of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J L; Ross, C C; Smith, M S; Harper, S R [Georgia Tech Research Corp., Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the systems and equipment required to convert biogas into useful thermal and/or electrical energy was conducted, and the results published in the Handbook on Biogas Utilization (Walsh et al., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 1988). The physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of biogas, and the impact of these characteristics on both new and modified combustion equipment, were considered. The study also included consideration of auxiliary equipment for biogas collection, clean-up, compression and storage. (author).

  11. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  12. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  13. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela [Los Altos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Van Solingen, Pieter [Naaldwijk, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  14. GSEH: A Novel Approach to Select Prostate Cancer-Associated Genes Using Gene Expression Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjin; Choi, Sang-Min; Park, Sanghyun

    2018-01-01

    When a gene shows varying levels of expression among normal people but similar levels in disease patients or shows similar levels of expression among normal people but different levels in disease patients, we can assume that the gene is associated with the disease. By utilizing this gene expression heterogeneity, we can obtain additional information that abets discovery of disease-associated genes. In this study, we used collaborative filtering to calculate the degree of gene expression heterogeneity between classes and then scored the genes on the basis of the degree of gene expression heterogeneity to find "differentially predicted" genes. Through the proposed method, we discovered more prostate cancer-associated genes than 10 comparable methods. The genes prioritized by the proposed method are potentially significant to biological processes of a disease and can provide insight into them.

  15. Mechanisms of heme utilization by Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lindgren

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent facultative intracellular pathogen causing the severe disease tularemia in mammals. As for other bacteria, iron is essential for its growth but very few mechanisms for iron acquisition have been identified. Here, we analyzed if and how F. tularensis can utilize heme, a major source of iron in vivo. This is by no means obvious since the bacterium lacks components of traditional heme-uptake systems. We show that SCHU S4, the prototypic strain of subspecies tularensis, grew in vitro with heme as the sole iron source. By screening a SCHU S4 transposon insertion library, 16 genes were identified as important to efficiently utilize heme, two of which were required to avoid heme toxicity. None of the identified genes appeared to encode components of a potential heme-uptake apparatus. Analysis of SCHU S4 deletion mutants revealed that each of the components FeoB, the siderophore system, and FupA, contributed to the heme-dependent growth. In the case of the former two systems, iron acquisition was impaired, whereas the absence of FupA did not affect iron uptake but led to abnormally high binding of iron to macromolecules. Overall, the present study demonstrates that heme supports growth of F. tularensis and that the requirements for the utilization are highly complex and to some extent novel.

  16. Race/Ethnic Based Genetic Variations in Human Genes: Defining the Genetic Evidence for Disparity of Prostate Cancer Risk and Mortality Between Different Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franklin, John

    1999-01-01

    .... The study will evaluate variations in androgen receptor gene, the vitamin D receptor gene, and the APOJ/clusterin gene by amplifying specific DNA segments from certain genes utilizing a commonly used...

  17. Market research for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-01-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  18. Time Functions as Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  19. Electricity utilities: Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants requires an appropriate infrastructure on the part of the operator as well as a high level of technical quality of the plants and of qualification of the personnel. Added to this are a variety of services rendered by specialist firms. The Bayernwerk utility, with plants of its own, has played a major role in the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany. The importance of nuclear power to this firm is reflected in the pattern of its electricity sources and in the composition of its power plants. (orig.) [de

  20. Reactor utilization, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1981-01-01

    The reactor operating plan for 1981 was subject to the needs of testing operation with the 80% enriched fuel and was fulfilled on the whole. This annex includes data about reactor operation, review of shorter interruptions due to demands of the experiments, data about safety shutdowns caused by power cuts. Period of operation at low power levels was used mostly for activation analyses, and the operation at higher power levels were used for testing and regular isotope production. Detailed data about samples activation are included as well as utilization of the reactor as neutron source and the operating plan for 1982 [sr

  1. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  2. Managing the nuclear utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given

  3. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  4. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  5. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  6. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Ageing genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2018-01-01

    The idea of gerontogenes is in line with the evolutionary explanation of ageing as being an emergent phenomenon as a result of the imperfect maintenance and repair systems. Although evolutionary processes did not select for any specific ageing genes that restrict and determine the lifespan...... of an individual, the term ‘gerontogenes’ primarily refers to any genes that may seem to influence ageing and longevity, without being specifically selected for that role. Such genes can also be called ‘virtual gerontogenes’ by virtue of their indirect influence on the rate and process of ageing. More than 1000...... virtual gerontogenes have been associated with ageing and longevity in model organisms and humans. The ‘real’ genes, which do influence the essential lifespan of a species, and have been selected for in accordance with the evolutionary life history of the species, are known as the longevity assurance...

  8. Transporter engineering in biomass utilization by yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kobayashi, Jyumpei; Yamada, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Daisuke; Kuriya, Yuki; Hirono-Hara, Yoko; Ishii, Jun; Araki, Michihiro; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-11-01

    Biomass resources are attractive carbon sources for bioproduction because of their sustainability. Many studies have been performed using biomass resources to produce sugars as carbon sources for cell factories. Expression of biomass hydrolyzing enzymes in cell factories is an important approach for constructing biomass-utilizing bioprocesses because external addition of these enzymes is expensive. In particular, yeasts have been extensively engineered to be cell factories that directly utilize biomass because of their manageable responses to many genetic engineering tools, such as gene expression, deletion and editing. Biomass utilizing bioprocesses have also been developed using these genetic engineering tools to construct metabolic pathways. However, sugar input and product output from these cells are critical factors for improving bioproduction along with biomass utilization and metabolic pathways. Transporters are key components for efficient input and output activities. In this review, we focus on transporter engineering in yeast to enhance bioproduction from biomass resources. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Reranking candidate gene models with cross-species comparison for improved gene prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Fernando CN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most gene finders score candidate gene models with state-based methods, typically HMMs, by combining local properties (coding potential, splice donor and acceptor patterns, etc. Competing models with similar state-based scores may be distinguishable with additional information. In particular, functional and comparative genomics datasets may help to select among competing models of comparable probability by exploiting features likely to be associated with the correct gene models, such as conserved exon/intron structure or protein sequence features. Results We have investigated the utility of a simple post-processing step for selecting among a set of alternative gene models, using global scoring rules to rerank competing models for more accurate prediction. For each gene locus, we first generate the K best candidate gene models using the gene finder Evigan, and then rerank these models using comparisons with putative orthologous genes from closely-related species. Candidate gene models with lower scores in the original gene finder may be selected if they exhibit strong similarity to probable orthologs in coding sequence, splice site location, or signal peptide occurrence. Experiments on Drosophila melanogaster demonstrate that reranking based on cross-species comparison outperforms the best gene models identified by Evigan alone, and also outperforms the comparative gene finders GeneWise and Augustus+. Conclusion Reranking gene models with cross-species comparison improves gene prediction accuracy. This straightforward method can be readily adapted to incorporate additional lines of evidence, as it requires only a ranked source of candidate gene models.

  10. Utilities in UNIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.

    2002-01-01

    This manual goes to the users with some or much experience in the unix operating system. In such manner that they can get more efficiency using the unix of the most vendors. Include the majority of UNIX commands, shell built-in functions to create scripts, and a brief explication of the variables in several environments. In addition, other products are included, more and more integrated in the most of the unix operating systems. For example: the scanning and processing language awk, the print server LPRng, GNU Utilities, batch subsystem, etc. The manual was initially based in an specific unix. But it and been written for use of the most unix that exist: Tru64 unix, aix, iris, hpux. solaris y linux. In this way, many examples in the chapter had been included. The purpose of this manual is to provide an UNIX reference for advanced users in any of the unix operating systems family. (Author)

  11. Hydrogen and energy utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustadt, Daniel [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Renewable electricity generation plays one major role with the biggest share being wind energy. At the end of the year 2009 a wind power plant capacity of around 26 GW was installed in Germany. Several outlooks come to the conclusion that this capacity can be doubled in ten years (compare Figure 1). Additionally the German government has set a target of 26 GW installed off-shore capacity in North and Baltic Sea until 2030. At Vattenfall only a minor percentage of the electricity production comes from wind power today. This share will be increased up to 12% until 2030 following Vattenfall's strategy 'Making Electricity Clean'. This rapid development of wind power offers several opportunities but also means some challenges to Utilities. (orig.)

  12. Utility prudency issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnoff, G.

    1986-01-01

    The conventional legal standard of prudence found in the common law of public utility regulation precludes a judgment about past decisions based on present knowledge of whether the decisions proved in time to have been right or wrong. The proper inquiry is not whether every management decision proved to be correct. Rather, the proper inquiry as stated by the New York Public Service Commission in Re Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc. is ...whether the company's conduct was reasonable at the time, under all of the circumstances, considering that the company had to solve its problems prospectively.... The exercise of prudence does not guarantee performance on schedule or within budget, or the making of correct decisions, when judged after the fact. But it does require or involve the exercise of reasoned decision making within a framework of reasonably available alternatives

  13. Gene coexpression network analysis as a source of functional annotation for rice genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L Childs

    Full Text Available With the existence of large publicly available plant gene expression data sets, many groups have undertaken data analyses to construct gene coexpression networks and functionally annotate genes. Often, a large compendium of unrelated or condition-independent expression data is used to construct gene networks. Condition-dependent expression experiments consisting of well-defined conditions/treatments have also been used to create coexpression networks to help examine particular biological processes. Gene networks derived from either condition-dependent or condition-independent data can be difficult to interpret if a large number of genes and connections are present. However, algorithms exist to identify modules of highly connected and biologically relevant genes within coexpression networks. In this study, we have used publicly available rice (Oryza sativa gene expression data to create gene coexpression networks using both condition-dependent and condition-independent data and have identified gene modules within these networks using the Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis method. We compared the number of genes assigned to modules and the biological interpretability of gene coexpression modules to assess the utility of condition-dependent and condition-independent gene coexpression networks. For the purpose of providing functional annotation to rice genes, we found that gene modules identified by coexpression analysis of condition-dependent gene expression experiments to be more useful than gene modules identified by analysis of a condition-independent data set. We have incorporated our results into the MSU Rice Genome Annotation Project database as additional expression-based annotation for 13,537 genes, 2,980 of which lack a functional annotation description. These results provide two new types of functional annotation for our database. Genes in modules are now associated with groups of genes that constitute a collective functional

  14. Energy utilities and the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The chances for energy utilities in the Netherlands to present themselves on the Internet are briefly outlined. It appears that other businesses are ahead of the Dutch utilities in offering electronic services with respect to energy

  15. Gene therapy of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Tan Jian

    2007-01-01

    Normally, differentiated thyroid carcinoma(DTC) is a disease of good prognosis, but about 30% of the tumors are dedifferentiate, which are inaccessible to standard therapeutic procedures such as 'operation, 131 I therapy and thyroid hormone'. Both internal and abroad experts are researching a new therapy of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma--gene therapy. Many of them utilize methods of it, but follow different strategies: (1) transduction of the thyroid sodium/iodide transporter gene to make tissues that do not accumulate iodide treatable by 131 I therapy; (2) strengthening of the anti-tumor immune response; (3) suicide gene therapy; (4) depression the generation of tumor cells; (5) gene therapy of anti- vascularization. (authors)

  16. Gene doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisma, H J; de Hon, O

    2006-04-01

    Together with the rapidly increasing knowledge on genetic therapies as a promising new branch of regular medicine, the issue has arisen whether these techniques might be abused in the field of sports. Previous experiences have shown that drugs that are still in the experimental phases of research may find their way into the athletic world. Both the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) have expressed concerns about this possibility. As a result, the method of gene doping has been included in the list of prohibited classes of substances and prohibited methods. This review addresses the possible ways in which knowledge gained in the field of genetic therapies may be misused in elite sports. Many genes are readily available which may potentially have an effect on athletic performance. The sporting world will eventually be faced with the phenomena of gene doping to improve athletic performance. A combination of developing detection methods based on gene arrays or proteomics and a clear education program on the associated risks seems to be the most promising preventive method to counteract the possible application of gene doping.

  17. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  18. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  19. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Utility application of simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss dynamic system simulation from the perspective of a successful utility user. In it, four aspects of the issue of utility use of simulation will be addressed: (1) What simulation software is available to utilities which can be of practical assistance with a modest investment in staff and training. (2) To what specific problems can utilities apply the technique of simulation and achieve reasonably cost effective results. (3) What the advantages are of in-house dynamic simulation capability, as opposed to depending on NSSS vendors or consultants. (4) What the prospects are for wider use of dynamic simulation in the utility industry

  1. Market research for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-12-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

  2. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  3. Gene Locater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Sehar, Anoosha; Rehman, Inayat-Ur

    2012-01-01

    software's for calculating recombination frequency is mostly limited to the range and flexibility of this type of analysis. GENE LOCATER is a fully customizable program for calculating recombination frequency, written in JAVA. Through an easy-to-use interface, GENE LOCATOR allows users a high degree...... of flexibility in calculating genetic linkage and displaying linkage group. Among other features, this software enables user to identify linkage groups with output visualized graphically. The program calculates interference and coefficient of coincidence with elevated accuracy in sample datasets. AVAILABILITY...

  4. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  5. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) resistance breeding utilizing wild Helianthus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild Helianthus species possess valuable resistance genes for sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.), especially the 39 largely under-utilized perennial species. Resistance to race F has been transferred into cultivated background via bridging of interspecific amphiploids. More recently, a si...

  6. SYMPAL: utilities guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.A.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    1997-02-01

    The processing code SYMPAL is used to perform the data treatment for creating a new version of the European Activation File (EAF). The entire process is handled by different modules of the code in a sequential and orderly manner. The modular code system accesses, translates and processes cross section data from a wide variety of libraries and calculations with nuclear model codes. Two major data bases are accessed and merged so as to create a new library version. The Master Data File (MDF) contains the original cross section data extracted, unmodified but reformatted, from numerous sources. The Master Parameter File (MPF) contains a compilation of all physical information necessary to renormalise, split and internally validate any particular type of cross section. The combination of these two files generates a new activation library in pointwise and various groupwise formats. The SYMPAL utilities guide describes a set of programs developed to handle certain aspects of the procedure done outside of the main processing tasks. These include counting, translating, selecting and plotting data streams. Special printing and plotting procedures have been written to handle the large amounts of information present in activation libraries. (author)

  7. Gnuastro: GNU Astronomy Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Gnuastro (GNU Astronomy Utilities) manipulates and analyzes astronomical data. It is an official GNU package of a large collection of programs and C/C++ library functions. Command-line programs perform arithmetic operations on images, convert FITS images to common types like JPG or PDF, convolve an image with a given kernel or matching of kernels, perform cosmological calculations, crop parts of large images (possibly in multiple files), manipulate FITS extensions and keywords, and perform statistical operations. In addition, it contains programs to make catalogs from detection maps, add noise, make mock profiles with a variety of radial functions using monte-carlo integration for their centers, match catalogs, and detect objects in an image among many other operations. The command-line programs share the same basic command-line user interface for the comfort of both the users and developers. Gnuastro is written to comply fully with the GNU coding standards and integrates well with all Unix-like operating systems. This enables astronomers to expect a fully familiar experience in the source code, building, installing and command-line user interaction that they have seen in all the other GNU software that they use. Gnuastro's extensive library is included for users who want to build their own unique programs.

  8. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwalowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  9. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  10. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  11. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  12. Scaling of gene expression data allowing the comparison of different gene expression platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Schaaf, Gerben J.; Kool, Marcel; Baas, Frank; Ruijter, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and microarrays have found a widespread application, but much ambiguity exists regarding the amalgamation of the data resulting from these technologies. Cross-platform utilization of gene expression data from the SAGE and microarray technology could reduce

  13. Evaluation of the similarity of gene expression data estimated with SAGE and Affymetrix GeneChips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Ruijter, Jan M.; Schaaf, Gerben J.; Asgharnegad, Lida; Zwijnenburg, Danny A.; Kool, Marcel; Baas, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Background: Serial Analysis of Gene Expression ( SAGE) and microarrays have found awidespread application, but much ambiguity exists regarding the evaluation of these technologies. Cross-platform utilization of gene expression data from the SAGE and microarray technology could reduce the need for

  14. Adaptively evolved yeast mutants on galactose show trade-offs in carbon utilization on glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    the molecular mechanisms. In this study, adaptively evolved yeast mutants with improved galactose utilization ability showed impaired glucose utilization. The molecular genetic basis of this trade-off was investigated using a systems biology approach. Transcriptional and metabolic changes resulting from...... the improvement of galactose utilization were found maintained during growth on glucose. Moreover, glucose repression related genes showed conserved expression patterns during growth on both sugars. Mutations in the RAS2 gene that were identified as beneficial for galactose utilization in evolved mutants...

  15. DREB genes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unipar

    2015-03-12

    Mar 12, 2015 ... ClustalW algorithm, version 2.0 (Larkin et al., 2007) and redundant inputs were removed. Characteristics of predicted ... The gel images were captured utilizing a photo documenting systems, L-PIX - .... AP2/ERF domain consists of 58 amino acids and has three anti-parallel β-sheets and one α-helix. This.

  16. Facility Utilization Reports - FAA Aviation Information Utilization Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides: (1) Space management and planning, including area calculations, tracking space by organization and employee, and monitoring space utilization information....

  17. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  18. Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A Rodionov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

  19. Evaluating the consistency of gene sets used in the analysis of bacterial gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintle Nathan L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical analyses of whole genome expression data require functional information about genes in order to yield meaningful biological conclusions. The Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG are common sources of functionally grouped gene sets. For bacteria, the SEED and MicrobesOnline provide alternative, complementary sources of gene sets. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the data obtained from these resources has been performed. Results We define a series of gene set consistency metrics directly related to the most common classes of statistical analyses for gene expression data, and then perform a comprehensive analysis of 3581 Affymetrix® gene expression arrays across 17 diverse bacteria. We find that gene sets obtained from GO and KEGG demonstrate lower consistency than those obtained from the SEED and MicrobesOnline, regardless of gene set size. Conclusions Despite the widespread use of GO and KEGG gene sets in bacterial gene expression data analysis, the SEED and MicrobesOnline provide more consistent sets for a wide variety of statistical analyses. Increased use of the SEED and MicrobesOnline gene sets in the analysis of bacterial gene expression data may improve statistical power and utility of expression data.

  20. Privatization of municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges and special issues which arise through the sale of a municipal electric utility were discussed. The recent sales of two utilities, the Kentville Electric Commission in Nova Scotia and Cornwall Electric in Ontario, were used as examples to show how the sale of an electric utility differs from the sale of most business enterprises. Municipal utilities are integral parts of the communities they serve which introduces several complexities into the sale. Factors that require special attention in the sale of the utilities, including electricity rates, local accountability, treatment of employees and local economic development, and the need for a comprehensive communication program to deal with the substantial public interest that sale of a municipal utility will engender, were reviewed

  1. Investigating Gene Function in Cereal Rust Fungi by Plant-Mediated Virus-Induced Gene Silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Vinay; Bakkeren, Guus

    2017-01-01

    Cereal rust fungi are destructive pathogens, threatening grain production worldwide. Targeted breeding for resistance utilizing host resistance genes has been effective. However, breakdown of resistance occurs frequently and continued efforts are needed to understand how these fungi overcome resistance and to expand the range of available resistance genes. Whole genome sequencing, transcriptomic and proteomic studies followed by genome-wide computational and comparative analyses have identified large repertoire of genes in rust fungi among which are candidates predicted to code for pathogenicity and virulence factors. Some of these genes represent defence triggering avirulence effectors. However, functions of most genes still needs to be assessed to understand the biology of these obligate biotrophic pathogens. Since genetic manipulations such as gene deletion and genetic transformation are not yet feasible in rust fungi, performing functional gene studies is challenging. Recently, Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) has emerged as a useful tool to characterize gene function in rust fungi while infecting and growing in host plants. We utilized Barley stripe mosaic virus-mediated virus induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) to induce HIGS of candidate rust fungal genes in the wheat host to determine their role in plant-fungal interactions. Here, we describe the methods for using BSMV-VIGS in wheat for functional genomics study in cereal rust fungi.

  2. Mox fuel utilization in ATR

    OpenAIRE

    下村 和生; 川太 徳夫

    1987-01-01

    ATR, a heavy-water moderated boiling-light-water cooled reactor developed in Japan, is a unique reactor with out-standing flexibility regarding nuclear fuel utilization, because it has superior properties concerning the utilization of plutonium, recovered uranium and depleted uranium. The development of this type of reactor is expected to contribute both to the stable supply of energy and to the establishment of plutonium utilization in Japan. Much effort has been and will be made on the deve...

  3. Utility deregulation and AMR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of deregulation on other utilities and services and examines how the electric utilities can avoid the worst of these effects and capitalize of the best aspects of competition in achieving marketing excellence. The article presents deregulation as a customer service and underscores the need for utilities to learn to compete aggressively and intelligently and provide additional services available through technology such as automated meter reading

  4. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  5. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  6. Multiattribute Utility Theory, Intertemporal Utility and Correlation Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Convenient assumptions about qualitative properties of the intertemporal utility function have generated counterintuitive implications for the relationship between atemporal risk aversion and the intertemporal elasticity of substitution. If the intertemporal utility function is additively separable...... aversion. Our results show that subjects are correlation averse over lotteries with intertemporal income profiles....

  7. The changing utility workforce and the evolution of utility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, A. [Autodesk Inc., (United States); Zeiss, G. [Autodesk Inc., (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Electric utilities are experiencing an unprecedented workforce turnover as a wave of retirement approaches. The challenge for the industry is to mitigate the loss of industry knowledge and attract talented new designers and engineers. Utilities need to effectively transfer knowledge from an existing workforce with up to three decades of experience to their new hires who have very different skill levels as well as different expectations regarding design tools compared to their predecessors. Knowledge transfer from the retiring workforce to the new hires can be facilitated with rules-based design software. Easy-to-use design software with built-in validations can accelerate training. By investing in utility design software that incorporates the best elements of design processes from other industries, utilities can attract the new generation of engineers and designers to help utilities define new processes to upgrade existing infrastructure, bring online new distributed and renewable generation facilities, implement smart devices and meters, and improve customer service. 3 refs.

  8. Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston K. Mazandu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide coverage and biological relevance of the Gene Ontology (GO, confirmed through its successful use in protein function prediction, have led to the growth in its popularity. In order to exploit the extent of biological knowledge that GO offers in describing genes or groups of genes, there is a need for an efficient, scalable similarity measure for GO terms and GO-annotated proteins. While several GO similarity measures exist, none adequately addresses all issues surrounding the design and usage of the ontology. We introduce a new metric for measuring the distance between two GO terms using the intrinsic topology of the GO-DAG, thus enabling the measurement of functional similarities between proteins based on their GO annotations. We assess the performance of this metric using a ROC analysis on human protein-protein interaction datasets and correlation coefficient analysis on the selected set of protein pairs from the CESSM online tool. This metric achieves good performance compared to the existing annotation-based GO measures. We used this new metric to assess functional similarity between orthologues, and show that it is effective at determining whether orthologues are annotated with similar functions and identifying cases where annotation is inconsistent between orthologues.

  9. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, David

    2012-01-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called ‘gene doping’. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted...

  10. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wilson, Torrence M. [Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wiseman, Gregory A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Federspiel, Mark J. [Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Morris, John C., E-mail: davis.brian@mayo.edu [Division of Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-11-19

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  11. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Wiseman, Gregory A.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Morris, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  12. The utility target market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, G.J.; Martin, J.

    1994-01-01

    A new model (the Utility Target Market Model) is used to evaluate the economic benefits of photovoltaic (PV) power systems located at the electrical utility customer site. These distributed PV demand-side generation systems can be evaluated in a similar manner to other demand-side management technologies. The energy and capacity values of an actual PV system located in the service area of the New England Electrical System (NEES) are the two utility benefits evaluated. The annual stream of energy and capacity benefits calculated for the utility are converted to the installed cost per watt that the utility should be willing to invest to receive this benefit stream. Different discount rates are used to show the sensitivity of the allowable installed cost of the PV systems to a utility's average cost of capital. Capturing both the energy and capacity benefits of these relatively environmentally friendly distributed generators, NEES should be willing to invest in this technology when the installed cost per watt declines to ca $2.40 using NEES' rated cost of capital (8.78%). If a social discount rate of 3% is used, installation should be considered when installed cost approaches $4.70/W. Since recent installations in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District have cost between $7-8/W, cost-effective utility applications of PV are close. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Empirical Specification of Utility Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    Decision theory can be applied to four types of decision situations in education and psychology: (1) selection; (2) placement; (3) classification; and (4) mastery. For the application of the theory, a utility function must be specified. Usually the utility function is chosen on a priori grounds. In this paper methods for the empirical assessment…

  14. Xylose utilization in recombinant zymomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Perry G; McCole, Laura; Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V

    2014-03-25

    Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains studied were found to accumulate ribulose when grown in xylose-containing media. Engineering these strains to increase ribose-5-phosphate isomerase activity led to reduced ribulose accumulation, improved growth, improved xylose utilization, and increased ethanol production.

  15. Candidate genes in panic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, A. S.; Buttenschön, Henriette N; Bani-Fatemi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of molecular genetics approaches in examination of panic disorder (PD) has implicated several variants as potential susceptibility factors for panicogenesis. However, the identification of robust PD susceptibility genes has been complicated by phenotypic diversity, underpowered...... association studies and ancestry-specific effects. In the present study, we performed a succinct review of case-control association studies published prior to April 2015. Meta-analyses were performed for candidate gene variants examined in at least three studies using the Cochrane Mantel-Haenszel fixed......-effect model. Secondary analyses were also performed to assess the influences of sex, agoraphobia co-morbidity and ancestry-specific effects on panicogenesis. Meta-analyses were performed on 23 variants in 20 PD candidate genes. Significant associations after correction for multiple testing were observed...

  16. Role of PET in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the well-established use of positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical oncology, novel roles for PET are rapidly emerging in the field of gene therapy. Methods for controlled gene delivery to living bodies, made available through advances in molecular biology, are currently being employed in animals for reasearch purposes and in humans to treat diseases such as cancer. Although gene therapy is still in its early developmental stage, it is perceived that many serious illnesses could be treated successfully by the use of therapeutic gene delivery. A major challenge for the widespread use of human gene therapy is to achieve a controlled and effective delivery of foreign genes to target cells and subsequently, adequate levels of expression. As such, the availability of noninvasive imaging methods to accurately assess the location, duration, and level of transgene expression is critical for optimizing gene therapy strategies. Current endeavors to achieve this goal include methods that utilize magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and nuclear imaging techniques. As for PET, reporter systems that utilize gene encoding enzymes that accumulate postion labeled substrates and those transcribing surface receptors that bind specific positron labeled ligands have been successfully developed. More recent advances in this area include improved reporter gene constructs and radiotracers, introduction of potential strategies to monitor endogenous gene expression, and human pilot studies evaluating the distribution and safety of reporter PET tracers. The remarkably rapid progress occuring in gene imaging technology indicates its importance and wide range of application. As such, gene imaging is likely to become a major and exciting new area for future application of PET technology

  17. Role of PET in gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Han [School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    In addition to the well-established use of positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical oncology, novel roles for PET are rapidly emerging in the field of gene therapy. Methods for controlled gene delivery to living bodies, made available through advances in molecular biology, are currently being employed in animals for reasearch purposes and in humans to treat diseases such as cancer. Although gene therapy is still in its early developmental stage, it is perceived that many serious illnesses could be treated successfully by the use of therapeutic gene delivery. A major challenge for the widespread use of human gene therapy is to achieve a controlled and effective delivery of foreign genes to target cells and subsequently, adequate levels of expression. As such, the availability of noninvasive imaging methods to accurately assess the location, duration, and level of transgene expression is critical for optimizing gene therapy strategies. Current endeavors to achieve this goal include methods that utilize magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and nuclear imaging techniques. As for PET, reporter systems that utilize gene encoding enzymes that accumulate postion labeled substrates and those transcribing surface receptors that bind specific positron labeled ligands have been successfully developed. More recent advances in this area include improved reporter gene constructs and radiotracers, introduction of potential strategies to monitor endogenous gene expression, and human pilot studies evaluating the distribution and safety of reporter PET tracers. The remarkably rapid progress occuring in gene imaging technology indicates its importance and wide range of application. As such, gene imaging is likely to become a major and exciting new area for future application of PET technology.

  18. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  19. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-05-25

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon

  20. Dealing with the difficult utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, D.E.; Sundquist, M.J.; Cross, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    STS HydroPower, Ltd. (STS) is an independent hydroelectric power developer involved in the full scope of hydroelectric activities. This includes the permitting, design, financing, turbine design and manufacturing, site construction and operation of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites across the United States. At the present time, STS owns and operates nine sites in four states with a combined capacity of 20 megawatts. In dealing with the implementation of these sites, STS has dealt with five different utilities. In addition, in pursuing additional development opportunities throughout the United States, STS has had contact with numerous other utilities. During this time it would be fair to conclude that each of these utilities has exhibited its own personality with respect to dealing with independent developers. To the credit of the utility industry, the majority of these utilities have been helpful and supportive of independent projects, but a small number of utilities have approached projects from an initial and continuing adversarial position. The purpose of this paper is to examine those options and procedures available to the developer when a utility is encountered with a negative predisposition

  1. Enhancement of antibiotic productions by engineered nitrate utilization in actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Sitong; Wu, Hang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Buchang; Bai, Linquan

    2017-07-01

    Nitrate is necessary for primary and secondary metabolism of actinomycetes and stimulates the production of a few antibiotics, such as lincomycin and rifamycin. However, the mechanism of this nitrate-stimulating effect was not fully understood. Two putative ABC-type nitrate transporters were identified in Streptomyces lincolnensis NRRL2936 and verified to be involved in lincomycin biosynthesis. With nitrate supplementation, the transcription of nitrogen assimilation genes, nitrate-specific ABC1 transporter genes, and lincomycin exporter gene lmrA was found to be enhanced and positively regulated by the global regulator GlnR, whose expression was also improved. Moreover, heterologous expression of ABC2 transporter genes in Streptomyces coelicolor M145 resulted in an increased actinorhodin production. Further incorporation of a nitrite-specific transporter gene nirC, as in nirC-ABC2 cassette, led to an even higher actinorhodin production. Similarly, the titers of salinomycin, ansamitocin, lincomycin, and geldanamycin were increased with the integration of this cassette to Streptomyces albus BK3-25, Actinosynnema pretiosum ATCC31280, S. lincolnensis LC-G, and Streptomyces hygroscopicus XM201, respectively. Our work expanded the nitrate-stimulating effect to many antibiotic producers by utilizing the nirC-ABC2 cassette for enhanced nitrate utilization, which could become a general tool for titer increase of antibiotics in actinomycetes.

  2. Evolutionary signatures amongst disease genes permit novel methods for gene prioritization and construction of informative gene-based networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan Priedigkeit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genes involved in the same function tend to have similar evolutionary histories, in that their rates of evolution covary over time. This coevolutionary signature, termed Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC, is calculated using only gene sequences from a set of closely related species and has demonstrated potential as a computational tool for inferring functional relationships between genes. To further define applications of ERC, we first established that roughly 55% of genetic diseases posses an ERC signature between their contributing genes. At a false discovery rate of 5% we report 40 such diseases including cancers, developmental disorders and mitochondrial diseases. Given these coevolutionary signatures between disease genes, we then assessed ERC's ability to prioritize known disease genes out of a list of unrelated candidates. We found that in the presence of an ERC signature, the true disease gene is effectively prioritized to the top 6% of candidates on average. We then apply this strategy to a melanoma-associated region on chromosome 1 and identify MCL1 as a potential causative gene. Furthermore, to gain global insight into disease mechanisms, we used ERC to predict molecular connections between 310 nominally distinct diseases. The resulting "disease map" network associates several diseases with related pathogenic mechanisms and unveils many novel relationships between clinically distinct diseases, such as between Hirschsprung's disease and melanoma. Taken together, these results demonstrate the utility of molecular evolution as a gene discovery platform and show that evolutionary signatures can be used to build informative gene-based networks.

  3. A utility perspective on BRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, B.

    1988-01-01

    The author is program manager for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for the Utility Nuclear Waste Management Group (UNWMG), an activity funded by 45 utilities with nuclear power programs. The UNWMG represents the utility industry on high-level and low-level radioactive waste issues in legislative, regulatory, and technical proceedings, and therefore has a strong interest in the progress of below-regulatory-concern (BRC) regulations. The author addresses waste disposal volumes prior to discussing recent developments and status of BRC regulations

  4. GeneBins: a database for classifying gene expression data, with application to plant genome arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiller Georg

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To interpret microarray experiments, several ontological analysis tools have been developed. However, current tools are limited to specific organisms. Results We developed a bioinformatics system to assign the probe set sequences of any organism to a hierarchical functional classification modelled on KEGG ontology. The GeneBins database currently supports the functional classification of expression data from four Affymetrix arrays; Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Glycine max and Medicago truncatula. An online analysis tool to identify relevant functions is also provided. Conclusion GeneBins provides resources to interpret gene expression results from microarray experiments. It is available at http://bioinfoserver.rsbs.anu.edu.au/utils/GeneBins/

  5. Gene expression and gene therapy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, Claire; Couillaud, Franck; Moonen, Chrit T.W.

    2007-01-01

    The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

  6. Medicare Utilization for Part B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance SMI) which includes the Medicare Part B Physician and Supplier...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. Decentralized method for utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, M. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh); Magat, W.A.

    1979-10-01

    A new institutional arrangement for regulating utilities is suggested that minimizes the costs of natural monopolies. A mixture of regulation and franchising, the plan draws on the advantages of each and eliminates many of the problems. The proposal allows utilities to set their own price on the basis of demand and marginal-cost projections. Subsidies are provided by the regulatory agency if there is a consumer surplus. The system encourages the utility to select a competitive price and to produce only the amount of service needed. Operating efficiency is encouraged by rewarding cost reductions and discouraging cost overstatement at the rate review. The regulatory agency would not need to take action to bring price and marginal costs into equality. The franchise sale can be made by competitive bidding, in which the bidders would capitalize part or all of the subsidy or the regulatory agency could recover the subsidy in a lump-sum tax on the utility.

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. Medicare Utilization for Part A

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part A (Hospital Insurance HI) which include the Medicare Ranking for all Short-Stay Hospitals by...

  11. Build Resilience at Your Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    CREAT allows users to evaluate potential impacts of climate change on their utility and to evaluate adaptation options to address them using both traditional risk assessment and scenario-based decision making.

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. HUG - the Hydrogen Utility Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkler, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Utility Group (HUG) was formally established in October 2005 by a group of leading electric utilities with a common interest in sharing hydrogen experiences and lessons learned. HUG's Mission Statement is: 'To accelerate utility integration of promising hydrogen energy related business applications through the coordinated efforts and actions of its members in collaboration with key stakeholders, including government agencies and utility support organizations.' In February 2006, HUG members presented a briefing to the US Senate Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucus in Washington, DC, outlining the significant role that the power industry should play in an emerging hydrogen economy. This presentation provides an overview of that briefing, summarizing the HUG's ongoing interests and activities

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. Critical paths to coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, G R

    1977-01-01

    The present dilemma of energy producers, converters, and policy decision makers is presented. The consequences of environmental control regulations, coupled with the need for conservation and energy, and of energy resources on the increased utilization of coal, are discussed. Several recent technical accomplishments that make possible increased utilization of coal for power generation are described. Groundwork is laid for discussion of the technical development that must occur if the United States is to retain its energy viability.

  18. The 1990 utility tax conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on the Sixth Annual Utility Tax Conference held in Washington, D.C. in October. Topics of the conference concerned tax issues associated with depreciable assets, employee benefits plans, valuation on utility property, pollution control, and restructuring and reorganization. Also discussed briefly were the tax changes being considered at that time as part of the negotiation of the details of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

  19. Strategies for the plutonium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Lima, J.O.V.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-11-01

    A review of the activities involving plutonium (its recycle, utilization and technological status and perspectives) is done. These informations are useful for an economic viability study for the plutonium utilization in thermal reactors (recycling) and in fast breeders reactor (FBR), trying to collect the major number of informations about these subjects. The initial phase describes the present status and projections of plutonium accumulation and requirements. Then, the technological process are described and some strategies are analyzed. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Imaging reporter gene for monitoring gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beco, V. de; Baillet, G.; Tamgac, F.; Tofighi, M.; Weinmann, P.; Vergote, J.; Moretti, J.L.; Tamgac, G.

    2002-01-01

    Scintigraphic images can be obtained to document gene function at cellular level. This approach is presented here and the use of a reporter gene to monitor gene therapy is described. Two main ways are presented: either the use of a reporter gene coding for an enzyme the action of which will be monitored by radiolabeled pro-drug, or a cellular receptor gene, the action of which is documented by a radio labeled cognate receptor ligand. (author)

  1. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man month study was undertaken to identify utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980s. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items that must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  2. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man-month study, jointly funded by EPRI and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-EAST, was undertaken to identify the utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980's. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items which must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  3. New progress in snake mitochondrial gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nian; Zhao, Shujin

    2009-08-01

    To further understand the evolution of snake mitochondrial genomes, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were determined for representative species from two snake families: the Many-banded krait, the Banded krait, the Chinese cobra, the King cobra, the Hundred-pace viper, the Short-tailed mamushi, and the Chain viper. Thirteen protein-coding genes, 22-23 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 control regions were identified in these mtDNAs. Duplication of the control region and translocation of the tRNAPro gene were two notable features of the snake mtDNAs. These results from the gene rearrangement comparisons confirm the correctness of traditional classification schemes and validate the utility of comparing complete mtDNA sequences for snake phylogeny reconstruction.

  4. Inter-utility trade review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnes, E.M.; Vaahedi, E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Board was requested by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources to identify possible measures to improve cooperation among Canadian electrical utilities and to enhance access for buyers and sellers of electricity to available transmission capacity through intervening systems for wheeling purposes. To identify measures to improve cooperation, a questionnaire was sent to electric utilities and other interested parties on the present extent and future possibilities for inter-utility cooperation. The questionnaire and its results are presented. It was found that there already exists a significant amount of inter-utility cooperation in Canada. Such cooperation generally involves interchanges of economy energy, non-economic capacity and energy, coordinated operation, resource sharing, maintenance scheduling, emergency supports, etc. There is a very limited degree of integrated generation expansion planning. Typically, these agreements are carried out under interconnection agreements negotiated on a bi-lateral basis. The highest current degree of cooperation exists under the auspices of the Alberta interconnected power system pool. Wheeling is limited and generally restricted to cases where the sender and receiver are the same entity or where power is wheeled to a utility purchasing it from the wheeler's system. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. http://rged.wall-eva.net. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Availability and implementation: Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. Database URL: http://rged.wall-eva.net PMID:25252782

  7. Utilization trend of wood species utilized in furniture industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization trend of four commonly used wood species and two lesser used wood species that are used for furniture making was examined. The wood species are Mansonia altissima (Mansonia), Khaya ivorensis (Khaya), Cordia millenii (Cordia) and Tectona grandis (Teak) as commonly used wood species; Aningeria ...

  8. The NRC and utility finances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byus, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    In a speech before the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners in November 1991, Nuclear Regulatory Commission Chairman Ivan Selin presented what he called an open-quotes expansion of the concept of safety beyond our previous narrow bounds.close quotes He went on to explain, open-quotes To be seen as successful and safe operators of nuclear facilities, utilities must have safe and predictable cash flows.close quotes While there is little disagreement that the concepts of successful plant operations and financial strength go hand in hand, the relationship between the two is not clear. Which came first, successful operation of generating plants or financial strength? Selin's views on NRC involvement in financial aspects of utility operation in the United States are sure to stimulate debate on the issue

  9. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  10. Calculating utility prudency issue costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry, particularly utilities and their construction, engineering and vendor agents, is faced with a surging increase in prudency management audits. What started as primarily a nuclear project-oriented requirement has spread to encompass most significant utility capital construction projects. Such audits are often a precedent condition to commencement of rate hearings. The cost engineer, a primary major capital construction project participant, is required to develop or critique ''prudency issue'' costs as part of such audits. Although utility costs in the broadest sense are potentially at issue, this paper concentrates on the typical project/construction management costs. The costs of design, procurement and construction are all subject to the calculation process

  11. Cellodextrin Utilization by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokusaeva, Karina; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Zomer, Aldert; MacSharry, John; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2011-01-01

    Cellodextrins, the incomplete hydrolysis products from insoluble cellulose, are accessible as a carbon source to certain members of the human gut microbiota, such as Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. Transcription of the cldEFGC gene cluster of B. breve UCC2003 was shown to be induced upon growth on cellodextrins, implicating this cluster in the metabolism of these sugars. Phenotypic analysis of a B. breve UCC2003::cldE insertion mutant confirmed that the cld gene cluster is exclusively required for cellodextrin utilization by this commensal. Moreover, our results suggest that transcription of the cld cluster is controlled by a LacI-type regulator encoded by cldR, located immediately upstream of cldE. Gel mobility shift assays using purified CldRHis (produced by the incorporation of a His12-encoding sequence into the 3′ end of the cldC gene) indicate that the cldEFGC promoter is subject to negative control by CldRHis, which binds to two inverted repeats. Analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) of medium samples obtained during growth of B. breve UCC2003 on a mixture of cellodextrins revealed its ability to utilize cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, and cellopentaose, with cellotriose apparently representing the preferred substrate. The cldC gene of the cld operon of B. breve UCC2003 is, to the best of our knowledge, the first described bifidobacterial β-glucosidase exhibiting hydrolytic activity toward various cellodextrins. PMID:21216899

  12. Utility applications and broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebra, R.; Taylor, P.

    2003-02-01

    A detailed analytical model of a cable network that would be capable of providing utilities with such services as automatic meter reading, on-line ability to remotely connect and disconnect commodity service, outage notification, tamper detection, direct utility-initiated load control, indirect user prescribed load control, and user access to energy consumption information, is described. The paper provides an overview of of the zones of focus that must be addressed -- market assessment, competitive analysis, product identification, economic model development, assessment of skill set requirements, performance monitoring and tracking, and various technical issues -- to identify any gaps in the organisation's ability to fully develop such a plan. Developers of the model field tested it in 1995 using some benchmarks that were available at that time, and found that the benefit afforded by direct labor saving was not sufficient to cover the capital expenditure of the advanced utility gateway connected to the cable network. However, since 1995 the unanticipated shift in the derived consumer value from a host of cable-based communications services has rendered these original projections irrelevant. Since national communications organizations concentrate on 'tier one' or at best 'tier two' cities (roughly corresponding to the NFL franchise cities and baseball farm team cities), the uncovered rural and suburban areas of the country create a significant digital divide within the population. The developers of the model contend that these unserviced areas provide utilities, especially municipal utilities, with an excellent opportunity to step into the gap and provide a full range of services that includes water, electricity and communications. The proposed model provides the foundation for utilities upon which to base their ultimate implementation decisions.

  13. 24 CFR 5.632 - Utility reimbursements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Payment § 5.632 Utility reimbursements. (a) Applicability. This... the utility supplier to pay the utility bill on behalf of the family. If the PHA elects to pay the utility supplier, the PHA must notify the family of the amount paid to the utility supplier. (3) In the...

  14. 'Utility marketing' as an oxymoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedge, P.

    1996-01-01

    Electricity industry restructuring through the elimination of monopolies and the introduction of competition was examined. A distinction was made between marketing a product and brand marketing, emphasizing the customer loyalty, customer confidence and high profitability associated with brand names. The meaning of 'brand' in general and particularly in relation to electric power was explained. The old and the new utilities world were contrasted, and the place and importance of marketing in the deregulated, customer choice-based, market-driven new utilities world was described

  15. Environmental issues: I - Energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental issues and policies. Overall, the paper also examines several issues related to energy utilization, environment, sustainable development from both current and future perspectives, and energy use and its environmental impacts in the transportation sector. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations are presented in the form to be beneficial to energy scientists, engineers and energy policy makers. (author)

  16. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  17. E-Commerce for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.

  18. `Utility marketing` as an oxymoron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedge, P. [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Electricity industry restructuring through the elimination of monopolies and the introduction of competition was examined. A distinction was made between marketing a product and brand marketing, emphasizing the customer loyalty, customer confidence and high profitability associated with brand names. The meaning of `brand` in general and particularly in relation to electric power was explained. The old and the new utilities world were contrasted, and the place and importance of marketing in the deregulated, customer choice-based, market-driven new utilities world was described.

  19. Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... chromosome location of such genes is critical for effective utilization and subsequent manipulation. Further, chromosomal localization will lead to the identification of ... Various cytogenetic stocks and techniques have been previously reported useful in localizing genes on wheat chromosomes. The objective ...

  20. Nanoparticles for cancer gene therapy: Recent advances, challenges, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Kievit, Forrest M; Zhang, Miqin

    2016-12-01

    Compared to conventional treatments, gene therapy offers a variety of advantages for cancer treatment including high potency and specificity, low off-target toxicity, and delivery of multiple genes that concurrently target cancer tumorigenesis, recurrence, and drug resistance. In the past decades, gene therapy has undergone remarkable progress, and is now poised to become a first line therapy for cancer. Among various gene delivery systems, nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of their desirable characteristics including low toxicity profiles, well-controlled and high gene delivery efficiency, and multi-functionalities. This review provides an overview on gene therapeutics and gene delivery technologies, and highlight recent advances, challenges and insights into the design and the utility of nanoparticles in gene therapy for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Gene Therapy for the Inner Ear: Challenges and Promises

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Allen F.; Dazert, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Since the recognition of genes as the discrete units of heritability, and of DNA as their molecular substrate, the utilization of genes for therapeutic purposes has been recognized as a potential means of correcting genetic disorders. The tools of molecular biology, which allow the manipulation of DNA sequence, provided the means to put this concept into practice. However, progress in the implementation of these ideas has been slow. Here we review the history of the idea of gene therapy and t...

  2. Thorium utilization in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraceno; Marcos.

    1978-10-01

    In this work the recent (prior to Aug, 1976) literature on thorium utilization is reviewed briefly and the available information is updated. After reviewing the nuclear properties relevant to the thorium fuel cycle we describe briefly the reactor systems that have been proposed using thorium as a fertile material. (author) [es

  3. Breaking into the utility market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argue, D.; Rubinoff, M.

    1992-01-01

    The wind energy industry in Canada must displace competition from government protected conventional energy industries if it is to gain a market position. This hypothesis is discussed for the case of Ontario, where the provincial utility has historically focused on nuclear, large hydro, and coal-fired sources. It is alleged that the utility has consistently underestimated costs for conventional energy sources and overestimated those for renewable sources such as wind power. Research by a coalition of environmental groups is cited to show that avoided generation costs in Ontario range from 8 cents/kWh for off-peak periods to a high of 12 cents/kWh during peak periods. At these values, even the utility's high cost estimates of $1,890-$2,600/kW for wind turbines and wind farms indicates cost effectiveness. Estimates of the added costs of conventional energy developments (the costs of environmental impacts not taken into account in conventional utility accounting) range from 1.1 cents/kWh for gas combined cycle cogeneration to 4.4 cents/kWh for existing coal-fired plants. By taking this kind of information to public hearings on energy developments, the wind energy industry can help establish new standards for evaluating conventional energy technology

  4. Natural gas for utility generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1992-01-01

    Forecasters predict that natural gas will be the dominant fuel choice for utility capacity additions in the coming decade and that power generation will be by far the largest growth market for gas sales. While gas's low emissions, high efficiency potential, and present low cost argue persuasively for a surge in gas-fired generation, many utilities have been slow to commit to a gas future, citing reasoned concern about long-term price trends and the ability of gas suppliers to deliver the fuel where and when it will be needed. Meanwhile, the relatively low cost of gas-fired units is providing an opportunity for independent power producers to compete strongly with utilities for generation contracts. EPRI studies suggest that a sound, competitive strategy will be based not on how much gas a utility burns, but rather on how this capacity fits into its overall generating mix at various fuel price levels. Gas suppliers will need to pay special attention to the operating needs of power generators if they are to solidify this important market

  5. Utilities practices toward sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The strategy toward a Sustainable Development is not standardised and it is useful to compare approaches of companies. WG C3.03 analysed a number of Sustainability Reports or Environmental Reports, published by Utilities, exposing their current approaches to the three 'Pillars': environmental aspects, society development and economical performances. Case studies, relevant to the three 'Pillars', show examples of practices

  6. Utility of spoken dialog systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available the evolution of poken dialog system research in the developed world, and show that the utility of speech is based on user factors and application factors (among others). After adjusting the factors for the developing world context, and plotting...

  7. Utility impact on STARFIRE design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreece, D.A.; Waganer, L.M.; Woklenhauer, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A primary objective of STARFIRE has been to design a tokamak fusion power plant that was attractive to the utilities. To achieve this goal, several utility representatives were directly involved in the decision-making processes as the design evolved. An initial step was to establish the relative importance to the utilities for an extensive list of economic, performance, safety and environmental issues. The top twenty issues were ranked. Cost of electricity was clearly most important with very little spread in the ratings of individual evaluators. Licensing is a go/no-go factor and must be accomplished for the other factors to have meaning. The top nine factors were judged to be very important by all evaluators, as was shown by the spread of ratings from 5 to 10. There is considerably more spread in the bottom eleven, which reflects a lack of consensus as to the relative importance of the evaluation factors. This evaluation was utilized in establishing the initial design concept

  8. Solar energy storage and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W.; Bloom, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of storing solar energy in the ground for heating residential buildings is described. The method would utilize heat exchanger pipes with a circulating fluid to transfer the energy beneath the surface as well as to extract the stored energy.

  9. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  10. Utilizing Twitter for Concept Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Armand; Holdan, E. Gregory; Rota, Daniel; McCarthy, John

    2016-01-01

    Despite the perception that face-to-face classrooms provide speaking opportunities, studies by Fassinger (1995), Nunn (1996), and Weimer (2013) have conveyed that there is limited interaction in a traditional college lecture setting. Social media networks such as Twitter provide an opportunity for instructors to utilize popular mobile technology…

  11. Expected utility with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory...

  12. Utilization technology on slurried ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Yoshio; Yasuda, Minoru; Furuki, Yasuhiko [The Coal Mining Research Centre, Japan, Tokyo, Japan; Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1987-08-01

    Three research results of the utilization technology on slurried ash were reported. As for the utilization as the fly ash quick setting (FQS) backfill grout for tail void in shield works of tunneling, grout blending was simplified, the blended solution of cement, clay, additives and water was stabilized, and a favorable workability and long term durability were obtained. As for the utilization as the material of a SMW (soil mixing wall) method for continuous walls in long shaft digging, a fly ash-gypsum-cement (FGC) stabilizer showed an excellent workability and remarkably high water-tightness as compared with conventional cement bentonite. As for the utilization as the material of an injection method of overlay mats in foundation works of light weight structures on the sea bed mud foundation, since a FGC concrete weight in water was remarkably light as 0.7t/m{sup 3}, no both large mold form strength and vibration compacting were required. 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Production and utilization of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Toshiaki; Matsuoka, Hiromitsu

    1999-01-01

    A plan of developing radioisotopes with a high power proton accelerator of the Neutron Science Project is presented. The status of production and utilization of radioisotopes in Japan is briefly discussed. The radioisotopes to be produced for biomedical use are discussed together with the facility for production of those radioisotopes and for research with the products. (author)

  14. Waste heat utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Proceedings contain 17 papers presented at meetings of the Working Group for Waste Heat Utilization of the Committee of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture of which 7 fall under the INIS scope. The working group met in May 1980 in Brno, Czechoslovakia, in October 1981 in Aberdeen, Scotland and in September 1982 in Brno. (Z.M.)

  15. Utilization and management of alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Briggs; Dean S. DeBell; William A. Atkinson

    1978-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia, red alder often grows on forest lands following natural or man-caused disturbances. Frequently ignored as a pest or weed, many alder stands have developed to the point where important utilization and management questions are being asked. It is recognized that alder is a fast growing species, and that its rapid early growth...

  16. TWRS LDUA utilization study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Tank Waste Remediation Systems functional requirements were reviewed. The Light Duty Utility Arm capabilities were considered as a means to support completion of these functional requirements. The recommendation is made to continue to develop the LDUA, integrating TWRS functional needs into the design to better support completion of TWRS mission needs

  17. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  18. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, Leonard I.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k + ) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k + gene expression where the H S V-1 t k + gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([ 18 F]F H P G; [ 18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([ 123 / 131 I]I V R F U; [ 124 / 131I ]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [ 123 / 131I ]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k + reporter gene will be presented

  19. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, Leonard I. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Noujaim Institute for Pharmaceutical Oncology Research

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on `suicide gene therapy` of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k{sup +}) has been use for `suicide` in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene expression where the H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([{sup 18} F]F H P G; [{sup 18} F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([{sup 123}/{sup 131} I]I V R F U; [{sup 124}/{sup 131I}]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [{sup 123}/{sup 131I}]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k{sup +} reporter gene will be presented

  20. A large-scale benchmark of gene prioritization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, Dimitri; Sonnhammer, Erik L L

    2017-04-21

    In order to maximize the use of results from high-throughput experimental studies, e.g. GWAS, for identification and diagnostics of new disease-associated genes, it is important to have properly analyzed and benchmarked gene prioritization tools. While prospective benchmarks are underpowered to provide statistically significant results in their attempt to differentiate the performance of gene prioritization tools, a strategy for retrospective benchmarking has been missing, and new tools usually only provide internal validations. The Gene Ontology(GO) contains genes clustered around annotation terms. This intrinsic property of GO can be utilized in construction of robust benchmarks, objective to the problem domain. We demonstrate how this can be achieved for network-based gene prioritization tools, utilizing the FunCoup network. We use cross-validation and a set of appropriate performance measures to compare state-of-the-art gene prioritization algorithms: three based on network diffusion, NetRank and two implementations of Random Walk with Restart, and MaxLink that utilizes network neighborhood. Our benchmark suite provides a systematic and objective way to compare the multitude of available and future gene prioritization tools, enabling researchers to select the best gene prioritization tool for the task at hand, and helping to guide the development of more accurate methods.

  1. Animal Models Utilized in HTLV-1 Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R. Panfil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the isolation and discovery of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 over 30 years ago, researchers have utilized animal models to study HTLV-1 transmission, viral persistence, virus-elicited immune responses, and HTLV-1-associated disease development (ATL, HAM/TSP. Non-human primates, rabbits, rats, and mice have all been used to help understand HTLV-1 biology and disease progression. Non-human primates offer a model system that is phylogenetically similar to humans for examining viral persistence. Viral transmission, persistence, and immune responses have been widely studied using New Zealand White rabbits. The advent of molecular clones of HTLV-1 has offered the opportunity to assess the importance of various viral genes in rabbits, non-human primates, and mice. Additionally, over-expression of viral genes using transgenic mice has helped uncover the importance of Tax and Hbz in the induction of lymphoma and other lymphocyte-mediated diseases. HTLV-1 inoculation of certain strains of rats results in histopathological features and clinical symptoms similar to that of humans with HAM/TSP. Transplantation of certain types of ATL cell lines in immunocompromised mice results in lymphoma. Recently, “humanized” mice have been used to model ATL development for the first time. Not all HTLV-1 animal models develop disease and those that do vary in consistency depending on the type of monkey, strain of rat, or even type of ATL cell line used. However, the progress made using animal models cannot be understated as it has led to insights into the mechanisms regulating viral replication, viral persistence, disease development, and, most importantly, model systems to test disease treatments.

  2. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, David

    2013-08-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Crowdsourcing the nodulation gene network discovery environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-26

    The Legumes (Fabaceae) are an economically and ecologically important group of plant species with the conspicuous capacity for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules, specialized plant organs containing symbiotic microbes. With the aim of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to nodulation, many efforts are underway to identify nodulation-related genes and determine how these genes interact with each other. In order to accurately and efficiently reconstruct nodulation gene network, a crowdsourcing platform, CrowdNodNet, was created. The platform implements the jQuery and vis.js JavaScript libraries, so that users are able to interactively visualize and edit the gene network, and easily access the information about the network, e.g. gene lists, gene interactions and gene functional annotations. In addition, all the gene information is written on MediaWiki pages, enabling users to edit and contribute to the network curation. Utilizing the continuously updated, collaboratively written, and community-reviewed Wikipedia model, the platform could, in a short time, become a comprehensive knowledge base of nodulation-related pathways. The platform could also be used for other biological processes, and thus has great potential for integrating and advancing our understanding of the functional genomics and systems biology of any process for any species. The platform is available at http://crowd.bioops.info/ , and the source code can be openly accessed at https://github.com/bioops/crowdnodnet under MIT License.

  4. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of

  5. Robot transparency, trust and utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Robert H.; Theodorou, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    As robot reasoning becomes more complex, debugging becomes increasingly hard based solely on observable behaviour, even for robot designers and technical specialists. Similarly, non-specialist users have difficulty creating useful mental models of robot reasoning from observations of robot behaviour. The EPSRC Principles of Robotics mandate that our artefacts should be transparent, but what does this mean in practice, and how does transparency affect both trust and utility? We investigate this relationship in the literature and find it to be complex, particularly in nonindustrial environments where, depending on the application and purpose of the robot, transparency may have a wider range of effects on trust and utility. We outline our programme of research to support our assertion that it is nevertheless possible to create transparent agents that are emotionally engaging despite having a transparent machine nature.

  6. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. New Energy Utility Business Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2016-01-01

    Recently a lot of big changes happened in the power sector: energy efficiency and renewable energy sources are quickly progressing, distributed or decentralised generation of electricity is expanding, climate change requires reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and price volatility and incertitude of fossil fuel supply is common. Those changes have led to obsolescence of vertically integrated business models which have dominated in energy utility organisations for a hundred years and new business models are being introduced. Those models take into account current changes in the power sector and enable a wider application of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially for consumers, with the decentralisation of electricity generation and complying with the requirements of climate and environment preservation. New business models also solve the questions of financial compensations for utilities because of the reduction of centralised energy generation while contributing to local development and employment.(author).

  8. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  9. RTNS-II utilization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwilsky, Klaus M.

    1978-09-01

    This plan describes a general program for the effective utilization of this resource by the fusion materials community. Because its flux is low relative to levels expected in commercial fusion reactors, the RINS-II is not expected to produce data of direct engineering significance (with some exceptions). Rather, it will be used chiefly to aid in the development of models of high energy neutron effects. Such models are needed in projecting engineering data obtained in high flux fission reactors to the fusion environment. Fission reactors, because of their relatively soft neutron spectra, cannot produce the high ratio of transmutations to displacements (except in an important special case) or the high energy recoil atoms appropriate to fusion reactors utilizing the D-T reaction.

  10. Neutron dosimeter utilizing CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, H.V.C. de.

    1991-05-01

    A personnel neutron dosimeter has been developed with discretization in a wide range of energies of real interest, utilizing the CR-39 polymer, to detect recoil protons in the fast range, and alpha particles in the thermal and epithermal ranges, with possibility to be disposed in the IRD/CNEN's conventional film badge suport. They are presented, abstractly, the difficulties and importance of the neutron dosimetry, beyond the general objectives that motivated this work execution. The details of the materials utilized in the dosimeter confection, and the experimental methodology employed to obtain the performance curves are presented. The results about linearity response of the dosimeter with respect to equivalent dose, in a wide range of doses, and about the verified angular dependence are analysed. (author)

  11. Strategy for utilizing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    One of the national goals is to achieve independence in the area of energy supplies in the next few years. It is believed that attaining this goal will require extensive utilization of nuclear power in conventional fission reactors. It is proposed that the best way to develop the nuclear resource is through government ownership of the reactors. It is argued that this will minimize the risks associated with the nuclear-power option and clear the way for its exploitation

  12. FAIR VALUE: UTILITY AND LIMITS

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Gabriel Cristea

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the utility and the limits of the fair value. We believe that any new product must be tried and tested before being imposed on the market and must be accepted by all potential users and those who will be affected, directly or indirectly and its advantages, disadvantages, risks, its cost must be predetermined and analyzed in a comprehensive and objective.We ask: Do financial statements at fair value meet users' expectations? The requirement to use fair value pricing mode...

  13. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  14. Environmental impacts of energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, C.P.C. do; Orsini, C.M.Q.; Rodrigues, D.; Barolli, E.; Nogueira, F.R.; Bosco, F.A.R.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    A survey is done of the available data on the physical environmental impacts in Brazil, derived from energetic systems such as: petroleum, hydroelectricity, firewood, coal, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen. A critical evalution of these data is done with respect to the preservation of the environment. The necessity of studying the environmental impact of the utilization of ethanol, nuclear fuels and coal is stressed. (M.A.) [pt

  15. Developing utility emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1986-01-01

    Utility emergency preparedness exercises constitute an important link in upgrading the response to nuclear power plant emergencies. Various emergency exercises are arranged annually at the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The on-site simulator is a practical tool in developing suitable accident scenarios and demonstrating them to the site emergency players and spectators. The exercises concentrate on emergency management and radiological activities. It is important to create a high degree of motivation. (author)

  16. Deprival value: information utility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Marco Antonio; Pinto, Alexandre Evaristo; Barbosa Neto, João Estevão; Martins, Eliseu

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article contributes to the perception that the users’ learning process plays a key role in order to apply an accounting concept and this involves a presentation that fits its informative potential, free of previous accounting fixations. Deprival value is a useful measure for managerial and corporate purposes, it may be applied to the current Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This study analyzes its utility, taking into account cognitive...

  17. FFTF utilization for irradiation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, D.C.; Julyk, L.J.; Hoth, C.W.; McGuire, J.C.; Sloan, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about 50 test assemblies throughout the early FFTF operating cycles

  18. Selenium Utilization Strategy by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Araie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of selenoproteins raises the question of why so many life forms require selenium. Selenoproteins are found in bacteria, archaea, and many eukaryotes. In photosynthetic microorganisms, the essential requirement for selenium has been reported in 33 species belonging to six phyla, although its biochemical significance is still unclear. According to genome databases, 20 species are defined as selenoprotein-producing organisms, including five photosynthetic organisms. In a marine coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta, we recently found unique characteristics of selenium utilization and novel selenoproteins using 75Se-tracer experiments. In E. huxleyi, selenite, not selenate, is the main substrate used and its uptake is driven by an ATP-dependent highaffinity, active transport system. Selenite is immediately metabolized to low-molecular mass compounds and partly converted to at least six selenoproteins, named EhSEP1–6. The most (EhSEP2 and second-most abundant selenoproteins (EhSEP1 are disulfide isomerase (PDI homologous protein and thioredoxin reductase (TR 1, respectively. Involvement of selenium in PDI is unique in this organism, while TR1 is also found in other organisms. In this review, we summarize physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of selenium utilization by microalgae and discuss their strategy of selenium utilization.

  19. Purchasing non-utility power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackeen, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses Houston Lighting and Power Company's procedure for purchasing power from cogenerators. By way of introduction, HL and P is the eighth largest electric utility in the United States in terms of kilowatt-hour sales and the second largest purchaser of natural gas in the nation. HL and P is also the principal utility providing electric service to the massive petrochemical industry in Southeast Texas. Of the 4,800 MW of cogeneration available, HL and P buys 945 MW under firm contracts, wheel 1,600 MW to other utilities, buy 400 MW under non-firm contracts and the balance is self-generation used to displace power which would otherwise be purchased from HL and P. With all this cogeneration capacity available, the problem until recently has been managing the surplus. HL and P now is finding itself in the unaccustomed position of needing to buy additional power or build plants to meet the modest growth it forecasts for Houston. The need for additional capacity coincides with the expiration of cogeneration contracts in 1993 and 1994. To meet this capacity need, they are determined to avoid buying cogeneration at a very high price and on delivery terms which do not reflect realistic benefits to their electric customers. The paper gives information on the background on PUC regulations and legislation, then briefly reviews the procedure for purchase of cogenerated power in Texas

  20. Plant design and beam utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    Plant design and beam utilization are two things closely tied together: without a proper plant design, one can never get good beam utilization. When a company decides to build an irradiation facility, there are some major decisions to be made right in the beginning. These decisions can be most important for the long-term success or failure of the irradiation facility, because the company normally will have to live with these decisions during the whole life-time of the irradiation equipment. To start with the decision has to be made whether to select a cobalt-60 irradiation plant or an accelerator irradiation plant. This decision can only be reached after a careful study of the products and the 'weight' and the material of the products the company wants to irradiate. As an old accelerator-man, I tend to personally favor accelerators, although I am very impressed by the newer cobalt-60 pallet irradiation plants from A.E.C.L. I believe that they have a great future in the emerging field of food irradiation. As I have primarily been involved with accelerators during the last 14 years, this paper is only dealing with different design approaches and utilizations of accelerator-plants. (author)

  1. Evolution of homeobox genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter W H

    2013-01-01

    Many homeobox genes encode transcription factors with regulatory roles in animal and plant development. Homeobox genes are found in almost all eukaryotes, and have diversified into 11 gene classes and over 100 gene families in animal evolution, and 10 to 14 gene classes in plants. The largest group in animals is the ANTP class which includes the well-known Hox genes, plus other genes implicated in development including ParaHox (Cdx, Xlox, Gsx), Evx, Dlx, En, NK4, NK3, Msx, and Nanog. Genomic data suggest that the ANTP class diversified by extensive tandem duplication to generate a large array of genes, including an NK gene cluster and a hypothetical ProtoHox gene cluster that duplicated to generate Hox and ParaHox genes. Expression and functional data suggest that NK, Hox, and ParaHox gene clusters acquired distinct roles in patterning the mesoderm, nervous system, and gut. The PRD class is also diverse and includes Pax2/5/8, Pax3/7, Pax4/6, Gsc, Hesx, Otx, Otp, and Pitx genes. PRD genes are not generally arranged in ancient genomic clusters, although the Dux, Obox, and Rhox gene clusters arose in mammalian evolution as did several non-clustered PRD genes. Tandem duplication and genome duplication expanded the number of homeobox genes, possibly contributing to the evolution of developmental complexity, but homeobox gene loss must not be ignored. Evolutionary changes to homeobox gene expression have also been documented, including Hox gene expression patterns shifting in concert with segmental diversification in vertebrates and crustaceans, and deletion of a Pitx1 gene enhancer in pelvic-reduced sticklebacks. WIREs Dev Biol 2013, 2:31-45. doi: 10.1002/wdev.78 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author declares that he has no conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Carboxylesterase 1 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Madsen, Majbritt Busk

    2018-01-01

    The carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) encodes a hydrolase that metabolizes commonly used drugs. The CES1-related pseudogene, carboxylesterase 1 pseudogene 1 (CES1P1), has been implicated in gene exchange with CES1 and in the formation of hybrid genes including the carboxylesterase 1A2 gene (CES1A2...

  3. A BAYESIAN NONPARAMETRIC MIXTURE MODEL FOR SELECTING GENES AND GENE SUBNETWORKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yize; Kang, Jian; Yu, Tianwei

    2014-06-01

    It is very challenging to select informative features from tens of thousands of measured features in high-throughput data analysis. Recently, several parametric/regression models have been developed utilizing the gene network information to select genes or pathways strongly associated with a clinical/biological outcome. Alternatively, in this paper, we propose a nonparametric Bayesian model for gene selection incorporating network information. In addition to identifying genes that have a strong association with a clinical outcome, our model can select genes with particular expressional behavior, in which case the regression models are not directly applicable. We show that our proposed model is equivalent to an infinity mixture model for which we develop a posterior computation algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. We also propose two fast computing algorithms that approximate the posterior simulation with good accuracy but relatively low computational cost. We illustrate our methods on simulation studies and the analysis of Spellman yeast cell cycle microarray data.

  4. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  5. Simple utility functions with Giffen demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences......Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences...

  6. Variations in CCL3L gene cluster sequence and non-specific gene copy numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edberg Jeffrey C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs of the gene CC chemokine ligand 3-like1 (CCL3L1 have been implicated in HIV-1 susceptibility, but the association has been inconsistent. CCL3L1 shares homology with a cluster of genes localized to chromosome 17q12, namely CCL3, CCL3L2, and, CCL3L3. These genes are involved in host defense and inflammatory processes. Several CNV assays have been developed for the CCL3L1 gene. Findings Through pairwise and multiple alignments of these genes, we have shown that the homology between these genes ranges from 50% to 99% in complete gene sequences and from 70-100% in the exonic regions, with CCL3L1 and CCL3L3 being identical. By use of MEGA 4 and BioEdit, we aligned sense primers, anti-sense primers, and probes used in several previously described assays against pre-multiple alignments of all four chemokine genes. Each set of probes and primers aligned and matched with overlapping sequences in at least two of the four genes, indicating that previously utilized RT-PCR based CNV assays are not specific for only CCL3L1. The four available assays measured median copies of 2 and 3-4 in European and African American, respectively. The concordance between the assays ranged from 0.44-0.83 suggesting individual discordant calls and inconsistencies with the assays from the expected gene coverage from the known sequence. Conclusions This indicates that some of the inconsistencies in the association studies could be due to assays that provide heterogenous results. Sequence information to determine CNV of the three genes separately would allow to test whether their association with the pathogenesis of a human disease or phenotype is affected by an individual gene or by a combination of these genes.

  7. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, H. R.

    2005-06-01

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO, Operation and Management of HANARO Homepage, HANARO Workshop 2004, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users, Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  8. Promotion of HANARO utilization for year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Park, K. B.; Kim, Y. J.

    2004-06-01

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. - The neutron usage fee in HANARO - Achievements of HANARO utilization - Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO - Management of HANARO Homepage - HANARO Workshop 2003 - Operation and Management of HANARO related committees - Training of HANARO users - Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  9. Promotion of HANARO utilization for year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Park, K. B.; Kim, Y. J.

    2003-06-01

    Object and importance to activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for activation of the research using HANARO, Management of HANARO homepage, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users, Establishment of user-room, Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  10. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Jun, B. J. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO. Achievements of HANARO utilization. Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO. HANARO Symposium. Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index. Operation and Management of HANARO Server. Management of HANARO related committees. Training of HANARO users. Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future.

  11. Integrating photovoltaics into utility distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Barnes, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy sources vary from site to site and utility to utility. The objective of this paper is to examine several utility- and site-specific conditions which may affect economic viability of distributed PV applications to utility systems. Assessment methodology compatible with technical and economic assessment techniques employed by utility engineers and planners is employed to determine PV benefits for seven different utility systems. The seven case studies are performed using utility system characteristics and assumptions obtained from appropriate utility personnel. The resulting site-specific distributed PV benefits increase nonsite-specific generation system benefits available to central station PV plants as much as 46%, for one utility located in the Southwest

  12. Leveraging long sequencing reads to investigate R-gene clustering and variation in sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host-pathogen interactions are of prime importance to modern agriculture. Plants utilize various types of resistance genes to mitigate pathogen damage. Identification of the specific gene responsible for a specific resistance can be difficult due to duplication and clustering within R-gene families....

  13. Transferring alien genes to wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    In broad terms an alien gene can be considered to be any gene transferred to wheat from a related species. As described above by Maan (section 7D) the genus Triticum contains a broad range of species, some of which cross readily with the cultivated tetraploid (T. Turgidum L.) or hexaploid (T. aestivum L.) wheats, and others only with great difficulty. In addition, wheat will also cross with species in a number of other genera including Agropyron, Elymus, Elytrigia (=Agropyron), Haynaldia, Hordeum, and Secale (Riley and Kimber, 1966; Knobloch, 1968; Feldman and Sears, 1981). In discussing the Triticum and Aegilops spp., the classification by Kimber and Sears, section SA-I, above, will be followed. For the Agropyron and related species the classification described by Dewey (1983) will be used. To avoid confusion, in referring to the literature the designations used by the authors will be given, followed by the new designation. The wild relatives of wheat are adapted to a broad range of environments and carry a large reservoir of useful genes (Zohary et al., 1969; Kerber and Dyck, 1973; Brezhnev, 1977; Feldman and Sears, 1981; Limin and Fowler, 1981; Sharma et aI., 1981; McGuire and Dvorak, 1981). Initially they were considered to be primarily sources of disease resistance, but more recently they have been recognized as potential sources of genes for high protein, cold tolerance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, lodging resistance, early maturity, and even yield. Extensive screening of the wild relatives of wheat needs to be done before their useful genes can be fully utilized

  14. Transferring alien genes to wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, D. R.

    1987-07-01

    In broad terms an alien gene can be considered to be any gene transferred to wheat from a related species. As described above by Maan (section 7D) the genus Triticum contains a broad range of species, some of which cross readily with the cultivated tetraploid (T. Turgidum L.) or hexaploid (T. aestivum L.) wheats, and others only with great difficulty. In addition, wheat will also cross with species in a number of other genera including Agropyron, Elymus, Elytrigia (=Agropyron), Haynaldia, Hordeum, and Secale (Riley and Kimber, 1966; Knobloch, 1968; Feldman and Sears, 1981). In discussing the Triticum and Aegilops spp., the classification by Kimber and Sears, section SA-I, above, will be followed. For the Agropyron and related species the classification described by Dewey (1983) will be used. To avoid confusion, in referring to the literature the designations used by the authors will be given, followed by the new designation. The wild relatives of wheat are adapted to a broad range of environments and carry a large reservoir of useful genes (Zohary et al., 1969; Kerber and Dyck, 1973; Brezhnev, 1977; Feldman and Sears, 1981; Limin and Fowler, 1981; Sharma et aI., 1981; McGuire and Dvorak, 1981). Initially they were considered to be primarily sources of disease resistance, but more recently they have been recognized as potential sources of genes for high protein, cold tolerance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, lodging resistance, early maturity, and even yield. Extensive screening of the wild relatives of wheat needs to be done before their useful genes can be fully utilized.

  15. Screening for the Most Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Equine Milk Somatic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Cieslak

    Full Text Available Apart from the well-known role of somatic cell count as a parameter reflecting the inflammatory status of the mammary gland, the composition of cells isolated from milk is considered as a valuable material for gene expression studies in mammals. Due to its unique composition, in recent years an increasing interest in mare's milk consumption has been observed. Thus, investigating the genetic background of horse's milk variability presents and interesting study model. Relying on 39 milk samples collected from mares representing three breeds (Polish Primitive Horse, Polish Cold-blooded Horse, Polish Warmblood Horse we aimed to investigate the utility of equine milk somatic cells as a source of mRNA and to screen the best reference genes for RT-qPCR using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that despite relatively low somatic cell counts in mare's milk, the amount and the quality of the extracted RNA are sufficient for gene expression studies. The analysis of the utility of 7 potential reference genes for RT-qPCR experiments for the normalization of equine milk somatic cells revealed some differences between the outcomes of the applied algorithms, although in both cases the KRT8 and TOP2B genes were pointed as the most stable. Analysis by geNorm showed that the combination of 4 reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, TOP2B and KRT8 is required for apropriate RT-qPCR experiments normalization, whereas NormFinder algorithm pointed the combination of KRT8 and RPS9 genes as the most suitable. The trial study of the relative transcript abundance of the beta-casein gene with the use of various types and numbers of internal control genes confirmed once again that the selection of proper reference gene combinations is crucial for the final results of each real-time PCR experiment.

  16. GSMA: Gene Set Matrix Analysis, An Automated Method for Rapid Hypothesis Testing of Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cheadle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microarray technology has become highly valuable for identifying complex global changes in gene expression patterns. The assignment of functional information to these complex patterns remains a challenging task in effectively interpreting data and correlating results from across experiments, projects and laboratories. Methods which allow the rapid and robust evaluation of multiple functional hypotheses increase the power of individual researchers to data mine gene expression data more efficiently.Results: We have developed (gene set matrix analysis GSMA as a useful method for the rapid testing of group-wise up- or downregulation of gene expression simultaneously for multiple lists of genes (gene sets against entire distributions of gene expression changes (datasets for single or multiple experiments. The utility of GSMA lies in its flexibility to rapidly poll gene sets related by known biological function or as designated solely by the end-user against large numbers of datasets simultaneously.Conclusions: GSMA provides a simple and straightforward method for hypothesis testing in which genes are tested by groups across multiple datasets for patterns of expression enrichment.

  17. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  18. Progresses towards safe and efficient gene therapy vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Sergiu; Jackson, Carlo S; Oprea, Iulian; Ozturk, Ferhat; Pepper, Michael S; Diaconu, Iulia; Braicu, Cornelia; Raduly, Lajos-Zsolt; Calin, George A; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2015-10-13

    The emergence of genetic engineering at the beginning of the 1970's opened the era of biomedical technologies, which aims to improve human health using genetic manipulation techniques in a clinical context. Gene therapy represents an innovating and appealing strategy for treatment of human diseases, which utilizes vehicles or vectors for delivering therapeutic genes into the patients' body. However, a few past unsuccessful events that negatively marked the beginning of gene therapy resulted in the need for further studies regarding the design and biology of gene therapy vectors, so that this innovating treatment approach can successfully move from bench to bedside. In this paper, we review the major gene delivery vectors and recent improvements made in their design meant to overcome the issues that commonly arise with the use of gene therapy vectors. At the end of the manuscript, we summarized the main advantages and disadvantages of common gene therapy vectors and we discuss possible future directions for potential therapeutic vectors.

  19. Vision 2021. The utilities future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liere, J van [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    The electricity industry is gradually making the transition to a free market economy characterized by competition. With the arrival of a more market-oriented structure, the electricity companies have taken measures to reduce costs while retaining reliability and safety of the production and distribution. Today the majority of these efforts are oriented towards optimizing the scope and the structure of the organizations and towards streamlining internal processes in order to improve productivity. Throughout the world, the increasing competition among utilities is accompanied by the unbundling of production, transport, distribution and customer service functions. There is a remarkable similarity between the transitions in the computer industry some years ago (from main frame to personal PC`s) and in the electric utility industry today. The new structure is expected to be less centralized and more dispersed. In the dispersed generation concept the locally deployed power plant must become smaller, more flexible, more efficient and less expensive than today`s power plants. Power generation is gradually changing from a steam cycle (Rankine cycle) via the combined cycle to the gas cycle (Brayton cycle). The fuel used to power the gas turbine is expected to change in the future from high calorific to low calorific gas, generated from biomass, waste, oil residues, blast furnaces, coal, etc. Five new areas to be addressed have been identified that can be characterized as follows: (a) improved utilization of capital-intensive production resources to reduce costs, (b) electrification and the supply of heat to increase sales and market share, (c) sustainable developments to broaden our future resource base, (d) improved efficiency based on the Brayton cycle to increase flexibility, (e) development of energy services with new secondary services to stay in the market. (EG) 10 refs.

  20. Discovering gene annotations in biomedical text databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozsoyoglu Gultekin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes and gene products are frequently annotated with Gene Ontology concepts based on the evidence provided in genomics articles. Manually locating and curating information about a genomic entity from the biomedical literature requires vast amounts of human effort. Hence, there is clearly a need forautomated computational tools to annotate the genes and gene products with Gene Ontology concepts by computationally capturing the related knowledge embedded in textual data. Results In this article, we present an automated genomic entity annotation system, GEANN, which extracts information about the characteristics of genes and gene products in article abstracts from PubMed, and translates the discoveredknowledge into Gene Ontology (GO concepts, a widely-used standardized vocabulary of genomic traits. GEANN utilizes textual "extraction patterns", and a semantic matching framework to locate phrases matching to a pattern and produce Gene Ontology annotations for genes and gene products. In our experiments, GEANN has reached to the precision level of 78% at therecall level of 61%. On a select set of Gene Ontology concepts, GEANN either outperforms or is comparable to two other automated annotation studies. Use of WordNet for semantic pattern matching improves the precision and recall by 24% and 15%, respectively, and the improvement due to semantic pattern matching becomes more apparent as the Gene Ontology terms become more general. Conclusion GEANN is useful for two distinct purposes: (i automating the annotation of genomic entities with Gene Ontology concepts, and (ii providing existing annotations with additional "evidence articles" from the literature. The use of textual extraction patterns that are constructed based on the existing annotations achieve high precision. The semantic pattern matching framework provides a more flexible pattern matching scheme with respect to "exactmatching" with the advantage of locating approximate

  1. Resource utilization during software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses resource utilization over the life cycle of software development and discusses the role that the current 'waterfall' model plays in the actual software life cycle. Software production in the NASA environment was analyzed to measure these differences. The data from 13 different projects were collected by the Software Engineering Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and analyzed for similarities and differences. The results indicate that the waterfall model is not very realistic in practice, and that as technology introduces further perturbations to this model with concepts like executable specifications, rapid prototyping, and wide-spectrum languages, we need to modify our model of this process.

  2. Economical electricity supply and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, K

    1980-05-01

    During the first oil crisis in 1973, hundreds of millions of D-marks have been wasted by medium-sized businesses in the FRG due to avoidable losses and increased electricity costs. Serious attempts towards excluding such losses have to be initiated by an analysis of the individual technical conditions of an enterprise and by consultations 'on site'. Problems relating to an economical electricity supply and utilization in medium-sized industrial enterprises are discussed in this article from the point of view of an industrial consultant being an expert in this field. Practical examples are also given.

  3. FAIR VALUE: UTILITY AND LIMITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel Cristea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utility and the limits of the fair value. We believe that any new product must be tried and tested before being imposed on the market and must be accepted by all potential users and those who will be affected, directly or indirectly and its advantages, disadvantages, risks, its cost must be predetermined and analyzed in a comprehensive and objective.We ask: Do financial statements at fair value meet users' expectations? The requirement to use fair value pricing model that was carrying was not accompanied by a parallel examination of its impact on the presentation of accounts.

  4. 236-Z canyon utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The 236-Z canyon contains equipment for repurification of plutonium and recovery of plutonium from scrap material. To meet production requirements of Fast Flux Test Facility/Clinch River Breeder Reactor oxide with the existing plant, several new pieces of equipment will be needed in the future. More storage space and a better accountability system are needed to support this increased production. The available canyon space needs to be utilized to its fullest in order to accommodate the new equipment. The purpose of this document is to identify the new pieces of equipment, show how they fit into the flowsheet, and locate them in the canyon

  5. Transforming your Municipal Electric Utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on what municipalities should and can do to prepare for a competitive energy market in Ontario. Particular attention was given to business strategies, restructuring and transformation of the Municipal Electric Utilities (MEU). Issues and questions regarding ownership were also discussed. Each municipality will have to decide what is the most appropriate governance and organizational structure for their MEU. It was noted that one of the most contentious areas is refinancing and rate structures. Issues regarding merger or partnering options were also discussed. 1 tab

  6. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MW th , almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO 2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  7. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  8. Support for cold neutron utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Han, Young Soo; Choi, Sungmin; Choi, Yong; Kwon, Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hee

    2012-06-01

    - Support for experiments by users of cold neutron scattering instrument - Short-term training of current and potential users of cold neutron scattering instrument for their effective use of the instrument - International collaboration for advanced utilization of cold neutron scattering instruments - Selection and training of qualified instrument scientists for vigorous research endeavors and outstanding achievements in experiments with cold neutron - Research on nano/bio materials using cold neutron scattering instruments - Bulk nano structure measurement using small angle neutron scattering and development of analysis technique

  9. JGI Plant Genomics Gene Annotation Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Shengqiang; Rokhsar, Dan; Goodstein, David; Hayes, David; Mitros, Therese

    2014-07-14

    Plant genomes vary in size and are highly complex with a high amount of repeats, genome duplication and tandem duplication. Gene encodes a wealth of information useful in studying organism and it is critical to have high quality and stable gene annotation. Thanks to advancement of sequencing technology, many plant species genomes have been sequenced and transcriptomes are also sequenced. To use these vastly large amounts of sequence data to make gene annotation or re-annotation in a timely fashion, an automatic pipeline is needed. JGI plant genomics gene annotation pipeline, called integrated gene call (IGC), is our effort toward this aim with aid of a RNA-seq transcriptome assembly pipeline. It utilizes several gene predictors based on homolog peptides and transcript ORFs. See Methods for detail. Here we present genome annotation of JGI flagship green plants produced by this pipeline plus Arabidopsis and rice except for chlamy which is done by a third party. The genome annotations of these species and others are used in our gene family build pipeline and accessible via JGI Phytozome portal whose URL and front page snapshot are shown below.

  10. Gene doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar

    2004-01-01

    Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement. Copyright 2004 Adis Data Information BV

  11. Diagnostic Utility of Broad Range Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene PCR with Degradation of Human and Free Bacterial DNA in Bloodstream Infection Is More Sensitive Than an In-House Developed PCR without Degradation of Human and Free Bacterial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Rogina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared a commercial broad range 16S rRNA gene PCR assay (SepsiTest to an in-house developed assay (IHP. We assessed whether CD64 index, a biomarker of bacterial infection, can be used to exclude patients with a low probability of systemic bacterial infection. From January to March 2010, 23 patients with suspected sepsis were enrolled. CD64 index, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein were measured on admission. Broad range 16S rRNA gene PCR was performed from whole blood (SepsiTest or blood plasma (IHP and compared to blood culture results. Blood samples spiked with Staphylococcus aureus were used to assess sensitivity of the molecular assays in vitro. CD64 index was lower in patients where possible sepsis was excluded than in patients with microbiologically confirmed sepsis (P=0.004. SepsiTest identified more relevant pathogens than blood cultures (P=0.008; in three patients (13% results from blood culture and SepsiTest were congruent, whereas in four cases (17.4% relevant pathogens were detected by SepsiTest only. In vitro spiking experiments suggested equal sensitivity of SepsiTest and IHP. A diagnostic algorithm using CD64 index as a decision maker to perform SepsiTest shows improved detection of pathogens in patients with suspected blood stream infection and may enable earlier targeted antibiotic therapy.

  12. Kyoto : implications for utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsky, P.

    2003-01-01

    The author provided a historical perspective of energy use and the role of carbon in the western hemisphere by displaying a series of graphs showing carbon intensity of energy, carbon emissions from energy, and the long path to green power. The 1990s represented a decade of progress. Almost three times as much wind capacity as nuclear capacity was added worldwide in 2001. The main challenge for the 21st century will be to bring under-developed countries into the fold while perpetuating the economic and human progress of the twentieth century. It was emphasized that environmental damage caused by utilities must be reversed. The contemporary context for the Kyoto Protocol was reviewed. Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The challenge for utility regulators to meet this commitment was examined. The costs are not entirely excessive. Some of the regulatory issues were discussed, namely revising a broad rate making framework, cost recovery and others. The Kyoto compliance plan was also reviewed with reference to internal options, external options, identification of regulatory barriers, and consideration of greenhouse gas credit markets. figs

  13. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  14. Inter-utility trade review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaahedi, E.; Poirier, R.; Necsulescu, C.; Warnes, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Board (NEB) was requested by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources to identify possible measures to improve cooperation among Canadian electrical utilities and to enhance access for Canadian buyers and sellers of electricity to available transmission capacity through intervening systems for wheeling purposes. To identify measures for enhancing transmission access, two projects were initiated: a study of technical issues associated with wheeling, and quantification of potential wheeling benefits. The first project examined the technical and economic problems associated with wheeling, while the second used computer simulation to quantify benefits of wheeling. The projects are described together with a historical review of wheeling in Canada. The following conclusions where reached: there seems to be enough wheeling benefits (a 6-10% increase in benefits) to justify its promotion; wheeling should be performed on a voluntary basis; the wheeling utility should make the final decisions regarding the ability of the system to wheel power and the need for system improvements; pricing should be flexible, reflecting the conditions of the service; the buy/sell type of arrangement which disregards the transmission path may be the preferred wheeling arrangement; and if negotiation fails to resolve conflicts over pricing, arbitration is suggested as an effective means for resolving disputes. 6 refs., 6 figs

  15. Chinese Manned Space Utility Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.

    Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of human autoimmune disease genes and malfunctioned immunological genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podder Soumita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the main issues of molecular evolution is to divulge the principles in dictating the evolutionary rate differences among various gene classes. Immunological genes have received considerable attention in evolutionary biology as candidates for local adaptation and for studying functionally important polymorphisms. The normal structure and function of immunological genes will be distorted when they experience mutations leading to immunological dysfunctions. Results Here, we examined the fundamental differences between the genes which on mutation give rise to autoimmune or other immune system related diseases and the immunological genes that do not cause any disease phenotypes. Although the disease genes examined are analogous to non-disease genes in product, expression, function, and pathway affiliation, a statistically significant decrease in evolutionary rate has been found in autoimmune disease genes relative to all other immune related diseases and non-disease genes. Possible ways of accumulation of mutation in the three steps of the central dogma (DNA-mRNA-Protein have been studied to trace the mutational effects predisposed to disease consequence and acquiring higher selection pressure. Principal Component Analysis and Multivariate Regression Analysis have established the predominant role of single nucleotide polymorphisms in guiding the evolutionary rate of immunological disease and non-disease genes followed by m-RNA abundance, paralogs number, fraction of phosphorylation residue, alternatively spliced exon, protein residue burial and protein disorder. Conclusions Our study provides an empirical insight into the etiology of autoimmune disease genes and other immunological diseases. The immediate utility of our study is to help in disease gene identification and may also help in medicinal improvement of immune related disease.

  17. Managing change in nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has undergone change since inception, but never so much as now. The rewards for proactively changing in anticipation of emerging demands are great, but the cost of failure is also great. Today nuclear plants are being shut down by socio-political and economic processes. The survival of the technology as a clean energy source for the future depends on the demonstration of long term safety to the public, protection of the environment, and economic superiority to competing energy sources. The overriding influence on these factors is strong management of the business with effective regulation. In particular it is necessary for both utility and regulator to believe that enhancing safety is part of being successful. This publication has been developed for all levels of management who are developing and implementing changes within their areas of responsibility. The safety conscious, continuous improvement, management culture, which has proven successful in today's nuclear business, has taken time to develop. Many utilities have difficulty sustaining this culture during the transitions that are intrinsic to change. Properly managed however, changes can enhance nuclear safety, plant reliability and cost competitiveness, from the design stage to decommissioning. Change has no respect for timing and regardless of the level of experience managers may have in its management, large scale change is confronting every nuclear utility world wide. These take the form of government policy changes, open market demands, privatization with the demand for increased shareholder returns, regulatory and social pressures, and economic and political transition. The danger from such issues for the nuclear company executive and the regulator is that they are powerful distractions, particularly for those executives who are not experienced in the unique managerial requirements of the nuclear business. This report gathers the experience of Member States into an array of

  18. Managing change in nuclear utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has undergone change since inception, but never so much as now. The rewards for proactively changing in anticipation of emerging demands are great, but the cost of failure is also great. Today nuclear plants are being shut down by socio-political and economic processes. The survival of the technology as a clean energy source for the future depends on the demonstration of long term safety to the public, protection of the environment, and economic superiority to competing energy sources. The overriding influence on these factors is strong management of the business with effective regulation. In particular it is necessary for both utility and regulator to believe that enhancing safety is part of being successful. This publication has been developed for all levels of management who are developing and implementing changes within their areas of responsibility. The safety conscious, continuous improvement, management culture, which has proven successful in today's nuclear business, has taken time to develop. Many utilities have difficulty sustaining this culture during the transitions that are intrinsic to change. Properly managed however, changes can enhance nuclear safety, plant reliability and cost competitiveness, from the design stage to decommissioning. Change has no respect for timing and regardless of the level of experience managers may have in its management, large scale change is confronting every nuclear utility world wide. These take the form of government policy changes, open market demands, privatization with the demand for increased shareholder returns, regulatory and social pressures, and economic and political transition. The danger from such issues for the nuclear company executive and the regulator is that they are powerful distractions, particularly for those executives who are not experienced in the unique managerial requirements of the nuclear business. This report gathers the experience of Member States into an array of

  19. Human Gene Therapy: Genes without Frontiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…

  20. B lymphocyte selection and age-related changes in VH gene usage in mutant Alicia rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Boonthum, A; Zhai, S K; Knight, K L

    1999-09-15

    Young Alicia rabbits use VHa-negative genes, VHx and VHy, in most VDJ genes, and their serum Ig is VHa negative. However, as Alicia rabbits age, VHa2 allotype Ig is produced at high levels. We investigated which VH gene segments are used in the VDJ genes of a2 Ig-secreting hybridomas and of a2 Ig+ B cells from adult Alicia rabbits. We found that 21 of the 25 VDJ genes used the a2-encoding genes, VH4 or VH7; the other four VDJ genes used four unknown VH gene segments. Because VH4 and VH7 are rarely found in VDJ genes of normal or young Alicia rabbits, we investigated the timing of rearrangement of these genes in Alicia rabbits. During fetal development, VH4 was used in 60-80% of nonproductively rearranged VDJ genes, and VHx and VHy together were used in 10-26%. These data indicate that during B lymphopoiesis VH4 is preferentially rearranged. However, the percentage of productive VHx- and VHy-utilizing VDJ genes increased from 38% at day 21 of gestation to 89% at birth (gestation day 31), whereas the percentage of VH4-utilizing VDJ genes remained at 15%. These data suggest that during fetal development, either VH4-utilizing B-lineage cells are selectively eliminated, or B cells with VHx- and VHy-utilizing VDJ genes are selectively expanded, or both. The accumulation of peripheral VH4-utilizing a2 B cells with age indicates that these B cells might be selectively expanded in the periphery. We discuss the possible selection mechanisms that regulate VH gene segment usage in rabbit B cells during lymphopoiesis and in the periphery.

  1. The use of genes for performance enhancement: doping or therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent biotechnological advances have permitted the manipulation of genetic sequences to treat several diseases in a process called gene therapy. However, the advance of gene therapy has opened the door to the possibility of using genetic manipulation (GM to enhance athletic performance. In such ‘gene doping’, exogenous genetic sequences are inserted into a specific tissue, altering cellular gene activity or leading to the expression of a protein product. The exogenous genes most likely to be utilized for gene doping include erythropoietin (EPO, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1, myostatin antagonists, and endorphin. However, many other genes could also be used, such as those involved in glucose metabolic pathways. Because gene doping would be very difficult to detect, it is inherently very attractive for those involved in sports who are prepared to cheat. Moreover, the field of gene therapy is constantly and rapidly progressing, and this is likely to generate many new possibilities for gene doping. Thus, as part of the general fight against all forms of doping, it will be necessary to develop and continually improve means of detecting exogenous gene sequences (or their products in athletes. Nevertheless, some bioethicists have argued for a liberal approach to gene doping.

  2. The use of genes for performance enhancement: doping or therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R S; Collares, T F; Smith, K R; Collares, T V; Seixas, F K

    2011-12-01

    Recent biotechnological advances have permitted the manipulation of genetic sequences to treat several diseases in a process called gene therapy. However, the advance of gene therapy has opened the door to the possibility of using genetic manipulation (GM) to enhance athletic performance. In such 'gene doping', exogenous genetic sequences are inserted into a specific tissue, altering cellular gene activity or leading to the expression of a protein product. The exogenous genes most likely to be utilized for gene doping include erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), myostatin antagonists, and endorphin. However, many other genes could also be used, such as those involved in glucose metabolic pathways. Because gene doping would be very difficult to detect, it is inherently very attractive for those involved in sports who are prepared to cheat. Moreover, the field of gene therapy is constantly and rapidly progressing, and this is likely to generate many new possibilities for gene doping. Thus, as part of the general fight against all forms of doping, it will be necessary to develop and continually improve means of detecting exogenous gene sequences (or their products) in athletes. Nevertheless, some bioethicists have argued for a liberal approach to gene doping.

  3. NON-EXPECTED UTILITY THEORIES: WEIGHTED EXPECTED, RANK DEPENDENT, AND CUMULATIVE PROSPECT THEORY UTILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Tuthill, Jonathan W.; Frechette, Darren L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the failings of expected utility including the Allais paradox and expected utility's inadequate one dimensional characterization of risk. Three alternatives to expected utility are discussed at length; weighted expected utility, rank dependent utility, and cumulative prospect theory. Each alternative is capable of explaining Allais paradox type problems and permits more sophisticated multi dimensional risk preferences.

  4. NNP-LANL Utilities - Condition Assessment and Project Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Grant Lorenz [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-21

    This report is a presentation on LANL Utilities & Transportation Asset Management; Utility Assets Overview; Condition Assessment; Utilities Project Nominations & Ranking; and Utilities Project Execution.

  5. New record in peat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Increment of peat utilization that started in 1990 continued also in 1991, due to which new record was achieved. Peat delivery increased 11.2 % from 16.1 million m 3 in 1990 to 17.9 million m 3 in 1991. The portion of energy peat was 16.4 million m 3 , and the portion of peat for other purposes 1.5 million m 3 . The energy content of fuel peat was 15.8 TWh, of which 13.8 TWh was milled peat and 2.0 TWh sod peat. The main portion of energy peat was used in communal back-pressure power plants for production of electricity and district heat. The second largest utilizer was industry. The rests 0.3 TWh (2 %) was delivered to private small scale utilization and export. About 88 000 MWh of sod peat was exported to Sweden. The portion of horticultural peat of the peat delivered for other purposes than energy production was 662 000 m 3 , of which only 260 000 m 3 was used in Finland and 408 000 m 3 was exported. Agriculture is the main user of peat outside the energy production. Weakly humified peat was used as litter and as absorber for slurrified manure about 286 000 m 3 . The value of the deliveries of peat industry exeeded 800 million FIM, of which the portion of milled peat was about 650 million FIM, the portion of sod peat about 95 million FIM, and the portion of domestic deliveries of horticultural peat 30 million FIM. The export of peat was 36 million FIM. Peat production in 1991 was 10.605 million m 3 , which is nearly a half of the production of 1990. The decrease was caused by both poor weather of may-june 1991 and the large peat supplies from the year 1990. About 60 % of the production target of 1991 was achieved. The production of sod peat increased by over 50 % from 736 000 m 3 in 1990 to 1 147 000 m 3 in 1991

  6. Anti-EGFR immunonanoparticles containing IL12 and salmosin genes for targeted cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Seok; Kang, Seong Jae; Jeong, Hwa Yeon; Kim, Min Woo; Park, Sang Il; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Hong Sung; Kim, Keun Sik; Park, Yong Serk

    2016-09-01

    Tumor-directed gene delivery is of major interest in the field of cancer gene therapy. Varied functionalizations of non-viral vectors have been suggested to enhance tumor targetability. In the present study, we prepared two different types of anti-EGF receptor (EGFR) immunonanoparticles containing pDNA, neutrally charged liposomes and cationic lipoplexes, for tumor-directed transfection of cancer therapeutic genes. Even though both anti-EGFR immunonanoparticles had a high binding affinity to the EGFR-positive cancer cells, the anti-EGFR immunolipoplex formulation exhibited approximately 100-fold higher transfection to the target cells than anti-EGFR immunoliposomes. The lipoplex formulation also showed a higher transfection to SK-OV-3 tumor xenografts in mice. Thus, IL12 and/or salmosin genes were loaded in the anti-EGFR immunolipoplexes and intravenously administered to mice carrying SK-OV-3 tumors. Co-transfection of IL12 and salmosin genes using anti-EGFR immunolipoplexes significantly reduced tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis. Furthermore, combinatorial treatment with doxorubicin synergistically inhibited tumor growth. These results suggest that anti-EGFR immunolipoplexes containing pDNA encoding therapeutic genes could be utilized as a gene-transfer modality for cancer gene therapy.

  7. Intracellular delivery of potential therapeutic genes: prospects in cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Athirah; Sayyad, Mustak; Rosli, Rozita; Maruyama, Atsushi; Chowdhury, Ezharul H

    2014-01-01

    Conventional therapies for malignant cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with poor survival rates owing to the development of cellular resistance to cancer drugs and the lack of targetability, resulting in unwanted adverse effects on healthy cells and necessitating the lowering of therapeutic dose with consequential lower efficacy of the treatment. Gene therapy employing different types of viral and non-viral carriers to transport gene(s) of interest and facilitating production of the desirable therapeutic protein(s) has tremendous prospects in cancer treatments due to the high-level of specificity in therapeutic action of the expressed protein(s) with diminished off-target effects, although cancer cell-specific delivery of transgene(s) still poses some challenges to be addressed. Depending on the potential therapeutic target genes, cancer gene therapy could be categorized into tumor suppressor gene replacement therapy, immune gene therapy and enzyme- or prodrug-based therapy. This review would shed light on the current progress of delivery of potentially therapeutic genes into various cancer cells in vitro and animal models utilizing a variety of viral and non-viral vectors.

  8. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  9. Electret dosimeter utilizing gas multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeya, M.; Miki, T.

    1980-01-01

    It was found that the high electric field around the surface of an electret leads to cascade multiplication of the ionization process in a surrounding gas. Very sensitive charge decay constants of the order of 1mrad, were obtained for electrets composed of polyvinyliden fluoride or teflon polymers. The reduced charge is stable and can be utilized in personnel dosimetry. A simple pocket chamber dosimeter is described consisting of a small speaker or buzzer, a cylindrical chamber filled with air, argon or other gases, a polymer thermoelectret foil and an electrode. The sonic vibration of the foil induces an alternating charge on the electrode which is amplified and detected. The feasibility of this dosimeter and its shock and vibration resistance have been demonstrated. (author)

  10. Geothermal energy utilization and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Mary H; Fanelli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal energy refers to the heat contained within the Earth that generates geological phenomena on a planetary scale. Today, this term is often associated with man's efforts to tap into this vast energy source. Geothermal Energy: utilization and technology is a detailed reference text, describing the various methods and technologies used to exploit the earth's heat. Beginning with an overview of geothermal energy and the state of the art, leading international experts in the field cover the main applications of geothermal energy, including: electricity generation space and district heating space cooling greenhouse heating aquaculture industrial applications The final third of the book focuses upon environmental impact and economic, financial and legal considerations, providing a comprehensive review of these topics. Each chapter is written by a different author, but to a set style, beginning with aims and objectives and ending with references, self-assessment questions and answers. Case studies are includ...

  11. Virginia ADS consortium - thorium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myneni, Ganapati

    2015-01-01

    A Virginia ADS consortium, consisting of Virginia Universities (UVa, VCU, VT), Industry (Casting Analysis Corporation, GEM*STAR, MuPlus Inc.), Jefferson Lab and not-for-profit ISOHIM, has been organizing International Accelerator-Driven Sub-Critical Systems (ADS) and Thorium Utilization (ThU) workshops. The third workshop of this series was hosted by VCU in Richmond, Virginia, USA Oct 2014 with CBMM and IAEA sponsorship and was endorsed by International Thorium Energy Committee (IThEC), Geneva and Virginia Nuclear Energy Consortium Authority. In this presentation a brief summary of the successful 3 rd International ADS and ThU workshop proceedings and review the worldwide ADS plans and/or programs is given. Additionally, a report on new start-ups on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) systems is presented. Further, a discussion on potential simplistic fertile 232 Th to fissile 233 U conversion is made

  12. News technology utilization fossil fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blišanová Monika

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel – “alternative energy“ is coal, petroleum, natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are scarce resources, but they are delimited. Reserves petroleum will be depleted after 39 years and reserves natural gas after 60 years.World reserves coal are good for another 240 years. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is the least expensive energy source for generating electricity. Many environmental problems associated with use of coal:in coal production, mining creates environmental problems.On Slovakia representative coal only important internal fuel – power of source and coal is produced in 5 locality. Nowadays, oneself invest to new technology on utilization coal. Perspective solution onself shows UCG, IGCC.

  13. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  14. Utility unbundling : large consumer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, C.

    1997-01-01

    The perspectives of Sunoco as a large user of electric power on utility unbundling were presented. Sunoco's Sarnia refinery runs up an energy bill of over $60 million per year for electricity, natural gas (used both as a feedstock as well as a fuel), natural gas liquids and steam. As a large customer Sunoco advocates unbundling of all services, leaving only the 'pipes and wires' as true monopolies. In their view, regulation distorts the market place and prevents the lower prices that would result from competition as has been seen in the airline and telephone industries. Sunoco's expectation is that in the post-deregulated environment large and small consumers will have a choice of energy supplier, and large consumers will increasingly turn to co-generation as the most desirable way of meeting their power needs

  15. Tumor targeted gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of molecular mechanisms governing malignant transformation brings new opportunities for therapeutic intervention against cancer using novel approaches. One of them is gene therapy based on the transfer of genetic material to an organism with the aim of correcting a disease. The application of gene therapy to the cancer treatment had led to the development of new experimental approaches such as suicidal gene therapy, inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. Suicidal gene therapy is based on the expression in tumor cells of a gene encoding an enzyme that converts a prodrug into a toxic product. Representative suicidal genes are Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and cytosine deaminase (CD). Especially, physicians and scientists of nuclear medicine field take an interest in suicidal gene therapy because they can monitor the location and magnitude, and duration of expression of HSV1-tk and CD by PET scanner

  16. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related...... to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...

  17. Deprival value: information utility analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article contributes to the perception that the users’ learning process plays a key role in order to apply an accounting concept and this involves a presentation that fits its informative potential, free of previous accounting fixations. Deprival value is a useful measure for managerial and corporate purposes, it may be applied to the current Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB. This study analyzes its utility, taking into account cognitive aspects. Also known as value to the business, deprival value is a measurement system that followed a path where it was misunderstood, confused with another one, it faced resistance to be implemented and fell into disuse; everything that a standardized measurement method tries to avoid. In contrast, deprival value has found support in the academy and in specific applications, such as those related to the public service regulation. The accounting area has been impacted by sophistication of the measurement methods that increasingly require the ability to analyze accounting facts on an economic basis, at the risk of loss of their information content. This development becomes possible only when the potential of a measurement system is known and it is feasible to be achieved. This study consists in a theoretical essay based on literature review to discuss its origin, presentation, and application. Considering the concept’s cognitive difficulties, deprival value was analyzed, as well as its corresponding heteronym, value to the business, in order to explain some of these changes. The concept’s utility was also explored through cross-analysis with impairment and the scheme developed was applied to actual economic situations faced by a company listed on stock exchange.

  18. Laboratory cost and utilization containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J W; Root, J M; White, D C

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyzed laboratory costs and utilization in 3,771 cases of Medicare inpatients admitted to a New England academic medical center ("the Hospital") from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1990. The data were derived from the Hospital's Decision Resource System comprehensive data base. The authors established a historical reference point for laboratory costs as a percentage of total inpatient costs using 1981-82 Medicare claims data and cost report information. Inpatient laboratory costs were estimated at 9.5% of total inpatient costs for pre-Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs) Medicare discharges. Using this reference point and adjusting for the Hospital's 1990 case mix, the "expected" laboratory cost was 9.3% of total cost. In fact, the cost averaged 11.5% (i.e., 24% above the expected cost level), and costs represented an even greater percentage of DRG reimbursement at 12.9%. If we regard the reimbursement as a total cost target (to eliminate losses from Medicare), then that 12.9% is 39% above the "expected" laboratory proportion of 9.3%. The Hospital lost an average of $1,091 on each DRG inpatient. The laboratory contributed 29% to this loss per case. Compared to other large hospitals, the Hospital was slightly (3%) above the mean direct cost per on-site test and significantly (58%) above the mean number of inpatient tests per inpatient day compared to large teaching hospitals. The findings suggest that careful laboratory cost analyses will become increasingly important as the proportion of patients reimbursed in a fixed manner grows. The future may hold a prospective zero-based laboratory budgeting process based on predictable patterns of DRG admissions or other fixed-reimbursement admission and laboratory utilization patterns.

  19. Utilization of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Full text: Report on an IAEA interregional training course, Budapest, Hungary, 5-30 November 1979. The course was attended by 19 participants from 16 Member States. Among the 28 training courses which the International Atomic Energy Agency organized within its 1979 programme of technical assistance was the Interregional Training Course on the Utilization of Nuclear Research Reactors. This course was held at the Nuclear Training Reactor (a low-power pool-type reactor) of the Technical University, Budapest, Hungary, from 5 to 30 November 1979 and it was complemented by a one-week Study Tour to the Nuclear Research Centre in Rossendorf near Dresden, German Democratic Republic. The training course was very successful, with 19 participants attending from 16 Member States - Bangladesh, Bolivia, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Iraq, Korean Democratic People's Republic, Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam and Yugoslavia. Selected invited lecturers were recruited from the USA and Finland, as well as local scientists from Hungarian institutions. During the past two decades or so, many research reactors have been put into operation around the world, and the demand for well qualified personnel to run and fully utilize these facilities has increased accordingly. Several developing countries have already acquired small- and medium-size research reactors mainly for isotope production, research in various fields, and training, while others are presently at different stages of planning and installation. Through different sources of information, such as requests to the IAEA for fellowship awards and experts, it became apparent that many research reactors and their associated facilities are not being utilized to their full potential in many of the developing countries. One reason for this is the lack of a sufficient number of trained professionals who are well acquainted with all the capabilities that a research reactor can offer, both in research and

  20. Utility Energy Services Contracts Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

  1. Operating Room Utilization at Frederick Memorial Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    .... A logistical regression analysis was used to identify the impact of variables on operating room utilization rates and therefore help explain how or why some operating rooms incurred higher utilization rates than others...

  2. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  3. UTILIZATION OF 5Es' CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    learning, the effective utilization of which can enhance biology teaching and learning. This paper focused on how ... KEYWORDS: Utilization, 5Es Constructivist approach, difficult concepts, Biology. ... gives hope to the development of the deep.

  4. Evaluating Utility in Diagnostic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Jean R.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of the procedures special educators apply in making decisions about the identification of handicapped individuals has not been thoroughly studied. The paper examines the utility of diagnostic decision making from the perspective of receiver operating curve analysis. (Author)

  5. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  6. Gene decay in Shigella as an incipient stage of host-adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many facultative bacterial pathogens have undergone extensive gene decay processes, possibly due to lack of selection pressure during evolutionary conversion from free-living to intracellular lifestyle. Shigella, the causative agents of human shigellosis, have arisen from different E. coli-like ancestors independently by convergent paths. As these bacteria all have lost large numbers of genes by mutation or deletion, they can be used as ideal models for systematically studying the process of gene function loss in different bacteria living under similar selection pressures. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the sequenced Shigella genomes and re-defined decayed genes (pseudogenes plus deleted genes in these bacteria. Altogether, 85 genes are commonly decayed in the five analyzed Shigella strains and 1456 genes are decayed in at least one Shigella strain. Genes coding for carbon utilization, cell motility, transporter or membrane proteins are prone to be inactivated. Decayed genes tend to concentrate in certain operons rather than distribute averagely across the whole genome. Genes in the decayed operon accumulated more non-synonymous mutations than the rest genes and meanwhile have lower expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Different Shigella lineages underwent convergent gene decay processes, and inactivation of one gene would lead to a lesser selection pressure for the other genes in the same operon. The pool of superfluous genes for Shigella may contain at least two thousand genes and the gene decay processes may still continue in Shigella until a minimum genome harboring only essential genes is reached.

  7. Radiotechnologies and gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jinsong

    2001-01-01

    Gene therapy is an exciting frontier in medicine today. Radiologist will make an uniquely contribution to these exciting new technologies at every level by choosing sites for targeting therapy, perfecting and establishing routes of delivery, developing imaging strategies to monitor therapy and assess gene expression, developing radiotherapeutic used of gene therapy

  8. Urban ecology and the municipal utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools......Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools...

  9. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  10. 49 CFR 218.22 - Utility employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utility employee. 218.22 Section 218.22... employee. (a) A utility employee shall be subject to the Hours of Service Act, and the requirements for... parts 217, 219, and 228 of this chapter. (b) A utility employee shall perform service as a member of...

  11. Integration of SPS with utility system networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupang, B.M.

    1980-06-01

    This paper will discuss the integration of SPS power in electric utility power systems. Specifically treated will be the nature of the power output variations from the spacecraft to the rectenna, the operational characteristics of the rectenna power and the impacts on the electric utility system from utilizing SPS power to serve part of the system load.

  12. Multiservice utility plug for remote fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Jensen, D.A.

    1979-10-01

    This paper presents the design of a multiservice utility plug and drive system to be used for reliably engaging and disengaging all utility connections automatically that serve large portable equipment modules. The modules are arranged into a fuel processing production line within the Fuels and Materials Examination Laboratory. The utility plugs allow the modules to be easily replaced, rearranged or removed for maintenance

  13. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  14. Proceedings: 1993 fuel oil utilization workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the Workshop was to utilize the experiences of utility personnel and continue the interchange of information related to fuel oil issues. Participants also identified technical problem areas in which EPRI might best direct its efforts in research and development of fuel oil utilization and to improve oil-fired steam generating systems' performance. Speakers presented specific fuel projects conducted at their particular utilities, important issues in the utilization of fuel oil, studies conducted or currently in the process of being completed, and information on current and future regulations for fuel utilization. Among the major topics addressed at the 1993 Fuel Oil Utilization Workshop were burner and ESP improvements for the reduction of particulate and NO x emissions, practical experience in utilization of low API gravity residual fuel oils, the use of models to predict the spread of oil spills on land, implementing OPA 90 preparedness and response strategies planning, a report on the annual Utility Oil Buyers Conference, ASTM D-396 specification for No. 6 fuel oil, the utilization of Orimulsion reg-sign in utility boilers, recent progress on research addressing unburned carbon and opacity from oil-fired utility boilers, EPRI's hazardous air pollutant monitoring and implications for residual fuel oil, and the feasibility of toxic metals removal from residual fuel oils. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Repertoire-Scale Immunoglobulin Properties in Vaccine-Induced B-Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja V. Khavrutskii

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the next-generation sequencing of B-cell receptors (BCRs enable the characterization of humoral responses at a repertoire-wide scale and provide the capability for identifying unique features of immune repertoires in response to disease, vaccination, or infection. Immunosequencing now readily generates 103–105 sequences per sample; however, statistical analysis of these repertoires is challenging because of the high genetic diversity of BCRs and the elaborate clonal relationships among them. To date, most immunosequencing analyses have focused on reporting qualitative trends in immunoglobulin (Ig properties, such as usage or somatic hypermutation (SHM percentage of the Ig heavy chain variable (IGHV gene segment family, and on reducing complex Ig property distributions to simple summary statistics. However, because Ig properties are typically not normally distributed, any approach that fails to assess the distribution as a whole may be inadequate in (1 properly assessing the statistical significance of repertoire differences, (2 identifying how two repertoires differ, and (3 determining appropriate confidence intervals for assessing the size of the differences and their potential biological relevance. To address these issues, we have developed a technique that uses Wilcox’ robust statistics toolbox to identify statistically significant vaccine-specific differences between Ig repertoire properties. The advantage of this technique is that it can determine not only whether but also where the distributions differ, even when the Ig repertoire properties are non-normally distributed. We used this technique to characterize murine germinal center (GC B-cell repertoires in response to a complex Ebola virus-like particle (eVLP vaccine candidate with known protective efficacy. The eVLP-mediated GC B-cell responses were highly diverse, consisting of thousands of clonotypes. Despite this staggering diversity, we identified statistically

  16. Gene therapy for the inner ear: challenges and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allen F; Dazert, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Since the recognition of genes as the discrete units of heritability, and of DNA as their molecular substrate, the utilization of genes for therapeutic purposes has been recognized as a potential means of correcting genetic disorders. The tools of molecular biology, which allow the manipulation of DNA sequence, provided the means to put this concept into practice. However, progress in the implementation of these ideas has been slow. Here we review the history of the idea of gene therapy and the complexity of genetic disorders. We also discuss the requirements for sequence-based therapy to be accomplished for different types of inherited diseases, as well as the methods available for gene manipulation. The challenges that have limited the applications of gene therapy are reviewed, as are ethical concerns. Finally, we discuss the promise of gene therapy to address inherited and acquired disorders of the inner ear. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Gene therapy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Indu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy "the use of genes as medicine" involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working copy of a gene into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. The technique may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. The objective of gene therapy is to introduce new genetic material into target cells while causing no damage to the surrounding healthy cells and tissues, hence the treatment related morbidity is decreased. The delivery system includes a vector that delivers a therapeutic gene into the patient′s target cell. Functional proteins are created from the therapeutic gene causing the cell to return to a normal stage. The vectors used in gene therapy can be viral and non-viral. Gene therapy, an emerging field of biomedicine, is still at infancy and much research remains to be done before this approach to the treatment of condition will realize its full potential.

  18. Gene therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Singh, Nidhi; Saluja, Mini

    2013-03-01

    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person's genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is 'the use of genes as medicine'. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.

  19. Activation of HANARO utilization for year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Kang, Y. H.

    2002-04-01

    In order to activate the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. Receipt of neutron usage fee in HANARO, Technical support to use the HANARO utilization facilities, technical support to activate research using HANARO, development and management of HANARO homepage, organization of HANARO Workshop 2001, management of HANARO related committees, training of HANARO users and related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  20. Microwave reactor for utilizing waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pigiel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a designed and manufactured, semi-industrial microwave reactor for thermal utilization of asbestos-bearing wastes. Presented are also semi-industrial tests of utilizing such wastes. It was found that microwave heating can be applied for utilizing asbestos with use of suitable wetting agents. The wetting agents should ensure continuous heating process above 600 °C, as well as uniform heat distribution in the whole volume of the utilized material. Analysis of the neutralization process indicates a possibility of presenting specific, efficient and effective process parameters of utilizing some asbestos-bearing industrial wastes.

  1. Clinical utility of the PCA3 urine assay in European men scheduled for repeat biopsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haese, A.; Taille, A. De La; Poppel, H. van; Marberger, M.; Stenzl, A.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Huland, H.; Abbou, C.C.; Remzi, M.; Tinzl, M.; Feyerabend, S.; Stillebroer, A.B.; Gils, M.P.M.Q.; Schalken, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) assay has shown promise as an aid in prostate cancer (pCA) diagnosis in identifying men with a high probability of a positive (repeat) biopsy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the clinical utility of the PROGENSA PCA3 assay. DESIGN, SETTING, AND

  2. Xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Zhang, Min

    2010-06-22

    A strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas was engineered with a genetic modification to the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene resulting in reduced expression of GFOR enzyme activity. The engineered strain exhibits reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism. It also consumes more xylose and produces more ethanol during mixed sugar fermentation under process-relevant conditions.

  3. Ethanol production using xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V.; McCutchen, Carol M.; Emptage, Mark; Caimi, Perry G.; Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen

    2010-06-22

    Production of ethanol using a strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas with a genetic modification of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene was found to be improved due to greatly reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism synthesized during fermentation.

  4. Transgenic Mice Expressing Yeast CUP1 Exhibit Increased Copper Utilization from Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenliang; Liao, Rongrong; Zhang, Xiangzhe; Wang, Qishan; Pan, Yuchun

    2014-01-01

    Copper is required for structural and catalytic properties of a variety of enzymes participating in many vital biological processes for growth and development. Feeds provide most of the copper as an essential micronutrient consumed by animals, but inorganic copper could not be utilized effectively. In the present study, we aimed to develop transgenic mouse models to test if copper utilization will be increased by providing the animals with an exogenous gene for generation of copper chelatin in saliva. Considering that the S. cerevisiae CUP1 gene encodes a Cys-rich protein that can bind copper as specifically as copper chelatin in yeast, we therefore constructed a transgene plasmid containing the CUP1 gene regulated for specific expression in the salivary glands by a promoter of gene coding pig parotid secretory protein. Transgenic CUP1 was highly expressed in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands and secreted in saliva as a 9-kDa copper-chelating protein. Expression of salivary copper-chelating proteins reduced fecal copper contents by 21.61% and increased body-weight by 12.97%, suggesting that chelating proteins improve the utilization and absorbed efficacy of copper. No negative effects on the health of the transgenic mice were found by blood biochemistry and histology analysis. These results demonstrate that the introduction of the salivary CUP1 transgene into animals offers a possible approach to increase the utilization efficiency of copper and decrease the fecal copper contents. PMID:25265503

  5. Utilization of next generation sequencing for analyzing transgenic insertions in plum

    Science.gov (United States)

    When utilizing transgenic plants, it is useful to know how many copies of the genes were inserted and the locations of these insertions in the genome. This information can provide important insights for the interpretation of transgene expression and the resulting phenotype. Traditionally, these qu...

  6. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  7. The clinical utility of posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Jasper E; Carpenter, Mark G; van der Kooij, Herman; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2008-11-01

    Postural instability and falls are common and devastating features of ageing and many neurological, visual, vestibular or orthopedic disorders. Current management of these problems is hampered by the subjective and variable nature of the available clinical balance measures. In this narrative review, we discuss the clinical utility of posturography as a more objective and quantitative measure of balance and postural instability, focusing on several areas where clinicians presently experience the greatest difficulties in managing their patients: (a) to make an appropriate differential diagnosis in patients presenting with falls or balance impairment; (b) to reliably identify those subjects who are at risk of falling; (c) to objectively and quantitatively document the outcome of therapeutic interventions; and (d) to gain a better pathophysiological understanding of postural instability and falls, as a basis for the development of improved treatment strategies to prevent falling. In each of these fields, posturography offers several theoretical advantages and, when applied correctly, provides a useful tool to gain a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in patients with balance disorders, at the group level. However, based on the available evidence, none of the existing techniques is currently able to significantly influence the clinical decision making in individual patients. We critically review the shortcomings of posturography as it is presently used, and conclude with several recommendations for future research.

  8. Electric utilities and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electricity has become essential to American life. Approximately 70 percent of the nation's electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels, with coal, the most abundant, domestically-available, extracted natural resource, providing over 55 percent of the total electricity consumed. Emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are regulated by both the federal and state governments. In 1970, Congress passed the comprehensive Clean Air Act which established a national program to protect the nation's air quality. In 1977, additional strict regulations were passed, which mandated even more stringent emission controls for factories, power plants and auto emissions. Prior to passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990, utilities were required to adhere to three major types of clean air regulations: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) review. NAAQS established limits for the maximum concentration levels of specific air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. For example, for an area to be in compliance with the NAAQS for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), its annual average SO 2 concentration must not exceed 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and a peak 24 hour level of 0.14 ppm of SO 2 must not be exceeded more than once per year

  9. Utilization of 'pluthermal' in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itakura, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Yoshinobu

    1982-01-01

    The plutonium recycle subscommittee of the atomic energy committee in the Advisory Committee for Energy of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry reported that the use of plutonium to thermal reactors should be positively promoted, and the establishment of plutonium technology and the effective utilization of plutonium, which is a semi-domestic resource, should be attempted. The use of plutonium to thermal reactors, specifically to light water reactors, is called ''Pluthermal'', and hereafter, the use of plutonium for this purpose will be written as ''Pluthermal''. In this review, first the outline of the interim report of the plutonium recycle subcommittee is described, next, the plutonium balance, SGR (self generating recycle) and technical problems for ''Pluthermal'', and the ATRs (advanced thermal reactor) for ''Pluthermal'' are discussed. If the present capacity of nuclear power generation is assumed to be 17 million kW, it is estimated that about 10 tons of plutonium is in reactors, and 3 tons or more plutonium are taken out every year, contained in spent fuel. For those, reprocessing techniques must be fully established to prepare for future fast reactor operation. At present, 400 to 500 kg of plutonium is always in a light water reactor. If it is assumed that the MOX (mixed oxide fuel) of 30 % Pu is loaded to these reactors, no essential difference arises because its quantity only becomes about 900 kg. Finally, the results of ''Pulthermal'' in foreign countries are briefly reported. (Sakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Geology in coal resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  11. Method for aluminium dross utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucheva, B.; Petkov, R.; Tzonev, Tz.

    2003-01-01

    A new hydrometallurgical method has been developed for metal aluminum utilization from secondary aluminum dross. Secondary aluminum dross is a powder product with an average of 35% aluminium content (below 1mm). It is waste from primary aluminum dross pyrometallurgical flux less treatment in rotary DC electric arc furnace. This method is based on aluminum leaching in copper chloride water solution. As a result an aluminum oxychloride solution and solids, consisting of copper and oxides are obtained. In order to copper chloride solution regenerate hydrochloric acid is added to the solids. The process is simple, quick, economic and safe. The aluminum oxychloride solution contains 56 g/l Al 2 O 3 . The molar ratios are Al:Cl=0,5; OH:Al=1. The solution has 32 % basicity and 1,1 g/cm 3 density. For increasing the molar ratio of aluminium to chlorine aluminum hydroxide is added to this solution at 80 o C. Aluminum hydroxide is the final product from the secondary aluminum dross alkaline leaching. As a result aluminum oxychloride solution of the following composition is prepared: Al 2 O 3 - 180 g/l; Al:Cl=1,88; OH:Al=4,64; basicity 82%; density 1,22 g/cm 3 , pH=4 -4,5. Aluminum oxychloride solution produced by means of this method can be used in potable and wastewater treatment, paper making, in refractory mixture as a binder etc. (Original)

  12. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    . To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air......We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  13. Chitin utilization by the insect-transmitted bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Prado, Simone S; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2010-09-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an insect-borne bacterium that colonizes xylem vessels of a large number of host plants, including several crops of economic importance. Chitin is a polysaccharide present in the cuticle of leafhopper vectors of X. fastidiosa and may serve as a carbon source for this bacterium. Biological assays showed that X. fastidiosa reached larger populations in the presence of chitin. Additionally, chitin induced phenotypic changes in this bacterium, notably increasing adhesiveness. Quantitative PCR assays indicated transcriptional changes in the presence of chitin, and an enzymatic assay demonstrated chitinolytic activity by X. fastidiosa. An ortholog of the chitinase A gene (chiA) was identified in the X. fastidiosa genome. The in silico analysis revealed that the open reading frame of chiA encodes a protein of 351 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 40 kDa. chiA is in a locus that consists of genes implicated in polysaccharide degradation. Moreover, this locus was also found in the genomes of closely related bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas, which are plant but not insect associated. X. fastidiosa degraded chitin when grown on a solid chitin-yeast extract-agar medium and grew in liquid medium with chitin as the sole carbon source; ChiA was also determined to be secreted. The gene encoding ChiA was cloned into Escherichia coli, and endochitinase activity was detected in the transformant, showing that the gene is functional and involved in chitin degradation. The results suggest that X. fastidiosa may use its vectors' foregut surface as a carbon source. In addition, chitin may trigger X. fastidiosa's gene regulation and biofilm formation within vectors. Further work is necessary to characterize the role of chitin and its utilization in X. fastidiosa.

  14. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement

  15. Assays for noninvasive imaging of reporter gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, S.S.; Barrio, J.R.; Herschman, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Repeated, noninvasive imaging of reporter gene expression is emerging as a valuable tool for monitoring the expression of genes in animals and humans. Monitoring of organ/cell transplantation in living animals and humans, and the assessment of environmental, behavioral, and pharmacologic modulation of gene expression in transgenic animals should soon be possible. The earliest clinical application is likely to be monitoring human gene therapy in tumors transduced with the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) suicide gene. Several candidate assays for imaging reporter gene expression have been studied, utilizing cytosine deaminase (CD), HSV1-tk, and dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) as reporter genes. For the HSV1-tk reporter gene, both uracil nucleoside derivatives (e.g., 5-iodo-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil [FIAU] labeled with 124 I, 131 I ) and acycloguanosine derivatives {e.g., 8-[ 18 F]fluoro-9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl]guanine (8-[ 18 F]-fluoroganciclovir) ([ 18 F]FGCV), 9-[(3-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([ 18 F]FHPG)} have been investigated as reporter probes. For the D2R reporter gene, a derivative of spiperone {3-(2'-[ 18 F]-Fluoroethyl)spiperone ([ 18 F]FESP)} has been used with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. In this review, the principles and specific assays for imaging reporter gene expression are presented and discussed. Specific examples utilizing adenoviral-mediated delivery of a reporter gene as well as tumors expressing reporter genes are discussed

  16. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  17. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, H. R.

    2006-06-01

    Object and Importance To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. Scope and Contents In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO, HANARO Symposium, Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index, Operation and Management of HANARO Server, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users and Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  18. Studying Functions of All Yeast Genes Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor; Eason, Robert G.; Poumand, Nader; Herman, Zelek S.; Davis, Ronald W.; Anthony Kevin; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

    2006-01-01

    A method of studying the functions of all the genes of a given species of microorganism simultaneously has been developed in experiments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker's or brewer's yeast). It is already known that many yeast genes perform functions similar to those of corresponding human genes; therefore, by facilitating understanding of yeast genes, the method may ultimately also contribute to the knowledge needed to treat some diseases in humans. Because of the complexity of the method and the highly specialized nature of the underlying knowledge, it is possible to give only a brief and sketchy summary here. The method involves the use of unique synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences that are denoted as DNA bar codes because of their utility as molecular labels. The method also involves the disruption of gene functions through deletion of genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly powerful experimental system in that multiple deletion strains easily can be pooled for parallel growth assays. Individual deletion strains recently have been created for 5,918 open reading frames, representing nearly all of the estimated 6,000 genetic loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tagging of each deletion strain with one or two unique 20-nucleotide sequences enables identification of genes affected by specific growth conditions, without prior knowledge of gene functions. Hybridization of bar-code DNA to oligonucleotide arrays can be used to measure the growth rate of each strain over several cell-division generations. The growth rate thus measured serves as an index of the fitness of the strain.

  19. Dichotomy of major genes and polygenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to facilitate domestication and breeding of new or underexploited crop species, the genetic basis of many traits must be critically investigated, and both naturally occurring and induced mutations should be utilized. Classically, most breeding procedures have invoked the dichotomy of major genes versus polygenes (or discrete versus continuously varying traits) which is briefly reviewed here from several viewpoints. Clearly, the evidence for two distinct classes of genes (or gene effects on phenotype) and traits is largely a product of different forms of genetic analyses and their primary objectives as well as of researchers' expectations. Superimposed on the simplest Mendelian ratios and genome maps are numerous sources of molecular variation and gene expression at many levels of phenotypic description. Many attempts to delineate developmental pathways and to identify genes controlling discrete vs. quantitative phenotypic variation have resulted in emphasis on multigenic models with specific gene effects at mappable loci but nonetheless modified by small effects. Thus, quantitative genetic variation may arise from multi-genic and multi-allelic systems of both structural and regulatory gene action and gene interactions which, from an empirical breeding perspective, might be adequately described by the biometrical and evolutionary models. Polygenic analyses were conceptually based on genetic parameters in these models (as caricatures of reality) but efforts to modify or reject them by identifying and mapping sources of phenotypic variation through newer genetic methods are likely to enrich and not displace biometrical methods. Domestication programmes, in particular, should employ the entire array of genetic discoveries and methodologies. (author). 71 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. 1994 Panel 1 Utilization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is intended to receive, handle, and permanently dispose of transuranic (TRU) waste. To fulfill this mission, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed a full-scale facility to demonstrate both technical and operational principles of the permanent isolation of TRU waste. The WIPP consists of surface and underground facilities. Panel 1 is situated in the underground facility horizon which is located approximately 2,150 feet below the surface in the predominantly halite Salado Formation. The Panel 1 Utilization Plan provides a strategy for the optimum use of Panel 1 which is consistent with the priorities established by the DOE to accomplish the WIPP mission. These priorities, which include maintaining personnel safety, conducting performance assessment, and continued operational enhancements, are the guiding premise for the decisions on the planned usage of the WIPP underground facility. The continuation of ongoing investigations along with the planned testing and training to be carried out in Panel 1 will enhance the current knowledge and understanding of the operational and geotechnical aspects of the panel configuration. This enhancement will ultimately lead to safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective methods of operation. Excavation of the waste storage area began in May 1986 with the mining of entries to Panel 1. The original design for the waste storage rooms at the WIPP provided a limited period of time during which to mine the openings and to emplace waste. Each panel, consisting of seven storage rooms, was scheduled to be mined and filled in less than 5 years. Panel 1 was developed to receive waste for a demonstration phase that was scheduled to start in October 1988. The demonstration phase was deferred, and the experimental test program was modified to use contact-handled (CH) transuranic waste in bin-scale tests, planned for Room 1, Panel 1

  1. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  2. Present status of research on radiation utilization in 1994 at JAERI. Utilization of irradiation and RI production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment is in charge of the utilization of irradiation, and Tokai Research Establishment is in charge of the production and utilization of radioisotopes. As for the utilization of irradiation the development of new polymers, the development of environment preservation technology such as flue gas treatment, and by using various ion beams from four accelerators, the development of the materials used for space environment, nuclear fusion and new functional materials, the research on the radiation application to biotechnology, the development of the production and utilization of new radioisotopes have been carried out. As for the production and utilization of radioisotopes, the development of new products and new utilization techniques, the technology of producing and using a large amount of tritium, and the research on the chemical behavior of tritium have been carried out. The international cooperations have been promoted positively. In this report, the research activities in 1994 are described. (K.I.)

  3. Primetime for Learning Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Joyce

    2017-02-11

    Learning genes in mature neurons are uniquely suited to respond rapidly to specific environmental stimuli. Expression of individual learning genes, therefore, requires regulatory mechanisms that have the flexibility to respond with transcriptional activation or repression to select appropriate physiological and behavioral responses. Among the mechanisms that equip genes to respond adaptively are bivalent domains. These are specific histone modifications localized to gene promoters that are characteristic of both gene activation and repression, and have been studied primarily for developmental genes in embryonic stem cells. In this review, studies of the epigenetic regulation of learning genes in neurons, particularly the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene ( BDNF ), by methylation/demethylation and chromatin modifications in the context of learning and memory will be highlighted. Because of the unique function of learning genes in the mature brain, it is proposed that bivalent domains are a characteristic feature of the chromatin landscape surrounding their promoters. This allows them to be "poised" for rapid response to activate or repress gene expression depending on environmental stimuli.

  4. [Utilities: a solution of a decision problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michael; Ohmann, Christian; Lorenz, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    Utility is a concept that originates from utilitarianism, a highly influential philosophical school in the Anglo-American world. The cornerstone of utilitarianism is the principle of maximum happiness or utility. In the medical sciences, this utility approach has been adopted and developed within the field of medical decision making. On an operational level, utility is the evaluation of a health state or an outcome on a one-dimensional scale ranging from 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health). By adding the concept of expectancy, the graphic representation of both concepts in a decision tree results in the specification of expected utilities and helps to resolve complex medical decision problems. Criticism of the utility approach relates to the rational perspective on humans (which is rejected by a considerable fraction of research in psychology) and to the artificial methods used in the evaluation of utility, such as Standard Gamble or Time Trade Off. These may well be the reason why the utility approach has never been accepted in Germany. Nevertheless, innovative concepts for defining goals in health care are urgently required, as the current debate in Germany on "Nutzen" (interestingly translated as 'benefit' instead of as 'utility') and integrated outcome models indicates. It remains to be seen whether this discussion will lead to a re-evaluation of the utility approach.

  5. The causal structure of utility conditionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, Jean-François; Sloman, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of reasoning is increasingly considering agents' values and preferences, achieving greater integration with judgment and decision making, social cognition, and moral reasoning. Some of this research investigates utility conditionals, ''if p then q'' statements where the realization of p or q or both is valued by some agents. Various approaches to utility conditionals share the assumption that reasoners make inferences from utility conditionals based on the comparison between the utility of p and the expected utility of q. This article introduces a new parameter in this analysis, the underlying causal structure of the conditional. Four experiments showed that causal structure moderated utility-informed conditional reasoning. These inferences were strongly invited when the underlying structure of the conditional was causal, and significantly less so when the underlying structure of the conditional was diagnostic. This asymmetry was only observed for conditionals in which the utility of q was clear, and disappeared when the utility of q was unclear. Thus, an adequate account of utility-informed inferences conditional reasoning requires three components: utility, probability, and causal structure. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. A model of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions and its implications for targeting environmental interventions by genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Helen M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential public health benefits of targeting environmental interventions by genotype depend on the environmental and genetic contributions to the variance of common diseases, and the magnitude of any gene-environment interaction. In the absence of prior knowledge of all risk factors, twin, family and environmental data may help to define the potential limits of these benefits in a given population. However, a general methodology to analyze twin data is required because of the potential importance of gene-gene interactions (epistasis, gene-environment interactions, and conditions that break the 'equal environments' assumption for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Method A new model for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions is developed that abandons the assumptions of the classical twin study, including Fisher's (1918 assumption that genes act as risk factors for common traits in a manner necessarily dominated by an additive polygenic term. Provided there are no confounders, the model can be used to implement a top-down approach to quantifying the potential utility of genetic prediction and prevention, using twin, family and environmental data. The results describe a solution space for each disease or trait, which may or may not include the classical twin study result. Each point in the solution space corresponds to a different model of genotypic risk and gene-environment interaction. Conclusion The results show that the potential for reducing the incidence of common diseases using environmental interventions targeted by genotype may be limited, except in special cases. The model also confirms that the importance of an individual's genotype in determining their risk of complex diseases tends to be exaggerated by the classical twin studies method, owing to the 'equal environments' assumption and the assumption of no gene-environment interaction. In addition, if phenotypes are genetically robust, because of epistasis

  7. Resolving inconsistencies in utility measurement under risk: Tests of generalizations of expected utility

    OpenAIRE

    Han Bleichrodt; José María Abellán-Perpiñan; JoséLuis Pinto; Ildefonso Méndez-Martínez

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores inconsistencies that occur in utility measurement under risk when expected utility theory is assumed and the contribution that prospect theory and some other generalizations of expected utility can make to the resolution of these inconsistencies. We used five methods to measure utilities under risk and found clear violations of expected utility. Of the theories studied, prospect theory was the most consistent with our data. The main improvement of prospect theory over expe...

  8. Cloning of 1,2-Dichloroethane Degradation Genes of Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 and Expression and Sequencing of the dhlA Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Pries, Frens; Ploeg, Jan van der; Kazemier, Bert; Terpstra, Peter; Witholt, Bernard

    1989-01-01

    A gene bank from the chlorinated hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 was prepared in the broad-host-range cosmid vector pLAFR1. By using mutants impaired in dichloroethane utilization and strains lacking dehalogenase activities, several genes involved in

  9. Identifying Cancer Driver Genes Using Replication-Incompetent Retroviral Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Bii

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying novel genes that drive tumor metastasis and drug resistance has significant potential to improve patient outcomes. High-throughput sequencing approaches have identified cancer genes, but distinguishing driver genes from passengers remains challenging. Insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have emerged as a powerful tool to identify cancer genes. Unlike replicating retroviruses and transposons, replication-incompetent retroviral vectors lack additional mutagenesis events that can complicate the identification of driver mutations from passenger mutations. They can also be used for almost any human cancer due to the broad tropism of the vectors. Replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have the ability to dysregulate nearby cancer genes via several mechanisms including enhancer-mediated activation of gene promoters. The integrated provirus acts as a unique molecular tag for nearby candidate driver genes which can be rapidly identified using well established methods that utilize next generation sequencing and bioinformatics programs. Recently, retroviral vector screens have been used to efficiently identify candidate driver genes in prostate, breast, liver and pancreatic cancers. Validated driver genes can be potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers. In this review, we describe the emergence of retroviral insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors as a novel tool to identify cancer driver genes in different cancer types.

  10. Diagnosis method utilizing neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.; Tamayama, K.

    1990-01-01

    Studies have been made on the technique of neural networks, which will be used to identify a cause of a small anomalous state in the reactor coolant system of the ATR (Advance Thermal Reactor). Three phases of analyses were carried out in this study. First, simulation for 100 seconds was made to determine how the plant parameters respond after the occurence of a transient decrease in reactivity, flow rate and temperature of feed water and increase in the steam flow rate and steam pressure, which would produce a decrease of water level in a steam drum of the ATR. Next, the simulation data was analysed utilizing an autoregressive model. From this analysis, a total of 36 coherency functions up to 0.5 Hz in each transient were computed among nine important and detectable plant parameters: neutron flux, flow rate of coolant, steam or feed water, water level in the steam drum, pressure and opening area of control valve in a steam pipe, feed water temperature and electrical power. Last, learning of neural networks composed of 96 input, 4-9 hidden and 5 output layer units was done by use of the generalized delta rule, namely a back-propagation algorithm. These convergent computations were continued as far as the difference between the desired outputs, 1 for direct cause or 0 for four other ones and actual outputs reached less than 10%. (1) Coherency functions were not governed by decreasing rate of reactivity in the range of 0.41x10 -2 dollar/s to 1.62x10 -2 dollar /s or by decreasing depth of the feed water temperature in the range of 3 deg C to 10 deg C or by a change of 10% or less in the three other causes. Change in coherency functions only depended on the type of cause. (2) The direct cause from the other four ones could be discriminated with 0.94+-0.01 of output level. A maximum of 0.06 output height was found among the other four causes. (3) Calculation load which is represented as products of learning times and numbers of the hidden units did not depend on the

  11. Integrated waste hydrogen utilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The BC Hydrogen Highway's, Integrated Waste Hydrogen Utilization Project (IWHUP) is a multi-faceted, synergistic collaboration that will capture waste hydrogen and promote its use through the demonstration of 'Hydrogen Economy' enabling technologies developed by Canadian companies. IWHUP involves capturing and purifying a small portion of the 600 kg/hr of by-product hydrogen vented to the atmosphere at the ERCO's electrochemical sodium chlorate plant in North Vancouver, BC. The captured hydrogen will then be compressed so it is suitable for transportation on roadways and can be used as a fuel in transportation and stationary fuel cell demonstrations. In summary, IWHUP invests in the following; Facilities to produce up to 20kg/hr of 99.999% pure 6250psig hydrogen using QuestAir's leading edge Pressure Swing Absorption technology; Ultra high-pressure transportable hydrogen storage systems developed by Dynetek Industries, Powertech Labs and Sacre-Davey Engineering; A Mobile Hydrogen Fuelling Station to create Instant Hydrogen Infrastructure for light-duty vehicles; Natural gas and hydrogen (H-CNG) blending and compression facilities by Clean Energy for fueling heavy-duty vehicles; Ten hydrogen, internal combustion engine (H-ICE), powered light duty pick-up vehicles and a specialized vehicle training, maintenance, and emissions monitoring program with BC Hydro, GVRD and the District of North Vancouver; The demonstration of Westport's H-CNG technology for heavy-duty vehicles in conjunction with local transit properties and a specialized vehicle training, maintenance, and emissions monitoring program; The demonstration of stationary fuel cell systems that will provide clean power for reducing peak-load power demands (peak shaving), grid independence and water heating; A comprehensive communications and outreach program designed to educate stakeholders, the public, regulatory bodies and emergency response teams in the local community, Supported by industry

  12. Genes and Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Gene E.; Fernald, Russell D.; Clayton, David F.

    2008-01-01

    What specific genes and regulatory sequences contribute to the organization and functioning of brain circuits that support social behavior? How does social experience interact with information in the genome to modulate these brain circuits? Here we address these questions by highlighting progress that has been made in identifying and understanding two key “vectors of influence” that link genes, brain, and social behavior: 1) social information alters gene readout in the brain to influence beh...

  13. The laboratory test utilization management toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Efficiently managing laboratory test utilization requires both ensuring adequate utilization of needed tests in some patients and discouraging superfluous tests in other patients. After the difficult clinical decision is made to define the patients that do and do not need a test, a wealth of interventions are available to the clinician and laboratorian to help guide appropriate utilization. These interventions are collectively referred to here as the utilization management toolbox. Experience has shown that some tools in the toolbox are weak and other are strong, and that tools are most effective when many are used simultaneously. While the outcomes of utilization management studies are not always as concrete as may be desired, what data is available in the literature indicate that strong utilization management interventions are safe and effective measures to improve patient health and reduce waste in an era of increasing financial pressure.

  14. Utilities' ''obligation to serve'' under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities' franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that's been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions

  15. Stochastic Dominance under the Nonlinear Expected Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinling Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, von Neumann and Morgenstern introduced the well-known expected utility and the related axiomatic system (see von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953. It is widely used in economics, for example, financial economics. But the well-known Allais paradox (see Allais (1979 shows that the linear expected utility has some limitations sometimes. Because of this, Peng proposed a concept of nonlinear expected utility (see Peng (2005. In this paper we propose a concept of stochastic dominance under the nonlinear expected utilities. We give sufficient conditions on which a random choice X stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the nonlinear expected utilities. We also provide sufficient conditions on which a random choice X strictly stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the sublinear expected utilities.

  16. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities--or about 25% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  17. Using consensus building to improve utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, J.

    1994-01-01

    The utility industry and its regulatory environment are at a crossroads. Utilities, intervenors and even public utility commissions are no longer able to initiate and sustain changes unilaterally. Traditional approaches to regulation are often contentious and costly, producing results that are not perceived as legitimate or practical. Consensus building and alternative dispute resolution have the potential to help utilities, intervenors and regulators resolve a host of regulatory issues. This book traces the decline of consensus in utility regulation and delineates current controversies. It presents the theory and practice of alternative dispute resolution in utility regulation and offers a framework for evaluating the successes and failures of attempts to employ these processes. Four regulatory cases are analyzed in detail: the Pilgrim nuclear power plant outage settlement, the use of DSM collaboratives, the New Jersey resource bidding policy and the formation of integrated resource management rules in Massachusetts

  18. History of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  20. Present and possible utilization of PUSPATI reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Ah Auu.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of PUSPATI TRIGA Mark II Reactor (PTR) has increased reasonably well since its commissioning last year. PTR was used mainly for training of operators, neutron flux measurements and neutron activation analysis. However, the present utilization data indicates that further increase in PTR utilization to include teaching and the usage of the beam ports is desirable. Some possible areas of PTR applications in the future in relevance to our needs are also described in this paper. (author)

  1. Impact of the legislation on electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Long, M.

    1982-01-01

    The possible impact of Federal nuclear waste legislation on electric utilities is discussed. The proposed legislation will set forth a well defined program enabling utilities with nuclear plants to make long term plans under a statutory mandate committed to an available technology and implementation timetable. The legislation includes the necessary specificity for the utility companies to fulfill their responsibilities in describing their waste disposal plans to their customers, the concerned public, and state and local legislators

  2. Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility

    OpenAIRE

    Kahneman, Daniel; Wakker, Peter; Sarin, Rakesh

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo core meanings of “utility” are distinguished. “Decision utility” is the weight of an outcome in a decision. “Experienced utility” is hedonic quality, as in Bentham’s usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past episodes (remembered utility). Psychological research has documented systematic errors in retrospective evaluations, which can induce a preference for dominated options. We propose a formal normative ...

  3. Estimating the relative utility of screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K; Eckstein, Miguel P; Boone, John M

    2013-05-01

    The concept of diagnostic utility is a fundamental component of signal detection theory, going back to some of its earliest works. Attaching utility values to the various possible outcomes of a diagnostic test should, in principle, lead to meaningful approaches to evaluating and comparing such systems. However, in many areas of medical imaging, utility is not used because it is presumed to be unknown. In this work, we estimate relative utility (the utility benefit of a detection relative to that of a correct rejection) for screening mammography using its known relation to the slope of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve at the optimal operating point. The approach assumes that the clinical operating point is optimal for the goal of maximizing expected utility and therefore the slope at this point implies a value of relative utility for the diagnostic task, for known disease prevalence. We examine utility estimation in the context of screening mammography using the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trials (DMIST) data. We show how various conditions can influence the estimated relative utility, including characteristics of the rating scale, verification time, probability model, and scope of the ROC curve fit. Relative utility estimates range from 66 to 227. We argue for one particular set of conditions that results in a relative utility estimate of 162 (±14%). This is broadly consistent with values in screening mammography determined previously by other means. At the disease prevalence found in the DMIST study (0.59% at 365-day verification), optimal ROC slopes are near unity, suggesting that utility-based assessments of screening mammography will be similar to those found using Youden's index.

  4. Lessons Learned: Community Solar for Municipal Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This report outlines the work that STAT has completed, discusses the range of approaches utilities are taking, and highlights several challenges municipal utilities face in deciding whether and how to pursue community solar. As this report shows, there is no 'silver bullet' in terms of municipal utility community solar design or implementation - programs vary significantly and are highly dependent on localized contexts.

  5. Utilities for high performance dispersion model PHYSIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1992-09-01

    The description and usage of the utilities for the dispersion calculation model PHYSIC were summarized. The model was developed in the study of developing high performance SPEEDI with the purpose of introducing meteorological forecast function into the environmental emergency response system. The procedure of PHYSIC calculation consists of three steps; preparation of relevant files, creation and submission of JCL, and graphic output of results. A user can carry out the above procedure with the help of the Geographical Data Processing Utility, the Model Control Utility, and the Graphic Output Utility. (author)

  6. Characterization qualitative and potentialities of utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization qualitative and potentialities of utilization of methacomposts of poultry in the nurseries aboveground. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences.

  7. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  8. Wind energy systems. Application to regional utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This study developed a generic planning process that utilities can use to determine the feasibility of utilizing WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) as part of their future mix of equipment. While this is primarily an economic process, other questions dealing with WECS availability, capacity credit, operating reserve, performance of WECS arrays, etc., had to be addressed. The approach was to establish the worth, or breakeven value, of WECS to the utility and to determine the impact that WECS additions would have on the utilities mix of conventional source.

  9. Dynamic decision making without expected utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jaffray, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Non-expected utility theories, such as rank dependent utility (RDU) theory, have been proposed as alternative models to EU theory in decision making under risk. These models do not share the separability property of expected utility theory. This implies that, in a decision tree, if the reduction...... maker’s discordant goals at the different decision nodes. Relative to the computations involved in the standard expected utility evaluation of a decision problem, the main computational increase is due to the identification of non-dominated strategies by linear programming. A simulation, using the rank...

  10. Water and Sewage Utilities Sector (NAICS 2213)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental regulation information for water utilities, including drinking and wastewater treatment facilities. Includes links to NESHAP for POTW, compliance information, and information about pretreatment programs.

  11. Comparative Genomics Reveals the Regulatory Complexity of Bifidobacterial Arabinose and Arabino-Oligosaccharide Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Arzamasov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. Previously it was shown that arabino-oligosaccharides (AOS might act as prebiotics and stimulate the bifidobacterial growth in the gut. However, despite the rapid accumulation of genomic data, the precise mechanisms by which these sugars are utilized and associated transcription control still remain unclear. In the current study, we used a comparative genomic approach to reconstruct arabinose and AOS utilization pathways in over 40 bacterial species belonging to the Bifidobacteriaceae family. The results indicate that the gene repertoire involved in the catabolism of these sugars is highly diverse, and even phylogenetically close species may differ in their utilization capabilities. Using bioinformatics analysis we identified potential DNA-binding motifs and reconstructed putative regulons for the arabinose and AOS utilization genes in the Bifidobacteriaceae genomes. Six LacI-family transcriptional factors (named AbfR, AauR, AauU1, AauU2, BauR1 and BauR2 and a TetR-family regulator (XsaR presumably act as local repressors for AOS utilization genes encoding various α- or β-L-arabinofuranosidases and predicted AOS transporters. The ROK-family regulator AraU and the LacI-family regulator AraQ control adjacent operons encoding putative arabinose transporters and catabolic enzymes, respectively. However, the AraQ regulator is universally present in all Bifidobacterium species including those lacking the arabinose catabolic genes araBDA, suggesting its control of other genes. Comparative genomic analyses of prospective AraQ-binding sites allowed the reconstruction of AraQ regulons and a proposed binary repression/activation mechanism. The conserved core of reconstructed AraQ regulons in bifidobacteria includes araBDA, as well as genes from the central glycolytic and fermentation pathways (pyk, eno, gap, tkt, tal, galM, ldh. The current study expands the

  12. Three essays on utility regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    To induce utilities in the gas distribution market to operate efficiently, US states have deployed consumer choice programs, price caps, and variations of sliding scale plans. My first essay studies the impact of these restructuring and deregulation efforts on consumer rates, using panel data from a custom survey of state commissions and the Department of Energy. I estimate the residential, small commercial and industrial price equations jointly, and use instrumental variables to control for the potentially endogenous demand and status of deregulation. Consumer choice programs lower the prices by 2.2-20.1% compared to the rate of return regulation, benefiting industrial consumers the most and households the least. These effects appear even one to two years prior to the programs' implementation, and become stronger over time. Price caps lower all prices by 0.0-20.0%, with the same ranking. The impacts of sliding scale plans are close to zero, between -2.6% and +4.0% The second paper evaluates health damages caused by air concentrations of SO2 under three alternative environmental policies leading to identical aggregate emissions: emission caps, a nationwide emission tax, and a system of tradable emission allowances such as the one currently used in the US. The numerical model of the industry finds generators' output, participation in energy trade and SO2 abatement effort under each policy. The resulting SO2 concentrations are used to derive the aggregate health damages using estimates in the medical literature. SO2 concentrations vary across policies even when the aggregate emissions are the same. These variations translate into substantially different losses for any individual state, and, nationwide, to hundreds of millions of dollars of difference in aggregate damages. Emission caps are found to lead to the lowest damages, outperforming the currently used system of allowances by 452 million. A uniform emission tax leads to very similar damages as the system of

  13. The predictive validity of prospect theory versus expected utility in health utility measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan-Perpiñan, Jose Maria; Bleichrodt, Han; Pinto-Prades, Jose Luis

    2009-12-01

    Most health care evaluations today still assume expected utility even though the descriptive deficiencies of expected utility are well known. Prospect theory is the dominant descriptive alternative for expected utility. This paper tests whether prospect theory leads to better health evaluations than expected utility. The approach is purely descriptive: we explore how simple measurements together with prospect theory and expected utility predict choices and rankings between more complex stimuli. For decisions involving risk prospect theory is significantly more consistent with rankings and choices than expected utility. This conclusion no longer holds when we use prospect theory utilities and expected utilities to predict intertemporal decisions. The latter finding cautions against the common assumption in health economics that health state utilities are transferable across decision contexts. Our results suggest that the standard gamble and algorithms based on, should not be used to value health.

  14. Engineering Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for efficient ethylene glycol utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franden, Mary Ann; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Li, Wing-Jin; Wagner, Neil J; Cleveland, Nicholas S; Michener, William E; Hauer, Bernhard; Blank, Lars M; Wierckx, Nick; Klebensberger, Janosch; Beckham, Gregg T

    2018-06-07

    Ethylene glycol is used as a raw material in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, in antifreeze, as a gas hydrate inhibitor in pipelines, and for many other industrial applications. It is metabolized by aerobic microbial processes via the highly toxic intermediates glycolaldehyde and glycolate through C2 metabolic pathways. Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which has been engineered for environmental remediation applications given its high toxicity tolerance and broad substrate specificity, is not able to efficiently metabolize ethylene glycol, despite harboring putative genes for this purpose. To further expand the metabolic portfolio of P. putida, we elucidated the metabolic pathway to enable ethylene glycol via systematic overexpression of glyoxylate carboligase (gcl) in combination with other genes. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that all of the four genes in genomic proximity to gcl (hyi, glxR, ttuD, and pykF) are transcribed as an operon. Where the expression of only two genes (gcl and glxR) resulted in growth in ethylene glycol, improved growth and ethylene glycol utilization were observed when the entire gcl operon was expressed. Both glycolaldehyde and glyoxal inhibit growth in concentrations of ethylene glycol above 50 mM. To overcome this bottleneck, the additional overexpression of the glycolate oxidase (glcDEF) operon removes the glycolate bottleneck and minimizes the production of these toxic intermediates, permitting growth in up to 2 M (~124 g/L) and complete consumption of 0.5 M (31 g/L) ethylene glycol in shake flask experiments. In addition, the engineered strain enables conversion of ethylene glycol to medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). Overall, this study provides a robust P. putida KT2440 strain for ethylene glycol consumption, which will serve as a foundational strain for further biocatalyst development for applications in the remediation of waste polyester plastics and

  15. Increased fat oxidation and regulation of metabolic genes with ultraendurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Rehrer, N J; Pilegaard, H

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Regular endurance exercise stimulates muscle metabolic capacity, but effects of very prolonged endurance exercise are largely unknown. This study examined muscle substrate availability and utilization during prolonged endurance exercise, and associated metabolic genes. METHODS: Data were...... exercise markedly increases plasma fatty acid availability and fat utilization during exercise. Exercise-induced regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in fatty acid recruitment and oxidation may contribute to these changes....

  16. AAV Vectorization of DSB-mediated Gene Editing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Rachel J; Hirsch, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Recent work both at the bench and the bedside demonstrate zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), CRISPR/Cas9, and other programmable site-specific endonuclease technologies are being successfully utilized within and alongside AAV vectors to induce therapeutically relevant levels of directed gene editing within the human chromosome. Studies from past decades acknowledge that AAV vector genomes are enhanced substrates for homology-directed repair in the presence or absence of targeted DNA damage within the host genome. Additionally, AAV vectors are currently the most efficient format for in vivo gene delivery with no vector related complications in >100 clinical trials for diverse diseases. At the same time, advancements in the design of custom-engineered site-specific endonucleases and the utilization of elucidated endonuclease formats have resulted in efficient and facile genetic engineering for basic science and for clinical therapies. AAV vectors and gene editing technologies are an obvious marriage, using AAV for the delivery of repair substrate and/or a gene encoding a designer endonuclease; however, while efficient delivery and enhanced gene targeting by vector genomes are advantageous, other attributes of AAV vectors are less desirable for gene editing technologies. This review summarizes the various roles that AAV vectors play in gene editing technologies and provides insight into its trending applications for the treatment of genetic diseases.

  17. Chromatin loops, gene positioning, and gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, S.; de Laat, W.

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments and intense research over the last years have led to a better understanding of the 3D structure of the genome and its influence on genome function inside the cell nucleus. We will summarize topological studies performed on four model gene loci: the alpha- and beta-globin

  18. Your Genes, Your Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  19. DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimyo, Mitsuoki

    1995-01-01

    Fission yeast S. pombe is assumed to be a good model for cloning of human DNA repair genes, because human gene is normally expressed in S. pombe and has a very similar protein sequence to yeast protein. We have tried to elucidate the DNA repair mechanisms of S. pombe as a model system for those of mammals. (J.P.N.)

  20. Antisense gene silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels T; Nielsen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    Since the first reports that double-stranded RNAs can efficiently silence gene expression in C. elegans, the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) has been intensively exploited as an experimental tool to study gene function. With the subsequent discovery that RNAi could also be applied...

  1. A Resource of Quantitative Functional Annotation for Homo sapiens Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşan, Murat; Drabkin, Harold J; Beaver, John E; Chua, Hon Nian; Dunham, Julie; Tian, Weidong; Blake, Judith A; Roth, Frederick P

    2012-02-01

    The body of human genomic and proteomic evidence continues to grow at ever-increasing rates, while annotation efforts struggle to keep pace. A surprisingly small fraction of human genes have clear, documented associations with specific functions, and new functions continue to be found for characterized genes. Here we assembled an integrated collection of diverse genomic and proteomic data for 21,341 human genes and make quantitative associations of each to 4333 Gene Ontology terms. We combined guilt-by-profiling and guilt-by-association approaches to exploit features unique to the data types. Performance was evaluated by cross-validation, prospective validation, and by manual evaluation with the biological literature. Functional-linkage networks were also constructed, and their utility was demonstrated by identifying candidate genes related to a glioma FLN using a seed network from genome-wide association studies. Our annotations are presented-alongside existing validated annotations-in a publicly accessible and searchable web interface.

  2. wtf genes are prolific dual poison-antidote meiotic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckolls, Nicole L; Bravo Núñez, María Angélica; Eickbush, Michael T; Young, Janet M; Lange, Jeffrey J; Yu, Jonathan S; Smith, Gerald R; Jaspersen, Sue L; Malik, Harmit S; Zanders, Sarah E

    2017-06-20

    Meiotic drivers are selfish genes that bias their transmission into gametes, defying Mendelian inheritance. Despite the significant impact of these genomic parasites on evolution and infertility, few meiotic drive loci have been identified or mechanistically characterized. Here, we demonstrate a complex landscape of meiotic drive genes on chromosome 3 of the fission yeasts Schizosaccharomyces kambucha and S. pombe . We identify S. kambucha wtf4 as one of these genes that acts to kill gametes (known as spores in yeast) that do not inherit the gene from heterozygotes. wtf4 utilizes dual, overlapping transcripts to encode both a gamete-killing poison and an antidote to the poison. To enact drive, all gametes are poisoned, whereas only those that inherit wtf4 are rescued by the antidote. Our work suggests that the wtf multigene family proliferated due to meiotic drive and highlights the power of selfish genes to shape genomes, even while imposing tremendous costs to fertility.

  3. Biomedical hypothesis generation by text mining and gene prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, Ingrid; Ligeti, Balazs; Gyorffy, Balazs; Pongor, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    Text mining methods can facilitate the generation of biomedical hypotheses by suggesting novel associations between diseases and genes. Previously, we developed a rare-term model called RaJoLink (Petric et al, J. Biomed. Inform. 42(2): 219-227, 2009) in which hypotheses are formulated on the basis of terms rarely associated with a target domain. Since many current medical hypotheses are formulated in terms of molecular entities and molecular mechanisms, here we extend the methodology to proteins and genes, using a standardized vocabulary as well as a gene/protein network model. The proposed enhanced RaJoLink rare-term model combines text mining and gene prioritization approaches. Its utility is illustrated by finding known as well as potential gene-disease associations in ovarian cancer using MEDLINE abstracts and the STRING database.

  4. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  5. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  6. Temperature dependence of the multistability of lactose utilization network of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Sudip; Kumar, Pradeep

    Biological systems are capable of producing multiple states out of a single set of inputs. Multistability acts like a biological switch that allows organisms to respond differently to different environmental conditions and hence plays an important role in adaptation to changing environment. One of the widely studied gene regulatory networks underlying the metabolism of bacteria is the lactose utilization network, which exhibits a multistable behavior as a function of lactose concentration. We have studied the effect of temperature on multistability of the lactose utilization network at various concentrations of thio-methylgalactoside (TMG), a synthetic lactose. We find that while the lactose utilization network exhibits a bistable behavior for temperature T >20° C , a graded response arises for temperature T lactose utilization network as a function of temperature and TMG concentration. Our results suggest that environmental conditions, in this case temperature, can alter the nature of cellular regulation of metabolism.

  7. The homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a test to verify if every agent from a population of heterogeneous consumers has the same marginal utility of income function. This homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption is often (implicitly) used in applied demand studies because it has nice aggregation properties and

  8. Better utilization of low-grade woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    The objective of this paper is threefold: to outline briefly some of the avenues of approach so far employed in utilizing low-grade wood, to comment on the economic aspects of the problem, and finally, to speculate about what developments the future might bring to the field of utilization.

  9. Utilization Management in the Blood Transfusion Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jeremy Ryan Andrew; Dzik, Walter “Sunny”

    2015-01-01

    The scope of activity of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) makes it unique among the clinical laboratories. The combination of therapeutic and diagnostic roles necessitates a multi-faceted approach to utilization management in the BTS. We present our experience in utilization management in large academic medical center. PMID:24080431

  10. Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kahneman (Daniel); P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.K. Sarin (Rakesh)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo core meanings of “utility” are distinguished. “Decision utility” is the weight of an outcome in a decision. “Experienced utility” is hedonic quality, as in Bentham’s usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past

  11. Multi-Utilities : Trends - Blurring Industry Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Dirk

    2001-01-01

    The prospects of cost savings, increased market share, and other competitive advantages are prompting more, and more utilities to cross traditional industry lines, and offer services in several sectors. The note reviews the changes occurred during the last two decades, when deregulation, and private sector development raised the quality, and expansion of utility services, opportunities enh...

  12. Clinical Utility and "DSM-V"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The construction of the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual has been guided primarily by concerns of construct validity rather than of clinical utility, despite claims by its authors that the highest priority has in fact been clinical utility. The purpose of this article was to further articulate the concept and importance of…

  13. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  14. Benchmark Two-Good Utility Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.

    Benchmark two-good utility functions involving a good with zero income elasticity and unit income elasticity are well known. This paper derives utility functions for the additional benchmark cases where one good has zero cross-price elasticity, unit own-price elasticity, and zero own price

  15. Hydrogen utilization potential in subsurface sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Rishi Ram; Glombitza, Clemens; Nickel, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico) with different predominant electron-acceptors. Hydrogenases constitute a diverse family of enzymes expressed by microorganisms that utilize molecular hydrogen as a metabolic substrate, product, or intermediate. The assay reveals the potential for utilizing molecular hydrogen...

  16. Determinants of Maternal Healthcare Utilization in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive healthcare has remained a point of concern in sub-Saharan Africa due to the prevailing high maternal mortality rate. Despite the fact that the utilization of maternal healthcare services is a curbing solution, the records of utilization still remains low. This paper examined the determinants of the decision to use ...

  17. UTILIZING CREEKS FOR INTEGRATED RURAL COASTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-09

    Feb 9, 2013 ... This study examines the Utilization of Creeks for Integrated Coastal Development of Ilaje ... utilization, poor fishing techniques, poor sources of water and navigation routes, and manual ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.3 .... together, implement, monitor and evaluate.

  18. Recent market behavior of utility stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews the recent market behavior of utility stocks as compared to the Standard and Poor's 500 and the long-term government bond yield. Utility stock's performance continues to be affected by unfavorable regulation,and it appears that it will continue to be a factor for some time to come. A continually shrinking excess capacity continues to be a concern

  19. Predictors of Adolescent Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance; Seeley, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This study, using Andersen's health care utilization model, examined how predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, personal health practices, and psychological factors influence health care utilization using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Canadian adolescents. Second, this study examined whether this process…

  20. Microbial growth and substrate utilization kinetics | Okpokwasili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial growth on and utilization of environmental contaminants as substrates have been studied by many researchers. Most times, substrate utilization results in removal of chemical contaminant, increase in microbial biomass and subsequent biodegradation of the contaminant. These are all aimed at detoxification of the ...