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Sample records for igg3 subclass deficiency

  1. Recurrent meningitis in a child with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

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    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar

    2014-08-01

    Recurrent meningitis is an uncommon life-threatening condition. Here, the case of a 6-year-old boy is reported who had two episodes of meningitis with an IgG3 subclass deficiency. The boy had aseptic meningitis at the age of 3 years, followed by bacterial meningitis at the age of 4 years. Primary immunoglobulin deficiencies are a group of disorders associated with an increased incidence and/or severity of infection. Recurrent infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia are the most frequently observed illnesses in patients with IgG subclass deficiencies, of which an IgG3 subclass deficiency is the most common, especially in adults. Although cases of recurrent viral or bacterial meningitis have been reported, herein a patient is presented with recurrence of aseptic and bacterial meningitis 1 year after the initial episode. Some researchers recommend that all children with episodes of recurrent meningitis should be screened for primary immunoglobulin or complement deficiencies.

  2. Avaliação das subclasses IgG1 e IgG3 na doença hemolítica perinatal Assessment of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses in perinatal hemolytic disease

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    Maria A. Araújo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A doença hemolítica perinatal (DHPN ainda é um problema clínico. Nenhum teste isolado prediz, com segurança, a gravidade do quadro hemolítico. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar as subclasses de anticorpos IgG1 e IgG3 por citometria de fluxo no soro de 42 gestantes isoimunizadas e correlacionar os dados obtidos com a gravidade da DHPN. A distribuição dos fetos ou neonatos segundo a gravidade do quadro hemolítico evidenciou 13 casos com doença leve, 16 casos com doença moderada e 13 com doença grave. As subclasses foram detectadas em 33/42 (79% amostras. A subclasse IgG1, isoladamente, foi evidenciada em 14/33 (42,4% casos. Na relação entre gravidade da doença e subclasses de IgG, observou-se que IgG1 isolada foi encontrada em todos os grupos, e os valores da mediana de intensidade de fluorescência (MIF foram significativamente mais altos nas formas mais graves da DHPN (pThe hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN continues to be a clinical problem in spite of prophylaxis. To date, none of the available tests, developed to predict the severity of HDN, has provided complete reliability. The objective of the present study was to determine the IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses in 42 isoimmunized pregnant women, and to correlate them with clinical severity of hemolytic disease. The IgG subclasses were determined employing flow cytometry. According to the clinical severity of HDN, fetuses and newborn babies were classified as 13 mild, 16 moderate and 13 severe cases. The IgG subclasses were detected in 33 of the 42 pregnant women. Of these, IgG1 was predominant in 72.7% of the cases; either isolated (42.4% or in association with IgG3 (30.3%. IgG1 was present in all the three clinical severity categories, however, its values were significantly higher in cases with greater clinical severity of HDN (p<0.01. On the other hand, the distribution of IgG3 values within each group was not statistically significant (p=0.11. IgG3 seems to be more

  3. [EFFICACY OF IVIG TREATMENT IN BRONCHIECTASIS ASSOCIATED WITH IGG SUBCLASS DEFICIENCY].

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    Shostak, Yael; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2017-11-01

    Bronchiectasis is characterized by an abnormal dilatation of the bronchi leading to a chronic inflammatory process, airway blockage and impaired clearance of secretions. The damage to the airways is usually progressive and is the result of several pathogenic processes. In the past, healing of infections (especially pulmonary tuberculosis) was the main cause of airway dilatation and progression of chronic inflammation. Today, congenital illnesses, anatomical defects and immune deficiency play an important role in the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis formation. The immunoglobulin repertoire is vital for effective host protection against a wide variety of pathogens. Primary antibody deficiency diseases are defects of the humoral arm of the immune system and involve an absence/reduced levels of one or more immunoglobulin classes/subclasses or defects of specific antibody formation. Immunoglobulin G (IGG) subclass deficiency can occur in a healthy person and could be without clinical significance. However, in recent years there is emerging evidence that in patients with recurrent infections, early diagnosis of antibody deficiency affects the prognosis and prevention of ongoing lung damage. The use of IVIG has contributed significantly to the survival rate in primary antibody deficiencies. There is limited literature on the treatment of IVIG for patients with IGG subclass deficiency. However, all studies presented so far demonstrated that immunoglobulin therapy reduced the rate of bacterial infections, days of antibiotic usage, hospital admissions and significantly increased patients' quality of life. Therefore, in the appropriate clinical setting, ie: a patient with bronchiectasis and recurrent infections, it is justified to test whether there are humoral immune defects such as IGG subclass deficiency. In a patient with proven deficiency, we should recommend to start IVIG treatment until clinical benefit is achieved.

  4. Age-dependent association between IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses to Pf332-C231 antigen and protection from malaria, and induction of protective antibodies by sub-patent malaria infections, in Daraweesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, Hayder A; Nasr, Amre; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2010-01-01

    The certainty of the protective role of acquired immunity in malaria is the major drive for malaria vaccine development. In this study, we measured the levels of total IgG and IgG subclasses to four candidate malaria vaccine antigens; MSP2-3D7, MSP2-FC27, AMA-1 and Pf332-C231, in plasma obtained ...

  5. Structural characterization of the Man5 glycoform of human IgG3 Fc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Ishan S.; Lovell, Scott; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Battaile, Kevin P.; Tolbert, Thomas J. (Kansas); (HWMRI)

    2017-12-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) consists of four subclasses in humans: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4, which are highly conserved but have unique differences that result in subclass-specific effector functions. Though IgG1 is the most extensively studied IgG subclass, study of other subclasses is important to understand overall immune function and for development of new therapeutics. When compared to IgG1, IgG3 exhibits a similar binding profile to Fcγ receptors and stronger activation of complement. All IgG subclasses are glycosylated at N297, which is required for Fcγ receptor and C1q complement binding as well as maintaining optimal Fc conformation. We have determined the crystal structure of homogenously glycosylated human IgG3 Fc with a GlcNAc2Man5 (Man5) high mannose glycoform at 1.8 Å resolution and compared its structural features with published structures from the other IgG subclasses. Although the overall structure of IgG3 Fc is similar to that of other subclasses, some structural perturbations based on sequence differences were revealed. For instance, the presence of R435 in IgG3 (and H435 in the other IgG subclasses) has been implicated to result in IgG3-specific properties related to binding to protein A, protein G and the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). The IgG3 Fc structure helps to explain some of these differences. Additionally, protein-glycan contacts observed in the crystal structure appear to correlate with IgG3 affinity for Fcγ receptors as shown by binding studies with IgG3 Fc glycoforms. Finally, this IgG3 Fc structure provides a template for further studies aimed at engineering the Fc for specific gain of function.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in an Immunosuppressed Patient with Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4 Subclass Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    A 51-year-old Caucasian woman with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Her medical history included immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine for autoimmune hepatitis. A diagnostic work-up after the meningitis episode...... revealed that she had low levels of the IgG4 subclass. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a possible association between autoimmune hepatitis and the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis, describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis...... and deficiency of the IgG4 subclass and finally describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine....

  7. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in an Immunosuppressed Patient with Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4 Subclass Deficiency

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    Shahin Gaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old Caucasian woman with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Her medical history included immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine for autoimmune hepatitis. A diagnostic work-up after the meningitis episode revealed that she had low levels of the IgG4 subclass. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a possible association between autoimmune hepatitis and the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis, describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and deficiency of the IgG4 subclass and finally describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine.

  8. Associations between an IgG3 polymorphism in the binding domain for FcRn, transplacental transfer of malaria-specific IgG3, and protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria during infancy: A birth cohort study in Benin.

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    Celia Dechavanne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transplacental transfer of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG to the fetus helps to protect against malaria and other infections in infancy. Recent studies have emphasized the important role of malaria-specific IgG3 in malaria immunity, and its transfer may reduce the risk of malaria in infancy. Human IgGs are actively transferred across the placenta by binding the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn expressed within the endosomes of the syncytiotrophoblastic membrane. Histidine at position 435 (H435 provides for optimal Fc-IgG binding. In contrast to other IgG subclasses, IgG3 is highly polymorphic and usually contains an arginine at position 435, which reduces its binding affinity to FcRn in vitro. The reduced binding to FcRn is associated with reduced transplacental transfer and reduced half-life of IgG3 in vivo. Some haplotypes of IgG3 have histidine at position 435. This study examines the hypotheses that the IgG3-H435 variant promotes increased transplacental transfer of malaria-specific antibodies and a prolonged IgG3 half-life in infants and that its presence correlates with protection against clinical malaria during infancy.In Benin, 497 mother-infant pairs were included in a longitudinal birth cohort. Both maternal and cord serum samples were assayed for levels of IgG1 and IgG3 specific for MSP119, MSP2 (both allelic families, 3D7 and FC27, MSP3, GLURP (both regions, R0 and R2, and AMA1 antigens of Plasmodium falciparum. Cord:maternal ratios were calculated. The maternal IgG3 gene was sequenced to identify the IgG3-H435 polymorphism. A multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between maternal IgG3-H435 polymorphism and transplacental transfer of IgG3, adjusting for hypergammaglobulinemia, maternal malaria, and infant malaria exposure. Twenty-four percent of Beninese women living in an area highly endemic for malaria had the IgG3-H435 allele (377 women homozygous for the IgG3-R435 allele, 117 women heterozygous for the Ig

  9. HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes in 240 index patients with common variable immunodeficiency and selective IgG subclass deficiency in central Alabama

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    Barton James C

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to quantify HLA-A and -B phenotype and haplotype frequencies in Alabama index patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID and selective IgG subclass deficiency (IgGSD, and in control subjects. Methods Phenotypes were detected using DNA-based typing (index cases and microlymphocytotoxicity typing (controls. Results A and B phenotypes were determined in 240 index cases (114 CVID, 126 IgGSD and 1,321 controls and haplotypes in 195 index cases and 751 controls. Phenotyping revealed that the "uncorrected" frequencies of A*24, B*14, B*15, B*35, B*40, B*49, and B*50 were significantly greater in index cases, and frequencies of B*35, B*58, B*62 were significantly lower in index cases. After Bonferroni corrections, the frequencies of phenotypes A*24, B*14, and B*40 were significantly greater in index cases, and the frequency of B*62 was significantly lower in index cases. The most common haplotypes in index cases were A*02-B*44 (frequency 0.1385, A*01-B*08 (frequency 0.1308, and A*03-B*07 (frequency 0.1000, and the frequency of each was significantly greater in index cases than in control subjects ("uncorrected" values of p p p = 0.0166. Most phenotype and haplotype frequencies in CVID and IgGSD were similar. 26.7% of index patients were HLA-haploidentical with one or more other index patients. We diagnosed CVID or IgGSD in first-degree or other relatives of 26 of 195 index patients for whom HLA-A and -B haplotypes had been ascertained; A*01-B*08, A*02-B*44, and A*29-B*44 were most frequently associated with CVID or IgGSD in these families. We conservatively estimated the combined population frequency of CVID and IgGSD to be 0.0092 in adults, based on the occurrence of CVID and IgGSD in spouses of the index cases. Conclusions CVID and IgGSD in adults are significantly associated with several HLA haplotypes, many of which are also common in the Alabama Caucasian population. Immunoglobulin phenotype variability

  10. Fc-Glycosylation in Human IgG1 and IgG3 Is Similar for Both Total and Anti-Red-Blood Cell Anti-K Antibodies

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    Myrthe E. Sonneveld

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG are the most abundant proteins in human serum, with IgG1 and IgG3 being the most abundant subclasses directed against protein antigens. The quality of the IgG-Fc-glycosylation has important functional consequences, which have been found to be skewed toward low fucosylation in some antigen-specific immune responses. This increases the affinity to IgG1-Fc-receptor (FcγRIIIa/b and thereby directly affects downstream effector functions and disease severity. To date, antigen-specific IgG-glycosylation have not been analyzed for IgG3. Here, we analyzed 30 pregnant women with anti-K alloantibodies from a prospective screening cohort and compared the type of Fc-tail glycosylation of total serum- and antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG3 using mass spectrometry. Total serum IgG1 and IgG3 Fc-glycoprofiles were highly similar. Fc glycosylation of antigen-specific IgG varied greatly between individuals, but correlated significantly with each other for IgG1 and IgG3, except for bisection. However, although the magnitude of changes in fucosylation and galactosylation were similar for both subclasses, this was not the case for sialylation levels, which were significantly higher for both total and anti-K IgG3. We found that the combination of relative IgG1 and IgG3 Fc-glycosylation levels did not improve the prediction of anti-K mediated disease over IgG1 alone. In conclusion, Fc-glycosylation profiles of serum- and antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG3 are highly similar.

  11. The Essence of Subclassing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    The essence of subclassing is the ability to represent classification hierarchies reflecting domain concepts. With the right class mechanism there is no need for a separate type/subtype mechanism, and general classes may have behavior specifications so that subclassing also implies code reuse....... Sometimes the application is so well defined (known) that developers may readily start out with classes that represent domain concepts. Singular objects have been around for some time, so a new kind of language with equal support for both objects and classes would simply ask for tool support for objects...

  12. Mass spectrometry detection of G3m and IGHG3 alleles and follow-up of differential mother and neonate IgG3.

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    Célia Dechavanne

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry (MS analysis for detection of immunoglobulins (IG of the human IgG3 subclass is described that relies on polymorphic amino acids of the heavy gamma3 chains. IgG3 is the most polymorphic human IgG subclass with thirteen G3m allotypes located on the constant CH2 and CH3 domains of the gamma3 chain, the combination of which leads to six major G3m alleles. Amino acid changes resulting of extensive sequencing previously led to the definition of 19 IGHG3 alleles that have been correlated to the G3m alleles. As a proof of concept, MS proteotypic peptides were defined which encompass discriminatory amino acids for the identification of the G3m and IGHG3 alleles. Plasma samples originating from ten individuals either homozygous or heterozygous for different G3m alleles, and including one mother and her baby (drawn sequentially from birth to 9 months of age, were analyzed. Total IgG3 were purified using affinity chromatography and then digested by a combination of AspN and trypsin proteases, and peptides of interest were detected by mass spectrometry. The sensitivity of the method was assessed by mixing variable amounts of two plasma samples bearing distinct G3m allotypes. A label-free approach using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC retention time of peptides and their MS mass analyzer peak intensity gave semi-quantitative information. Quantification was realized by selected reaction monitoring (SRM using synthetic peptides as internal standards. The possibility offered by this new methodology to detect and quantify neo-synthesized IgG in newborns will improve knowledge on the first acquisition of antibodies in infants and constitutes a promising diagnostic tool for vertically-transmitted diseases.

  13. Measurement of the IgG2 response to Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides may identify an antibody deficiency in individuals referred for immunological investigation.

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    Parker, Antony; Irure Ventura, Juan; Sims, Dawn; Echeverría de Carlos, Ainara; Gómez de la Torre, Ricardo; Tricas Aizpún, Lourdes; Ocejo-Vinyals, J Gonzalo; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Wallis, Gregg; Harding, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    IgG2 is the most efficient subclass for providing protection against pneumococcal pathogens. We hypothesised that some individuals may be unable to mount an effective pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) IgG2 response despite having a normal PCP IgG concentration (PCP IgG2 deficient). The median pre-vaccination PCP IgG2 concentration was significantly lower in individuals referred for immunological investigation compared to healthy controls (2.8 mg/L range, 95% CI 1.1-88 vs. 29.5mg/L, 95% CI 13.5-90, p = 0.0002). PCP IgG:IgG2 ratios were significantly higher for the referral population than for healthy controls suggesting the increased production of PCP specific subclasses other than IgG2. The percentage of individuals with PCP IgG2 deficiency was significantly higher in referral groups compared to controls (31% vs. 5%; p = 0.0009) and in an individual with PCP IgG2 deficiency, the balance of PCP specific IgG subclass antibodies post vaccination changed from IgG2>IgG1>IgG3>IgG4 to IgG1>IgG3>IgG2>IgG4. The median PCP IgG2 concentration in those with PCP IgG2 deficiency was significantly lower in the referral groups compared to controls (7.8 mg/L, 95% CI 1.1-12 vs. 12.7 mg/L, 95% CI 11.8-13.1; p = 0.006). The data suggests a defect in the production PCP IgG2 may be present in individuals with normal PCP IgG referred for immunological investigation.

  14. Pass-by-Subclass Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2010-01-01

    where computations involving types are used. Such subclasses are not optimized for being beautiful expositions of application domain concepts, they are much more like function applications or method calls: They occur inline in "client code", they may bind relatively complex expressions, and they rely...

  15. Differential patterns of human immunoglobulin G subclass responses to distinct regions of a single protein, the merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavanagh, D R; Dobaño, C; Elhassan, I M

    2001-01-01

    Comparisons of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass responses to the major polymorphic region and to a conserved region of MSP-1 in three cohorts of African villagers exposed to Plasmodium falciparum revealed that responses to Block 2 are predominantly IgG3 whereas antibodies to MSP-1(19) are mainly IgG......1. The striking dominance of IgG3 to Block 2 may explain the short duration of this response and also the requirement for continuous stimulation by malaria infection to maintain clinical immunity....

  16. Different Somatic Hypermutation Levels among Antibody Subclasses Disclosed by a New Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Antibody Repertoire Analysis

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    Kazutaka Kitaura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A diverse antibody repertoire is primarily generated by the rearrangement of V, D, and J genes and subsequent somatic hypermutation (SHM. Class-switch recombination (CSR produces various isotypes and subclasses with different functional properties. Although antibody isotypes and subclasses are considered to be produced by both direct and sequential CSR, it is still not fully understood how SHMs accumulate during the process in which antibody subclasses are generated. Here, we developed a new next-generation sequencing (NGS-based antibody repertoire analysis capable of identifying all antibody isotype and subclass genes and used it to examine the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 12 healthy individuals. Using a total of 5,480,040 sequences, we compared percentage frequency of variable (V, junctional (J sequence, and a combination of V and J, diversity, length, and amino acid compositions of CDR3, SHM, and shared clones in the IgM, IgD, IgG3, IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, IgA1, IgE, and IgA2 genes. The usage and diversity were similar among the immunoglobulin (Ig subclasses. Clonally related sequences sharing identical V, D, J, and CDR3 amino acid sequences were frequently found within multiple Ig subclasses, especially between IgG1 and IgG2 or IgA1 and IgA2. SHM occurred most frequently in IgG4, while IgG3 genes were the least mutated among all IgG subclasses. The shared clones had almost the same SHM levels among Ig subclasses, while subclass-specific clones had different levels of SHM dependent on the genomic location. Given the sequential CSR, these results suggest that CSR occurs sequentially over multiple subclasses in the order corresponding to the genomic location of IGHCs, but CSR is likely to occur more quickly than SHMs accumulate within Ig genes under physiological conditions. NGS-based antibody repertoire analysis should provide critical information on how various antibodies are generated in the immune system.

  17. Antibody isotypes, including IgG subclasses, in Ecuadorian patients with pulmonary Paragonimiasis

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    Angel Guevara E.

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available An ELISA test was developed to detect Paragonimus-specific antibodies, including IgG subclasses, using P. mexicanus crude water-soluble antigens. The test was standardized to detect antibodies in sera of Ecuadorian patients with pulmonary paragonimiasis and negative controls from the endemic area. The detected mean levels of IgG (0.753, SEM: 0.074 and IgM (0.303, SEM: 0.033 were significantly elevated (P<0.05. Within the IgG subclasses, IgG4 showed the highest detected mean level (0.365, SEM: 0.116 and the other three subclasses showed considerably lower mean levels (IgG1, 0.186 SEM: 0.06; IgG2, 0.046 SEM: 0.01; IgG3, 0.123 SEM: 0.047. The number of P. mexicanus eggs found in sputum of infected individuals showed a positive correlation with the level of antibodies detected for IgM, IgG and its subclasses (P<0.001. The relevance of these findings in Ecuadorian patients suffering from pulmonary paragonimiasis is discussed.

  18. Heritability of antibody isotype and subclass responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens.

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    Nancy O Duah

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the extent to which genetic factors regulate acquired immunity to common infections. A classical twin study design is useful to estimate the heritable component of variation in measurable immune parameters.This study assessed the relative heritability of different plasma antibody isotypes and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM, IgA and IgE naturally acquired to P. falciparum blood stage antigens AMA1, MSP1-19, MSP2 (two allelic types and MSP3 (two allelic types. Separate analyses were performed on plasma from 213 pairs of Gambian adult twins, 199 child twin pairs sampled in a dry season when there was little malaria transmission, and another set of 107 child twin pairs sampled at the end of the annual wet season when malaria was common. There were significantly positive heritability (h(2 estimates for 48% (20/42 of the specific antibody assays (for the seven isotypes and subclasses to the six antigens tested among the adults, 48% (20/42 among the children in the dry season and 31% (13/42 among the children in the wet season. In children, there were significant heritability estimates for IgG4 reactivity against each of the antigens, and this subclass had higher heritability than the other subclasses and isotypes. In adults, 75% (15/20 of the significantly heritable antigen-specific isotype responses were attributable to non-HLA class II genetic variation, whereas none showed a significant HLA contribution.Genome-wide approaches are now warranted to map the major genetic determinants of variable antibody isotype and subclass responses to malaria, alongside evaluation of their impact on infection and disease. Although plasma levels of IgG4 to malaria antigens are generally low, the exceptionally high heritability of levels of this subclass in children deserves particular investigation.

  19. Dynamics of Inter-heavy Chain Interactions in Human Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Subclasses Studied by Kinetic Fab Arm Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Theo; Davies, Anna M.; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni; Absalah, Samira; Bende, Onno; Sutton, Brian J.; Vidarsson, Gestur; Aalberse, Rob C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fab arm exchange requires weak interactions between CH3 domains, such as in human IgG4. Results: CH3-CH3 interactions differ >1,000,000-fold between human subclasses and allotypes due to variations Lys/Asn-392, Val/Met-397, and Lys/Arg-409. Conclusion: For IgG2 and IgG3, but not IgG1,

  20. Family analysis of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in children with autistic disorder.

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    Spiroski, Mirko; Trajkovski, Vladimir; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Hristomanova, Slavica; Djulejic, Eli; Paneva, Meri; Bozhikov, Jadranka

    2009-11-01

    Autistic disorder is a severe neurodevelopment disorder characterized by a triad of impairments in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a pattern of repetitive stereotyped activities, behaviours and interests. There are strong lines of evidence to suggest that the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autistic disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze quantitative plasma concentration of immunoglobulin classes, and subclasses in autistic patients and their families. The investigation was performed retrospectively in 50 persons with autistic disorder in the Republic of Macedonia. Infantile autistic disorder was diagnosed by DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. Plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, and IgG) and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) were determined using Nephelometer Analyzer BN-100. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between three pairs: male autistic from the fathers (p = 0,001), female autistic from the mothers (p = 0,008), as well as healthy sisters from the fathers (p = 0,011). Statistically significant differences found between three groups regarding autistic disorder (person with autistic disorder, father/mother of a person with autistic disorder, and brother/sister) independent of sex belongs to IgA, IgG2, and IgG3 variables. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between children with autistic disorder from the fathers and mothers (p autistic disorder from the same family should be tested for immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in order to avoid differences between generations.

  1. Family Analysis of Immunoglobulin Classes and Subclasses in Children with Autistic Disorder

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    Mirko Spiroski

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Autistic disorder is a severe neurodevelopment disorder characterized by a triad of impairments in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a pattern of repetitive stereotyped activities, behaviours and interests. There are strong lines of evidence to suggest that the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autistic disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze quantitative plasma concentration of immunoglobulin classes, and subclasses in autistic patients and their families. The investigation was performed retrospectively in 50 persons with autistic disorder in the Republic of Macedonia. Infantile autistic disorder was diagnosed by DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. Plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, and IgG and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 were determined using Nephelometer Analyzer BN-100. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between three pairs: male autistic from the fathers (p = 0,001, female autistic from the mothers (p = 0,008, as well as healthy sisters from the fathers (p = 0,011. Statistically significant differences found between three groups regarding autistic disorder (person with autistic disorder, father/mother of a person with autistic disorder, and brother/sister independent of sex belongs to IgA, IgG2, and IgG3 variables. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between children with autistic disorder from the fathers and mothers (p < 0,001, and healthy brothers and sisters from the fathers and mothers (p < 0,001. Comparison between healthy children and children with autistic disorder from the same family should be tested for immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in order to avoid differences between generations.

  2. Perfil de isotipos de imunoglobulinas e subclasses de IgG na leishmaniose tegumentar americana Immunoglobulin isotype and IgG subclass profiles in american tegumentary leishmaniasis

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    Maria Aparecida de Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o perfil de anticorpos em amostras de soro de 37 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico confirmado ou compatível com leishmaniose tegumentar americana atendidos no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, MG. Os perfis das classes de imunoglobulinas e subclasses de IgG foram analisados pelo teste ELISA indireto, utilizando-se antígeno solúvel de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. A avidez dos anticorpos foi determinada pelo tratamento com uréia a 6 M, após incubação dos soros com o antígeno. Observou-se que 97%, 94,6%, 57,5 e 21,5% das amostras testadas apresentaram anticorpos anti-Leishmania das classes IgE, IgG, IgA e IgM, respectivamente e, os perfis das subclasses de IgG demonstraram, IgG1>IgG3>IgG2>IgG4. Os anticorpos IgE anti-Leishmania de alta avidez corresponderam a 44,4%. Por outro lado, IgG e IgA anti-Leishmania foram em sua maioria (62,8 e 47,8%, respectivamente, de média avidez. A variação do perfil de isotipos, bem como a avidez das imunoglobulinas refletiu a complexidade da resposta imune humoral contra a leishmaniose tegumentar americana.The present work investigated the serum antibody profiles in 37 patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis, who were attended at Hospital de Clinicas - Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, MG, Brazil. The immunoglobulin class and IgG subclass profiles were analyzed by indirect ELISA using Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis soluble antigen. The antibody avidity was determined by 6 M urea treatment after incubation with immunoenzymatic conjugate. It was observed that 97% of the serum samples presented anti-Leishmania antibodies for IgE class, 94.6% IgG, 57.5% IgA and 21.5% IgM class. For IgG subclasses the profiles were in the following order of frequency: IgG1>IgG3>IgG2>IgG4. High avidity of anti-Leishmania IgE antibodies was found in 44.4% of the samples. On the other hand, moderate avidity of specific IgG and IgA was observed in 62

  3. Early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborn infants using IgG subclasses against two Toxoplasma gondii recombinant proteins

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    Carlos Henryque de Souza e Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the utility of ELISA-based testing of total IgG (IgGt antibodies and its subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 against soluble (STAg and recombinant (rSAG1 and rMIC3 antigens of Toxoplasma gondii for diagnosing congenital toxoplasmosis. Sera from 217 newborns initially testing positive for specific IgM in filter paper dried blood spots were tested for specific IgM and IgG by ELFA-VIDAS®. Congenital toxoplasmosis was confirmed in 175 and ruled out in 42 infants. The validity of the ELISA tests was determined using the persistence of IgG antibodies (ELFA-VIDAS® kit at the end of 12 months, which is considered the reference test for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. The frequency of positivity with IgGt against STAg, rSAG1 and rMIC3 was found in 97.2%, 96.3% and 80.2%, respectively, of the newborns with confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. IgG1 reacted with all three antigens, while IgG3 and IgG4 reacted preferentially with rMIC3. Higher mean values of reactivity (sample optical density/cut-off were found for all subclasses when using rMIC3. All of the antigens showed high sensitivity and low specificity in detecting anti-T. gondii IgGt and IgG1 and low sensitivity and high specificity in detecting IgG3 and IgG4. In conclusion, the combined detection of IgG antibody subclasses against recombinant toxoplasmic antigens may be useful for the early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  4. Malaria resistance genes are associated with the levels of IgG subclasses directed against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigens in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afridi Sarwat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms have been associated with malaria resistance in humans, whereas cytophilic immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies are thought to play a critical role in immune protection against asexual blood stages of the parasite. Furthermore, HBB, IL4, TNF, and FCGR2A have been associated with both malaria resistance and IgG levels. This suggests that some malaria resistance genes influence the levels of IgG subclass antibodies. Methods In this study, the effect of HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms on the levels of IgG responses against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage extract was investigated in 220 individuals living in Burkina Faso. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient among IgG subclasses was determined. A family-based approach was used to assess the association of polymorphisms with anti-P. falciparum IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels. Results After applying a multiple test correction, several polymorphisms were associated with IgG subclass or IgG levels. There was an association of i haemoglobin C with IgG levels; ii the FcγRIIa H/R131 with IgG2 and IgG3 levels; iii TNF-863 with IgG3 levels; iv TNF-857 with IgG levels; and, v TNF1304 with IgG3, IgG4, and IgG levels. Conclusion Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that some polymorphisms affect malaria resistance through their effect on the acquired immune response, and pave the way towards further comprehension of genetic control of an individual’s humoral response against malaria.

  5. Combined roles of human IgG subclass, alternative complement pathway activation, and epitope density in the bactericidal activity of antibodies to meningococcal factor h binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Serena; Reason, Donald C; Granoff, Dan M

    2012-01-01

    Meningococcal vaccines containing factor H binding protein (fHbp) are in clinical development. fHbp binds human fH, which enables the meningococcus to resist complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Previously, we found that chimeric human IgG1 mouse anti-fHbp monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) had human complement-mediated bactericidal activity only if the MAb inhibited fH binding. Since IgG subclasses differ in their ability to activate complement, we investigated the role of human IgG subclasses on antibody functional activity. We constructed chimeric MAbs in which three different murine fHbp-specific binding domains were each paired with human IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3. Against a wild-type group B isolate, all three IgG3 MAbs, irrespective of their ability to inhibit fH binding, had bactericidal activity that was >5-fold higher than the respective IgG1 MAbs, while the IgG2 MAbs had the least activity. Against a mutant with increased fHbp expression, the anti-fHbp MAbs elicited greater C4b deposition (classical pathway) and greater bactericidal activity than against the wild-type strain, and the IgG1 MAbs had similar or greater activity than the respective IgG3 MAbs. The bactericidal activity against both wild-type and mutant strains also was dependent, in part, on activation of the alternative complement pathway. Thus, at lower epitope density in the wild-type strain, the IgG3 anti-fHbp MAbs had the greatest bactericidal activity. At a higher epitope density in the mutant, the IgG1 MAbs had similar or greater bactericidal activity than the IgG3 MAbs, and the activity was less dependent on the inhibition of fH binding than at a lower epitope density.

  6. Indices of anti-dengue immunoglobulin G subclasses in adult Mexican patients with febrile and hemorrhagic dengue in the acute phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Mondragón, Araceli; Aguilar-Faisal, José Leopoldo; Chávez-Negrete, Adolfo; Guillén-Salomón, Edith; Alcántara-Farfán, Verónica; Luna-Rojas, Lucero; Ávila-Trejo, Amanda Marineth; Del Carmen Pacheco-Yépez, Judith

    2017-10-01

    Heterologous secondary infections are at increased risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) because of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). IgG subclasses can fix and activate complement and bind to Fcɣ receptors. These factors may also play an important role in the development of ADE and thus in the pathogenesis of DHF. The aim of this study was to analyze the indices of anti-dengue IgG subclasses in adult patients with febrile and hemorrhagic dengue in the acute phase. In 2013, 129 patients with dengue fever (DF) and 57 with DHF in Veracruz, Mexico were recruited for this study and anti-dengue IgM and IgG determined by capture ELISA. Anti-dengue IgG subclasses were detected by indirect ELISA. Anti-dengue IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses were detected in patients with dengue. IgG1 increased significantly in the sera of patients with both primary and secondary infections and DHF, but was higher in patients with secondary infections. The IgG4 subclass index was significantly higher in the sera of patients with DHF than in that of those with DF, who were in the early and late acute phase of both primary and secondary infection. In conclusion, indices of subclasses IgG1 and IgG4 were higher in patients with DHF. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG3 seropositivity is a predictor of reproductive outcomes in infertile women with patent fallopian tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Anne Z.; Diamond, Michael P.; Legro, Richard S.; Schlaff, William D.; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Casson, Peter R.; Christman, Gregory M.; Alvero, Ruben; Hansen, Karl R.; Geisler, William M.; Thomas, Tracey; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Eisenberg, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) seropositivity as detected by the Ct elementary body (EB)-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ct EB ELISA) predicts pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among infertile women with documented tubal patency. Design Cohort study Setting Outpatient clinics participating in the reproductive medicine network Patients 1250 infertile women with documented tubal patency enrolled in one of two randomized controlled trials: PPCOSII and AMIGOS Intervention Sera were analyzed for anti-Ct IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies using a research Ct EB ELISA. OD405 readings ≥0.35 and ≥0.1 were considered positive for IgG1 and IgG3, respectively. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes included pregnancy, live birth, and ectopic pregnancy. Log linear regression was used to determine the relative risk after adjusting for age, race, treatment medication, smoking status, and current alcohol use. Results 243 (19%) women were seropositive for anti-Ct IgG3. They tended to be non-White and smokers. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women were significantly less likely to conceive (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.83) or to have a live birth (RR 0.59, 95% 0.43-0.80); these associations were weakened after adjusting for number of HSG-documented patent tubes (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.97) and (0.73, 95% CI: 0.50-1.04), respectively. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women who conceived had 2.7 (95% CI: 1.40-5.34) times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Conclusions Even in the presence of tubal patency, anti-Ct IgG3 seropositivity is associated with lower likelihood of pregnancy. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women have up to 3 times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:26413816

  8. Igg Subclasses Targeting the Flagella of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Can Mediate Phagocytosis and Bacterial Killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yun Shan; Armour, Kathryn L; Clark, Michael R; Grant, Andrew J; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella are a common cause of invasive disease in immuno-compromised individuals and in children. Multi-drug resistance poses challenges to disease control, with a critical need for effective vaccines. Flagellin is an attractive vaccine candidate due to surface exposure and high epitope copy number, but its potential as a target for opsonophacytic antibodies is unclear. We examined the effect of targeting flagella with different classes of IgG on the interaction between Salmonella Typhimurium and a human phagocyte-like cell line, THP-1. We tagged the FliC flagellar protein with a foreign CD52 mimotope (TSSPSAD) and bacteria were opsonized with a panel of humanised CD52 antibodies with the same antigen-binding V-region, but different constant regions. We found that IgG binding to flagella increases bacterial phagocytosis and reduces viable intracellular bacterial numbers. Opsonisation with IgG3, followed by IgG1, IgG4, and IgG2, resulted in the highest level of bacterial uptake and in the highest reduction in the intracellular load of viable bacteria. Taken together, our data provide proof-of-principle evidence that targeting flagella with antibodies can increase the antibacterial function of host cells, with IgG3 being the most potent subclass. These data will assist the rational design of urgently needed, optimised vaccines against iNTS disease. PMID:27366588

  9. Strong antitumor activities of IgG3 antibodies to a human melanoma-associated ganglioside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, I.; Brankovan, V.; Hellstroem, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Three mouse monoclonal IgG3 antibodies, 2B2, IF4, and MG-21, recognize a G/sub D3/ ganglioside antigen that is expressed at the cell surface of most human melanomas. All three antibodies mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro when tested with human lymphocytes or effector cells in a 2-hr or 4-hr 51 Cr-release test, and one antibody, MG-21, also gives strong complement-dependent cytotoxicity with human serum. Antibody 2B2, which gives ADDC also in the presence of mouse lymphocytes, inhibited the outgrowth of a human melanoma in nude mice, but antibody IF4, which showed no ADCC with mouse lymphocyte effectors, did not

  10. Asma y deficiencia de subclases de IgG Asthma and IgG subclases deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Santamaría Ortiz

    1995-04-01

    G deficiency was found in four steroid. dependent patients. Serum levels of IgG subclasses 1 to 4 were measured by means of a sandwich-like ELISA with specific monoclonal antibodies. One or more subclass deficiencies were present In 55.6% of the patients. Significant differences were not found between the following groups: steroid and nonsteroid dependent patients; allergic or intrinsic, asthma; and individuals with or without history of infection. IgG 1 deficiency was the most commonly found: It was present in 46.7% of the patients, either as an isolated disorder or combined with alteration of other subclasses. Deficiency of other subclasses was present in the following proportions: 31.1% for IgG2; 24.4% for IgG3 and 17.8 for IgG4. The high incidence of subclass deficiency may be due to steroid action or to primary Immune defects leading to disorders of IgG synthesis. Such situation might be responsible for the aggressive behavior of the disease.

  11. Abnormal serum IgG subclass pattern in children with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerén, G; Magnusson, C G; Lilja, G; Nordvall, S L

    1992-05-01

    Susceptibility to infections is a well known feature of Down's syndrome. The possible relation between this predisposition and the serum concentrations of the IgG subclasses was studied in 38 children with Down's syndrome aged 1-12 years. An age matched group of 50 healthy children served as controls. The serum concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly raised among children with Down's syndrome in all three age groups studied (that is 1-2.5, 4-8, and 9-12 years). The serum concentrations of IgG2 were normal in the first two groups but significantly reduced in the third age group. In contrast, the concentrations of IgG4 among children with Down's syndrome were significantly reduced in all three age groups. Moreover, among the children with Down's syndrome aged 4-12 years 68% (15/22) had IgG4 concentrations below 2 SDs of the geometrical mean of the controls. The results may partially explain the proneness of children with Down's syndrome to infections with encapsulated bacteria. Although the underlying cause of these abnormalities is unknown, IgG subclass determination seems relevant in the clinical evaluation of children with Down's syndrome.

  12. Effects of adjuvants on IgG subclasses elicited by virus-like Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visciano Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus-Like Particles (VLPs represent an efficient strategy to present and deliver conformational antigens to the immune system, inducing both arms of the adaptive immune response. Moreover, their particulate structure surrounded by cell membrane provides an adjuvanted effect to VLP-based immunizations. In the present study, the elicitation of different patterns of IgG subclasses by VLPs, administered in CpG ODN1826 or poly(I:C adjuvants, has been evaluated in an animal model. Results Adjuvanted VLPs elicited a higher titer of total specific IgG compared to VLPs alone. Furthermore, while VLPs alone induced a balanced TH2 pattern, VLPs formulated with either adjuvant elicited a TH1-biased IgG subclasses (IgG2a and IgG3, with poly(I:C more potent than CpG ODN1826. Conclusions The results confirmed that adjuvants efficiently improve antigen immunogenicity and represent a suitable strategy to skew the adaptive immune response toward the differentiation of the desired T helper subset, also using VLPs as antigen.

  13. Correlation between the Amount of Anti-D Antibodies and IgG Subclasses with Severity of Haemolytic Disease of Foetus and Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Velkova

    2015-05-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The titers of the pregnant women serum those are lower than 32 and those higher than 1000 can well predict HDFN. The titers of anti-D antibodies between 64 and 512 have no exact predictive value. IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses of anti-D have no predictive value by themselves, and cannot foresee the outcome of HDFN. The research study results suggest that IgG1 and IgG3 should be included in a multi – parameter protocol for evaluation of the HDFN intensity. They can give a real assessment of the expected HDFN intensity in combination with the titer hight and the significance of the antibodies.

  14. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Matthew Zirui; Liu, Pinghuang; Williams, LaTonya D; McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T; Dennison, S Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S Munir; Moody, M Anthony; Hope, Thomas J; Haynes, Barton F; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2016-08-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine

  15. IgG subclass reactivity to Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic chagasic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Becerril, N; Nava, A; Reyes, P A; Monteón, V M

    2001-01-01

    The anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies isotype profile in Chagas' disease has been studied in relation to different clinical manifestations. A high titer of IgG anti-T. cruzi antibodies is found in patients with cardiac involvement, while a high titer of IgA anti-T. cruzi antibodies is associated with digestive forms. The aim of this work was to analyze the IgG subclass reactivity of anti-T. cruzi antibodies in patients with chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy. Twelve consecutive chagasic patients were analyzed for IgG subclass reactivity to a T. cruzi antigenic extract. They had a complete clinical evaluation, peripheral EKG, echocardiography, left ventriculogram, and coronariography. All patients came from rural areas of Mexico and had lived in endemic zones for over seven years. They presented left ventricular endsystolic dimension above 42 mm in 58% (7/12) and ejection fraction below 50% in 58% (7/12). We found that IgG1 and IgG2 anti-T. cruzi antibodies showed higher titer than IgG3 antibodies, with consistently low titer of IgG4 antibodies. Expression of the four IgG subclasses of anti-T. cruzi antibodies suggest a mixed Th1/Th2-like immune response under a probably continuous chronic antigenic stimulation. On the other hand, high levels of IgG2 anti-T. cruzi antibodies showed a tendency to be associated with severe cardiomegaly. Our results suggest that a mixed Th1/Th2-like immune response may take place in chronic chagasic patients under a chronic antigenic stimulation.

  16. Induction of IgG3 to LPS via Toll-like receptor 4 co-stimulation.

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    Francisco J Quintana

    Full Text Available B-cells integrate antigen-specific signals transduced via the B-cell receptor (BCR and antigen non-specific co-stimulatory signals provided by cytokines and CD40 ligation in order to produce IgG antibodies. Toll-like receptors (TLRs also provide co-stimulation, but the requirement for TLRs to generate T-cell independent and T-cell dependent antigen specific antibody responses is debated. Little is known about the role of B-cell expressed TLRs in inducing antigen-specific antibodies to antigens that also activate TLR signaling. We found that mice lacking functional TLR4 or its adaptor molecule MyD88 harbored significantly less IgG3 natural antibodies to LPS, and required higher amounts of LPS to induce anti-LPS IgG3. In vitro, BCR and TLR4 signaling synergized, lowering the threshold for production of T-cell independent IgG3 and IL-10. Moreover, BCR and TLR4 directly associate through the transmembrane domain of TLR4. Thus, in vivo, BCR/TLR synergism could facilitate the induction of IgG3 antibodies against microbial antigens that engage both innate and adaptive B-cell receptors. Vaccines might exploit BCR/TLR synergism to rapidly induce antigen-specific antibodies before significant T-cell responses arise.

  17. Correlation of Fc(gamma)RIIa (CD32) Polymorphism and IgG Antibody Subclasses in Hemolytic Disease of Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, QiangJu; Zhang, Yan; Liu, MengLi; Wang, Bo; Liu, Sheng; He, Chen

    2009-01-01

    ABO-HDN is a common disease of newborn in China and currently there is no satisfactory method to predict it in the antepartum period. It has been reported that Fc(gamma)RIIa (CD32) genotype is associated with both infectious diseases induced by bacteria and parasitemia. There is a relationship between IgG subclass and RH-HDN. To study the pathogenesis of ABO-HDN and to find reliable method to diagnose ABO-HDN, we investigated the polymorphism of Fc(gamma)RIIa (CD32) and distribution of IgG subclass in infants with ABO-HDN and their mothers by polymerase chain reaction or ELISA assay. We observed that the frequency of HH131 genotype is lower in infants with ABO-HDN than in controls (p < 0.01), while the frequency of HR131 genotype is higher in ABO-HDN infants than that in controls (p < 0.01). The genotype HR131 and concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3 are significantly correlated with ABO-HDN. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, that there is a correlation between ABO-HDN and CD32, and different IgG subclass distribution. Our study may contribute to the development of an early diagnostic method for HDN. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. IgG and IgG subclasses antibody responses to rK39 in Leishmania donovani infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifalla, N.S.; El Hassan, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Leishmania donovani infection cause a wide spectrum of human diseases ranging from self-healing subclinical infections to severe visceral leishmaniasis, post kal-azar dermal leishmaiasis, and mucosal leishmaiasis. The infection associated with high levels of anti-leishmania antibodies which offer a potential parameter for the serological diagnosis of L. donovani infection replacing the invasive parasitological methods. rK39, a cloned antigen of L. chagasis was reported to have high levels of anti-leishmania antibodies in Sudanese and American visceral leishmaniasis patients. In an assessment of rK39-ELISA in detecting L. donovani infection we found that the antigen detected visceral leishmaniasis, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, and mucosal leismaniasis with the sensitives of 96.6%, 95.91% and 90.91% respectively. The test has the specificity of 96.7%. Further investigation of 25 visceral leishmaniasis patients showed elevated anti-rK39 antibody responses of IgG subclasses with IgG1 and IgG3 significantly higher than IgG4. igG3 showed the highest sensitivity (84.00%) whereas IgG1 showed the highest sensitivity (100%). The dynamics of the serological reactivity to rK39 in l.donovani infections will be discussed in relation to exposure, infection, cure and relapse.(Author)

  19. Autoantibodies Specifically Against β1 Adrenergic Receptors and Adverse Clinical Outcome in Patients With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure in the β-Blocker Era: The Importance of Immunoglobulin G3 Subclass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Yuji; Li, Daniel; Kirsop, Jennifer; Borowski, Alan; Thakur, Akanksha; Tang, W H Wilson

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate the prevalence and role of β1 adrenergic receptor autoantibodies (β1AR-AAb) belonging to the immunoglobulin (Ig)G3 subclass in patients with heart failure (HF) treated with β-adrenergic blockers. Several cardiac AAbs have been reported to be present in sera from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and other etiologies. Among AAbs, those recognizing β1AR-AAbs show agonist-like effects, have detrimental effects on cardiomyocytes, and may induce persistent myocardial damage. We quantify total IgG and IgG3 subclass β1AR-AAb in subjects with chronic stable HF with long-term follow-up. In our study cohort of 121 subjects, non-IgG3-β1AR-AAb and IgG3-β1AR-AAb were found to be positive in 20 (17%) and 26 patients (21%), respectively. The positive rate of IgG3-β1AR-AAb was significantly higher for those with nonischemic compared with ischemic HF etiology (27% vs 8%, P = .01), but the positive rate for non-IgG3-β1AR-AAb was similar between the 2 groups (18% vs 16%, respectively, P = NS). There were no significant differences in clinical and echocardiographic measures among total β1AR-AAb negative, non-IgG3-β1AR-AAb positive, and IgG3-β1AR-AAb positive groups at baseline. During 2.2 ± 1.2 years of follow-up, we observed similar rates of the composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, cardiac transplantation, or hospitalization resulting from HF between total IgG-β1AR-AAb negative and positive patients. However, the composite endpoint events were significantly more common in the patients without than in those with IgG3-β1AR-AAb (P = .048, log-rank test). Presence of IgG3-β1AR-AAb, not total IgG, was associated with paradoxically more favorable outcomes in our cohort of patients with chronic systolic HF largely treated by β-blockers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Complete elimination of cardiodepressant IgG3 autoantibodies by immunoadsorption in patients with severe heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Akiyasu; Akaishi, Makoto; Shimada, Megumi; Wakabayashi, Yasuhisa; Takahashi, Michiko; Monkawa, Toshiaki; Nagatomo, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Cardiodepressant IgG3 autoantibodies (CD-Abs) can be targeted by apheresis. Using blinded measurements of CD-Abs before and after immunoadsorption (IA), the cardiac function of patients who did or did not achieve complete CD-Abs elimination was compared. Autoantibodies were completely removed from 18 patients with heart failure (New York Heart Association class 3 or 4, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <30%) using a selective IgG3 adsorption column. All patients had anti-β1-adrenergic and/or M2-muscarinic autoantibodies before IA, and all LVEF were measured on radionuclide ventriculography. CD-Abs were measured before and after IA, and patient status was blinded until all measurements were collected. Treatment was defined as complete when CD-Abs status changed from positive to negative after IA. Other instances were defined as incomplete. Six-min walk test results and brain natriuretic peptide levels improved significantly after IA (P<0.01). The increase in LVEF 3 months after IA was significantly greater after complete treatment in comparison to the incomplete treatment group (19±8-29±9% vs 18±9-17±8%, P<0.01). Cardiac insufficiency events were also more frequent in the incomplete treatment group. Complete elimination of CD-Abs with apheresis may be related to improved cardiac function in the treatment of heart failure. (author)

  1. Coefficient Estimate Problem for a New Subclass of Biunivalent Functions

    OpenAIRE

    N. Magesh; T. Rosy; S. Varma

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a unified subclass of the function class Σ of biunivalent functions defined in the open unit disc. Furthermore, we find estimates on the coefficients |a2| and |a3| for functions in this subclass. In addition, many relevant connections with known or new results are pointed out.

  2. [Serum immunoglobulin IgG subclass distribution of antibody responses to pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis in patients with whooping cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Smietańska, Karolina; Rokosz-Chudziak, Natalia; Jagielski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the IgG subclass distribution against pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) of Bordetella pertussis in patients with whooping cough. The total number of 222 serum samples obtained from patients suspected in clinical investigation for pertussis were tested separately by in-house ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin. The percentage distribution of specific anti-PT and anti-FHA IgG subclass response was calculated only on the basis of group of sera confirmed in the present study as positive for total IgG antibodies (183 sera to PT antigen and 129 to FHA antigen). Paired serum specimens were obtained from 36 patients. Based on the results of determining the level of antibodies in the sera of 40 blood donors, the cut-off limit of serum antibodies for each subclass was set at arithmetic mean plus two standard deviations. Antibodies of IgG1 to pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin were diagnosed in 151 (82.5%) and 99 (76.7%), IgG2 in 72 (39.0%) and 50 (38.8%), IgG3 in 17 (9.3%) and 43 (33.3%), IgG4 in 55 (30.1%) and 53 (41.1%) serum samples, respectively. There were no significant differences in percentage of sera with IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 in relation to age of the patients. However, the frequency of occurrence of IgG4 antibodies was highest in the group of the youngest children to the age of 6 years old (61.8% for PT and 68.0% for FHA), and decrease with age, reaching the minimum in the group of patients above 40 years old (13.2% and 4.2% for PT and FHA, respectively). We also found significantly higher frequency of IgG4 to PT and FHA antigens in men than in women. Statistically significant, essential changes in the pattern of IgG subclass during the course of infection were not found. In conclusion, this study showed that all four subclasses of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin are produced during whooping cough.

  3. Sensitivity of some Immunoglobulin G class and subclass antibodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indirect sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure serum antibody responses in onchocerciasis patients. Apparently, IgG antibody class was more sensitive than IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 responses to Onchocerca volvulus adult worms sodium duodecyl sulphate (SDS) extracted crude ...

  4. Serological blind spots for variants of human IgG3 and IgG4 by a commonly used anti-immunoglobulin reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Heather L; Delaney, Meghan; Wang, Xiaohong; Er, Lay See; Vidarsson, Gestur; Stegmann, Tamara C; Kapp, Linda; Lebedev, Jenna N; Wu, Yanyun; AuBuchon, James P; Zimring, James C

    2016-12-01

    Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) includes four different subtypes (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4), and it is also now appreciated that there are genetic variations within IgG subtypes (called isoallotypes). Twenty-nine different isoallotypes have been described, with 7, 4, 15, and 3 isoallotypes described for IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, respectively. The reactivity of anti-IgG with different isoallotypes has not been characterized. A novel monoclonal anti-K antibody (PugetSound Monoclonal Antibody 1 [PUMA1]) was isolated and sequenced, and a panel of PUMA1 variants was expressed, consisting of the 29 known IgG isoallotypes. The resulting panel of antibodies was preincubated with K-positive red blood cells (RBCs) and then subjected to testing with currently approved anti-IgG by flow cytometry, solid phase systems, gel cards, and tube testing. A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved monoclonal anti-IgG (gamma-clone) failed to recognize 2 of 15 IgG3 isoallotypes (IgG3-03 and IgG3-13) and 3 of 3 IgG4 isoallotypes (IgG4-01, IgG4-02, and IgG4-03). In contrast, an FDA-approved rabbit polyclonal anti-IgG recognized each of the known human IgG isoallotypes. These findings demonstrate "blind spots" in isoalloantibody detection by a monoclonal anti-IgG. If a patient has anti-RBC antibodies predominantly of an IgG3 subtype (the IgG3-03 and/or IgG3-13 variety), then it is possible that a clinically significant alloantibody would be missed. IgG-03 and IgG-13 have an estimated frequency of 1% to 3% in Caucasian populations and 20% to 30% in certain African populations. Nonreactivity with IgG4 is a known characteristic of this monoclonal anti-IgG, but IgG4 isoallotypes have not been previously reported. © 2016 AABB.

  5. Improved Stability of a Model IgG3 by DoE-Based Evaluation of Buffer Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany K. Chavez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulating appropriate storage conditions for biopharmaceutical proteins is essential for ensuring their stability and thereby their purity, potency, and safety over their shelf-life. Using a model murine IgG3 produced in a bioreactor system, multiple formulation compositions were systematically explored in a DoE design to optimize the stability of a challenging antibody formulation worst case. The stability of the antibody in each buffer formulation was assessed by UV/VIS absorbance at 280 nm and 410 nm and size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC to determine overall solubility, opalescence, and aggregate formation, respectively. Upon preliminary testing, acetate was eliminated as a potential storage buffer due to significant visible precipitate formation. An additional 24 full factorial DoE was performed that combined the stabilizing effect of arginine with the buffering capacity of histidine. From this final DoE, an optimized formulation of 200 mM arginine, 50 mM histidine, and 100 mM NaCl at a pH of 6.5 was identified to substantially improve stability under long-term storage conditions and after multiple freeze/thaw cycles. Thus, our data highlights the power of DoE based formulation screening approaches even for challenging monoclonal antibody molecules.

  6. Immunoglobulin subclass in experimental murine Toxocara cati infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig that could be used to determine monoclonal antibody in conjugate-making an effort for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA diagnostic kit of toxocariasis in human. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted to assess the Ig profile, based on ELISA-isotyping, in mice infected with second stage larvae eggs of Toxocara cati. The optical density values of anti-T. cati mice serum IgG subclasses were analyzed by applying ANOVA factorial. Results: The specific IgG subclass in mice infected with T. cati mice was found to be IgG2β. Conclusion: Subclass of IgG, especially IgG2β, can provide leads about the use of the monoclonal antibody in conjugate making an effort for the indirect ELISA diagnostic kit.

  7. Correlation between the Amount of Anti-D Antibodies and IgG Subclasses with Severity of Haemolytic Disease of Foetus and Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkova, Emilija

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of subclasses to IgG anti-D on the intensity of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN) at 45 fetuses/newborns with symptoms of mild and severe HDFN in Republic of Macedonia. In retrospective and prospective studies, in a period of 10 years, from 2004 to 2014, there have been immunohemathology tests performed on 22 009 samples on serums of pregnant women. At 37.78% of the total number of tested patients, IgG1 and IgG3 was the reason for severe HDFN. At 17.77% of the total number of tested patients, which had only IgG1detected, was the reason for serious intensity of HDFN. The correlation of the titer to anti-D antibodies in the mother's serum and the intensity of HDFN were researched in 48 newborns. The titers between 1:8 and 1:32 resulted in 3 cases of HDFN with symptoms of severe disease and in 4 cases there were no signs of HDFN. At 12 women that had a titre between 1:32 and 1:512, five of the newborns developed severe HDFN, and seven had symptoms of mild and weak intensity form. In 3 cases the titer was higher than 512, and out of them one newborn had weak symptoms of HDFN, one developed severe HDFN and one ended with foetal death. Only in one case the titer reached a value higher than 1000, and it ended with a fetal death. The titers of the pregnant women serum those are lower than 32 and those higher than 1000 can well predict HDFN. The titers of anti-D antibodies between 64 and 512 have no exact predictive value. IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses of anti-D have no predictive value by themselves, and cannot foresee the outcome of HDFN. The research study results suggest that IgG1 and IgG3 should be included in a multi - parameter protocol for evaluation of the HDFN intensity. They can give a real assessment of the expected HDFN intensity in combination with the titer hight and the significance of the antibodies.

  8. Coefficient inequality for certain subclass of analytic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vamshee Krishna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to an obtain an upper bound to the second Hankel determinant $|a_{2}a_{4}-a_{3}^{2}|$ for the function $f$, belonging to a certain subclass of analytic functions, using Toeplitz determinants.

  9. Some subclasses of multivalent functions involving a certain linear operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, H. M.; Patel, J.

    2005-10-01

    The authors investigate various inclusion and other properties of several subclasses of the class of normalized p-valent analytic functions in the open unit disk, which are defined here by means of a certain linear operator. Problems involving generalized neighborhoods of analytic functions in the class are investigated. Finally, some applications of fractional calculus operators are considered.

  10. A three-layer immunoradiometric assay for determination of IgG subclass antibodies in Human Sera (''IgG subclass RAST'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurup, R.; Soendergaard, I.; Weeke, B.; University of Copenhagen, Denmark); Magnusson, C.G.M.

    1984-01-01

    We report the development of a three-layer immunoradiometric assay (TIRA) for measurement of IgG antibodies of all four subclasses in human sera. The first layer consists of diluted human serum, the second layer is monoclonal mouse antibodies to human IgG subclasses, and the third layer is 125 I-labelled rabbit anti-mouse IgG. Monoclonal anti-IgGI, anti-IgG3 and anti-IgG4 reacted only with their complementary IgG subclass, whereas the anti-IgG2 showed slight cross-reactivity to immunoglobins of other subclasses and classes and to light chain proteins. The observed cross-reactivity was found to be without importance, when the TIRA was applied to measurement of IgG subclass antibodies. Equipotency was established by use of appropriate dilutions of the monoclonal antibodies, and the assay was calibrated by use of human reference serum. The TIRA therefore permits reliable inter-individual and intra-individual comparisons of the IgG antibody response in all four subclasses. Non-specific binding obtained with pooled normal human serum was below 0.33%. Inter-assay coefficient of variation was between 18 and 27%. The TIRA was applied to measurement of IgG subclass antibodies to timothy grass pollen in sera from grass pollen allergies undergoing immunotherapy. (author)

  11. Primary biliary cirrhosis is characterized by IgG3 antibodies cross-reactive with the major mitochondrial autoepitope and its Lactobacillus mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios-Petrou; Baum, Harold; Okamoto, Manabu; Montalto, Paolo; Sharma, Umesh C; Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Vlachogiannakos, John; Ma, Yun; Burroughs, Andrew K; Vergani, Diego

    2005-08-01

    The serological hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the presence of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 subunit (PDC-E2) antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs). Anti-PDC-E2 antibodies cross-react specifically with mycobacterial hsp65, and we have demonstrated that the motif SxGDL[ILV]AE shared by PDC-E2(212-226) and hsp's is a cross-reactive target. Having found that this same motif is present only in beta-galactosidase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii (BGAL LACDE), we hypothesized that this homology would also lead to cross-reactivity. The mimics were tested via ELISA for reactivity and competitive cross-reactivity using sera from 100 AMA-positive and 23 AMA-negative PBC patients and 190 controls. An Escherichia coli (ECOLI) PDC-E2 mimic that has been pathogenetically linked to PBC but lacks this motif has been also tested. Anti-BGAL(266-280) LACDE antibodies were restricted to AMA-positive patients (54 of 95, 57%) and belonged to immunoglobulin (Ig) G3. Of the 190 controls, 22 (12%; P ECOLI PDC-E2 reactivity was virtually absent. BGAL(266-280)/PDC-E2(212-226) reactivity of the IgG3 isotype was found in 52 (52%) AMA-positive PBC patients but in only 1 of the controls (P ECOLI PDC-E2 mimics. In conclusion, IgG3 antibodies to BGAL LACDE cross-react with the major mitochondrial autoepitope and are characteristic of PBC.

  12. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  13. Using constellation pharmacology to define comprehensively a somatosensory neuronal subclass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Russell W.; Memon, Tosifa; Aman, Joseph W.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2014-01-01

    Change is intrinsic to nervous systems; change is required for learning and conditioning and occurs with disease progression, normal development, and aging. To better understand mammalian nervous systems and effectively treat nervous-system disorders, it is essential to track changes in relevant individual neurons. A critical challenge is to identify and characterize the specific cell types involved and the molecular-level changes that occur in each. Using an experimental strategy called constellation pharmacology, we demonstrate that we can define a specific somatosensory neuronal subclass, cold thermosensors, across different species and track changes in these neurons as a function of development. Cold thermosensors are uniformly responsive to menthol and innocuous cool temperature (17 °C), indicating that they express TRPM8 channels. A subset of cold thermosensors expressed α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) but not other nAChR subtypes. Differences in temperature threshold of cold thermosensors correlated with functional expression of voltage-gated K channels Kv1.1/1.2: Relatively higher expression of KV1.1/1.2 channels resulted in a higher threshold response to cold temperature. Other signaling components varied during development and between species. In cold thermosensors of neonatal mice and rats, ATP receptors were functionally expressed, but the expression disappeared with development. This developmental change occurred earlier in low-threshold than high-threshold cold thermosensors. Most rat cold thermosensors expressed TRPA1 channels, whereas mouse cold thermosensors did not. The broad implications of this study are that it is now feasible to track changes in receptor and ion-channel expression in individual neuronal subclasses as a function of development, learning, disease, or aging. PMID:24469798

  14. Certain Subclasses of Analytic and Bi-Univalent Functions Involving Double Zeta Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Saibah; Raman, Sintuja

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we introduce two new subclasses of the functions class Σ of bi-univalent functions involving double zeta functions in the open unit disc U={z:zEC, |z|<1}. The estimates on the coefficients |a2| and |a3| for functions in these new subclasses of the function class Σ are obtained in our investigation.

  15. HLA class I antibodies trigger increased adherence of monocytes to endothelial cells by eliciting an increase in endothelial P-selectin and, depending on subclass, by engaging FcγRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Nicole M; Mulder, Arend; Reed, Elaine F

    2013-06-15

    Ab-mediated rejection (AMR) of solid organ transplants is characterized by intragraft macrophages. It is incompletely understood how donor-specific Ab binding to graft endothelium promotes monocyte adhesion, and what, if any, contribution is made by the Fc region of the Ab. We investigated the mechanisms underlying monocyte recruitment by HLA class I (HLA I) Ab-activated endothelium. We used a panel of murine mAbs of different subclasses to crosslink HLA I on human aortic, venous, and microvascular endothelial cells and measured the binding of human monocytic cell lines and peripheral blood monocytes. Both anti-HLA I murine (m)IgG1 and mIgG2a induced endothelial P-selectin, which was required for monocyte adhesion to endothelium irrespective of subclass. mIgG2a but not mIgG1 could bind human FcγRs. Accordingly, HLA I mIgG2a but not mIgG1 treatment of endothelial cells significantly augmented recruitment, predominantly through FcγRI, and, to a lesser extent, FcγRIIa. Moreover, HLA I mIgG2a promoted firm adhesion of monocytes to ICAM-1 through Mac-1, which may explain the prominence of monocytes during AMR. We confirmed these observations using human HLA allele-specific mAbs and IgG purified from transplant patient sera. HLA I Abs universally elicit endothelial exocytosis leading to monocyte adherence, implying that P-selectin is a putative therapeutic target to prevent macrophage infiltration during AMR. Importantly, the subclass of donor-specific Ab may influence its pathogenesis. These results imply that human IgG1 and human IgG3 should have a greater capacity to trigger monocyte infiltration into the graft than IgG2 or IgG4 due to enhancement by FcγR interactions.

  16. Long-term clinical protection from falciparum malaria is strongly associated with IgG3 antibodies to merozoite surface protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roussilhon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surrogate markers of protective immunity to malaria in humans are needed to rationalize malaria vaccine discovery and development. In an effort to identify such markers, and thereby provide a clue to the complex equation malaria vaccine development is facing, we investigated the relationship between protection acquired through exposure in the field with naturally occurring immune responses (i.e., induced by the parasite to molecules that are considered as valuable vaccine candidates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed, under comparative conditions, the antibody responses of each of six isotypes to five leading malaria vaccine candidates in relation to protection acquired by exposure to natural challenges in 217 of the 247 inhabitants of the African village of Dielmo, Senegal (96 children and 121 older adolescents and adults. The status of susceptibility or resistance to malaria was determined by active case detection performed daily by medical doctors over 6 y from a unique follow-up study of this village. Of the 30 immune responses measured, only one, antibodies of the IgG3 isotype directed to merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3, was strongly associated with clinical protection against malaria in all age groups, i.e., independently of age. This immunological parameter had a higher statistical significance than the sickle cell trait, the strongest factor of protection known against Plasmodium falciparum. A single determination of antibody was significantly associated with the clinical outcome over six consecutive years in children submitted to massive natural parasite challenges by mosquitoes (over three parasite inoculations per week. Finally, the target epitopes of these antibodies were found to be fully conserved. CONCLUSIONS: Since anti-MSP3 IgG3 antibodies can naturally develop along with protection against P. falciparum infection in young children, our results provide the encouraging indication that these antibodies should be possible to elicit by vaccination early in life. Since these antibodies have been found to achieve parasite killing under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and since they can be readily elicited by immunisation in naïve volunteers, our immunoepidemiological findings support the further development of MSP3-based vaccine formulations.

  17. Storage Pool Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  18. Adaptive Immunity against Streptococcus pyogenes in Adults Involves Increased IFN-gamma and IgG3 Responses Compared with Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Nissen, Thomas Norrelykke; Blauenfeldt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Each year, millions of people are infected with Streptococcus pyogenes, leading to an estimated 500,000 annual deaths worldwide. For unknown reasons, school-aged children have substantially higher infection rates than adults. The goal for this study was to provide, to our knowledge, the first det...... cellular memory response in combination with IgG1/IgG3-dominated humoral immunity that increase with age. The significance of these data regarding both the increased GAS infection rate in children and the development of protective GAS vaccines is discussed.......Each year, millions of people are infected with Streptococcus pyogenes, leading to an estimated 500,000 annual deaths worldwide. For unknown reasons, school-aged children have substantially higher infection rates than adults. The goal for this study was to provide, to our knowledge, the first...... detailed characterization of the human adaptive immune response against S. pyogenes in both children and adults. We report that all adults in our study, as well as most children, showed immunity against the two conserved group A streptococci (GAS) Ags, streptococcal C5a peptidase and immunogenic secreted...

  19. Acute effects of interleukin-6 infusion on apo-B-containing lipoprotein subclasses in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagdade, John; Pedersen, Bente K; Schwenke, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    B:E) apoB-containing subclasses present in VLDL. Therefore, we have directly measured these subclasses following their isolation by sequential immunoprecipitation in seven healthy male subjects during a 3-h infusion with recombinant human (rh) IL-6. Though plasma TG and apoB-containing particle number were...... unchanged by IL-6, the distribution of TG-rich subclasses was significantly altered. Compared to baseline values, LpB:E + LpB:C:E increased significantly at 0.5 h (p infused controls at 0.5 and 1 h (p

  20. An intersectional gene regulatory strategy defines subclass diversity of C. elegans motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratsios, Paschalis; Kerk, Sze Yen; Catela, Catarina; Liang, Joseph; Vidal, Berta; Bayer, Emily A; Feng, Weidong; De La Cruz, Estanisla Daniel; Croci, Laura; Consalez, G Giacomo; Mizumoto, Kota; Hobert, Oliver

    2017-07-05

    A core principle of nervous system organization is the diversification of neuron classes into subclasses that share large sets of features but differ in select traits. We describe here a molecular mechanism necessary for motor neurons to acquire subclass-specific traits in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . Cholinergic motor neuron classes of the ventral nerve cord can be subdivided into subclasses along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis based on synaptic connectivity patterns and molecular features. The conserved COE-type terminal selector UNC-3 not only controls the expression of traits shared by all members of a neuron class, but is also required for subclass-specific traits expressed along the A-P axis. UNC-3, which is not regionally restricted, requires region-specific cofactors in the form of Hox proteins to co-activate subclass-specific effector genes in post-mitotic motor neurons. This intersectional gene regulatory principle for neuronal subclass diversification may be conserved from nematodes to mice.

  1. Antibody classes & subclasses induced by mucosal immunization of mice with Streptococcus pyogenes M6 protein & oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teloni, R; von Hunolstein, C; Mariotti, S; Donati, S; Orefici, G; Nisini, R

    2004-05-01

    Type-specific antibodies against M protein are critical for human protection as they enhance phagocytosis and are protective. An ideal vaccine for the protection against Streptococcus pyogenes would warrant mucosal immunity, but mucosally administered M-protein has been shown to be poorly immunogenic in animals. We used a recombinant M type 6 protein to immunize mice in the presence of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (immunostimulatory sequences: ISS) or cholera toxin (CT) to explore its possible usage in a mucosal vaccine. Mice were immunized by intranasal (in) or intradermal (id) administration with four doses at weekly intervals of M6-protein (10 microg/mouse) with or without adjuvant (ISS, 10 microg/mouse or CT, 0,5 microg/mouse). M6 specific antibodies were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using class and subclass specific monoclonal antibodies. The use of ISS induced an impressive anti M-protein serum IgG response but when id administered was not detectable in the absence of adjuvant. When used in, M-protein in the presence of both ISS and CT induced anti M-protein IgA in the bronchoalveolar lavage, as well as specific IgG in the serum. IgG were able to react with serotype M6 strains of S. pyogenes. The level of antibodies obtained by immunizing mice in with M-protein and CT was higher in comparison to M-protein and ISS. The analysis of anti-M protein specific IgG subclasses showed high levels of IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b, and low levels of IgG3 when ISS were used as adjuvant. Thus, in the presence of ISS, the ratio IgG2a/IgG1 and (IgG2a+IgG3)/IgG1 >1 indicated a type 1-like response obtained both in mucosally or systemically vaccinated mice. Our study offers a reproducible model of anti-M protein vaccination that could be applied to test new antigenic formulations to induce an anti-group A Streptococcus (GAS) vaccination suitable for protection against the different diseases caused by this bacterium.

  2. Human placenta: relative content of antibodies of different classes and subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) containing lambda- and kappa-light chains and chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Sedykh, Sergey E; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2015-06-01

    The specific organ placenta is much more than a filter: it is an organ that protects, feeds and regulates the growth of the embryo. Affinity chromatography, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry were used. Using 10 intact human placentas deprived of blood, a quantitative analysis of average relative content [% of total immunoglobulins (Igs)] was carried out for the first time: (92.7), IgA (2.4), IgM (2.5), kappa-antibodies (51.4), lambda-antibodies (48.6), IgG1 (47.0), IgG2 (39.5), IgG3 (8.8) and IgG4 (4.3). It was shown for the first time that placenta contains sIgA (2.5%). In the classic paradigm, Igs represent products of clonal B-cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen. There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monovalent molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. However, similarly to human milk Igs, placenta antibodies undergo extensive half-molecule exchange and the IgG pool consists of 43.5 ± 15.0% kappa-kappa-IgGs and 41.6 ± 17.0% lambda-lambda-IgGs, while 15.0 ± 4.0% of the IgGs contained both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained, respectively (%): IgG1 (47.7 and 34.4), IgG2 (36.3 and 44.5), IgG3 (7.4 and 11.8) and IgG4 (7.5 and 9.1), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 43.5 IgG1, 41.0 IgG2, 5.6 IgG3 and 7.9 IgG4. Our data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between placenta IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens, which explains a very well-known polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of different human IgGs. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  4. Association between habitual dietary intake and lipoprotein subclass profile in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Rissanen, A; Kangas, A J; Soininen, P; Rose, R J; Ala-Korpela, M; Kaprio, J

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional epidemiology is increasingly shifting its focus from studying single nutrients to the exploration of the whole diet utilizing dietary pattern analysis. We analyzed associations between habitual diet (including macronutrients, dietary patterns, biomarker of fish intake) and lipoprotein particle subclass profile in young adults. Complete dietary data (food-frequency questionnaire) and lipoprotein subclass profile (via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were available for 663 subjects from the population-based FinnTwin12 study (57% women, age: 21-25 y). The serum docosahexaenoic to total fatty acid ratio was used as a biomarker of habitual fish consumption. Factor analysis identified 5 dietary patterns: "Fruit and vegetables", "Meat", "Sweets and desserts", "Junk food" and "Fish". After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status and alcohol intake, the "Junk food" pattern was positively related to serum triglycerides (r = 0.12, P = 0.002), a shift in the subclass distribution of VLDL toward larger particles (r = 0.12 for VLDL size, P consumption is related to favorable subclass distributions of VLDL and HDL, while junk food intake is associated with unfavorable alterations in the distribution of all lipoprotein subclasses independent of adiposity and other lifestyle factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary fatty acids were not independently associated with lipoprotein subclasses in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghehband, Fatemeh Ramezan; Lankinen, Maria; Värri, Miika; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2017-07-01

    Dietary fatty acids are known to affect serum lipoproteins; however, little is known about the associations between consumption of dietary fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses. In this study, we hypothesized that there is an association between dietary fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses and investigated the cross-sectional association of dietary fat intake with subclasses of lipoproteins in elderly women. Altogether, 547 women (aged ≥65 years) who were part of OSTPRE cohort participated. Dietary intake was assessed by 3-day food records, lifestyle, and health information obtained through self-administrated questionnaires, and lipoprotein subclasses were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. To analyze the associations between fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses, we used Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients and the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test with, adjustment for physical activity, body mass index, age, smoking status, and intake of lipid-lowering drugs. There were significant correlations between saturated fatty acids (SFA; % of energy) and concentrations of large, medium, and small low-density lipoproteins (LDL); total cholesterol in large, medium, and small LDL; and phospholipids in large, medium, and small LDL, after correction for multiple testing. After adjustment for covariates, the higher intake of SFA was associated with smaller size of LDL particles (P = .04, ANCOVA) and lower amount of triglycerides in small very low-density lipoproteins (P = .046, ANCOVA). However, these associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, high intake of SFA may be associated with the size of LDL particles, but the results do not support significant, independent associations between dietary fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fax/Phone Home » Iodine Deficiency Leer en Español Iodine Deficiency Iodine is an element that is needed ... world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. Iodine Deficiency FAQs WHAT IS THE THYROID GLAND? The ...

  7. A microfluorometric assay for immunoglobulin class and subclass levels in murine serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaijman, J.J.; Brinkhof, J.

    1977-01-01

    The IgG fractions of rabbit antisera specific for the Fc part of mouse IgA, IgM, and the four subclasses of IgG (1, 2a, 2b, and 3) were coupled covalently to Sepharose beads by the cyanogen bromide method. The beads were then incubated with different dilutions of mouse serum. The mouse

  8. Large scale aggregate microarray analysis reveals three distinct molecular subclasses of human preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Katherine; Bainbridge, Shannon A; Cox, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a life-threatening hypertensive pathology of pregnancy affecting 3-5% of all pregnancies. To date, PE has no cure, early detection markers, or effective treatments short of the removal of what is thought to be the causative organ, the placenta, which may necessitate a preterm delivery. Additionally, numerous small placental microarray studies attempting to identify "PE-specific" genes have yielded inconsistent results. We therefore hypothesize that preeclampsia is a multifactorial disease encompassing several pathology subclasses, and that large cohort placental gene expression analysis will reveal these groups. To address our hypothesis, we utilized known bioinformatic methods to aggregate 7 microarray data sets across multiple platforms in order to generate a large data set of 173 patient samples, including 77 with preeclampsia. Unsupervised clustering of these patient samples revealed three distinct molecular subclasses of PE. This included a "canonical" PE subclass demonstrating elevated expression of known PE markers and genes associated with poor oxygenation and increased secretion, as well as two other subclasses potentially representing a poor maternal response to pregnancy and an immunological presentation of preeclampsia. Our analysis sheds new light on the heterogeneity of PE patients, and offers up additional avenues for future investigation. Hopefully, our subclassification of preeclampsia based on molecular diversity will finally lead to the development of robust diagnostics and patient-based treatments for this disorder.

  9. Colony-stimulating factor (CSF) radioimmunoassay: detection of a CSF subclass stimulating macrophage production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, E.R.

    1979-01-01

    Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) stimulate the differentiation of immature precursor cells to mature granulocytes and macrophages. Purified 125 I-labeled murine L cell CSF has been used to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects a subclass of CSFs that stimulates macrophage production. Murine CSF preparations that contain this subclass of CSF compete for all of the CSF binding sites on anti-L cell CSF antibody. With the exception of mouse serum, which can contain inhibitors of the bioassay, there is complete correspondence between activities determined by RIA and those determined by bioassay. The RIA is slightly more sensitive than the bioassay, detecting approximately 0.3 fmol of purified L cell CSF. It can also detect this subclass of CSF in chickens, rats, and humans. In the mouse, the subclass is distinguished from other CSFs by a murine cell bioassay dose-response curve in which 90% of the response occurs over a 10-fold (rather than a 100-fold) increase in concentration, by stimulating the formations of colonies contaning a high proportion of mononuclear (rather than granulocytic) cells, and by certain physical characteristics

  10. Fekete-Szegö Inequalities of a Subclass of Multivalent Analytic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj C.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this paper is to study Fekete-Szegö problem for a certain subclass of p - valent analytic functions. Fekete-Szegö inequality of several classes are obtained as special cases from our results. Applications of the result are also obtained on the class defined by convolution.

  11. On certain subclasses of multivalent functions associated with an extended fractional differintegral operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J.; Mishra, A. K.

    2007-08-01

    In the present paper an extended fractional differintegral operator , suitable for the study of multivalent functions is introduced. Various mapping properties and inclusion relationships between certain subclasses of multivalent functions are investigated by applying the techniques of differential subordination. Relevant connections of the definitions and results presented in this paper with those obtained in several earlier works on the subject are also pointed out.

  12. Health Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all health deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  13. Quantitative analysis of rat Ig (sub)classes binding to cell surface antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, R.; Brodin, T.; Sjoegren, H.-O.

    1982-01-01

    An indirect 125 I-labeled protein A assay for detection of cell surface-bound rat immunoglobulins is presented. The assay is quantitative and rapid and detects as little as 1 ng of cell surface-bound Ig. It discriminates between antibodies belonging to different IgG subclasses, IgM and IgA. The authors describe the production and specificity control of the reagents used and show that the test can be used for quantitative analysis. A large number of sera from untreated rats are tested to evaluate the frequency of falsely positive responses and variation due to age, sex and strain of rat. With this test it is relatively easy to quantitate the binding of classes and subclasses of rat immunoglobulins in a small volume (6 μl) of untreated serum. (Auth.)

  14. Meningitis, spondylodiscitis, pneumonia and septic shock with Streptococcus pneumoniae in a previously healthy woman with isolated IgG2-, IgG3-, IgA-deficiency and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin; Gudnason, David; Steig, Bjarni

    2018-01-01

    A 66 years old Caucasian woman with pneumococcal meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Five months later she was readmitted with fever and right side abdominal pain and diagnosed with pneumococcal spondylodiscitis. One year later she was treated for a severe chest X...... not respond serologically on vaccination with 13-valent conjugate and 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines. Further evaluations revealed a positive M-component in her blood and a bone marrow biopsy diagnosed her to have monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. To protect her against...... significance in an apparently healthy woman with at least three life threatening documented pneumococcal infections in a two-year period and poor pneumococcal vaccine response....

  15. IgG subclasses in previously healthy adult patients with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    t Ccmparing mean values of 19G1, 19G2, JgG3 and IgG4 between the critically ill and. rlOfl-sevet1! groups of patiems. Combined cases. Pooling of data on all cases allowed comparison of the various parameters indicating severity of pneumonia and the. IgG subclass levels between survivors and non-survivors. The results ...

  16. Specific IgG and its subclass antibodies after immunotherapy with gynandropsis gynandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : About 10 to 15 % of the Indian population is known to suffer from major allergic disorders such as Asthma, Rhinitis, Atopic Dermatitis and Urticaria. Aeroallergens play a major role in the pathogenesis of respiratory allergic diseases. Among the aeroallergens, pollens are major causative agents. The predominance of pollen allergens necessitate the need to assess the specific immunotherapy (SIT in allergic patients. Objective : To evaluate the effect of immunotherapy based on the presence of IgG and its subclass antibodies towards whole pollen antigen of Gynandropsis gynandra (G.gynandra and its fractions. Material and Methods : A study was conducted in 30 bronchial asthma patients on immunotherapy, by assessing the levels of IgG and its subclasses specific to G. gynandra pollen. Results : There was a significant increase in IgG and its subclass antibodies to whole pollen antigen and its fractions i.e.> 90kD, 46-37kD and 36-32kD after the course of IT. Conclusion : The use of peptide fractions may be more appropriate instead of the whole pollen antigen to test the effect of immunotherapy.

  17. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  18. Association among Dietary Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ruxu; Yang, Yu; Liao, Jing; Chen, Dongsheng; Yu, Lixiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses is associated with the ovarian cancer risk, but presented controversial results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of these associations. Methods We performed a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science from their inception to April 25, 2015 to select studies on the association among dietary flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. The information was extracted by two independent authors. We assessed the heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and quality of the articles. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Results Five cohort studies and seven case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We observed that intake of dietary flavonoids can decrease ovarian cancer risk, which was demonstrated by pooled RR (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.98). In a subgroup analysis by flavonoid subtypes, the ovarian cancer risk was also decreased for isoflavones (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50–0.92) and flavonols (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58–0.80). While there was no compelling evidence that consumption of flavones (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.71–1.03) could decrease ovarian cancer risk, which revealed part sources of heterogeneity. The sensitivity analysis indicated stable results, and no publication bias was observed based on the results of Funnel plot analysis and Egger’s test (p = 0.26). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that consumption of dietary flavonoids and subtypes (isoflavones, flavonols) has a protective effect against ovarian cancer with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer except for flavones consumption. Nevertheless, further investigations on a larger population covering more flavonoid subclasses are warranted. PMID:26960146

  19. Effect of pistachio consumption on plasma lipoprotein subclasses in pre-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, P; Salas-Salvadó, J; Baldrich-Mora, M; Mallol, R; Correig, X; Bulló, M

    2015-04-01

    Nuts have been demonstrated to improve several cardiovascular risk factors and the lipid profile in diabetic and pre-diabetic subjects. However, analysis of conventional serum lipid profiles does not completely explain the atherogenic risk associated with pre-diabetes. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio modifies the lipoprotein subclasses to a healthier profile in pre-diabetic subjects. Randomized cross-over clinical trial in 54 subjects with pre-diabetes. Subjects consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out. Diets were isocaloric and matched for protein, fiber and saturated fatty acids. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was performed to determine changes in plasma lipoprotein subclasses. Small low-density lipoprotein particles (sLDL-P) significantly decreased after pistachio consumption compared to the nut-free diet (P = 0.023). The non-high-density lipoprotein particles (non-HDL-P i.e. VLDL-P plus LDL-P) significantly decreased under the PD compared to CD (P = 0.041). The percentage of sHDL-P increased by 2.23% after the PD compared with a reduction of 0.08% after the CD (P = 0.014). Consequently, the overall size of HDL-P significantly decreased in the PD (P = 0.007). Chronic pistachio consumption could modify the lipoprotein particle size and subclass concentrations independently of changes in total plasma lipid profile, which may help to explain the decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with those individuals who frequently consumed nuts. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01441921. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.

    2004-01-01

    , a solid dietary fat containing (n-3) PUFA decreased plasma TAG, VLDL, and IDL cholesterol, and redistributed lipoprotein subclasses in LDL and HDL, with a higher concentration of the larger and less atherogenic subfractions. These changes took place without an increase in oxidative stress as measured...... of F than O fat (P oxidation measured as the ratio of plasma isoprostanes F-2 to arachidonic acid and urinary isoprostanes, whereas the vitamin E activity/plasma total lipids ratio was higher after intake of F than O (P = 0.008). In conclusion...

  1. In-depth analysis of subclass-specific conformational preferences of IgG antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Xinsheng; Vestergaard, Bente; Thorolfsson, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    IgG subclass-specific differences in biological function and in vitro stability are often referred to variations in the conformational flexibility, while this flexibility has rarely been characterized. Here, small-angle X-ray scattering data from IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 antibodies, which were designe...... properties and tailored effector functions. In addition, this advanced computational approach is applicable to other flexible multi-domain systems and extends the potential for investigating flexibility in solutions of macromolecules by small-angle X-ray scattering....

  2. Effects of dietary saturated fat on LDL subclasses and apolipoprotein CIII in men

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihnia, Nastaran; Mangravite, Lara M.; Chiu, Sally; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives Small dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein (apo) CIII are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that can be modulated by diet, but there is little information regarding the effects of dietary saturated fat on their plasma levels. We tested the effects of high vs. low saturated fat intake in the context of a high beef protein diet on levels and composition of LDL subclasses and on apoCIII levels in plasma and LDL. Subjects/Methods Following consumption of a base...

  3. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lingling; Liu, Xinxin; Tian, Yalan; Xie, Chen; Li, Qianwen; Cui, Han; Sun, Changqing

    2016-06-08

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990 to April 2016, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed or random-effect models. In total, seven articles including 2629 cases and 481,193 non-cases were selected for the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49-0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer.

  4. Differences in immunoglobulin subclasses between dye exclusion and 51Cr release complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnachie, P.R.; Denegri, J.F.; Lower, F.E.; Torry, D.S.; McIntyre, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Paradoxical differences previously noted between lymphocytotoxicity detected by dye exclusion at room temperature (CDCE) or by 51 Cr release (CDC 51 Cr) at 37 0 C in maternal antipaternal complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity have suggested that CDCE and CDC 51 Cr at 37 0 C, but not at 20 degrees C, may detect different immunological antibody-antigen interactions. Reactions in the two test systems against the same target cells were compared in sera from known immune dialysis patients, secondary aborting women, and refractory platelet recipients before and after heat treatment of sera, absorption with solid-phase heparin, anti-light-chain augmentation, and the addition of murine monoclonal anti-IgG subclass antibodies. The results demonstrate significant differences between the two tests using the same target and sera. Further, the results imply the presence of an inhibitor and an inhibitor of inhibitor in sera. The involvement of different immunoglobulin subclasses was shown in the two tests. These data demonstrate the necessity for further study of the nature of the differences in the mechanisms of these clinically important antibody-detecting systems

  5. In-depth analysis of subclass-specific conformational preferences of IgG antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG subclass-specific differences in biological function and in vitro stability are often referred to variations in the conformational flexibility, while this flexibility has rarely been characterized. Here, small-angle X-ray scattering data from IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 antibodies, which were designed with identical variable regions, were thoroughly analysed by the ensemble optimization method. The extended analysis of the optimized ensembles through shape clustering reveals distinct subclass-specific conformational preferences, which provide new insights for understanding the variations in physical/chemical stability and biological function of therapeutic antibodies. Importantly, the way that specific differences in the linker region correlate with the solution structure of intact antibodies is revealed, thereby visualizing future potential for the rational design of antibodies with designated physicochemical properties and tailored effector functions. In addition, this advanced computational approach is applicable to other flexible multi-domain systems and extends the potential for investigating flexibility in solutions of macromolecules by small-angle X-ray scattering.

  6. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  7. What Are Rare Clotting Factor Deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  8. Different IgG-subclass distributions after whole-cell and acellular pertussis infant primary vaccinations in healthy and pertussis infected children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, Lotte H.; Schure, Rose-Minke; Ozturk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G. H.; de Greeff, S. C.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of IgG-subclasses provides insight in the immunological mechanisms of protection against whooping cough. We investigated the effect of Dutch whole-cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines administered in infancy on the IgG-subclass distributions in healthy children aged 12

  9. A systematic approach to obtain validated Partial Least Square models for predicting lipoprotein subclasses from serum NMR spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaleva, V.V.; van Schalkwijk, D.B.; de Graaf, A.A.; van Duynhoven, J.; van Dorsten, F.A.; Vervoort, J.; Smilde, A.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic approach is described for building validated PLS models that predict cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in lipoprotein subclasses in fasting serum from a normolipidemic, healthy population. The PLS models were built on diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra and calibrated on

  10. A systematic approach to obtain validated partial least square models for predicting lipoprotein subclasses from serum NMR spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, van D.B.; Graaf, de A.A.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Dorsten, van F.A.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic approach is described for building validated PLS models that predict cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in lipoprotein subclasses in fasting serum from a normolipidemic, healthy population. The PLS models were built on diffusion-edited (1)H NMR spectra and calibrated on

  11. A systematic approach to obtain validated partial least square models for predicting lipoprotein subclasses from serum nmr spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Duynhoven, J. van; Dorsten, F.A. van; Vervoort, J.; Smilde, A.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic approach is described for building validated PLS models that predict cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in lipoprotein subclasses in fasting serum from a normolipidemic, healthy population. The PLS models were built on diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra and calibrated on

  12. Immunoglobulin G1 Allotype Influences Antibody Subclass Distribution in Response to HIV gp140 Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kratochvil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody subclasses exhibit extensive polymorphisms (allotypes that could potentially impact the quality of HIV-vaccine induced B cell responses. Allotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig G1, the most abundant serum antibody, have been shown to display altered functional properties in regard to serum half-life, Fc-receptor binding and FcRn-mediated mucosal transcytosis. To investigate the potential link between allotypic IgG1-variants and vaccine-generated humoral responses in a cohort of 14 HIV vaccine recipients, we developed a novel protocol for rapid IgG1-allotyping. We combined PCR and ELISA assays in a dual approach to determine the IgG1 allotype identity (G1m3 and/or G1m1 of trial participants, using human plasma and RNA isolated from PBMC. The IgG1-allotype distribution of our participants mirrored previously reported results for caucasoid populations. We observed elevated levels of HIV gp140-specific IgG1 and decreased IgG2 levels associated with the G1m1-allele, in contrast to G1m3 carriers. These data suggest that vaccinees homozygous for G1m1 are predisposed to develop elevated Ag-specific IgG1:IgG2 ratios compared to G1m3-carriers. This elevated IgG1:IgG2 ratio was further associated with higher FcγR-dimer engagement, a surrogate for potential antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP function. Although preliminary, these results suggest that IgG1 allotype may have a significant impact on IgG subclass distribution in response to vaccination and associated Fc-mediated effector functions. These results have important implications for ongoing HIV vaccine efficacy studies predicated on engagement of FcγR-mediated cellular functions including ADCC and ADCP, and warrant further investigation. Our novel allotyping protocol provides new tools to determine the potential impact of IgG1 allotypes on vaccine efficacy.

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  14. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  15. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies Avaliação das respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.No presente estudo, uma reação imunoenzimática (ELISA padronizada com o fluido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium foi utilizada para avaliar as respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG e pacientes com outras desordens neurológicas. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos: ELISA-IgG: 100% de sensibilidade (mediana das absorbâncias das reações ELISA (MAE=1,17 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG1: sensibilidade 72,7% (MAE=0,49 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG2

  16. Evidence of IgY subclass diversification in snakes: evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Sun, Yi; Shao, Wenwei; Cheng, Gang; Li, Lingxiao; Cao, Zubing; Yang, Zhi; Zou, Huiying; Zhang, Wei; Han, Binyue; Hu, Yang; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Guo, Ying; Fei, Jing; Hammarström, Lennart; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-10-01

    Mammalian IgG and IgE are thought to have evolved from IgY of nonmammalian tetrapods; however, no diversification of IgY subclasses has been reported in reptiles or birds, which are phylogenetically close to mammals. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence of the presence of multiple IgY-encoding (υ) genes in snakes. Two υ genes were identified in the snake Elaphe taeniura, and three υ genes were identified in the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus). Although four of the υ genes displayed a conventional four-H chain C region exon structure, one of the υ genes in the Burmese python lacked the H chain C region 2 exon, thus exhibiting a structure similar to that of the mammalian γ genes. We developed mouse mAbs specific for the IgY1 and IgY2 of E. taeniura and showed that both were expressed in serum; each had two isoforms: one full-length and one truncated at the C terminus. The truncation was not caused by alternative splicing or transcriptional termination. We also identified the μ and δ genes, but no α gene, in both snakes. This study provides valuable clues for our understanding of Ig gene evolution in tetrapods.

  17. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michèle; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09531.001 PMID:26814051

  18. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti CK-2 alpha subunit antibody of the IgG1 subclass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against the recombinant human alpha subunit of CK-2. The antibody was of the IgG1 subclass and it was isolated from serum-free cell culture media and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein G Sepharose. The antibody can be used to detect specifically the CK......-2 alpha subunit in immunoblots from tissue extracts. An ELISA detection test was also established which also allows the identification of the CK-2 alpha subunit....

  19. Absolute Quantitation of Glycoforms of Two Human IgG Subclasses Using Synthetic Fc Peptides and Glycopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rini; Ang, Evelyn; Komatsu, Emy; Domalaon, Ronald; Bosseboeuf, Adrien; Harb, Jean; Hermouet, Sylvie; Krokhin, Oleg; Schweizer, Frank; Perreault, Hélène

    2018-05-01

    Immunoglobulins, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), are of prime importance in the immune system. Polyclonal human IgG comprises four subclasses, of which IgG1 and IgG2 are the most abundant in healthy individuals. In an effort to develop an absolute MALDI-ToF-MS quantitative method for these subclasses and their Fc N-glycoforms, (glyco)peptides were synthesized using a solid-phase approach and used as internal standards. Tryptic digest glycopeptides from monoclonal IgG1 and IgG2 samples were first quantified using EEQYN(GlcNAc)STYR and EEQFN(GlcNAc)STFR standards, respectively. For IgG1, a similar glycopeptide where tyrosine (Y) was isotopically labelled was used to quantify monoclonal IgG1 that had been treated with the enzyme Endo-F2, i.e., yielding tryptic glycopeptide EEQYN(GlcNAc)STYR. The next step was to quantify single subclasses within polyclonal human IgG samples. Although ion abundances in the MALDI spectra often showed higher signals for IgG2 than IgG1, depending on the spotting solvent used, determination of amounts using the newly developed quantitative method allowed to obtain accurate concentrations where IgG1 species were predominant. It was observed that simultaneous analysis of IgG1 and IgG2 yielded non-quantitative results and that more success was obtained when subclasses were quantified one by one. More experiments served to assess the respective extraction and ionization efficiencies of EEQYNSTYR/EEQFNSTFR and EEQYN(GlcNAc)STYR/EEQFN(GlcNAc)STFR mixtures under different solvent and concentration conditions.

  20. Novel enzyme immunoassay system for simultaneous detection of six subclasses of antiphospholipid antibodies for differential diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Hara, Kazusa; Sakata, Toshiyuki; Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2017-06-01

    : Antiphospholipid syndrome, which often complicates systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), features high occurrence of arterial and/or venous thrombosis and recurrent fetal loss. However, which antibody subclass contributes to which clinical event remains uncertain. We newly developed an up-to-date enzyme immunoassay system using the AcuStar automated analyzer (Instrumentation Laboratory, Bedford, Massachusetts, USA) for parallel detection of six subclasses of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs): anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) of IgG, IgM, and IgA and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) of IgG, IgM, and IgA. They were measured in 276 healthy volunteers and 138 patients with SLE: 45 with thromboembolic complications (29 arterial; 16 venous) and 93 without. Lupus anticoagulant activity in their plasma was measured according to the guidelines recommended by the Subcommittee on Lupus Anticoagulant/Phospholipid-Dependent Antibodies. aCL/β2GPI was measured with a standard ELISA kit commonly used in Japan. The positive results of IgG aCL, IgA aCL, and IgG aβ2GPI were closely associated with thromboembolic complications, whereas IgM aCL and IgM aβ2GPI were not. receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the accuracy of predicting thromboembolic complications based on the composite test results of the former three antibodies were obviously higher than by each alone. Regarding agreement with the test results of lupus anticoagulant activity, IgG aβ2GPI showed the closest match. Patients with SLE frequently possess various combinations of the six aPL subclasses, and this antibody spectrum is closely associated with thromboembolic events in these patients. This new automated enzyme immunoassay system allows simultaneous analysis of the profile of aPL subclasses for the differential diagnosis of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in its early stage.

  1. Subtypes of the Type II Pit Pattern Reflect Distinct Molecular Subclasses in the Serrated Neoplastic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hironori; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamano, Hiro-O; Sugai, Tamotsu; Kimura, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Matsushita, Hiro-O; Yoshikawa, Kenjiro; Takagi, Ryo; Harada, Eiji; Nakaoka, Michiko; Yoshida, Yuko; Harada, Taku; Sudo, Gota; Eizuka, Makoto; Yorozu, Akira; Kitajima, Hiroshi; Niinuma, Takeshi; Kai, Masahiro; Nojima, Masanori; Suzuki, Hiromu; Nakase, Hiroshi

    2018-03-15

    Colorectal serrated lesions (SLs) are important premalignant lesions whose clinical and biological features are not fully understood. We aimed to establish accurate colonoscopic diagnosis and treatment of SLs through evaluation of associations among the morphological, pathological, and molecular characteristics of SLs. A total of 388 premalignant and 18 malignant colorectal lesions were studied. Using magnifying colonoscopy, microsurface structures were assessed based on Kudo's pit pattern classification system, and the Type II pit pattern was subcategorized into classical Type II, Type II-Open (Type II-O) and Type II-Long (Type II-L). BRAF/KRAS mutations and DNA methylation of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) markers (MINT1, - 2, - 12, - 31, p16, and MLH1) were analyzed through pyrosequencing. Type II-O was tightly associated with sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) with BRAF mutation and CIMP-high. Most lesions with simple Type II or Type II-L were hyperplastic polyps, while mixtures of Type II or Type II-L plus more advanced pit patterns (III/IV) were characteristic of traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs). Type II-positive TSAs frequently exhibited BRAF mutation and CIMP-low, while Type II-L-positive TSAs were tightly associated with KRAS mutation and CIMP-low. Analysis of lesions containing both premalignant and cancerous components suggested Type II-L-positive TSAs may develop into KRAS-mutated/CIMP-low/microsatellite stable cancers, while Type II-O-positive SSA/Ps develop into BRAF-mutated/CIMP-high/microsatellite unstable cancers. These results suggest that Type II subtypes reflect distinct molecular subclasses in the serrated neoplasia pathway and that they could be useful hallmarks for identifying SLs at high risk of developing into CRC.

  2. Taxonomic resolutions based on 18S rRNA genes: a case study of subclass copepoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Wu

    Full Text Available Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1-9 within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%; and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2 nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9 of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%; 3 compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%; and 4 V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy.

  3. IgG4 subclass antibodies impair antitumor immunity in melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gilbert, Amy E.; Josephs, Debra H.; Ali, Niwa; Dodev, Tihomir; Saul, Louise; Correa, Isabel; Roberts, Luke; Beddowes, Emma; Koers, Alexander; Hobbs, Carl; Ferreira, Silvia; Geh, Jenny L.C.; Healy, Ciaran; Harries, Mark; Acland, Katharine M.; Blower, Philip J.; Mitchell, Tracey; Fear, David J.; Spicer, James F.; Lacy, Katie E.; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2013-01-01

    Host-induced antibodies and their contributions to cancer inflammation are largely unexplored. IgG4 subclass antibodies are present in IL-10–driven Th2 immune responses in some inflammatory conditions. Since Th2-biased inflammation is a hallmark of tumor microenvironments, we investigated the presence and functional implications of IgG4 in malignant melanoma. Consistent with Th2 inflammation, CD22+ B cells and IgG4+-infiltrating cells accumulated in tumors, and IL-10, IL-4, and tumor-reactive IgG4 were expressed in situ. When compared with B cells from patient lymph nodes and blood, tumor-associated B cells were polarized to produce IgG4. Secreted B cells increased VEGF and IgG4, and tumor cells enhanced IL-10 secretion in cocultures. Unlike IgG1, an engineered tumor antigen-specific IgG4 was ineffective in triggering effector cell–mediated tumor killing in vitro. Antigen-specific and nonspecific IgG4 inhibited IgG1-mediated tumoricidal functions. IgG4 blockade was mediated through reduction of FcγRI activation. Additionally, IgG4 significantly impaired the potency of tumoricidal IgG1 in a human melanoma xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, serum IgG4 was inversely correlated with patient survival. These findings suggest that IgG4 promoted by tumor-induced Th2-biased inflammation may restrict effector cell functions against tumors, providing a previously unexplored aspect of tumor-induced immune escape and a basis for biomarker development and patient-specific therapeutic approaches. PMID:23454746

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  6. Biochemical Characterization of CPS-1, a Subclass B3 Metallo-β-Lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium Soil Isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Pollini, Simona; Docquier, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    CPS-1 is a subclass B3 metallo-β-lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium isolated from soil, showing 68 % amino acid identity to GOB-1 enzyme. CPS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), purified by chromatography and biochemically characterized. This enzyme exhibits a broad spect...... spectrum substrate profile including penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, which overall resembles those of L1, GOB-1 and acquired subclass B3 enzymes AIM-1 and SMB-1....

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  9. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  10. Effects of pregnancy and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum transmission on immunoglobulin G subclass responses to variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Staalsoe, Trine; Taylor, Diane W

    2005-01-01

    Placenta-sequestering Plasmodium falciparum involved in the pathogenesis of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) in otherwise clinically immune women expresses particular variant surface antigens (VSA(PAM)) on the surface of infected erythrocytes that differ from VSA found in parasitized nonpregnant...... individuals (non-PAM type VSA). We studied levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclasses with specificity for VSA(PAM) and for non-PAM type VSA in pregnant and nonpregnant women from two sites with different endemicities in Cameroon. We found that VSA(PAM)-specific responses depended on the pregnancy......(PAM)-specific immunity to pregnancy-associated malaria....

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  12. A new and rapid method for immunoglobulin class and subclass determination of mouse monoclonal antibodies using a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, M.-J.; Lohmann-Matthes, M.-L.

    1984-01-01

    A solid-phase immunoradiometric assay is described for the detection of mouse immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in unpurified and unconcentrated supernatants of hybridomas. IgG fractions from rabbit antisera specific for mouse immunoglobulin classes and subclasses are used for coating the wells of flexible microtiter plates. Monoclonal antibody present in hybridoma supernatants is bound only to wells that contain the appropriate anti-subclass antibody. The binding of hybridoma antibodies to corresponding IgG subclasses or IgM is then detected by a labeled rabbit anti-mouse antibody binding to all mouse immunoglobulins (heavy and light chains). Thus, only 1 labeled antibody is needed for all assays. The advantages of the method described are the following: results are obtained within a few hours and antibody containing hybridoma supernatants may be used without a concentration step since minute amounts of antibody are detected by the immunoradiometric assay. Cultures producing several subclasses may be early recognized as oligo/polyclonal. (Auth.)

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  15. Factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000548.htm Factor VII deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Factor VII (seven) deficiency is a disorder caused by a ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... view the colon directly. What if my doctor thinks something else is causing my iron-deficiency anemia? ... deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... mg and women need 18 mg. After age 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as celiac disease; inflammatory bowel diseases, ... iron-deficiency anemia , such as bleeding in the digestive or urinary tract or heavy menstrual bleeding, your ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, ... signs of iron-deficiency anemia include: Brittle nails ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ...

  5. Fire Safety Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all fire safety deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the duodenum, the first part of ... treatments for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With After being diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia, it is important ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances of 8 RR Lyrae subclass C variable stars (Govea+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govea, J.; Gomez, T.; Preston, G. W.; Sneden, C.

    2016-02-01

    We chose 10 candidate RR Lyrae variable stars of subclass c (RRc) stars for spectroscopic observation. Many of these stars were first identified as RRc variables by the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) of Pojmanski 2003 (cat. II/264). The target star list included ASAS 144154-0324.7 and ASAS 204440-2402.7. But our spectroscopic study suggest that these two stars are probably W UMa binaries instead of RR Lyrae stars Our spectra were obtained with the echelle spectrograph of the du Pont 2.5m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. Four observing runs during 2009-2010 were partly devoted to this project. The spectrograph was used with the 1.5*4'' entrance slit, which translates to a resolving power of R=λ/Δλ~27000 at the MgI b lines near 5180Å. The total continuous wavelength coverage of the spectra was 3500-9000Å. (6 data files).

  15. Lipoprotein subclasses in the Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study (MARS). Treatment effects and relation to coronary angiographic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, W J; Krauss, R M; Hodis, H N

    1996-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contribute to coronary artery disease. Using data from the Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study, an angiographic trial of middle-aged men and women randomized to lovastatin or placebo, we investigated relationships between lipoprotein subclasses and progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Coronary artery lesion progression was determined by quantitative coronary angiography in low-grade ( or = 50% diameter stenosis), and all coronary artery lesions in 220 baseline/2-year angiogram pairs. Analytical ultracentrifugation was used to measure lipoprotein masses that were statistically evaluated for treatment group differences and relationships to progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. All low density lipoprotein (LDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) masses were significantly lowered and all high density lipoprotein (HDL) masses were significantly raised with lovastatin therapy. The mass of smallest LDL (Svedberg flotation rate [Sf] 0 to 3), IDL (Sf 12 to 20), all VLDL subclasses (Sf 20 to 60, Sf 60 to 100, and Sf 100 to 400), and peak LDL flotation rate were significantly related to the progression of coronary artery lesions, specifically low-grade lesions. Greater baseline levels of HDL3, were related to a lower likelihood of coronary artery lesion progression. In multivariate analyses, small VLDL (Sf 20 to 60) and HDL3 mass were the most important correlates of coronary artery lesion progression. These results provide further evidence for the importance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the progression of coronary artery disease. In addition, these results present new evidence for the possible protective role of HDL3 in the progression of coronary artery lesions. More specific information on coronary artery lesion progression may be obtained through the study of specific apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins.

  16. Understanding of human metabolic pathways of different sub-classes of phenols from Arbutus unedo fruit after an acute intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosele, Juana I; Macià, Alba; Motilva, María-José

    2016-03-01

    Arbutus unedo is a small Mediterranean fruit, commonly named strawberry tree, which is a rich source of different sub-classes of phenolic compounds, the more representative being the gallic acid derivatives, including its mono and oligomeric forms esterified with quinic and shikimic acids. In addition, galloyl derivatives, particularly gallotannins, described in A. unedo, are part of a very selective phenolic group, present in a reduced number of plant-products. The aim of the present study is to provide a better understanding of human metabolic pathways of different sub-classes of phenols from the A. unedo fruit after an acute intake by healthy adults. Therefore, the A. unedo phenolic metabolites were studied in whole blood samples (0 to 24 h), urine (24 h) and feces (12 and 24 h). Special focus was placed on the application of dried blood spot (DBS) cards for the sample collection and for the analysis of phenolic metabolites in whole blood samples. The results of the blood analysis revealed two peaks for the maximum concentrations of the main phenolic metabolites. Furthermore, it is appropriate to highlight the application of DBS cards as an efficient and accurate way to collect blood samples in post-prandial bioavailability studies. The analysis of urine (24 h) gave a wide range of phenolic metabolites showing the extensive metabolism that A. unedo phenolic compounds underwent in the human body. The results of the study provide a relevant contribution to the understanding of the in vivo human bioavailability of phenolic compounds, especially galloyl derivatives, a singular phenolic sub-group present in the A. unedo fruit.

  17. COMMON PATTERNS IN THE EVOLUTION BETWEEN THE LUMINOUS NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SUBCLASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray transient XTE J1701–462 was the first source observed to evolve through all known subclasses of low-magnetic-field neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), as a result of large changes in its mass accretion rate. To investigate to what extent similar evolution is seen in other NS-LMXBs we have performed a detailed study of the color–color and hardness–intensity diagrams (CDs and HIDs) of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—three luminous X-ray binaries, containing weakly magnetized neutron stars, known to exhibit strong secular changes in their CD/HID tracks. Using the full set of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array data collected for the sources over the 16 year duration of the mission, we show that Cyg X-2 and Cir X-1 display CD/HID evolution with close similarities to XTE J1701–462. Although GX 13+1 shows behavior that is in some ways unique, it also exhibits similarities to XTE J1701–462, and we conclude that its overall CD/HID properties strongly indicate that it should be classified as a Z source, rather than as an atoll source. We conjecture that the secular evolution of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—illustrated by sequences of CD/HID tracks we construct—arises from changes in the mass accretion rate. Our results strengthen previous suggestions that within single sources Cyg-like Z source behavior takes place at higher luminosities and mass accretion rates than Sco-like Z behavior, and lend support to the notion that the mass accretion rate is the primary physical parameter distinguishing the various NS-LMXB subclasses

  18. Can non-cholesterol sterols and lipoprotein subclasses distribution predict different patterns of cholesterol metabolism and statin therapy response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojkovic, Tamara; Vladimirov, Sandra; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Vekic, Jelena; Kalimanovska-Ostric, Dimitra; Djuricic, Ivana; Sobajic, Sladjana; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2017-03-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis disorders may cause dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis progression and coronary artery disease (CAD) development. Evaluation of non-cholesterol sterols (NCSs) as synthesis and absorption markers, and lipoprotein particles quality may indicate the dyslipidemia early development. This study investigates associations of different cholesterol homeostasis patterns with low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) subclasses distribution in statin-treated and statin-untreated CAD patients, and potential use of aforementioned markers for CAD treatment optimization. The study included 78 CAD patients (47 statin-untreated and 31 statin-treated) and 31 controls (CG). NCSs concentrations were quantified using gas chromatography- flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Lipoprotein subclasses were separated by gradient gel electrophoresis. In patients, cholesterol-synthesis markers were significantly higher comparing to CG. Cholesterol-synthesis markers were inversely associated with LDL size in all groups. For cholesterol homeostasis estimation, each group was divided to good and/or poor synthetizers and/or absorbers according to desmosterol and β-sitosterol median values. In CG, participants with reduced cholesterol absorption, the relative proportion of small, dense LDL was higher in those with increased cholesterol synthesis compared to those with reduced synthesis (p<0.01). LDL I fraction was significantly higher in poor synthetizers/poor absorbers subgroup compared to poor synthetizers/good absorbers (p<0.01), and good synthetizers/poor absorbers (p<0.01). Statin-treated patients with increased cholesterol absorption had increased proportion of LDL IVB (p<0.05). The results suggest the existence of different lipoprotein abnormalities according to various patterns of cholesterol homeostasis. Desmosterol/β-sitosterol ratio could be used for estimating individual propensity toward dyslipidemia development and direct the future treatment.

  19. Complete chloroplast genome of Gracilaria firma (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta), with discussion on the use of chloroplast phylogenomics in the subclass Rhodymeniophycidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Poh-Kheng; Lin, Showe-Mei; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Liu, Li-Chia; Chen, Chien-Ming; Pai, Tun-Wen

    2017-01-06

    The chloroplast genome of Gracilaria firma was sequenced in view of its role as an economically important marine crop with wide industrial applications. To date, there are only 15 chloroplast genomes published for the Florideophyceae. Apart from presenting the complete chloroplast genome of G. firma, this study also assessed the utility of genome-scale data to address the phylogenetic relationships within the subclass Rhodymeniophycidae. The synteny and genome structure of the chloroplast genomes across the taxa of Eurhodophytina was also examined. The chloroplast genome of Gracilaria firma maps as a circular molecule of 187,001 bp and contains 252 genes, which are distributed on both strands and consist of 35 RNA genes (3 rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, tmRNA and a ribonuclease P RNA component) and 217 protein-coding genes, including the unidentified open reading frames. The chloroplast genome of G. firma is by far the largest reported for Gracilariaceae, featuring a unique intergenic region of about 7000 bp with discontinuous vestiges of red algal plasmid DNA sequences interspersed between the nblA and cpeB genes. This chloroplast genome shows similar gene content and order to other Florideophycean taxa. Phylogenomic analyses based on the concatenated amino acid sequences of 146 protein-coding genes confirmed the monophyly of the classes Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae with full nodal support. Relationships within the subclass Rhodymeniophycidae in Florideophyceae received moderate to strong nodal support, and the monotypic family of Gracilariales were resolved with maximum support. Chloroplast genomes hold substantial information that can be tapped for resolving the phylogenetic relationships of difficult regions in the Rhodymeniophycidae, which are perceived to have experienced rapid radiation and thus received low nodal support, as exemplified in this study. The present study shows that chloroplast genome of G. firma could serve as a key link to the full resolution of

  20. COMMON PATTERNS IN THE EVOLUTION BETWEEN THE LUMINOUS NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SUBCLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridriksson, Joel K. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A., E-mail: J.K.Fridriksson@uva.nl [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    The X-ray transient XTE J1701–462 was the first source observed to evolve through all known subclasses of low-magnetic-field neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), as a result of large changes in its mass accretion rate. To investigate to what extent similar evolution is seen in other NS-LMXBs we have performed a detailed study of the color–color and hardness–intensity diagrams (CDs and HIDs) of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—three luminous X-ray binaries, containing weakly magnetized neutron stars, known to exhibit strong secular changes in their CD/HID tracks. Using the full set of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array data collected for the sources over the 16 year duration of the mission, we show that Cyg X-2 and Cir X-1 display CD/HID evolution with close similarities to XTE J1701–462. Although GX 13+1 shows behavior that is in some ways unique, it also exhibits similarities to XTE J1701–462, and we conclude that its overall CD/HID properties strongly indicate that it should be classified as a Z source, rather than as an atoll source. We conjecture that the secular evolution of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—illustrated by sequences of CD/HID tracks we construct—arises from changes in the mass accretion rate. Our results strengthen previous suggestions that within single sources Cyg-like Z source behavior takes place at higher luminosities and mass accretion rates than Sco-like Z behavior, and lend support to the notion that the mass accretion rate is the primary physical parameter distinguishing the various NS-LMXB subclasses.

  1. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  2. ABCD2 identifies a subclass of peroxisomes in mouse adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoxi, E-mail: xiaoxi.liu@uky.edu; Liu, Jingjing, E-mail: jingjing.liu0@gmail.com; Lester, Joshua D., E-mail: joshua.lester@uky.edu; Pijut, Sonja S., E-mail: srhee2@uky.edu; Graf, Gregory A., E-mail: Gregory.Graf@uky.edu

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examined the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing compartment in mouse adipose tissue. • We confirmed the presence of D2 on a subcellular compartment that has typical structure as a microperoxisome. • We demonstrated the scarcity of peroxisome markers on D2-containing compartment. • The D2-containing compartment may be a subpopulation of peroxisome in mouse adipose tissue. • Proteomic data suggests potential association between D2-containing compartment and mitochondria and ER. - Abstract: ATP-binding cassette transporter D2 (D2) is an ABC half transporter that is thought to promote the transport of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs into peroxisomes. Both D2 and peroxisomes increase during adipogenesis. Although peroxisomes are essential to both catabolic and anabolic lipid metabolism, their function, and that of D2, in adipose tissues remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing organelles, in adipose tissue. Centrifugation of mouse adipose homogenates generated a fraction enriched with D2, but deficient in peroxisome markers including catalase, PEX19, and ABCD3 (D3). Electron microscopic imaging of this fraction confirmed the presence of D2 protein on an organelle with a dense matrix and a diameter of ∼200 nm, the typical structure and size of a microperoxisome. D2 and PEX19 antibodies recognized distinct structures in mouse adipose. Immunoisolation of the D2-containing compartment confirmed the scarcity of PEX19 and proteomic profiling revealed the presence of proteins associated with peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria. D2 is localized to a distinct class of peroxisomes that lack many peroxisome proteins, and may associate physically with mitochondria and the ER.

  3. Comparison of a reduced carbohydrate and reduced fat diet for LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses during 9-months of weight maintenance subsequent to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Smith, Bryan K; Westman, Eric C; Vernon, Mary C; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2010-06-01

    This study compared LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses in overweight or obese adults consuming either a reduced carbohydrate (RC) or reduced fat (RF) weight maintenance diet for 9 months following significant weight loss. Thirty-five (21 RC; 14 RF) overweight or obese middle-aged adults completed a 1-year weight management clinic. Participants met weekly for the first six months and bi-weekly thereafter. Meetings included instruction for diet, physical activity, and behavior change related to weight management. Additionally, participants followed a liquid very low-energy diet of approximately 2092 kJ per day for the first three months of the study. Subsequently, participants followed a dietary plan for nine months that targeted a reduced percentage of carbohydrate (approximately 20%) or fat (approximately 30%) intake and an energy intake level calculated to maintain weight loss. Lipid subclasses using NMR spectroscopy were analyzed prior to weight loss and at multiple intervals during weight maintenance. Body weight change was not significantly different within or between groups during weight maintenance (p>0.05). The RC group showed significant increases in mean LDL size, large LDL, total HDL, large and small HDL, mean VLDL size, and large VLDL during weight maintenance while the RF group showed increases in total HDL, large and small HDL, total VLDL, and large, medium, and small VLDL (p0.05). Some individual lipid subclasses improved in both dietary groups. Large and medium VLDL subclasses increased to a greater extent across weight maintenance in the RF group.

  4. Analysis of gene expression data from non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines reveals distinct sub-classes from those identified at the phenotype level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dalby

    Full Text Available Microarray data from cell lines of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC can be used to look for differences in gene expression between the cell lines derived from different tumour samples, and to investigate if these differences can be used to cluster the cell lines into distinct groups. Dividing the cell lines into classes can help to improve diagnosis and the development of screens for new drug candidates. The micro-array data is first subjected to quality control analysis and then subsequently normalised using three alternate methods to reduce the chances of differences being artefacts resulting from the normalisation process. The final clustering into sub-classes was carried out in a conservative manner such that sub-classes were consistent across all three normalisation methods. If there is structure in the cell line population it was expected that this would agree with histological classifications, but this was not found to be the case. To check the biological consistency of the sub-classes the set of most strongly differentially expressed genes was be identified for each pair of clusters to check if the genes that most strongly define sub-classes have biological functions consistent with NSCLC.

  5. Induction of a Th-1-biased IgG subclass response against equine herpesvirus type 1 in horses previously infected with type 4 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Nemoto, Manabu; Yamanaka, Takashi; Sugiura, Takeo; Maeda, Ken; Matsumura, Tomio

    2011-04-01

    An immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass response against equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection was investigated in horses that were naïve to EHV-1/4 and those that had previously been exposed to EHV-4. The IgG subclass response was determined by an ELISA using EHV-1-specific recombinant gG protein as an antigen. In most horses naïve to EHV-1/4, IgGa, IgGb, and IgG(T) were induced after experimental infection with EHV-1. In contrast, a subclass response dominated by IgGa and IgGb, with no apparent increase in IgG(T), was observed after EHV-1 infection in horses previously infected with EHV-4. Horses naturally infected with EHV-1 in the field showed similar responses. These results indicated that pre-infection with EHV-4 induced a Th-1-biased IgG subclass response against subsequent EHV-1 infection.

  6. Common, low-frequency, and rare genetic variants associated with lipoprotein subclasses and triglyceride measures in Finnish men from the METSIM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Davis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and lipoprotein subclasses are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, yet the genetic contributions to variability in subclass traits are not fully understood. We conducted single-variant and gene-based association tests between 15.1M variants from genome-wide and exome array and imputed genotypes and 72 lipid and lipoprotein traits in 8,372 Finns. After accounting for 885 variants at 157 previously identified lipid loci, we identified five novel signals near established loci at HIF3A, ADAMTS3, PLTP, LCAT, and LIPG. Four of the signals were identified with a low-frequency (0.005subclass traits. 30 established lipid-associated loci had a stronger association for a subclass trait than any conventional trait. These novel association signals provide further insight into the molecular basis of dyslipidemia and the etiology of metabolic disorders.

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  8. Iodine deficiency disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1994-12-31

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.).

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  10. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of MD-2 pineapple and its comparative analysis among nine other plants from the subclass Commelinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, R M; Saidin, A; Kumar, S V

    2015-08-12

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus) is known as the king of fruits for its crown and is the third most important tropical fruit after banana and citrus. The plant, which is indigenous to South America, is the most important species in the Bromeliaceae family and is largely traded for fresh fruit consumption. Here, we report the complete chloroplast sequence of the MD-2 pineapple that was sequenced using the PacBio sequencing technology. In this study, the high error rate of PacBio long sequence reads of A. comosus's total genomic DNA were improved by leveraging on the high accuracy but short Illumina reads for error-correction via the latest error correction module from Novocraft. Error corrected long PacBio reads were assembled by using a single tool to produce a contig representing the pineapple chloroplast genome. The genome of 159,636 bp in length is featured with the conserved quadripartite structure of chloroplast containing a large single copy region (LSC) with a size of 87,482 bp, a small single copy region (SSC) with a size of 18,622 bp and two inverted repeat regions (IRA and IRB) each with the size of 26,766 bp. Overall, the genome contained 117 unique coding regions and 30 were repeated in the IR region with its genes contents, structure and arrangement similar to its sister taxon, Typha latifolia. A total of 35 repeats structure were detected in both the coding and non-coding regions with a majority being tandem repeats. In addition, 205 SSRs were detected in the genome with six protein-coding genes contained more than two SSRs. Comparative chloroplast genomes from the subclass Commelinidae revealed a conservative protein coding gene albeit located in a highly divergence region. Analysis of selection pressure on protein-coding genes using Ka/Ks ratio showed significant positive selection exerted on the rps7 gene of the pineapple chloroplast with P less than 0.05. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the recent taxonomical relation among the member of

  11. Macrophage cholesterol efflux correlates with lipoprotein subclass distribution and risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremer Werner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in patients with low HDL have suggested that impaired cellular cholesterol efflux is a heritable phenotype increasing atherosclerosis risk. Less is known about the association of macrophage cholesterol efflux with lipid profiles and CAD risk in normolipidemic subjects. We have therefore measured macrophage cholesterol efflux in142 normolipidemic subjects undergoing coronary angiography. Methods Monocytes isolated from blood samples of patients scheduled for cardiac catheterization were differentiated into macrophages over seven days. Isotopic cholesterol efflux to exogenously added apolipoprotein A-I and HDL2 was measured. Quantitative cholesterol efflux from macrophages was correlated with lipoprotein subclass distribution in plasma from the same individuals measured by NMR-spectroscopy of lipids and with the extent of coronary artery disease seen on coronary angiography. Results Macrophage cholesterol efflux was positively correlated with particle concentration of smaller HDL and LDL particles but not with total plasma concentrations of HDL or LDL-cholesterol. We observed an inverse relationship between macrophage cholesterol efflux and the concntration of larger and triglyceride rich particles (VLDL, chylomicrons. Subjects with significant stenosis on coronary angiography had lower cholesterol efflux from macrophages compared to individuals without significant stenosis (adjusted p = 0.02. Conclusion Macrophage cholesterol efflux is inversely correlated with lipoprotein particle size and risk of CAD.

  12. A livelock control policy for a flexible manufacturing system modeling with a subclass of generalized Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Hou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Livelocks, like deadlocks, can result in the serious problems in running process of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs as well. Current deadlock control policies based on the approaches of siphon detection and control, cannot cope with livelocks in a system of sequential systems with shared resources (S4R, a typical subclass of Petri nets that can model FMSs. On the basis of the mixed integer programming method, this study proposes a livelock control policy (LCP that can not only solve the new smart siphons (NSSs associated with livelocks or deadlocks in an S4R system directly, but also make the solved NSSs max′-controlled by adding the corresponding control places (CPs. As a result, an original S4R system with livelocks or deadlocks can be turned into the live controlled one in which no NSSs can be found. The related theoretical analysis and several examples are given to demonstrate the proposed LCP. Compared with the existing methods in the literature, the proposed one is more general and powerful.

  13. Impact of liver fat on the differential partitioning of hepatic triacylglycerol into VLDL subclasses on high and low sugar diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpleby, A Margot; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Fielding, Barbara; Li, Xuefei; Marino, Andrea; Alsini, Najlaa; Isherwood, Cheryl; Jackson, Nicola; Ahmad, Aryati; Stolinski, Michael; Lovegrove, Julie A; Johnsen, Sigurd; Jeewaka R Mendis, A S; Wright, John; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Hovorka, Roman; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Frost, Gary S; Griffin, Bruce A

    2017-11-01

    Dietary sugars are linked to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidaemia, but it is unknown if NAFLD itself influences the effects of sugars on plasma lipoproteins. To study this further, men with NAFLD ( n = 11) and low liver fat 'controls' ( n = 14) were fed two iso-energetic diets, high or low in sugars (26% or 6% total energy) for 12 weeks, in a randomised, cross-over design. Fasting plasma lipid and lipoprotein kinetics were measured after each diet by stable isotope trace-labelling.There were significant differences in the production and catabolic rates of VLDL subclasses between men with NAFLD and controls, in response to the high and low sugar diets. Men with NAFLD had higher plasma concentrations of VLDL 1 -triacylglycerol (TAG) after the high ( P sugar ( P diets, a lower VLDL 1 -TAG fractional catabolic rate after the high sugar diet ( P sugar diet ( P sugar diet, was to channel hepatic TAG into a higher production of VLDL 1 -TAG ( P sugars. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  15. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... loss and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. Common causes of blood loss that lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular use of medicines such as aspirin ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research that ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  1. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not ... iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain treatment-related complications ...

  8. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia. Return to Signs, Symptoms, and Complications to review signs and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency ... NIH]) Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and ... Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  10. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or upset stomach. ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  13. Isotypic analysis of antibodies against activated Factor VII in patients with Factor VII deficiency using the x-MAP technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Caroline; Mathieu-Dupas, Eve; Logghe, Pauline; Lissalde-Lavigne, Géraldine; Balicchi, Julien; Caliskan, Umran; Valentin, Thomas; Laune, Daniel; Molina, Franck; Schved, Jean François; Giansily-Blaizot, Muriel

    2016-05-01

    While the immune response to hemophilic factors in hemophilia has been widely studied, little is known about the development of anti-Factor VII (FVII) antibodies in FVII deficiency. We developed a robust technique based on the x-MAP technology to detect the presence of antibodies against FVII and characterize their isotype and validated this method using blood samples from 100 patients with FVII deficiency (median FVII clotting activity [FVII:C]: 6%) and 95 healthy controls. Anti-FVII antibodies were detected in patients but also in some controls, although the concentration of total immunoglobulin G (IgGt) and IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses was significantly different between groups. The IgG1 subclass concentrations remained significantly different also when only untreated patients were compared with controls. This difference could partially be related to the F7 genotype, particularly in patients harboring the p.Arg139Gln mutation. This x-MAP-based method might be useful for assessing the immunogenicity of novel FVII compounds and of activated FVII (FVIIa) concentrates. Further prospective studies are needed to better understand the clinical relevance of these antibodies in the management of patients with FVII deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pattern of pre-existing IgG subclass responses to a panel of asexual stage malaria antigens reported during the lengthy dry season in Daraweesh, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasr, A; Iriemenam, N C; Troye-Blomberg, M

    2011-01-01

    The anti-malarial IgG immune response during the lengthy and dry season in areas of low malaria transmission as in Eastern Sudan is largely unknown. In this study, ELISA was used for the measurement of pre-existing total IgG and IgG subclasses to a panel of malaria antigens, MSP2-3D7, MSP2-FC27, ...

  15. Sudan ebolavirus long recovered survivors produce GP-specific Abs that are of the IgG1 subclass and preferentially bind FcγRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radinsky, Olga; Edri, Avishay; Brusilovsky, Michael; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Sobarzo, Ariel; Gershoni-Yahalom, Orly; Lutwama, Julius; Dye, John; Lobel, Leslie; Porgador, Angel

    2017-07-20

    Ebolavirus is a highly lethal pathogen, causing a severe hemorrhagic disease with a high fatality rate. To better understand immune correlates of protection by virus specific IgG, we investigated the evolution of the Fcγ receptors (FcγRs)-activating capabilities of antiviral IgG in serum samples of long recovered survivors. To this end, longitudinal serum samples from survivors of Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) infection, studied over years, were examined for the presence of Ebola-GP specific IgG subclasses, and for their binding to FcγRs. We developed a cell-based reporter system to quantitate pathogen-specific antibody binding to FcγRIIIA, FcγRIIA, FcγRIIB and FcγRI. With this system, we demonstrate that anti-GP-specific stimulation of the FcγRI reporter by survivors' sera was substantially high one year after acute infection, with a slight reduction in activity over a decade post infection. We further demonstrate that GP-specific IgG1 is by far the seroprevalent subclass that retained and even enhanced its presence in the sera, over ten years post infection; the prevalence of other GP-specific IgG subclasses was considerably reduced over time. In accordance, GP-specific FcγRI reporter response and GP-specific total IgG1 subclass correlated in the studied group of Ebola survivors. These observations are important for further informing Ebola vaccine and therapeutic development.

  16. Small high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses are increased with decreased activity of HDL-associated phospholipase A₂ in subjects with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippatos, Theodosios D; Rizos, Evangelos C; Tsimihodimos, Vasilios; Gazi, Irene F; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2013-06-01

    Alterations in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass distribution, as well as in the activities of HDL-associated enzymes, have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. HDL subclass distribution and the activities of HDL-associated enzymes remain unknown in prediabetic patients, a condition also associated with increased CVD risk. The aim of the present study was to assess any differences in HDL subclass distribution (using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and in activities of HDL-associated enzymes between prediabetic (impaired fasting glucose, IFG, n = 80) and non-prediabetic subjects (n = 105). Subjects with prediabetes had significantly increased waist circumference, blood pressure and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels compared with subjects with fasting glucose levels prediabetic subjects compared with their controls (p prediabetes (p prediabetes. In a stepwise linear regression analysis, the proportion of small HDL3 over HDL-C concentration was independently associated with the presence of prediabetes and with total cholesterol and TAG concentration (positively), as well as with HDL-C levels (negatively). We also observed a trend of increased small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in prediabetic subjects compared with their controls. Subjects with IFG exhibit increased proportion of small HDL3 particles combined with decreased activity of the anti-atherogenic HDL-LpPLA₂.

  17. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    , subclinical deficiency affects between 2.5% and 26% of the general population depending on the definition used, although the clinical relevance is unclear. B12 deficiency can affect individuals at all ages, but most particularly elderly individuals. Infants, children, adolescents and women of reproductive age...... remain debated. Management depends on B12 supplementation, either via high-dose oral routes or via parenteral administration. This Primer describes the current knowledge surrounding B12 deficiency, and highlights improvements in diagnostic methods as well as shifting concepts about the prevalence, causes...

  18. Subgroup-Elimination Transcriptomics Identifies Signaling Proteins that Define Subclasses of TRPV1-Positive Neurons and a Novel Paracrine Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isensee, Jörg; Wenzel, Carsten; Buschow, Rene; Weissmann, Robert; Kuss, Andreas W.; Hucho, Tim

    2014-01-01

    rather than enrichment of the subgroup of interest revealed proteins that define subclasses of TRPV1-positive neurons and suggests a novel paracrine circuit. PMID:25551770

  19. Lipoprotein subclass patterns in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with equally insulin-resistant women without PCOS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, N

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are more insulin resistant and display an atherogenic lipid profile compared with normal women of similar body mass index (BMI). Insulin resistance (IR) at least partially underlies the dyslipidemia of PCOS, but it is unclear whether PCOS status per se confers additional risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a case-control design, we compared plasma lipids and lipoprotein subclasses (using polyacrylamide gel tube electrophoresis) in 70 women with PCOS (National Institutes of Health criteria) and 70 normal women pair matched for age, BMI, and IR (homeostasis model assessment-IR, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, and the Avignon Index). Subjects were identified as having a (less atherogenic) type A pattern consisting predominantly of large low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions or a (more atherogenic) non-A pattern consisting predominantly of small-dense LDL subfractions. RESULTS: Total, high-density lipoprotein, or LDL cholesterol, or triacylglycerol did not differ between the groups, but very low-density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05) were greater in women with PCOS, whereas a non-A LDL profile was seen in 12.9% compared with 2.9% of controls (P<0.05, chi2). Multiple regression analysis revealed homeostasis model assessment-IR and waist circumference to be independent predictors of very low-density lipoprotein together explaining 40.2% of the overall variance. Logistic regression revealed PCOS status to be the only independent determinant of a non-A LDL pattern (odds ratio 5.48 (95% confidence interval 1.082-27.77; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with women matched for BMI and IR, women with PCOS have potentially important differences in lipid profile with greater very low-density lipoprotein levels and increased rates of a more atherogenic non-A LDL pattern.

  20. Isolation and growth characteristics of an EDTA-degrading member of the alpha-subclass of Proteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Hans-Ueli; Engeli, Barbara; Bucheli-Witschel, Margarete; Egli, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    A Gram-negative, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-degrading bacterium (deposited at the German Culture Collection as strain DSM 9103) utilising EDTA as the only source of carbon, energy and nitrogen was isolated from a mixed EDTA-degrading population that was originally enriched in a column system from a mixture of activated sludge and soil. Chemotaxonomic analysis of quinones, polar lipids and fatty acids allowed allocation of the isolate to the alpha-subclass of Proteobacteria. 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed highest similarity to the Mesorhizobium genus followed by the Aminobacter genus. However, the EDTA-degrading strain apparently forms a new branch within the Phyllobacteriaceae/Mesorhizobia family. Growth of the strain was rather slow not only on EDTA (micro(max) = 0.05 h(-1)) but also on other substrates. Classical substrate utilisation testing in batch culture suggested a quite restricted carbon source spectrum with only lactate, glutamate, and complexing agents chemically related to EDTA (nitrilotriacetate, iminodiacetate and ethylenediaminedisuccinate) supporting growth. However, when EDTA-limited continuous cultures of strain DSM 9103 were pulsed with fumarate, succinate, glucose or acetate, these substrates were assimilated immediately. Apparently, the strain can use a broader spectrum than indicated by traditional substrate testing techniques. The EDTA species CaEDTA and MgEDTA served as growth substrates of the strain because in the mineral medium employed EDTA was predicted to be mainly present in the form of these two complexes. The bacterium was not able to degrade Fe3+-complexed EDTA.

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for gastrointestinal bleeding To see if gastrointestinal bleeding is causing your iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order the following procedures to guide treatment . Fecal ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) ... Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility Copyright and Usage No FEAR ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... our clinical trials . Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, ...

  6. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to other diseases. In children, it can cause rickets. Rickets is a rare disease that causes the bones ... and children are at higher risk of getting rickets. In adults, severe vitamin D deficiency leads to ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. ... are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... these usually go away within a day or two. Red blood cell transfusions. These may be used ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more. Read less Reminders Return to Causes to review how blood loss, not consuming the recommended amount ... iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. ... for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between 6 and 12 months, especially if they are fed ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... detect signs of iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain ... your blood. More testing may be needed to rule out other types of anemia. Tests for gastrointestinal ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... red blood cells, called hemolysis . Hemolysis, in this case, is caused by strong muscle contractions and the ... to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ... deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness ... If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the condition. Your ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your blood may be normal even if the total amount of iron in your body is low. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von Willebrand disease is an ... deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors that ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... diagnoses you with iron-deficiency anemia, your treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... of iron. The recommended daily amounts of iron will depend on your age, sex, and whether you ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... absorb iron and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as ... tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to inflammation that may ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ... Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ...

  5. Factor V deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000550.htm Factor V deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  6. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000549.htm Factor II deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  7. Factor X deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000553.htm Factor X deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia if you have low iron or ferritin levels in your blood. More testing may be needed to rule out other types of anemia. Tests for gastrointestinal ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption ... deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend erythropoiesis stimulating agents (esa) . These medicines stimulate the bone marrow to ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores ... men of the same age. Women are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia under some circumstances, ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn ... and Usage No FEAR Act Grants and Funding Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may recommend erythropoiesis stimulating agents (esa) . These medicines stimulate the bone marrow to make more red blood ... NHLBI is funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming ... iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and naproxen Certain rare genetic conditions such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, which causes bleeding in the bowels ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . View all trials from ClinicalTrials.gov . Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if you ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ... screen blood donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... striking the ground, such as with marathon runners. Sex Girls and women between the ages of 14 ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron- ... factors , such as if you are following a vegetarian eating pattern, your doctor may recommend changes to ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding ... oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption of iron. If you are pregnant, talk to ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order a blood test called a complete blood count ( ... your risk factors , do a physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... duodenum, the first part of the small intestine just beyond the stomach. Even if you have enough ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, red blood ... both full-term and preterm infants. Look for Diagnosis will explain tests and procedures that your doctor ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, red blood ... physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam Your doctor may ask about ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development ... iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood loss, consuming less than ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... improved health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood donors . NHLBI’s Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS) program , which began in ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... frequently. This study is located in New York City, and is recruiting by invitation only. View more ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 mg for children ... deficiency at certain ages: Infants between 6 and 12 months, especially if they are fed only breast ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in our clinical trials . Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for ... Surgery, upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ... and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through research and ... blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors of future health problems in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ... This makes it harder to stop bleeding and can increase the risk of iron-deficiency anemia from ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... symptoms. More severe iron-deficiency anemia may cause fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. ... in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common symptom. ...

  6. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to learn more about iron-deficiency anemia, our role in research and clinical trials to improve health, ... of Blood Diseases and Resources (DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ... to your doctor if you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, unhealthy environments, family ... 12 months, especially if they are fed only breast milk or are fed formula that is not fortified ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blood tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding ... of iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including symptomatic female carriers who have heavy menstrual periods, may be ... anemia. Endurance activities and athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance athletes ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ... heavy menstrual bleeding, your doctor will want to control these other conditions to prevent you from developing ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk ... upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the ... Our support of SBIR/STTR programs is helping advance research in iron-deficiency anemia, in part by ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ... Customer Service/Center for Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... family history and genetics , lifestyle habits, or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron ... Signs, Symptoms, and Complications Iron-deficiency anemia can range from mild to severe. People with mild or ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you for ... and symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for ...

  3. Co-suppression of synthesis of major x-kafirin sub-class together with y-kafirin-1 and y-kafirin-2 required for substantially improved protein digestibility in transgenic sorghum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grootboom, AW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-suppressing major kafirin sub-classes is fundamental to improved protein digestibility and nutritional value of sorghum. The improvement is linked to an irregularly invaginated phenotype of protein bodies....

  4. [Iron deficiency and pica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J A; Marcos, J; Risueño, C E; de Cos, C; López, R; Capote, F J; Martín, M V; Gil, J L

    1998-02-01

    To study the relationship between pica and iron-lack anaemia in a series of iron-deficiency patients in order to establish the pathogenesis of such relationship. Four-hundred and thirty-three patients were analysed. Pica was studied by introducing certain diet queries into the clinical history. All patients received oral iron and were periodically controlled with the usual clinico-haematological procedures. Pica was present in 23 patients (5.3%). Eight nourishing (namely, coffee grains, almonds, chocolate, ice, lettuce, carrots, sunflower seeds and bread) and 2 non-nourishing (clay and paper) substances were involved. A second episode of pica appeared in 9 cases upon relapsing of iron deficiency. Both anaemia and pica were cured by etiologic and substitutive therapy in all instances. No clear correlation was found with either socio-economic status or pathogenetic causes of iron deficiency and pica, and no haematological differences were seen between patients with pica and those without this alteration. (1) The pathogenesis of pica is unclear, although it appears unrelated to the degree of iron deficiency. (2) According to the findings in this series, pica seems a consequence of iron deficiency rather than its cause. (3) Adequate therapy can cure both conditions, although pica may reappear upon relapse of iron deficiency.

  5. The use of kDNA minicircle subclass relative abundance to differentiate between Leishmania (L.) infantum and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Marcello; Galluzzi, Luca; Diotallevi, Aurora; Andreoni, Francesca; Fowler, Hailie; Petersen, Christine; Vitale, Fabrizio; Magnani, Mauro

    2017-05-16

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by many Leishmania species, belonging to subgenera Leishmania (Leishmania) and Leishmania (Viannia). Several qPCR-based molecular diagnostic approaches have been reported for detection and quantification of Leishmania species. Many of these approaches use the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles as the target sequence. These assays had potential cross-species amplification, due to sequence similarity between Leishmania species. Previous works demonstrated discrimination between L. (Leishmania) and L. (Viannia) by SYBR green-based qPCR assays designed on kDNA, followed by melting or high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis. Importantly, these approaches cannot fully distinguish L. (L.) infantum from L. (L.) amazonensis, which can coexist in the same geographical area. DNA from 18 strains/isolates of L. (L.) infantum, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, and 62 clinical samples from L. (L.) infantum-infected dogs were amplified by a previously developed qPCR (qPCR-ML) and subjected to HRM analysis; selected PCR products were sequenced using an ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer. Based on the obtained sequences, a new SYBR-green qPCR assay (qPCR-ama) intended to amplify a minicircle subclass more abundant in L. (L.) amazonensis was designed. The qPCR-ML followed by HRM analysis did not allow discrimination between L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (L.) infantum in 53.4% of cases. Hence, the novel SYBR green-based qPCR (qPCR-ama) has been tested. This assay achieved a detection limit of 0.1 pg of parasite DNA in samples spiked with host DNA and did not show cross amplification with Trypanosoma cruzi or host DNA. Although the qPCR-ama also amplified L. (L.) infantum strains, the C q values were dramatically increased compared to qPCR-ML. Therefore, the combined analysis of C q values from qPCR-ML and qPCR-ama allowed to distinguish L. (L.) infantum and L. (L.) amazonensis in 100% of tested samples

  6. Antepartum Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Nakajima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD is the most common type urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. This syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrullin. Our case was a 28-year-old female diagnosed with OTCD following neurocognitive deficit during her first pregnancy. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTCD. After combined modality treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's plasma ammonia level stabilized and her mental status returned to normal. At last she recovered without any damage left.

  7. Vitamin Excess and Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Liliane; Krebs, Nancy F

    2018-04-01

    The published literature supports the high prevalence of supplement use in children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatricians today are faced with questions from parents and patients about the benefits, safety, efficacy, and correct dose of vitamins and minerals. In this article, we review 7 vitamins with the most clinical relevance as judged by abundance in food, risks and symptoms of deficiency, and potential for toxicity. Specifically, we focus on possible clinical scenarios that can be indicative of nutritional deficiency. We synthesize and summarize guidelines from nutrition experts, various medical societies, the World Health Organization, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2018. All rights reserved.

  8. XTE J1701-462 AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NATURE OF SUBCLASSES IN LOW-MAGNETIC-FIELD NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, Jeroen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Van der Klis, Michiel; Wijnands, Rudy; Altamirano, Diego; Mendez, Mariano; Lin Dacheng; Casella, Piergiorgio; Belloni, Tomaso M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on an analysis of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data of the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (NS-LMXB) XTE J1701-462, obtained during its 2006-2007 outburst. The X-ray properties of the source changed between those of various types of NS-LMXB subclasses. At high luminosities, the source switched between two types of Z source behavior and at low luminosities we observed a transition from Z source to atoll source behavior. These transitions between subclasses primarily manifest themselves as changes in the shapes of the tracks in X-ray color-color (CD) and hardness-intensity diagrams (HID), but they are accompanied by changes in the kHz quasi-periodic oscillations, broadband variability, burst behavior, and/or X-ray spectra. We find that for most of the outburst the low-energy X-ray flux is a good parameter to track the gradual evolution of the tracks in CD and HID, allowing us to resolve the evolution of the source in greater detail than before and relate the observed properties to other NS-LMXBs. We further find that during the transition from Z to atoll, characteristic behavior known as the atoll upper banana can equivalently be described as the final stage of a weakening Z source flaring branch, thereby blurring the line between the two subclasses. Our findings strongly suggest that the wide variety in behavior observed in NS-LXMBs with different luminosities can be linked through changes in a single variable parameter, namely the mass accretion rate, without the need for additional differences in the neutron star parameters or viewing angle. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings for the spectral changes observed in NS-LMXBs and suggest that, contrary to what is often assumed, the position along the color-color tracks of Z sources is not determined by the instantaneous mass accretion rate.

  9. Nuclear Function of Subclass I Actin-Depolymerizing Factor Contributes to Susceptibility in Arabidopsis to an Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungus1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Noriko; Higaki, Takumi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are conserved proteins that function in regulating the structure and dynamics of actin microfilaments in eukaryotes. In this study, we present evidence that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) subclass I ADFs, particularly ADF4, functions as a susceptibility factor for an adapted powdery mildew fungus. The null mutant of ADF4 significantly increased resistance against the adapted powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces orontii. The degree of resistance was further enhanced in transgenic plants in which the expression of all subclass I ADFs (i.e. ADF1–ADF4) was suppressed. Microscopic observations revealed that the enhanced resistance of adf4 and ADF1-4 knockdown plants (ADF1-4Ri) was associated with the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and cell death specific to G. orontii-infected cells. The increased resistance and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in ADF1-4Ri were suppressed by the introduction of mutations in the salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-signaling pathways but not by a mutation in the ethylene-signaling pathway. Quantification by microscopic images detected an increase in the level of actin microfilament bundling in ADF1-4Ri but not in adf4 at early G. orontii infection time points. Interestingly, complementation analysis revealed that nuclear localization of ADF4 was crucial for susceptibility to G. orontii. Based on its G. orontii-infected-cell-specific phenotype, we suggest that subclass I ADFs are susceptibility factors that function in a direct interaction between the host plant and the powdery mildew fungus. PMID:26747284

  10. What Is Combined Deficiency of Vitamin K-Dependent Clotting Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... grams per deciliter (g/dl) for men and less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, ... blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 mmol/L. ...

  12. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) ... We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

  15. Arginase-1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Yuan Yan; Baron, Garrett; Schulze, Andreas; Funk, Colin D

    2015-12-01

    Arginase-1 (ARG1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the liver-based urea cycle, leading to impaired ureagenesis. This genetic disorder is caused by 40+ mutations found fairly uniformly spread throughout the ARG1 gene, resulting in partial or complete loss of enzyme function, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. ARG1-deficient patients exhibit hyperargininemia with spastic paraparesis, progressive neurological and intellectual impairment, persistent growth retardation, and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia, a clinical pattern that differs strikingly from other urea cycle disorders. This review briefly highlights the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of ARG1 deficiency derived from clinical case reports and therapeutic strategies stretching over several decades and reports on several exciting new developments regarding the pathophysiology of the disorder using ARG1 global and inducible knockout mouse models. Gene transfer studies in these mice are revealing potential therapeutic options that can be exploited in the future. However, caution is advised in extrapolating results since the lethal disease phenotype in mice is much more severe than in humans indicating that the mouse models may not precisely recapitulate human disease etiology. Finally, some of the functions and implications of ARG1 in non-urea cycle activities are considered. Lingering questions and future areas to be addressed relating to the clinical manifestations of ARG1 deficiency in liver and brain are also presented. Hopefully, this review will spark invigorated research efforts that lead to treatments with better clinical outcomes.

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection. A history of gastrointestinal surgery, such as weight-loss surgery—especially gastric bypass—or gastrectomy. Certain rare ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  19. Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, Edith; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2013-01-01

    During inflammation, leukocytes play a key role in maintaining tissue homeostasis through elimination of pathogens and removal of damaged tissue. Leukocytes migrate to the site of inflammation by crawling over and through the blood vessel wall, into the tissue. Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies (ie,

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount ... and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ... Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Working at the NHLBI Contact and FAQs Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to ... treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or even heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, ... Upper endoscopy to look for bleeding in the esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the ... blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how ...

  4. Iron deficiency in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cell and excess iron is stored as ferritin to protect the cell from oxidative ... iron deficiency has negative effects during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, which affects maternal health ... use of undiluted cow's milk and a predominant cow's milk intake in .... on bone marrow smear or biopsy for the definitive diagnosis of.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Certain conditions or medicines can decrease your body’s ability to absorb iron and lead to iron-deficiency ... environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... supplements. Iron supplements can change how certain medicines work. Your doctor may suggest check-ups to make sure your ... To prevent complications from iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may ... during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as if you are following a ... unhealthy environments, or other factors that increase your risk of developing iron-deficiency ... to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for and strategies ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH)—the Nation’s biomedical research agency that makes important scientific discoveries to improve ... efforts for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that ... This could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough hemoglobin-carrying red blood cells, your heart has to work harder to move oxygen-rich blood through your ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  11. MCAD deficiency in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Brage Storstein; Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Hougaard, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most common defect of fatty acid oxidation. Many countries have introduced newborn screening for MCADD, because characteristic acylcarnitines can easily be identified in filter paper blood spot samples by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/M...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NHLBI News NHLBI in the Press Research Features All Events Past Events Upcoming Events About NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision ... deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about ... trial . View all trials from ClinicalTrials.gov . Visit Children and Clinical ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  14. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupar, C A; Gillett, J; Gordon, B A; Ramsay, D A; Johnson, J L; Garrett, R M; Rajagopalan, K V; Jung, J H; Bacheyie, G S; Sellers, A R

    1996-12-01

    Isolated sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of sulfur metabolism. In this report of a ninth patient the clinical history, laboratory results, neuropathological findings and a mutation in the sulfite oxidase gene are described. The data from this patient and previously published patients with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency are summarized to characterize this rare disorder. The patient presented neonatally with intractable seizures and did not progress developmentally beyond the neonatal stage. Dislocated lenses were apparent at 2 months. There was increased urine excretion of sulfite and S-sulfocysteine and a decreased concentration of plasma cystine. A lactic acidemia was present for 6 months. Liver sulfite oxidase activity was not detectable but xanthine dehydrogenase activity was normal. The boy died of respiratory failure at 32 months. Neuropathological findings of cortical necrosis and extensive cavitating leukoencephalopathy were reminiscent of those seen in severe perinatal asphyxia suggesting an etiology of energy deficiency. A point mutation that resulted in a truncated protein missing the molybdenum-binding site has been identified.

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia may ... as a TMRPSS6 gene mutation that causes a person’s body to make too much of a hormone ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend heart-healthy eating and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  19. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lack an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase. Without this enzyme, the body cannot break down fat from digested food. Fat particles called chylomicrons build up in the blood. Risk factors include a family history of lipoprotein lipase deficiency. The condition is usually ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants ... health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and save lives. We are committed to advancing science and translating discoveries into clinical practice to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the body. When your heart has to work harder, this can lead to several conditions: irregular heartbeats called arrhythmias , a heart murmur , an ... chronic conditions, iron-deficiency anemia can make their condition worse or result in treatments not working as well. Look for Diagnosis will discuss any ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program now includes ... Studies (REDS) program Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program Non-NHLBI ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine (TOPMed) Program Non-NHLBI resources Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease ( ... Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Building 31 31 Center Drive ...

  8. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  9. Skin-transmitted pathogens and the heebie jeebies: evidence for a subclass of disgust stimuli that evoke a qualitatively unique emotional response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Khandis R; Yih, Jennifer; Zhao, Kun; Sung, Billy; Harmon-Jones, Cindy

    2017-09-01

    Skin-transmitted pathogens have threatened humans since ancient times. We investigated whether skin-transmitted pathogens were a subclass of disgust stimuli that evoked an emotional response that was related to, but distinct from, disgust and fear. We labelled this response "the heebie jeebies". In Study 1, coding of 76 participants' experiences of disgust, fear, and the heebie jeebies showed that the heebie jeebies was elicited by unique stimuli which produced skin-crawling sensations and an urge to protect the skin. In Experiment 2,350 participants' responses to skin-transmitted pathogen, fear-inducing, and disgust-inducing vignettes showed that the vignettes elicited sensations and urges which loaded onto heebie jeebies, fear, and disgust factors, respectively. Experiment 3 largely replicated findings from Experiment 2 using video stimuli (178 participants). Results are consistent with the notion that skin-transmitted pathogens are a subclass of disgust stimuli which motivate behaviours that are functionally consistent with disgust yet qualitatively distinct.

  10. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation

  11. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  12. Epidemiology of SHOX deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, A; Caruso-Nicoletti, M

    2010-06-01

    Deletion of short stature homeobox-containing (SHOX) gene, in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR1) of X and Y chromosomes, is an important cause of short stature. Homozygous loss of SHOX results in the more severe Langer mesomelic dysplasia, while SHOX haploinsufficiency cause a wide spectrum of short stature phenotypes, including patients with Turner syndrome, Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and idiopathic short stature (ISS). In Turner syndrome, haploinsufficiency of SHOX gene, as well as short stature, are present in 100%; nevertheless, SHOX deficiency accounts for only two-thirds of Turner patients' short stature. In LWD the prevalence of SHOX gene anomalies varies from 56% to 100%. This wide range might be due to different factors such as selection criteria of patients, sample size, and method used for screening SHOX mutations. The real challenge is to establish the prevalence of SHOX deficiency in ISS children given that published studies have reported this association with a very broad frequency range varying from 1.5% to 15%. An important variable in these studies is represented by the method used for screening SHOX mutations and sometimes by differences in patient selection. Short stature is present by definition in 3 out of 100 subjects; if we consider a frequency of SHOX defects of 3% among ISS, we should expect a population prevalence of 1 in 1000. This prevalence would be higher than that of GH deficiency (1:3,500) and of Turner syndrome (1:2,500 females), suggesting that SHOX deficiency could be one of the most frequent monogenetic causes of short stature.

  13. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Zempleni, Janos; Hassan, Yousef I; Wijeratne, Subhashinee SK

    2008-01-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases in mammals. Biotin-dependent carboxylases catalyze the fixation of bicarbonate in organic acids and play crucial roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Carboxylase activities decrease substantially in response to biotin deficiency. Biotin is also covalently attached to histones; biotinylated histones are enriched in repeat regions in the human genome and appear to play a role...

  14. Pseudoachondroplasia with immune deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultursay, N.; Taneli, B.; Cavusoglu, A.

    1988-01-01

    A 5-year old boy was admitted to the hospital with failure to thrive since he was 2 years old, with weakness in his legs and a waddling gait. He has normal mental development. His parents are normal phenotypically and are unrelated. In analysing his pedigree only a grandfather is described to have waddling gait. He has a normal craniofacial appearance but a disproportionate body with normal trunk and short extremities with height below the 3rd percentile. The diagnosis of pseudoachondroplasia was made on clinical, radiological and laboratory findings. He also had immune deficiency characterised by low T-lymphocyte populations and a low level of serum immunoglobulin A. (orig.)

  15. Primary Carnitine Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jan; Hougaard, David M; Sandhu, Noreen

    2017-01-01

    Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) causes low levels of carnitine in patients potentially leading to metabolic and cardiac symptoms. Newborn screening for PCD is now routine in many countries by measuring carnitine levels in infants. In this study we report Apgar scores, length and weight...... scores, length and weight compared to controls. Newborns with PCD and newborns born to mothers with PCD had significantly lower levels of free carnitine (fC0) than controls. Screening algorithms focusing only on fC0 had a high rate of detection of newborns with PCD. Sample collection 4-9 days after birth...

  16. Primary antibody deficiencies at Queen Rania Children Hospital in Jordan: single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habahbeh, Zeyad M; Abu-Shukair, Mohammad E; Almutereen, Mohammad A; Alzyoud, Raed M; Wahadneh, Adel M

    2014-03-01

    Primary antibody deficiency, the most common primary immunodeficiency disorder, represents a heterogeneous spectrum of conditions caused by a defect in any critical stage of B cell development and is characterized by impaired production of normal amounts of antigen-specific antibodies. This retrospective study aimed at description and analysis of demographic, clinical, immunological features and complications of subjects diagnosed with primary antibody deficiency at a referral center in Jordan. The medical records of pediatric patients who were diagnosed as primary antibody deficiency (PAD) during the period from January 2006 to June 2013 were reviewed. Patients were diagnosed as PADs based on the Pan-American Group for Immunodeficiency (PAGID) and the European Society for Immunodeficiency (ESID) diagnostic criteria. A total number of 53 patients with PAD were identified; 37(70%) males and 16(30%) females, 16(30%) patients with congenital agammaglobulinemia, 16(30%) patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 4(7.5%) patients with IgG subclass deficiency, 10(19%) cases with transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy and 7(13.5%) patients as undefined PAD. The most common infection among patients was pneumonia (62%); followed by suppurative otitis media in 49% of patients. Cytopenia was the most noted autoimmune association and was found at prevalence of 22 %, other autoimmune associations (17%) including inflammatory arthritis, discoid lupus, inflammatory bowel disease, vasculitis and celiac disease. The prevalence of long-term complications was 58%, the most frequent ones were; stunted growth in 13%, bronchiectasis and lymphoproliferation in 11% for each. Our results indicated that congenital agammaglobulinemia and common variable immunodeficiency are the most frequent primary antibody deficiency in our patients. The awareness of families, general population as well as primary health physicians is crucial in the establishment of early diagnosis and prompt

  17. Affinity composite cryogel discs functionalized with Reactive Red 120 and Green HE 4BD dye ligands: Application on the separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Elkak, Assem [Laboraory of “Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Produits de Santé (VRNPS)”, Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Rafic Hariri University Campus, Hadath (Lebanon); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m{sup 2}/g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma.

  18. Neisseria meningitidis Group A IgG1 and IgG2 Subclass Immune Response in African Children Aged 12–23 Months Following Meningococcal Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Daniel; Findlow, Helen; Sow, Samba O.; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Carlone, George; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT, was licensed in 2010 and was previously studied in a phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate its safety and immunogenicity in African children 12–23 months of age. Methods. Subjects received either PsA-TT; meningococcal group A, C, W, Y polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY); or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib-TT). Forty weeks following primary vaccination, the 3 groups were further randomized to receive either PsA-TT, one-fifth dose of PsACWY, or Hib-TT. Group A–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass response was characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The predominant IgG subclass response, regardless of vaccine, was IgG1. One month following primary vaccination, the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of IgG1 and IgG2 in the PsA-TT group were 21.73 µg/mL and 6.27 µg/mL, whereas in the PsACWY group the mean GMCs were 2.01 µg/mL and 0.97 µg/mL, respectively (P Group A–specific IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs remained greater in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group 40 weeks following primary vaccination (P vaccines. Conclusions. Vaccination of African children aged 12–24 months with either PsA-TT or PsACWY elicited a predominantly IgG1 response. The IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio decreased following successive vaccination with PsACWY, indicating a shift toward IgG2, suggestive of the T-cell–independent immune response commonly associated with polysaccharide antigens. Clinical Trials Registration. SRCTN78147026. PMID:26553689

  19. GEOTECNOLOGIA APLICADA NA OBTENÇÃO DAS SUBCLASSES DE CAPACIDADE DE USO DAS TERRAS DE UMA MICROBACIA, VISANDO A CONSERVAÇÃO DOS RECURSOS NATURAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Campos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A exploração da terra para produzir alimentos para o sustento do homem quase sempre foi de forma desordenada e sem planejamento.  A consequência dessa exploração predatória foi o empobrecimento do solo por erosão intensa, assoreamento de cursos d’água, desertificação, entre outros. O trabalho objetivou a utilização de geotecnologias na elaboração dos mapas de classes de declive, de solos e da capacidade de uso do solo numa microbacia, de forma a contribuir no processo de gestão ambiental e na tomada de decisões por parte dos Administradores Públicos.  A microbacia do Ribeirão das Agulhas, Botucatu (SP apresenta uma área de 1.429,28ha e está localizada entre os paralelos 22o 47' 05" a 22o 05' 55" de latitude S e 48o 28' 10” a 48o 30' 04" de longitude W Gr. Os resultados permitiram inferir que a subclasse mais significativa foi a IIIs,e (44,50% e o relevo ondulado (57,59%. As subclasses de capacidade de uso IIIs, IIIs,e, IVs, IVs,e e IVe ocuparam 89,36% da área, mostrando o grande potencial de uso para culturas anuais, perenes, pastagens e reflorestamentos. O Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG mostrou-se uma excelente ferramenta para determinação da capacidade de uso da terra, demonstrando que a utilização do geoprocessamento facilita e dá maior rapidez no cruzamento dos dados digitais, permitindo seu armazenamento, que poderão ser utilizados para outras análises em futuros planejamentos geoambientais. 

  20. Affinity composite cryogel discs functionalized with Reactive Red 120 and Green HE 4BD dye ligands: Application on the separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma; Elkak, Assem; Denizli, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m 2 /g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma

  1. Genetic and biochemical characterization of HMB-1, a novel subclass B1 metallo-β-lactamase found in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennigwerth, Niels; Lange, Felix; Belmar Campos, Cristina; Hentschke, Moritz; Gatermann, Sören G; Kaase, Martin

    2017-04-01

    To characterize a novel subclass B1 metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) found in an MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The isolate P. aeruginosa NRZ-03096 was recovered in 2012 from an anal swab from a patient hospitalized in Northern Germany and showed high MICs of carbapenems. MBL production was analysed by several phenotypic tests. Genetic characterization of the novel bla gene and MLST was performed by WGS. The novel bla gene was expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10 and the enzyme was subjected to biochemical characterization to determine the kinetic parameters K m and k cat . P. aeruginosa NRZ-03096 was resistant to all tested β-lactams and showed an MBL phenotype. Shotgun cloning experiments yielded a clone producing a novel subclass B1 enzyme with only 74.3% identity to the next nearest relative, KHM-1. The novel MBL was named HMB-1 (for Hamburg MBL). Analysis of WGS data showed that the bla HMB-1 gene was chromosomally located as part of a Tn 3 family transposon that was named Tn 6345 . Expression of bla HMB-1 in E. coli TOP10 led to increased resistance to β-lactams. Determination of K m and k cat revealed that HMB-1 had different hydrolytic characteristics compared with KHM-1, with lower hydrolytic rates for cephalosporins and a higher rate for imipenem. The identification of HMB-1 further underlines the ongoing spread and diversification of carbapenemases in Gram-negative human pathogens and especially in P. aeruginosa . © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  3. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollee, L.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent

  4. Subclass of individual IgA-secreting human lymphocytes. Investigation of in vivo pneumococcal polysaccharide-induced and in vitro mitogen-induced blood B cells by monolayer plaque-forming cell assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T; Sigsgaard, T

    1988-01-01

    The subclass of individual human IgA B cells was investigated by means of monolayer plaque-forming cell assays permitting analysis of all IgA-secreting cells as well as of cells secreting IgA anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody. Center cells were examined by indirect immunofluorescence...

  5. Specificity of DNA-binding by the FAX-1 and NHR-67 nuclear receptors of Caenorhabditis elegans is partially mediated via a subclass-specific P-box residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Eric L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors of the NR2E class play important roles in pattern formation and nervous system development. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of DNA-binding domains, we define two conserved groups of orthologous NR2E genes: the NR2E1 subclass, which includes C. elegans nhr-67, Drosophila tailless and dissatisfaction, and vertebrate Tlx (NR2E2, NR2E4, NR2E1, and the NR2E3 subclass, which includes C. elegans fax-1 and vertebrate PNR (NR2E5, NR2E3. PNR and Tll nuclear receptors have been shown to bind the hexamer half-site AAGTCA, instead of the hexamer AGGTCA recognized by most other nuclear receptors, suggesting unique DNA-binding properties for NR2E class members. Results We show that NR2E3 subclass member FAX-1, unlike NHR-67 and other NR2E1 subclass members, binds to hexamer half-sites with relaxed specificity: it will bind hexamers with the sequence ANGTCA, although it prefers a purine to a pyrimidine at the second position. We use site-directed mutagenesis to demonstrate that the difference between FAX-1 and NHR-67 binding preference is partially mediated by a conserved subclass-specific asparagine or aspartate residue at position 19 of the DNA-binding domain. This amino acid position is part of the "P box" that plays a critical role in defining binding site specificity and has been shown to make hydrogen-bond contacts to the second position of the hexamer in co-crystal structures for other nuclear receptors. The relaxed specificity allows FAX-1 to bind a much larger repertoire of half-sites than NHR-67. While NR2E1 class proteins bind both monomeric and dimeric sites, the NR2E3 class proteins bind only dimeric sites. The presence of a single strong site adjacent to a very weak site allows dimeric FAX-1 binding, further increasing the number of dimeric binding sites to which FAX-1 may bind in vivo. Conclusion These findings identify subclass-specific DNA-binding specificities and dimerization properties for the NR2E1

  6. Molecular characterization of FXI deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ergul

    2011-02-01

    Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is a rare autosomal bleeding disease associated with genetic defects in the FXI gene. It is a heterogeneous disorder with variable tendency in bleeding and variable causative FXI gene mutations. It is characterized as a cross-reacting material-negative (CRM-) FXI deficiency due to decreased FXI levels or cross-reacting material-positive (CRM+) FXI deficiency due to impaired FXI function. Increasing number of mutations has been reported in FXI mutation database, and most of the mutations are affecting serine protease (SP) domain of the protein. Functional characterization for the mutations helps to better understand the molecular basis of FXI deficiency. Prevalence of the disease is higher in certain populations such as Ashkenazi Jews. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the molecular basis of congenital FXI deficiency.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Factor VII deficiency Factor VII deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Factor VII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that varies ...

  8. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: CDKL5 deficiency disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions CDKL5 deficiency disorder CDKL5 deficiency disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description CDKL5 deficiency disorder is characterized by seizures that begin ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions TH deficiency Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency is a disorder that primarily ...

  11. Mortality and GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    into childhood onset (CO) and adult onset (AO), discriminated by an age cutoff below or above 18 years at onset of GHD. METHOD: Data on death were identified in national registries. Sex- and cause-specific mortalities were identified in CO and AO GHD when compared with controls. RESULTS: Mortality was increased......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality in Denmark in patients suffering from GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Mortality was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Patients were divided...... in CO and AO GHD in both genders, when compared with controls. The hazard ratio (HR) for CO males was 8.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5-15.1) and for females 9.4 (CI 4.6-19.4). For AO males, HR was 1.9 (CI 1.7-2.2) and for females 3.4 (CI 2.9-4.0). We found a significantly higher HR in AO females...

  12. Iron deficiency - a global problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iron deficiency is an important nutritional global problem. This paper contains summery of information gathered from a dietary survey as iron deficiency anaemia is major public health problem in many developing countries including Pakistan. Comparison of anaemia in different age group and sex versus various regions in the world are given. In Pakistan also anaemia is widespread. According to the report of Micro-Nutrient survey of Pakistan 40% of the population are found to have low level of haemoglobin, more than half of pregnant women suffered from marginal or deficient haemoglobin. (A.B.)

  13. Iron deficiency - a global problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1994-12-31

    Iron deficiency is an important nutritional global problem. This paper contains summery of information gathered from a dietary survey as iron deficiency anaemia is major public health problem in many developing countries including Pakistan. Comparison of anaemia in different age group and sex versus various regions in the world are given. In Pakistan also anaemia is widespread. According to the report of Micro-Nutrient survey of Pakistan 40% of the population are found to have low level of haemoglobin, more than half of pregnant women suffered from marginal or deficient haemoglobin. (A.B.).

  14. Delayed allogeneic skin graft rejection in CD26-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangli; Zhang, Kai; Daniel, Peter; Wisbrun, Natali; Fuchs, Hendrik; Fan, Hua

    2018-03-23

    Organ transplantation is an effective therapeutic tool for treating many terminal diseases. However, one of the biggest challenges of transplantation is determining how to achieve the long-term survival of the allogeneic or xenogeneic transplant by, for example, preventing transplant rejection. In the current study, CD26 gene-knockout mice were used to investigate the potential role of CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPPIV) in allogeneic skin graft rejection by tail-skin transplantation. Compared with wild-type (CD26 +/+ ) counterparts, CD26 -/- mice showed reduced necrosis of grafts and delayed graft rejection after skin transplantation. Concentrations of serum IgG, including its subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a, were significantly reduced in CD26 -/- mice during graft rejection. Moreover, after allogeneic skin transplantation, the secretion levels of the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-13 were significantly reduced, whereas the level of the cytokine IL-10 was increased in the serum of CD26 -/- mice compared with that in the serum of CD26 +/+ mice. Additionally, the concentration of IL-17 in serum and the percentage of cells secreting IL-17 in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (MPBLs) were both significantly lower, while the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was significantly higher in MPBLs of CD26 -/- mice than in those of CD26 +/+ mice. Furthermore, a lower percentage of CD8 + T cells in MPBLs and fewer infiltrated macrophages and T cells in graft tissues of CD26 -/- mice were detected during graft rejection. These results indicate that CD26 is involved in allogeneic skin graft rejection and provides another hint that CD26 deficiency leads to less rejection due to lower activation and proliferation of host immune cells.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism steroid 18-hydroxylase deficiency steroid 18-oxidase deficiency Visser-Cost syndrome ... Potassium Test Health Topic: Adrenal Gland Disorders Health Topic: Fluid ...

  16. Marginal versus joint Box-Cox transformation with applications to percentile curve construction for IgG subclasses and blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuming; Ng, K W; Shi, Jian

    2003-02-15

    When age-specific percentile curves are constructed for several correlated variables, the marginal method of handling one variable at a time has typically been used. We address the question, frequently asked by practitioners, of whether we can achieve efficiency gains by joint estimation. We focus on a simple but common method of Box-Cox transformation and assess the statistical impact of a joint transformation to multivariate normality on the percentile curve estimation for correlated variables. We find that there is little gain from the joint transformation for estimating percentiles around the median but a noticeable reduction in variances is possible for estimating extreme percentiles that are usually of main interest in medical and biological applications. Our study is motivated by problems in constructing percentile charts for IgG subclasses of children and for blood pressures in adult populations, both of which are discussed in the paper as examples, and yet our general findings are applicable to a wide range of other problems. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Multivariate DoE Optimization of Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation Coupled to Quantitative LC-MS/MS for Analysis of Lipoprotein Subclasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this report we demonstrate a practical multivariate design of experiment (DoE approach for asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4 method optimization using separation of lipoprotein subclasses as an example. First, with the aid of commercially available software, we built a full factorial screening design where the theoretical outcomes were calculated by applying established formulas that govern AF4 channel performance for a 5–35 nm particle size range of interest for lipid particles. Second, using the desirable ranges of instrumental parameters established from theoretical optimization, we performed fractional factorial DoE for AF4 separation of pure albumin and ferritin with UV detection to narrow the range of instrumental parameters and allow optimum size resolution while minimizing losses from membrane immobilization. Third, the optimal range of conditions were tested using response surface DoE for sub-fractionation of high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL in human serum, where the recovery of the analytes were monitored by fraction collection and isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS analysis of each individual fraction for cholesterol and apolipoproteins (ApoA-1 and ApoB-100. Our results show that DoE is an effective tool in combining AF4 theoretical knowledge and experimental data in finding the most optimal set of AF4 instrumental parameters for quantitative coupling with LC-MS/MS measurements.

  18. Type-IVC Secretion System: A Novel Subclass of Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) Common Existing in Gram-Positive Genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gao, George F.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of pathogens are being found to possess specialized secretion systems which they use in various ways to subvert host defenses. Type IV secretion system (T4SS) is one of versatile secretion systems essential for the virulence and even survival of some bacteria species, and they enable the secretion of protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope. T4SS was once believed to be present only in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we present evidence of a new subclass of T4SS, Type-IVC secretion system and indicate its common existence in the Gram-positive bacterial genus Streptococcus. We further identified that VirB1, VirB4, VirB6 and VirD4 are the minimal key components of this system. Using genome comparisons and evolutionary relationship analysis, we proposed that Type-IVC secretion system is movable via transposon factors and mediates the conjugative transfer of DNA, enhances bacterial pathogenicity, and could cause large-scale outbreaks of infections in humans. PMID:23056296

  19. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to impaired female sexual development, unusual bone growth, insulin resistance, and other signs and symptoms of aromatase deficiency . In women who are pregnant with an affected fetus, excess androgens in the ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: fumarase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V, Tomlinson IP. The FH mutation database: an online database of fumarate hydratase mutations involved in the MCUL (HLRCC) tumor syndrome and congenital fumarase deficiency. BMC Med Genet. 2008 Mar 25;9:20. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350- ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: proopiomelanocortin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are constantly hungry, which leads to excessive feeding (hyperphagia). The babies continuously gain weight and are severely ... brain dysregulates the body's energy balance, leading to overeating and severe obesity. POMC deficiency is a rare ...

  2. Factor XII (Hageman factor) deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000545.htm Factor XII (Hageman factor) deficiency To use the sharing features on this ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  3. ALPHA,·ANTITRYPSIN DEFICIENCY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-02-06

    Feb 6, 1971 ... bited proteolytic enzymatic proce.s which is able to pro- duce type A ... homozygous a!pha,-antitrypsin deficiency associated with severe obstructive .... in digestion of alveolar septa producing panacinar em- physema or type A ...

  4. Iron deficiency among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, A S; Pedersen, O B; Magnussen, K

    2017-01-01

    Blood components collected from blood donors are an invaluable part of modern-day medicine. A healthy blood donor population is therefore of paramount importance. The results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) indicate that gender, number of previous donations, time since last donation...... and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark...

  5. Anemia, Iron Deficiency and Iodine Deficiency among Nepalese School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Lamsal, Madhab; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Brodie, David; Baral, Nirmal

    2016-07-01

    To assess iodine and iron nutritional status among Nepalese school children. A cross-sectional, community based study was conducted in the two districts, Ilam (hilly region) and Udayapur (plain region) of eastern Nepal. A total of 759 school children aged 6-13 y from different schools within the study areas were randomly enrolled. A total of 759 urine samples and 316 blood samples were collected. Blood hemoglobin level, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and urinary iodine concentration was measured. Percentage of transferrin saturation was calculated using serum iron and total iron binding capacity values. The mean level of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and median urinary iodine excretion were 12.29 ± 1.85 g/dl, 70.45 ± 34.46 μg/dl, 386.48 ± 62.48 μg/dl, 19.94 ± 12.07 % and 274.67 μg/L respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency and iodine deficiency (urinary iodine excretion iron deficient children. Iron deficiency and anemia are common in Nepalese children, whereas, iodine nutrition is more than adequate. Low urinary iodine excretion was common in iron deficiency and anemia.

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Iron-Deficiency Anemia What's in ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...

  7. Overproduction of a kinetic subclass of VLDL-apoB, and direct catabolism of VLDL-apoB in human endogenous hypertriglyceridemia: an analytical model solution of tracer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.P.; Allen, R.C.; Schade, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the participation of the major apoprotein involved in triglyceride transport in the pathogenesis of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia, five kinetic studies of apoprotein B were conducted in volunteer normolipidemic subjects and six studies in four patients with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia. The transport of apoprotein B within four kinetic subclasses of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) was studied by injection of [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. A 24-fold increase in the entry of newly synthesized apoprotein B at the initial kinetic subclass of the four-compartment VLDL delipidation sequence characterized the hypertriglyceridemic studies relative to normal subjects. Moreover, approximately 75 mg/kg per day of VLDL-B turnover reflected direct catabolism independent of conversion to IDL and/or to LDL, in contrast to the 8 mg/kg per day observed in controls. IDL-B was derived from VLDL-B in both normal and hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and was responsible for greater than 70% of all LDL-B synthesis. LDL-B pool size and turnover were indistinguishable in hypertriglyceridemic subjects from that observed in normal subjects. These studies suggest that two kinetic phenomena may characterize the pathophysiology of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia: a) over-production of apoB within a kinetic subclass of VLDL and b) preferential catabolism of hypertriglyceridemic VLDL without prior conversion to IDL/LDL

  8. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential production of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses by mucosal-type human B-lymphocytes exposed in vitro to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognasse, Fabrice; Acquart, Sophie; Beniguel, Lydie; Sabido, Odile; Chavarin, Patricia; Genin, Christian; Garraud, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    As B-lymphocytes play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity, we aimed to examine the effects of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on purified tonsil-originating CD19+ B-cells, representing mucosal B-cells. We screened various K-type ODNs, reactive with human B-cells, and tested for the production of immunoglobulins in vitro. Using one CpG-ODN, DSP30, we observed that it could upregulate not only Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) mRNA expression in activated B-cells, but also the early expression of CD69 followed by the sequential expression of CD80, CD86 and the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway. Furthermore, mRNA expression of certain B-cell-derived cytokines was influenced by exposure to DSP30, with a strong upregulation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and downregulation of IL1-beta. Stimulation of B-cells, co-stimulated with IL-2, IL-10 and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) with different CpG-ODNs, had differing effects on the terminal differentiation in vitro of B-cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells. TLR9 is involved in innate immunity and the recognition of bound CpG DNA from invading bacterial pathogens. As tonsillar B-cells are mucosal-type B-lymphocytes, this study suggests that CpG-ODNs show promise as mucosal adjuvants in modulating the local production of immunoglobulins of certain classes and subclasses, a crucial issue in vaccine perspectives.

  10. Multinuclear NMR resonance assignments and the secondary structure of Escherichia coli thioesterase/protease I: A member of a new subclass of lipolytic enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Tahsien; Chen Chinpan; Huang Rongfong; Lee Yalin; Shaw Jeifu; Huang Taihuang

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli thioesterase/protease I is a 183 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 20500. This protein belongs to a new subclass of lipolytic enzymes of the serine protease superfamily, but with a new GDSLS consensus motif, of which no structure has yet been determined. The protein forms a tetramer at pH values above 6.5 and exists as a monomer at lower pH values. Both monomer and tetramer are catalytically active. From analysis of a set of heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectra with uniform and specific amino acid labeled protein samples, we have obtained near-complete resonance assignments of the backbone 1 H, 13 C and 15 N nuclei (BMRB databank accession number 4060). The secondary structure of E. coli thioesterase/protease I was further deduced from the consensus chemical shift indices, backbone short- and medium-range NOEs, and amide proton exchange rates. The protein was found to consist of four β-strands and seven α-helices, arranged in alternate order. The four β-strands were shown to form a parallel β-sheet. The topological arrangement of the β-strands of -1x, +2x, +1x appears to resemble that of the core region of the αβ hydrolase superfamily, typically found in common lipases and esterases. However, substantial differences, such as the number of β-strands and the location of the catalytic triad residues, make it difficult to give a definitive classification of the structure of E. coli thioesterase/protease I at present

  11. Cytology of the minor-vein phloem in 320 species from the subclass Asteridae suggests a high diversity of phloem-loading modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis R. Batashev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of abundant plasmodesmata at the bundle sheath/phloem interface in Oleaceae (Gamalei, 1974 and Cucurbitaceae (Turgeon et al., 1975 opened the questions whether these plasmodesmata are functional in phloem loading and how widespread is symplasmic loading. Analysis of over 800 dicot species allowed the definition of ‘open’ and ‘closed’ types of the minor vein phloem depending on the abundance of plasmodesmata between companion cells and bundle sheath (Gamalei, 1989; 1990. These types corresponded to potential symplasmic and apoplasmic phloem loaders, respectively; however, this definition covered a spectrum of diverse structures of phloem endings. Here, a review of detailed cytological analyses of minor veins in 320 species from the subclass Asteridae is presented, including data on several cell types and their combinations which have not been reported previously. The percentage of Asteridae species with ‘open’ minor vein cytology which also contain sieve-element-companion cell complexes with ‘closed’ cytology, i.e. that show specialization for both symplasmic and apoplasmic phloem loading, was determined. Along with recent data confirming the dissimilar functional specialization of structurally different parts of minor vein phloem in the stachyose-translocating species Alonsoa meridionalis (Voitsekhovskaja et al., 2009, these findings suggest that apoplasmic loading is indispensable in a large group of species previously classified as putative symplasmic loaders. Altogether, this study provides formal classifications of companion cells and of minor veins, respectively, in 24 families of the Asteridae based on their structural features, opening the way to a close investigation of the relationship between structure and function in phloem loading.

  12. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Delfini Cançado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors, and the frequency of donations per year. DESIGN: From September 20 to October 5, 1999, three hundred blood donors from Santa Casa Hemocenter of São Paulo were studied. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation index, serum ferritin and the erythrocyte indices. RESULTS: The frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors was 11.0%, of whom 5.5% (13/237 were male and 31.7% (20/63 female donors. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, for male blood donors (7.6% versus 0.0%, P < 0.05 and female ones (41.5% versus 18.5%, P < 0.05. The frequency of iron deficiency found was higher among the male blood donors with three or more donations per year (P < 0.05 and among the female blood donors with two or more donations per year (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that blood donation is a very important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors, particularly in multi-time donors and especially in female donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia.

  13. Primary Carnitine (OCTN2) Deficiency Without Neonatal Carnitine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L. de; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Morava, E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the diagnosis of a primary carnitine deficiency is usually based on a very low level of free and total carnitine (free carnitine: 1-5 muM, normal 20-55 muM) (Longo et al. 2006), we detected a patient via newborn screening with a total carnitine level 67 % of the normal value. At the age of

  14. Quantitative analysis of the IgG and IgG subclass immune responses to chromosomal Pseudomonas aeruginosa beta-lactamase in serum from patients with cystic fibrosis by western blotting and laser scanning densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T D; Ciofu, O; Pressler, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) are markers of the development of resistance of P aeruginosa to beta-lactam antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection. The role of these antibodies in patients with chronic...... of the chronic infection the a beta ab titres were higher in patients with good lung function than in those with poor lung function. CONCLUSIONS: The association of a weak IgG3 and a strong IgG4 a beta ab response suggests that the contribution of a beta ab antibodies to lung diseases mediated by immune...... complexes might be less important than other antipseudomonal antibodies. A beneficial neutralising effect of the a beta ab antibodies on the antibiotic destroying enzymes may be an additional factor....

  15. Genetics Home Reference: arginase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... belongs to a class of genetic diseases called urea cycle disorders. The urea cycle is a sequence of reactions ... links) Baby's First Test GeneReview: Arginase Deficiency GeneReview: Urea Cycle Disorders Overview MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Hereditary urea cycle abnormality National ...

  16. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, M.C.J.; Gidding, C.E.M.; Loeffen, J.; Wesseling, P.; Mensenkamp, A.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old

  17. Carnitine palmityl transferase I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Aqeel, A. I.; Rashed, M. S.; Ruiter, J. P.; Al-Husseini, H. F.; Al-Amoudi, M. S.; Wanders, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Carnitine palmityl transferase I is the key enzyme in the carnitine dependent transport of long chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial inner membrane and its deficiency results in a decrease rate of fatty acids beta-oxidation with decreased energy production. We reported a family of 3 affected

  18. Epigenetic Deficiencies and Replicative Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell-specific synthetic lethal interactions entail promising therapeutic possibilities. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Pfister et al. describe a synthetic lethal interaction where cancer cells deficient in H3K36me3 owing to SETD2 loss-of-function mutation are strongly sensitized to inhibiti...

  19. Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Anemia affects one-fourth of the world’s population, and iron deficiency is the predominant cause. Anemia is associated with chronic fatigue, impaired cognitive function, and diminished well-being. Patients with iron deficiency anemia of unknown etiology are frequently referred to a gastroenterologist because in the majority of cases the condition has a gastrointestinal origin. Proper management improves quality of life, alleviates the symptoms of iron deficiency, and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Treatment options include oral and intravenous iron therapy; however, the efficacy of oral iron is limited in certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis. This article provides a critical summary of the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, it includes a management algorithm that can help the clinician determine which patients are in need of further gastrointestinal evaluation. This facilitates the identification and treatment of the underlying condition and avoids the unnecessary use of invasive methods and their associated risks. PMID:27099596

  20. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  1. [Osteomalacia and vitamin D deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, C P; Corsten, N; Rolf, O

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin D and calcium deficiency has a higher incidence in the orthopedic-trauma surgery patient population than generally supposed. In the long term this can result in osteomalacia, a form of altered bone mineralization in adults, in which the cartilaginous, non-calcified osteoid does not mature to hard bone. The current value of vitamin D and its importance for bones and other body cells are demonstrated. The causes of vitamin D deficiency are insufficient sunlight exposure, a lack of vitamin D3 and calcium, malabsorption, and rare alterations of VDR signaling and phosphate metabolism. The main symptoms are bone pain, fatigue fractures, muscular cramps, muscle pain, and gait disorders, with an increased incidence of falls in the elderly. Osteopathies induced by pharmaceuticals, tumors, rheumatism or osteoporosis have to be considered as the main differential diagnoses. In addition to the recording of symptoms and medical imaging, the diagnosis of osteomalacia should be ensured by laboratory parameters. Adequate treatment consists of the high-dose intake of vitamin D3 and the replacement of phosphate if deficient. Vitamin D is one of the important hormone-like vitamins and is required in all human cells. Deficiency of vitamin D has far-reaching consequences not only for bone, but also for other organ systems.

  2. Truly selective primary IgM deficiency is probably very rare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, L M A; Macken, T; Creemers, M C W; Pruijt, J F M; Eijk, J J J; de Vries, E

    2018-02-01

    Isolated decreased serum-immunoglobulin (Ig)M has been associated with severe and/or recurrent infections, atopy and autoimmunity. However, the reported high prevalence of clinical problems in IgM-deficient patients may reflect the skewed tertiary centre population studied so far. Also, many papers on IgM deficiency have included patients with more abnormalities than simply IgM-deficiency. We studied truly selective primary IgM deficiency according to the diagnostic criteria of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) (true sIgMdef) by reviewing the literature (261 patients with primary decreased serum-IgM in 46 papers) and analysing retrospectively all patients with decreased serum-IgM in a large teaching hospital in 's-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands [1 July 2005-23 March 2016; n = 8049 IgM < 0·4 g/l; n = 2064 solitary (IgG+IgA normal/IgM < age-matched reference)]. A total of 359 of 2064 (17%) cases from our cohort had primary isolated decreased serum-IgM, proven persistent in 45 of 359 (13%) cases; their medical charts were reviewed. Our main finding is that true sIgMdef is probably very rare. Only six of 261 (2%) literature cases and three of 45 (7%) cases from our cohort fulfilled the ESID criteria completely; 63 of 261 (24%) literature cases also had other immunological abnormalities and fulfilled the criteria for unclassified antibody deficiencies (unPAD) instead. The diagnosis was often uncertain (possible sIgMdef): data on IgG subclasses and/or vaccination responses were lacking in 192 of 261 (74%) literature cases and 42 of 45 (93%) cases from our cohort. Our results also illustrate the clinical challenge of determining the relevance of a serum sample with decreased IgM; a larger cohort of true sIgMdef patients is needed to explore fully its clinical consequences. The ESID online Registry would be a useful tool for this. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine. These drugs are not broken down efficiently by people with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency ... of this enzyme. Because fluoropyrimidine drugs are also broken down by the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase enzyme, deficiency of ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adrenal hyperplasias that impair hormone production and disrupt sexual development. 21-hydroxylase deficiency is responsible for about 95 ... excess production of androgens leads to abnormalities of sexual development in people with 21-hydroxylase deficiency . A lack ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: complement component 2 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic: Immune System and Disorders Health Topic: Lupus Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Complement component 2 deficiency Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases Educational Resources (6 ...

  6. Cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F Werder

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Steven F Werder1,21Kansas University School of Medicine – Wichita, Wichita, KS, USA; 2Community Health Center of Southeast Kansas, Pittsburg, KS, USAIntroduction: Although consensus guidelines recommend checking serum B12 in patients with dementia, clinicians are often faced with various questions: (1 Which patients should be tested? (2 What test should be ordered? (3 How are inferences made from such testing? (4 In addition to serum B12, should other tests be ordered? (5 Is B12 deficiency compatible with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type? (6 What is to be expected from treatment? (7 How is B12 deficiency treated?Methods: On January 31st, 2009, a Medline search was performed revealing 1,627 citations related to cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia. After limiting the search terms, all abstracts and/or articles and other references were categorized into six major groups (general, biochemistry, manifestations, associations and risks, evaluation, and treatment and then reviewed in answering the above questions.Results: The six major groups above are described in detail. Seventy-five key studies, series, and clinical trials were identified. Evidence-based suggestions for patient management were developed.Discussion: Evidence is convincing that hyperhomocysteinemia, with or without hypovitaminosis B12, is a risk factor for dementia. In the absence of hyperhomocysteinemia, evidence is less convincing that hypovitaminosis B12 is a risk factor for dementia. B12 deficiency manifestations are variable and include abnormal psychiatric, neurological, gastrointestinal, and hematological findings. Radiological images of individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia frequently demonstrate leukoaraiosis. Assessing serum B12 and treatment of B12 deficiency is crucial for those cases in which pernicious anemia is suspected and may be useful for mild cognitive impairment and mild to moderate dementia. The serum B12 level is the standard initial test

  7. Galactose Epimerase Deficiency: Expanding the Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias Costa, Filipa; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Pinto, Carla; Dias, Andrea; Keldermans, Liesbeth; Quelhas, Dulce; Matthijs, Gert; Mooijer, Petra A.; Diogo, Luísa; Jaeken, Jaak; Garcia, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Galactose epimerase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism due to uridine diphosphate-galactose-4'-epimerase (GALE) deficiency. We report the clinical presentation, genetic and biochemical studies in two siblings with generalized GALE deficiency.Patient 1: The first child was born with a

  8. Common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Vitamin A and iron deficiencies were the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries. Other probable deficiencies prevailing were zinc, vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin folate, cyano-cobalamine, ascorbic acid vitamin D and calcium because of the low intake of dairy products and meat.

  9. HLA class I antibodies trigger increased adherence of monocytes to endothelial cells by eliciting an increase in endothelial P-selectin and, depending on subclass, by engaging FcγRs1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Nicole M; Mulder, Arend; Reed, Elaine F

    2013-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection of solid organ transplants is characterized by intragraft macrophages. It is incompletely understood how donor specific antibody binding to graft endothelium promotes monocyte adhesion, and what, if any, contribution is made by the Fc region of the antibody. We investigated the mechanisms underlying monocyte recruitment by HLA class I antibody-activated endothelium. We used a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies of different subclasses to crosslink HLA I on human aortic, venous and microvascular endothelial cells, and measured the binding of human monocytic cell lines and peripheral blood monocytes. Both anti-HLA I murine IgG1 and mIgG2a induced endothelial P-selectin, which was required for monocyte adhesion to endothelium irrespective of subclass. Mouse IgG2a but not mIgG1 could bind human FcγRs. Accordingly, HLA I mIgG2a but not mIgG1 treatment of endothelial cells significantly augmented recruitment, predominantly through FcγRI, and, to a lesser extent, FcγRIIa. Moreover, HLA I mIgG2a promoted firm adhesion of monocytes to ICAM-1 through Mac-1, which may explain the prominence of monocytes during antibody mediated rejection. We confirmed these observations using human HLA allele specific monoclonal antibodies and IgG purified from transplant patient sera. HLA I antibodies universally elicit endothelial exocytosis leading to monocyte adherence, implying that P-selectin is a putative therapeutic target to prevent macrophage infiltration during antibody-mediated rejection. Importantly, the subclass of donor specific antibody may influence its pathogenesis. These results imply that hIgG1 and hIgG3 should have a greater capacity to trigger monocyte infiltration into the graft than IgG2 or IgG4 due to enhancement by FcγR interactions. PMID:23690477

  10. DNA repair deficiency in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna V.

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive...... neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative...... base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby...

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in Fibromyalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatty, S.A.; Shaikh, N.A.; Irfan, M.; Kashif, S.M.; Vaswani, A.S.; Sumbhai, A.; Gunpat

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To check the Vitamin D levels in patients diagnosed as fibromyagia in our population. Methods: Study was done at Medical OPD of Civil Hospital Karachi, from January to March 2009. Female patients diagnosed as Fibromyalgia according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and exclusion of systemic illness on examination, and normal reports of blood CP, ESR, serum calcium, phosphate and Alkaline Phosphatase, were asked to get Vitamin D levels in their serum. Vitamin D deficiency is defined as 30 ng/ml. Result: Forty female patients were included in the study. The mean age was 37.65 +- 11.5 years. Mean Vitamin D level was 17.41 +- 5.497 ng/ml. Thirty two (80%) of patients had Vitamin D deficiency, mean levels of 15.855 +- 4.918 ng/ml and 8(20%) had Vitamin D insufficiency, mean levels of 23.64 +- 2.39 ng/ml. Patients with vitamin D deficiency and age less than 45 years were 22 (68.75%), had mean vitamin D level 16.87 +- 4.48 ng/ml whereas in age ranging from 46-75 years were 10 (31.25%) had mean vitamin D level 16.09 +- 6.45 ng/ml. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is frequently seen in patients diagnosed as fibromyalgia and nonspecific musculoskeletal pain in our population. Although the sample size of the study is small, but the figures are so alarming that it is an eye opener towards the need of a population based study, including normal population as well as those presenting with musculoskeletal pain. (author)

  12. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in ...

  13. Primary Carnitine (OCTN2) Deficiency Without Neonatal Carnitine Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, L.; Kluijtmans, L. A. J.; Morava, E.

    2012-01-01

    Although the diagnosis of a primary carnitine deficiency is usually based on a very low level of free and total carnitine (free carnitine: 1–5 μM, normal 20–55 μM) (Longo et al. 2006), we detected a patient via newborn screening with a total carnitine level 67 % of the normal value. At the age of 1 year, after interruption of carnitine supplementation for a 4-week period the carnitine profile was assessed and the free carnitine level had dropped to 10.4 μmol/l (normal: 20–55 μM) and total car...

  14. Delayed Diagnosis and Complications of Predominantly Antibody Deficiencies in a Cohort of Australian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A. Slade

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPredominantly antibody deficiencies (PADs are the most common type of primary immunodeficiency in adults. PADs frequently pass undetected leading to delayed diagnosis, delayed treatment, and the potential for end-organ damage including bronchiectasis. In addition, PADs are frequently accompanied by comorbid autoimmune disease, and an increased risk of malignancy.ObjectivesTo characterize the diagnostic and clinical features of adult PAD patients in Victoria, Australia.MethodsWe identified adult patients receiving, or having previously received immunoglobulin replacement therapy for a PAD at four hospitals in metropolitan Melbourne, and retrospectively characterized their clinical and diagnostic features.Results179 patients from The Royal Melbourne, Alfred and Austin Hospitals, and Monash Medical Centre were included in the study with a median age of 49.7 years (range: 16–87 years, of whom 98 (54.7% were female. The majority of patients (116; 64.8% met diagnostic criteria for common variable immunodeficiency (CVID, and 21 (11.7% were diagnosed with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA. Unclassified hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG was described in 22 patients (12.3%, IgG subclass deficiency (IGSCD in 12 (6.7%, and specific antibody deficiency (SpAD in 4 individuals (2.2%. The remaining four patients had a diagnosis of Good syndrome (thymoma with immunodeficiency. There was no significant difference between the age at diagnosis of the disorders, with the exception of XLA, with a median age at diagnosis of less than 1 year. The median age of reported symptom onset was 20 years for those with a diagnosis of CVID, with a median age at diagnosis of 35 years. CVID patients experienced significantly more non-infectious complications, such as autoimmune cytopenias and lymphoproliferative disease, than the other antibody deficiency disorders. The presence of non-infectious complications was associated with significantly reduced survival in the

  15. Data on carotid intima-media thickness and lipoprotein subclasses in type 1 diabetes from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Basu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1DM is associated with increased risk of macrovascular complications. We examined longitudinal associations of serum conventional lipids and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-determined lipoprotein subclasses with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in adults with T1DM (n=455 enrolled in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT. Data on serum lipids and lipoproteins were collected at DCCT baseline (1983–89 and were correlated with common and internal carotid IMT determined by ultrasonography during the observational follow-up of the DCCT, the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC study, at EDIC ‘Year 1’ (199–1996 and EDIC ‘Year 6’ (1998–2000. This article contains data on the associations of DCCT baseline lipoprotein profiles (NMR-based VLDL & chylomicrons, IDL/LDL and HDL subclasses and ‘conventional’ total, LDL-, HDL-, non-HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides with carotid IMT at EDIC Years 1 and 6, stratified by gender. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of DCCT baseline lipids and lipoprotein profiles with EDIC Year 12 carotid IMT (Basu et al. in press [1]. Keywords: Lipids and lipoproteins, Carotid intima-media thickness, Type 1 diabetes

  16. Viscosity of high concentration protein formulations of monoclonal antibodies of the IgG1 and IgG4 subclass - Prediction of viscosity through protein-protein interaction measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Martin S; Kalonia, Devendra S; Parshad, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the relation between protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and solution viscosity at high protein concentration using three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), two of the IgG4 subclass and one of the IgG1 subclass. A range of methods was used to quantify the PPI...... low or high protein concentration determined using DLS. The PPI measurements were correlated with solution viscosity (measured by DLS using polystyrene nanospheres and ultrasonic shear rheology) as a function of pH (4-9) and ionic strength (10, 50 and 150mM). Our measurements showed that the highest...... solution viscosity was observed under conditions with the most negative kD, the highest apparent radius and the lowest net charge. An increase in ionic strength resulted in a change in the nature of the PPI at low pH from repulsive to attractive. In the neutral to alkaline pH region the mAbs behaved...

  17. [The impact of a 14- day regular physical exercise regime on the concentration of the classes and subclasses of lipoprotein particles in young subjects with a sedentary lifestyle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaka, P; Dukát, A; Oravec, S; Mistríková, L; Baláž, D; Bendžala, M; Gašpar, L

    2013-10-01

    Recommendations from the cardiological professional companies working in the area of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases put an emphasis on regular aerobic physical activity. Its positive effect on both cardiovascular and overall mortality has repea-tedly been proven by the observations of prospective and cross sectional epidemiological studies. One of the possible explanations of this positive effect is a change in the concentration of lipoprotein classes and their subclasses, which is expressed as a change in their average size. In a group of young healthy men and women with a sedentary lifestyle we observed the effect of medium intensive physical exercise in the form of a 30- minute slow run per day lasting for 14 days. The concentration of lipoprotein classes and subclasses were determined through the method of a linear electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. In the observed group we found a statistically significant decrease of VLDL, large IDL particles, medium sized LDL, small dense LDL, and medium sized HDL particles. In the light of current knowledge all these lipoprotein particles are deemed as atherogenic. Thus, as little as 14 days of regular exercising has a positive effect on the concentration of plasmatic lipoproteins, and emphasises the role of regular physical activity in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøssing, Signe; Rønø, Birgitte; Hald, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    -sensitive MMPs during wound healing. To address whether MMP2 is accountable for the galardin-induced healing deficiency in wildtype and Plg-deficient mice, incisional skin wounds were generated in MMP2 single-deficient mice and in MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice and followed until healed. Alternatively, tissue...... was isolated 7 days post wounding for histological and biochemical analyses. No difference was found in the time from wounding to overt gross restoration of the epidermal surface between MMP2-deficient and wildtype control littermate mice. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice were viable and fertile, and displayed...... an unchallenged general phenotype resembling that of Plg-deficient mice, including development of rectal prolapses. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice displayed a slight increase in the wound length throughout the healing period compared with Plg-deficient mice. However, the overall time to complete healing...

  19. Toward reassessing data-deficient species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Lucie M; Bielby, Jon; Kearney, Stephen; Orme, C David L; Watson, James E M; Collen, Ben

    2017-06-01

    One in 6 species (13,465 species) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List is classified as data deficient due to lack of information on their taxonomy, population status, or impact of threats. Despite the chance that many are at high risk of extinction, data-deficient species are typically excluded from global and local conservation priorities, as well as funding schemes. The number of data-deficient species will greatly increase as the IUCN Red List becomes more inclusive of poorly known and speciose groups. A strategic approach is urgently needed to enhance the conservation value of data-deficient assessments. To develop this, we reviewed 2879 data-deficient assessments in 6 animal groups and identified 8 main justifications for assigning data-deficient status (type series, few records, old records, uncertain provenance, uncertain population status or distribution, uncertain threats, taxonomic uncertainty, and new species). Assigning a consistent set of justification tags (i.e., consistent assignment to assessment justifications) to species classified as data deficient is a simple way to achieve more strategic assessments. Such tags would clarify the causes of data deficiency; facilitate the prediction of extinction risk; facilitate comparisons of data deficiency among taxonomic groups; and help prioritize species for reassessment. With renewed efforts, it could be straightforward to prevent thousands of data-deficient species slipping unnoticed toward extinction. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. OBJECTIVE: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D...... is evident throughout the European population at prevalence rates that are concerning and that require action from a public health perspective. What direction these strategies take will depend on European policy but should aim to ensure vitamin D intakes that are protective against vitamin D deficiency...

  1. Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naini, Ali; Toscano, Antonio; Musumeci, Olimpia

    2009-01-01

    storage disease type X and novel mutations in the gene encoding the muscle subunit of PGAM (PGAM2). DESIGN: Clinical, pathological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospitals and academic institutions. Patients A 37-year-old Danish man of Pakistani origin who had...... PGAM deficiency, and molecular studies revealed 2 novel homozygous mutations, a nonsense mutation and a single nucleotide deletion. Pathological studies of muscle showed mild glycogen accumulation but prominent tubular aggregates in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found that glycogen storage disease...

  2. Micronutrient deficiency in urban Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; Schultink, W

    1997-06-01

    The economic situation of Indonesia is characterized by a large increase in the gross national product which has been on average 7% annually during the last ten years. This was accompanied by rapid urbanization. With the economic improvement, "First World" and "Third World" health and nutrition problems are coexisting in Indonesia. In 1992, the most common of death cause was cardiovascular disease whereas tuberculosis was the second ranking. About 40% of the preschool children are stunted. The main stable food and energy source is rice, although the urban population has a more diverse food pattern than the rural population. In Jakarta, many children receive too late colostrum feeding and mothers are not aware about the importance of correct breastfeeding practices after delivery. Three studies had shown that about one fifth of preschool children and one fourth of elderly take micronutrient supplements. Nevertheless, micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in Jakarta. About one third of women suffer from moderate vitamin A deficiency (plasma retinol middle class to spend more time and money to solve their own problems.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D comprises a group of fat-soluble pro-hormones, obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements, and it must undergo two hydroxylation reactions to be activated in the body. Several studies have shown the role of vitamin D in mineral metabolism regulation, especially calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Some factors such as inadequate vitamin intake and liver or kidney disorders can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to susceptibility to chronic diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, high blood pressure, cognitive impairment including foggy brain and memory loss, and autoimmune diseases including diabetes type I. Recent research has revealed that low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity (Sato et al., 2004 and mortality (Pilz et al., 2008. Also, hypertension contributes to a reduction in bone mineral density and increase in the incidence of stroke and death. This article reviews the function and physiology of vitamin D and examines the effects of vitamin D deficiency on susceptibility to stroke, as a cardiovascular event, and its morbidity and subsequent mortality.

  4. Comparisons of CVID and IgGSD: Referring Physicians, Autoimmune Conditions, Pneumovax Reactivity, Immunoglobulin Levels, Blood Lymphocyte Subsets, and HLA-A and -B Typing in 432 Adult Index Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Barton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID and immunoglobulin (Ig G subclass deficiency (IgGSD are heterogeneous disorders characterized by respiratory tract infections, selective Ig isotype deficiencies, and impaired antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens. Using univariable analyses, we compared observations in 34 CVID and 398 IgGSD adult index patients (81.9% women referred to a hematology/oncology practice. Similarities included specialties of referring physicians, mean ages, proportions of women, reactivity to Pneumovax, median serum IgG3 and IgG4 levels, median blood CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, positivity for HLA-A and -B types, and frequencies of selected HLA-A, -B haplotypes. Dissimilarities included greater prevalence of autoimmune conditions, lower median IgG, IgA, and IgM, and lower median CD19+, CD3+/CD4+, and CD3+/CD8+ blood lymphocytes in CVID patients. Prevalence of Sjögren’s syndrome and hypothyroidism was significantly greater in CVID patients. Combined subnormal IgG1/IgG3 occurred in 59% and 29% of CVID and IgGSD patients, respectively. Isolated subnormal IgG3 occurred in 121 IgGSD patients (88% women. Logistic regression on CVID (versus IgGSD revealed a significant positive association with autoimmune conditions and significant negative associations with IgG1, IgG3, and IgA and CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, but the odds ratio was increased for autoimmune conditions alone (6.9 (95% CI 1.3, 35.5.

  5. Comparisons of CVID and IgGSD: referring physicians, autoimmune conditions, pneumovax reactivity, immunoglobulin levels, blood lymphocyte subsets, and HLA-A and -B typing in 432 adult index patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Bertoli, Luigi F; Barton, J Clayborn

    2014-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSD) are heterogeneous disorders characterized by respiratory tract infections, selective Ig isotype deficiencies, and impaired antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens. Using univariable analyses, we compared observations in 34 CVID and 398 IgGSD adult index patients (81.9% women) referred to a hematology/oncology practice. Similarities included specialties of referring physicians, mean ages, proportions of women, reactivity to Pneumovax, median serum IgG3 and IgG4 levels, median blood CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, positivity for HLA-A and -B types, and frequencies of selected HLA-A, -B haplotypes. Dissimilarities included greater prevalence of autoimmune conditions, lower median IgG, IgA, and IgM, and lower median CD19+, CD3+/CD4+, and CD3+/CD8+ blood lymphocytes in CVID patients. Prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome and hypothyroidism was significantly greater in CVID patients. Combined subnormal IgG1/IgG3 occurred in 59% and 29% of CVID and IgGSD patients, respectively. Isolated subnormal IgG3 occurred in 121 IgGSD patients (88% women). Logistic regression on CVID (versus IgGSD) revealed a significant positive association with autoimmune conditions and significant negative associations with IgG1, IgG3, and IgA and CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, but the odds ratio was increased for autoimmune conditions alone (6.9 (95% CI 1.3, 35.5)).

  6. New insights into iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaschella, Clara

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in iron metabolism have stimulated new interest in iron deficiency (ID) and its anemia (IDA), common conditions worldwide. Absolute ID/IDA, i.e. the decrease of total body iron, is easily diagnosed based on decreased levels of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Relative lack of iron in specific organs/tissues, and IDA in the context of inflammatory disorders, are diagnosed based on arbitrary cut offs of ferritin and transferrin saturation and/or marker combination (as the soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index) in an appropriate clinical context. Most ID patients are candidate to traditional treatment with oral iron salts, while high hepcidin levels block their absorption in inflammatory disorders. New iron preparations and new treatment modalities are available: high-dose intravenous iron compounds are becoming popular and indications to their use are increasing, although long-term side effects remain to be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Atypical B12 Deficiency with Nonresolving Paraesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. We report a case of elderly female who presented with neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency where the final work-up revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS. This case suggests that, although POEMS syndrome is a rare entity, it can present with vitamin-B12 deficiency and thus specific work up for early diagnosis of POEMS should be considered in patients with B12 deficiency unresponsive to therapy.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be inherited? More about Inheriting Genetic Conditions Diagnosis & Management Resources Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Ateleiotic dwarfism Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant isolated somatotropin deficiency ...

  9. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...

  10. Development of additional pituitary hormone deficiencies in pediatric patients originally diagnosed with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Blum (Werner); C.L. Deal (Cheri Lynn); A.G. Zimmermann (Alan); E.P. Shavrikova (Elena); C.J. Child (Christopher); C.A. Quigley (Charmian); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); G. Cutler (Gordon); R.G. Rosenfeld (Ron)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: We assessed the characteristics of children initially diagnosed with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) who later developed additional (multiple) pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD). Design: Data were analyzed for 5805 pediatric patients with idiopathic IGHD, who were

  11. Automated deficiency letter data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.D.

    1983-12-01

    An automated data base relevant to the various licensee deficiencies that accrue during the materials licensing application review process of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is described. A data base management system (DBMs) is used for data retrieval, file-tending, and examination of the interrelationships among the data types in the data base. Use of word processors to emulate computer terminals for the purpose of data base population (loading) and report generation is discussed. Also described is the technique used to link, for update purposes, the data base (accessed by means of SYSTEM 2000 on a CDC 6600 computer) to the NRC Material License Master File resident on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) IBM System 370 computer. A user's manual that provides easy-to-understand instructions for the nonprogramming user on how to generate ad hoc analytical reports to facilitate management decisions is also included

  12. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Gidding, Corrie E; Loeffen, Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Mensenkamp, Arjen; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. An 8-year-old girl was diagnosed with CMMR-D syndrome after she developed a brain tumour at the age of 4 and a T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 6. She had multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and died of myelodysplastic syndrome at the age of 11. In children with cancer CMMR-D syndrome can be recognized particularly if there are multiple primary malignancies and skin hyperpigmentations and hypopigmentations. The parents of these children are at high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer (Lynch syndrome), amongst others.

  13. The hobbit - an unexpected deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Joseph A; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2013-12-16

    Vitamin D has been proposed to have beneficial effects in a wide range of contexts. We investigate the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency, caused by both aversion to sunlight and unwholesome diet, could also be a significant contributor to the triumph of good over evil in fantasy literature. Data on the dietary habits, moral attributes and martial prowess of various inhabitants of Middle Earth were systematically extracted from J R R Tolkien's novel The hobbit. Goodness and victoriousness of characters were scored with binary scales, and dietary intake and habitual sun exposure were used to calculate a vitamin D score (range, 0-4). The vitamin D score was significantly higher among the good and victorious characters (mean, 3.4; SD, 0.5) than the evil and defeated ones (mean, 0.2; SD, 0.4; P fantastic situations and whether randomised intervention trials need to be imagined.

  14. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  15. Differential outcome of infection with attenuated Salmonella in MyD88-deficient mice is dependent on the route of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issac, Jincy M; Sarawathiamma, Dhanya; Al-Ketbi, Mai I; Azimullah, Sheikh; Al-Ojali, Samia M; Mohamed, Yassir A; Flavell, Richard A; Fernandez-Cabezudo, Maria J; al-Ramadi, Basel K

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the innate immune system is a prerequisite for the induction of adaptive immunity to both infectious and non-infectious agents. TLRs are key components of the innate immune recognition system and detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Most TLRs utilize the MyD88 adaptor for their signaling pathways. In the current study, we investigated innate and adaptive immune responses to primary as well as secondary Salmonella infections in MyD88-deficient (MyD88(-/-)) mice. Using i.p. or oral route of inoculation, we demonstrate that MyD88(-/-) mice are hypersusceptible to infection by an attenuated, double auxotrophic, mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium). This is manifested by 2-3 logs higher bacterial loads in target organs, delayed recruitment of phagocytic cells, and defective production of proinflammatory cytokines in MyD88(-/-) mice. Despite these deficiencies, MyD88(-/-) mice developed Salmonella-specific memory Th1 responses and produced elevated serum levels of anti-Salmonella Abs, not only of Th1-driven (IgG2c, IgG3) but also IgG1 and IgG2b isotypes. Curiously, these adaptive responses were insufficient to afford full protection against a secondary challenge with a virulent strain of S. typhimurium. In comparison with the high degree of mortality seen in MyD88(-/-) mice following i.p. inoculation, oral infections led to the establishment of a state of long-term persistence, characterized by continuous bacterial shedding in animal feces that lasted for more than 6 months, but absence from systemic organs. These findings suggest that the absent expression of MyD88 affects primarily the innate effector arm of the immune system and highlights its critical role in anti-bacterial defense. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Ferrotherapy of iron deficiency anemia in children

    OpenAIRE

    Berezhniy V.V.; Korneva V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Present article devoted to the steps for implementation unified clinical protocol of the primary, secondary (specialized) medical care «Iron deficiency» to the practical activities of pediatricians, family physicians. The features of ferrotherapy in children of different age groups and the issues of prevention of iron deficiency states are highlighted.

  17. Circadian behaviour in neuroglobin deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian A; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2012-01-01

    on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt) mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1) and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light...

  18. Common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Abstract. Background: Ethiopia is amongst the African countries that have received significant food aid. Nonetheless, the common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries are not well documented. Objective: To find out the common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries in the country based ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: lysosomal acid lipase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipase deficiency develop multi-organ failure and severe malnutrition and generally do not survive past 1 year. In the later-onset form of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency , signs and symptoms vary and usually begin in mid-childhood, although they can appear anytime up to late ...

  20. Growth hormone deficiency and hyperthermia during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif

    1995-01-01

    Sweat secretion is often disturbed in patients with GH secretory disorders. Hyperhidrosis is a classic feature of acromegaly, and it has recently been shown that GH-deficient patients exhibit decreased sweating capacity after pilocarpine stimulation of the skin. Thus, patients with GH-deficiency ...

  1. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  2. IgA, IgE e subclasses de IgG anti-Candida albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses to Candida albicans in serum and vaginal fluid from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Victal de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar níveis de anticorpos IgA, IgE, IgG e subclasses (IgG1, IgG4 específicos a C. albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de mulheres com ou sem candidíase vulvovaginal para avaliar o papel destes anticorpos na imunopatogênese desta doença. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 30 mulheres com sintomas clínicos de candidíase vulvovaginal (15 com cultura de secreção vaginal positiva para C. albicans, 11 com cultura negativa e quatro com cultura positiva para Candida não-albicans e 12 mulheres controles assintomáticas (nove com cultura negativa. Amostras de soro e lavado vaginal foram obtidas para a detecção de anticorpos anti-C. albicans por ELISA. RESULTADOS: Pacientes sintomáticas com cultura positiva apresentaram níveis de IgA específicas significativamente maiores no lavado vaginal e menores no soro do que aquelas com cultura negativa. Níveis séricos de IgE específica foram extremamente baixos em relação ao lavado vaginal. Altos níveis de IgG total específica foram encontrados no soro e lavado vaginal em ambos os grupos, independente da presença do fungo. Níveis de IgG1 e IgG4 específicas foram significativamente maiores somente no lavado vaginal de mulheres sintomáticas e cultura positiva, com relação IgG1/IgG4 ligeiramente maior, indicando que a resposta de anticorpos IgG1 possa estar predominantemente envolvida na resolução da infecção fúngica. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados indicam resposta acentuada de IgA, IgG1 e IgG4 anti-C. albicans no lavado vaginal de mulheres sintomáticas com cultura positiva, sugerindo importante papel destes anticorpos na resposta imune local estimulada pela presença do fungo.PURPOSE: To determine the levels of IgA, IgE, IgG and subclasses (IgG1, IgG4 antibodies specific to C. albicans in serum and vaginal washes from women with or without vulvovaginal candidiasis in order to evaluate the role of these antibodies in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. METHODS: Thirty women

  3. Hematopoietic studies in vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R E; Sauberlich, H E; Canham, J E; Wallace, D L; Rucker, R B; Mejia, L A; Mohanram, M

    1978-05-01

    Recent studies of experimental vitamin A deficiency in man led the authors to conclude that anemia may result from lack of vitamin A. A review of numerous nutrition surveys in underdeveloped countries enhanced the suspicion that deficiency of vitamin A does contribute to the prevalence of anemia. Preliminary studies of vitamin A-deficient rats confirmed previous observations that anemia may result from lack of this vitamin. The livers of these animals had very low concentrations of vitamin A but normal or increased concentrations of iron. The finding of anemia is in contrast with other reports that vitamin A deficiency may cause elevated values for hemoglobin and hematocrit. The authors suggest that loss of taste and smell as a result of deficiency may account for refusal of experimental animals to eat and drink enough to prevent inanitation and dehydration. The resulting hemoconcentration may mask the true hematological picture, which is one of anemia.

  4. Japanese family with congenital factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Kanae; Okayama, Yoshiki; Fukushima, Kenji; Kaji, Shunsaku; Muraoka, Michiko; Arao, Yujiro; Shimada, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance. The present female patient was diagnosed with congenital FVII deficiency because of low hepaplastin test (HPT), although vitamin K was given. Heterozygous p.A191T mutation was detected in the peripheral blood, and the same mutation was also found in the mother and sister. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of p.A191T mutation of FVII in the literature and the first to be reported in Japan. FVII coagulation activity (FVII:C) in asymptomatic heterozygous carriers is mildly reduced. Therefore, some patients may not be accurately diagnosed with congenital FVII deficiency. In infants with low HPT without vitamin K deficiency, congenital FVII deficiency should be considered. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Deficiency of the Chemotactic Factor Inactivator in Human Sera with α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Peter A.; Talamo, Richard C.

    1973-01-01

    As revealed by appropriate fractionation procedures, human serum deficient in α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) is also deficient in the naturally occurring chemotactic factor inactivator. These serum donors had severe pulmonary emphysema. Serum from patients with clinically similar pulmonary disease, but with presence of α1-AT in the serum, showed no such deficiency of the chemotactic factor inactivator. When normal human serum and α1-AT-deficient human sera are chemotactically activated by incubation with immune precipitates, substantially more chemotactic activity is generated in α1-AT-deficient serum. These data indicate that in α1-AT-deficient serum there is an imbalance in the generation and control of chemotactic factors. It is suggested that the theory regarding development of pulmonary emphysema in patients lacking the α1-antitrypsin in their serum should be modified to take into account a deficiency of the chemotactic factor inactivator. PMID:4683887

  6. The triad of Iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-04

    Dec 4, 2014 ... In conclusion, iron deficiency anemia occurring in the triad without zinc deficiency as .... a negative zinc balance and mask existing zinc deficiency.[10] ... erythropoiesis‑stimulating agents in men with chronic kidney disease.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: ataxia with vitamin E deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency is a disorder that impairs the body's ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked creatine deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions X-linked creatine deficiency X-linked creatine deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked creatine deficiency is an inherited disorder that primarily affects ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions CACT deficiency Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency is a condition that ...

  10. Genetic, molecular and functional analyses of complement factor I deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, S.C.; Trouw, L.A.; Renault, N.

    2009-01-01

    Complete deficiency of complement inhibitor factor I (FI) results in secondary complement deficiency due to uncontrolled spontaneous alternative pathway activation leading to susceptibility to infections. Current genetic examination of two patients with near complete FI deficiency and three patie...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  12. Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending Obstetrics And ... prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in reproductive age women, and their relation to ... Thus iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy in well-educated set up ...

  13. IgG2 immunodeficiency: association to pediatric patients with bacterial meningoencephalitis Inmunodeficiencia de IgG2: asociación en pacientes pediátricos con meningoencefalitis bacterianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIOMARA ESCOBAR-PÉREZ

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available An IgG subclass deficiency is often associated with bacterial infections. We studied four pediatric patients suffering from meningoencephalitis, two of them due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and two due to Haemophilus influenzae type b. Simultaneous diagnostic serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were taken during income. The four subclasses of IgG and albumin were quantified in both biologic fluids by radial immunodiffusion. Very low levels of seric IgG2 with non detectable cerebrospinal fluid IgG2 were found in the patients. No intrathecal IgG subclass synthesis was found in two patients. One patient with S. pneumoniae had IgG3 intrathecal synthesis. Intrathecal IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 synthesis was found in one patient suffering from H. influenzae according with reibergrams. Substitutive therapy with intravenous gammaglobulin was given to the patients as part of the treatment.Las deficiencias por subclases de IgG se asocian frecuentemente con infecciones de origen bacteriano. Se estudian cuatro pacientes en edad pediátrica con meningoencefalitis, dos de ellos a Streptococcus pneumoniae y dos a Haemophilus influenzae tipo b. Se toman muestras simultáneas diagnósticas de suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo en el momento del ingreso. Se cuantificaron las cuatro sublclases de IgG y albúmina en ambos líquidos biológicos por inmunodifusión radial. Se encontró que los pacientes presentaban cifras muy disminuidas de IgG2 sérico y ningun exhibia IgG2 en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Dos pacientes no sintetizaron ninguna subclase de IgG intratecalmente. Un paciente con S. pneumoniae sintetizó IgG3 intratecal. Uno de los pacientes con meningoencefalitis a H. influenzae sintetizó IgG1, IgG3 e IgG4 intratecalmente de acuerdo com el reibergrama. Estos pacientes recibieron terapia substitutiva com gammaglobulina intravenosa como parte de la medicación.

  14. Inmunoglobulinas en pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Méndez-Tovar

    2004-12-01

    infections, in the actinomycetoma pathogenesis probably participate the increase or deficiency of a determined immunoglobulin class, as well as the relationship between different subclasses.

  15. Seventeen Alpha-hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew-Lee Wong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen a-hydroxylase deficiency (17OHD is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in which defects in the biosynthesis of cortisol and sex steroid result in mineralocorticoid excess, hypokalemic hypertension and sexual abnormalities such as pseudohermaphroditism in males, and sexual infantilism in females. The disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and is caused by mutations in the gene encoding cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17, which is the single polypeptide that mediates both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. We report the case of a 15-year-old patient with 17OHD who had a female phenotype but male karyotype (46,XY. The diagnosis was made based on classical clinical features, biochemical data and molecular genetic study. Two mutations were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing, including a S106P point mutation in exon 2 and a 9-bp (GACTCTTTC deletion from nucleotide position 1519 in exon 8 of CYP17. The first of these mutations was found in the father and the second in the mother, and both have been previously reported in Asia. The patient's hypertension and hypokalemia resolved after glucocorticoid replacement and treatment with potassium-sparing diuretics. Sex hormone replacement was prescribed for induction of sexual development and reduction of the final height. Prophylactic gonadectomy was scheduled. In summary, 17OHD should be suspected in patients with hypokalemic hypertension and lack of secondary sexual development so that appropriate therapy can be implemented.

  16. Zinc: physiology, deficiency, and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Callum

    2015-06-01

    The essential trace element zinc (Zn) has a large number of physiologic roles, in particular being required for growth and functioning of the immune system. Adaptive mechanisms enable the body to maintain normal total body Zn status over a wide range of intakes, but deficiency can occur because of reduced absorption or increased gastrointestinal losses. Deficiency impairs physiologic processes, leading to clinical consequences that include failure to thrive, skin rash, and impaired wound healing. Mild deficiency that is not clinically overt may still cause nonspecific consequences, such as susceptibility to infection and poor growth. The plasma Zn concentration has poor sensitivity and specificity as a test of deficiency. Consequently, diagnosis of deficiency requires a combination of clinical assessment and biochemical tests. Patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) are susceptible to Zn deficiency and its consequences. Nutrition support teams should have a strategy for assessing Zn status and optimizing this by appropriate supplementation. Nutrition guidelines recommend generous Zn provision from the start of PN. This review covers the physiology of Zn, the consequences of its deficiency, and the assessment of its status, before discussing its role in PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. Reticulocyte maturity indices in iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Wollmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte maturity indices (low, medium, and high fluorescence ratios in iron deficient 1- to 6-year-old children, and identify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in this population. Methods: The present study included 39 subjects, divided into two groups: control subjects (n = 33, and subjects with iron deficiency anemia (n = 6. The results were analyzed by Student's t-test for comparison of means. Differences were considered significant when two-tailed p-value < 0.05. Results: Subjects with iron deficiency anemia presented increases in the proportion of mean (10.3 ± 4.7% vs. 6.0 ± 3.4%; p-value = 0.003, and high fluorescence reticulocytes (2.3 ± 0.87% vs. 0.9 ± 0.9%; p-value = 0.03 compared to the control group. The prevalence of anemia in this population was 15% (n = 6. Conclusion: The indices related to immaturity of reticulocytes are higher in the presence of iron deficiency, thus demonstrating a deficiency in the raw material to form hemoglobin and are, therefore, possible early markers of iron deficiency and anemia. We emphasize the need to standardize these indices for use in clinical practice and lab test results.

  18. Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Melinda; Yan, Albert C

    2010-01-01

    Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess states result from inadvertent or intentional excessive intake. Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional imbalance can herald other systemic manifestations. This contribution discusses nutritional deficiency and excess syndromes with cutaneous manifestations of particular interest to clinical dermatologists. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. 2-Methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sass, Jörn Oliver; Ensenauer, Regina; Röschinger, Wulf

    2008-01-01

    2-Methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (MBD; coded by the ACADSB gene) catalyzes the step in isoleucine metabolism that corresponds to the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase reaction in the degradation of leucine. Deficiencies of both enzymes may be detected by expanded neonatal screening with tandem...... individuals showed clinical symptoms attributable to MBD deficiency although the defect in isoleucine catabolism was demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. Several mutations in the ACADSB gene were identified, including a novel one. MBD deficiency may be a harmless metabolic variant although significant...

  20. [Vitamin B12 deficiency: what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braillard, O; Casini, A; Samii, K; Rufenacht, P; Junod, Perron N

    2012-09-26

    Vitamin B12 screening is only recommended among symptomatic patients or in those with risk factors. The main cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is the food cobalamin malabsorption syndrom. Holotranscobalamin is a more reliable marker than cyanocobalamin to confirm vitamin B12 deficiency, but it has not been validated yet in complex situations. An autoimmune gastritis must be excluded in the absence of risk factors but in the presence of a probable deficiency. Oral substitution treatment is effective but requires excellent therapeutic compliance and close follow-up to monitor the response to treatment. It has not yet been studied among patients suffering from severe symptoms, inflammatory bowel disease and ileal resection.

  1. Hypopituitarism: growth hormone and corticotropin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capatina, Cristina; Wass, John A H

    2015-03-01

    This article presents an overview of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) and corticotropin deficiency (central adrenal failure, CAI). Both conditions can result from various ailments affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (most frequently a tumor in the area or its treatment). Clinical manifestations are subtle in AGHD but potentially life-threatening in CAI. The diagnosis needs dynamic testing in most cases. Treatment of AGHD is recommended in patients with documented severe deficiency, and treatment of CAI is mandatory in all cases. Despite significant progress in replacement hormonal therapy, more physiologic treatments and more reliable indicators of treatment adequacy are still needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiencies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 2Faculty of Dentistry, International Branch, 3Department of Internal Medicine & Endocrine and ... Keywords: Vitamin B12 deficiency, Folate deficiency, Homocysteinemia, Elderly population ... gastritis, intestinal malabsorption, pancreatic.

  3. Impulsivity: A deficiency of inhibitory control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansbergen, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Impulsivity has been defined as acting without thinking. Impulsivity can be quantified by impulsivity questionnaires, but also by behavioral paradigms which tax inhibitory control. Previous research has repeatedly demonstrated deficient inhibitory control in psychopathological samples characterized

  4. Genetics Home Reference: factor XIII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XIII deficiency tend to have heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) and may experience recurrent pregnancy losses ( ... inheritance, which means that it results when both copies of either the F13A1 gene or the F13B ...

  5. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  6. Somatomedin C deficiency in Asian sisters.

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, M E; Price, D A; Hill, D J

    1986-01-01

    Two sisters of Asian origin showed typical clinical and biochemical features of primary somatomedin C (SM-C) deficiency (Laron dwarfism). Abnormalities of SM-C binding proteins were observed, one sister lacking the high molecular weight (150 Kd) protein.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: cerebral folate transport deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R. Cerebral folate deficiency syndromes in childhood: clinical, analytical, and etiologic aspects. Arch Neurol. 2011 May;68( ... 2009.08.005. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Toelle SP, Wille D, Schmitt ...

  8. CALCIUM DEFICIENCY AND CAUSATION OF RICKETS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... communication about the benefits of exposing children to sunlight is very important in preventing the ... of rickets was nutritional deficiency of vitamin D due either to ..... resulting from less time being spent outdoors is the cause.

  9. Defense Logistics Agency Product Quality Deficiency Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... He was interested in improving the product quality deficiency report system, which is used by DoD Components to identify and purge nonconforming material from inventory and to provide information...

  10. LACTASE DEFICIENCY IN BABIES AND INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Kornienko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactose, the constituent disaccharide of milk and other dairy products, is an important nutrient in early childhood. Lactase breaks down lactose in small intestine. In most people the activity of lactase reduces with age. In infancy lactase deficiency tends to be either transient, which is more often, or secondary to intestinal diseases. Abdominal cramps, anxiety and dyspepsia are the common symptoms of lactase deficiency. Tactics of treatment should take into account a cause and severity of the condition. A specialized milk formula «enfamil lactofree», distinguished for its' optimal formulation, high clinical effectiveness and good tolerance, could be recommended for use in children with primary, transient and secondary lactase deficiency who receive formula and mixed feeding.Key words: lactose, lactase deficiency, lactose-free formula.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis in adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marie, S.; Flipsen, J. W.; Duran, M.; Poll-The, B. T.; Beemer, F. A.; Bosschaart, A. N.; Vincent, M. F.; van den Berghe, G.

    2000-01-01

    Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency, an autosomal recessive inborn error of purine synthesis, provokes accumulation in body fluids of succinylaminoimidazolecarboxamide riboside and succinyladenosine, the dephosphorylated derivatives of the two substrates of the enzyme. Most patients display severe

  12. Genetics Home Reference: GABA-transaminase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Description GABA-transaminase deficiency is a brain disease (encephalopathy) that begins in infancy. Babies with this disorder ... genetic testing? What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy ...

  13. Neurological findings in triosephosphate isomerase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll-The, B. T.; Aicardi, J.; Girot, R.; Rosa, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two siblings with hemolytic anemia caused by triosephosphate isomerase deficiency developed a progressive neurological syndrome featuring dystonic movements, tremor, pyramidal tract signs, and evidence of spinal motor neuron involvement. Intelligence was unaffected. The findings in these patients

  14. VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a global problem of public health significance in many ... It is therefore important to know Vitamin A status of. Nigerian ..... Ph D thesis University of Ibadan. Ajaiyeoba AI (1994). Childhood blindness in Nigeria.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: familial glucocorticoid deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (5 links) Australian Pituitary Foundation: An Introduction to Adrenal Insufficiency in ... API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of ...

  16. Isoprenoid biosynthesis and mevalonate kinase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    Mevalonaat Kinase Deficiëntie (MKD) is een aangeboren ziekte geassocieerd met heftige koortsaanvallen die drie tot vier dagen aanhouden en gepaard gaan met koude rillingen, gewrichtsklachten, huiduitslag, hoofdpijn, duizeligheid, buikpijn, braken en diarree. De koortsaanvallen treden gemiddeld eens

  17. FastStats: Anemia or Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Anemia or Iron Deficiency Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... visits Number of visits to emergency departments with anemia as the primary hospital discharge diagnosis: 188,000 ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Management Resources (1 link) GeneReview: Isolated Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Surgery and ...

  19. Experimental reproduction of iodine deficiency in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, M A; Smyth, J A; Ellis, W A; Arthur, J R; Kennedy, D G

    1997-11-22

    The role of iodine deficiency in stillbirth/perinatal weak calf syndrome was investigated in pregnant heifers. Five heifers were fed an iodine deficient diet (mean [sd] iodine concentration 0.06 [0.01] mg/kg dry matter [DM]) and six received an iodine sufficient diet (mean [sd] iodine concentration 1.45 [0.27] mg/kg DM). The diets consisted of wheat and soyabean meal with added minerals and vitamins (with or without iodine) and were fed to the heifers over the final four to five months of pregnancy. The iodine deficient diet produced clinicopathological changes and pathological changes in the thyroid glands of both the heifers and their offspring. However, all the calves in the iodine deficient group were born clinically normal.

  20. Office ergonomics: deficiencies in computer workstation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Al-Kindi, Mahmoud A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study and identify ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design in typical offices. Physical measurements and a questionnaire were used to study 40 workstations. Major ergonomic deficiencies were found in physical design and layout of the workstations, employee postures, work practices, and training. The consequences in terms of user health and other problems were significant. Forty-five percent of the employees used nonadjustable chairs, 48% of computers faced windows, 90% of the employees used computers more than 4 hrs/day, 45% of the employees adopted bent and unsupported back postures, and 20% used office tables for computers. Major problems reported were eyestrain (58%), shoulder pain (45%), back pain (43%), arm pain (35%), wrist pain (30%), and neck pain (30%). These results indicated serious ergonomic deficiencies in office computer workstation design, layout, and usage. Strategies to reduce or eliminate ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design were suggested.

  1. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...... deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency...

  2. Study of neutron-deficient Sn isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, G.

    1982-05-01

    The formation of neutron deficient nuclei by heavy ion reactions is investigated. The experimental technique is presented, and the results obtained concerning Sn et In isotopes reported: first excited states of 106 Sn, high spin states in 107 Sn and 107 In; Yrast levels of 106 Sn, 107 Sn, 108 Sn; study of neutron deficient Sn and In isotopes formed by the desintegration of the compound nucleus 112 Xe. All these results are discussed [fr

  3. Iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Altay, Hakan; Çetiner, Mustafa; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek; Yeşilbursa, Dilek; Yıldırım, Nesligül; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure is an important community health problem. Prevalence and incidence of heart failure have continued to rise over the years. Despite recent advances in heart failure therapy, prognosis is still poor, rehospitalization rate is very high, and quality of life is worse. Co-morbidities in heart failure have negative impact on clinical course of the disease, further impair prognosis, and add difficulties to treatment of clinical picture. Therefore, successful management of co-morbidities is strongly recommended in addition to conventional therapy for heart failure. One of the most common co-morbidities in heart failure is presence of iron deficiency and anemia. Current evidence suggests that iron deficiency and anemia are more prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, as well as those with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Moreover, iron deficiency and anemia are referred to as independent predictors for poor prognosis in heart failure. There is strong relationship between iron deficiency or anemia and severity of clinical status of heart failure. Over the last two decades, many clinical investigations have been conducted on clinical effectiveness of treatment of iron deficiency or anemia with oral iron, intravenous iron, and erythropoietin therapies. Studies with oral iron and erythropoietin therapies did not provide any clinical benefit and, in fact, these therapies have been shown to be associated with increase in adverse clinical outcomes. However, clinical trials in patients with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of anemia have demonstrated considerable clinical benefits of intravenous iron therapy, and based on these positive outcomes, iron deficiency has become target of therapy in management of heart failure. The present report assesses current approaches to iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure in light of recent evidence.

  4. How common is vitamin B-12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2009-02-01

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification. This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers whether fortification would improve the status of deficient subgroups of the population. In large surveys in the United States and the United Kingdom, approximately 6% of those aged > or =60 y are vitamin B-12 deficient (plasma vitamin B-12 life. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Inadequate intake, due to low consumption of animal-source foods, is the main cause of low serum vitamin B-12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor populations worldwide; in most studies, serum vitamin B-12 concentration is correlated with intake of this vitamin. In older persons, food-bound cobalamin malabsorption becomes the predominant cause of deficiency, at least in part due to gastric atrophy, but it is likely that most elderly can absorb the vitamin from fortified food. Fortification of flour with vitamin B-12 is likely to improve the status of most persons with low stores of this vitamin. However, intervention studies are still needed to assess efficacy and functional benefits of increasing intake of the amounts likely to be consumed in flour, including in elderly persons with varying degrees of gastric atrophy.

  5. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in adults presented with anemia. Subjects and Methods: Eighteen months admission data was reviewed for G6PD deficiency as a cause of anemia. Anemia was defined by world health organization (WHO) criteria as haemoglobin less than 11.3 gm%. G6PD activity was measured by Sigma dye decolorisation method. All patients were screened for complications of hemolysis and its possible cause. Patients with more than 13 years of age were included in the study. Results: Out of 3600 patients admitted, 1440 were found anaemic and 49 as G6PD deficient. So the frequency of G6PD deficiency in anaemic patients was 3.4% and the overall frequency is 1.36%. G6PD deficiency among males and females was three and six percent respectively. Antimalarials and antibiotics containing sulphonamide group were the most common precipitating factors for hemolysis. Anemia and jaundice were the most common presentations while malaria was the most common associated disease. Acute renal failure was the most severe complication occurring in five patients with two deaths. Conclusion: G6PD deficiency is a fairly common cause of anemia with medicine as common precipitating factor for hemolysis. Such complications can be avoided with early recognition of the disease and avoiding indiscriminate use of medicine. (author)

  7. PPARgamma Deficiency Counteracts Thymic Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ernszt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thymic senescence contributes to increased incidence of infection, cancer and autoimmunity at senior ages. This process manifests as adipose involution. As with other adipose tissues, thymic adipose involution is also controlled by PPARgamma. This is supported by observations reporting that systemic PPARgamma activation accelerates thymic adipose involution. Therefore, we hypothesized that decreased PPARgamma activity could prevent thymic adipose involution, although it may trigger metabolic adverse effects. We have confirmed that both human and murine thymic sections show marked staining for PPARgamma at senior ages. We have also tested the thymic lobes of PPARgamma haplo-insufficient and null mice. Supporting our working hypothesis both adult PPARgamma haplo-insufficient and null mice show delayed thymic senescence by thymus histology, thymocyte mouse T-cell recombination excision circle qPCR and peripheral blood naive T-cell ratio by flow-cytometry. Delayed senescence showed dose–response with respect to PPARgamma deficiency. Functional immune parameters were also evaluated at senior ages in PPARgamma haplo-insufficient mice (null mice do not reach senior ages due to metabolic adverse affects. As expected, sustained and elevated T-cell production conferred oral tolerance and enhanced vaccination efficiency in senior PPARgamma haplo-insufficient, but not in senior wild-type littermates according to ELISA IgG measurements. Of note, humans also show increased oral intolerance issues and decreased protection by vaccines at senior ages. Moreover, PPARgamma haplo-insufficiency also exists in human known as a rare disease (FPLD3 causing metabolic adverse effects, similar to the mouse. When compared to age- and metabolic disorder-matched other patient samples (FPLD2 not affecting PPARgamma activity, FPLD3 patients showed increased human Trec (hTrec values by qPCR (within healthy human range suggesting delayed thymic senescence, in accordance with

  8. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron deficiency, and specifically iron deficiency anaemia, remains one of the most severe and important nutritional deficiencies in the world today. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors for iron deficiency anaemia among pre-school children in Lagos. Methodology: The study was ...

  9. In HepG2 cells, coexisting carnitine deficiency masks important indicators of marginal biotin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusiewicz, Anna; Boysen, Gunnar; Mock, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    A large number of birth defects are related to nutrient deficiencies; concern that biotin deficiency is teratogenic in humans is reasonable. Surprisingly, studies indicate that increased urinary 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (3HIAc), a previously validated marker of biotin deficiency, is not a valid biomarker in pregnancy. In this study we hypothesized that coexisting carnitine deficiency can prevent the increase in 3HIAc due to biotin deficiency. We used a 2-factor nutrient depletion design to induce isolated and combined biotin and carnitine deficiency in HepG2 cells and then repleted cells with carnitine. To elucidate the metabolic pathogenesis, we quantitated intracellular and extracellular free carnitine, acylcarnitines, and acylcarnitine ratios using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Relative to biotin-sufficient, carnitine-sufficient cells, intracellular acetylcarnitine increased by 90%, propionylcarnitine more than doubled, and 3HIAc increased by >10-fold in biotin-deficient, carnitine-sufficient (BDCS) cells, consistent with a defensive mechanism in which biotin-deficient cells transesterify the acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) substrates of the biotin-dependent carboxylases to the related acylcarnitines. Likewise, in BDCS cells, the ratio of acetylcarnitine to malonylcarnitine and the ratio of propionylcarnitine to methylmalonylcarnitine both more than tripled, and the ratio of 3HIAc to 3-methylglutarylcarnitine (MGc) increased by >10-fold. In biotin-deficient, carnitine-deficient (BDCD) cells, the 3 substrate-derived acylcarnitines changed little, but the substrate:product ratios were masked to a lesser extent. Moreover, carnitine repletion unmasked biotin deficiency in BDCD cells as shown by increases in acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and 3HIAc (each increased by >50-fold). Likewise, ratios of acetylcarnitine:malonylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine:methylmalonylcarnitine, and 3HIAc:MGc all increased by >8-fold. Our findings provide strong

  10. Sleep transitions in hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Jennum, Poul

    2013-08-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by instability of sleep-wake, tonus, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep regulation. It is associated with severe hypothalamic hypocretin deficiency, especially in patients with cataplexy (loss of tonus). As the hypocretin neurons coordinate and stabilize the brain's sleep-wake pattern, tonus, and REM flip-flop neuronal centers in animal models, we set out to determine whether hypocretin deficiency and/or cataplexy predicts the unstable sleep-wake and REM sleep pattern of the human phenotype. We measured the frequency of transitions in patients with narcolepsy between sleep-wake states and to/from REM and NREM sleep stages. Patients were subdivided by the presence of +/- cataplexy and +/- hypocretin-1 deficiency. Sleep laboratory studies conducted from 2001-2011. In total 63 narcolepsy patients were included in the study. Cataplexy was present in 43 of 63 patients and hypocretin-1 deficiency was present in 37 of 57 patients. Hypocretin-deficient patients with narcolepsy had a significantly higher frequency of sleep-wake transitions (P = 0.014) and of transitions to/from REM sleep (P = 0.044) than patients with normal levels of hypocretin-1. Patients with cataplexy had a significantly higher frequency of sleep-wake transitions (P = 0.002) than those without cataplexy. A multivariate analysis showed that transitions to/from REM sleep were predicted mainly by hypocretin-1 deficiency (P = 0.011), whereas sleep-wake transitions were predicted mainly by cataplexy (P = 0.001). In human narcolepsy, hypocretin deficiency and cataplexy are both associated with signs of destabilized sleep-wake and REM sleep control, indicating that the disorder may serve as a human model for the sleep-wake and REM sleep flip-flop switches.

  11. Iron deficiency anemia from diagnosis to treatment in children

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and an important public health problem especially in developing countries. Since the most important indicator of iron deficieny is anemia, the terms “iron deficiency” and “iron deficiency anemia” are often used interchangeably. However, iron deficiency may develop in the absence of anemia and the tissues may be affected from this condition. The most common causes of iron deficiency in children include insufficient intake toge...

  12. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  13. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Matthew P; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (32 ng/mL). After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D-sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly differ depending on vitamin D status (P = .15 and .77, respectively). There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency

  14. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections. Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops. The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  15. Clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a common medical problem worldwide and its prevalence rises along with latitude, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, limited sunlight exposure and aging. A great body of evidence has shown that patients with vitamin D deficiency have increased cardiovascular risks and total mortality. Conversely, the presence of comorbidities progressive with age such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and hypertension places the patients at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. The multidirectional effect of vitamin D deficiency is present in different phases of the aging process. Based on the literature review, the risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency most often found in post-menopausal women include limited sun exposure and time spent outdoors, inadequate dietary vitamin D intake, winter season and increased age. Vitamin D supplementation in this group might offer prevention of falls and fractures and may be beneficial for cardiovascular health, what may be especially important in osteoporotic and elderly populations. Prevention and treatment processes involve education regarding sunlight exposure and pharmacological cholecalciferol supplementation according to the recommendations for Central Europe. This manuscript reviews the role of vitamin D and its deficiency and considers their clinical implications, with particular regard to peri- and postmenopausal women.

  16. Biochemical Assessment of Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Aguilera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 deficiency syndrome includes clinically heterogeneous mitochondrial diseases that show a variety of severe and debilitating symptoms. A multiprotein complex encoded by nuclear genes carries out CoQ10 biosynthesis. Mutations in any of these genes are responsible for the primary CoQ10 deficiency, but there are also different conditions that induce secondary CoQ10 deficiency including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA depletion and mutations in genes involved in the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The diagnosis of CoQ10 deficiencies is determined by the decrease of its content in skeletal muscle and/or dermal skin fibroblasts. Dietary CoQ10 supplementation is the only available treatment for these deficiencies that require a rapid and distinct diagnosis. Here we review methods for determining CoQ10 content by HPLC separation and identification using alternative approaches including electrochemical detection and mass spectrometry. Also, we review procedures to determine the CoQ10 biosynthesis rate using labeled precursors.

  17. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M; Hreidarsson, A B; Andersen, S; Bülow Pedersen, I; Knudsen, N; Perrild, H; Jørgensen, T; Ovesen, L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency disorders are avoided but not higher. Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed.

  18. ODH, oxygen deficiency hazard cryogenic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustynowicz, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    An oxygen deficiency exists when the concentration of oxygen, by volume, drops to a level at which atmosphere supplying respiratory protection must be provided. Since liquid cryogens can expand by factors of 700 (LN 2 ) to 850 (LH e ), the uncontrolled release into an enclosed space can easily cause an oxygen-deficient condition. An oxygen deficiency hazard (ODH) fatality rate per hour (OE) is defined as: OE = Σ N i P i F i , where N i = number of components, P i = probability of failure or operator error, and F i = fatality factor. ODHs range from open-quotes unclassifiedclose quotes (OE -9 1/h) to class 4, which is the most hazardous (OE>10 -1 1/h). For Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) buildings where cryogenic systems exist, failure rate, fatality factor, reduced oxygen ratio, and fresh air circulation are examined

  19. MRI findings of complete growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiba, Yozo

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on the pituitary gland of 20 children (age range, 2-11 years) with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. Sixteen patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency showed disappearance of the pituitary stalk, disappearance of high signal area of the posterior pituitary, presence of ectopic pituitary, and decreased volume of the anterior pituitary. Many of them had a history of perinatal abnormalities such as asphyxia at delivery, breech delivery, and bradytocia. On the contrary, patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency presented no abnormal findings on MR images, and had no history of perinatal abnormalities. The findings of pituitary stalk separation syndrome suggested the presence of multiple hypopituitarism. (S.Y.)

  20. Growth hormone deficiency and hyperthermia during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif

    1995-01-01

    -deficiency may be at risk for developing hyperthermia. To pursue this, we performed a controlled study on sweating and body temperature regulation during exercise in the heat in 16 GH-treated GH-deficient patients with normalized insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor/binding protein-3 serum.......001]. Consequently, the core temperatures of the patients increased significantly after exercise compared with those of the CTs [38.3 C (0.10 C) (MPD) and 38.1 C (0.06 C) (isolated GH deficiency) vs. 37.5 C (0.2 C) (CTs) (P temperature increased significantly during exercise in the patients...... but remained unaltered in the CTs. Sweat secretion rates, as determined by the pilocarpine method, were significantly lower in the MPD patients [77 (SE +/- 10) mg/30 min] than in the CTs [115 (SE +/- 7) mg/30 min] (P

  1. Novel targets for ATM-deficient malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Johannes; Hofmann, Kay; Chen, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    Conventional chemo- and radiotherapies for the treatment of cancer target rapidly dividing cells in both tumor and non-tumor tissues and can exhibit severe cytotoxicity in normal tissue and impair the patient's immune system. Novel targeted strategies aim for higher efficacy and tumor specificity. The role of ATM protein in the DNA damage response is well known and ATM deficiency frequently plays a role in tumorigenesis and development of malignancy. In addition to contributing to disease development, ATM deficiency also renders malignant cells heavily dependent on other pathways that cooperate with the ATM-mediated DNA damage response to ensure tumor cell survival. Disturbing those cooperative pathways by inhibiting critical protein components allows specific targeting of tumors while sparing healthy cells with normal ATM status. We review druggable candidate targets for the treatment of ATM-deficient malignancies and the mechanisms underlying such targeted therapies. PMID:27308314

  2. MRI findings of complete growth hormone deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiba, Yozo [National Hospital of Okayama (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on the pituitary gland of 20 children (age range, 2-11 years) with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. Sixteen patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency showed disappearance of the pituitary stalk, disappearance of high signal area of the posterior pituitary, presence of ectopic pituitary, and decreased volume of the anterior pituitary. Many of them had a history of perinatal abnormalities such as asphyxia at delivery, breech delivery, and bradytocia. On the contrary, patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency presented no abnormal findings on MR images, and had no history of perinatal abnormalities. The findings of pituitary stalk separation syndrome suggested the presence of multiple hypopituitarism. (S.Y.).

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, R.; Kamran, S. M.; Haider, E.; Qadir, A.; Usman, H. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and association of Vitamin D deficiency in patients with tuberculosis. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Department, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian, from July 2010 to June 2012. Methodology: One hundred and five outdoor patients of tuberculosis were selected with 255 gender matched controls. Tuberculosis was diagnosed by presence of acid fast bacilli in sputum smears, positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis or demonstration of chronic caseating granulomatous inflammation in tissue specimens. Controls were drawn randomly from general population. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH) D3] levels < 25 ng/ml was considered Vitamin D deficiency. The results were analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: Mean Vitamin D levels were 23.23 A+- 6.81 ng/ml in cases, 29.27 A+- 8.89 ng/ml in controls (p < 0.0001). Vitamin D deficiency was found in 57% of cases and 33% controls (p < 0.0001). Mean Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in females with tuberculosis (20.84 ng/ml) as compared to males (25.03 ng/ml, p = 0.002). Mean BMI in patients of tuberculosis with Vitamin D deficiency were 19.51 A+- 1.77 kg/m2 and in patients with normal Vitamin D were 21.65 A+- 1.79 kg/m2 (p < 0.0001). Mean Vitamin D levels in patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis was lower to a mean of 15.41 A+- 4.67 ng/ml (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: There is significant deficiency of Vitamin D in patients with tuberculosis as compared to controls. This deficiency is more pronounced in females, individuals with low BMI, extra pulmonary and MDR tuberculosis. (author)

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K Flood-Nichols

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in reproductive-aged women in the United States. The effect of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is unknown, but has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and subsequent clinical outcomes.This is a retrospective cohort study. Plasma was collected in the first trimester from 310 nulliparous women with singleton gestations without significant medical problems. Competitive enzymatic vitamin D assays were performed on banked plasma specimens and pregnancy outcomes were collected after delivery. Logistic regression was performed on patients stratified by plasma vitamin D concentration and the following combined clinical outcomes: preeclampsia, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion.Vitamin D concentrations were obtained from 235 patients (mean age 24.3 years, range 18-40 years. Seventy percent of our study population was vitamin D insufficient with a serum concentration less than 30 ng/mL (mean serum concentration 27.6 ng/mL, range 13-71.6 ng/mL. Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age, race, body mass index, tobacco use, and time of year. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included preeclampsia, growth restriction, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. There was no association between vitamin D deficiency and composite adverse pregnancy outcomes with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (p value 0.738, 95% confidence intervals 0.961-1.057.Vitamin D deficiency did not associate with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this study population. However, the high percentage of affected individuals highlights the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young, reproductive-aged women.

  5. Rickets–vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal. PMID:22470851

  6. Rickets-vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sahay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal.

  7. The molecular basis of aminoacylase 1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anke; Christensen, Ernst; Schwenger, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    deficiency have not been characterized so far. This has prompted us to approach expression studies of all mutations known to occur in aminoacylase 1 deficient individuals in a human cell line (HEK293), thus providing the authentic human machinery for posttranslational modifications. Mutations were inserted...... using site directed mutagenesis and aminoacylase 1 enzyme activity was assessed in cells overexpressing aminoacylase 1, using mainly the natural high affinity substrate N-acetyl methionine. Overexpression of the wild type enzyme in HEK293 cells resulted in an approximately 50-fold increase...

  8. Tumoral calcinosis with vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Subramanian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old woman presented with recurrent calcified mass in the left gluteal region. The clinical, radiological, and biochemical profile confirmed the diagnosis of tumoral calcinosis. She also had associated vitamin D deficiency. The patient underwent surgical removal of the mass to relieve the sciatic nerve compression and was managed with acetazolamide, calcium carbonate, and aluminium hydroxide gel with which she showed significant improve-ment. The management implications and effect of vitamin D deficiency on phosphate metabolism in the setting of tumoral calcinosis is discussed.

  9. Sleep Transitions in Hypocretin-Deficient Narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by instability of sleep-wake, tonus, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep regulation. It is associated with severe hypothalamic hypocretin deficiency, especially in patients with cataplexy (loss of tonus). As the hypocretin neurons coordinate and stabilize the brain......'s sleep-wake pattern, tonus, and REM flip-flop neuronal centers in animal models, we set out to determine whether hypocretin deficiency and/or cataplexy predicts the unstable sleep-wake and REM sleep pattern of the human phenotype....

  10. Compressed Sensing with Rank Deficient Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Johansen, Daniel Højrup; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    In compressed sensing it is generally assumed that the dictionary matrix constitutes a (possibly overcomplete) basis of the signal space. In this paper we consider dictionaries that do not span the signal space, i.e. rank deficient dictionaries. We show that in this case the signal-to-noise ratio...... (SNR) in the compressed samples can be increased by selecting the rows of the measurement matrix from the column space of the dictionary. As an example application of compressed sensing with a rank deficient dictionary, we present a case study of compressed sensing applied to the Coarse Acquisition (C...

  11. Isolated Cortisol Deficiency: A Rare Cause of Neonatal Cholestasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Awatif; Mursi, Alaaddin; Alghofely, Mohammed; Asery, Ali

    2012-01-01

    For decades, congenital panhypopituitarism has been recognized to cause infantile cholestasis. However, the identity of the hormone whose deficiency causes such derangement of the liver is not clear. Here, we report four cases of isolated severe cortisol deficiency presenting with neonatal cholestasis and hypoglycemia, of whom two had familial primary glucocorticoid deficiency and the other two had isolated adrenocorticotropin deficiency. The resolution of cholestasis by hydrocortisone replacement therapy suggests a causal relationship between cortisol deficiency and the development of neonatal cholestasis. In conclusion, the presentation of a young infant with cholestasis and hypoglycemia should alert pediatricians to the possibility of cortisol deficiency and prompt investigation of adrenal function should be undertaken. PMID:23006463

  12. Colour Vision Deficiency and Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of "colourblindness" most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision…

  13. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin D deficiency and heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Drechsler, Christiane; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    Vitamin D deficiency is present in the vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and correcting a poor vitamin D status is recommended as a treatment of CKD-mineral and bone disorders. In this review, we summarize the molecular and clinical data on the role of vitamin D status for

  15. Resurrection of vitamin D deficiency and rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    The epidemic scourge of rickets in the 19th century was caused by vitamin D deficiency due to inadequate sun exposure and resulted in growth retardation, muscle weakness, skeletal deformities, hypocalcemia, tetany, and seizures. The encouragement of sensible sun exposure and the fortification of milk with vitamin D resulted in almost complete eradication of the disease. Vitamin D (where D represents D2 or D3) is biologically inert and metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the major circulating form of vitamin D that is used to determine vitamin D status. 25(OH)D is activated in the kidneys to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which regulates calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency has again become an epidemic in children, and rickets has become a global health issue. In addition to vitamin D deficiency, calcium deficiency and acquired and inherited disorders of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus metabolism cause rickets. This review summarizes the role of vitamin D in the prevention of rickets and its importance in the overall health and welfare of infants and children. PMID:16886050

  16. Genetics Home Reference: purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency is one of several disorders that damage the immune system and cause severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). People with SCID lack virtually all immune protection from foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses, and ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... belongs to a class of genetic diseases called urea cycle disorders. The urea cycle is a sequence of reactions ... Baby's First Test GeneReview: Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency GeneReview: Urea Cycle Disorders Overview MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Hereditary urea cycle abnormality National ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition color blindness color vision defects defective color vision vision defect, color ... Perception KidsHealth from the Nemours Foundation MalaCards: color blindness MalaCards: color vision deficiency Orphanet: Blue cone monochromatism Orphanet: NON ...

  19. Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, K.D.C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

  20. Prophylactic immunoglobulin therapy in secondary immune deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostini, Carlo; Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Kimby, Eva

    2016-01-01

    RT in secondary immune deficiencies (SID), and most published guidelines are mere extrapolations from the experience in PID. AREAS COVERED: In this article, four European experts provide their consolidated opinion on open questions surrounding the prophylactic use of IgRT in SID, based on their clinical...

  1. Vitamin A deficiency Ann Burgess MPH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    Here we describe vitamin A deficiency, future articles will cover other ... Vitamin A occurs mainly as 'retinol' in animal foods and as 'Я-carotene' in plant foods c. .... instil chloramphenicol or tetracycline eye drops (as required 2-3 hourly for 7-10.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine deaminase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) and Conditions Associated with T Cell Lymphoneia (PDF) Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Severe ... Diseases Immune Deficiency Foundation Jeffrey Modell Foundation National Organization for Rare ... OMIM (1 link) SEVERE COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE, T CELL-NEGATIVE, B CELL-NEGATIVE, NK CELL-NEGATIVE, DUE ...

  3. Model of how plants sense zinc deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assuncao, Ana G.L.; Persson, Daniel Olof; Husted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    to develop plant-based solutions addressing nutrient-use-efficiency and adaptation to nutrient-limited or -toxic soils. Recently two transcription factors of the bZIP family (basic-region leucine zipper) have been identified in Arabidopsis and shown to be pivotal in the adaptation response to zinc deficiency...

  4. Managing vitamin D deficiency in children

    OpenAIRE

    Michie, Colin; Bangalore, Sathish

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been identified in many British children. This condition has many deleterious effects on their health. Taking vitamin D status into account needs to become a daily element of primary care practice, both in antenatal and postnatal situations. It is probable that a significant improvement in reducing chronic diseases in adulthood will result from a more proactive approach in children.

  5. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Griffith (Linda); M. Cowan (Morton); L.D. Notarangelo (Luigi Daniele); R. Kohn (Robert); J. Puck (Jennifer); S.-Y. Pai (Sung-Yun); B. Ballard (Barbara); S.C. Bauer (Sarah); J. Bleesing (Jack); M. Boyle (Marcia); R.W. Brower (Ronald); R.H. Buckley (Rebecca); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); L.M. Burroughs (Lauri); F. Candotti (Fabio); A. Cant (Andrew); T. Chatila (Talal); C. Cunningham-Rundles (Charlotte); M.C. Dinauer (Mary); J. Dvorak (Jennie); A. Filipovich (Alexandra); L.A. Fleisher (Lee); H.B. Gaspar (Bobby); T. Gungor (Tayfun); E. Haddad (Elie); E. Hovermale (Emily); F. Huang (Faith); A. Hurley (Alan); M. Hurley (Mary); S.K. Iyengar (Sudha); E.M. Kang (Elizabeth); B.R. Logan (Brent); J.R. Long-Boyle (Janel); H. Malech (Harry); S.A. McGhee (Sean); S. Modell (Sieglinde); S. Modell (Sieglinde); H.D. Ochs (Hans); R.J. O'Reilly (Richard); R. Parkman (Robertson); D. Rawlings (D.); J.M. Routes (John); P. Shearer (P.); T.N. Small (Trudy); H. Smith (H.); K.E. Sullivan (Kathleen); P. Szabolcs (Paul); A.J. Thrasher (Adrian); D. Torgerson; P. Veys (Paul); K. Weinberg (Kenneth); J.C. Zuniga-Pflucker (Juan Carlos)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency

  6. Autosomal dominant transmission of GLUT1 deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper, J.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Verrips, A.; Guertsen, E.; Herrmann, R.; Kutzick, C.; Florcken, A.; Voit, T.

    2001-01-01

    GLUT1 deficiency is caused by a defect in the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT1. Impaired glucose transport across brain tissue barriers is reflected by hypoglycorrhachia and results in an epileptic encephalopathy with developmental delay and motor disorders. Recently heterozygous mutations in

  7. Genetics Home Reference: common variable immune deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders are immune thrombocytopenia purpura, which is an abnormal bleeding disorder caused by a decrease in cell fragments involved ... antibodies makes it difficult for people with this disorder to fight off infections. Abnormal and deficient immune responses over time likely contribute ...

  8. Cobalamin Deficiency: Clinical Picture and Radiological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Briani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency causes a wide range of hematological, gastrointestinal, psychiatric and neurological disorders. Hematological presentation of cobalamin deficiency ranges from the incidental increase of mean corpuscular volume and neutrophil hypersegmentation to symptoms due to severe anemia, such as angor, dyspnea on exertion, fatigue or symptoms related to congestive heart failure, such as ankle edema, orthopnea and nocturia. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may precede hematologic signs and are represented by myelopathy, neuropathy, dementia and, less often, optic nerve atrophy. The spinal cord manifestation, subacute combined degeneration (SCD, is characterized by symmetric dysesthesia, disturbance of position sense and spastic paraparesis or tetraparesis. The most consistent MRI finding is a symmetrical abnormally increased T2 signal intensity confined to posterior or posterior and lateral columns in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Isolated peripheral neuropathy is less frequent, but likely overlooked. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been correlated negatively with cognitive functioning in healthy elderly subjects. Symptoms include slow mentation, memory impairment, attention deficits and dementia. Optic neuropathy occurs occasionally in adult patient. It is characterized by symmetric, painless and progressive visual loss. Parenteral replacement therapy should be started soon after the vitamin deficiency has been established.

  9. Congenital leptin deficiency and thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz-Filho Gilberto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thyroid function is closely related to leptin's secretion by the adipose tissue. In states of leptin-deficiency, the circadian rhythm of TSH is altered, leading to central hypothyroidism in animal models. In humans, central hypothyroidism has also been described in rare cases of congenital leptin deficiency. However, the thyroid phenotype in these cases is heterogeneous, with the occurrence of central hypothyroidism in a minority of cases. Here we describe thyroid function in four leptin-deficient humans (2 males aged 5 and 27, and 2 females aged 35 and 40, before and during leptin replacement with recombinant human methionyl leptin (r-metHuLeptin. The child was evaluated for four years, and the adults, for eight years. In addition, the adults were submitted to a brief withdrawal of leptin during six weeks in the sixth year. Our results show that, regardless of leptin replacement, our leptin-deficient patients have normal thyroid function. In spite of having an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidal axis, leptin is not required for normal thyroid function. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00659828 and NCT00657605

  10. Clinical Features of Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, Barbara K.; Deegan, Patrick B.; Enns, Gregory M.; Guardamagna, Ornella; Horslen, Simon; Hovingh, Gerard K.; Lobritto, Steve J.; Malinova, Vera; McLin, Valerie A.; Raiman, Julian; Di Rocco, Maja; Santra, Saikat; Sharma, Reena; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Whitley, Chester B.; Eckert, Stephen; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Quinn, Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize key clinical manifestations of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL D) in children and adults. Investigators reviewed medical records of LAL D patients ages ≥5 years, extracted historical data, and obtained prospective laboratory and imaging data on living

  11. Fuzzy modeling for Vitamin B12 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbik, A.M.; van Loon, S.L.M.; Boer, A.K.; Kaymak, U.; Scharnhorst, V.; Carvalho, J.; Lesot, M.J.; Kaymak, U.; Vieira, S.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.

    2016-01-01

    Blood vitamin B12 levels are not representative for actual vitamin B12 status in tissue. Instead plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels can be measured because MMA concentrations increase relatively early in the course of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, MMA levels in plasma may also be increased

  12. Hyperglucagonemia during insulin deficiency accelerates protein catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.S.; Halliday, D.; Matthews, D.E.; Welle, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Hyperglucagonemia coexists with insulin deficiency or insulin resistance in many conditions where urinary nitrogen excretion is increased, but the precise role of glucagon in these conditions is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperglucagonemia on protein metabolism in insulin-deficient subjects. The authors used the stable isotope of an essential amino acid (L-[1- 13 C]leucine) as a tracer of in vivo protein metabolism. A combined deficiency of insulin and glucagon was induced by intravenous infusion of somatostatin. Hyperglucagonemia and hypoinsulinemia were induced by infusions of somatostatin and glucagon. When somatostatin alone was infused leucine flux increased, indicating a 6-17% increase in proteolysis. When somatostatin and glucagon were infused, leucine flux increased, indicating a 12-32% increase in proteolysis. The increase in leucine flux during the infusion of somatostatin and glucagon was higher than the increase during infusion of somatostatin alone. Somatostatin alone did not change leucine oxidation, whereas the somatostatin plus glucagon increased leucine oxidation 100%. They conclude that hyperglucagonemia accelerated proteolysis and leucine oxidation in insulin-deficient humans

  13. Circadian behaviour in neuroglobin deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Hundahl

    Full Text Available Neuroglobin (Ngb, a neuron-specific oxygen-binding globin with an unknown function, has been proposed to play a key role in neuronal survival. We have previously shown Ngb to be highly expressed in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. The present study addresses the effect of Ngb deficiency on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1 and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light stimulation at night and the neurochemical phenotype of Ngb expressing neurons in wt mice was characterized. Loss of Ngb function had no effect on overall circadian entrainment, but resulted in a significantly larger phase delay of circadian rhythm upon light stimulation at early night. A light-induced increase in Per1, but not Fos, gene expression was observed in Ngb-deficient mice. Ngb expressing neurons which co-stored Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP and were innervated from the eye and the geniculo-hypothalamic tract expressed FOS after light stimulation. No PER1 expression was observed in Ngb-positive neurons. The present study demonstrates for the first time that the genetic elimination of Ngb does not affect core clock function but evokes an increased behavioural response to light concomitant with increased Per1 gene expression in the SCN at early night.

  14. Deficiency within pavement Maintenance Organization in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the rules and regulations of the public administrative system do not allow for an effective and efficient management of road maintenance. Lack of equipment and adequate qualified personnel in the field of road maintenance is too an added deficiency. As a consequence, Tanzania has started to put road ...

  15. Magnesium deficiency and increased inflammation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen FH

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forrest H Nielsen Research Nutritionist Consultant, Grand Forks, ND, USA Abstract: Animal studies have shown that magnesium deficiency induces an inflammatory response that results in leukocyte and macrophage activation, release of inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins, and excessive production of free radicals. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that the primary mechanism through which magnesium deficiency has this effect is through increasing cellular Ca2+, which is the signal that results in the priming of cells to give the inflammatory response. Primary pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL-1; the messenger cytokine IL-6; cytokine responders E-selectin, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; and acute-phase reactants C-reactive protein and fibrinogen have been determined to associate magnesium deficiency with chronic low-grade inflammation (inflammatory stress. When magnesium dietary intake, supplementation, and/or serum concentration suggest/s the presence of magnesium deficiency, it often is associated with low-grade inflammation and/or with pathological conditions for which inflammatory stress is considered a risk factor. When magnesium intake, supplementation, and/or serum concentration suggest/s an adequate status, magnesium generally has not been found to significantly affect markers of chronic low-grade inflammation or chronic disease. The consistency of these findings can be modified by other nutritional and metabolic factors that affect inflammatory and oxidative stress. In spite of this, findings to date provide convincing evidence that magnesium deficiency is a significant contributor to chronic low-grade inflammation that is a risk factor for a variety of pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Because magnesium deficiency commonly occurs in countries where foods rich in magnesium are not consumed in

  16. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3–poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3–rich diets, or omega-3–rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal. PMID:26644556

  17. Clinical significance of enzymatic deficiencies in the gastrointestinal tract with particular reference to lactase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, E; Lentze, M J

    1984-12-01

    The study of deficiencies of small intestinal brush-border hydrolases increased our knowledge about the specific functions of hydrolases in the digestion of smaller molecules on the microvillus surface of the absorptive cells. The sucrase-isomaltase (SI) complex has been shown to be synthesized as a precursor (pro-sucrase-isomaltase) which is then incorporated into the membrane. The hydrophobic N-terminal end of the molecule is anchored in the lipid bilayer. In SI deficiency the molecular base of the disease is still not clear. Absence of SI activity could be due to complete lack of precursor synthesis or to structural changes within the N-terminal end of the SI-complex. Deficiencies of peptide hydrolases have not been reported with the exception of enteropeptidase (EP). Here a congenital deficiency of the enzyme was observed as the primary defect in enzyme synthesis within the enterocytes and as a secondary defect due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. In contrast to the primary EP deficiency, the activity of EP can be restored in the cases of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency by treatment with pancreatic extracts. Primary lactase deficiency exists in various forms. Besides congenital lactase deficiency, the late onset or adult type of lactase deficiency has been observed. The latter occurs in many different ethnic groups around the world. Here, using gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, the lack of enzyme activity could be shown to be a primary defect in enzyme protein synthesis. In man and in the rat, two different lactases have been identified. In contrast to adult lactase, fetal lactase contains sialic acid at the end of carbohydrate side chains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. High Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and No Folate Deficiency in Young Children in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette N. Ng’eno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many children in low- and middle-income countries may have inadequate intake of vitamin B12 and folate; data confirming these inadequacies are limited. We used biochemical, demographic, behavioral and anthropometric data to describe the folate and vitamin B12 concentrations among six- to 23-month-old Nepalese children. Vitamin B12 (serum B12 < 150 pmol/L and folate deficiencies (red blood cell (RBC folate < 226.5 nmol/L were assessed. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of vitamin B12 deficiency. The vitamin B12 geometric mean was 186 pmol/L; 30.2% of children were deficient. The mean RBC folate concentration was 13,612 nmol/L; there was no deficiency. Factors associated with vitamin B12 deficiency included: (a age six to 11 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.18, 1.92 or 12–17 months (aOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.72 compared to 18–23 months; (b being stunted (aOR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.50 compared to not being stunted; (c and not eating animal-source foods (aOR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.41 compared to eating animal-source foods the previous day. There was a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, but no folate deficiency. Improving early feeding practices, including the consumption of rich sources of vitamin B12, such as animal-source foods and fortified foods, may help decrease deficiency.

  19. G6PD Deficiency (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genes from one or both parents to a child. The gene responsible for this deficiency is on the X chromosome. G6PD deficiency is most common in males of African heritage. Many females of African heritage are carriers ...

  20. A rare combination: congenital factor VII deficiency with Chiari malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Ali; Aktekin, Elif; Erkutlu, Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Congenital factor (VII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder. We present a patient with congenital FVII deficiency and congenital hydrocephalus who underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation and needed no prophylaxis after the procedure.