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Sample records for igf-1 receptor igf-1r

  1. Compensatory insulin receptor (IR) activation on inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R): rationale for cotargeting IGF-1R and IR in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Elizabeth; Gokhale, Prafulla C; Koujak, Susan; Brown, Eric; Eyzaguirre, Alexandra; Tao, Nianjun; Rosenfeld-Franklin, Maryland; Lerner, Lorena; Chiu, M Isabel; Wild, Robert; Epstein, David; Pachter, Jonathan A; Miglarese, Mark R

    2010-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and critical activator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway. IGF-1R is required for oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. These observations have spurred anticancer drug discovery and development efforts for both biological and small-molecule IGF-1R inhibitors. The ability for one RTK to compensate for another to maintain tumor cell viability is emerging as a common resistance mechanism to antitumor agents targeting individual RTKs. As IGF-1R is structurally and functionally related to the insulin receptor (IR), we asked whether IR is tumorigenic and whether IR-AKT signaling contributes to resistance to IGF-1R inhibition. Both IGF-1R and IR(A) are tumorigenic in a mouse mammary tumor model. In human tumor cells coexpressing IGF-1R and IR, bidirectional cross talk was observed following either knockdown of IR expression or treatment with a selective anti-IGF-1R antibody, MAB391. MAB391 treatment resulted in a compensatory increase in phospho-IR, which was associated with resistance to inhibition of IRS1 and AKT. In contrast, treatment with OSI-906, a small-molecule dual inhibitor of IGF-1R/IR, resulted in enhanced reduction in phospho-IRS1/phospho-AKT relative to MAB391. Insulin or IGF-2 activated the IR-AKT pathway and decreased sensitivity to MAB391 but not to OSI-906. In tumor cells with an autocrine IGF-2 loop, both OSI-906 and an anti-IGF-2 antibody reduced phospho-IR/phospho-AKT, whereas MAB391 was ineffective. Finally, OSI-906 showed superior efficacy compared with MAB391 in human tumor xenograft models in which both IGF-1R and IR were phosphorylated. Collectively, these data indicate that cotargeting IGF-1R and IR may provide superior antitumor efficacy compared with targeting IGF-1R alone.

  2. SUMO-modified insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) increases cell cycle progression and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingbo; Liu, Hongyu; Waraky, Ahmed; Haglund, Felix; Agarwal, Prasoon; Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena; Warsito, Dudi; Larsson, Olle

    2017-10-01

    Increasing number of studies have shown nuclear localization of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (nIGF-1R) in tumor cells and its links to adverse clinical outcome in various cancers. Any obvious cell physiological roles of nIGF-1R have, however, still not been disclosed. Previously, we reported that IGF-1R translocates to cell nucleus and modulates gene expression by binding to enhancers, provided that the receptor is SUMOylated. In this study, we constructed stable transfectants of wild type IGF1R (WT) and triple-SUMO-site-mutated IGF1R (TSM) using igf1r knockout mouse fibroblasts (R-). Cell clones (R-WT and R-TSM) expressing equal amounts of IGF-1R were selected for experiments. Phosphorylation of IGF-1R, Akt, and Erk upon IGF-1 stimulation was equal in R-WT and R-TSM. WT was confirmed to enter nuclei. TSM did also undergo nuclear translocation, although to a lesser extent. This may be explained by that TSM heterodimerizes with insulin receptor, which is known to translocate to cell nuclei. R-WT proliferated substantially faster than R-TSM, which did not differ significantly from the empty vector control. Upon IGF-1 stimulation G1-S-phase progression of R-WT increased from 12 to 38%, compared to 13 to 20% of R-TSM. The G1-S progression of R-WT correlated with increased expression of cyclin D1, A, and CDK2, as well as downregulation of p27. This suggests that SUMO-IGF-1R affects upstream mechanisms that control and coordinate expression of cell cycle regulators. Further studies to identify such SUMO-IGF-1R dependent mechanisms seem important. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  3. The strength of small: Improved targeting of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R) with F(ab')2-R1507 fragments in Ewing sarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, Emmy D. G.; Versleijen-Jonkers, Yvonne M. H.; Heskamp, Sandra; Roeffen, Melissa H. S.; Bouwman, Wilbert H.; Molkenboer-Kuenen, Janneke D. M.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Boerman, Otto C.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether F(ab')2-fragments of the monoclonal Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R) antibody R1507 (F(ab')2-R1507) can successfully target IGF-1R in Ewing sarcomas (ES). BALB/c nude mice were subcutaneously implanted with IGF-1R-expressing human ES xenografts (EW-5 and EW-8)

  4. Impaired IGF1R signaling in cells expressing longevity-associated human IGF1R alleles

    OpenAIRE

    Tazearslan, Cagdas; Huang, Jing; Barzilai, Nir; Suh, Yousin

    2011-01-01

    Dampening of insulin/insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1) signaling results in extension of lifespan in invertebrate as well as murine models. The impact of this evolutionarily conserved pathway on modulation of human lifespan remains unclear. We previously identified two IGF1R mutations (Ala-37-Thr and Arg-407-His) that are enriched in Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians as compared to younger controls and are associated with reduced activity of the IGF1 receptor as measured in immortalized lymphoc...

  5. Targeted Morphoproteomic Profiling of Ewing's Sarcoma Treated with Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) Inhibitors: Response/Resistance Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Vivek; Naing, Aung; Brown, Robert E.; Chen, Helen; Doyle, Laurence; LoRusso, Patricia; Benjamin, Robert; Anderson, Pete; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2011-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) targeted therapies have resulted in responses in a small number of patients with advanced metastatic Ewing's sarcoma. We performed morphoproteomic profiling to better understand response/resistance mechanisms of Ewing's sarcoma to IGF1R inhibitor-based therapy. Methodology/Principal Findings This pilot study assessed two patients with advanced Ewing's sarcoma treated with IGF1R antibody alone followed by combined IGF1R inhibitor plus mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor treatment once resistance to single-agent IGF1R inhibitor developed. Immunohistochemical probes were applied to detect p-mTOR (Ser2448), p-Akt (Ser473), p-ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), nestin, and p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) in the original and recurrent tumor. The initial remarkable radiographic responses to IGF1R-antibody therapy was followed by resistance and then response to combined IGF1R plus mTOR inhibitor therapy in both patients, and then resistance to the combination regimen in one patient. In patient 1, upregulation of p-Akt and p-mTOR in the tumor that relapsed after initial response to IGF1R antibody might explain the resistance that developed, and the subsequent response to combined IGF1R plus mTOR inhibitor therapy. In patient 2, upregulation of mTOR was seen in the primary tumor, perhaps explaining the initial response to the IGF1R and mTOR inhibitor combination, while the resistant tumor that emerged showed activation of the ERK pathway as well. Conclusion/Significance Morphoproteomic analysis revealed that the mTOR pathway was activated in these two patients with advanced Ewing's sarcoma who showed response to combined IGF1R and mTOR inhibition, and the ERK pathway in the patient in whom resistance to this combination emerged. Our pilot results suggests that morphoproteomic assessment of signaling pathway activation in Ewing's sarcoma merits further investigation as a guide to understanding response and resistance signatures. PMID

  6. Pancreatic Fibroblasts Stimulate the Motility of Pancreatic Cancer Cells through IGF1/IGF1R Signaling under Hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Hirakawa

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is characterized by its hypovascularity, with an extremely poor prognosis because of its highly invasive nature. PDAC proliferates with abundant stromal cells, suggesting that its invasive activity might be controlled by intercellular interactions between cancer cells and fibroblasts. Using four PDAC cell lines and two pancreas cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1 and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R was evaluated by RT-PCR, FACScan, western blot, or ELISA. Correlation between IGF1R and the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9 was examined by immunohistochemical staining of 120 pancreatic specimens. The effects of CAFs, IGF1, and IGF1R inhibitors on the motility of cancer cells were examined by wound-healing assay or invasion assay under normoxia (20% O2 and hypoxia (1% O2. IGF1R expression was significantly higher in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells than in Panc-1 cells. Hypoxia increased the expression level of IGF1R in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells. CA9 expression was correlated with IGF1R expression in pancreatic specimens. CAFs produced IGF1 under hypoxia, but PDAC cells did not. A conditioned medium from CAFs, which expressed αSMA, stimulated the migration and invasion ability of MiaPaCa-2, RWP-1, and OCUP-AT cells. The motility of all PDAC cells was greater under hypoxia than under normoxia. The motility-stimulating ability of CAFs was decreased by IGF1R inhibitors. These findings might suggest that pancreas CAFs stimulate the invasion activity of PDAC cells through paracrine IGF1/IGF1R signaling, especially under hypoxia. Therefore the targeting of IGF1R signaling might represent a promising therapeutic approach in IGF1R-dependent PDAC.

  7. Insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression as a prognostic indicator of local recurrence in conservatively treated breast cancer: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, B.C.; Haffty, B.G.; Carter, D.; Gumbs, A.A.; Naryanan, L.; Baserga, R.; Glazer, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The IGF-1R is a glycoprotein receptor that consists of a heterodimer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are processed from a single precursor transmembrane polypeptide and has been found to be overexpressed in a variety of tumors. IGF-1R has been shown to play a critical role in malignant transformation and to influence apoptosis. We have recently shown in gene transfer studies that overexpression of the IGF-1R confers relative radioresistance on mouse fibroblasts in culture. To test the significance of this finding in a clinical setting, we have sought to determine the prognostic significance of overexpression of IGF-1R with respect to ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) in the conservatively treated breast cancer patient. Materials and Methods: Over 1,000 breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery followed by radiation therapy to the intact breast served as the patient population for this study. Twenty-five patients with a diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma who had an IBTR as the first site of failure comprised the index case population base of this study. Following the identification of 25 patients with IBTR, the breast database was searched for 25 matching control patients who did not have an IBTR. The control patients were matched to the index case with respect to age (within 5 years), menopausal status, approximate date of radiation therapy, primary histology, axillary dissection, nodal status, primary tumor size, estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, and adjuvant chemotherapy/hormonal therapy. Both index cases and the matched control group received radiation therapy to a total dose of 64 Gy to the tumor bed. Following identification of index and control cases, the individual paraffin-embedded blocks (PEB) were evaluated for invasive ductal carcinoma with H and E staining by the pathologist. All PEB were then processed for immunohistochemical staining with a polyclonal antibody to the beta-chain of IGF-1R

  8. Integrated molecular targeting of IGF1R and HER2 surface receptors and destruction of breast cancer cells using single wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Ning; Lu Shaoxin; Wickstrom, Eric; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2007-01-01

    Molecular targeting and photodynamic therapy have shown great potential for selective cancer therapy. We hypothesized that monoclonal antibodies that are specific to the IGF1 receptor and HER2 cell surface antigens could be bound to single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in order to concentrate SWCNT on breast cancer cells for specific near-infrared phototherapy. SWCNT functionalized with HER2 and IGF1R specific antibodies showed selective attachment to breast cancer cells compared to SWCNT functionalized with non-specific antibodies. After the complexes were attached to specific cancer cells, SWCNT were excited by ∼808 nm infrared photons at ∼800 mW cm -2 for 3 min. Viability after phototherapy was determined by Trypan blue exclusion. Cells incubated with SWCNT/non-specific antibody hybrids were still alive after photo-thermal treatment due to the lack of SWNT binding to the cell membrane. All cancerous cells treated with IGF1R and HER2 specific antibody/SWCNT hybrids and receiving infrared photons showed cell death after the laser excitation. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that all the cells treated with SWCNT/IGF1R and HER2 specific antibody complex were completely destroyed, while more than 80% of the cells with SWCNT/non-specific antibody hybrids remained alive. Following multi-component targeting of IGF1R and HER2 surface receptors, integrated photo-thermal therapy in breast cancer cells led to the complete destruction of cancer cells. Functionalizing SWCNT with antibodies in combination with their intrinsic optical properties can therefore lead to a new class of molecular delivery and cancer therapeutic systems

  9. R1507, an Anti-Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R) Antibody, and EWS/FLI-1 siRNA in Ewing's Sarcoma: Convergence at the IGF/IGFR/Akt Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodon, Jordi; Sun, Michael; Kuenkele, Klaus-Peter; Parsons, Henrique A.; Trent, Jonathan C.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2011-01-01

    A subset of patients with Ewing's sarcoma responds to anti-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) antibodies. Mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance are unknown. We investigated whether an anti-IGF-1R antibody acts via a pathway that could also be suppressed by small interfering (si) RNA against the EWS/FLI-1 fusion protein, the hallmark of Ewing's sarcoma. The growth of two Ewing's sarcoma cell lines (TC-32 and TC-71) was inhibited by the fully human anti-IGF-1R antibody, R1507 (clonogenic and MTT assays). TC-32 and TC-71 cells express high levels of IGF-2, while RD-ES and A4573 Ewing's cell lines, which were less responsive to R1507 in our assays, express low or undetectable IGF-2, respectively. TC-71 cells also expressed high levels of IGF-1R, and R1507 decreased steady-state levels of this receptor by internalization/degradation, an effect which was associated with a decrease in p-IGF-1R, p-IRS-1, and p-Akt. EWS/FLI-1 siRNA also decreased p-Akt, due to its ability to increase IGF-BP3 levels and subsequently decrease IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels, thus inhibiting signaling through p-IGF-1R. This inhibition correlated with growth suppression and apoptosis. The attenuation of Akt activation was confirmed in TC-71 and HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells by transfecting them with IGF-1R siRNA. We conclude that antibodies and siRNA to IGF-1R, as well as siRNA to EWS/FLI-1, act via intersecting IGF/IGF-1R signals that suppress a common point in this pathway, namely the phosphorylation of Akt. PMID:22022506

  10. R1507, an anti-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R antibody, and EWS/FLI-1 siRNA in Ewing's sarcoma: convergence at the IGF/IGFR/Akt axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen J Huang

    Full Text Available A subset of patients with Ewing's sarcoma responds to anti-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R antibodies. Mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance are unknown. We investigated whether an anti-IGF-1R antibody acts via a pathway that could also be suppressed by small interfering (si RNA against the EWS/FLI-1 fusion protein, the hallmark of Ewing's sarcoma. The growth of two Ewing's sarcoma cell lines (TC-32 and TC-71 was inhibited by the fully human anti-IGF-1R antibody, R1507 (clonogenic and MTT assays. TC-32 and TC-71 cells express high levels of IGF-2, while RD-ES and A4573 Ewing's cell lines, which were less responsive to R1507 in our assays, express low or undetectable IGF-2, respectively. TC-71 cells also expressed high levels of IGF-1R, and R1507 decreased steady-state levels of this receptor by internalization/degradation, an effect which was associated with a decrease in p-IGF-1R, p-IRS-1, and p-Akt. EWS/FLI-1 siRNA also decreased p-Akt, due to its ability to increase IGF-BP3 levels and subsequently decrease IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels, thus inhibiting signaling through p-IGF-1R. This inhibition correlated with growth suppression and apoptosis. The attenuation of Akt activation was confirmed in TC-71 and HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney cells by transfecting them with IGF-1R siRNA. We conclude that antibodies and siRNA to IGF-1R, as well as siRNA to EWS/FLI-1, act via intersecting IGF/IGF-1R signals that suppress a common point in this pathway, namely the phosphorylation of Akt.

  11. A role for IGF-1R-targeted therapies in small-cell lung cancer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gately, Kathy

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis. The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is an autocrine growth factor and an attractive therapeutic target in many solid tumors, but particularly in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study examined tumor samples from 23 patients diagnosed with SCLC, 11 resected specimens and 12 nodal biopsies obtained by mediastinoscopy, for expression of IGF-1R using the monoclonal rabbit anti-IGF-1R (clone G11, Ventana Medical Systems, Tucson, AZ) and standard immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: All 23 tumor samples expressed IGF-1R with a range of stain intensity from weak (1+) to strong (3+). Ten tumors had a score of 3+, 7 tumors 2+, and 6 tumors 1+. Patient survival data were available for all 23 patients. Two patients died < 30 days post biopsy, therefore, the intensity of anti-IGF-1R immunostaining for 21 patients was correlated to survival. Patients with 3+ immunostaining had a poorer prognosis (P = .003). The overall survival of patients who underwent surgical resection was significantly better (median survival not reached) than patients who were not resected (median survival, 7.4 months) (P = .006). CONCLUSION: IGF-1R targeted therapies may have a role in the treatment of SCLC in combination with chemotherapy or as maintenance therapy. Further studies on the clinical benefit of targeting IGF-1R in SCLC are needed.

  12. H2O2 attenuates IGF-1R tyrosine phosphorylation and its survival signaling properties in neuronal cells via NR2B containing NMDA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhiwen; Wang, Dejun; Gaur, Uma; Rifang, Liao; Wang, Haitao; Zheng, Wenhua

    2017-09-12

    Impairment of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling plays an important role in the development of neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated the effect of H 2 O 2 on the survival signaling of IGF-1 and its underlying mechanisms in human neuronal cells SH-SY5Y. Our results showed that IGF-1 promoted cell survival and stimulated phosphorylation of IGF-1R as well as its downstream targets like AKT and ERK1/2 in these cells. Meanwhile, these effects of IGF-1 were abolished by H 2 O 2 at 200μM concentration which did not cause any significant toxicity to cells itself in our experiments. Moreover, studies using various glutamate receptor subtype antagonists displayed that N-methyl-D -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) blocked the effects of H 2 O 2 , whereas other glutamate receptor subtype antagonists, such as non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), metabolic glutamate receptor antagonists LY341495 and CPCCOEt, had no effect. Further studies revealed that NR2B-containing NMDARs are responsible for these effects as its effects were blocked by pharmacological inhibitor Ro25-698 or specific siRNA for NR2B, but not NR2A. Finally, our data also showed that Ca 2+ influx contributes to the effects of H 2 O 2 . Similar results were obtained in primary cultured cortical neurons. Taken together, the results from the present study suggested that H 2 O 2 attenuated IGF-1R tyrosine phosphorylation and its survival signaling properties via NR2B containing NMDA receptors and Ca 2+ influx in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, NMDAR antagonists, especially NR2B-selective ones, combined with IGF-1 may serve as an alternative therapeutic agent for oxidative stress related neurodegenerative disease.

  13. Gastric cancer: the role of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF 2) and its receptors (IGF 1R and M6-P/IGF 2R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelić, Kresimir; Kolak, Toni; Kapitanović, Sanja; Radosević, Senka; Spaventi, Sime; Kruslin, Bozo; Pavelić, Jasminka

    2003-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF 2) appears to be involved in the progression of many tumours. It binds to at least two different types of receptor: IGF type 1 (IGF 1R) and mannose 6-phosphate/IGF type 2 (M6-P/IGF 2R). Ligand binding to IGF 1R provokes mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects. M6-P/IGF 2R has a tumour suppressor function--it mediates IGF 2 degradation. Mutation of M6-P/IGF 2R causes both diminished growth suppression and augmented growth stimulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IGF 2 and its receptors (IGF 1R and IGF 2R) in human gastric cancer. The expression of IGF 2 and its receptors was measured in order to analyse the possible correlation between the activity of these genes and cell proliferation in two different gastric tumour types: diffuse and intestinal. The effect of IGF 1 receptor blockage on cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth was also examined. Increased expression of IGF 2 and IGF 1R genes (at the mRNA and protein level) was found in gastric cancer when compared with non-tumour tissue. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between IGF 2 expression in the more aggressive diffuse type and that in the intestinal type of gastric cancer. Moreover, the IGF 2 peptide level in the culture media obtained from the diffuse type of cancer cells was significantly higher when compared with the intestinal type. The level of IGF 2 peptide in the conditioned media strongly correlated with [3H]thymidine incorporation and cell proliferation. On the contrary, IGF 2R mRNA expression was much higher in the intestinal type of cancer than in the diffuse type. In addition, IGF 2R protein expression was substantially lower with progression of the diffuse cancer type to a higher stage. The alphaIR3 monoclonal antibody strongly inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation and decreased the number of colonies in soft agar of cells overexpressing IGF 2. These findings suggest that members of the IGF family are involved

  14. Role of IGF-1R in ameliorating apoptosis of GNE deficient cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Reema; Chaudhary, Priyanka; Arya, Ranjana

    2018-05-09

    Sialic acids (SAs) are nine carbon acidic amino sugars, found at the outermost termini of glycoconjugates performing various physiological and pathological functions. SA synthesis is regulated by UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase (GNE) that catalyzes rate limiting steps. Mutations in GNE result in rare genetic disorders, GNE myopathy and Sialuria. Recent studies indicate an alternate role of GNE in cell apoptosis and adhesion, besides SA biosynthesis. In the present study, using a HEK cell-based model for GNE myopathy, the role of Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor (IGF-1R) as cell survival receptor protein was studied to counter the apoptotic effect of non-functional GNE. In the absence of functional GNE, IGF-1R was hyposialylated and transduced a downstream signal upon IGF-1 (IGF-1R ligand) treatment. IGF-1 induced activation of IGF-1R led to AKT (Protein Kinase B) phosphorylation that may phosphorylate BAD (BCL2 Associated Death Promoter) and its dissociation from BCL2 to prevent apoptosis. However, reduced ERK (Extracellular signal-regulated kinases) phosphorylation in GNE deficient cells after IGF-1 treatment suggests downregulation of the ERK pathway. A balance between the ERK and AKT pathways may determine the cell fate towards survival or apoptosis. Our study suggests that IGF-1R activation may rescue apoptotic cell death of GNE deficient cell lines and has potential as therapeutic target.

  15. Chromosome 15 structural abnormalities: effect on IGF1R gene expression and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Cannarella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R, mapping on the 15q26.3 chromosome, is required for normal embryonic and postnatal growth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the IGF1R gene expression and function in three unrelated patients with chromosome 15 structural abnormalities. We report two male patients with the smallest 15q26.3 chromosome duplication described so far, and a female patient with ring chromosome 15 syndrome. Patient one, with a 568 kb pure duplication, had overgrowth, developmental delay, mental and psychomotor retardation, obesity, cryptorchidism, borderline low testis volume, severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and gynecomastia. We found a 1.8-fold increase in the IGF1R mRNA and a 1.3-fold increase in the IGF1R protein expression (P < 0.05. Patient two, with a 650 kb impure duplication, showed overgrowth, developmental delay, mild mental retardation, precocious puberty, low testicular volume and severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. The IGF1R mRNA and protein expression was similar to that of the control. Patient three, with a 46,XX r(15 (p10q26.2 karyotype, displayed intrauterine growth retardation, developmental delay, mental and psychomotor retardation. We found a <0.5-fold decrease in the IGF1R mRNA expression and an undetectable IGF1R activity. After reviewing the previously 96 published cases of chromosome 15q duplication, we found that neurological disorders, congenital cardiac defects, typical facial traits and gonadal abnormalities are the prominent features in patients with chromosome 15q duplication. Interestingly, patients with 15q deletion syndrome display similar features. We speculate that both the increased and decreased IGF1R gene expression may play a role in the etiology of neurological and gonadal disorders.

  16. IGF-1R signaling in chondrocytes modulates growth plate development by interacting with the PTHrP/Ihh pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongmei; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Elalieh, Hashem Z; Nakamura, Eiichiro; Nguyen, Minh-Thanh; Mackem, Susan; Clemens, Thomas L; Bikle, Daniel D; Chang, Wenhan

    2011-07-01

    Systemic derangements and perinatal death of generalized insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) knockout mice preclude definitive assessment of IGF-1R actions in growth-plate (GP) chondrocytes. We generated cartilage-specific Igf1r knockout ((Cart) Igf1r(-/-)) mice to investigate local control of chondrocyte differentiation in the GP by this receptor. These mice died shortly after birth and showed disorganized chondrocyte columns, delayed ossification and vascular invasion, decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and increased expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (Pthrp) RNA and protein in their GPs. The increased Pthrp expression in the knockout GPs likely was due to an increase in gene transcription, as determined by the increased activity of a LacZ reporter that was inserted downstream of the endogenous PTHrP promoter and bred into the knockout mice. To circumvent the early death of (Cart) Igf1r(-/-) mice and investigate the role of IGF-1R during postnatal growth, we made tamoxifen (Tam)-inducible, cartilage-specific Igf1r knockout ((TamCart) Igf1r(-/-)) mice. At 2 weeks of age and 7 to 8 days after Tam injection, the (TamCart) Igf1r(-/-) mice showed growth retardation with a disorganized GP, reduced chondrocyte proliferation, decreased type 2 collagen and Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) expression, but increased expression of PTHrP. Consistent with in vivo observations, in vitro knockout of the Igf1r gene by adenoviral expression of Cre recombinase suppressed cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and increased Pthrp expression. Our data indicate that the IGF-1R in chondrocytes controls cell growth, survival, and differentiation in embryonic and postnatal GPs in part by suppression of Pthrp expression. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Role of IGF1R in breast cancer subtypes, stemness, and lineage differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Farabaugh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor (IGF signaling is fundamental for growth and survival. A large body of evidence (laboratory, epidemiological, and clinical implicates the exploitation of this pathway in cancer. Up to 50% of breast tumors express the activated form of the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R. Breast cancers are categorized into subtypes based upon hormone and ERRB2 receptor expression and/or gene expression profiling. Even though IGF1R influences tumorigenic phenotypes and drug resistance across all breast cancer subtypes, it has specific expression and function in each. In some subtypes, IGF1R levels correlate with a favorable prognosis, while in others it is associated with recurrence and poor prognosis, suggesting different actions based upon cellular and molecular contexts. In this review, we examine IGF1R expression and function as it relates to breast cancer subtype and therapy-acquired resistance. Additionally, we discuss the role of IGF1R in stem cell maintenance and lineage differentiation and how these cell fate influences may alter the differentiation potential and cellular composition of breast tumors.

  18. Optimization of IGF-1R SPECT/CT Imaging Using In-111-Labeled F(ab ')(2) and Fab Fragments of Article the Monoclonal Antibody R1507

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskamp, Sandra; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Molkenboer-Kuenen, Janneke D. M.; Bouwman, Wilbert H.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Boerman, Otto C.

    2012-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a potential new target for the treatment of breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer lesions that express IGF-1R may benefit from treatment with anti-IGF-IR antibodies. IGF-1R expression can be visualized using radiolabeled R1507, a monoclonal

  19. IMPACT STUDY: MK-0646 (DALOTUZUMAB, INSULIN GROWTH FACTOR 1 RECEPTOR (IGF-1R ANTIBODY COMBINED WITH PEMETREXED AND CISPLATIN IN STAGE IV METASTATIC NON-SQUAMOUS LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao H Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R regulates cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Adenocarcinoma and never-smokers have a higher expression of IGF-1R, which is associated with worse overall survival. Dalotuzumab-MK0646 (D is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IGF-1R. Pemetrexed (P has higher activity in non-squamous lung cancer (NSQL. We initiated a randomized phase II trial to test the combination of P and Cisplatin (C +/- D in NSQL.Methods: Eligibility criteria: untreated NSQL stage IIIB or IV, ECOG 0 or 1, measurable disease, adequate renal, hepatic and hematologic function, and no other intercurrent illness. P at 500mg/m2 and C at 75mg/m2 IV were given every 3 weeks. D was given at 10mg/kg IV weekly on days 1, 8 and 15 of every 3-week cycle in the experimental group. The patients had a radiographic assessment after every 2 cycles and were treated for a maximum of 6 cycles if there was a response or stable disease. The primary objective of the study was to compare the clinical response rates of PC vs PC+D. Results: From 1/2009 to 2/2011, the study accrued 26 subjects: 16 male and 10 female, with a median age of 59; 14 were treated with PC and 12 were treated with PC+D. We observed 2 partial responses (PR, 7 stable disease (SD, 3 progressive disease (PD, and 2 were not evaluable (NE in the PC arm. In comparison, for the PC+D arm there were: 3 PR, 4 SD, 4 PD and 1 NE. The hematologic toxicity was similar in both groups. There higher incidence of hyperglycemia the experimental group; 4 cases with grade 3 and 1 case with grade 4. Conclusion: PC+D had a similar response rate compared to PC, with a higher rate of hyperglycemia. Identification of responders using predictive markers would be key to continuing the study of D in NSQL.

  20. A chimeric receptor of the insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGFR1) and a single chain antibody specific to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein activates the IGF1R signalling cascade in CG4 oligodendrocyte progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annenkov, A.; Rigby, A.; Amor, S.; Zhou, D.M.; Yousaf, N.; Hemmer, B.; Chernajovsky, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate neural stem cells with increased ability to survive after transplantation in brain parenchyma we developed a chimeric receptor (ChR) that binds to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) via its ectodomain and activates the insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF1R)

  1. Targeting the IGF-1R: The Tale of The Tortoise and The Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitrin eCrudden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R plays a key role in the development and maintenance of cancer. Since the first links between growth factor receptors and oncogenes were noted over three decades ago, targeting the IGF-1R has been of great interest. This review follows the progress from inception through intense pharmaceutical development, disappointing clinical trials and recent updates to the signaling paradigm. In light of major developments in signaling understanding and activation complexities, we examine reasons for failure of first line targeting approaches. Recent findings include the fact that the IGF-1R can signal in the absence of the ligand, in the absence of kinase activity and utilizes components of the GPCR system. With recognition of the unappreciated complexities that this first wave of targeting approaches encountered, we advocate recognition of IGF-1R as a valid target for cancer treatment and look to future directions, where both research and pharmaceutical strengths can lend themselves to finally unearthing anti-IGF-1R potential.

  2. SiRNA-mediated IGF-1R inhibition sensitizes human colon cancer SW480 cells to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavari, Kamal; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed A.; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Babaei, Mohammad Hosein; Arfaee, Ali Jabbary; Madani, Hossein; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Insulin like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) is well-documented to play a key role in radiation response and tumor radiosensitivity, thus offering an attractive clinic drug target to enhance tumor sensitivity to anti-cancer radiotherapy. Material and methods. Human colon carcinoma SW480 cells were transfected with the specific small interference RNA (siRNA) expression vector (pkD-shRNA-IGF-1R-V2) designed to target IGF-1R mRNA. The expression of IGF-1R mRNA and its protein among the transfected and untransfected cells were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assay. The changes in cell radiosensitivity were examined by MTT assay. Results. Transfection of mammalian expression vector pkD containing IGF-1R siRNA was shown to reduce IGF-1R mRNA levels by up to 95%. ELISA assay detected a similar inhibition of IGF-1R protein levels in cells transfected with IGF-1R siRNA. SW480 cells transfected with the expression vector for siRNA significantly rendered cells more sensitive to radiation and the highest radiation enhancement ratio was 2.02 ± 0.08. Conclusion. These data provide the first evidence that specific siRNA fragment (pkD-shRNA-IGF-1R-V2) targeting human IGF-1R mRNA is able to enhance colon cancer radiosensitivity. Also results indicated that, combining IGF-1R siRNA and radiation significantly enhances antitumor efficacy compared with either modality alone

  3. MiR-223 suppresses cell proliferation by targeting IGF-1R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng You Jia

    Full Text Available To study the roles of microRNA-223 (miR-223 in regulation of cell growth, we established a miR-223 over-expression model in HeLa cells infected with miR-223 by Lentivirus pLL3.7 system. We observed in this model that miR-223 significantly suppressed the proliferation, growth rate, colony formation of HeLa cells in vitro, and in vivo tumorigenicity or tumor formation in nude mice. To investigate the mechanisms involved, we scanned and examined the potential and putative target molecules of miR-223 by informatics, quantitative PCR and Western blot, and found that insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R was the functional target of miR-223 inhibition of cell proliferation. Targeting IGF-1R by miR-223 was not only seen in HeLa cells, but also in leukemia and hepatoma cells. The downstream pathway, Akt/mTOR/p70S6K, to which the signal was mediated by IGF-1R, was inhibited as well. The relative luciferase activity of the reporter containing wild-type 3'UTR(3'untranslated region of IGF-1R was significantly suppressed, but the mutant not. Silence of IGF-1R expression by vector-based short hairpin RNA resulted in the similar inhibition with miR-223. Contrarily, rescued IGF-1R expression in the cells that over-expressed miR-223, reversed the inhibition caused by miR-223 via introducing IGF-1R cDNA that didn't contain the 3'UTR. Meanwhile, we also noted that miR-223 targeted Rasa1, but the downstream molecules mediated by Rasa1 was neither targeted nor regulated. Therefore we believed that IGF-1R was the functional target for miR-223 suppression of cell proliferation and its downstream PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway suppressed by miR-223 was by targeting IGF-1R.

  4. (igf1/igf1r) with milk production tr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gosia

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) (TaiI and MspI restriction enzymes) and amplification-created restriction site (ACRS) (SnaBI ... is the first association study based on polymorphisms of the primary genes encoding the IGF-1 system in a small herd of .... However, protein content was highest in milk ...

  5. ERK phosphorylation is predictive of resistance to IGF-1R inhibition in small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Rebekah L; Gardner, Eric E; Marchionni, Luigi; Murphy, Sara C; Dobromilskaya, Irina; Hann, Christine L; Rudin, Charles M

    2013-06-01

    New therapies are critically needed to improve the outcome for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibition is a potential treatment strategy for SCLC: the IGF-1R pathway is commonly upregulated in SCLC and has been associated with inhibition of apoptosis and stimulation of proliferation through downstream signaling pathways, including phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase. To evaluate potential determinants of response to IGF-1R inhibition, we assessed the relative sensitivity of 19 SCLC cell lines to OSI-906, a small molecule inhibitor of IGF-1R, and the closely related insulin receptor. Approximately one third of these cell lines were sensitive to OSI-906, with an IC50 OSI-906. Interestingly, OSI-906 sensitive lines expressed significantly lower levels of baseline phospho-ERK relative to resistant lines (P = 0.006). OSI-906 treatment resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of phospho-IGF-1R and phospho-Akt in both sensitive and resistant cell lines, but induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest only in sensitive lines. We tested the in vivo efficacy of OSI-906 using an NCI-H187 xenograft model and two SCLC patient xenografts in mice. OSI-906 treatment resulted in 50% tumor growth inhibition in NCI-H187 and 30% inhibition in the primary patient xenograft models compared with mock-treated animals. Taken together our data support IGF-1R inhibition as a viable treatment strategy for a defined subset of SCLC and suggest that low pretreatment levels of phospho-ERK may be indicative of sensitivity to this therapeutic approach. ©2013 AACR

  6. Cross-talk between Integrin α6β4 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF1R) through Direct α6β4 Binding to IGF1 and Subsequent α6β4-IGF1-IGF1R Ternary Complex Formation in Anchorage-independent Conditions*

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Masaaki; Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Davari, Parastoo; Yamaji, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Takada, Yoko K.; Takada, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Integrin αvβ3-extracellular matrix interaction and/or αvβ3 binding to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1; and integrin-IGF1-IGF1 receptor ternary complex formation) is critical for IGF signaling.

  7. Impact of IGF-1, IGF-1R, and IGFBP-3 promoter methylation on the risk and prognosis of esophageal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Peng; Qu, Chang-Fa; Hu, Xue-Lin

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate IGF-1, IGF-1R, and IGFBP-3 methylations in esophageal carcinoma (EC) patients and their relationship with the development and prognosis of EC. This study population consisted of 264 patients (case group) whom EC radical resection was performed and 283 healthy individuals (control group). Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) detected the methylation status of IGF-1, IGF-1R, and IGFBP-3 in the peripheral blood in both groups. The expressions of IGF-1, IGF-1R, and IGFBP-3 in EC and adjacent normal tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The methylation rates of IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGFBP3, and IGF-1 + IGF1R + IGFBP3 in the case group were higher than those in the control group (all P IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGFBP3, and IGF-1 + IGF1R + IGFBP3 IGF-1 among patients of different clinicopathological features (all P IGF-1 and IGF-1R in EC were significantly higher than those in adjacent normal tissues (both P IGF-1 and IGF1R gene promoter methylation was positively correlated with the positive expressions of IGF-1 (r = 0.139, P = 0.024) and IGF-1R (r = 0.135, P = 0.028), while the IGFBP3 methylation was negatively correlated with the positive expression of IGFBP3 (r = -0.133, P = 0.031). The positive expressions of IGF-1, IGF-1R, and IGFBP-3 were related to different clinicopathological features (all P IGF-1, IGF-1R, and IGF-1 + IGF1R + IGFBP3 ; expressions of IGF-1 and IGF-1R protein; infiltration depth; and lymph node metastasis (LNM) were independent factors of EC prognosis. Our study demonstrated that methylation of IGF-1, IGF1R, IGFBP3, and IGF-1 + IGF1R + IGFBP3 was closely linked with the occurrence of EC and patients' clinicopathological features. Besides, the methylation status of the target genes and the expressions of IGF-1 and IGF-1R protein were independent factors of EC prognosis, which could provide a direction for the prognosis and treatment of EC.

  8. Igf1r signaling is indispensable for preimplantation development and is activated via a novel function of E-cadherin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bedzhov

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I receptor (Igf1r signaling controls proliferation, differentiation, growth, and cell survival in many tissues; and its deregulated activity is involved in tumorigenesis. Although important during fetal growth and postnatal life, a function for the Igf pathway during preimplantation development has not been described. We show that abrogating Igf1r signaling with specific inhibitors blocks trophectoderm formation and compromises embryo survival during murine blastocyst formation. In normal embryos total Igf1r is present throughout the membrane, whereas the activated form is found exclusively at cell contact sites, colocalizing with E-cadherin. Using genetic domain switching, we show a requirement for E-cadherin to maintain proper activation of Igf1r. Embryos expressing exclusively a cadherin chimera with N-cadherin extracellular and E-cadherin intracellular domains (NcEc fail to form a trophectoderm and cells die by apoptosis. In contrast, homozygous mutant embryos expressing a reverse-structured chimera (EcNc show trophectoderm survival and blastocoel cavitation, indicating a crucial and non-substitutable role of the E-cadherin ectodomain for these processes. Strikingly, blastocyst formation can be rescued in homozygous NcEc embryos by restoring Igf1r signaling, which enhances cell survival. Hence, perturbation of E-cadherin extracellular integrity, independent of its cell-adhesion function, blocked Igf1r signaling and induced cell death in the trophectoderm. Our results reveal an important and yet undiscovered function of Igf1r during preimplantation development mediated by a unique physical interaction between Igf1r and E-cadherin indispensable for proper receptor activation and anti-apoptotic signaling. We provide novel insights into how ligand-dependent Igf1r activity is additionally gated to sense developmental potential in utero and into a bifunctional role of adhesion molecules in contact formation and signaling.

  9. No preclinical rationale for IGF1R directed therapy in chondrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterse, Elisabeth F. P.; Cleven, Arjen H. G.; De Jong, Yvonne; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Danen, Erik H. J.; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Bovée, Judith V. M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant cartilage forming bone tumour for which no effective systemic treatment is available. Previous studies illustrate the need for a better understanding of the role of the IGF pathway in chondrosarcoma to determine if it can be a target for therapy, which was therefore explored in this study. Expression of mediators of IGF1R signalling and phosphorylation status of IRS1 was determined in chondrosarcoma cell lines by qRT-PCR and western blot. The effect of activation and inhibition of IGF1R signalling on downstream targets was assessed by western blot. Ten chondrosarcoma cell lines were treated with OSI-906 (IGF1R and IR dual inhibitor) after which cell proliferation and migration were determined by a viability assay and the xCELLigence system, respectively. In addition, four chondrosarcoma cell lines were treated with a combination of doxorubicin and OSI-906. By immunohistochemistry, IGF1R expression levels were determined in tissue microarrays of 187 cartilage tumours and ten paraffin embedded cell lines. Mediators of IGF1R signalling are heterogeneously expressed and phosphorylated IRS1 was detected in 67 % of the tested chondrosarcoma cell lines, suggesting that IGF1R signalling is active in a subset of chondrosarcoma cell lines. In the cell lines with phosphorylated IRS1, inhibition of IGF1R signalling decreased phosphorylated Akt levels and increased IGF1R expression, but it did not influence MAPK or S6 activity. In line with these findings, treatment with IGF1R/IR inhibitors did not impact proliferation or migration in any of the chondrosarcoma cell lines, even upon stimulation with IGF1. Although synergistic effects of IGF1R/IR inhibition with doxorubicin are described for other cancers, our results demonstrate that this was not the case for chondrosarcoma. In addition, we found minimal IGF1R expression in primary tumours in contrast to the high expression detected in chondrosarcoma cell lines, even if both were derived from the

  10. No preclinical rationale for IGF1R directed therapy in chondrosarcoma of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterse, Elisabeth F P; Cleven, Arjen H G; De Jong, Yvonne; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Danen, Erik H J; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2016-07-14

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant cartilage forming bone tumour for which no effective systemic treatment is available. Previous studies illustrate the need for a better understanding of the role of the IGF pathway in chondrosarcoma to determine if it can be a target for therapy, which was therefore explored in this study. Expression of mediators of IGF1R signalling and phosphorylation status of IRS1 was determined in chondrosarcoma cell lines by qRT-PCR and western blot. The effect of activation and inhibition of IGF1R signalling on downstream targets was assessed by western blot. Ten chondrosarcoma cell lines were treated with OSI-906 (IGF1R and IR dual inhibitor) after which cell proliferation and migration were determined by a viability assay and the xCELLigence system, respectively. In addition, four chondrosarcoma cell lines were treated with a combination of doxorubicin and OSI-906. By immunohistochemistry, IGF1R expression levels were determined in tissue microarrays of 187 cartilage tumours and ten paraffin embedded cell lines. Mediators of IGF1R signalling are heterogeneously expressed and phosphorylated IRS1 was detected in 67 % of the tested chondrosarcoma cell lines, suggesting that IGF1R signalling is active in a subset of chondrosarcoma cell lines. In the cell lines with phosphorylated IRS1, inhibition of IGF1R signalling decreased phosphorylated Akt levels and increased IGF1R expression, but it did not influence MAPK or S6 activity. In line with these findings, treatment with IGF1R/IR inhibitors did not impact proliferation or migration in any of the chondrosarcoma cell lines, even upon stimulation with IGF1. Although synergistic effects of IGF1R/IR inhibition with doxorubicin are described for other cancers, our results demonstrate that this was not the case for chondrosarcoma. In addition, we found minimal IGF1R expression in primary tumours in contrast to the high expression detected in chondrosarcoma cell lines, even if both were derived from the

  11. Involvement of Igf1r in Bronchiolar Epithelial Regeneration: Role during Repair Kinetics after Selective Club Cell Ablation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icíar P López

    Full Text Available Regeneration of lung epithelium is vital for maintaining airway function and integrity. An imbalance between epithelial damage and repair is at the basis of numerous chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factors signaling has been associated with most of these respiratory pathologies, although their mechanisms of action in this tissue remain poorly understood. Expression profiles analyses of IGF system genes performed in mouse lung support their functional implication in pulmonary ontogeny. Immuno-localization revealed high expression levels of Igf1r (Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in lung epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and smooth muscle. To further understand the role of Igf1r in pulmonary homeostasis, two distinct lung epithelial-specific Igf1r mutant mice were generated and studied. The lack of Igf1r disturbed airway epithelial differentiation in adult mice, and revealed enhanced proliferation and altered morphology in distal airway club cells. During recovery after naphthalene-induced club cell injury, the kinetics of terminal bronchiolar epithelium regeneration was hindered in Igf1r mutants, revealing increased proliferation and delayed differentiation of club and ciliated cells. Amid airway restoration, lungs of Igf1r deficient mice showed increased levels of Igf1, Insr, Igfbp3 and epithelial precursor markers, reduced amounts of Scgb1a1 protein, and alterations in IGF signaling mediators. These results support the role of Igf1r in controlling the kinetics of cell proliferation and differentiation during pulmonary airway epithelial regeneration after injury.

  12. The impact of IGF-1R expression on the outcomes of patients with breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shunchao Yan,1 Xin Jiao,2 Kai Li,1 Wusheng Li,1 Huawei Zou11Department of Oncology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shenyang Chest Hospital, Shenyang, People’s Republic of ChinaPurpose: The value of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R for predicting survival of patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the published data to attempt to clarify the impact of IGF-1R.Methods: Studies published between January 1, 1990 and October 1, 2014 were identified using an electronic search to aggregate the available survival results. Studies were included if they reported detecting IGF-1R expression in the primary breast cancer and analyzed patient survival data according to IGF-1R status. The principal outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs for survival of IGF-1R-positive patients. Combined HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using fixed- or random-effects models according to between-study heterogeneity.Results: Ten studies, involving 5,406 patients, satisfied our inclusion criteria. Data from five studies provided the impact of IGF-1R on overall survival (OS, three studies the impact on breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS, and seven studies the impact on disease-free survival (DFS. The results of meta-analysis showed that for DFS, membranous IGF-1R positivity was not a significant predictor. The combined HR for OS/BCSS was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.42–0.95, P=0.03, indicating that membranous IGF-1R positivity was a significant predictor of better survival. IGF-1R cytoplasmic positivity was significantly associated with longer DFS and OS/BCSS (combined HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.89, P=0.01; combined HR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.35–0.85, P=0.008, respectively. The results of subgroup analysis suggested that membranous IGF-1R positivity in hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer was

  13. IGF1R- and ROR1-Specific CAR T Cells as a Potential Therapy for High Risk Sarcomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huang

    Full Text Available Patients with metastatic or recurrent and refractory sarcomas have a dismal prognosis. Therefore, new targeted therapies are urgently needed. This study was designed to evaluate chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cells targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R or tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1 molecules for their therapeutic potential against sarcomas. Here, we report that IGF1R (15/15 and ROR1 (11/15 were highly expressed in sarcoma cell lines including Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, alveolar or embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells derived from eight healthy donors using the Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon system were cytotoxic against sarcoma cells and produced high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-13 in an antigen-specific manner. IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells generated from three sarcoma patients released significant amounts of IFN-γ in response to sarcoma stimulation. The adoptive transfer of IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells derived from a sarcoma patient significantly reduced tumor growth in pre-established, systemically disseminated and localized osteosarcoma xenograft models in NSG mice. Infusion of IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells also prolonged animal survival in a localized sarcoma model using NOD/scid mice. Our data indicate that both IGF1R and ROR1 can be effectively targeted by SB modified CAR T cells and that such CAR T cells may be useful in the treatment of high risk sarcoma patients.

  14. A chimeric receptor of the insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGFR1) and a single chain antibody specific to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein activates the IGF1R signalling cascade in CG4 oligodendrocyte progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenkov, Alexander; Rigby, Anne; Amor, Sandra; Zhou, Dun; Yousaf, Nasim; Hemmer, Bernhard; Chernajovsky, Yuti

    2011-08-01

    In order to generate neural stem cells with increased ability to survive after transplantation in brain parenchyma we developed a chimeric receptor (ChR) that binds to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) via its ectodomain and activates the insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 ‎‎(IGF1R) signalling cascade. Activation of this pro-survival pathway in response to ligand broadly available in the brain might increase neuroregenerative potential of transplanted precursors. The ChR was produced by fusing a MOG-specific single ‎chain antibody with the extracellular boundary of the IGF1R transmembrane segment. The ChR is expressed on the cellular surface, predominantly as a monomer, and is not N-glycosylated. To show MOG-dependent functionality of the ChR, neuroblastoma cells B104 expressing this ChR were stimulated with monolayers of cells expressing recombinant MOG. The ChR undergoes MOG-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and homodimerisation. It promotes insulin and IGF-independent growth of the oligodendrocyte progenitor cell line CG4. The proposed mode of the ChR activation is by MOG-induced dimerisation which promotes kinase domain transphosphorylation, by-passing the requirement of conformation changes known to be important for IGF1R activation. Another ChR, which contains a segment of the β-chain ectodomain, was produced in an attempt to recapitulate some of these conformational changes, but proved non-functional. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of IGF-1R expression on the outcomes of patients with breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shunchao; Jiao, Xin; Li, Kai; Li, Wusheng; Zou, Huawei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The value of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) for predicting survival of patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the published data to attempt to clarify the impact of IGF-1R. Methods Studies published between January 1, 1990 and October 1, 2014 were identified using an electronic search to aggregate the available survival results. Studies were included if they reported detecting IGF-1R expression in the primary breast cancer and analyzed patient survival data according to IGF-1R status. The principal outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs) for survival of IGF-1R-positive patients. Combined HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed- or random-effects models according to between-study heterogeneity. Results Ten studies, involving 5,406 patients, satisfied our inclusion criteria. Data from five studies provided the impact of IGF-1R on overall survival (OS), three studies the impact on breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and seven studies the impact on disease-free survival (DFS). The results of meta-analysis showed that for DFS, membranous IGF-1R positivity was not a significant predictor. The combined HR for OS/BCSS was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.42–0.95, P=0.03), indicating that membranous IGF-1R positivity was a significant predictor of better survival. IGF-1R cytoplasmic positivity was significantly associated with longer DFS and OS/BCSS (combined HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.89, P=0.01; combined HR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.35–0.85, P=0.008, respectively). The results of subgroup analysis suggested that membranous IGF-1R positivity in hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer was correlated with favorable DFS (combined HR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.41–0.92, P=0.02) and OS/BCSS (combined HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57–0.93, P=0.01). Membranous IGF-1R positivity in triple-negative breast cancer predicted worse DFS (combined HR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.03–3.34, P=0.04). Membranous

  16. Inhibition of IGF1-R overcomes IGFBP7-induced chemotherapy resistance in T-ALL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartram, Isabelle; Erben, Ulrike; Ortiz-Tanchez, Jutta; Blunert, Katja; Schlee, Cornelia; Neumann, Martin; Heesch, Sandra; Baldus, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a genetically heterogeneous disease with the need for treatment optimization. Previously, high expression of Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), a member of the IGF system, was identified as negative prognostic factor in adult T-ALL patients. Since aberrant IGFBP7 expression was observed in a variety of neoplasia and was relevant for prognosis in T-ALL, we investigated the functional role of IGFBP7 in Jurkat and Molt-4 cells as in vitro models for T-ALL. Jurkat and Molt-4 cells were stably transfected with an IGFBP7 over-expression vector or the empty vector as control. Proliferation of the cells was assessed by WST-1 assays and cell cycle status was measured by flow-cytometry after BrDU/7-AAD staining. The effect of IGFBP7 over-expression on sensitivity to cytostatic drugs was determined in AnnexinV/7-AAD assays. IGF1-R protein expression was measured by Western Blot and flow-cytometric analysis. IGF1-R associated gene expression profiles were generated from microarray gene expression data of 86 T-ALL patients from the Microarrays Innovations in Leukemia (MILE) multicenter study. IGFBP7-transfected Jurkat cells proliferated less, leading to a longer survival in a nutrient–limited environment. Both IGFBP7-transfected Jurkat and Molt-4 cells showed an arrest in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Furthermore, Jurkat IGFBP7-transfected cells were resistant to vincristine and asparaginase treatment. Surface expression and whole protein measurement of IGF1-R protein expression showed a reduced abundance of the receptor after IGFBP7 transfection in Jurkat cells. Interestingly, combination of the IGF1-R inhibitor NPV-AEW541 restored sensitivity to vincristine in IGFBP7-transfected cells. Additionally, IGF1-R associated GEP revealed an up-regulation of important drivers of T-ALL pathogenesis and regulators of chemo-resistance and apoptosis such as NOTCH1, BCL-2, PRKCI, and TP53. This study revealed a

  17. Interference of silibinin with IGF-1R signalling pathways protects human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells from UVB-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weiwei; Otkur, Wuxiyar; Li, Lingzhi; Wang, Qiong; He, Hao; Zang, Linghe; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Xia, Mingyu; Ikejima, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silibinin protects A431 cells from UVB irradiation-induced apoptosis. ► Up-regulation of the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways by UVB induces cell apoptosis. ► Silibinin inhibits IGF-1R pathways to repress caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet B (UVB) from sunlight is a major cause of cutaneous lesion. Silibinin, a traditional hepatic protectant, elicits protective effects against UVB-induced cellular damage. In A431 cells, the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was markedly up-regulated by UVB irradiation. The activation of the IGF-1R signalling pathways contributed to apoptosis of the cells rather than rescuing the cells from death. Up-regulated IGF-1R stimulated downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). The subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 led to apoptosis. The activation of IGF-1R signalling pathways is the cause of A431 cell death. The pharmacological inhibitors and the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IGF-1R suppressed the downstream activation of JNK/ERK-caspases to help the survival of the UVB-irradiated A431 cells. Indeed, silibinin treatment suppressed the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways and thus protected the cells from UVB-induced apoptosis

  18. Tumor-targeting magnetic lipoplex delivery of short hairpin RNA suppresses IGF-1R overexpression of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunmao; Ding, Chao; Kong, Minjian; Dong, Aiqiang; Qian, Jianfang; Jiang, Daming; Shen, Zhonghua

    2011-07-08

    Liposomal magnetofection potentiates gene transfection by applying a magnetic field to concentrate magnetic lipoplexes onto target cells. Magnetic lipoplexes are self-assembling ternary complexes of cationic lipids with plasmid DNA associated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Type1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), an important oncogene, is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer and mediates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency (percentage of transfected cells) and therapeutic potential (potency of IGF-1R knockdown) of liposomal magnetofection of plasmids expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting IGF-1R (pGFPshIGF-1Rs) in A549 cells and in tumor-bearing mice as compared to lipofection using Lipofectamine 2000. Liposomal magnetofection provided a threefold improvement in transgene expression over lipofection and transfected up to 64.1% of A549 cells in vitro. In vitro, IGF-1R specific-shRNA transfected by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 56.1±6% and by liposomal magnetofection by 85.1±3%. In vivo delivery efficiency of the pGFPshIGF-1R plasmid into the tumor was significantly higher in the liposomal magnetofection group than in the lipofection group. In vivo IGF-1R specific-shRNA by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by an average of 43.8±5.3%; that by liposomal magnetofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 43.4±5.7%, 56.3±9.6%, and 72.2±6.8%, at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively, after pGFPshIGF-1R injection. Our findings indicate that liposomal magnetofection may be a promising method that allows the targeting of gene therapy to lung cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A randomized, phase II study of the anti-insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF-1R) monoclonal antibody robatumumab (SCH 717454) in patients with advanced colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Edward H; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Saleh, Mansoor N; Mackenzie, Mary J; Knost, James A; Pathiraja, Kumudu; Langdon, Ronald B; Yao, Siu-Long; Lu, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF-1R) may promote tumor development and progression in some cancer patients. Our objective was to assess tumor uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose by positron-emission tomography in patients with chemotherapy-refractory colorectal cancer treated with an anti-insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (anti-IGF-1R) monoclonal antibody, robatumumab. This was a randomized, open-label study with two periods (P1 and P2). Patients were randomized 3:1 into treatment arms R/R and C/R that received, respectively, one cycle of 0.3 mg/kg robatumumab or one or more cycles of second-line chemotherapy in P1, followed in either case by 10 mg/kg robatumumab biweekly in P2. The primary measure of fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients in the R/R arm having a mean percent decrease from baseline in SUV max (DiSUV) greater than 20% 12–14 days postdose in P2. Secondary endpoints included Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)-defined tumor response and pharmacodynamic measures of target engagement. Among 41 patients who were evaluable for the primary endpoint, seven (17%, 95% CI 7%–32%) had DiSUV greater than 20%. Fifty robatumumab-treated patients were evaluable for RECIST-defined tumor response and six (12%) had stable disease lasting greater than or equal to 7 weeks in P2. Pharmacodynamic endpoints indicated target engagement after dosing with 10 mg/kg robatumumab, but not 0.3 mg/kg. The most frequently reported adverse events were fatigue/asthenia, nausea, anorexia, and gastrointestinal disturbances. In this study, few patients with chemotherapy-refractory colorectal cancer appeared to benefit from treatment with the IGF-1R antagonist robatumumab

  20. IGF-1R/MDM2 relationship confers enhanced sensitivity to RITA in Ewing sarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Conza, Giusy; Buttarelli, Marianna; Monti, Olimpia; Pellegrino, Marsha; Mancini, Francesca; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Scotlandi, Katia; Moretti, Fabiola

    2012-06-01

    Ewing sarcoma is one of the most frequent bone cancers in adolescence. Although multidisciplinary therapy has improved the survival rate for localized tumors, a critical step is the development of new drugs to improve the long-term outcome of recurrent and metastatic disease and to reduce side effects of conventional therapy. Here, we show that the small molecule reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis (RITA, NSC652287) is highly effective in reducing growth and tumorigenic potential of Ewing sarcoma cell lines. These effects occur both in the presence of wt-p53 as well as of mutant or truncated forms of p53, or in its absence, suggesting the presence of additional targets in this tumor histotype. Further experiments provided evidence that RITA modulates an important oncogenic mark of these cell lines, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R). Particularly, RITA causes downregulation of IGF-1R protein levels. MDM2 degradative activity is involved in this phenomenon. Indeed, inhibition of MDM2 function by genetic or pharmacologic approaches reduces RITA sensitivity of Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Overall, these data suggest that in the cell context of Ewing sarcoma, RITA may adopt additional mechanism of action besides targeting p53, expanding its field of application. Noteworthy, these results envisage the promising utilization of RITA or its derivative as a potential treatment for Ewing sarcomas. ©2012 AACR

  1. Inhibition of p70S6K1 activation by Pdcd4 overcomes the resistance to an IGF-1R/IR inhibitor in colon carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qing; Chen, Li; Yang, Hsin-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Agents targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are being actively examined in clinical trials. Although there has been some initial success of single agent targeting IGF-1R, attempts in later studies failed due to resistance. This study aimed to understand the effects of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) on the chemosensitivity of the IGF-1R inhibitor, OSI-906, in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and the mechanism underlying this impact. Using OSI-906 resistant and sensitive CRC c...

  2. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg...... were not significant. However, a meta-analysis across the four independent samples, in total 216 birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs, showed a significant positive association between birth weight and DNA methylation differences at IGF1R (random-effects meta-analysis p = .04), and the effect...... was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent...

  3. Tumor-targeting magnetic lipoplex delivery of short hairpin RNA suppresses IGF-1R overexpression of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunmao; Ding, Chao; Kong, Minjian [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Dong, Aiqiang, E-mail: dr_dongaiqiang@sina.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Qian, Jianfang; Jiang, Daming; Shen, Zhonghua [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We compared lipofection with magnetofection about difference of transfection efficiency on delivery a therapeutic gene in vitro and in vivo. {yields} We investigated the difference of shRNA induced by magnetofection and lipofection into A549 cell and subcutaneous tumor to knockdown IGF-1R overexpressed in A549 cell and A549 tumor. {yields} We investigated in vivo shRNA silenced IGF-1R overexpression 24, 48, and 72 h after shRNA intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice by way of magnetofection and lipofection. {yields} Our results showed that magnetofection could achieve therapeutic gene targeted delivery into special site, which contributed to targeted gene therapy of lung cancers. -- Abstract: Liposomal magnetofection potentiates gene transfection by applying a magnetic field to concentrate magnetic lipoplexes onto target cells. Magnetic lipoplexes are self-assembling ternary complexes of cationic lipids with plasmid DNA associated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Type1insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), an important oncogene, is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer and mediates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency (percentage of transfected cells) and therapeutic potential (potency of IGF-1R knockdown) of liposomal magnetofection of plasmids expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting IGF-1R (pGFPshIGF-1Rs) in A549 cells and in tumor-bearing mice as compared to lipofection using Lipofectamine 2000. Liposomal magnetofection provided a threefold improvement in transgene expression over lipofection and transfected up to 64.1% of A549 cells in vitro. In vitro, IGF-1R specific-shRNA transfected by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 56.1 {+-} 6% and by liposomal magnetofection by 85.1 {+-} 3%. In vivo delivery efficiency of the pGFPshIGF-1R plasmid into the tumor was significantly higher in the liposomal magnetofection group than in the

  4. Tumor-targeting magnetic lipoplex delivery of short hairpin RNA suppresses IGF-1R overexpression of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chunmao; Ding, Chao; Kong, Minjian; Dong, Aiqiang; Qian, Jianfang; Jiang, Daming; Shen, Zhonghua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We compared lipofection with magnetofection about difference of transfection efficiency on delivery a therapeutic gene in vitro and in vivo. → We investigated the difference of shRNA induced by magnetofection and lipofection into A549 cell and subcutaneous tumor to knockdown IGF-1R overexpressed in A549 cell and A549 tumor. → We investigated in vivo shRNA silenced IGF-1R overexpression 24, 48, and 72 h after shRNA intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice by way of magnetofection and lipofection. → Our results showed that magnetofection could achieve therapeutic gene targeted delivery into special site, which contributed to targeted gene therapy of lung cancers. -- Abstract: Liposomal magnetofection potentiates gene transfection by applying a magnetic field to concentrate magnetic lipoplexes onto target cells. Magnetic lipoplexes are self-assembling ternary complexes of cationic lipids with plasmid DNA associated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Type1insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), an important oncogene, is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer and mediates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency (percentage of transfected cells) and therapeutic potential (potency of IGF-1R knockdown) of liposomal magnetofection of plasmids expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting IGF-1R (pGFPshIGF-1Rs) in A549 cells and in tumor-bearing mice as compared to lipofection using Lipofectamine 2000. Liposomal magnetofection provided a threefold improvement in transgene expression over lipofection and transfected up to 64.1% of A549 cells in vitro. In vitro, IGF-1R specific-shRNA transfected by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 56.1 ± 6% and by liposomal magnetofection by 85.1 ± 3%. In vivo delivery efficiency of the pGFPshIGF-1R plasmid into the tumor was significantly higher in the liposomal magnetofection group than in the lipofection group. In vivo IGF-1R

  5. Reversal of oncogene transformation and suppression of tumor growth by the novel IGF1R kinase inhibitor A-928605

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappano, William N; Sheppard, George S; Donawho, Cherrie; Buchanan, Fritz G; Davidsen, Steven K; Bell, Randy L; Wang, Jieyi; Jung, Paul M; Meulbroek, Jonathan A; Wang, Yi-Chun; Hubbard, Robert D; Zhang, Qian; Grudzien, Meagan M; Soni, Niru B; Johnson, Eric F

    2009-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is an important signaling pathway in the growth and survival of many cell and tissue types. This pathway has also been implicated in many aspects of cancer progression from tumorigenesis to metastasis. The multiple roles of IGF signaling in cancer suggest that inhibition of the pathway might yield clinically effective therapeutics. We describe A-928605, a novel pyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine small molecule inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases (IGF1R and IR) responsible for IGF signal transduction. This compound was first tested for its activity and selectivity via conventional in vitro kinome profiling and cellular IGF1R autophosphorylation. Additionally, cellular selectivity and efficacy of A-928605 were analyzed in an IGF1R oncogene-addicted cell line by proliferation, signaling and microarray studies. Finally, in vivo efficacy of A-928605 was assessed in the oncogene-addicted cell line and in a neuroblastoma model as a single agent as well as in combination with clinically approved therapeutics targeting EGFR in models of pancreatic and non-small cell lung cancers. A-928605 is a selective IGF1R inhibitor that is able to abrogate activation of the pathway both in vitro and in vivo. This novel compound dosed as a single agent is able to produce significant growth inhibition of neuroblastoma xenografts in vivo. A-928605 is also able to provide additive effects when used in combination with clinically approved agents directed against EGFR in non-small cell lung and human pancreatic tumor models. These results suggest that a selective IGF1R inhibitor such as A-928605 may provide a useful clinical therapeutic for IGF pathway affected tumors and warrants further investigation

  6. Nuclear translocation of IGF1R by intracellular amphiregulin contributes to the resistance of lung tumour cells to EGFR-TKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerard, Marie; Robin, Thomas; Perron, Pascal; Hatat, Anne-Sophie; David-Boudet, Laurence; Vanwonterghem, Laetitia; Busser, Benoit; Coll, Jean-Luc; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Eymin, Beatrice; Hurbin, Amandine; Gazzeri, Sylvie

    2018-04-28

    Many Receptor Tyrosine Kinases translocate from the cell surface to the nucleus in normal and pathological conditions, including cancer. Here we report the nuclear expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) in primary human lung tumours. Using lung cancer cell lines and lung tumour xenografts, we demonstrate that the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) gefitinib induces the nuclear accumulation of IGF1R in mucinous lung adenocarcinoma by a mechanism involving the intracellular re-localization of the growth factor amphiregulin. Amphiregulin allows the binding of IGF1R to importin-β1 and promotes its nuclear transport. The nuclear accumulation of IGF1R by amphiregulin induces cell cycle arrest through p21 WAF1/CIP1 upregulation, and prevents the induction of apoptosis in response to gefitinib. These results identify amphiregulin as the first nuclear localization signal-containing protein that interacts with IGF1R and allows its nuclear translocation. Furthermore they indicate that nuclear expression of IGF1R contributes to EGFR-TKI resistance in lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. IGF-1/IGF-1R/hsa-let-7c axis regulates the committed differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu; Liu, Genxia; Jin, Lin; Pang, Xiyao; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Zilu; Yu, Yan; Yu, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor IGF-1R play a paramount role in tooth/bone formation while hsa-let-7c actively participates in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the interaction between IGF-1/IGF-1R and hsa-let-7c on the committed differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) remains unclear. In this study, human SCAPs were isolated and treated with IGF-1 and hsa-let-7c over/low-expression viruses. The odonto/osteogenic differentiation of these stem cells and the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were subsequently investigated. Alizarin red staining showed that hsa-let-7c low-expression can significantly promote the mineralization of IGF-1 treated SCAPs, while hsa-let-7c over-expression can decrease the calcium deposition of IGF-1 treated SCAPs. Western blot assay and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction further demonstrated that the expression of odonto/osteogenic markers (ALP, RUNX2/RUNX2, OSX/OSX, OCN/OCN, COL-I/COL-I, DSPP/DSP, and DMP-1/DMP-1) in IGF-1 treated SCAPs were significantly upregulated in Let-7c-low group. On the contrary, hsa-let-7c over-expression could downregulate the expression of these odonto/osteogenic markers. Moreover, western blot assay showed that the JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways were activated in Let-7c-low SCAPs but inhibited in Let-7c-over SCAPs. Together, the IGF-1/IGF-1R/hsa-let-7c axis can control the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of IGF-1-treated SCAPs via the regulation of JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27833148

  8. miR-342-3p suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation through inhibition of IGF-1R-mediated Warburg effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu W

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wenpeng Liu,1,* Lei Kang,2,* Juqiang Han,3 Yadong Wang,1 Chuan Shen,1 Zhifeng Yan,4 Yanhong Tai,5 Caiyan Zhao1 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Third Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China; 3Institute of Liver Disease, Beijing Military General Hospital, Beijing, China; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China; 5Department of Pathology, Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R is a well-studied oncogenic factor that promotes cell proliferation and energy metabolism and is overexpressed in numerous cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer, and drugs targeting its regulators, including IGF-1R, are being developed. However, the mechanisms of IGF-1R inhibition and the physiological significance of the IGF-1R inhibitors in cancer cells are unclear. Materials and methods: Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counting Kit-8 and colony formation assay. Western blot and real-time PCR were accordingly used to detect the relevant proteins, miRNA and gene expression. Luciferase reporter assays were used to illustrate the interaction between miR-342-3p and IGF-1R. The effect of miR-342-3p on glycolysis was determined by glucose uptake, ATP concentration, lactate generation, extracellular acidification rate and oxygen consumption rate assays. In vivo, subcutaneous tumor formation assay and PET were performed in nude mice. Results: In this study, we demonstrate that by directly targeting the 3’-UTR (3’-untranslated regions of IGF-1R, microRNA-342-3p (miR-342-3p suppresses IGF-1R-mediated PI3K/AKT/GLUT1 signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Through suppression of IGF-1R, miR-342-3p dampens glycolysis by decreasing glucose uptake, lactate generation

  9. Type-I Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (IGF1R)-Estrogen Receptor (ER) Crosstalk Contributes to Antiestrogen Therapy Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    vitro have downregulated J GF1R making antibodies directed agai nst th is receptor ineffective. Inhlbition of IH may be necessary to manage ...monoclonal antibody to insulin-like growth factor receptor 1. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:580Q-7. 31. Drury s. Detre s. Leary A, Salter J, Reis-Filho J

  10. miR-598 acts as a tumor suppressor in human gastric cancer by targeting IGF-1R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yang, Hua; Wang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the aberrant expression of miR-598 in tumorigenesis has been demonstrated, as well as the fact that the IGF-1R pathway is also involved in the development of human gastric cancer (GC). The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying miR-598-regulated IGF-1R expression in human GC. We analyzed the expression of miR-598 and IGF-1R in GC samples and cells, and evaluated the clinical significance of miR-598 and IGF-1R in GC patients. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo assays were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of miR-598 and IGF-1R. miR-598 expression was frequently downregulated in GC tissues and cells, and significantly correlated with poor prognosis, vascular invasion, TNM stage, and lymph node metastases as well as IGF-1R expression. The overexpression of miR-598 obviously inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and induced cell cycle arrest in the G1/S phase, and increased the apoptosis of GC cells. The overexpression of miR-598 also significantly inhibited ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation level. In vivo assay validated the inhibitory effect of miR-598 on tumor growth. Further studies showed that miR-598 inhibited IGF-1R protein expression by directly targeting its 3'-UTR. Besides, over-expression of IGF-1R reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-598, while suppression of IGF-1R expression showed inverse effects. miR-598 suppresses GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by directly targeting IGF-1R expression. Thus, miR-598 may be a useful target for GC patients.

  11. Role of IGF-1/IGF-1R in regulation of invasion in DU145 prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setya Hemani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer progression to androgen independence is the primary cause of mortality by this tumor type. The IGF-1/IGF-1R axis is well known to contribute to prostate cancer initiation, but its contribution to invasiveness and the downstream signalling mechanisms that are involved are unclear at present. Results We examined the invasive response of androgen independent DU145 prostate carcinoma cells to IGF-1 stimulation using Matrigel assays. We then examined the signaling mechanisms and protease activities that are associated with this response. IGF-1 significantly increased the invasive capacity of DU145 cells in vitro, and this increase was inhibited by blocking IGF-1R. We further demonstrated that specific inhibitors of the MAPK and PI3-K pathways decrease IGF-1-mediated invasion. To determine potential molecular mechanisms for this change in invasive capacity, we examined changes in expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases. We observed that IGF-1 increases the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in DU145 cells. These changes in activity are due to differences in expression in the case of MMP-9 but not in the case of MMP-2. This observation is corroborated by the fact that correlated changes of expression in a regulator of MMP-2, TIMP-2, were also seen. Conclusion This work identifies a specific effect of IGF-1 on the invasive capacity of DU145 prostate cancer cells, and furthermore delineates mechanisms that contribute to this effect.

  12. The viral G protein-coupled receptor ORF74 unmasks phospholipase C signaling of the receptor tyrosine kinase IGF-1R.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munnik, S.M.; van der Lee, R.; Velders, D.M.; van Offenbeek, J.; Smits-de Vries, L.; Leurs, R.; Smit, M.J.; Vischer, H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes the constitutively active G protein-coupled receptor ORF74, which is expressed on the surface of infected host cells and has been linked to the development of the angioproliferative tumor Kaposi's sarcoma. Furthermore, the insulin-like growth

  13. miR-342-3p suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation through inhibition of IGF-1R-mediated Warburg effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenpeng; Kang, Lei; Han, Juqiang; Wang, Yadong; Shen, Chuan; Yan, Zhifeng; Tai, Yanhong; Zhao, Caiyan

    2018-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a well-studied oncogenic factor that promotes cell proliferation and energy metabolism and is overexpressed in numerous cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer, and drugs targeting its regulators, including IGF-1R, are being developed. However, the mechanisms of IGF-1R inhibition and the physiological significance of the IGF-1R inhibitors in cancer cells are unclear. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counting Kit-8 and colony formation assay. Western blot and real-time PCR were accordingly used to detect the relevant proteins, miRNA and gene expression. Luciferase reporter assays were used to illustrate the interaction between miR-342-3p and IGF-1R. The effect of miR-342-3p on glycolysis was determined by glucose uptake, ATP concentration, lactate generation, extracellular acidification rate and oxygen consumption rate assays. In vivo, subcutaneous tumor formation assay and PET were performed in nude mice. In this study, we demonstrate that by directly targeting the 3'-UTR (3'-untranslated regions) of IGF-1R, microRNA-342-3p (miR-342-3p) suppresses IGF-1R-mediated PI3K/AKT/GLUT1 signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Through suppression of IGF-1R, miR-342-3p dampens glycolysis by decreasing glucose uptake, lactate generation, ATP production, and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), and increasing oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in hepatoma cells. Importantly, glycolysis regulated by miR-342-3p is critical for its regulating HCC growth both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide clues regarding the role of miR-342-3p as a tumor suppressor in liver cancer mainly through the inhibition of IGF-1R. Targeting IGF-1R by miR-342-3p could be a potential therapeutic strategy in liver cancer.

  14. MVP expression is related to IGF1-R in cervical carcinoma patients treated by radiochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Marta; Lara, Pedro Carlos; Bordón, Elisa; Rey, Agustin; Falcón, Orlando; Apolinario, Rosa Maria; Clavo, Bernardino; Ruiz, Ana

    2008-09-01

    To assess the expression of MVP in cervix carcinoma patients treated by radiochemotherapy, its relation to clinical and pathologic prognostic factors and its role in predicting clinical outcome. In addition the relation to IGF-1R expression in this cohort of patients will be explored. Sixty consecutive patients suffering from localized cervix carcinoma were prospectively included in this study from July 1999 to December 2003. Follow-up was closed in November 2007. Patients were staged following the TNM classification. All patients received pelvic radiation (45-64.80 Gy in 1.8-2 Gy fractions) followed brachytherapy and concomitant cisplatin at 40 mg/m(2)/week doses. MVP expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tumour tissue. MVP was expressed in 58 patients (96.7%) and no relation was found with clinicopathological variables. High MVP expression was related to high IGF1-R expression (p=0.023). Complete response after treatment was observed in 50 patients (83.3%). Clinical stage of the disease and clinical response to radiochemotherapy were the most important prognostic factors related to survival. High MVP and IGF-1R tumour expression was strongly related to poor local and regional disease-free survival (p=0.006), distant disease-free survival (p=0.050), disease-free survival (p=0.006), and cause-specific survival (p=0.007) in patients achieving a complete response. MVP and IGF-1R expression were related in clinical cervical tumours and confer reduced long-term local control in patients who achieved clinical complete response to radiochemotherapy.

  15. MicroRNA-133a Inhibits Osteosarcoma Cells Proliferation and Invasion via Targeting IGF-1R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangnan Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by repressing translation or cleaving RNA transcripts in a sequence-specific manner. Downregulated microRNAs and their roles in cancer development have attracted much attention. A growing body of evidence showed that microRNA-133a (miR-133a has inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of osteosarcoma. Methods: MiR-133a expression in human osteosarcoma cell lines and human normal osteoblastic cell line hFOB was investigated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR. The role of miR-133a in human osteosarcoma growth and invasion was assessed in cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Then, luciferase reporter assay validated IGF-1R as a downstream and functional target of miR-133a, and functional studies revealed that the anti-tumor effect of miR-133a was probably due to targeting and repressing of IGF-1R expression. Results: MiR-133a was lower expressed in human osteosarcoma cell lines than human normal osteoblastic cell line hFOB and its effect on inhibiting proliferation, invasion and metastasis is mediated by its direct interaction with the IGF-1R. Furthermore, the tumour-suppressive function of miR-133a probably contributed to inhibiting the activation AKT and ERK signaling pathway. Conclusion: MiR-133a suppresses osteosarcoma progression and metastasis by targeting IGF-1R in human osteosarcoma cells, providing a novel candidate prognostic factor and a potential anti-metastasis therapeutic target in osteosarcoma.

  16. Complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP) in lipid rafts mediates hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer by regulating IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haojun; Fang, Winston; Liu, Minda; Fu, Deliang

    2017-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer shows a remarkable predilection for hepatic metastasis. Complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP) can mediate growth factor-induced cancer cell chemotaxis and distant metastasis by activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Coincidentally, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) derived from the liver and cancer cells itself has been recognized as a critical inducer of hepatic metastasis. However, the mechanism underlying IGF-1-dependent hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer, in which C1QBP may be involved, remains unknown. In the study, we demonstrated a significant association between C1QBP expression and hepatic metastasis in patients with pancreatic cancer. IGF-1 induced the translocation of C1QBP from cytoplasm to lipid rafts and further drove the formation of CD44 variant 6 (CD44v6)/C1QBP complex in pancreatic cancer cells. C1QBP interacting with CD44v6 in lipid rafts promoted phosphorylation of IGF-1R and thus activated downstream PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways which mediated metastatic potential of pancreatic cancer cells including proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, adhesion and energy metabolism. Furthermore, C1QBP knockdown suppressed hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells in nude mice. We therefore conclude that C1QBP in lipid rafts serves a key regulator of IGF-1/IGF-1R-induced hepatic metastasis from pancreatic cancer. Our findings about C1QBP in lipid rafts provide a novel strategy to block IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in pancreatic cancer and a reliable premise for more efficient combined modality therapies. © 2017 UICC.

  17. TSH-Mediated TNFα Production in Human Fibrocytes Is Inhibited by Teprotumumab, an IGF-1R Antagonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    Full Text Available Fibrocytes (FC are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that are more abundant and infiltrate the thyroid and orbit in Graves orbitopathy (GO. FCs express high levels of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R. These receptors are physically and functionally associated, but their role in GO pathogenesis is not fully delineated. Treatment of FCs with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH or M22 (activating antibody to TSHR induces the production of numerous cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα. Teprotumumab (TMB is a human monoclonal IGF-1R blocking antibody currently in clinical trial for GO and inhibits TSHR-mediated actions in FCs.To characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying TSH-induced TNFα production by FCs, and the role of IGF-1R blockade by TMB.FCs from healthy and GD patients were treated with combinations of TSH, M22, MG132 and AKTi (inhibitors of NF-κB and Akt, respectively, and TMB. TNFα protein production was measured by Luminex and flow cytometry. Messenger RNA expression was quantified by real time PCR.Treatment with TSH/M22 induced TNFα protein and mRNA production by FCs, both of which were reduced when FCs were pretreated with MG132 and AKTi (p<0.0001. TMB decreased TSH-induced TNFα protein production in circulating FCs from mean fluorescent index (MFI value of 2.92 to 1.91, and mRNA expression in cultured FCs from 141- to 52-fold expression (p<0.0001. TMB also decreased M22-induced TNFα protein production from MFI of 1.67 to 1.12, and mRNA expression from 6- to 3-fold expression (p<0.0001.TSH/M22 stimulates FC production of TNFα mRNA and protein. This process involves the transcription factor NF-κB and its regulator Akt. Blocking IGF-1R attenuates TSH/M22-induced TNFα production. This further delineates the interaction of TSHR and IGF1-R signaling pathways. By modulating the proinflammatory properties of FCs such as TNFα production, TMB may be a promising

  18. Overexpression of decorin promoted angiogenesis in diabetic cardiomyopathy via IGF1R-AKT-VEGF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jinsheng; Chen, Fuqiong; Chen, Jing; Ruan, Guoran; He, Mengying; Chen, Chen; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Dao Wen

    2017-03-14

    Microcirculatory dysfunction is believed to play an important role in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin is generally considered a pro-angiogenic factor. Here, we investigate whether overexpression of decorin ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy and its effects on angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Diabetes was induced through intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin combined with a high-fat diet, and decorin was overexpressed via recombinant adeno-associated virus in Wistar rats. Six months later, cardiac function was determined using an echocardiography and cardiac catheter system. The results showed that cardiac function was decreased in diabetic rats and restored by overexpression of decorin. In addition, overexpression of decorin upregulated the expression of VEGF and attenuated the reduction in the cardiac capillary density. In the in vitro study, high glucose induced apoptosis and inhibited the capabilities of tube formation, migration and proliferation, which were all ameliorated by decorin overexpression. Meanwhile, decorin overexpression increased the expression of VEGF and IGF1R, as well as the phosphorylation level of AKT and AP-1. Nonetheless, all of these effects were abolished by pretreatment with the IGF1R antibody or AKT inhibitor. In conclusion, overexpression of decorin ameliorated diabetic cardiomyopathy and promoted angiogenesis through the IGF1R-AKT-VEGF signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

  19. Igf1r+/CD34+ immature ICC are putative adult progenitor cells, identified ultrastructurally as fibroblast-like ICC in Ws/Ws rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X Y; Albertí, E; White, E J

    2009-01-01

    by ICC in the wild-type rat colon, suggesting them to be immature ICC. In addition, a marked increase in immunoreactivity for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf1r) occurred, co-localized with CD34 but not with c-Kit. A significantly higher number of Igf1r(+)/CD34(+) cells were found in Ws....../Ws compared to wild-type rat colons. These CD34(+)/Igf1r(+) cells in the Ws/Ws colon occupied the same space as FL-ICC. Hence we propose that a subset of immature ICC (FL-ICC) consists of adult progenitor cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed a reduction of neurons positive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase...

  20. 18FDG-PET predicts pharmacodynamic response to OSI-906, a dual IGF-1R/IR inhibitor, in preclinical mouse models of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Eliot T; Bugaj, Joseph E; Zhao, Ping; Guleryuz, Saffet; Mantis, Christine; Gokhale, Prafulla C; Wild, Robert; Manning, H Charles

    2011-05-15

    To evaluate 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography imaging ((18)FDG-PET) as a predictive, noninvasive, pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarker of response following administration of a small-molecule insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and insulin receptor (IGF-1R/IR) inhibitor, OSI-906. In vitro uptake studies of (3)H-2-deoxy glucose following OSI-906 exposure were conducted evaluating correlation of dose with inhibition of IGF-1R/IR as well as markers of downstream pathways and glucose metabolism. Similarly, in vivo PD effects were evaluated in human tumor cell line xenografts propagated in athymic nude mice by (18)FDG-PET at 2, 4, and 24 hours following a single treatment of OSI-906 for the correlation of inhibition of receptor targets and downstream markers. Uptake of (3)H-2-deoxy glucose and (18)FDG was significantly diminished following OSI-906 exposure in sensitive tumor cells and subcutaneous xenografts (NCI-H292) but not in an insensitive model lacking IGF-1R expression (NCI-H441). Diminished PD (18)FDG-PET, collected immediately following the initial treatment agreed with inhibition of pIGF-1R/pIR, reduced PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) pathway activity, and predicted tumor growth arrest as measured by high-resolution ultrasound imaging. (18)FDG-PET seems to serve as a rapid, noninvasive PD marker of IGF-1R/IR inhibition following a single dose of OSI-906 and should be explored clinically as a predictive clinical biomarker in patients undergoing IGF-1R/IR-directed cancer therapy. ©2011 AACR.

  1. Growth inhibition of human pancreatic cancer cells by lipofection mediated IGF-1R antisense oligodeoxynucletides in combination with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yaozhen; Sun Chengyi; Wang Yuzhi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the growth inhibition of human pancreatic cancer cells (PC-3) by lipofection-mediated and ionizing radiation improving transfection of IGF-1R antisense oligodeoxynucletides (ASON) in vitro. Methods: Colonigenicity of PC-3 cells in vitro after 60 Co γ-radiation was observed for ascertaining their radiosensitivity and optimal radiation dose was selected according to the radiation sensitivity. PC-3 cells were transfected by two ways: 1) by lipofection-mediated IGF-1R ASON combined with ionizing radiation. 2) by lipo-ASON alone without ionizing radiation. Cell growth was assessed by MTT method. The expression of IGF-1R at mRNA level was examined by RT-PCR. Flow cytometry was used to demonstrate apoptotic changes in lipo-ASON-treated cells. Results: The inhibitory efficiency of lipo-ASON combined with ionizing radiation was higher than that without ionizing radiation (P < 0.05). The apoptotic efficiency and the decreased level of IGF-1R at mRNA were significantly improved (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Lipofection-mediated and ionizing radiation-promoted transfection of IGF-1R antisense oligodeoxynucletides (ASON) significantly decreases IGF-1R at mRNA level and induces apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro

  2. IGF-1R Regulates the Extracellular Level of Active MMP-2, Pathological Neovascularization, and Functionality in Retinas of OIR Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Valeria E; Subirada Caldarone, Paula V; Paz, María C; Ferrer, Darío G; Luna, José D; Chiabrando, Gustavo A; Sánchez, María C

    2018-02-01

    In ischemic proliferative diseases such as retinopathies, persistent hypoxia leads to the release of numerous neovascular factors that participate in the formation of abnormal vessels and eventually cause blindness. The upregulation and activation of metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) represent a final common pathway in this process. Although many regulators of the neovascular process have been identified, the complete role of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) appears to be significantly more complex. In this study, we used an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model as well as an in vitro model of hypoxia to study the role of MMP-2 derived from Müller glial cells (MGCs) and its relation with the IGF-1/IGF-1R system. We demonstrated that MMP-2 protein expression increased in P17 OIR mice, which coincided with the active phase of the neovascular process. Also, glutamine synthetase (GS)-positive cells were also positive for MMP-2, whereas IGF-1R was expressed by GFAP-positive cells, indicating that both proteins were expressed in MGCs. In addition, in the OIR model a single intravitreal injection of the IGF-1R blocking antibody (αIR3) administered at P12 effectively prevented pathologic neovascularization, accelerated physiological revascularization, and improved retinal functionality at P17. Finally, in MGC supernatants, the blocking antibody abolished the IGF-1 effect on active MMP-2 under normoxic and hypoxic conditions without affecting the extracellular levels of pro-MMP-2. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that the IGF-1/IGF-1R system regulates active MMP-2 levels in MGCs, thus contributing to MEC remodeling during the retinal neovascular process.

  3. Systemic analysis of different colorectal cancer cell lines and TCGA datasets identified IGF-1R/EGFR-PPAR-CASPASE axis as important indicator for radiotherapy sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Zhe; Gao, Wei; Jiang, Qixin; Yu, Jiangming; Fu, Chuangang

    2017-09-05

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is proved to contribute the development of many types of cancers. But, little is known about its roles in radio-resistance of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we demonstrated that low IGF-1R expression value was associated with the better radiotherapy sensitivity of CRC. Besides, through Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), the elevated expression value of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was observed in CRC cell lines (HT29, RKO) with high radio-sensitivity compared with those with low sensitivity (SW480, LOVO). The irradiation induced apoptosis rates of wild type and EGFR agonist (EGF) or IGF-1R inhibitor (NVP-ADW742) treated HT29 and SW480 cells were quantified by flow cytometry. As a result, the apoptosis rate of EGF and NVP-ADW742 treated HT29 cells was significantly higher than that of those wild type ones, which indicated that high EGFR and low IGF-1R expression level in CRC was associated with the high sensitivity to radiotherapy. We next conducted systemic bioinformatics analysis of genome-wide expression profiles of CRC samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential expression analysis between IGF-1R and EGFR abnormal CRC samples, i.e. CRC samples with higher IGF-1R and lower EGFR expression levels based on their median expression values, and the rest of CRC samples identified potential genes contribute to radiotherapy sensitivity. Functional enrichment of analysis of those differential expression genes (DEGs) in the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) indicated PPAR signaling pathway as an important pathway for the radio-resistance of CRC. Our study identified the potential biomarkers for the rational selection of radiotherapy for CRC patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Disruption of IGF-1R signaling increases TRAIL-induced apoptosis: A new potential therapy for the treatment of melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasic, Thomas B.; Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis is dependent on a balance of multiple genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, which up-regulate efficacy of the surviving growth factor-receptor signaling pathways and suppress death-receptor signaling pathways. The Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway is highly active in metastatic melanoma cells by mediating downstream activation of PI3K-AKT and MAPK pathways and controlling general cell survival and proliferation. In the present study, we used human melanoma lines with established genotypes that represented different phases of cancer development: radial-growth-phase WM35, vertical-growth-phase WM793, metastatic LU1205 and WM9 [1]. All these lines have normal NRAS. WM35, WM793, LU1205 and WM9 cells have mutated BRAF (V600E). WM35 and WM9 cells express normal PTEN, while in WM793 cells PTEN expression is down-regulated; finally, in LU1205 cells PTEN is inactivated by mutation. Cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP), a specific inhibitor of IGF-1R kinase activity, strongly down-regulated the basal levels of AKT activity in WM9 and in WM793 cells, modestly does so in LU1205, but has no effect on AKT activity in the early stage WM35 cells that are deficient in IGF-1R. In addition, PPP partially down-regulated the basal levels of active ERK1/2 in all lines used, highlighting the role of an alternative, non-BRAF pathway in MAPK activation. The final result of PPP treatment was an induction of apoptosis in WM793, WM9 and LU1205 melanoma cells. On the other hand, dose-dependent inhibition of IGF-1R kinase activity by PPP at a relatively narrow dose range (near 500 nM) has different effects on melanoma cells versus normal cells, inducing apoptosis in cancer cells and G2/M arrest of fibroblasts. To further enhance the pro-apoptotic effects of PPP on melanoma cells, we used a combined treatment of TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) and PPP. This combination substantially increased death by apoptosis for

  5. Overcoming IGF1R/IR Resistance Through Inhibition of MEK Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Sara A.; Pitts, Todd M.; Newton, Timothy P.; Kulikowski, Gillian N.; Tan, Aik Choon; McManus, Martine C.; Spreafico, Anna; Kachaeva, Maria I.; Selby, Heather M.; Tentler, John J.; Eckhardt, S. Gail; Leong, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Results from clinical trials involving resistance to molecularly targeted therapies have revealed the importance of rational single agent and combination treatment strategies. In this study, we tested the efficacy of a type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R)/insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), OSI-906, in combination with a MEK 1/2 inhibitor based on evidence that the MAPK pathway was upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines that were resistant to OSI-906. Experimental Design The antiproliferative effects of OSI-906 and the MEK 1/2 inhibitor U0126, were analyzed both as single agents and in combination in 13 CRC cell lines in vitro. Apoptosis, downstream effector proteins, and cell cycle were also assessed. Additionally, the efficacy of OSI-906 combined with the MEK 1/2 inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886), was evaluated in vivo using human CRC xenograft models. Results The combination of OSI-906 and U0126 resulted in synergistic effects in 11 out of 13 CRC cell lines tested. This synergy was variably associated with apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in addition to molecular effects on pro-survival pathways. The synergy was also reflected in the in vivo xenograft studies following treatment with the combination of OSI-906 and selumetinib. Conclusions Results from this study demonstrate synergistic antiproliferative effects in response to the combination of OSI-906 with a MEK 1/2 inhibitor in CRC cell line models both in vitro and in vivo, which supports the rational combination of OSI-906 with a MEK inhibitor in patients with CRC. PMID:24045180

  6. Gene Expression of IGF1, IGF1R, and IGFBP3 in Epiretinal Membranes of Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Romaniuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism formation of secondary epiretinal membranes (ERMs after proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR or primary idiopathic ERMs is still poorly understood. Therefore, the present study focused on the assessment of IGF1, IGF1R, and IGFBP3 mRNA levels in ERMs and PBMCs from patients with PDR. The examined group comprised 6 patients with secondary ERMs after PDR and the control group consisted of 11 patients with idiopathic ERMs. Quantification of IGF1, IGF1R, and IGFBP3 mRNAs was performed by real-time QRT-PCR technique. In ERMs, IGF1 and IGF1R mRNA levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes compared to control subjects. In PBMCs, there were no statistically significant differences of IGF1, IGF1R, and IGFBP3 expression between diabetic and nondiabetic patients. In conclusion, our study indicated IGF1 and IGF1R differential expression in ERMs, but not in PBMCs, of diabetic and nondiabetic patients, suggesting that these factors can be involved in the pathogenesis or progression of proliferative vitreoretinal disorders. This trial is registered with NCT00841334.

  7. CD99 triggering induces methuosis of Ewing sarcoma cells through IGF-1R/RAS/Rac1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, Maria Cristina; Terracciano, Mario; Mancarella, Caterina; Sciandra, Marika; Guerzoni, Clara; Pasello, Michela; Grilli, Andrea; Zini, Nicoletta; Picci, Piero; Colombo, Mario P; Morrione, Andrea; Scotlandi, Katia

    2016-11-29

    CD99 is a cell surface molecule that has emerged as a novel target for Ewing sarcoma (EWS), an aggressive pediatric bone cancer. This report provides the first evidence of methuosis in EWS, a non-apoptotic form of cell death induced by an antibody directed against the CD99 molecule. Upon mAb triggering, CD99 induces an IGF-1R/RAS/Rac1 complex, which is internalized into RAB5-positive endocytic vacuoles. This complex is then dissociated, with the IGF-1R recycling to the cell membrane while CD99 and RAS/Rac1 are sorted into immature LAMP-1-positive vacuoles, whose excessive accumulation provokes methuosis. This process, which is not detected in CD99-expressing normal mesenchymal cells, is inhibited by disruption of the IGF-1R signaling, whereas enhanced by IGF-1 stimulation. Induction of IGF-1R/RAS/Rac1 was also observed in the EWS xenografts that respond to anti-CD99 mAb, further supporting the role of the IGF/RAS/Rac1 axis in the hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis and selective death of EWS cells. Thus, we describe a vulnerability of EWS cells, including those resistant to standard chemotherapy, to a treatment with anti-CD99 mAb, which requires IGF-1R/RAS signaling but bypasses the need for their direct targeting. Overall, we propose CD99 targeting as new opportunity to treat EWS patients resistant to canonical apoptosis-inducing agents.

  8. Inhibition of tumor growth by targeted anti-EGFR/IGF-1R Nanobullets depends on efficient blocking of cell survival pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meel, Roy; Oliveira, Sabrina; Altintas, Isil; Heukers, R.; Pieters, Ebel H.E.; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M.P.; Storm, Gerrit; Hennink, Wim E.; Kok, Robbert J.; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted inhibitors is limited due to resistance mechanisms of the tumor such as activation of compensatory pathways. Crosstalk between EGFR and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1R) signaling has been frequently described to be

  9. Role of Ubiquitination in IGF-1 Receptor Signaling and Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Sehat, Bita; Andersson, Sandra; Vasilcanu, Radu; Girnita, Leonard; Larsson, Olle

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays numerous crucial roles in cancer biology. The majority of knowledge on IGF-1R signaling is concerned with its role in the activation of the canonical phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways. However, the role of IGF-1R ubiquitination in modulating IGF-1R function is an area of current research. In light of this we sought to determine the relationship between IGF-1R phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and...

  10. Inhibition of EGFR or IGF-1R signaling enhances radiation response in head and neck cancer models but concurrent inhibition has no added benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Uma; Molkentine, David P; Valdecanas, David R; Deorukhkar, Amit; Mason, Kathryn A; Buchholz, Thomas A; Meyn, Raymond E; Ang, Kie-Kian; Skinner, Heath

    2015-01-01

    Interaction between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) has been well established in many cancer types. We investigated the effects of cetuximab (EGFR antibody) and IMC-A12 (IGF-1R antibody) on the response of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) to radiation therapy (RT). The effects of cetuximab and IMC-A12 on cell viability and radiosensitivity were determined by clonogenic cell survival assay. Formation of nuclear γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci was monitored by immunofluorescence. Alterations in target signaling were analyzed by Western blots. In vivo tumor growth delay assay was performed to determine the efficacy of triple therapy with IMC-A12, cetuximab, and RT. In vitro data showed that cetuximab differentially affected the survival and the radiosensitivity of HNSCC cells. Cetuximab suppressed DNA repair that was evident by the prolonged presence of nuclear γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci. IMC-A12 did not have any effect on the cell survival. However, it increased the radiosensitivity of one of the cell lines. EGFR inhibition increased IGF-1R expression levels and also the association between EGFR and IGF-1R. Addition of IMC-A12 to cetuximab did not increase the radiosensitivity of these cells. Tumor xenografts exhibited enhanced response to RT in the presence of either cetuximab or IMC-A12. Concurrent treatment regimen failed to further enhance the tumor response to cetuximab and/or RT. Taken together our data suggest that concomitant inhibition of both EGFR and IGF-1R pathways did not yield additional therapeutic benefit in overcoming resistance to RT

  11. miR-139 is up-regulated in osteoarthritis and inhibits chondrocyte proliferation and migration possibly via suppressing EIF4G2 and IGF1R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Weihua; Zhang, Weikai; Li, Feng; Guo, Fengjing; Chen, Anmin, E-mail: chenanmin6072@126.com

    2016-05-27

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most progressive articular cartilage erosions. microRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in OA modulation, but the role of miR-139 in OA remains elusive. This study aims to reveal the effects and possible mechanism of miR-139 in OA and chondrocytes. The levels of miR-139 and its possible targets eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 2 (EIF4G2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) were detected by qRT-PCR in the articular cartilages of 20 OA patients and 20 non-OA patients. Human chondrocyte CHON-001 cells were transfected with miR-139 mimic or inhibitor, as well as the siRNAs of EIF4G2 and IGF1R. Cell viability by MTT assay, proliferation by colony formation assay and migration by Transwell assay were performed. Results showed that miR-139 was up-regulated, while EIF4G2 and IGF1R mRNAs down-regulated in OA cartilages (P < 0.001), and negative correlations existed between the level of miR-139 and EIF4G2 or IGF1R. Overexpression of miR-139 in CHON-001 cells suppressed both mRNA and protein levels of EIF4G2 and IGF1R, and inhibited cell viability, colony formation number and cell migration, while miR-139 inhibitor induced the opposite effects. Knockdown of EIF4G2 or IGF1R in CHON-001 cells reversed the effects of miR-139 inhibitor on cell viability, colony formation and cell migration. These results indicate that miR-139 is capable of inhibiting chondrocyte proliferation and migration, thus being a possible therapeutic target for OA. The mechanism of miR-139 in chondrocytes may be related to its regulation on EIF4G2 and IGF1R.

  12. CD99 triggering induces methuosis of Ewing sarcoma cells through IGF-1R/RAS/Rac1 signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Manara, Maria Cristina; Terracciano, Mario; Mancarella, Caterina; Sciandra, Marika; Guerzoni, Clara; Pasello, Michela; Grilli, Andrea; Zini, Nicoletta; Picci, Piero; Colombo, Mario P.; Morrione, Andrea; Scotlandi, Katia

    2016-01-01

    CD99 is a cell surface molecule that has emerged as a novel target for Ewing sarcoma (EWS), an aggressive pediatric bone cancer. This report provides the first evidence of methuosis in EWS, a non-apoptotic form of cell death induced by an antibody directed against the CD99 molecule. Upon mAb triggering, CD99 induces an IGF-1R/RAS/Rac1 complex, which is internalized into RAB5-positive endocytic vacuoles. This complex is then dissociated, with the IGF-1R recycling to the cell membrane while CD9...

  13. Role of RBP2-Induced ER and IGF1R-ErbB Signaling in Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Joo; Joo, Hyeong-Seok; Won, Hee-Young; Min, Kyueng-Whan; Kim, Hyung-Yong; Son, Taekwon; Oh, Young-Ha; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Kong, Gu

    2018-04-01

    Despite the benefit of endocrine therapy, acquired resistance during or after treatment still remains a major challenge in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. We investigated the potential role of histone demethylase retinoblastoma-binding protein 2 (RBP2) in endocrine therapy resistance of breast cancer. Survival of breast cancer patients according to RBP2 expression was analyzed in three different breast cancer cohorts including METABRIC (n = 1980) and KM plotter (n = 1764). RBP2-mediated tamoxifen resistance was confirmed by invitro sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric, colony-forming assays, and invivo xenograft models (n = 8 per group). RNA-seq analysis and receptor tyrosine kinase assay were performed to identify the tamoxifen resistance mechanism by RBP2. All statistical tests were two-sided. RBP2 was associated with poor prognosis to tamoxifen therapy in ER-positive breast cancer (P = .04 in HYU cohort, P = .02 in KM plotter, P = .007 in METABRIC, log-rank test). Furthermore, RBP2 expression was elevated in patients with tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer (P = .04, chi-square test). Knockdown of RBP2 conferred tamoxifen sensitivity, whereas overexpression of RBP2 induced tamoxifen resistance invitro and invivo (MCF7 xenograft: tamoxifen-treated control, mean [SD] tumor volume = 70.8 [27.9] mm3, vs tamoxifen-treated RBP2, mean [SD] tumor volume = 387.9 [85.1] mm3, P < .001). Mechanistically, RBP2 cooperated with ER co-activators and corepressors and regulated several tamoxifen resistance-associated genes, including NRIP1, CCND1, and IGFBP4 and IGFBP5. Furthermore, epigenetic silencing of IGFBP4/5 by RBP2-ER-NRIP1-HDAC1 complex led to insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) activation. RBP2 also increased IGF1R-ErbB crosstalk and subsequent PI3K-AKT activation via demethylase activity-independent ErbB protein stabilization. Combinational treatment with tamoxifen and PI3K inhibitor could overcome RBP2-mediated tamoxifen

  14. Inhibition of p70S6K1 Activation by Pdcd4 Overcomes the Resistance to an IGF-1R/IR Inhibitor in Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qing; Chen, Li; Yang, Hsin-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Agents targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are being actively examined in clinical trials. Although there has been some initial success of single-agent targeting IGF-1R, attempts in later studies failed because of resistance. This study aimed to understand the effects of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) on the chemosensitivity of the IGF-1R inhibitor OSI-906 in colorectal cancer cells and the mechanism underlying this impact. Using OSI-906-resistant and -sensitive colorectal cancer cells, we found that the Pdcd4 level directly correlates with cell chemosensitivity to OSI-906. In addition, tumors derived from Pdcd4 knockdown cells resist the growth inhibitory effect of OSI-906 in a colorectal cancer xenograft mouse model. Moreover, Pdcd4 enhances the antiproliferative effect of OSI-906 in resistant cells through suppression of p70S6K1 activation. Knockdown of p70S6K1, but not p70S6K2, significantly increases the chemosensitivity of OSI-906 in cultured colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of OSI-906 and PF-4708671, a p70S6K1 inhibitor, efficiently suppresses the growth of OSI-906-resistant colon tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, activation of p70S6K1 that is inhibited by Pdcd4 is essential for resistance to the IGF-1R inhibitor in colon tumor cells, and the combinational treatment of OSI-906 and PF-4708671 results in enhanced antiproliferation effects in colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, providing a novel venue to overcome the resistance to the IGF-1R inhibitor in treating colorectal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Does Metformin affect ER, PR, IGF-1R, β-catenin and PAX-2 expression in women with diabetes mellitus and endometrial cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska, Anna; Pawałowska, Monika; Filas, Violetta; Korski, Konstanty; Gryboś, Marian; Sajdak, Stefan; Olejek, Anita; Bednarek, Wiesława; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Lubin, Jolanta; Markowska, Janina

    2013-12-05

    Diabetes mellitus, as a risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC), causes an increase in insulin and IGF-1 concentrations in the blood serum. The increase in insulin and IGF-1 are considered mitogenic factors contributory to cancer development. Studies suggest that metformin has preventive activity, decreasing mortality and the risk of neoplasms. Since estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and IGF-1 (IGF-1R) receptor expression and β-catenin and PAX-2 mutations are significant in the development of endometrial cancer, it was decided to study these factors in patients with endometrial cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and to establish the effects of metformin on their expression. The expression of ER, PR, IGF-1R, β-catenin and PAX-2 have been immunohistochemically investigated in 86 type I endometrial cancer specimens. Patients were grouped according to the presence of DM2 and the type of hypoglycemic treatment administered. Comparing EC patients with DM2 and normal glycemic status, we found increased IGF-1R expression in women with DM2. A decrease in ER expression was noted in women with EC and DM2 receiving metformin as compared to women treated with insulin (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in PR, IGF-1R, β-catenin and PAX-2 expression among women receiving metformin and other hypoglycemic treatment. Although epidemiological studies suggest the beneficial role of metformin in many human cancers, there are still few studies confirming its favorable effect on endometrial cancer. Decreased ER expression in patients receiving metformin needs further research to allow evaluation of its clinical significance.

  16. Resveratrol suppresses IGF-1 induced human colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis via suppression of IGF-1R/Wnt and activation of p53 signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Sridhar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a global phenomenon and is associated with various types of cancer, including colon cancer. There is a growing interest for safe and effective bioactive compounds that suppress the risk for obesity-promoted colon cancer. Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5,-trihydroxystilbene, a stilbenoid found in the skin of red grapes and peanuts suppresses many types of cancers by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis through a variety of mechanisms, however, resveratrol effects on obesity-promoted colon cancer are not clearly established. Methods We investigated the anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol on HT-29 and SW480 human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; elevated during obesity and elucidated the mechanisms of action using IGF-1R siRNA in HT-29 cells which represents advanced colon carcinogenesis. Results Resveratrol (100-150 μM exhibited anti-proliferative properties in HT-29 cells even after IGF-1 exposure by arresting G0/G1-S phase cell cycle progression through p27 stimulation and cyclin D1 suppression. Treatment with resveratrol suppressed IGF-1R protein levels and concurrently attenuated the downstream Akt/Wnt signaling pathways that play a critical role in cell proliferation. Targeted suppression of IGF-1R using IGF-1R siRNA also affected these signaling pathways in a similar manner. Resveratrol treatment induced apoptosis by activating tumor suppressor p53 protein, whereas IGF-1R siRNA treatment did not affect apoptosis. Our data suggests that resveratrol not only suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGF-1R and its downstream signaling pathways similar to that of IGF-1R siRNA but also enhances apoptosis via activation of the p53 pathway. Conclusions For the first time, we report that resveratrol suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis even in the presence of IGF-1 via suppression of IGF-1R/Akt/Wnt signaling pathways and

  17. Resveratrol suppresses IGF-1 induced human colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis via suppression of IGF-1R/Wnt and activation of p53 signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanamala, Jairam; Reddivari, Lavanya; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Tarver, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a global phenomenon and is associated with various types of cancer, including colon cancer. There is a growing interest for safe and effective bioactive compounds that suppress the risk for obesity-promoted colon cancer. Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5,-trihydroxystilbene), a stilbenoid found in the skin of red grapes and peanuts suppresses many types of cancers by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis through a variety of mechanisms, however, resveratrol effects on obesity-promoted colon cancer are not clearly established. We investigated the anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol on HT-29 and SW480 human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; elevated during obesity) and elucidated the mechanisms of action using IGF-1R siRNA in HT-29 cells which represents advanced colon carcinogenesis. Resveratrol (100-150 μM) exhibited anti-proliferative properties in HT-29 cells even after IGF-1 exposure by arresting G 0 /G 1 -S phase cell cycle progression through p27 stimulation and cyclin D1 suppression. Treatment with resveratrol suppressed IGF-1R protein levels and concurrently attenuated the downstream Akt/Wnt signaling pathways that play a critical role in cell proliferation. Targeted suppression of IGF-1R using IGF-1R siRNA also affected these signaling pathways in a similar manner. Resveratrol treatment induced apoptosis by activating tumor suppressor p53 protein, whereas IGF-1R siRNA treatment did not affect apoptosis. Our data suggests that resveratrol not only suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGF-1R and its downstream signaling pathways similar to that of IGF-1R siRNA but also enhances apoptosis via activation of the p53 pathway. For the first time, we report that resveratrol suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis even in the presence of IGF-1 via suppression of IGF-1R/Akt/Wnt signaling pathways and activation of p53, suggesting its potential role as a

  18. Kinase inhibitors of the IGF-1R as a potential therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Shinji; Fujishiro, Maki; Yoshida, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Hirai, Takuya; Miyashita, Tomoko; Ikeda, Keigo; Yamaji, Ken; Takamori, Kenji; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Sekigawa, Iwao; Tamura, Naoto

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a potential therapeutic strategy against rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CTGF consists of four distinct modules, including the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP). In serum, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) bind IGFBPs, interact with the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1 R), and regulate anabolic effects and bone metabolism. We investigated the correlation between IGF-1 and the pathogenesis of RA, and the inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis and angiogenesis of the small molecular weight kinase inhibitor of the IGF-1 R, NVP-AEW541, against pathogenesis of RA in vitro. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell count and immunoblotting. The expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1 R was evaluated by RT-PCR. Osteoclastogenesis was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, a bone resorption assay, and osteoclast-specific enzyme production. Angiogenesis was evaluated by a tube formation assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The proliferation of MH7A cells was found to be inhibited in the presence of NVP-AEW541, and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt was downregulated in MH7A cells. IGF-1 and IGF-1 R mRNA expression levels were upregulated during formation of M-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast formation. Moreover, osteoclastogenesis was suppressed in the presence of NVP-AEW541. The formation of the tubular network was enhanced by IGF-1, and this effect was neutralized by NVP-ARE541. Our findings suggest that NVP-AEW541 may be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of RA.

  19. IGF-I stimulates ERβ and aromatase expression via IGF1R/PI3K/AKT-mediated transcriptional activation in endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zeng, Cheng; Li, Xin; Wu, Pei-Li; Yin, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Lan; Zhou, Ying-Fang; Xue, Qing

    2016-08-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ, encoded by ESR2 gene) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (encoded by CYP19A1 gene) play critical roles in endometriosis, and the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the peritoneal fluid are significantly higher in patients with endometriosis compared with those in normal women. However, the effects and mechanisms of IGF-I on ERβ and aromatase expression remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs) and endometrial cells (EMs) derived from ovarian endometriomas and eutopic endometrial tissues. ESCs were cultured with IGF-I, signal pathway inhibitors, and siRNAs. ERβ and aromatase expression were measured by real-time PCR and Western, respectively. The binding of c-Jun and CREB to the ESR2 and CYP19A1 promoters was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Animal experiments were performed in a xenograft mouse model. Levels of IGF-I mRNA in ESCs were markedly higher than those in EMs. IGF-I upregulated ERβ and aromatase expression in ESCs after stimulation of the IGF1R/PI3K/AKT pathway. Following IGF-I treatment, a marked increase in c-Jun and CREB phosphorylation occurred, enhancing binding to the ESR2 and CYP19A1 promoters. An IGF1R inhibitor in vivo reduced IGF-I-induced endometriosis graft growth and ERβ and aromatase expression. In conclusion, this is the first report to describe a mechanistic analysis of ERβ and aromatase expression regulated by IGF-I in ESCs. Moreover, an IGF1R inhibitor impeded ectopic lesion growth in nude mice. These findings suggest that an inhibitor of IGF1R might have therapeutic potential as an antiendometriotic drug. Level of IGF-I mRNA in ESCs is markedly higher than that in EMs. IGF-I up-regulates ERβ and aromatase expression via IGF1R/PI3K/AKT pathway. C-Jun and CREB are recruited to ESR2 or CYP19A1 promoter by IGF-I stimulation. IGF-1R inhibitors in vivo impede the growth of ectopic lesions in nude mice.

  20. Effect Of IGF-1 On Expression Of Gh Receptor, IGF-1, IGF-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and the skin expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF- R), KAP3.2 and KAP6-1 mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. The results indicated that IGF-1 could degrade GHR gene expression, have no effect of IGF-1 and IGF-1R gene expression, ...

  1. Tumor-targeted Nanobullets: Anti-EGFR nanobody-liposomes loaded with anti-IGF-1R kinase inhibitor for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meel, Roy; Oliveira, Sabrina; Altintas, Isil; Haselberg, Rob; van der Veeken, Joris; Roovers, Rob C; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M P; Storm, Gert; Hennink, Wim E; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Kok, Robbert J

    2012-04-30

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a validated target for anti-cancer therapy and several EGFR inhibitors are used in the clinic. Over the years, an increasing number of studies have reported on the crosstalk between EGFR and other receptors that can contribute to accelerated cancer development or even acquisition of resistance to anti-EGFR therapies. Combined targeting of EGFR and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a rational strategy to potentiate anti-cancer treatment and possibly retard resistance development. In the present study, we have pursued this by encapsulating the kinase inhibitor AG538 in anti-EGFR nanobody-liposomes. The thus developed dual-active nanobody-liposomes associated with EGFR-(over)expressing cells in an EGFR-specific manner and blocked both EGFR and IGF-1R activation, due to the presence of the EGFR-blocking nanobody EGa1 and the anti-IGF-1R kinase inhibitor AG538 respectively. AG538-loaded nanobody-liposomes induced a strong inhibition of tumor cell proliferation even upon short-term exposure followed by a drug-free wash-out period. Therefore, AG538-loaded nanobody-liposomes are a promising anti-cancer formulation due to efficient intracellular delivery of AG538 in combination with antagonistic and downregulating properties of the EGa1 nanobody-liposomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The fetal programming effect of prenatal smoking on Igf1r and Igf1 methylation is organ- and sex-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Karolin F; Verkaik-Schakel, Rikst Nynke; Timens, Wim; Kobzik, Lester; Plösch, Torsten; Hylkema, Machteld N

    2017-01-01

    The impact of prenatal smoke exposure (PSE) on DNA methylation has been demonstrated in blood samples from children of smoking mothers, but evidence for sex-dependent smoke-induced effects is limited. As the identified differentially methylated genes can be associated with developmental processes, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a critical role in prenatal tissue growth, we hypothesized that PSE induces fetal programming of Igf1r and Igf1. Using a mouse model of smoking during pregnancy, we show that PSE alters promoter methylation of Igf1r and Igf1 and deregulates their gene expression in lung and liver of fetal (E17.5) and neonatal (D3) mouse offspring. By further comparing female versus male, lung versus liver, or fetal versus neonatal time point, our results demonstrate that CpG site-specific aberrant methylation patterns sex-dependently vary per organ and time point. Moreover, PSE reduces gene expression of Igf1r and Igf1, dependent on organ, sex, and offspring's age. Our results indicate that PSE may be a source of organ-specific rather than general systemic fetal programming. This is exemplified here by gene promoter methylation and mRNA levels of Igf1r and Igf1, together with a sex- and organ-specific naturally established correlation of both parameters that is affected by prenatal smoke exposure. Moreover, the comparison of fetuses with neonates suggests a CpG site-dependent reversibility/persistence of PSE-induced differential methylation patterns.

  3. IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitors and Vitamin K1 enhance the antitumor effects of Regorafenib in HCC cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refolo, Maria Grazia; D'Alessandro, Rosalba; Lippolis, Catia; Carella, Nicola; Cavallini, Aldo; Messa, Caterina; Carr, Brian Irving

    2017-11-28

    The recent RESORCE trial showed that treatment with Regorafenib after Sorafenib failure provided a significant improvement in overall survival in HCC patients. Preclinical and clinical trial data showed that Regorafenib is a more potent drug than Sorafenib. In this study we aimed at improving Regorafenib actions and at reducing its toxicity, by targeting parallel pathways or by combination with Vitamins K (VKs). We investigated the effects of Regorafenib administrated at low concentrations and in combination with either VK1 and/or with GSK1838705A or OSI-906, two IGF1-R inhibitors, on HCC cell growth and motility. Our results showed that both IGF1-R inhibitors potentiated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Regorafenib and/or VK1 in HCC cell lines. Moreover we provide evidence that the combined treatment with IG1-R antagonists and Regorafenib (and/or VK1) also caused a significant reduction and depolymerization of actin resulting in synergistic inhibition exerted on cell migration. Thus, simultaneous blocking of MAPK and PI3K/Akt cascades with IGF1-R inhibitors plus Regorafenib could represent a more potent approach for HCC treatment.

  4. Combinational Therapy Enhances the Effects of Anti-IGF-1R mAb Figitumumab to Target Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxin Cao

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is a recalcitrant malignancy with distinct biologic properties. Antibody targeting therapy has been actively investigated as a new drug modality.We tested the expression of IGF-1R and calculated the survival in 61 SCLC patients. We also evaluated the anti-tumor effects of anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody Figitumumab (CP on SCLC, and tried two drug combinations to improve CP therapy.Our clinical data suggested that high IGF-1R expression was correlated with low SCLC patient survival. We then demonstrated the effect of CP was likely through IGF-1R blockage and down-regulation without IGF-1R auto-phosphorylation and PI3K/AKT activation. However, we observed elevated MEK/ERK activation upon CP treatment in SCLC cells, and this MEK/ERK activation was enhanced by ß-arrestin1 knockdown while attenuated by ß-arrestin2 knockdown. We found both MEK/ERK inhibitor and metformin could enhance CP treatment in SCLC cells. We further illustrated the additive effect of metformin was likely through promoting further IGF-1R down-regulation.Our results highlighted the potential of anti-IGF-1R therapy and the adjuvant therapy strategy with either MEK/ERK inhibitor or metformin to target SCLC, warranting further studies.

  5. Targeting both IGF-1R and mTOR synergistically inhibits growth of renal cell carcinoma in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardillo, Thomas M; Trisal, Preeti; Arrojo, Roberto; Goldenberg, David M; Chang, Chien-Hsing

    2013-01-01

    Advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a poor prognosis, because it is relatively resistant to conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Treatments with human interferon-α2b alone or in combination with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have led to only a modest improvement in clinical outcome. One observation made with mTOR inhibitors is that carcinomas can overcome these inhibitory effects by activating the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling pathway. Clinically, there is an association of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression in RCC and poor long-term patient survival. We have developed a humanized anti-IGF-IR monoclonal antibody, hR1, which binds to RCC, resulting in effective down-regulation of IGF-IR and moderate inhibition of cell proliferation in vitro. In this work, we evaluate the anti-tumor activity of two novel IGF-1R-targeting agents against renal cell carcinoma given alone or in combination with an mTOR inhibitor. hR1 was linked by the DOCK-AND-LOCK™ (DNL™) method to four Fabs of hR1, generating Hex-hR1, or to four molecules of interferon-α2b, generating 1R-2b. Eight human RCC cell lines were screened for IGF-1R expression and sensitivity to treatment with hR1 in vitro. Synergy with an mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus, was tested in a cell line (ACHN) with low sensitivity to hR1. Hex-hR1 induced the down-regulation of IGF-IR at 10-fold lower concentrations compared to the parental hR1. Sensitivity to growth inhibition mediated by hR1 and Hex-hR1 treatments correlated with IGF-1R expression (higher expression was more sensitive). The potency of 1R-2b to inhibit the in vitro growth of RCC was also demonstrated in two human cell lines, ACHN and 786-O, with EC 50 –values of 63 and 48 pM, respectively. When combined with temsirolimus, a synergistic growth-inhibition with hR1, Hex-hR1, and 1R-2b was observed in ACHN cells at concentrations as low as 10 nM for hR1, 1 nM for Hex-hR1, and 2.6 nM for 1R-2b. Both Hex-hR1

  6. Doxorubicin plus the IGF-1R antibody cixutumumab in soft tissue sarcoma: a phase I study using the TITE-CRM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, R; Griffith, K A; Davis, E J; Thomas, D G; Zavala, J D; Metko, G; Brockstein, B; Undevia, S D; Stadler, W M; Schuetze, S M

    2015-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) has been studied as an oncologic target in soft tissue sarcoma (STS), but its role in sarcoma biology is unclear. Anti-IGF-1R antibody cixutumumab demonstrated acceptable toxicity but limited activity as a single agent in STS. We carried out a dose-escalation study of cixutumumab with doxorubicin to evaluate safety and dosing of the combination. Eligible patients with advanced STS were treated with cixutumumab intravenously on days 1/8/15 at one of three dose levels (A: 1 mg/kg, B: 3 mg/kg, C: 6 mg/kg) with doxorubicin at 75 mg/m(2) as a 48 h infusion on day 1 of a 21 day cycle. After six cycles of the combination, patients could receive cixutumumab alone. The Time-to-Event Continual Reassessment Method was used to estimate the probability of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and to assign patients to the dose with an estimated probability of DLT≤20%. Between September 2008 and January 2012, 30 patients with advanced STS received a median of six cycles of therapy (range <1-22). Two DLTs were observed, grade 3 mucositis (dose level B) and grade 4 hyperglycemia (dose level C). Grade 2 and 3 reduced left ventricular ejection fraction was seen in three and two patients, respectively. Five partial responses were observed, and estimated progression-free survival was 5.3 months (95% confidence interval 3.0-6.3) in 26 response-assessable patients. Immunohistochemical staining of 11 available tumor samples for IGF-1R and phospho-IGF-1R was not significantly different among responders and non-responders, and serum analysis of select single-nucleotide polymorphisms did not predict for cardiotoxicity. The maximum tolerated dose was doxorubicin 75 mg/m(2) on day 1 and cixitumumab 6 mg/kg on days 1/8/15 of a 21 day cycle. Cardiac toxicity was observed and should be monitored in subsequent studies, which should be considered in STS only if a predictive biomarker of benefit to anti-IGF-1R therapy is identified. Clinical

  7. Stress-altered synaptic plasticity and DAMP signaling in the hippocampus-PFC axis; elucidating the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα expression in neural changes associated with a prolonged exposure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Olalekan M; Ebenezer, Philip J; Lee, Charles C; Francis, Joseph

    2017-06-14

    Traumatic stress patients showed significant improvement in behavior after a prolonged exposure to an unrelated stimulus. This treatment method attempts to promote extinction of the fear memory associated with the initial traumatic experience. However, the subsequent prolonged exposure to such stimulus creates an additional layer of neural stress. Although the mechanism remains unclear, prolonged exposure therapy (PET) likely involves changes in synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter function and inflammation; especially in parts of the brain concerned with the formation and retrieval of fear memory (Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex: PFC). Since certain synaptic proteins are also involved in danger-associated molecular pattern signaling (DAMP), we identified the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα expression as a potential link between the concurrent progression of synaptic and inflammatory changes in stress. Thus, a comparison between IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα, synaptic and DAMP proteins in stress and PET may highlight the significance of PET on synaptic morphology and neuronal inflammatory response. In behaviorally characterized Sprague-Dawley rats, there was a significant decline in neural IGF-1 (pIGF-1R expression. These animals showed a significant loss of presynaptic markers (synaptophysin; pIGF-1 (pIGF-1R was recorded in the Stress-PET group (pIGF-1/IGF-1R, an increase in activated hippocampal and cortical microglia was seen in stress (pIGF1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα. Firstly, we showed a direct relationship between IGF-1/IGF-1R expression, presynaptic function (synaptophysin) and neurotransmitter activity in stress and PET. Secondly, we identified the possible role of CaMKIIα in post-synaptic function and regulation of small ion conductance channels. Lastly, we highlighted some of the possible links between IGF1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα, the expression of DAMP proteins, Microglia activation, and its implication on synaptic plasticity during stress and PET. Copyright © 2017

  8. IGF-1 receptor haploinsufficiency leads to age-dependent development of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Sachin; Garg, Neha; Zhang, Ning; Hussey, Sophie E; Musi, Nicolas; Adamo, Martin L

    2017-05-13

    Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are at a higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome later in life. IGF-1 resistance has been reported in placentae from SGA births and mutations in the Igf1 receptor gene have been reported in several cohorts of SGA subjects. We have used the Igf1r heterozygous (Igf1r +/- ) male mouse as a model to investigate the mechanisms by which Igf1r haploinsufficiency leads to insulin resistance. Despite exhibiting IGF-1 resistance, insulin signaling is enhanced in young Igf1r +/- mice but is attenuated in the muscle of old Igf1r +/- mice. Although smaller than WT (wild type) mice, old-aged Igf1r +/- had increased adiposity and exhibit increased lipogenesis. We hypothesize that IGF-1 resistance initially causes a transient increase in insulin signaling thereby promoting a lipogenic phenotype, which subsequently leads to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Rufinamide, an antiepileptic drug, improves cognition and increases neurogenesis in the aged gerbil hippocampal dentate gyrus via increasing expressions of IGF-1, IGF-1R and p-CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai Hui; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Song, Minah; Kim, Hyunjung; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Lee, Jae Chul; Kim, Young-Myeong; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Dae Won; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Yan, Bing Chun; Kang, Il Jun; Won, Moo-Ho

    2018-04-25

    Rufinamide is a novel antiepileptic drug and commonly used in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. In the present study, we investigated effects of rufinamide on cognitive function using passive avoidance test and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus using Ki-67 (a marker for cell proliferation), doublecortin (DCX, a marker for neuroblast) and BrdU/NeuN (markers for newly generated mature neurons) immunohistochemistry in aged gerbils. Aged gerbils (24-month old) were treated with 1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg rufinamide for 4 weeks. Treatment with 3 mg/kg rufinamide, not 1 mg/kg rufinamide, significantly improved cognitive function and increased neurogenesis, showing that proliferating cells (Ki-67-immunoreactive cells), differentiating neuroblasts (DCX-immunoreactive neuroblasts) and mature neurons (BrdU/NeuN-immunoreactive cells) in the aged dentate gyrus compared with those in the control group. When we examined its mechanisms, rufinamide significantly increased immunoreactivities of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), its receptor (IGF-1R), and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB). However, rufinamide did not show any increase in immunoreactivities of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor. Therefore, our results indicate that rufinamide can improve cognitive function and increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the aged gerbil via increasing expressions of IGF-1, IGF-1R and p-CREB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. IGF-1R and ErbB3/HER3 contribute to enhanced proliferation and carcinogenesis in trastuzumab-resistant ovarian cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Yanhan; Zhang, Yan; Qiao, Chunxia; Liu, Guijun; Zhao, Qing; Zhou, Tingting; Chen, Guojiang; Li, Yali; Feng, Jiannan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Qiuping; Peng, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We established trastuzumab-resistant cell line SKOV3/T. •SKOV3/T enhances proliferation and in vivo carcinogenesis. •IGF-1R and HER3 genes were up-regulated in SKOV3/T based on microarray analysis. •Targeting IGF-1R and/or HER3 inhibited the proliferation of SKOV3/T. •Therapies targeting IGF-1R and HER3 might be effective in ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Trastuzumab (Herceptin®) has demonstrated clinical potential in several types of HER2-overexpressing human cancers. However, primary and acquired resistance occurs in many HER2-positive patients with regimens. To investigate the possible mechanism of acquired therapeutic resistance to trastuzumab, we have developed a preclinical model of human ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3/T, with the distinctive feature of stronger carcinogenesis. The differences in gene expression between parental and the resistant cells were explored by microarray analysis, of which IGF-1R and HER3 were detected to be key molecules in action. Their correctness was validated by follow-up experiments of RT-PCR, shRNA-mediated knockdown, downstream signal activation, cell cycle distribution and survival. These results suggest that IGF-1R and HER3 differentially regulate trastuzumab resistance and could be promising targets for trastuzumab therapy in ovarian cancer

  11. IGF-1R and ErbB3/HER3 contribute to enhanced proliferation and carcinogenesis in trastuzumab-resistant ovarian cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Yanhan [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhang, Yan [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Qiao, Chunxia; Liu, Guijun [Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhao, Qing [Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850 (China); Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Zhou, Tingting; Chen, Guojiang [Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850 (China); Li, Yali [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Feng, Jiannan; Li, Yan [Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhang, Qiuping, E-mail: qpzhang@whu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Peng, Hui, E-mail: p_h2002@hotmail.com [Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850 (China); Cardiovascular Drug Research Center, Institute of Health and Environmental Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •We established trastuzumab-resistant cell line SKOV3/T. •SKOV3/T enhances proliferation and in vivo carcinogenesis. •IGF-1R and HER3 genes were up-regulated in SKOV3/T based on microarray analysis. •Targeting IGF-1R and/or HER3 inhibited the proliferation of SKOV3/T. •Therapies targeting IGF-1R and HER3 might be effective in ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Trastuzumab (Herceptin®) has demonstrated clinical potential in several types of HER2-overexpressing human cancers. However, primary and acquired resistance occurs in many HER2-positive patients with regimens. To investigate the possible mechanism of acquired therapeutic resistance to trastuzumab, we have developed a preclinical model of human ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3/T, with the distinctive feature of stronger carcinogenesis. The differences in gene expression between parental and the resistant cells were explored by microarray analysis, of which IGF-1R and HER3 were detected to be key molecules in action. Their correctness was validated by follow-up experiments of RT-PCR, shRNA-mediated knockdown, downstream signal activation, cell cycle distribution and survival. These results suggest that IGF-1R and HER3 differentially regulate trastuzumab resistance and could be promising targets for trastuzumab therapy in ovarian cancer.

  12. S-nitrosylation of the IGF-1 receptor disrupts the cell proliferative action of IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazushi; Zhu, Bao-Ting

    2017-09-30

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a disulfide-linked heterotetramer containing two α-subunits and two β-subunits. Earlier studies demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) can adversely affect IGF-1 action in the central nervous system. It is known that NO can induce S-nitrosylation of the cysteine residues in proteins, thereby partly contributing to the regulation of protein function. In the present study, we sought to determine whether S-nitrosylation of the cysteine residues in IGF-1R is an important post-translational modification that regulates its response to IGF-1. Using cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells as an in vitro model, we found that treatment of cells with S-nitroso-cysteine (SNOC), a NO donor that can nitrosylate the cysteine residues in proteins, induces S-nitrosylation of the β subunit of IGF-1R but not its α-subunit. IGF-1Rβ S-nitrosylation by SNOC is coupled with increased dissociation of the IGF-1R protein complex. In addition, disruption of the IGF-1R function resulting from S-nitrosylation of the IGF-1Rβ subunit is associated with disruption of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Further, we observed that SNOC-induced IGF-1Rβ S-nitrosylation results in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation and survival. Together, these results suggest that elevated nitrosative stress may result in dysfunction of cellular IGF-1R signaling through S-nitrosylation of the cysteine residues in the IGF-1Rβ subunit, thereby disrupting the downstream PI3K and MAPK signaling functions and ultimately resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation and survival. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. In vitro and in vivo studies of the combination of IGF1R inhibitor figitumumab (CP-751,871) with HER2 inhibitors trastuzumab and neratinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ashok K; Zerillo, Cynthia; DiGiovanna, Michael P

    2015-08-01

    The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF1R) has been linked to resistance to HER2-directed therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin). We examined the anti-tumor activity of figitumumab (CP-751,871), a human monoclonal antibody that blocks IGF1R ligand binding, alone and in combination with the therapeutic anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab and the pan-HER family tyrosine kinase inhibitor neratinib, using in vitro and in vivo breast cancer model systems. In vitro assays of proliferation, apoptosis, and signaling, and in vivo anti-tumor experiments were conducted in HER2-overexpressing (BT474) and HER2-normal (MCF7) models. We find single-agent activity of the HER2-targeting drugs but not figitumumab in the BT474 model, while the reverse is true in the MCF7 model. However, in both models, combining figitumumab with HER2-targeting drugs shows synergistic anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects, and optimum inhibition of downstream signaling. In murine xenograft models, synergistic anti-tumor effects were observed in the HER2-normal MCF7 model for the combination of figitumumab with trastuzumab, and, in the HER2-overexpressing BT474 model, enhanced anti-tumor effects were observed for the combination of figitumumab with either trastuzumab or neratinib. Analysis of tumor extracts from the in vivo experiments showed evidence of the most optimal inhibition of downstream signaling for the drug combinations over the single-agent therapies. These results suggest promise for such combinations in treating patients with breast cancer, and that, unlike the case for single-agent therapy, the therapeutic effects of such combinations may be independent of expression levels of the individual receptors or the single-agent activity profile.

  14. Expression of IGF-1R and iNOS in nasal polyps; epithelial cell homeostasis and innate immune mechanisms in pathogenesis of nasal polyposis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fundová, P.; Filipovský, T.; Funda, David P.; Hovorka, Ondřej; Holý, R.; Navara, M.; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 6 (2008), s. 558-562 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nasal polyposis * igf -1r * inos Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  15. MeCP2 silencing of LncRNA H19 controls hepatic stellate cell proliferation by targeting IGF1R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jing-Jing; Liu, Li-Ping; Tao, Hui; Hu, Wei; Shi, Peng; Deng, Zi-Yu; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • H19 plays a key role in HSCs proliferation and fibrosis. • MeCP2/H19 axis involvement in HSCs activation and fibrosis. • MeCP2 negative controls H19 expression in activated HSCs. • Identification of IGF1R as new target of H19 in HSC. - Abstract: Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) plays a key role in liver fibrosis. However, the potential mechanism of MeCP2 in liver fibrosis remains unclear. Early reports suggest that LncRNA H19 is important epigenetic regulator with critical roles in cell proliferation, but its role in hepatic fibrosis remains elusive. Sprague-Dawley rats liver fibrosis was generated by 12-weeks treatment with CCl 4 intraperitoneal injection. HSC-T6 cells were used in vitro study. The expression levels of MeCP2, H19, IGF1R, α-SMA, and Col1A1 were estimated by Western blotting, qRT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry. HSC-T6 cells were transfected with MeCP2-siRNA, pEGF-C1-MeCP2, pEX-3-H19, and H19-siRNA. Finally, cell proliferation ability was assessed by the MTT assay. Here, we found that H19 was significantly down-regulated in HSCs and fibrosis tissues, and an opposite pattern is observed for MeCP2 and IGF1R. Silencing of MeCP2 blocked HSCs proliferation. Knockdown of MeCP2 elevated H19 expression in activated HSCs, and over-expression of MeCP2 inhibited H19 expression in activated HSCs. Moreover, we investigated the effect of H19 on IGF1R expression. Overexpression of H19 in HSCs repressed the expression of IGF1R, and an opposite pattern is observed for H19 silenced. In addition, we reported that overexpression of H19 inhibited the TGF-β1-induced proliferation of HSCs. Furthermore, MeCP2 negative regulation of H19 by targeting the protein IGF1R. Taken together, these results demonstrated that MeCP2 silencing of H19 can alter the IGF1R overexpression, thus contributing to HSCs proliferation. These data could suggest the development of combination therapies that target the MeCP2.

  16. IDH1R132H Promotes Malignant Transformation of Benign Prostatic Epithelium by Dysregulating MicroRNAs: Involvement of IGF1R-AKT/STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk stratification using molecular features could potentially help distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancer (PCa. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH acquire an abnormal enzymatic activity, resulting in the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate and alterations in cellular metabolism, histone modification, and DNA methylation. Mutant IDH1 has been identified in various human malignancies, and IDH1R132H constituted the vast majority of mutational events of IDH1. Most recent studies suggested that IDH1 mutations define a methylator subtype in PCa. However, the function of IDH1R132H in PCa development and progression is largely unknown. In this study, we showed that the prevalence of IDH1R132H in Chinese PCa patients is 0.6% (2/336. Of note, IDH1R132H-mutant PCa patients lacked other canonical genomic lesions (e.g., ERG rearrangement, PTEN deletion that are common in most other PCa patients. The in vitro experiment suggested that IDH1R132H can promote proliferation of benign prostate epithelial cell RWPE-1 when under the situation of low cytokine. It could also promote migration capacity of RWPE-1 cells. Mechanistically, IDH1R132H was an important regulator of insulin-like growth factor 1receptor (IGF1R by downregulating a set of microRNAs (miR-141-3p, miR-7-5p, miR-223-3p. These microRNAs were repressed by the alteration of epigenetic modification to decrease the enrichment of active marker H3K4me3 or to increase repressive marker H3K27me3 at their promoters. Collectively, we proposed a novel model for an IDH1R132H-microRNAs-IGF1R regulatory axis, which might provide insight into the function of IDH1R132H in PCa development.

  17. Human GH Receptor-IGF-1 Receptor Interaction: Implications for GH Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yujun; Buckels, Ashiya; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Paterson, Andrew J.; Jiang, Jing; Zinn, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    GH signaling yields multiple anabolic and metabolic effects. GH binds the transmembrane GH receptor (GHR) to activate the intracellular GHR-associated tyrosine kinase, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and downstream signals, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation and IGF-1 gene expression. Some GH effects are partly mediated by GH-induced IGF-1 via IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), a tyrosine kinase receptor. We previously demonstrated in non-human cells that GH causes formation of a GHR-JAK2-IGF-1R complex and that presence of IGF-1R (even without IGF-1 binding) augments proximal GH signaling. In this study, we use human LNCaP prostate cancer cells as a model system to further study the IGF-1R's role in GH signaling. GH promoted JAK2 and GHR tyrosine phosphorylation and STAT5 activation in LNCaP cells. By coimmunoprecipitation and a new split luciferase complementation assay, we find that GH augments GHR/IGF-1R complex formation, which is inhibited by a Fab of an antagonistic anti-GHR monoclonal antibody. Short hairpin RNA-mediated IGF-1R silencing in LNCaP cells reduced GH-induced GHR, JAK2, and STAT5 phosphorylation. Similarly, a soluble IGF-1R extracellular domain fragment (sol IGF-1R) interacts with GHR in response to GH and blunts GH signaling. Sol IGF-1R also markedly inhibits GH-induced IGF-1 gene expression in both LNCaP cells and mouse primary osteoblast cells. On the basis of these and other findings, we propose a model in which IGF-1R augments GH signaling by allowing a putative IGF-1R-associated molecule that regulates GH signaling to access the activated GHR/JAK2 complex and envision sol IGF-1R as a dominant-negative inhibitor of this IGF-1R-mediated augmentation. Physiological implications of this new model are discussed. PMID:25211187

  18. IGF-1R mRNA expression is increased in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, Rafaela Cristina; Ricco, Rubens Garcia; Queluz, Mariangela Carletti; de Paula, Mariana Teresa Sarti; Atique, Patricia Volpon; Custódio, Rodrigo José; Tourinho Filho, Hugo; Del Roio Liberatori, Raphael; Martinelli, Carlos Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    Obese children are often taller than age-matched subjects. Reports on GH and IGF-I levels in obese individuals are controversial, with normal and reduced GH-IGF-I levels having been reported in this group of patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR) mRNA expression in obese children. Forty-seven pre-pubertal children were included in this study: 29 were obese and taller than their target height, and 18 were normal eutrophic controls. Fasting blood samples were collected for IGF-IR mRNA expression in isolated lymphocytes and serum IGF-I, ALS, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-1 concentration analysis. Relative IGF-IR gene expression (2 -ΔΔCT ) was significantly (P=0.025) higher in obese children (median 1.87) than in controls (1.15). Fourteen of the 29 obese subjects showed 2 -ΔΔCT values greater than or equal to 2, while only 2 individuals in the control group showed values above 2 (P=0.01). Obese children showed significantly (P=0.01) higher IGF-I concentrations than the control group (237ng/ml and 144ng/ml, respectively). Among obese patients, 65.5% had IGF-I values above the 75 percentile of the control group (P=0.02). ALS concentration was significantly (P=0.04) higher in the obese group, while IGFBP-3 levels were similar in obese and control children. IGFBP-1 concentration was lower in obese children, while insulin levels and HOMA-IR index were higher than in controls. The higher IGF-IR mRNA expression observed in obese children, associated with the higher IGF-I and ALS and the lower IGFBP-1 levels, suggest that the higher stature observed in these children may be due to increased IGF-I bioactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. IGF-1R and Leptin Expression Profile and the Effects of Metformin Treatment on Metabolic and Endocrine Parameters in PCOS Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Prado Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to assess the effects of metformin treatment on metabolic and endocrine parameters and genes expression related to the insulin-responsive pathway in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. This study comprises twenty-eight obese mice divided into three metformin-treated groups for seven and twenty days and eight nonobese and nontreated ones. We found a significant decrease in glycemia after metformin treatment at days seven and twenty. However, we did not observe differences in body weight measurement. Histologically, after twenty days we observed follicular development with regression of androgenic effects. Levels of IGF-1R protein expression were low after twenty days of treatment, but LEP proteins showed an overexpression in the ovarian stroma. We assessed the IGF-1R and LEP mRNAs levels; data showed a significant overexpression of LEP after seven days of treatment, while the IGF-1R was downregulated. Metformin therapy seems to exert a beneficial effect on histological and anovulatory features, reducing follicular number and pyknosis formation, possibly involved in the reversion of androgenic stimulus. Expression of IGF-1 and LEPR indicates a relevant role in androgenic features reversion present in PCOS, hormonal equilibrium, body weight regulation, and glucose metabolism, therefore, under phenotype obesity and infertility regulation in this model.

  20. Nuclear targeting of IGF-1 receptor in orbital fibroblasts from Graves' disease: apparent role of ADAM17.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Hoa

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R comprises two subunits, including a ligand binding domain on extra- cellular IGF-1Rα and a tyrosine phosphorylation site located on IGF-1Rβ. IGF-1R is over-expressed by orbital fibroblasts in the autoimmune syndrome, Graves' disease (GD. When activated by IGF-1 or GD-derived IgG (GD-IgG, these fibroblasts produce RANTES and IL-16, while those from healthy donors do not. We now report that IGF-1 and GD-IgG provoke IGF-1R accumulation in the cell nucleus of GD fibroblasts where it co-localizes with chromatin. Nuclear IGF-1R is detected with anti-IGF-1Rα-specific mAb and migrates to approximately 110 kDa, consistent with its identity as an IGF-1R fragment. Nuclear IGF-1R migrating as a 200 kDa protein and consistent with an intact receptor was undetectable when probed with either anti-IGF-1Rα or anti-IGF-1Rβ mAbs. Nuclear redistribution of IGF-1R is absent in control orbital fibroblasts. In GD fibroblasts, it can be abolished by an IGF-1R-blocking mAb, 1H7 and by physiological concentrations of glucocorticoids. When cell-surface IGF-1R is cross-linked with (125I IGF-1, (125I-IGF-1/IGF-1R complexes accumulate in the nuclei of GD fibroblasts. This requires active ADAM17, a membrane associated metalloproteinase, and the phosphorylation of IGF-1R. In contrast, virally encoded IGF-1Rα/GFP fusion protein localizes equivalently in nuclei in both control and GD fibroblasts. This result suggests that generation of IGF-1R fragments may limit the accumulation of nuclear IGF-1R. We thus identify a heretofore-unrecognized behavior of IGF-1R that appears limited to GD-derived fibroblasts. Nuclear IGF-1R may play a role in disease pathogenesis.

  1. Upregulation of miR-150* and miR-630 induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells by targeting IGF-1R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Farhana

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been implicated in many critical cellular processes including apoptosis. We have previously found that apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells was induced by adamantyl retinoid-related (ARR molecule 3-Cl-AHPC. Here we report that 3-Cl-AHPC-dependent apoptosis involves regulating a number of microRNAs including miR-150* and miR-630. 3-Cl-AHPC stimulated miR-150* expression and caused decreased expression of c-Myb and IGF-1R in the pancreatic cancer cells. 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated reduction of c-Myb resulted in diminished binding of c-Myb with IGF-1R and Bcl-2 promoters, thereby causing repression of their transcription and protein expression. Over-expression of miR-150* also resulted in diminished levels of c-Myb and Bcl-2 proteins. Furthermore, the addition of the miRNA inhibitor 2'-O-methylated miR-150 blocked 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated increase in miR-150* levels and abrogated loss of c-Myb protein. Knockdown of c-Myb in PANC-1 cells resulted in enhanced apoptosis both in the presence or absence of 3-Cl-AHPC confirming the anti-apoptotic property of c-Myb. Overexpression of miR-630 also induced apoptosis in the pancreatic cancer cells and inhibited target protein IGF-1R mRNA and protein expression. Together these results implicate key roles for miR-150* and miR-630 and their targeting of IGF-1R to promote apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells.

  2. Gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency in populations of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Cody P; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2017-03-01

    One molecular-based approach that increases potency and reduces dose-limited sequela is the implementation of selective 'targeted' delivery strategies for conventional small molecular weight chemotherapeutic agents. Descriptions of the molecular design and organic chemistry reactions that are applicable for synthesis of covalent gemcitabine-monophosphate immunochemotherapeutics have to date not been reported. The covalent immunopharmaceutical, gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R] was synthesized by reacting gemcitabine with a carbodiimide reagent to form a gemcitabine carbodiimide phosphate ester intermediate which was subsequently reacted with imidazole to create amine-reactive gemcitabine-(5'-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate. Monoclonal anti-IGF-1R immunoglobulin was combined with gemcitabine-(5'-phosphorylimidazolide) resulting in the synthetic formation of gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R]. The gemcitabine molar incorporation index for gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-R1] was 2.67:1. Cytotoxicity Analysis - dramatic increases in antineoplastic cytotoxicity were observed at and between the gemcitabine-equivalent concentrations of 10 -9  M and 10 -7  M where lethal cancer cell death increased from 0.0% to a 93.1% maximum (100.% to 6.93% residual survival), respectively. Advantages of the organic chemistry reactions in the multistage synthesis scheme for gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R] include their capacity to achieve high chemotherapeutic molar incorporation ratios; option of producing an amine-reactive chemotherapeutic intermediate that can be preserved for future synthesis applications; and non-dedicated organic chemistry reaction scheme that allows substitutions of either or both therapeutic moieties, and molecular delivery platforms. © 2016 The Authors Chemical Biology & Drug Design Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. BCL-2, in combination with MVP and IGF-1R expression, improves prediction of clinical outcome in complete response cervical carcinoma patients treated by radiochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Lloret, Marta; Pinar, Beatriz; Bordón, Elisa; Rey, Agustín; Lubrano, Amina; Lara, Pedro Carlos

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether BCL-2 expression would improve MVP/IGF-1R prediction of clinical outcome in cervix carcinoma patients treated by radiochemotherapy, and suggest possible mechanisms behind this effect. Fifty consecutive patients, who achieved complete response to treatment, from a whole series of 60 cases suffering from non-metastatic localized cervical carcinoma, were prospectively included in this study from July 1999 to December 2003. Follow-up was closed in January 2011. All patients received pelvic radiation (45-64.80 Gy in 1.8-2 Gy fractions) with concomitant cisplatin at 40 mg/m2/week doses followed by brachytherapy. Oncoprotein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tumour tissue. No relation was found between BCL-2 and clinicopathological variables. High MVP/IGF-1R/BCL-2 tumour expression was strongly related to poor local and regional disease-free survival (PMVP, and IGF-1R overexpression were related to poorer clinical outcome in cervical cancer patients who achieved clinical complete response to radiochemotherapy. The NHEJ repair protein Ku70/80 expression could be involved in the regulation of these oncoproteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovery of OSI-906: a selective and orally efficacious dual inhibitor of the IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Mark J; Cooke, Andrew; Rosenfeld-Franklin, Maryland; Buck, Elizabeth; Foreman, Ken; Landfair, Darla; O'Connor, Matthew; Pirritt, Caroline; Sun, Yingchaun; Yao, Yan; Arnold, Lee D; Gibson, Neil W; Ji, Qun-Sheng

    2009-09-01

    The IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) has been implicated in the promotion of tumorigenesis, metastasis and resistance to cancer therapies. Therefore, this receptor has become a major focus for the development of anticancer agents. Our lead optimization efforts that blended structure-based design and empirical medicinal chemistry led to the discovery of OSI-906, a novel small-molecule dual IGF-1R/insulin receptor (IR) kinase inhibitor. OSI-906 potently and selectively inhibits autophosphorylation of both human IGF-1R and IR, displays in vitro antiproliferative effects in a variety of tumor cell lines and shows robust in vivo anti-tumor efficacy in an IGF-1R-driven xenograft model when administered orally once daily. OSI-906 is a novel, potent, selective and orally bioavailable dual IGF-1R/IR kinase inhibitor with favorable preclinical drug-like properties, which has demonstrated in vivo efficacy in tumor models and is currently in clinical testing.

  5. IGF-1R Promotes Symmetric Self-Renewal and Migration of Alkaline Phosphatase+ Germ Stem Cells through HIF-2α-OCT4/CXCR4 Loop under Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Che Kuo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Hypoxia cooperates with endocrine signaling to maintain the symmetric self-renewal proliferation and migration of embryonic germline stem cells (GSCs. However, the lack of an appropriate in vitro cell model has dramatically hindered the understanding of the mechanism underlying this cooperation. Here, using a serum-free system, we demonstrated that hypoxia significantly induced the GSC mesenchymal transition, increased the expression levels of the pluripotent transcription factor OCT4 and migration-associated proteins (SDF-1, CXCR4, IGF-1, and IGF-1R, and activated the cellular expression and translocalization of the CXCR4-downstream proteins ARP3/pFAK. The underlying mechanism involved significant IGF-1/IGF-1R activation of OCT4/CXCR4 expression through HIF-2α regulation. Picropodophyllin-induced inhibition of IGF-1R phosphorylation significantly suppressed hypoxia-induced SDF-1/CXCR4 expression and cell migration. Furthermore, transactivation between IGF-1R and CXCR4 was involved. In summary, we demonstrated that niche hypoxia synergistically cooperates with its associated IGF-1R signaling to regulate the symmetric division (self-renewal proliferation and cell migration of alkaline phosphatase-positive GSCs through HIF-2α-OCT4/CXCR4 during embryogenesis. : In this article, Huang and colleagues demonstrate that niche hypoxia promotes symmetric self-renewal proliferation and migration of PGC-like CD49f+AP+GSCs through IGF-IR regulation. Using a serum-free culture system, the crosstalk between IGF-1R and CXCR4 signaling was discovered. This work demonstrated that embryonic hypoxia synergistically cooperated with IGF-1R signaling to regulate the symmetric self-renewal and migration of PGC-like GSCs through a HIF-2α–OCT4/CXCR4 loop. Keywords: hypoxia, niche, germline stem cells, self-renewal, migration, IGF-1R, HIF-2α, OCT4, SDF-1, CXCR4

  6. Over-accumulation of nuclear IGF-1 receptor in tumor cells requires elevated expression of the receptor and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hua; Lin, Yingbo; Badin, Margherita; Vasilcanu, Daiana; Stroemberg, Thomas [Department of Oncology and Pathology, The Karolinska Institute, Cancer Center Karolinska, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena [Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Sehat, Bita [Department of Oncology and Pathology, The Karolinska Institute, Cancer Center Karolinska, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Olle, E-mail: olle.larsson@ki.se [Department of Oncology and Pathology, The Karolinska Institute, Cancer Center Karolinska, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of IGF-1R which activates transcription. {yields} Here we show that nuclear IGF-1R over-accumulates in tumor cells. {yields} This requires overexpression of the receptor that is a common feature in tumor cells. {yields} An increased expression of the SUMO ligase Ubc9 seems to be an involved mechanism too. -- Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays crucial roles in tumor cell growth and is overexpressed in many cancers. IGF-1R's trans-membrane kinase signaling pathways have been well characterized. Very recently, we showed that SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of the IGF-1R, and that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) binds to enhancer regions and activates transcription. We identified three lysine residues in the {beta}-subunit of the receptor and that mutation of these blocks nuclear translocation and gene activation. Furthermore, accumulation of nIGF-1R was proven strongly dependent on the specific SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. Here we show that nIGF-1R originates solely from the cell membrane and that phosphorylation of the core tyrosine residues of the receptor kinase is crucial for nuclear accumulation. We also compared the levels of nIGF-1R, measured as nuclear/membrane ratios, in tumor and normal cells. We found that the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 has 13-fold higher amounts of nIGF-1R than breast epithelial cells (IME) which showed only a small amount of nIGF-1R. In comparison, the total expression of IGF-1R was only 3.7- higher in MCF-7. Comparison of several other tumor and normal cell lines showed similar tumor cell over-accumulation of nIGF-1R, exceeding the total receptor expression substantially. Ectopic overexpression (>10-fold) of the receptor increased nIGF-1R in IME cells but not to that high level as in wild type MCF-7. The levels of Ubc9 were higher in all tumor cell lines, compared to the normal cells, and this probably contributes to over

  7. Over-accumulation of nuclear IGF-1 receptor in tumor cells requires elevated expression of the receptor and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Hua; Lin, Yingbo; Badin, Margherita; Vasilcanu, Daiana; Stroemberg, Thomas; Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena; Sehat, Bita; Larsson, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of IGF-1R which activates transcription. → Here we show that nuclear IGF-1R over-accumulates in tumor cells. → This requires overexpression of the receptor that is a common feature in tumor cells. → An increased expression of the SUMO ligase Ubc9 seems to be an involved mechanism too. -- Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays crucial roles in tumor cell growth and is overexpressed in many cancers. IGF-1R's trans-membrane kinase signaling pathways have been well characterized. Very recently, we showed that SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of the IGF-1R, and that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) binds to enhancer regions and activates transcription. We identified three lysine residues in the β-subunit of the receptor and that mutation of these blocks nuclear translocation and gene activation. Furthermore, accumulation of nIGF-1R was proven strongly dependent on the specific SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. Here we show that nIGF-1R originates solely from the cell membrane and that phosphorylation of the core tyrosine residues of the receptor kinase is crucial for nuclear accumulation. We also compared the levels of nIGF-1R, measured as nuclear/membrane ratios, in tumor and normal cells. We found that the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 has 13-fold higher amounts of nIGF-1R than breast epithelial cells (IME) which showed only a small amount of nIGF-1R. In comparison, the total expression of IGF-1R was only 3.7- higher in MCF-7. Comparison of several other tumor and normal cell lines showed similar tumor cell over-accumulation of nIGF-1R, exceeding the total receptor expression substantially. Ectopic overexpression (>10-fold) of the receptor increased nIGF-1R in IME cells but not to that high level as in wild type MCF-7. The levels of Ubc9 were higher in all tumor cell lines, compared to the normal cells, and this probably contributes to over-accumulation of nIGF-1R

  8. IGF-1R Promotes Symmetric Self-Renewal and Migration of Alkaline Phosphatase+ Germ Stem Cells through HIF-2α-OCT4/CXCR4 Loop under Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Che; Au, Heng-Kien; Hsu, Jue-Liang; Wang, Hsiao-Feng; Lee, Chiung-Ju; Peng, Syue-Wei; Lai, Ssu-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Chih; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Huang, Yen-Hua

    2018-02-13

    Hypoxia cooperates with endocrine signaling to maintain the symmetric self-renewal proliferation and migration of embryonic germline stem cells (GSCs). However, the lack of an appropriate in vitro cell model has dramatically hindered the understanding of the mechanism underlying this cooperation. Here, using a serum-free system, we demonstrated that hypoxia significantly induced the GSC mesenchymal transition, increased the expression levels of the pluripotent transcription factor OCT4 and migration-associated proteins (SDF-1, CXCR4, IGF-1, and IGF-1R), and activated the cellular expression and translocalization of the CXCR4-downstream proteins ARP3/pFAK. The underlying mechanism involved significant IGF-1/IGF-1R activation of OCT4/CXCR4 expression through HIF-2α regulation. Picropodophyllin-induced inhibition of IGF-1R phosphorylation significantly suppressed hypoxia-induced SDF-1/CXCR4 expression and cell migration. Furthermore, transactivation between IGF-1R and CXCR4 was involved. In summary, we demonstrated that niche hypoxia synergistically cooperates with its associated IGF-1R signaling to regulate the symmetric division (self-renewal proliferation) and cell migration of alkaline phosphatase-positive GSCs through HIF-2α-OCT4/CXCR4 during embryogenesis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. IGF-1 receptor and IGF binding protein-3 might predict prognosis of patients with resectable pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Toshiki; Yashiro, Masakazu; Murata, Akihiro; Hirata, Keiichiro; Kimura, Kenjiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Yamada, Nobuya; Nakata, Bunzo; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the clinicopathologic role of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) in patients with pancreatic cancer. The function of IGFBP3 is controversial, because both inhibition and facilitation of the action of IGF as well as IGF-independent effects have been reported. In this study, IGF1R and IGFBP3 expression was examined, and their potential roles as prognostic markers in patients with pancreatic cancer were evaluated. Clinicopathological features of 122 patients with curatively resected pancreatic cancer were retrospectively reviewed, and expression of IGF1R and IGFBP3 was immunohistochemically analyzed. Expression of IGF1R and IGFBP3 was observed in 50 (41.0%) and 37 (30.3%) patients, respectively. IGF1R expression was significantly associated with histological grade (p = 0.037). IGFBP3 expression had a significant association with tumor location (p = 0.023), and a significant inverse association with venous invasion (p = 0.037). Tumors with IGF1R-positive and IGFBP3-negative expression (n = 32) were significantly frequently Stage II and III (p = 0.011). The prognosis for IGF1R positive patients was significantly poorer than that for IGF1R negative patients (p = 0.0181). IGFBP3 protein expression did not correlate significantly with patient survival. The subset of patients with both positive IGF1R and negative IGFBP3 had worse overall survival (8.8 months versus 12.6 months, respectively, p < 0.001). IGF1R signaling might be associated with tumor aggressiveness, and IGFBP3 might show antiproliferative effects in pancreatic cancer. Both high IGF1R expression and low IGFBP3 expression represent useful prognostic markers for patients with curatively resected pancreatic cancer

  10. Branchial expression and localization of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor and changes in plasma IGF-1 and IGF-1 binding protein in striped bass during salinity acclimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen; Borski, Russell

    2006-01-01

    In euryhaline teleosts the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/growth hormone axis is known to affect salinity tolerance and gill Na,K-ATPase activity. However, virtually nothing is known on expression and cellular localization of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in the teleost gill during salinity a...

  11. IGF1 Receptor Targeted Theranostic Nanoparticles for Targeted and Image-Guided Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Qian, Weiping; Uckun, Fatih M; Wang, Liya; Wang, Y Andrew; Chen, Hongyu; Kooby, David; Yu, Qian; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Staley, Charles A; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2015-08-25

    Overcoming resistance to chemotherapy is a major and unmet medical challenge in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Poor drug delivery due to stromal barriers in the tumor microenvironment and aggressive tumor biology are additional impediments toward a more successful treatment of pancreatic cancer. In attempts to address these challenges, we developed IGF1 receptor (IGF1R)-directed, multifunctional theranostic nanoparticles for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into IGF1R-expressing drug-resistant tumor cells and tumor-associated stromal cells. These nanoparticles were prepared by conjugating recombinant human IGF1 to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) carrying the anthracycline doxorubicin (Dox) as the chemotherapeutic payload. Intravenously administered IGF1-IONPs exhibited excellent tumor targeting and penetration in an orthotopic patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of pancreatic cancer featuring enriched tumor stroma and heterogeneous cancer cells. IGF1R-targeted therapy using the theranostic IGF1-IONP-Dox significantly inhibited the growth of pancreatic PDX tumors. The effects of the intratumoral nanoparticle delivery and therapeutic responses in the orthotopic pancreatic PDX tumors could be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with IONP-induced contrasts. Histological analysis showed that IGF1R-targeted delivery of Dox significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptotic cell death of pancreatic cancer cells. Therefore, further development of IGF1R-targeted theranostic IONPs and MRI-guided cancer therapy as a precision nanomedicine may provide the basis for more effective treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  12. IGF-1 receptor inhibition by picropodophyllin in medulloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Hosoyama, Tohru; Nelon, Laura D. [Greehey Children' s Cancer Research Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Keller, Charles, E-mail: keller@ohsu.edu [Greehey Children' s Cancer Research Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Igf1r is overexpressed and activated in a Sonic Hedgehog driven model of medulloblastoma. {yields} Picropodophyllin targets and abrogates IGF signaling in medulloblastoma. {yields} Picropodophyllin inhibits medulloblastoma tumor cell growth by induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) is a multifunctional membrane-associated tyrosine kinase associated with regulation of transformation, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Increased IGF pathway activity has been reported in human and murine medulloblastoma. Tumors from our genetically-engineered medulloblastoma mouse model over-express Igf1r, and thus this mouse model is a good platform with which to study the role of Igf1r in tumor progression. We hypothesize that inhibition of IGF pathway in medulloblastoma can slow or inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. To test our hypothesis, we tested the role of IGF in tumor growth in vitro by treatment with the tyrosine kinase small molecule inhibitor, picropodophyllin (PPP), which strongly inhibits the IGF pathway. Our results demonstrate that PPP-mediated downregulation of the IGF pathway inhibits mouse tumor cell growth and induces apoptotic cell death in vitro in primary medulloblastoma cultures that are most reflective of tumor cell behavior in vivo.

  13. IGF-1 receptor inhibition by picropodophyllin in medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Hosoyama, Tohru; Nelon, Laura D.; Keller, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Igf1r is overexpressed and activated in a Sonic Hedgehog driven model of medulloblastoma. → Picropodophyllin targets and abrogates IGF signaling in medulloblastoma. → Picropodophyllin inhibits medulloblastoma tumor cell growth by induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) is a multifunctional membrane-associated tyrosine kinase associated with regulation of transformation, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Increased IGF pathway activity has been reported in human and murine medulloblastoma. Tumors from our genetically-engineered medulloblastoma mouse model over-express Igf1r, and thus this mouse model is a good platform with which to study the role of Igf1r in tumor progression. We hypothesize that inhibition of IGF pathway in medulloblastoma can slow or inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. To test our hypothesis, we tested the role of IGF in tumor growth in vitro by treatment with the tyrosine kinase small molecule inhibitor, picropodophyllin (PPP), which strongly inhibits the IGF pathway. Our results demonstrate that PPP-mediated downregulation of the IGF pathway inhibits mouse tumor cell growth and induces apoptotic cell death in vitro in primary medulloblastoma cultures that are most reflective of tumor cell behavior in vivo.

  14. IGF-1 receptor targeted nanoparticles for image-guided therapy of stroma-rich and drug resistant human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Qian, Weiping; Uckun, Fatih M; Zhou, Zhiyang; Wang, Liya; Wang, Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2016-04-17

    Low drug delivery efficiency and drug resistance from highly heterogeneous cancer cells and tumor microenvironment represent major challenges in clinical oncology. Growth factor receptor, IGF-1R, is overexpressed in both human tumor cells and tumor associated stromal cells. The level of IGF-1R expression is further up-regulated in drug resistant tumor cells. We have developed IGF-1R targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) carrying multiple anticancer drugs into human tumors. This IGF-1R targeted theranostic nanoparticle delivery system has an iron core for non-invasive MR imaging, amphiphilic polymer coating to ensure the biocompatibility as well as for drug loading and conjugation of recombinant human IGF-1 as targeting molecules. Chemotherapy drugs, Doxorubicin (Dox), was encapsulated into the polymer coating and/or conjugated to the IONP surface by coupling with the carboxyl groups. The ability of IGF1R targeted theranostic nanoparticles to penetrate tumor stromal barrier and enhance tumor cell killing has been demonstrated in human pancreatic cancer patient tissue derived xenograft (PDX) models. Repeated systemic administrations of those IGF-1R targeted theranostic IONP carrying Dox led to breaking the tumor stromal barrier and improved therapeutic effect. Near infrared (NIR) optical and MR imaging enabled noninvasive monitoring of nanoparticle-drug delivery and therapeutic responses. Our results demonstrated that IGF-1R targeted nanoparticles carrying multiple drugs are promising combination therapy approaches for image-guided therapy of stroma-rich and drug resistant human cancer, such as pancreatic cancer.

  15. IGF-1 receptor targeted nanoparticles for image-guided therapy of stroma-rich and drug resistant human cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Qian, Weiping; Uckun, Fatih M.; Zhou, Zhiyang; Wang, Liya; Wang, Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2016-05-01

    Low drug delivery efficiency and drug resistance from highly heterogeneous cancer cells and tumor microenvironment represent major challenges in clinical oncology. Growth factor receptor, IGF-1R, is overexpressed in both human tumor cells and tumor associated stromal cells. The level of IGF-1R expression is further up-regulated in drug resistant tumor cells. We have developed IGF-1R targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) carrying multiple anticancer drugs into human tumors. This IGF-1R targeted theranostic nanoparticle delivery system has an iron core for non-invasive MR imaging, amphiphilic polymer coating to ensure the biocompatibility as well as for drug loading and conjugation of recombinant human IGF-1 as targeting molecules. Chemotherapy drugs, Doxorubicin (Dox), was encapsulated into the polymer coating and/or conjugated to the IONP surface by coupling with the carboxyl groups. The ability of IGF1R targeted theranostic nanoparticles to penetrate tumor stromal barrier and enhance tumor cell killing has been demonstrated in human pancreatic cancer patient tissue derived xenograft (PDX) models. Repeated systemic administrations of those IGF-1R targeted theranostic IONP carrying Dox led to breaking the tumor stromal barrier and improved therapeutic effect. Near infrared (NIR) optical and MR imaging enabled noninvasive monitoring of nanoparticle-drug delivery and therapeutic responses. Our results demonstrated that IGF-1R targeted nanoparticles carrying multiple drugs are promising combination therapy approaches for image-guided therapy of stroma-rich and drug resistant human cancer, such as pancreatic cancer.

  16. Crosstalk between TEMs and endothelial cells modulates angiogenesis and metastasis via IGF1-IGF1R signalling in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjing; Zhu, Qinyi; Lin, Yingying; Wu, Li; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Kai; He, Qizhi; Xu, Congjian; Wan, Xiaoping; Wang, Xipeng

    2017-10-24

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death from gynaecologic malignancies and has a poor prognosis due to metastasis. Drugs targeting the angiogenesis pathway significantly improve patient outcome. However, the key factors linking angiogenesis and metastasis have not been elucidated. In this study, we found Tie2 expressing monocytes (CD14 + Tie2 + , TEMs) as key contributors to angiogenesis and metastasis of EOC. Tissue slides were evaluated by immunofluorescence for the presence of total tissue macrophages and TEMs. The correlation between microvascular density (MVD) values and the TEMs number or ratio was calculated in both ovarian cancer tissues and peritoneum. The rate of TEMs in monocytes was evaluated in the peripheral blood of female healthy donors, benign cysts patients, and EOC patients using flow cytometry. The TEMs rate in ascites from EOC patients was also evaluated by flow cytometry. The concentration of Ang2, as the ligand of Tie2, was examined by ELISA in serum samples of EOC patients, benign cysts patients, and ascites samples of EOC patients. The effects of Ang2 on the migration and the cytokine expression of TEMs were further examined. The pro- angiogenesis activity of TEMs via IGF1 was performed in both in vivo and in vitro. And the IGF1 blocking test was performed using neutralising antibody. TEMs were significantly higher in tumour foci, peripheral blood and ascites in EOC patients. The proportion of TEMs among total tissue macrophages was positively correlated with tumour MVD. In vivo animal results showed that TEMs promoted EOC angiogenesis and metastasis. Further functional and mechanisms studies revealed that concentration of angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), a ligand of Tie2, was elevated in EOC ascites which further recruit TEMs in a dose-dependent manner as a powerful chemokine to TEMs. Recruited TEMs promoted endothelial cell function through IGF1-activated downstream signalling. Blocking secreted IGF1 using inhibiting antibody

  17. Effective molecular targeting of CDK4/6 and IGF-1R in a rare FUS-ERG fusion CDKN2A-deletion doxorubicin-resistant Ewing's sarcoma patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takashi; Singh, Arun S; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Dry, Sarah M; Li, Yunfeng; James, Aaron W; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; DeLong, Jonathan C; Zhang, Yong; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Russell, Tara; Eckardt, Mark A; Yanagawa, Jane; Federman, Noah; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-07-26

    Ewing's sarcoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy. In the present study, tumor from a patient with a Ewing's sarcoma with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/B (CDKN2A/B) loss and FUS-ERG fusion was implanted in the right chest wall of nude mice to establish a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The aim of the present study was to determine efficacy of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitors on the Ewing's sarcoma PDOX. The PDOX models were randomized into the following groups when tumor volume reached 50 mm3: G1, untreated control; G2, doxorubicin (DOX) (intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G3, CDK4/6 inhibitor (palbociclib, PD0332991, per oral (p.o.), daily, for 14 days); G4, IGF-1R inhibitor (linsitinib, OSI-906, p.o., daily, for 14 days). Tumor growth was significantly suppressed both in G3 (palbociclib) and in G4 (linsitinib) compared to G1 (untreated control) at all measured time points. In contrast, DOX did not inhibit tumor growth at any time point, which is consistent with the failure of DOX to control tumor growth in the patient. The results of the present study demonstrate the power of the PDOX model to identify effective targeted molecular therapy of a recalcitrant DOX-resistant Ewing's sarcoma with specific genetic alterations. The results of this study suggest the potential of PDOX models for individually-tailored, effective targeted therapy for recalcitrant cancer.

  18. Anti-pancreatic cancer activity of ONC212 involves the unfolded protein response (UPR) and is reduced by IGF1-R and GRP78/BIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Avital; Lulla, Amriti R; Wagner, Jessica; Ralff, Marie D; Kiehl, Joshua B; Zhou, Yan; Benes, Cyril H; Prabhu, Varun V; Oster, Wolfgang; Astsaturov, Igor; Dicker, David T; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2017-10-10

    Pancreatic cancer is chemo-resistant and metastasizes early with an overall five-year survival of ∼8.2%. First-in-class imipridone ONC201 is a small molecule in clinical trials with anti-cancer activity. ONC212, a fluorinated-ONC201 analogue, shows preclinical efficacy in melanoma and hepatocellular-cancer models. We investigated efficacy of ONC201 and ONC212 against pancreatic cancer cell lines ( N =16 including 9 PDX-cell lines). We demonstrate ONC212 efficacy in 4 in-vivo models including ONC201-resistant tumors. ONC212 is active in pancreatic cancer as single agent or in combination with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, oxaliplatin or RTK inhibitor crizotinib. Based on upregulation of pro-survival IGF1-R in some tumors, we found an active combination of ONC212 with inhibitor AG1024, including in vivo . We show a rationale for targeting pancreatic cancer using ONC212 combined with targeting the unfolded-protein response and ER chaperones such as GRP78/BIP. Our results lay the foundation to test imipridones, anti-cancer agents, in pancreatic cancer, that is refractory to most drugs.

  19. Sorafenib inhibits tumor growth and vascularization of rhabdomyosarcoma cells by blocking IGF-1R-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessen Maruwge

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Wessen Maruwge1, Pádraig D’Arcy1, Annika Folin1,2, Slavica Brnjic1, Johan Wejde1, Anthony Davis1, Fredrik Erlandsson3, Jonas Bergh1,2, Bertha Brodin11Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Bayer Pharmaceutical Corporation, SwedenAbstract: The growth of many soft tissue sarcomas is dependent on aberrant growth factor signaling, which promotes their proliferation and motility. With this in mind, we evaluated the effect of sorafenib, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on cell growth and apoptosis in sarcoma cell lines of various histological subtypes. We found that sorafenib effectively inhibited cell proliferation in rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma with IC50 values <5 µM. Sorafenib effectively induced growth arrest in rhabdomyosarcoma cells, which was concurrent with inhibition of Akt and Erk signaling. Studies of ligand-induced phosphorylation of Erk and Akt in rhabdomyosarcoma cells showed that insulin-like growth factor-1 is a potent activator, which can be blocked by treatment with sorafenib. In vivo sorafenib treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth, which was associated with inhibited vascularization and enhanced necrosis in the adjacent tumor stroma. Our results demonstrate that in vitro and in vivo growth of rhabdomyosarcoma can be suppressed by treatment with sorafenib, and suggests the possibilities of using sorafenib as a potential adjuvant therapy for the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma.Keywords: soft tissue sarcoma, kinase inhibitors, targeted therapy, vascularization

  20. Autocrine IGF-1 Action in Adipocytes Controls Systemic IGF-1 Concentrations and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kl?ting, Nora; Koch, Linda; Wunderlich, Thomas; Kern, Matthias; Ruschke, Karen; Krone, Wilhelm; Br?ning, Jens C.; Bl?her, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?IGF-1 and the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) have been implicated in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in vitro. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?To investigate the role of IGF-1 receptor in vivo, we have inactivated the Igf-1r gene in adipose tissue (IGF-1RaP2Cre mice) using conditional gene targeting strategies. RESULTS?Conditional IGF-1R inactivation resulted in increased adipose tissue mass with a predominantly increased lipid accumulation in epigonadal fat ...

  1. Essential role of flotillin-1 palmitoylation in the intracellular localization and signaling function of IGF-1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Donghwan; Kwon, Hayeong; Jeong, Kyuho; Lee, Jaewoong; Pak, Yunbae

    2015-06-01

    Here, we explored flotillin-1-mediated regulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. Flotillin-1-deficient cells exhibited a reduction in the activation of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), ERK1/2 and Akt pathways, and the transcriptional activation of Elk-1 and the proliferation in response to IGF-1 were reduced in these cells. We found that IGF-1-independent flotillin-1 palmitoylation at Cys34 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was required for the ER exit and the plasma membrane localization of flotillin-1 and IGF-1R. IGF-1-dependent depalmitoylation and repalmitoylation of flotillin-1 sustained tyrosine kinase activation of the plasma-membrane-targeted IGF-1R. Dysfunction and blocking the turnover of flotillin-1 palmitoylation abrogated cancer cell proliferation after IGF-1R signaling activation. Our data show that flotillin-1 palmitoylation is a new mechanism by which the intracellular localization and activation of IGF-1R are controlled. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. IGF-1 Receptor Differentially Regulates Spontaneous and Evoked Transmission via Mitochondria at Hippocampal Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Neta; Vertkin, Irena; Shapira, Ilana; Helm, Martin; Slomowitz, Edden; Sheiba, Maayan; Mor, Yael; Rizzoli, Silvio; Slutsky, Inna

    2016-01-01

    Summary The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling is a key regulator of lifespan, growth, and development. While reduced IGF-1R signaling delays aging and Alzheimer’s disease progression, whether and how it regulates information processing at central synapses remains elusive. Here, we show that presynaptic IGF-1Rs are basally active, regulating synaptic vesicle release and short-term plasticity in excitatory hippocampal neurons. Acute IGF-1R blockade or transient knockdown suppresses spike-evoked synaptic transmission and presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ transients, while promoting spontaneous transmission and resting Ca2+ level. This dual effect on transmitter release is mediated by mitochondria that attenuate Ca2+ buffering in the absence of spikes and decrease ATP production during spiking activity. We conclude that the mitochondria, activated by IGF-1R signaling, constitute a critical regulator of information processing in hippocampal neurons by maintaining evoked-to-spontaneous transmission ratio, while constraining synaptic facilitation at high frequencies. Excessive IGF-1R tone may contribute to hippocampal hyperactivity associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Video Abstract PMID:26804996

  3. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of the anti-IGF-1R antibody figitumumab (CP-751,871) in patients with sarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma: a phase 1 expansion cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, David; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Molife, L Rhoda; Okuno, Scott H; Schuetze, Scott M; Paccagnella, M Luisa; Batzel, Gretchen N; Yin, Donghua; Pritchard-Jones, Kathryn; Judson, Ian; Worden, Francis P; Gualberto, Antonio; Scurr, Michelle; de Bono, Johann S; Haluska, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Figitumumab is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody targeting the insulin-like growth-factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Preclinical data suggest a dependence on insulin-like growth-factor signalling for sarcoma subtypes, including Ewing's sarcoma, and early reports show antitumour activity of IGF-1R-targeting drugs in these diseases. Between January, 2006, and August, 2008, patients with refractory, advanced sarcomas received figitumumab (20 mg/kg) in two single-stage expansion cohorts within a solid-tumour phase 1 trial. The first cohort (n=15) included patients with multiple sarcoma subtypes, age 18 years or older, and the second cohort (n=14) consisted of patients with refractory Ewing's sarcoma, age 9 years or older. The primary endpoint was to assess the safety and tolerability of figitumumab. Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetic profiling and preliminary antitumour activity (best response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours [RECIST]) in evaluable patients who received at least one dose of medication. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00474760. 29 patients, 16 of whom had Ewing's sarcoma, were enrolled and received a total of 177 cycles of treatment (median 2, mean 6.1, range 1-24). Grade 3 deep venous thrombosis, grade 3 back pain, and grade 3 vomiting were each noted once in individual patients; one patient had grade 3 increases in aspartate aminotransferase and gammaglutamyltransferase concentrations. This patient also had grade 4 increases in alanine aminotransferase concentrations. The only other grade 4 adverse event was raised concentrations of uric acid, noted in one patient. Pharmacokinetics were comparable between patients with sarcoma and those with other solid tumours. 28 patients were assessed for response; two patients, both with Ewing's sarcoma, had objective responses (one complete response and one partial response) and eight patients had disease stabilisation (six with Ewing's sarcoma, one with

  4. Prenatal stress affects insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level and IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation in the brain of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Szczesny, Ewa; Glombik, Katarzyna; Stachowicz, Katarzyna; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Nalepa, Irena; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka; Rafa-Zablocka, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Boguslawa; Kubera, Marta; Leskiewicz, Monika; Lason, Wladyslaw

    2014-09-01

    It has been shown that stressful events occurring in early life have a powerful influence on the development of the central nervous system. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes the growth, differentiation and survival of both neurons and glial cells and is thought to exert antidepressant-like activity. Thus, it is possible that disturbances in the function of the IGF-1 system may be responsible for disturbances observed over the course of depression. Prenatal stress was used as a valid model of depression. Adult male offspring of control and stressed rat dams were subjected to behavioural testing (forced swim test). The level of IGF-1 in the blood and the expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R, and IRS-1/2 in the hippocampus and frontal cortex using RT-PCR, ELISA and western blotting were measured. In addition the effect of intracerebroventricularly administered IGF-1 and/or the IGF-1R receptor antagonist JB1 in the forced swim test was studied. Prenatally stressed rats showed depressive like behaviour, including increased immobility time as well as decreased mobility and climbing. Intracerebroventricular administration of IGF-1 reversed these effects in stressed animals, whereas concomitant administration of the IGF-1R antagonist JB1 completely blocked the effects. Biochemical analysis of homogenates from the hippocampus and frontal cortex revealed decreases in IGF-1 level and IGF-1R phosphorylation along with disturbances in IRS-1 phosphorylation. These findings reveal that prenatal stress alters IGF-1 signalling, which may contribute to the behavioural changes observed in depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential Role of Insulin/IGF-1 Receptor Signaling in Muscle Growth and Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. O’Neill

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 are major regulators of muscle protein and glucose homeostasis. To determine how these pathways interact, we generated mice with muscle-specific knockout of IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R and insulin receptor (IR. These MIGIRKO mice showed >60% decrease in muscle mass. Despite a complete lack of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in muscle, MIGIRKO mice displayed normal glucose and insulin tolerance. Indeed, MIGIRKO mice showed fasting hypoglycemia and increased basal glucose uptake. This was secondary to decreased TBC1D1 resulting in increased Glut4 and Glut1 membrane localization. Interestingly, overexpression of a dominant-negative IGF1R in muscle induced glucose intolerance in MIGIRKO animals. Thus, loss of insulin/IGF-1 signaling impairs muscle growth, but not whole-body glucose tolerance due to increased membrane localization of glucose transporters. Nonetheless, presence of a dominant-negative receptor, even in the absence of functional IR/IGF1R, induces glucose intolerance, indicating that interactions between these receptors and other proteins in muscle can impair glucose homeostasis.

  6. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Syun Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH, a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day and probucol (500 mg/kg/day. APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and low density lipoprotein (LDL levels to the normal levels expressed in the control group. Additionally, the IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway was reactivated, and Fas-FADD (Fas-associated death domain induced apoptosis was inhibited by APPH treatments (15 and 45 mg/kg/day in HFD aging rat hearts. APPH (75 mg/kg/day rather than probucol (500 mg/kg/day treatment could reduce serum lipids without affecting HDL expression. The heart protective effect of APPH in aging rats with hyperlipidemia was through lowering serum lipids and enhancing the activation of the compensatory IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway.

  7. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Pai, Peiying; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH), a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day) and probucol (500 mg/kg/day). APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels to the normal levels expressed in the control group. Additionally, the IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway was reactivated, and Fas-FADD (Fas-associated death domain) induced apoptosis was inhibited by APPH treatments (15 and 45 mg/kg/day) in HFD aging rat hearts. APPH (75 mg/kg/day) rather than probucol (500 mg/kg/day) treatment could reduce serum lipids without affecting HDL expression. The heart protective effect of APPH in aging rats with hyperlipidemia was through lowering serum lipids and enhancing the activation of the compensatory IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway. PMID:25950762

  8. MicroRNA-214 Reduces Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Receptor Expression and Downstream mTORC1 Signaling in Renal Carcinoma Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Falguni; Dey, Nirmalya; Bera, Amit; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Elevated IGF-1/insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) autocrine/paracrine signaling in patients with renal cell carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis of the disease independent of their von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) status. Increased expression of IGF-1R in renal cancer cells correlates with their potency of tumor development and progression. The mechanism by which expression of IGF-1R is increased in renal carcinoma is not known. We report that VHL-deficient and VHL-positive renal cancer cells possess significantly decreased levels of mature, pre-, and pri-miR-214 than normal proximal tubular epithelial cells. We identified an miR-214 recognition element in the 3′UTR of IGF-1R mRNA and confirmed its responsiveness to miR-214. Overexpression of miR-214 decreased the IGF-1R protein levels, resulting in the inhibition of Akt kinase activity in both types of renal cancer cells. IGF-1 provoked phosphorylation and inactivation of PRAS40 in an Akt-dependent manner, leading to the activation of mTORC1 signal transduction to increase phosphorylation of S6 kinase and 4EBP-1. Phosphorylation-deficient mutants of PRAS40 and 4EBP-1 significantly inhibited IGF-1R-driven proliferation of renal cancer cells. Expression of miR-214 suppressed IGF-1R-induced phosphorylation of PRAS40, S6 kinase, and 4EBP-1, indicating inhibition of mTORC1 activity. Finally, miR-214 significantly blocked IGF-1R-forced renal cancer cell proliferation, which was reversed by expression of 3′UTR-less IGF-1R and constitutively active mTORC1. Together, our results identify a reciprocal regulation of IGF-1R levels and miR-214 expression in renal cancer cells independent of VHL status. Our data provide evidence for a novel mechanism for IGF-1R-driven renal cancer cell proliferation involving miR-214 and mTORC1. PMID:27226530

  9. The insulin and IGF1 receptor kinase domains are functional dimers in the activated state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabail, M. Zulema; Li, Shiqing; Lemmon, Eric; Bowen, Mark E.; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Miller, W. Todd

    2015-03-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) are highly related receptor tyrosine kinases with a disulfide-linked homodimeric architecture. Ligand binding to the receptor ectodomain triggers tyrosine autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domains, which stimulates catalytic activity and creates recruitment sites for downstream signalling proteins. Whether the two phosphorylated tyrosine kinase domains within the receptor dimer function independently or cooperatively to phosphorylate protein substrates is not known. Here we provide crystallographic, biophysical and biochemical evidence demonstrating that the phosphorylated kinase domains of IR and IGF1R form a specific dimeric arrangement involving an exchange of the juxtamembrane region proximal to the kinase domain. In this dimer, the active position of α-helix C in the kinase N lobe is stabilized, which promotes downstream substrate phosphorylation. These studies afford a novel strategy for the design of small-molecule IR agonists as potential therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes.

  10. miR-630 targets IGF1R to regulate response to HER-targeting drugs and overall cancer cell progression in HER2 over-expressing breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Claire; Rani, Sweta; Breslin, Susan; Gogarty, Martina; Ghobrial, Irene M; Crown, John; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2014-03-24

    While the treatment of HER2 over-expressing breast cancer with recent HER-targeted drugs has been highly effective for some patients, primary (also known as innate) or acquired resistance limits the success of these drugs. microRNAs have potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers, as well as replacement therapies. Here we investigated the role of microRNA-630 (miR-630) in breast cancer progression and as a predictive biomarker for response to HER-targeting drugs, ultimately yielding potential as a therapeutic approach to add value to these drugs. We investigated the levels of intra- and extracellular miR-630 in cells and conditioned media from breast cancer cell lines with either innate- or acquired- resistance to HER-targeting lapatinib and neratinib, compared to their corresponding drug sensitive cell lines, using qPCR. To support the role of miR-630 in breast cancer, we examined the clinical relevance of this miRNA in breast cancer tumours versus matched peritumours. Transfection of miR-630 mimics and inhibitors was used to manipulate the expression of miR-630 to assess effects on response to HER-targeting drugs (lapatinib, neratinib and afatinib). Other phenotypic changes associated with cellular aggressiveness were evaluated by motility, invasion and anoikis assays. TargetScan prediction software, qPCR, immunoblotting and ELISAs, were used to assess miR-630's regulation of mRNA, proteins and their phosphorylated forms. We established that introducing miR-630 into cells with innate- or acquired- resistance to HER-drugs significantly restored the efficacy of lapatinib, neratinib and afatinib; through a mechanism which we have determined to, at least partly, involve miR-630's regulation of IGF1R. Conversely, we demonstrated that blocking miR-630 induced resistance/insensitivity to these drugs. Cellular motility, invasion, and anoikis were also observed as significantly altered by miR-630 manipulation, whereby introducing miR-630 into cells

  11. Divergent effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression on prognosis of estrogen receptor positive versus triple negative invasive ductal breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Hermien; Horlings, Hugo M; van der Vegt, Bert; Kreike, Bas; Ajouaou, Abderrahim; van de Vijver, Marc J; Boezen, Hendrika; de Bock, Geertruida H; van der Graaf, Wilhelmina; Wesseling, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF1R) is involved in progression of breast cancer and resistance to systemic treatment. Targeting IGF1R signaling may, therefore, be beneficial in systemic treatment. We report the effect of IGF1R expression on prognosis in invasive ductal breast

  12. Interaction of single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADRB2, ADRB3, TNF, IL6, IGF1R, LIPC, LEPR, and GHRL with physical activity on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and changes in characteristics of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Lakka, Timo A; Laaksonen, David E

    2008-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ADRB2, ADRB3, TNF, IL6, IGF1R, LIPC, LEPR, and GHRL genes were associated with the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). In this study, we determined whether...... on the conversion to T2D was found. The Leu72Met (rs696217) polymorphism in GHRL modified the effect of moderate-to-vigorous PA on changes in weight and waist circumference, the -501A/C (rs26802) polymorphism in GHRL modified the effect of total and moderate-to-vigorous PA on change in high-density lipoprotein...... polymorphisms in these genes modified the effect of changes in physical activity (PA) on the risk of T2D in the DPS. Moreover, we assessed whether the polymorphisms modified the effect of changes in PA on changes in measures of body fat, serum lipids, and blood pressure during the first year of the follow...

  13. Circulating Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Regulates Its Receptor in the Brain of Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba-Saiz, A; Fernandez, A M; Nishijima, T; Mecha, M; Santi, A; Munive, V; Aleman, I Torres

    2017-02-01

    The role of IGF-1 and its receptor (IGF-1R) in brain pathology is still unclear. Thus, either reduction of IGF-IR or treatment with IGF-1, two apparently opposite actions, has proven beneficial in brain diseases such as Alzheimer's dementia. A possible explanation of this discrepancy is that IGF-1 down-regulates brain IGF-1R levels, as previously seen in a mouse Alzheimer's dementia model. We now explored whether under normal conditions IGF-1 modulates its receptor. We first observed that in vitro, IGF-1 reduced IGF-1R mRNA levels in all types of brain cells including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, endothelial cells, and oligodendrocytes. IGF-1 also inhibited its own expression in neurons and brain endothelium. Next, we analyzed the in vivo actions of IGF-1. Because serum IGF-1 can enter the brain, we injected mice with IGF-1 ip. As soon as 1 hour after the injection, decreased hippocampal IGF-1 levels were observed, followed by increased IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNAs 6 hours later. Because environmental enrichment (EE) stimulates the entrance of serum IGF-1 into the brain, we analyzed whether a physiological entrance of IGF-1 also produced changes in brain IGF-1R. Stimulation of IGF-1R by EE triggered a gradual decrease in hippocampal IGF-1 levels. After 6 hours of EE exposure, IGF-1 levels reached a significant decrease in parallel with increased IGF-1R expression. After longer times, IGF-1R mRNA levels returned to baseline. Thus, under nonpathological conditions, IGF-1 regulates brain IGF-1R. Because baseline IGF-1R levels are rapidly restored, a tight control of brain IGF-1R expression seems to operate under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  14. Evidence That Graves' Ophthalmopathy Immunoglobulins Do Not Directly Activate IGF-1 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus-Samuels, Bernice; Krieger, Christine C; Boutin, Alisa; Kahaly, George J; Neumann, Susanne; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2018-05-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) pathogenesis involves thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR)-stimulating autoantibodies. Whether there are autoantibodies that directly stimulate insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors (IGF-1Rs), stimulating insulin-like growth factor receptor antibodies (IGFRAbs), remains controversial. This study attempted to determine whether there are stimulating IGFRAbs in patients with GO. Immunoglobulins (Igs) were purified from normal volunteers (NV-Igs) and patients with GO (GO-Igs). The effects of TSH, IGF-1, NV-Igs, and GO-Igs on pAKT and pERK1/2, members of pathways used by IGF-1R and TSHR, were compared in orbital fibroblasts from GO patients (GOFs) and U2OS-TSHR cells overexpressing TSHRs, and U2OS cells that express TSHRs at very low endogenous levels. U2OS-TSHR and U2OS cells were used because GOFs are not easily manipulated using molecular techniques such as transfection, and U2OS cells because they express TSHRs at levels that do not measurably stimulate signaling. Thus, comparing U2OS-TSHR and U2OS cells permits specifically distinguishing signaling mediated by the TSHR and IGF-1R. In GOFs, all GO-Igs stimulated pERK1/2 formation and 69% stimulated pAKT. In U2OS-TSHR cells, 15% of NV-IGs and 83% of GO-Igs stimulated increases in pERK1/2, whereas all NV-Igs and GO-Igs stimulated increases in pAKT. In U2OS cells, 70% of GO-Igs stimulated small increases in pAKT. Knockdown of IGF-1R caused a 65 ± 6.3% decrease in IGF-1-stimulated pAKT but had no effect on GO-Igs stimulation of pAKT. Thus, GO-Igs contain factor(s) that stimulate pAKT formation. However, this factor(s) does not directly activate IGF-1R. Based on the findings analyzing these two signaling pathways, it is concluded there is no evidence of stimulating IGFRAbs in GO patients.

  15. Effect of insulin analogues on insulin/IGF1 hybrid receptors: increased activation by glargine but not by its metabolites M1 and M2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Pierre-Eugene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In diabetic patients, the pharmacokinetics of injected human insulin does not permit optimal control of glycemia. Fast and slow acting insulin analogues have been developed, but they may have adverse properties, such as increased mitogenic or anti-apoptotic signaling. Insulin/IGF1 hybrid receptors (IR/IGF1R, present in most tissues, have been proposed to transmit biological effects close to those of IGF1R. However, the study of hybrid receptors is difficult because of the presence of IR and IGF1R homodimers. Our objective was to perform the first study on the pharmacological properties of the five marketed insulin analogues towards IR/IGF1R hybrids. METHODOLOGY: To study the effect of insulin analogues on IR/IGF1R hybrids, we used our previously developed Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET assay that permits specific analysis of the pharmacological properties of hybrid receptors. Moreover, we have developed a new, highly sensitive BRET-based assay to monitor phophatidylinositol-3 phosphate (PIP(3 production in living cells. Using this assay, we performed a detailed pharmacological analysis of PIP(3 production induced by IGF1, insulin and insulin analogues in living breast cancer-derived MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells. RESULTS: Among the five insulin analogues tested, only glargine stimulated IR/IGF1R hybrids with an EC50 that was significantly lower than insulin and close to that of IGF1. Glargine more efficiently stimulated PIP(3 production in MCF-7 cells but not in MDA-MB231 cells as compared to insulin. In contrast, glargine metabolites M1 and M2 showed lower potency for hybrid receptors stimulation, PIP(3 production, Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation and DNA synthesis in MCF-7 cells, compared to insulin. CONCLUSION: Glargine, possibly acting through IR/IGF1R hybrids, displays higher potency, whereas its metabolites M1 and M2 display lower potency than insulin for the stimulation of proliferative/anti-apoptotic pathways in

  16. IGF-1 Receptor Expression on Circulating Osteoblast Progenitor Cells Predicts Tissue-Based Bone Formation Rate and Response to Teriparatide in Premenopausal Women With Idiopathic Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adi; Kousteni, Stavroula; Bisikirska, Brygida; Shah, Jayesh G; Manavalan, J Sanil; Recker, Robert R; Lappe, Joan; Dempster, David W; Zhou, Hua; McMahon, Donald J; Bucovsky, Mariana; Kamanda-Kosseh, Mafo; Stubby, Julie; Shane, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    We have previously reported that premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) have profound microarchitectural deficiencies and heterogeneous bone remodeling. Those with the lowest bone formation rate have higher baseline serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and less robust response to teriparatide. Because IGF-1 stimulates bone formation and is critical for teriparatide action on osteoblasts, these findings suggest a state of IGF-1 resistance in some IOP women. To further investigate the hypothesis that osteoblast and IGF-1-related mechanisms mediate differential responsiveness to teriparatide in IOP, we studied circulating osteoblast progenitor (COP) cells and their IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression. In premenopausal women with IOP, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained at baseline (n = 25) and over 24 months of teriparatide treatment (n = 11). Flow cytometry was used to identify and quantify COPs (non-hematopoetic lineage cells expressing osteocalcin and RUNX2) and to quantify IGF-1R expression levels. At baseline, both the percent of PBMCs that were COPs (%COP) and COP cell-surface IGF-1R expression correlated directly with several histomorphometric indices of bone formation in tetracycline-labeled transiliac biopsies. In treated subjects, both %COP and IGF-1R expression increased promptly after teriparatide, returning toward baseline by 18 months. Although neither baseline %COP nor increase in %COP after 3 months predicted the bone mineral density (BMD) response to teriparatide, the percent increase in IGF-1R expression on COPs at 3 months correlated directly with the BMD response to teriparatide. Additionally, lower IGF-1R expression after teriparatide was associated with higher body fat, suggesting links between teriparatide resistance, body composition, and the GH/IGF-1 axis. In conclusion, these assays may be useful to characterize bone remodeling noninvasively and may serve to predict early response to

  17. Type 1 IGF Receptor Localization in Paediatric Gliomas: Significant Association with WHO Grading and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Florencia; Martin, Ayelen; Venara, Marcela; de Luján Calcagno, Maria; Mathó, Cecilia; Maglio, Silvana; Lombardi, Mercedes García; Bergadá, Ignacio; Pennisi, Patricia A

    2018-06-01

    Nuclear localization of insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF-1R) has been described as adverse prognostic factor in some cancers. We studied the expression and localization of IGF-1R in paediatric patients with gliomas, as well as its association with World Health Organization (WHO) grading and survival. We conducted a single cohort, prospective study of paediatric patients with gliomas. Samples were taken at the time of the initial surgery; IGF-1R expression and localization were characterized by immunohistochemistry (IHC), subcellular fractionation and western blotting. Tumours (47/53) showed positive staining for IGF-1R by IHC. IGF-1R nuclear labelling was observed in 10/47 cases. IGF-1R staining was mostly non-nuclear in low-grade tumours, while IGF-1R nuclear labelling was predominant in high-grade gliomas (p = 0.0001). Survival was significantly longer in patients with gliomas having non-nuclear IGF-1R localization than in patients with nuclear IGF-1R tumours (p = 0.016). In gliomas, IGF-1R nuclear localization was significantly associated with both high-grade tumours and increased risk of death. Based on a prospective design, we provide evidence of a potential usefulness of intracellular localization of IGF-1R as prognostic factor in paediatric patients with gliomas.

  18. Insulin and IGF1 Receptors Are Essential for XX and XY Gonadal Differentiation and Adrenal Development in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Yannick; Conne, Béatrice; Truong, Vy; Papaioannou, Marilena D.; Schaad, Olivier; Docquier, Mylène; Herrera, Pedro Luis; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Nef, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Mouse sex determination provides an attractive model to study how regulatory genetic networks and signaling pathways control cell specification and cell fate decisions. This study characterizes in detail the essential role played by the insulin receptor (INSR) and the IGF type I receptor (IGF1R) in adrenogenital development and primary sex determination. Constitutive ablation of insulin/IGF signaling pathway led to reduced proliferation rate of somatic progenitor cells in both XX and XY gonads prior to sex determination together with the downregulation of hundreds of genes associated with the adrenal, testicular, and ovarian genetic programs. These findings indicate that prior to sex determination somatic progenitors in Insr;Igf1r mutant gonads are not lineage primed and thus incapable of upregulating/repressing the male and female genetic programs required for cell fate restriction. In consequence, embryos lacking functional insulin/IGF signaling exhibit (i) complete agenesis of the adrenal cortex, (ii) embryonic XY gonadal sex reversal, with a delay of Sry upregulation and the subsequent failure of the testicular genetic program, and (iii) a delay in ovarian differentiation so that Insr;Igf1r mutant gonads, irrespective of genetic sex, remained in an extended undifferentiated state, before the ovarian differentiation program ultimately is initiated at around E16.5. PMID:23300479

  19. The impact of the IGF-1 system of cancer cells on radiation response - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Senthiladipan; Mettler, Esther; Fottner, Christian; Miederer, Matthias; Kaina, Bernd; Weber, Matthias M

    2017-12-01

    Overexpression of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is associated with increased cell proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and tumorigenicity. Additionally, signaling involved in the resistance of cancer cells to radiotherapy originates from IGF-1R. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the IGF-1 system in the radiation response and further evaluate its effect on the expression of DNA repair pathway genes. To inhibit the IGF-1 system, we stably transfected the Caco-2 cell line to express a kinase-deficient IGF-1R mutant. We then studied the effects of this mutation on cell growth, the response to radiation, and clonogenic survival, as well as using a cell viability assay to examine DNA damage and repair. Finally, we performed immunofluorescence for γ-H2AX to examine double-strand DNA breaks and evaluated the expression of 84 key genes involved in DNA repair with a real-time PCR array. Mutant IGF-1R cells exhibited significantly blunted cell growth and viability, compared to wild-type cells, as well as reduced clonogenic survival after γ-irradiation. However, mutant IGF-1R cells did not show any significant delays in the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Furthermore, expression of mutant IGF-1R significantly down-regulated the mRNA levels of BRCA2, a major protein involved in homologous recombination DNA repair. These results indicate that blocking the IGF-1R-mediated signaling cascade, through the expression of a kinase-deficient IGF-1R mutant, reduces cell growth and sensitizes cancer cells to ionizing radiation. Therefore, the IGF-1R system could be a potential target to enhance radio-sensitivity and the efficacy of cancer treatments.

  20. Brain IGF-1 receptors control mammalian growth and lifespan through a neuroendocrine mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Kappeler

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations that decrease insulin-like growth factor (IGF and growth hormone signaling limit body size and prolong lifespan in mice. In vertebrates, these somatotropic hormones are controlled by the neuroendocrine brain. Hormone-like regulations discovered in nematodes and flies suggest that IGF signals in the nervous system can determine lifespan, but it is unknown whether this applies to higher organisms. Using conditional mutagenesis in the mouse, we show that brain IGF receptors (IGF-1R efficiently regulate somatotropic development. Partial inactivation of IGF-1R in the embryonic brain selectively inhibited GH and IGF-I pathways after birth. This caused growth retardation, smaller adult size, and metabolic alterations, and led to delayed mortality and longer mean lifespan. Thus, early changes in neuroendocrine development can durably modify the life trajectory in mammals. The underlying mechanism appears to be an adaptive plasticity of somatotropic functions allowing individuals to decelerate growth and preserve resources, and thereby improve fitness in challenging environments. Our results also suggest that tonic somatotropic signaling entails the risk of shortened lifespan.

  1. Clinical significance of proliferation, apoptosis and senescence of nasopharyngeal cells by the simultaneously blocking EGF, IGF-1 receptors and Bcl-xl genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Guodong; Peng, Tao; Zhou, Xuhong; Zhu, Jun; Kong, Zhihua; Ma, Li; Xiong, Zhi; Yuan, Yulin

    2013-01-01

    Highlight: •Construction of shRNA segments expression vectors is valid by the investigation of RT-PCR for IGF1R, EGFR and Bcl-xl mRNA and protein expression. •Studies have suggested that the vectors in blocking these genes of the growth factor receptors and anti- apoptosis is capable of breaking the balance of tumor growth so that tumor trend apoptosis and senescence. •Simultaneously blocking multiple genes that are abnormally expressed may be more effective in treating cancer cells than silencing a single gene. -- Abstract: Background: In previous work, we constructed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids that targeted human EGF and IGF-1 receptors messenger RNA, respectively, and demonstrated that these vectors could induce apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal cell lines (CNE2) and inhibit ligand-induced pAkt and pErk activation. Method: We have constructed multiple shRNA expression vectors of targeting EGFR, IGF1R and Bcl-xl, which were transfected to the CNE2 cells. The mRNA expression was assessed by RT-PCR. The growth of the cells, cell cycle progression, apoptosis of the cells, senescent tumor cells and the proteins of EGFR, IGF1R and Bcl-xl were analyzed by MTT, flow cytometry, cytochemical therapy or Western blot. Results: In group of simultaneously blocking EGFR, IGF1R and Bcl-xl genes, the mRNA of EGFR, IGF1R and Bcl-xl expression was decreased by (66.66 ± 3.42)%, (73.97 ± 2.83)% and (64.79 ± 2.83)%, and the protein expressions was diminished to (67.69 ± 4.02)%, (74.32 ± 2.30)%, and (60.00 ± 3.34)%, respectively. Meanwhile, the cell apoptosis increased by 65.32 ± 0.18%, 65.16 ± 0.25% and 55.47 ± 0.45%, and senescent cells increased by 1.42 ± 0.15%, 2.26 ± 0.15% and 3.22 ± 0.15% in the second, third and fourth day cultures, respectively. Conclusions: Simultaneously blocking EGFR, IGF1R and Bcl-xl genes is capable of altering the balance between proliferating versus apoptotic and senescent cells in the favor of both of apoptosis and

  2. Clinical significance of proliferation, apoptosis and senescence of nasopharyngeal cells by the simultaneously blocking EGF, IGF-1 receptors and Bcl-xl genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Guodong [Anatomy and Embryology, Wuhan University School of Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Peng, Tao; Zhou, Xuhong [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhu, Jun; Kong, Zhihua; Ma, Li; Xiong, Zhi [Anatomy and Embryology, Wuhan University School of Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Yuan, Yulin, E-mail: yuanyulin19620120@126.com [Anatomy and Embryology, Wuhan University School of Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlight: •Construction of shRNA segments expression vectors is valid by the investigation of RT-PCR for IGF1R, EGFR and Bcl-xl mRNA and protein expression. •Studies have suggested that the vectors in blocking these genes of the growth factor receptors and anti- apoptosis is capable of breaking the balance of tumor growth so that tumor trend apoptosis and senescence. •Simultaneously blocking multiple genes that are abnormally expressed may be more effective in treating cancer cells than silencing a single gene. -- Abstract: Background: In previous work, we constructed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids that targeted human EGF and IGF-1 receptors messenger RNA, respectively, and demonstrated that these vectors could induce apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal cell lines (CNE2) and inhibit ligand-induced pAkt and pErk activation. Method: We have constructed multiple shRNA expression vectors of targeting EGFR, IGF1R and Bcl-xl, which were transfected to the CNE2 cells. The mRNA expression was assessed by RT-PCR. The growth of the cells, cell cycle progression, apoptosis of the cells, senescent tumor cells and the proteins of EGFR, IGF1R and Bcl-xl were analyzed by MTT, flow cytometry, cytochemical therapy or Western blot. Results: In group of simultaneously blocking EGFR, IGF1R and Bcl-xl genes, the mRNA of EGFR, IGF1R and Bcl-xl expression was decreased by (66.66 ± 3.42)%, (73.97 ± 2.83)% and (64.79 ± 2.83)%, and the protein expressions was diminished to (67.69 ± 4.02)%, (74.32 ± 2.30)%, and (60.00 ± 3.34)%, respectively. Meanwhile, the cell apoptosis increased by 65.32 ± 0.18%, 65.16 ± 0.25% and 55.47 ± 0.45%, and senescent cells increased by 1.42 ± 0.15%, 2.26 ± 0.15% and 3.22 ± 0.15% in the second, third and fourth day cultures, respectively. Conclusions: Simultaneously blocking EGFR, IGF1R and Bcl-xl genes is capable of altering the balance between proliferating versus apoptotic and senescent cells in the favor of both of apoptosis and

  3. Overexpression of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Is Associated With Penile Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Mark W; Bezerra, Stephania M; Chaux, Alcides; Faraj, Sheila F; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Munari, Enrico; Sharma, Rajni; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Netto, George J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) expression in penile cancer and its association with oncologic outcomes. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 53 patients treated at our institution. Expression of IGF1R was evaluated using a Her2-like scoring system. Overexpression was defined as 1+ or greater membranous staining. Association of IGF1R expression with pathologic features was assessed with comparative statistics, and association with local recurrence, progression to nodal or distance metastases, or death was assessed with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Overall, IGF1R overexpression was seen in 33 (62%) cases. With a median follow-up of 27.8 months, IGF1R overexpression was associated with inferior progression-free survival (PFS) (P  =  .003). In a multivariable model controlling for grade, T stage, perineural invasion, and lymphovascular invasion, IGF1R expression was independently associated with disease progression (hazard ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1-5.1, P  =  .03. Comparing patients without IGF1R overexpression to those with overexpression, 5-year PFS was 94.1% vs 45.8%. IGF1R overexpression was associated with inferior PFS in penile cancer. Drugs that target IGF1R and downstream messengers may have a therapeutic benefit in patients that exhibit IGF1R overexpression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling induces antiestrogen resistance through the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Moerkens, M.; Ramaiahgari, S.; Bont, de H.J.G.M.; Price, L.; Meerman, J.H.N.; Water, van de B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor (IGF-1R) is phosphorylated in all breast cancer subtypes. Past findings have shown that IGF-1R mediates antiestrogen resistance through cross-talk with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and via its action upstream of the epidermal growth

  5. Synthetic ligands of the elastin receptor induce elastogenesis in human dermal fibroblasts via activation of their IGF-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qa'aty, Nour; Vincent, Matthew; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Andrew; Mitts, Thomas F; Hinek, Aleksander

    2015-12-01

    We have previously reported that a mixture of peptides obtained after chemical or enzymatic degradation of bovine elastin, induced new elastogenesis in human skin. Now, we investigated the elastogenic potential of synthetic peptides mimicking the elastin-derived, VGVAPG sequence, IGVAPG sequence that we found in the rice bran, and a similar peptide, VGVTAG that we identified in the IGF-1-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1). We now demonstrate that treatment with each of these xGVxxG peptides (recognizable by the anti-elastin antibody), up-regulated the levels of elastin-encoding mRNA, tropoelastin protein, and the deposition of new elastic fibers in cultures of human dermal fibroblasts and in cultured explants of human skin. Importantly, we found that such induction of new elastogenesis may involve two parallel signaling pathways triggered after activation of IGF-1 receptor. In the first one, the xGVxxG peptides interact with the cell surface elastin receptor, thereby causing the downstream activation of the c-Src kinase and a consequent cross-activation of the adjacent IGF-1R, even in the absence of its principal ligand. In the second pathway their hydrophobic association with the N-terminal domain (VGVTAG) of the serum-derived IGFBP-1 induces conformational changes of this IGF-1 chaperone allowing for the release of its cargo and a consequent ligand-specific phosphorylation of IGF-1R. We present a novel, clinically relevant mechanism in which products of partial degradation of dermal elastin may stimulate production of new elastic fibers by dermal fibroblasts. Our findings particularly encourage the use of biologically safe synthetic xGVxxG peptides for regeneration of the injured or aged human skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. IGF-1 Receptor and adhesion signaling: an important axis in determining cancer cell phenotype and therapy resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla T Cox

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available IGF-1R expression and activation levels generally cannot be correlated in cancer cells, suggesting that cellular proteins may modulate IGF-1R activity. Strong candidates for such modulation are found in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion signaling complexes. Activated IGF-1R is present at focal adhesions, where it can stabilize β1 integrin and participate in signaling complexes that promote invasiveness associated with epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT, and resistance to therapy. Whether IGF-1R contributes to EMT or to non-invasive tumor growth may be strongly influenced by the degree of ECM engagement and the presence or absence of key proteins in IGF-1R-cell adhesion complexes. One such protein is PDLIM2, which promotes both cell polarization and EMT by regulating the stability of transcription factors including NFκB, STATs and beta catenin. PDLIM2 exhibits tumor suppressor activity, but is also highly expressed in certain invasive cancers. It is likely that distinct adhesion complex proteins modulate IGF-1R signaling during cancer progression or adaptive responses to therapy. Thus, identifying the key modulators will be important for developing effective therapeutic strategies and predictive biomarkers.

  7. Metformin inhibits the proliferation of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells via the downregulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Haruo; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Furuya, Yosuke; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Koike, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Metformin is a biguanide drug that is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have shown that metformin inhibits cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor mechanisms of metformin include activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase/mTOR pathway and direct inhibition of insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-mediated cellular proliferation. However, the anti-tumor mechanism in prostate cancer remains unclear. Because activation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is required for prostate cell proliferation, IGF-1R inhibitors may be of therapeutic value. Accordingly, we examined the effects of metformin on IGF-1R signaling in prostate cancer cells. Metformin significantly inhibited PC-3 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. IGF-1R mRNA expression decreased significantly after 48 h of treatment, and IGF-1R protein expression decreased in a similar manner. IGF-1R knockdown by siRNA transfection led to inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of PC-3 cells. IGF-1 activated both ERK1/2 and Akt, but these effects were attenuated by metformin treatment. In addition, intraperitoneal treatment with metformin significantly reduced tumor growth and IGF-1R mRNA expression in PC-3 xenografts. Our results suggest that metformin is a potent inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R system and may be beneficial in prostate cancer treatment. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibited PC-3 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. • Metformin decreased IGF-1R mRNA and protein expressions in PC-3 cells. • Metformin inhibited IGF-1 induced ERK and Akt phosphorylations in PC-3 cells. • Metformin treatment inhibited PC-3 cell growth and IGF-1R expression in vivo. • Metformin may be a potent inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling

  8. Metformin inhibits the proliferation of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells via the downregulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Haruo, E-mail: hal.kato@gunma-u.ac.jp; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Furuya, Yosuke; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Koike, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2015-05-22

    Metformin is a biguanide drug that is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have shown that metformin inhibits cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor mechanisms of metformin include activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase/mTOR pathway and direct inhibition of insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-mediated cellular proliferation. However, the anti-tumor mechanism in prostate cancer remains unclear. Because activation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is required for prostate cell proliferation, IGF-1R inhibitors may be of therapeutic value. Accordingly, we examined the effects of metformin on IGF-1R signaling in prostate cancer cells. Metformin significantly inhibited PC-3 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. IGF-1R mRNA expression decreased significantly after 48 h of treatment, and IGF-1R protein expression decreased in a similar manner. IGF-1R knockdown by siRNA transfection led to inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of PC-3 cells. IGF-1 activated both ERK1/2 and Akt, but these effects were attenuated by metformin treatment. In addition, intraperitoneal treatment with metformin significantly reduced tumor growth and IGF-1R mRNA expression in PC-3 xenografts. Our results suggest that metformin is a potent inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R system and may be beneficial in prostate cancer treatment. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibited PC-3 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. • Metformin decreased IGF-1R mRNA and protein expressions in PC-3 cells. • Metformin inhibited IGF-1 induced ERK and Akt phosphorylations in PC-3 cells. • Metformin treatment inhibited PC-3 cell growth and IGF-1R expression in vivo. • Metformin may be a potent inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling.

  9. Type 1 IGF receptor translocates to the nucleus of human tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksic, Tamara; Chitnis, Meenali M.; Perestenko, Olga V.; Gao, Shan; Thomas, Peter H.; Turner, Gareth D.; Protheroe, Andrew S.; Howarth, Mark; Macaulay, Valentine M.

    2010-01-01

    The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) is a transmembrane glycoprotein comprising two extracellular α subunits and two β subunits with tyrosine kinase activity. The IGF-1R is frequently upregulated in cancers, and signals from the cell surface to promote proliferation and cell survival. Recent attention has focused on the IGF-1R as a target for cancer treatment. Here we report that the nuclei of human tumor cells contain IGF-1R, detectable using multiple antibodies to α- and ...

  10. Genetic blockade of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor via recombinant adenovirus in lung cancer can be enhanced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Dal Rae; Eo, Eun Young; Lim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Ho-Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek

    2013-01-01

    Many approaches have been suggested as anti-tumor therapy for targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), such as monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We introduced recombinant adenoviruses expressing antisense, dominant negative or short hairpin RNA to IGF-1R. Moreover, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor (vorinostat) can increase the transduction efficiency of adenoviruses by increasing CAR-induced transduction and by enhancing the transcription of the adenoviral transgene. In the present study, we showed that the combination of ad-sh (short hairpin) IGF-1R with vorinostat leads to a synergistic enhancement of IGF-1R blockade. We measured the change in IGF-1R upon cotreatment with vorinostat and ad-shIGF-1R. Changes in transduction efficiency of ad-shIGF-1R were measured by fluorescent microscopy. Changes in apoptotic proportion and cell survival after the cotreatment were measured by the sub-G1 assay and cell counts. The effect of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation was also measured by NF-κB p65 activation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Drug interactions were analyzed upon cotreatment with ad-shIGF-1R, vorinostat and cisplatin. Combined treatment of ad-shIGF-1R and vorinostat synergistically suppressed the IGF-1R expression in lung cancer cell lines and also increased the transduction efficiency of ad-shIGF-1R. Ad-shIGF-1R and vorinostat cotreatment increased apoptotic cell death and synergistically suppressed cell growth compared to ad-shIGF-1R or vorinostat treatment alone. Vorinostat suppressed NF-κB activation, which was activated by ad-shIGF-1R. Moreover, triple combination of ad-shIGF-1R, vorinostat and cisplatin demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells. Vorinostat enhanced the blocking capability of ad-shIGF-1R. The combined treatment of vorinostat and ad-sh-IGF-1R appears to have promising potential as a new therapeutic approach for lung cancer. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The level of insulin growth factor-1 receptor expression is directly correlated with the tumor uptake of {sup 111}In-IGF-1(E3R) in vivo and the clonogenic survival of breast cancer cells exposed in vitro to trastuzumab (Herceptin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, Bart; McLarty, Kristin; Kersemans, Veerle [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada)], E-mail: raymond.reilly@utoronto.ca

    2008-08-15

    Introduction: Our objective was to define the relationships between tumor uptake of [{sup 111}In]-IGF-1 and [{sup 111}In]-IGF-1(E3R), an analogue which does not bind insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) binding proteins (i.e., IGFBP-3), and the level of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression on human breast cancer (BC) xenografts in athymic mice, as well as the feasibility for tumor imaging. A second objective was to correlate IGF-1R (and HER2 density) with the cytotoxicity of trastuzumab in the absence/presence of IGFBP-3 or the IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG1024. Methods: The tumor and normal tissue uptake of [{sup 111}In]-IGF-1 and [{sup 111}In]-IGF-1(E3R) were determined at 4 h postinjection in mice implanted subcutaneously with MDA-MB-231, H2N, HR2 or MCF-7/HER2-18 human BC xenografts (8.5x10{sup 4}, 1.4x10{sup 4}, 4.0x10{sup 4} and 1.0x10{sup 5} IGF-1R/cell, respectively). The effect of co-injection of IGF-1 (50 {mu}g) or IGFBP-3 (2 or 25 {mu}g) was studied. The relationship between tumor uptake of [{sup 111}In]-IGF-1(E3R) and IGF-1R density was examined. MicroSPECT/CT imaging was performed on mice with MCF-7/HER2-18 tumors injected with [{sup 111}In]-IGF-1(E3R). The surviving fraction of BC cells exposed to trastuzumab (67.5 {mu}g/ml) in the absence/presence of IGFBP-3 (1 {mu}g/ml) or the IGF-1R kinase inhibitor, AG1024 (1 or 5 {mu}g/ml), was determined. Results: [{sup 111}In]-IGF-1 was specifically taken up by MCF-7/HER2-18 xenografts; tumor uptake was decreased twofold when co-injected with IGF-1 (1.9{+-}0.1 vs. 1.0{+-}0.1 %ID/g). Co-injection of IGBP-3 decreased kidney uptake of [{sup 111}In]-IGF-1 up to twofold and increased circulating radioactivity threefold. There was a strong linear correlation (r{sup 2}=0.99) between the tumor uptake of {sup 111}In-IGF-1(E3R) and IGF-1R density. Tumor uptake ranged from 0.4{+-}0.05 %ID/g for H2N to 2.5{+-}0.5 %ID/g for MCF-7/HER2-18 xenografts. MCF-7/HER2-18 tumors were visualized by microSPECT/CT. Resistance of BC

  12. The level of insulin growth factor-1 receptor expression is directly correlated with the tumor uptake of 111In-IGF-1(E3R) in vivo and the clonogenic survival of breast cancer cells exposed in vitro to trastuzumab (Herceptin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelissen, Bart; McLarty, Kristin; Kersemans, Veerle; Reilly, Raymond M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Our objective was to define the relationships between tumor uptake of [ 111 In]-IGF-1 and [ 111 In]-IGF-1(E3R), an analogue which does not bind insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) binding proteins (i.e., IGFBP-3), and the level of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression on human breast cancer (BC) xenografts in athymic mice, as well as the feasibility for tumor imaging. A second objective was to correlate IGF-1R (and HER2 density) with the cytotoxicity of trastuzumab in the absence/presence of IGFBP-3 or the IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG1024. Methods: The tumor and normal tissue uptake of [ 111 In]-IGF-1 and [ 111 In]-IGF-1(E3R) were determined at 4 h postinjection in mice implanted subcutaneously with MDA-MB-231, H2N, HR2 or MCF-7/HER2-18 human BC xenografts (8.5x10 4 , 1.4x10 4 , 4.0x10 4 and 1.0x10 5 IGF-1R/cell, respectively). The effect of co-injection of IGF-1 (50 μg) or IGFBP-3 (2 or 25 μg) was studied. The relationship between tumor uptake of [ 111 In]-IGF-1(E3R) and IGF-1R density was examined. MicroSPECT/CT imaging was performed on mice with MCF-7/HER2-18 tumors injected with [ 111 In]-IGF-1(E3R). The surviving fraction of BC cells exposed to trastuzumab (67.5 μg/ml) in the absence/presence of IGFBP-3 (1 μg/ml) or the IGF-1R kinase inhibitor, AG1024 (1 or 5 μg/ml), was determined. Results: [ 111 In]-IGF-1 was specifically taken up by MCF-7/HER2-18 xenografts; tumor uptake was decreased twofold when co-injected with IGF-1 (1.9±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 %ID/g). Co-injection of IGBP-3 decreased kidney uptake of [ 111 In]-IGF-1 up to twofold and increased circulating radioactivity threefold. There was a strong linear correlation (r 2 =0.99) between the tumor uptake of 111 In-IGF-1(E3R) and IGF-1R density. Tumor uptake ranged from 0.4±0.05 %ID/g for H2N to 2.5±0.5 %ID/g for MCF-7/HER2-18 xenografts. MCF-7/HER2-18 tumors were visualized by microSPECT/CT. Resistance of BC cells to trastuzumab was directly associated with IGF-1R expression, despite co

  13. Haploinsufficiency of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor enhances endothelial repair and favorably modifies angiogenic progenitor cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuldasheva, Nadira Y; Rashid, Sheikh Tawqeer; Haywood, Natalie J; Cordell, Paul; Mughal, Romana; Viswambharan, Hema; Imrie, Helen; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Cubbon, Richard M; Aziz, Amir; Gage, Matthew; Mbonye, Kamatamu Amanda; Smith, Jessica; Galloway, Stacey; Skromna, Anna; Scott, D Julian A; Kearney, Mark T; Wheatcroft, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Defective endothelial regeneration predisposes to adverse arterial remodeling and is thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We recently demonstrated that the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity and nitric oxide bioavailability. In this report, we examined partial deletion of the IGF1R as a potential strategy to enhance endothelial repair. We assessed endothelial regeneration after wire injury in mice and abundance and function of angiogenic progenitor cells in mice with haploinsufficiency of the IGF1R (IGF1R(+/-)). Endothelial regeneration after arterial injury was accelerated in IGF1R(+/-) mice. Although the yield of angiogenic progenitor cells was lower in IGF1R(+/-) mice, these angiogenic progenitor cells displayed enhanced adhesion, increased secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1, and enhanced angiogenic capacity. To examine the relevance of IGF1R manipulation to cell-based therapy, we transfused IGF1R(+/-) bone marrow-derived CD117(+) cells into wild-type mice. IGF1R(+/-) cells accelerated endothelial regeneration after arterial injury compared with wild-type cells and did not alter atherosclerotic lesion formation. Haploinsufficiency of the IGF1R is associated with accelerated endothelial regeneration in vivo and enhanced tube forming and adhesive potential of angiogenic progenitor cells in vitro. Partial deletion of IGF1R in transfused bone marrow-derived CD117(+) cells enhanced their capacity to promote endothelial regeneration without altering atherosclerosis. Our data suggest that manipulation of the IGF1R could be exploited as novel therapeutic approach to enhance repair of the arterial wall after injury. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor expression in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and its impact on overall survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humar Mojca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R expression has been addressed as a potential prognostic marker in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC in various studies; however, the associations between IGF1R expression and prognosis of advanced NSCLC patients is still controversial. The aim of our observational, cohort study was to evaluate the expression of IGF1R in advanced NSCLC and its prognostic role. A subgroup analysis was performed to address the influence of pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM status on IGF1R expression and overall survival (OS.

  15. Targeting non-small cell lung cancer cells by dual inhibition of the insulin receptor and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E Vincent

    Full Text Available Phase III trials of the anti-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R antibody figitumumab in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients have been discontinued owing to lack of survival benefit. We investigated whether inhibition of the highly homologous insulin receptor (IR in addition to the IGF1R would be more effective than inhibition of the IGF1R alone at preventing the proliferation of NSCLC cells. Signalling through IGF1R and IR in the NSCLC cell lines A549 and Hcc193 was stimulated by a combination of IGF1, IGF2 and insulin. It was inhibited by antibodies that block ligand binding, αIR3 (IGF1R and IR47-9 (IR, and by the ATP-competitive small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors AZ12253801 and NVPAWD742 which inhibit both IGF1R and IR tyrosine kinases. The effect of inhibitors was determined by an anchorage-independent proliferation assay and by analysis of Akt phosphorylation. In Hcc193 cells the reduction in cell proliferation and Akt phosphorylation due to anti-IGF1R antibody was enhanced by antibody-mediated inhibition of the IR whereas in A549 cells, with a relatively low IR:IGF1R expression ratio, it was not. In each cell line proliferation and Akt phosphorylation were more effectively inhibited by AZ12253801 and NVPAWD742 than by combined αIR3 and IR47-9. When the IGF1R alone is inhibited, unencumbered signalling through the IR can contribute to continued NSCLC cell proliferation. We conclude that small molecule inhibitors targeting both the IR and IGF1R more effectively reduce NSCLC cell proliferation in a manner independent of the IR:IGF1R expression ratio, providing a therapeutic rationale for the treatment of this disease.

  16. IGF-1-dependent subunit communication of the IGF-1 holoreceptor: Interactions between αβ heterodimeric receptor halves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilden, P.A.; Treadway, J.L.; Morrison, B.D.; Pessin, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Examination of 125 I-IGF-1 affinity cross-linking and β-subunit autophosphorylation has indicated that IGF-1 induces a covalent association of isolated αβ heterodimeric IGF-1 receptors into an α 2 β 2 heterotetrameric state, in a similar manner to that observed for the insulin receptor. The formation of the α 2 β 2 heterotetrameric IGF-1 receptor complex from the partially purified αβ heterodimers was time dependent with half-maximal formation in approximately 30 min at saturating IGF-1 concentrations. The IGF-1-dependent association of the partially purified αβ heterodimers into an α 2 β 2 heterotetrameric state was specific for the IGF-1 receptors since IGF-1 was unable to stimulate the protein kinase activity of the purified αβ heterodimeric insulin receptor complex. Incubation of the α 2 β 2 heterotetrameric IGF-1 holoreceptor with the specific sulfhydryl agent iodoacetamide (IAN) did not alter 125 I-IGF-1 binding or IGF-1 stimulation of protein kinase activity. However, IAN treatment of the αβ heterodimeric IGF-1 receptors inhibited the IGF-1 dependent covalent formation of the disulfide-linked α 2 β 2 heterotetrameric complex. These data indicate that IGF-1 induces the covalent association of isolated αβ heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complexes into a disulfide-linked α 2 β 2 heterotetrameric state whereas Mn/MgATP induces a noncovalent association. Therefore, unlike the insulin receptor in which noncovalent association is sufficient for kinase activation, only the covalent assembly of the IGF-1 receptor αβ heterodimers into the α 2 β 2 heterotetrameric holoreceptor complex is associated with ligand-stimulated protein kinase activation

  17. Novel nuclear localization and potential function of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/insulin receptor hybrid in corneal epithelial cells.

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    Yu-Chieh Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R and insulin receptor (INSR are highly homologous molecules, which can heterodimerize to form an IGF-1R/INSR hybrid (Hybrid-R. The presence and biological significance of the Hybrid-R in human corneal epithelium has not yet been established. In addition, while nuclear localization of IGF-1R was recently reported in cancer cells and human corneal epithelial cells, the function and profile of nuclear IGF-1R is unknown. In this study, we characterized the nuclear localization and function of the Hybrid-R and the role of IGF-1/IGF-1R and Hybrid-R signaling in the human corneal epithelium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: IGF-1-mediated signaling and cell growth were examined in a human telomerized corneal epithelial (hTCEpi cell line using co-immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and cell proliferation assays. The presence of Hybrid-R in hTCEpi and primary cultured human corneal epithelial cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence and reciprocal immunoprecipitation of whole cell lysates. We found that IGF-1 stimulated Akt and promoted cell growth through IGF-1R activation, which was independent of the Hybrid-R. The presence of Hybrid-R, but not IGF-1R/IGF-1R, was detected in nuclear extracts. Knockdown of INSR by small interfering RNA resulted in depletion of the INSR/INSR and preferential formation of Hybrid-R. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing assay with anti-IGF-1R or anti-INSR was subsequently performed to identify potential genomic targets responsible for critical homeostatic regulatory pathways. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to previous reports on nuclear localized IGF-1R, this is the first report identifying the nuclear localization of Hybrid-R in an epithelial cell line. The identification of a nuclear Hybrid-R and novel genomic targets suggests that IGF-1R traffics to the nucleus as an IGF-1R/INSR heterotetrameric complex to regulate corneal epithelial homeostatic

  18. Clinical and functional characterization of a patient carrying a compound heterozygous pericentrin mutation and a heterozygous IGF1 receptor mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Müller

    Full Text Available Intrauterine and postnatal longitudinal growth is controlled by a strong genetic component that regulates a complex network of endocrine factors integrating them with cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic processes in target tissues, particularly the growth centers of the long bones. Here we report on a patient born small for gestational age (SGA with severe, proportionate postnatal growth retardation, discreet signs of skeletal dysplasia, microcephaly and moyamoya disease. Initial genetic evaluation revealed a novel heterozygous IGF1R p.Leu1361Arg mutation affecting a highly conserved residue with the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor suggestive for a disturbance within the somatotropic axis. However, because the mutation did not co-segregate with the phenotype and functional characterization did not reveal an obvious impairment of the ligand depending major IGF1R signaling capabilities a second-site mutation was assumed. Mutational screening of components of the somatotropic axis, constituents of the IGF signaling system and factors involved in cellular proliferation, which are described or suggested to provoke syndromic dwarfism phenotypes, was performed. Two compound heterozygous PCNT mutations (p.[Arg585X];[Glu1774X] were identified leading to the specification of the diagnosis to MOPD II. These investigations underline the need for careful assessment of all available information to derive a firm diagnosis from a sequence aberration.

  19. Clinical and functional characterization of a patient carrying a compound heterozygous pericentrin mutation and a heterozygous IGF1 receptor mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eva; Dunstheimer, Desiree; Klammt, Jürgen; Friebe, Daniela; Kiess, Wieland; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Kruis, Tassilo; Laue, Sandy; Pfäffle, Roland; Wallborn, Tillmann; Heidemann, Peter H

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine and postnatal longitudinal growth is controlled by a strong genetic component that regulates a complex network of endocrine factors integrating them with cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic processes in target tissues, particularly the growth centers of the long bones. Here we report on a patient born small for gestational age (SGA) with severe, proportionate postnatal growth retardation, discreet signs of skeletal dysplasia, microcephaly and moyamoya disease. Initial genetic evaluation revealed a novel heterozygous IGF1R p.Leu1361Arg mutation affecting a highly conserved residue with the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor suggestive for a disturbance within the somatotropic axis. However, because the mutation did not co-segregate with the phenotype and functional characterization did not reveal an obvious impairment of the ligand depending major IGF1R signaling capabilities a second-site mutation was assumed. Mutational screening of components of the somatotropic axis, constituents of the IGF signaling system and factors involved in cellular proliferation, which are described or suggested to provoke syndromic dwarfism phenotypes, was performed. Two compound heterozygous PCNT mutations (p.[Arg585X];[Glu1774X]) were identified leading to the specification of the diagnosis to MOPD II. These investigations underline the need for careful assessment of all available information to derive a firm diagnosis from a sequence aberration.

  20. Role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway in the pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Terry J; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Douglas, Raymond S

    2012-01-01

    with GD. These abnormal patterns of IGF-1R display are also found in rheumatoid arthritis and carry functional consequences. In addition, activating IgGs capable of displacing IGF-1 from IGF-1R have also been detected in patients with these diseases. IGF-1R forms a complex with TSHR which is necessary...

  1. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase as a novel regulator of 17β-estradiol-induced cell growth through a control of the estrogen receptor/IGF-1 receptor/PDZK1 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hogyoung; Tarhuni, Abdelmetalab; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y; Boulares, A Hamid

    2015-07-17

    We and others have extensively investigated the role of PARP-1 in cell growth and demise in response to pathophysiological cues. Most of the clinical trials on PARP inhibitors are targeting primarily estrogen receptor (ER) negative cancers with BRCA-deficiency. It is surprising that the role of the enzyme has yet to be investigated in ER-mediated cell growth. It is noteworthy that ER is expressed in the majority of breast cancers. We recently showed that the scaffolding protein PDZK1 is critical for 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced growth of breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that E2-induced PDZK1 expression is indirectly regulated by ER and requires IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R). The breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and BT474 were used as ER(+) cell culture models. Thieno[2,3-c]isoquinolin-5-one (TIQ-A) and olaparib (AZD2281) were used as potent inhibitors of PARP. PARP-1 knockdown by shRNA was used to show specificity of the effects to PARP-1. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of PARP inhibition on estrogen-induced growth of breast cancer cells and examine whether the potential effect is linked to PDZK1 and IGF-1R expression. Our results show that PARP inhibition pharmacologically by TIQ-A or olaparib or by PARP-1 knockdown blocked E2-dependent growth of MCF-7 cells. Such inhibitory effect was also observed in olaparib-treated BT474 cells. The effect of PARP inhibition on cell growth coincided with an efficient reduction in E2-induced PDZK1 expression. This effect was accompanied by a similar decrease in the cell cycle protein cyclin D1. PARP appeared to regulate E2-induced PDZK1 at the mRNA level. Such regulation may be linked to a modulation of IGF-1R as PARP inhibition pharmacologically or by PARP-1 knockdown efficiently reduced E2-induced expression of the receptor at the protein and mRNA levels. Overall, our results show for the first time that PARP regulates E2-mediated cell growth by controlling the ER/IGF-1R/PDZK1 axis. These findings suggest that the

  2. Nuclear insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor phosphorylates proliferating cell nuclear antigen and rescues stalled replication forks after DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waraky, Ahmed; Lin, Yingbo; Warsito, Dudi; Haglund, Felix; Aleem, Eiman; Larsson, Olle

    2017-11-03

    We have previously shown that the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) translocates to the cell nucleus, where it binds to enhancer-like regions and increases gene transcription. Further studies have demonstrated that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) physically and functionally interacts with some nuclear proteins, i.e. the lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1), histone H3, and Brahma-related gene-1 proteins. In this study, we identified the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a nIGF-1R-binding partner. PCNA is a pivotal component of the replication fork machinery and a main regulator of the DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathway. We found that IGF-1R interacts with and phosphorylates PCNA in human embryonic stem cells and other cell lines. In vitro MS analysis of PCNA co-incubated with the IGF-1R kinase indicated tyrosine residues 60, 133, and 250 in PCNA as IGF-1R targets, and PCNA phosphorylation was followed by mono- and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that these ubiquitination events may be mediated by DDT-dependent E2/E3 ligases ( e.g. RAD18 and SHPRH/HLTF). Absence of IGF-1R or mutation of Tyr-60, Tyr-133, or Tyr-250 in PCNA abrogated its ubiquitination. Unlike in cells expressing IGF-1R, externally induced DNA damage in IGF-1R-negative cells caused G 1 cell cycle arrest and S phase fork stalling. Taken together, our results suggest a role of IGF-1R in DDT. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Interaction of single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADRB2, ADRB3, TNF, IL6, IGF1R, LIPC, LEPR, and GHRL with physical activity on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and changes in characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Lakka, Timo A; Laaksonen, David E; Mager, Ursula; Salopuro, Titta; Kubaszek, Agata; Todorova, Boryana; Laukkanen, Olli; Lindström, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G; Hämäläinen, Helena; Aunola, Sirkka; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Tuomilehto, Jaako; Laakso, Markku; Uusitupa, Matti

    2008-03-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ADRB2, ADRB3, TNF, IL6, IGF1R, LIPC, LEPR, and GHRL genes were associated with the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). In this study, we determined whether polymorphisms in these genes modified the effect of changes in physical activity (PA) on the risk of T2D in the DPS. Moreover, we assessed whether the polymorphisms modified the effect of changes in PA on changes in measures of body fat, serum lipids, and blood pressure during the first year of the follow-up of the DPS. Overweight subjects with IGT (n = 487) were followed for an average of 4.1 years, and PA was assessed annually with a questionnaire. The interactions of the polymorphisms with changes in total and moderate-to-vigorous PA on the conversion to T2D during the 4.1-year follow-up were assessed using Cox regression with adjustments for the other components of the intervention (dietary changes, weight reduction). Univariate analysis of variance was used to assess interactions on changes in continuous variables during the first year of the follow-up. No interaction between the polymorphisms and PA on the conversion to T2D was found. The Leu72Met (rs696217) polymorphism in GHRL modified the effect of moderate-to-vigorous PA on changes in weight and waist circumference, the -501A/C (rs26802) polymorphism in GHRL modified the effect of total and moderate-to-vigorous PA on change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the Lys109Arg (rs1137100) polymorphism in LEPR modified the effect of total PA on change in blood pressure. In conclusion, genetic variation may modify the magnitude of the beneficial effects of PA on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in persons with IGT.

  4. Increased expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor is correlated with worse survival in canine appendicular osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Lorella; Iussich, Selina; Morello, Emanuela; Martano, Marina; Gattino, Francesca; Miretti, Silvia; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Accornero, Paolo; Martignani, Eugenio; Sánchez-Céspedes, Raquel; Buracco, Paolo; De Maria, Raffaella

    2015-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a cell membrane receptor widely expressed in tissues and involved in different cancers in humans. IGF-1R expression in human osteosarcoma has been associated with the development of tumour metastasis and with prognosis, and represents an attractive therapeutic target. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression of IGF-1R in canine osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines and assess its role and prognostic value. Samples from 34 dogs were examined by immunohistochemistry for IGF-1R expression. IGF-1R/AKT/MAPK signalling was evaluated by western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the cell lines. In addition, the in vitro inhibition of IGF-1R with pycropodophillin (PPP) was used to evaluate molecular and biological effects. Immunohistochemical data showed that IGF-1R was expressed in 71% of the analysed osteosarcoma samples and that dogs with higher levels of IGF-IR expression (47% of cases) had decreased survival (P canine osteosarcoma IGF-IR is activated by IGF-1 mostly in a paracrine or endocrine (rather than autocrine) manner, leading to activation of AKT/MAPK signalling. PPP caused p-IGF-1R dephosphorylation with partial blocking of p-MAPK and p-AKT, as well as apoptosis. It was concluded that IGF-1R is expressed and plays a role in canine osteosarcoma and that its expression is correlated with a poor prognosis. As in humans, IGF-1R may represent a good therapeutic target and a prognostic factor for canine osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simvastatin inhibits the proliferation of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells via down-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Yoshitaka; Furuya, Yosuke; Nishii, Masahiro; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Recently, statins have been being studied for their proapoptic and antimetastatic effects. However, the exact mechanisms of their anticancer action are still unclear. Dolichyl phosphate is a nonsterol isoprenoid derivative in the mevalonate pathway that affects the expression of the Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). IGF-1R activation is required for prostate cell proliferation; therefore, IGF-1R inhibitory agents may be of preventive and/or therapeutic value. In this study, the effects of simvastatin on IGF-1R signaling in prostate cancer PC-3 cells were examined. Simvastatin suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis of PC-3, and the expression of IGF-1R was suppressed by simvastatin. Knockdown of IGF-1R by siRNA led to inhibition of proliferation of PC-3. Simvastatin also inhibited IGF-1-induced activation of both ERK and Akt signaling and IGF-1-induced PC-3 cell proliferation. Our results suggest statins are potent inhibitors of the IGF-1/IGF-1R system in prostate cancer cells and may be beneficial in prostate cancer treatment

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in mature osteoblasts is required for periosteal bone formation induced by reloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Elalieh, Hashem Z.; Saless, Neema; Fong, Chak; Wang, Yongmei; Babey, Muriel; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Bikle, Daniel D.

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal loading and unloading has a pronounced impact on bone remodeling, a process also regulated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. Skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic effect of IGF-1, while reloading after unloading restores responsiveness to IGF-1. However, a direct study of the importance of IGF-1 signaling in the skeletal response to mechanical loading remains to be tested. In this study, we assessed the skeletal response of osteoblast-specific Igf-1 receptor deficient (Igf-1r-/-) mice to unloading and reloading. The mice were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded for 16 days. Igf-1r-/- mice displayed smaller cortical bone and diminished periosteal and endosteal bone formation at baseline. Periosteal and endosteal bone formation decreased with unloading in Igf-1r+/+ mice. However, the recovery of periosteal bone formation with reloading was completely inhibited in Igf-1r-/- mice, although reloading-induced endosteal bone formation was not hampered. These changes in bone formation resulted in the abolishment of the expected increase in total cross-sectional area with reloading in Igf-1r-/- mice compared to the control mice. These results suggest that the Igf-1r in mature osteoblasts has a critical role in periosteal bone formation in the skeletal response to mechanical loading.

  7. Role of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Type 1 Receptor in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Defective cognitive function is common in patients with diabetes, suggesting that insulin normally exerts anabolic actions in neuron, namely, diabetic encephalopathy. However, because insulin can cross-activate the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R, which also functions in most of tissues, such as muscle and bone, it has been difficult to establish the direct (IGF-1-independent actions of insulin in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy. To overcome this problem, we examined insulin signaling and action in primary PC-12 cells engineered for conditional disruption of the IGF-1 receptorIGF-1R. The results showed that the lower glucose metabolism and high expression of IGF-1R occurred in the brain of the DE rat model. The results also showed the defect of IGF-1R could significantly improve the ability of glucose consumption and enhance sensitivity to insulin-induced IR and Akt phosphorylation in PC12 cells. And meanwhile, IGF-1R allele gene knockout (IGF-1Rneo mice treated with HFD/STZ had better cognitive abilities than those of wild mice. Those results indicate that insulin exerts direct anabolic actions in neuron-like cells by activation of its cognate receptor and prove that IGF-1R plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy.

  8. Serial analysis of resected prostate cancer suggests up-regulation of type 1 IGF receptor with disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Benjamin W; Turner, Gareth D H; Brewster, Simon F; Macaulay, Valentine M

    2011-05-01

    • To compare immunostaining protocols using different antibodies for the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) in channel transurethal resection of the prostate (chTURP) chips, and to investigate how IGF-1R expression varies with time in serial prostate cancer specimens from individual patients. • We studied IGF-1R expression in 44 prostate cancer specimens from 18 patients who had undergone serial chTURP at least 3 months apart. • Retrospective analysis of the hospital notes was undertaken to obtain clinical information, including age, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, hormone treatment and metastatic disease status at the time of each operation. • After an optimization process using three commercially-available IGF-1R antibodies, we used two antibodies for semiquantititve immunostaining of serial chTURP chips. • Santa Cruz antibody sc713 gave positive staining in IGF-1R null R- cells, and was not used further. Antibodies from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA, USA) (CS) and NeoMarkers Inc. (Fremont, CA, USA) (NM) did not stain R- cells and, in prostate tissue, showed staining of the glandular epithelium, with negligible stromal staining. All 44 chTURP samples contained identifiable malignant tissue and, of these, 73% and 64% scored moderately or strongly (score 3 or 4) with the CS and NM antibodies respectively. • There was significant correlation of IGF-1R scores of malignant tissue between the two antibodies (P < 0.001). By contrast, staining of benign glands showed poor correlation between antibodies: CS gave significantly weaker staining than malignant epithelium in the same sections (P < 0.001), whereas NM showed poor discrimination between malignant and benign glands. IGF-1R staining scores generated by the CS antibody were used to analyze the clinical data. • Most patients (six of seven) with falling IGF-1R staining scores were responding to androgen deprivation therapy (confirmed by PSA response

  9. The dog as a naturally-occurring model for insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor-overexpressing breast cancer: an observational cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaillardon, Laetitia; Abadie, Jérome; Godard, Tiffanie; Campone, Mario; Loussouarn, Delphine; Siliart, Brigitte; Nguyen, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Dogs spontaneously develop invasive mammary carcinoma with a high prevalence of the triple-negative (TN) subtype (lack of ER-Estrogen Receptor and PR-Progesterone Receptor expression, lack of HER2-Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 overexpression), making this animal model relevant for investigating new therapeutic pathways. Insulin-like growth factor Type-1 receptor (IGF1R) is frequently overexpressed in primary human breast cancers, with a growing role in the TN phenotype. The purpose of this study was to investigate the Dog as a candidate model for IGF1R-overexpressing mammary carcinoma. 150 bitches with canine mammary carcinoma (CMC) and a known 2-year follow-up were retrospectively included. IGF1R expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a similar scoring system as for HER2 in breast cancer. The prognostic value of the IGF1R expression was assessed in terms of overall and specific survival as well as disease-free interval (DFI). 47 CMC (31 %) were classified as luminal and 103 (69 %) as triple-negative (TN-CMC). 41 % of CMC overexpressed IGF1R (IHC score 3+) of which 76 % were TN-CMC and 62 % grade III. IGF1R overexpression was associated with aggressive features including lymphovascular invasion, histological grade III, low ER expression and the TN phenotype. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that IGF1R overexpression was associated with shorter overall and specific survivals and shorter DFI in TN-CMC. IGF1R overexpression is common and related to a poor outcome in canine invasive mammary carcinoma, particularly in the triple negative subtype, as in human breast cancer. Preclinical studies using the Dog as a spontaneous animal model could be considered to investigate new therapies targeting IGF1R in triple-negative breast cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1670-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  10. IGF-1 signaling mediated cell-specific skeletal mechano-transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Faming; Wang, Yongmei; Bikle, Daniel D

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical loading preserves bone mass and stimulates bone formation, whereas skeletal unloading leads to bone loss. In addition to osteocytes, which are considered the primary sensor of mechanical load, osteoblasts, and bone specific mesenchymal stem cells also are involved. The skeletal response to mechanical signals is a complex process regulated by multiple signaling pathways including that of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Conditional osteocyte deletion of IGF-1 ablates the osteogenic response to mechanical loading. Similarly, osteocyte IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression is necessary for reloading-induced periosteal bone formation. Transgenic overexpression of IGF-1 in osteoblasts results in enhanced responsiveness to in vivo mechanical loading in mice, a response which is eliminated by osteoblastic conditional disruption of IGF-1 in vivo. Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) from unloaded bone fail to respond to IGF-1 in vitro. IGF-1R is required for the transduction of a mechanical stimulus to downstream effectors, transduction which is lost when the IGF-1R is deleted. Although the molecular mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated, the IGF signaling pathway and its interactions with potentially interlinked signaling cascades involving integrins, the estrogen receptor, and wnt/β-catenin play an important role in regulating adaptive response of cancer bone cells to mechanical stimuli. In this review, we discuss recent advances investigating how IGF-1 and other interlinked molecules and signaling pathways regulate skeletal mechano-transduction involving different bone cells, providing an overview of the IGF-1 signaling mediated cell-specific response to mechanical stimuli. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:576-583, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Insulin/insulin like growth factors in cancer: new roles for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, tumor resistance mechanisms and new blocking strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis B Salisbury

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R and the insulin receptor (IR are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs that are expressed in cancer cells. The results of different studies indicate that tumor proliferation and survival is dependent on the IGF1R and IR, and that their inhibition leads to reductions in proliferation and increases in cell death. Molecular targeting therapies that have been used in solid tumors include: anti-IGF1R antibodies, anti-IGF1/IGF2 antibodies and small molecule inhibitors that suppress IGF1R and IR kinase activity. New advances in the molecular basis of anti-IGF1R blocking antibodies reveal they are biased agonists and promote the binding of IGF1 to integrin β3 receptors in some cancer cells. Our recent reports indicate that pharmacological aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR ligands inhibit breast cancer cell responses to IGFs, suggesting that targeting AHR may have benefit in cancers whose proliferation and survival are dependent on insulin/IGF signaling. Novel aspects of IGF1R/IR in cancer, such as biased agonism, integrin β3 signaling, AHR and new therapeutic targeting strategies will be discussed.

  12. Co-inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 enhances radiosensitivity in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ping; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Zhang, Qing; Li, Zhao-bin; Xu, Wen-cai; Fu, Shen

    2013-01-01

    Over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) have been shown to closely correlate with radioresistance of breast cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the impact of co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF-1R on the radiosensitivity of two breast cancer cells with different profiles of EGFR and IGF-1R expression. The MCF-7 (EGFR +/−, IGF-1R +++) and MDA-MB-468 (EGFR +++, IGF-1R +++) breast cancer cell lines were used. Radiosensitizing effects were determined by colony formation assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were measured by flow cytometry. Phospho-Akt and phospho-Erk1/2 were quantified by western blot. In vivo studies were conducted using MDA-MB-468 cells xenografted in nu/nu mice. In MDA-MB-468 cells, the inhibition of IGF-1R upregulated the p-EGFR expression. Either EGFR (AG1478) or IGF-1R inhibitor (AG1024) radiosensitized MDA-MB-468 cells. In MCF-7 cells, radiosensitivity was enhanced by AG1024, but not by AG1478. Synergistical radiosensitizing effect was observed by co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF-1R only in MDA-MB-468 cells with a DMF 10% of 1.90. The co-inhibition plus irradiation significantly induced more apoptosis and arrested the cells at G0/G1 phase in MDA-MB-468 cells. Only co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF-1R synergistically diminished the expression of p-Akt and p-Erk1/2 in MDA-MB-468 cells. In vivo studies further verified the radiosensitizing effects by co-inhibition of both pathways in a MDA-MB-468 xenograft model. Our data suggested that co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF-1R synergistically radiosensitized breast cancer cells with both EGFR and IGF-1R high expression. The approach may have an important therapeutic implication in the treatment of breast cancer patients with high expression of EGFR and IGF-1R

  13. Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor 1 mRNA Expression as a Prognostic Marker in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, Adam; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Cillas, Jesus Garcia-Fon

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) has yet to be established as a biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but could prove useful in customized chemotherapy. We explored its prognostic value using both quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain......-points. RESULTS: Surgical tissue samples were available from 33 patients deemed inoperable. IGF1R status varied according to histopathology. Patients with tumors positive for IGF1R mRNA expression had a shorter progression-free and overall survival when compared to the negative sub-group (6.1 vs. 7.4 months, p=0...

  14. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor overexpression is associated with outcome in invasive urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder: a retrospective study of patients treated using radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Kim, Jenny J; Faraj, Sheila F; Chaux, Alcides; Bezerra, Stephania M; Munari, Enrico; Ellis, Carla; Sharma, Rajni; Keizman, Daniel; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Schoenberg, Mark; Eisenberger, Mario; Carducci, Michael; Netto, George J

    2014-06-01

    To assess the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) expression in urothelial carcinoma (UC) and its prognostic role in relation to clinicopathologic parameters. A total of 100 cases of invasive UC were evaluated using tissue microarrays. Membranous IGF1R staining was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. A scoring method analogous to that of HER2 expression in breast carcinoma was used, and the highest score was assigned in each tumor. IGF1R was considered overexpressed in cases with score≥1. We found IGF1R overexpression in 62% of invasive UC. IGF1R overexpression was associated with race (P=.04) and pT category (P=.03). Median follow-up was 29 months (range, 0.5-212). Progression rate was 60%, and overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality rates were 69% and 51%, respectively. In invasive UC, IGF1R overexpression was significantly associated with overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality (Mantel Cox P=.0002 and P=.006, respectively). IGF1R overexpression was associated with increased hazard ratios (HRs) for overall mortality (HR=2.63, P=.001) and cancer-specific mortality (HR=2.45, P=.01), independently and after adjusting for clinicopathologic features and treatment modalities. We found IGF1R overexpression in 62% of bladder UC. More importantly, IGF1R overexpression was a significant predictor of overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality, suggesting its potential role as a prognosticator in UC of bladder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigent, Douglas A; Arnold, Robyn E

    2005-03-01

    Almost all of the previous studies with growth hormone (GH) have been done with exogenously supplied GH and, therefore, involve actions of the hormone through its receptor. However, the actions of endogenous or lymphocyte GH are still unclear. In a previous study, we showed that overexpression of GH (GHo) in a lymphoid cell line resulted in protection of the cells to apoptosis mediated by nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, we show that the protection from apoptosis could be transferred to control cells with culture fluids obtained from GHo cells and blocked by antibodies to the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or antibodies to the IGF-1-receptor (IGF-1R). Northern and Western blot analysis detected significantly higher levels of IGF-1 in cells overexpressing GH. An increase in the expression of the IGF-1R in GHo cells was also detected by Western blot analysis, (125)I-IGF-1 binding and analysis of IGF-1R promoter luciferase constructs. Transfection of GHo cells with a dominant negative IGF-1R mutant construct blocked the generation of NO and activation of Akt seen in GHo cells compared to vector alone control EL4 cells. The results suggest that one of the consequences of the overexpression of GH, in cells lacking the GH receptor, is an increase in the expression of IGF-1 and the IGF-1R which mediate the protection of EL4 lymphoma cells from apoptosis.

  16. IGF-1-induced MMP-11 expression promotes the proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells through the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chao; Wang, Wenchang; Wang, Cunchuan

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-11 (MMP-11) expression in gastric cancer (GC) and the underlying mechanisms in SGC-7901 cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of IGF-1 and MMP-11 was significantly upregulated in GC tissues compared with normal gastric tissue. Furthermore, IGF-1 significantly and dose-dependently promoted MMP-11. Western blotting revealed that the addition of IGF-1 to SGC-7901 cells led to an evident enhancement in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), IGF-1R and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) phosphorylation at 20 and 40 min. A decrease in the extent of the elevated expression of MMP-11 and the enhanced phosphorylation of STAT3, JAK1 and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) induced by IGF-1 in SGC-7901 cells were observed following treatment with NT157 (an IGF-1R inhibitor). Furthermore, piceatannol (a JAK1 inhibitor) or small interfering RNA against STAT3 reduced the extent of the increased expression of MMP-11 induced by IGF-1 in SGC-7901 cells. Piceatannol treatment induced the dose-dependent decline in the enhancement of STAT3 phosphorylation induced by IGF-1, indicating that the JAK1/STAT3 pathway may be implicated in the elevated expression of MMP-11 induced by IGF-1 in SGC-7901 cells. Finally, IGF-1 treatment significantly promoted the proliferation and invasion of SGC-7901 cells, which was inhibited following NT157, piceatannol or si-STAT3 treatment. The present study therefore demonstrated that IGF-1-induced MMP-11 may have facilitated the proliferation and invasion of SGC-7901 cells via the JAK1/STAT3 pathway.

  17. Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: Baby or the Bathwater?

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The success of targeted therapies for cancer is undisputed; strong preclinical evidence has resulted in the approval of several new agents for cancer treatment. The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) appeared to be one of these promising new targets. Substantial population and preclinical data have all pointed toward this pathway as an important regulator of tumor cell biology. Although early results from clinical trials that targeted the IGF1R showed some evidence of response...

  18. Targeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Growth and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Ramadevi; Lopez-Valdez, Rebecca; Arumugam, Arunkumar; Nandy, Sushmita; Boopalan, Thiyagarajan; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Increasing incidence and mortality indicates that there is still much lacking in detection and management of the disease. This is partly due to a lack of specific symptoms during early stages of the disease. Several growth factor receptors have been associated with pancreatic cancer. Here, we have investigated if an RNA interference approach targeted to IGF-IR could be effective and efficient against pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis. For that, we evaluated the effects of IGF-1R inhibition using small interfering RNA (siRNAs) on tumor growth and metastasis in HPAC and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines. We found that silencing IGF-1R inhibits pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis by blocking key signaling pathways such AKT/PI3K, MAPK, JAK/STAT and EMT. Silencing IGF-1R resulted in an anti-proliferative effect in PANC-1 and HPAC pancreatic cancer cell lines. Matrigel invasion, transwell migration and wound healing assays also revealed a role for IGF-1R in metastatic properties of pancreatic cancer. These results were further confirmed using Western blotting analysis of key intermediates involved in proliferation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion. In addition, soft agar assays showed that silencing IGF-1R also blocks the colony forming capabilities of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Western blots, as well as, flow cytometric analysis revealed the induction of apoptosis in IGF-1R silenced cells. Interestingly, silencing IGF-1R also suppressed the expression of insulin receptor β. All these effects together significantly control pancreatic cancer cell growth and metastasis. To conclude, our results demonstrate the significance of IGF-1R in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24809702

  19. Role of androgen receptor on cyclic mechanical stretch-regulated proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts and its upstream signals: IGF-1-mediated PI3K/Akt and MAPKs pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiming; Fu, Shaoting; Lu, Lin; Wang, Xiaohui

    2017-07-15

    To detect the effects of androgen receptor (AR) on cyclic mechanical stretch-modulated proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts and its pathways: roles of IGF-1, PI3K and MAPK. C2C12 were randomly divided into five groups: un-stretched control, six or 8 h of fifteen percent stretch, and six or 8 h of twenty percent stretch. Cyclic mechanical stretch of C2C12 were completed using a computer-controlled FlexCell Strain Unit. Cell proliferation and IGF-1 concentration in medium were detected by CCK8 and ELISA, respectively. Expressions of AR and IGF-1R, and expressions and activities of PI3K, p38 and ERK1/2 in stretched C2C12 cells were determined by Western blot. ①The proliferation of C2C12 cells, IGF-1 concentration in medium, expressions of AR and IGF-1R, and activities of PI3K, p38 and ERK1/2 were increased by 6 h of fifteen percent stretch, while decreased by twenty percent stretch for six or 8 h ②The fifteen percent stretch-increased proliferation of C2C12 cells was reversed by AR inhibitor, Flutamide. ③The increases of AR expression, activities of PI3K, p38 and ERK1/2 resulted from fifteen percent stretch were attenuated by IGF-1 neutralizing antibody, while twenty percent stretch-induced decreases of the above indicators were enhanced by recombinant IGF-1. ④Specific inhibitors of p38, ERK1/2 and PI3K all decreased the expression of AR in fifteen percent and twenty percent of stretched C2C12 cells. Cyclic mechanical stretch modulated the proliferation of C2C12 cells, which may be attributed to the alterations of AR via IGF-1-PI3K/Akt and IGF-1-MAPK (p38, ERK1/2) pathways in C2C12 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Unique expression pattern of the three insulin receptor family members in the rat mammary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Henning; Klopfleisch, Robert; Vienberg, Sara Gry

    2011-01-01

    mammary gland. Using laser micro-dissection, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of IR (insulin receptor), IGF-1R (IGF-1 receptor), IRR (insulin receptor-related receptor), ERα (estrogen receptor alpha), ERβ (estrogen receptor beta) and PR (progesteron receptor......) in young, virgin, female Sprague-Dawley rats and compared to expression in reference organs. The mammary gland displayed the highest expression of IRR and IGF-1R. In contrast, low expression of IR transcripts was observed in the mammary gland tissue with expression of the IR-A isoform being 5-fold higher...... than the expression of the IR-B. By immunohistochemistry, expression of IR and IGF-1R was detected in all mammary gland epithelial cells. Expression of ERα and PR was comparable between mammary gland and ovary, whereas expression of ERβ was lower in mammary gland than in the ovary. Finally, expression...

  1. Targeting the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in Ewing's Sarcoma: Reality and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Olmos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours comprises a group of very aggressive diseases that are potentially curable with multimodality treatment. Despite the undoubted success of current treatment, approximately 30% of patients will relapse and ultimately die of disease. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R has been implicated in the genesis, growth, proliferation, and the development of metastatic disease in Ewing's sarcoma. In addition, IGF1-R has been validated, both in vitro and in vivo, as a potential therapeutic target in Ewing's sarcoma. Phase I studies of IGF-1R monoclonal antibodies reported several radiological and clinical responses in Ewing's sarcoma patients, and initial reports of several Phase II studies suggest that about a fourth of the patients would benefit from IGF-1R monoclonal antibodies as single therapy, with approximately 10% of patients achieving objective responses. Furthermore, these therapies are well tolerated, and thus far severe toxicity has been rare. Other studies assessing IGF-1R monoclonal antibodies in combination with traditional cytotoxics or other targeted therapies are expected. Despite, the initial promising results, not all patients benefit from IGF-1R inhibition, and consequently, there is an urgent need for the identification of predictive markers of response.

  2. Targeting the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in Ewing's Sarcoma: Reality and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, David; Martins, Ana Sofia; Jones, Robin L.; Alam, Salma; Scurr, Michelle; Judson, Ian R.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours comprises a group of very aggressive diseases that are potentially curable with multimodality treatment. Despite the undoubted success of current treatment, approximately 30% of patients will relapse and ultimately die of disease. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) has been implicated in the genesis, growth, proliferation, and the development of metastatic disease in Ewing's sarcoma. In addition, IGF1-R has been validated, both in vitro and in vivo, as a potential therapeutic target in Ewing's sarcoma. Phase I studies of IGF-1R monoclonal antibodies reported several radiological and clinical responses in Ewing's sarcoma patients, and initial reports of several Phase II studies suggest that about a fourth of the patients would benefit from IGF-1R monoclonal antibodies as single therapy, with approximately 10% of patients achieving objective responses. Furthermore, these therapies are well tolerated, and thus far severe toxicity has been rare. Other studies assessing IGF-1R monoclonal antibodies in combination with traditional cytotoxics or other targeted therapies are expected. Despite, the initial promising results, not all patients benefit from IGF-1R inhibition, and consequently, there is an urgent need for the identification of predictive markers of response. PMID:21647361

  3. Long-pulse gastric electrical stimulation protects interstitial cells of Cajal in diabetic rats via IGF-1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Chen, Yan; Liu, Shi; Hou, Xiao-Hua

    2016-06-21

    To investigate the effects of different parameters of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and changes in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signal pathway in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male rats were randomized into control, diabetic (DM), diabetic with sham GES (DM + SGES), diabetic with GES1 (5.5 cpm, 100 ms, 4 mA) (DM + GES1), diabetic with GES2 (5.5 cpm, 300 ms, 4 mA) (DM + GES2) and diabetic with GES3 (5.5 cpm, 550 ms, 2 mA) (DM + GES3) groups. The expression levels of c-kit, M-SCF and IGF-1 receptors were evaluated in the gastric antrum using Western blot analysis. The distribution of ICCs was observed using immunolabeling for c-kit, while smooth muscle cells and IGF-1 receptors were identified using α-SMA and IGF-1R antibodies. Serum level of IGF-1 was tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gastric emptying was delayed in the DM group but improved in all GES groups, especially in the GES2 group. The expression levels of c-kit, M-SCF and IGF-1R were decreased in the DM group but increased in all GES groups. More ICCs (c-kit(+)) and smooth muscle cells (α-SMA(+)/IGF-1R(+)) were observed in all GES groups than in the DM group. The average level of IGF-1 in the DM group was markedly decreased, but it was up-regulated in all GES groups, especially in the GES2 group. The results suggest that long-pulse GES promotes the regeneration of ICCs. The IGF-1 signaling pathway might be involved in the mechanism underlying this process, which results in improved gastric emptying.

  4. The Beneficial Impact of Antidepressant Drugs on Prenatal Stress-Evoked Malfunction of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Protein Family in the Olfactory Bulbs of Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Kubera, Marta; Roman, Adam; Lasoń, Władysław; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes the growth, differentiation, and survival of both neurons and glial cells, and it is believed to exert antidepressant-like activity. Thus, disturbances in the IGF-1 system could be responsible for the course of depression. To date, there have been no papers showing the impact of chronic antidepressant treatment on the IGF-1 network in the olfactory bulb (OB) in an animal model of depression. Prenatal stress was used as model of depression. Twenty-four 3-month-old male offspring of control and stressed mothers were subjected to behavioral testing (forced swim test). The mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the protein level of IGF-1 and its phosphorylation, as well as the concentrations of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP-2, -4, -3, and -6), were measured in OBs before and after chronic imipramine, fluoxetine, or tianeptine administration. Adult rats exposed prenatally to stressful stimuli displayed not only depression-like behavior but also decreased IGF-1 expression, dysregulation in the IGFBP network, and diminished mRNA expression, as well as IGF-1R phosphorylation, in the OB. The administration of antidepressants normalized most of the changes in the IGF-1 system of the OB evoked by prenatal stress. These results suggested a beneficial effect of chronic antidepressant drug treatment in the alleviation of IGF-1 family malfunction in OBs in an animal model of depression.

  5. Dominant negative insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibits neointimal formation through suppression of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyun-Joung; Park, Hyun-Young; Ko, Young-Guk; Lee, Sea-Hyoung; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Lee, Eun Jig; Jameson, J. Larry; Jang, Yangsoo

    2004-01-01

    Blocking of the IGF-1 signaling pathway targeting the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) provides a potential treatment strategy for restenosis. In this study, we have examined the effects of a dominant negative IGF-1R (IGF-1Rt) on primary rat VSMCs in vitro and on injured rat carotid artery in vivo. Ad/IGF-1Rt infection inhibited VSMC migration and proliferation, and it also induced apoptosis by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Consistent with the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in vitro, the Ad/IGF-1Rt infection markedly reduced neointimal formation in carotid injury model. Ad/IGF-1Rt treated carotid arteries exhibited a suppressed proliferation index, PCNA expression, and also were stained positive for TUNEL assay. These results indicate that a dominant negative IGF-1R has the potential to reduce neointimal formation of injured rats' carotid arteries. The delivery of dominant negative IGF-1R by adenoviral or other vectors may provide a useful strategy for inhibiting restenosis after angioplasty

  6. Regulation of Kisspeptin Synthesis and Release in the Preoptic/Anterior Hypothalamic Region of Prepubertal Female Rats: Actions of IGF-1 and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiney, Jill K; Srivastava, Vinod K; Vaden Anderson, Danielle N; Hartzoge, Nicole L; Dees, William L

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol (ALC) causes suppressed secretion of prepubertal luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and kisspeptin (Kp) are major regulators of LHRH and are critical for puberty. IGF-1 may be an upstream mediator of Kp in the preoptic area and rostral hypothalamic area (POA/RHA) of the rat brain, a region containing both Kp and LHRH neurons. We investigated the ability of IGF-1 to stimulate prepubertal Kp synthesis and release in POA/RHA, and the potential inhibitory effects of ALC. Immature female rats were administered either ALC (3 g/kg) or water via gastric gavage at 0730 hours. At 0900 hours, both groups were subdivided where half received either saline or IGF-1 into the brain third ventricle. A second dose of ALC (2 g/kg) or water was administered at 1130 hours. Rats were killed 6 hours after injection and POA/RHA region collected. IGF-1 stimulated Kp, an action blocked by ALC. Upstream to Kp, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) activation, as demonstrated by the increase in insulin receptor substrate 1, resulted in activation of Akt, tuberous sclerosis 2, ras homologue enriched in brain, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). ALC blocked the central action of IGF-1 to induce their respective phosphorylation. IGF-1 specificity and ALC specificity for the Akt-activated mTOR pathway were demonstrated by the absence of effects on PRAS40. Furthermore, IGF-1 stimulated Kp release from POA/RHA incubated in vitro. IGF-1 stimulates prepubertal Kp synthesis and release following activation of a mTOR signaling pathway, and ALC blocks this pathway at the level of IGF-1R. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. No preclinical rationale for IGF1R directed therapy in chondrosarcoma of bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterse, E.F.P.; Cleven, A.H.G.; Jong, de Y.; Briaire-de, Bruijn I.; Fletcher, J.A.; Danen, E.H.J.; Cleton, A.M.; Bov'ee, J.V.M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chondrosarcoma is a malignant cartilage forming bone tumour for which no effective systemic treatment is available. Previous studies illustrate the need for a better understanding of the role of the IGF pathway in chondrosarcoma to determine if it can be a target for therapy, which was

  8. Shifting the IGF-axis: An age-related decline in human tear IGF-1 correlates with clinical signs of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Roshni; Zhu, Meifang; Robertson, Danielle M

    2018-02-06

    The human corneal epithelium expresses both the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the IGF-1R/insulin receptor (INSR) hybrid. Despite the previous identification of IGF-1 in human tear fluid, little is known regarding the regulation of IGF-1 in tear fluid and its role in corneal epithelial homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the impact of biological parameters on the concentration of human tear levels of IGF-1. Tear levels of IGF-1 were measured in 41 healthy, human volunteers without any reported symptoms of dry eye. All volunteers underwent standard biomicroscopic examination of the cornea and tear film. In a subgroup of volunteers, corneal staining with sodium fluorescein, tear film break up time and tear production using a Schirmer's test strip were measured to assess clinical signs of dry eye. Tears were collected from the inferior tear meniscus using glass microcapillary tubes and IGF-1 levels were measured using a solid phase sandwich ELISA. Tear levels of IGF-1 were highest in young adults and significantly decreased in older adults (P = 0.003). There were no differences in tear IGF-1 between males and females (P = 0.628). Tear IGF-1 levels were correlated with tear film break up time (R = 0.738) and tear production (R = 0.826). These data indicate that there is a progressive decline in tear IGF-1 due to aging that is associated with clinical signs of dry eye. This effect is likely due to age-related changes in the lacrimal gland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of IGF-1 receptor kinase blocks the differentiation into cardiomyocyte-like cells of BMSCs induced by IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haibin; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Lei; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jie; Lv, Qian; Pang, Hui; Zhang, Qinglin; Wang, Zhenquan

    2017-07-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the potential to transdifferentiate into cardiomyocyte‑like cells (CLCs) if an appropriate cardiac environment is provided. Insulin‑like growth factor‑1 (IGF‑1) plays an important role in the cell migration, survival and differentiation of BMSCs. However, the effect of IGF‑1 on the cellular differentiation remains unclear. In the present study, BMSCs were isolated from rat femurs and tibias and the cells were purified at passage 6 (P6). IGF‑1 and IGF‑1 receptor (IGF‑1R) kinase inhibitor I‑OMe AG538 were added to detect if IGF‑1 could induce BMSCs to transdifferentiate into CLCs and if I‑OMe AG538 could inhibit IGF‑1‑mediated receptor activation and downstream signaling. Immunostaining demonstrated that all P6 BMSCs express CD29 and CD44 but not CD45. BMSCs induced by 15 ng/ml IGF‑1 revealed positivity for cardiac troponin‑T and cardiac troponin‑I. The optimal induction time was 14 days but the expression of these proteins were incompletely inhibited by 300 nmol/l I‑OMe AG538 and completely inhibited by 10 µmol/l I‑OMe AG538. Western blotting showed that the level of IGF‑1R autophosphorylation and the expression of cTnT and cTnI were higher when BMSCs were induced for 14 days. I‑OMe AG538 selectively inhibited IGF‑1‑mediated growth and signal transduction and the inhibitory effect of I‑OMe AG538 were not reverted in the presence of exogenous IGF‑1. In addition, when a time course analysis of the effects of I‑OMe AG538 on mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase signaling were done, we observed a transient inhibitory effect on Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, in keeping with the inhibitory effects on cell growth. Taken together, these data indicate that I‑OMe AG538 could inhibit IGF-1-induced CLCs in BMSCs and this effect is time- and concentration-dependent.

  10. Serum IGF-1 is insufficient to restore skeletal size in the total absence of the growth hormone receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingjie; Sun, Hui; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Cardoso, Luis; Kennedy, Oran D; Jasper, Hector; Domené, Horacio; Karabatas, Liliana; Guida, Clara; Schaffler, Mitchell B; Rosen, Clifford J; Yakar, Shoshana

    2013-01-01

    States of growth hormone (GH) resistance, such those observed in Laron’s dwarf patients, are characterized by mutations in the GH receptor (GHR), decreased serum and tissue IGF-1 levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired skeletal acquisition. IGF-1 replacement therapy in such patients increases growth velocity but does not normalize growth. Herein we combined the GH-resistant (GHR knockout, GHRKO) mouse model with mice expressing the hepatic Igf-1 transgene (HIT) to generate the GHRKO-HIT mouse model. In GHRKOHIT mice, serum IGF-1 levels were restored via transgenic expression of Igf-1 allowing us to study how endocrine IGF-1 affects growth, metabolic homeostasis, and skeletal integrity. We show that in a GH-resistant state, normalization of serum IGF-1 improved body adiposity and restored glucose tolerance but was insufficient to support normal skeletal growth, resulting in an osteopenic skeletal phenotype. The inability of serum IGF-1 to restore skeletal integrity in the total absence of GHR likely resulted from reduced skeletal Igf-1 gene expression, blunted GH-mediated effects on the skeleton that are independent of serum or tissue IGF-1, and from poor delivery of IGF-1 to the tissues. These findings are consistent with clinical data showing that IGF-I replacement therapy in patients with Laron’s syndrome does not achieve full skeletal growth. PMID:23456957

  11. Co-targeting the HER and IGF/insulin receptor axis in breast cancer, with triple targeting with endocrine therapy for hormone-sensitive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ashok; Hatzis, Christos; DiGiovanna, Michael P

    2017-05-01

    Interactions between HER2, estrogen receptor (ER), and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF1R) are implicated in resistance to monotherapies targeting these receptors. We have previously shown in pre-clinical studies synergistic anti-tumor effects for co-targeting each pairwise combination of HER2, IGF1R, and ER. Strikingly, synergy for HER2/IGF1R targeting occurred not only in a HER2+ model, but also in a HER2-normal model. The purpose of the current study was therefore to determine the generalizability of synergistic anti-tumor effects of co-targeting HER2/IGF1R, the anti-tumor activity of triple-targeting HER2/IGF1R/ER in hormone-dependent cell lines, and the effect of using the multi-targeting drugs neratinib (pan-HER) and BMS-754807 (dual IGF1R/insulin receptor). Proliferation and apoptosis assays were performed in a large panel of cell lines representing varying receptor expression levels. Mechanistic effects were studied using phospho-protein immunoblotting. Analyses of drug interaction effects were performed using linear mixed-effects regression models. Enhanced anti-proliferative effects of HER/IGF-insulin co-targeting were seen in most, though not all, cell lines, including HER2-normal lines. For ER+ lines, triple targeting with inclusion of anti-estrogen generally resulted in the greatest anti-tumor effects. Double or triple targeting generally resulted in marked increases in apoptosis in the sensitive lines. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the synergy between drugs was correlated with maximal inhibition of Akt and ERK pathway signaling. Dual HER/IGF-insulin targeting, and triple targeting with inclusion of anti-estrogen drugs, shows striking anti-tumor activity across breast cancer types, and drugs with broader receptor specificity may be more effective than single receptor selective drugs, particularly for ER- cells.

  12. Activation of IGF-1 and insulin signaling pathways ameliorate mitochondrial function and energy metabolism in Huntington's Disease human lymphoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naia, Luana; Ferreira, I Luísa; Cunha-Oliveira, Teresa; Duarte, Ana I; Ribeiro, Márcio; Rosenstock, Tatiana R; Laço, Mário N; Ribeiro, Maria J; Oliveira, Catarina R; Saudou, Frédéric; Humbert, Sandrine; Rego, A Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine repeat expansion in the huntingtin protein. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with energy failure plays an important role in this untreated pathology. In the present work, we used lymphoblasts obtained from HD patients or unaffected parentally related individuals to study the protective role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) versus insulin (at low nM) on signaling and metabolic and mitochondrial functions. Deregulation of intracellular signaling pathways linked to activation of insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR,IGF-1R), Akt, and ERK was largely restored by IGF-1 and, at a less extent, by insulin in HD human lymphoblasts. Importantly, both neurotrophic factors stimulated huntingtin phosphorylation at Ser421 in HD cells. IGF-1 and insulin also rescued energy levels in HD peripheral cells, as evaluated by increased ATP and phosphocreatine, and decreased lactate levels. Moreover, IGF-1 effectively ameliorated O2 consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in HD lymphoblasts, which occurred concomitantly with increased levels of cytochrome c. Indeed, constitutive phosphorylation of huntingtin was able to restore the Δψm in lymphoblasts expressing an abnormal expansion of polyglutamines. HD lymphoblasts further exhibited increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels before and after exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation, being the later recovered by IGF-1 and insulin in HD lymphoblasts pre-exposed to H2O2. In summary, the data support an important role for IR/IGF-1R mediated activation of signaling pathways and improved mitochondrial and metabolic function in HD human lymphoblasts.

  13. Distinct signalling properties of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in mediating insulin/IGF-1 action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabiee, Atefeh; Krüger, Marcus; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 action is driven by a complex and highly integrated signalling network. Loss-of-function studies indicate that the major insulin/IGF-1 receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2, mediate different biological functions in vitro and in vivo, suggesting specific signalling...... properties despite their high degree of homology. To identify mechanisms contributing to the differential signalling properties of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the mediation of insulin/IGF-1 action, we performed comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomic profiling of brown preadipocytes from wild type......, IRS-1-/-and IRS-2-/-mice in the basal and IGF-1-stimulated states. We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for the accurate quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation. We found ~10% of the 6262 unique phosphorylation sites detected to be regulated by IGF-1...

  14. A Novel Role of IGF1 in Apo2L/TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis of Ewing Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Valen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 reputedly opposes chemotoxicity in Ewing sarcoma family of tumor (ESFT cells. However, the effect of IGF1 on apoptosis induced by apoptosis ligand 2 (Apo2L/tumor necrosis factor (TNF- related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL remains to be established. We find that opposite to the partial survival effect of short-term IGF1 treatment, long-term IGF1 treatment amplified Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive but not resistant ESFT cell lines. Remarkably, the specific IGF1 receptor (IGF1R antibody α-IR3 was functionally equivalent to IGF1. Short-term IGF1 incubation of cells stimulated survival kinase AKT and increased X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP protein which was associated with Apo2L/TRAIL resistance. In contrast, long-term IGF1 incubation resulted in repression of XIAP protein through ceramide (Cer formation derived from de novo synthesis which was associated with Apo2L/TRAIL sensitization. Addition of ceramide synthase (CerS inhibitor fumonisin B1 during long-term IGF1 treatment reduced XIAP repression and Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Noteworthy, the resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents was maintained in cells following chronic IGF1 treatment. Overall, the results suggest that chronic IGF1 treatment renders ESFT cells susceptible to Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis and may have important implications for the biology as well as the clinical management of refractory ESFT.

  15. Sex differences and left-right asymmetries in expression of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in developing rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hami, Javad; Sadr-Nabavi, Ariane; Sankian, Mojtaba; Haghir, Hossein

    2012-04-01

    Sex differences and laterality of rat hippocampus with respect to insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor (InsR) expression as two important contributors to/regulators of developmental and cognitive functions were examined using real-time PCR and western blot analysis at P0, P7 and P14. Expression of the IGF-1R gene was lowest at P0 in all studied hippocampi. In males, we found the highest expression at P7 in the right hippocampus, and at P14 in the left one. In contrast, the peaked IGF-1R expression occurred at P7 in female hippocampi independent of laterality. Hippocampal InsR expression in males decreased significantly between P0 and P7, followed by a marked upregulation at P14. Conversely, the expression of InsR in females peaked at P7 and then decreased again significantly at P14. We found significant interhemispheric differences in IGF-1R mRNA levels in both male and female hippocampi at different time points. In contrast, we only found significant interhemispheric differences in InsR mRNA expression in P14 male rats, with higher values in the left hippocampus. Interestingly, changes in mRNA expression and in protein levels followed the same developmental pattern, indicating that IGF-1R and InsR transcription is not subject to modulatory effects during the first two weeks of development. These findings indicate that there are prominent interhemispheric and sex differences in IGF-1R and InsR expression in the developing rat hippocampus, suggesting a probable mechanism for the control of gender and laterality differences in development and function of the hippocampus.

  16. Investigation on the role of IGF-1 signal transduction in the biological radiation responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, U Hee; Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Oh, Soo Jin; Cho, Eun Hee; Eom, Hyun Soo; Ju, Eun Jin

    2009-05-15

    Effects of {gamma}-irradiation on the IGF-1 related gene expressions and activations in various cell lines - Various expression patterns of IGF-1 and IGF-1R following {gamma}-irradiation were observed according to the cell lines - The increased expressions of IGF-1 and IGF-1R were observed in Balb/3T3 and NIH/3T3 cells - Among the IGF-1 downstream signaling molecules, the phosphorylated ERK5 were not changed by {gamma}-irradiation in all three examined cell lines, whereas the phosphorylated p65 were increased by {gamma} -irradiation in all cell lines. The role of IGF-1 and p38 signaling in {gamma}-irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells - In MEF cells, IGF-1 signaling molecules were decreased and p21/phosphorylated p38 were increased by {gamma}-irradiation - The experiments with IGF-1R inhibitor (AG1024) and p38 inhibitor (SB203580) revealed that IGF-1 signaling is involved but not essential in radiation-induced cell growth arrest and senescence and that p38 MAP kinase play a important role in this cellular radiation response. The role of IGF-1 and p38 signaling in {gamma}-irradiated mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell - In NIH/3T3 cells, IGF-1 signaling molecules and p21/phosphorylated p38 were increased by {gamma} -irradiation. - However, the experiments with IGF-1R inhibitor (AG1024) and p38 inhibitor (SB203580) revealed that IGF-1 and p38 signaling do not play a crucial role in radiation-induced cell growth arrest and senescence in NIH/3T3 cells. Effects of {gamma}-irradiation on the expressions and activations on the genes related to the IGF-1 signaling in mouse tissues - In {gamma}-irradiated mice, the increased expressions of IGF-1 and IGF-1R were observed in the lung and kidney at 2 months after irradiation, and in all the tissues examined (lung, liver and kidney) at 6 months after irradiation. - In the lung of {gamma}-irradiated mice at 6 months after irradiation, the increases of IGF-1R, phosphorylated FOXO3a, p65, p38, p21 were observed. - The

  17. Investigation on the role of IGF-1 signal transduction in the biological radiation responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, U Hee; Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Oh, Soo Jin; Cho, Eun Hee; Eom, Hyun Soo; Ju, Eun Jin

    2009-05-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation on the IGF-1 related gene expressions and activations in various cell lines - Various expression patterns of IGF-1 and IGF-1R following γ-irradiation were observed according to the cell lines - The increased expressions of IGF-1 and IGF-1R were observed in Balb/3T3 and NIH/3T3 cells - Among the IGF-1 downstream signaling molecules, the phosphorylated ERK5 were not changed by γ-irradiation in all three examined cell lines, whereas the phosphorylated p65 were increased by γ -irradiation in all cell lines. The role of IGF-1 and p38 signaling in γ-irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells - In MEF cells, IGF-1 signaling molecules were decreased and p21/phosphorylated p38 were increased by γ-irradiation - The experiments with IGF-1R inhibitor (AG1024) and p38 inhibitor (SB203580) revealed that IGF-1 signaling is involved but not essential in radiation-induced cell growth arrest and senescence and that p38 MAP kinase play a important role in this cellular radiation response. The role of IGF-1 and p38 signaling in γ-irradiated mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell - In NIH/3T3 cells, IGF-1 signaling molecules and p21/phosphorylated p38 were increased by γ -irradiation. - However, the experiments with IGF-1R inhibitor (AG1024) and p38 inhibitor (SB203580) revealed that IGF-1 and p38 signaling do not play a crucial role in radiation-induced cell growth arrest and senescence in NIH/3T3 cells. Effects of γ-irradiation on the expressions and activations on the genes related to the IGF-1 signaling in mouse tissues - In γ-irradiated mice, the increased expressions of IGF-1 and IGF-1R were observed in the lung and kidney at 2 months after irradiation, and in all the tissues examined (lung, liver and kidney) at 6 months after irradiation. - In the lung of γ-irradiated mice at 6 months after irradiation, the increases of IGF-1R, phosphorylated FOXO3a, p65, p38, p21 were observed. - The patterns of altered expressions showed significant

  18. Expanding the clinical spectrum of chromosome 15q26 terminal deletions associated with IGF-1 resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, Aisling M; McGrath, Niamh; Sharif, Farhana; Murphy, Nuala P; Franklin, Orla; Lynch, Sally Ann; O'Grady, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) gene on chromosome 15q26.3 is associated with impaired prenatal and postnatal growth, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and skeletal abnormalities. Terminal deletions of chromosome 15q26 arising more proximally may also be associated with congenital heart disease, epilepsy, diaphragmatic hernia and renal anomalies. We report three additional cases of 15q26 terminal deletions with novel features which may further expand the spectrum of this rarely reported contiguous gene syndrome. Phenotypic features including neonatal lymphedema, aplasia cutis congenita and aortic root dilatation have not been reported previously. Similarly, laboratory features of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) resistance are described, including markedly elevated IGF-1 of up to +4.7 SDS. In one patient, the elevated IGF-1 declined over time and this coincided with a period of spontaneous growth acceleration. Deletions of 15q26 are a potential risk factor for aortic root dilatation, neonatal lymphedema and aplasia cutis in addition to causing growth restriction. What is Known: • Terminal deletions of chromosome 15q26 are associated with impaired prenatal and postnatal growth, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and skeletal abnormalities. What is New: • Neonatal lymphedema, aplasia cutis congenita and aortic root dilatation have not been previously described in 15q26 terminal deletions and may represent novel features. • IGF-1 levels may be increased up to 4.7 SDS.

  19. Elevated IGFBP3 levels in diabetic tears: a negative regulator of IGF-1 signaling in the corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chieh; Buckner, Benjamin R; Zhu, Meifang; Cavanagh, H Dwight; Robertson, Danielle M

    2012-04-01

    To determine the ratio of IGFBP3:IGF-1 in normal and diabetic human tears, and in telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (hTCEpi) cultured under elevated glucose conditions and to correlate these changes with total and phosphorylated levels of IGF-1R. Tear samples were collected noninvasively from diabetic subjects and non-diabetic controls; corneal sensitivity was assessed using a Cochet-Bonnet Aesthesiometer. Conditioned media were collected following culture of hTCEpi cells in normal (5 mM) and elevated (25 mM) glucose conditions; mannitol was used as an osmotic control. IGFBP3, IGF-1, and phosphorylated IGF-1R levels were assessed by ELISA. IGFBP3 and IGF-1R mRNA were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Total and phosphorylated IGF-1R expression in whole cell lysates was assessed by western blot. There was a 2.8-fold increase in IGFBP3 in diabetic tears compared to non-diabetic controls (P=0.006); IGF-1 levels were not significantly altered. No difference in corneal sensitivity was detected between groups. The concentration of IGFBP3 in tears was independent of IGF-1. Consistent with human tear measurements in vivo, IGFBP3 secretion was increased 2.2 fold (Ptears compared to normal controls blocked phosphorylation of the IGF-1R by IGF-1 (Ptears may attenuate IGF-1R signaling in the diabetic cornea. A long-term increase in IGFBP3 may contribute to epithelial compromise and the pathogenesis of ocular surface complications reported in diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinct signalling properties of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in mediating insulin/IGF-1 action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, Atefeh; Krüger, Marcus; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jacob; Kahn, C Ronald; Emanuelli, Brice

    2018-07-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 action is driven by a complex and highly integrated signalling network. Loss-of-function studies indicate that the major insulin/IGF-1 receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2, mediate different biological functions in vitro and in vivo, suggesting specific signalling properties despite their high degree of homology. To identify mechanisms contributing to the differential signalling properties of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the mediation of insulin/IGF-1 action, we performed comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomic profiling of brown preadipocytes from wild type, IRS-1 -/- and IRS-2 -/- mice in the basal and IGF-1-stimulated states. We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for the accurate quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation. We found ~10% of the 6262 unique phosphorylation sites detected to be regulated by IGF-1. These regulated sites included previously reported substrates of the insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway, as well as novel substrates including Nuclear Factor I X and Semaphorin-4B. In silico prediction suggests the protein kinase B (PKB), protein kinase C (PKC), and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) as the main mediators of these phosphorylation events. Importantly, we found preferential phosphorylation patterns depending on the presence of either IRS-1 or IRS-2, which was associated with specific sets of kinases involved in signal transduction downstream of these substrates such as PDHK1, MAPK3, and PKD1 for IRS-1, and PIN1 and PKC beta for IRS-2. Overall, by generating a comprehensive phosphoproteomic profile from brown preadipocyte cells in response to IGF-1 stimulation, we reveal both common and distinct insulin/IGF-1 signalling events mediated by specific IRS proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. IGF1 regulates RUNX1 expression via IRS1/2: Implications for antler chondrocyte differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Duan, Cui-Cui; Geng, Shuang; Wang, Kai; Yu, Hai-Fan; Yue, Zhan-Peng; Guo, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Although IGF1 is important for the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, its underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. Here we addressed the physiologic function of IGF1 in antler cartilage and explored the interplay of IGF1, IRS1/2 and RUNX1 in chondrocyte differentiation. The results showed that IGF1 was highly expressed in antler chondrocytes. Exogenous rIGF1 could increase the proliferation of chondrocytes and cell proportion in the S phase, whereas IGF1R inhibitor PQ4...

  2. Anticancer effect of genistein on BG-1 ovarian cancer growth induced by 17 β-estradiol or bisphenol A via the suppression of the crosstalk between estrogen receptor alpha and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Min-Ah; Kang, Nam-Hee; Yi, Bo-Rim; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul, E-mail: kchoi@cbu.ac.kr

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between estrogen receptor (ER) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway plays an important role in proliferation of and resistance to endocrine therapy to estrogen dependent cancers. Estrogen (E2) upregulates the expression of components of IGF-1 system and induces the downstream of mitogenic signaling cascades via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). In the present study, we evaluated the xenoestrogenic effect of bisphenol A (BPA) and antiproliferative activity of genistein (GEN) in accordance with the influence on this crosstalk. BPA was determined to affect this crosstalk by upregulating mRNA expressions of ERα and IGF-1R and inducing phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt in protein level in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells as E2 did. In the mouse model xenografted with BG-1 cells, BPA significantly increased a tumor burden of mice and expressions of ERα, pIRS-1, and cyclin D1 in tumor mass compared to vehicle, indicating that BPA induces ovarian cancer growth by promoting the crosstalk between ER and IGF-1R signals. On the other hand, GEN effectively reversed estrogenicity of BPA by reversing mRNA and protein expressions of ERα, IGF-1R, pIRS-1, and pAkt induced by BPA in cellular model and also significantly decreased tumor growth and in vivo expressions of ERα, pIRS-1, and pAkt in xenografted mouse model. Also, GEN was confirmed to have an antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptotic signaling cascades. Taken together, these results suggest that GEN effectively reversed the increased proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer by suppressing the crosstalk between ERα and IGF-1R signaling pathways upregulated by BPA or E2.

  3. Anticancer effect of genistein on BG-1 ovarian cancer growth induced by 17 β-estradiol or bisphenol A via the suppression of the crosstalk between estrogen receptor alpha and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Min-Ah; Kang, Nam-Hee; Yi, Bo-Rim; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between estrogen receptor (ER) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway plays an important role in proliferation of and resistance to endocrine therapy to estrogen dependent cancers. Estrogen (E2) upregulates the expression of components of IGF-1 system and induces the downstream of mitogenic signaling cascades via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). In the present study, we evaluated the xenoestrogenic effect of bisphenol A (BPA) and antiproliferative activity of genistein (GEN) in accordance with the influence on this crosstalk. BPA was determined to affect this crosstalk by upregulating mRNA expressions of ERα and IGF-1R and inducing phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt in protein level in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells as E2 did. In the mouse model xenografted with BG-1 cells, BPA significantly increased a tumor burden of mice and expressions of ERα, pIRS-1, and cyclin D1 in tumor mass compared to vehicle, indicating that BPA induces ovarian cancer growth by promoting the crosstalk between ER and IGF-1R signals. On the other hand, GEN effectively reversed estrogenicity of BPA by reversing mRNA and protein expressions of ERα, IGF-1R, pIRS-1, and pAkt induced by BPA in cellular model and also significantly decreased tumor growth and in vivo expressions of ERα, pIRS-1, and pAkt in xenografted mouse model. Also, GEN was confirmed to have an antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptotic signaling cascades. Taken together, these results suggest that GEN effectively reversed the increased proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer by suppressing the crosstalk between ERα and IGF-1R signaling pathways upregulated by BPA or E2

  4. Differential Regulation of Hippocampal IGF-1-Associated Signaling Proteins by Dietary Restriction in Aging Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadem, Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta; Sharma, Ramesh

    2017-08-01

    Time-dependent alterations in several biological processes of an organism may be characterized as aging. One of the effects of aging is the decline in cognitive functions. Dietary restriction (DR), an intervention where the consumption of food is lessened but without malnutrition, is a well-established mechanism that has a wide range of important outcomes including improved health span, delayed aging, and extension of lifespan of various species. It also plays a beneficial role in protecting against age-dependent deterioration of cognitive functions, and has neuroprotective properties against neurodegenerative diseases. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 plays an important role in the regulation of cellular and tissue functions, and relating to the aging process the most important pathway of IGF-1 is the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) signaling cascade. Although many have studied the changes in the level of IGF-1 and its effect on neural proliferation, the downstream signaling proteins have not been fully elucidated. Hence in the present investigation, the IGF-1 gene expression and the normal endogenous levels of IGF1R (IGF-1 receptor), PI3K, Akt, pAkt, and pFoxO in the hippocampus of young, adult, and old mice were determined using real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. The effects of DR on these protein levels were also studied. Results showed a decrease in the levels of IGF-1, IGF1R, PI3K, and pAkt, while pFoxO level increased with respect to age. Under DR, these protein levels are maintained in adult mice, but old mice displayed diminished expression levels of these proteins as compared to ad libitum-fed mice. Maintenance of PI3K/Akt pathway results in the phosphorylation of FoxOs, necessary for the enhancement of neural proliferation and survival in adult mice. The down-regulation of IGF-I signaling, as observed in old mice, leads to increasing the activity of FoxO factors that may be important for the neuroprotective

  5. Insulin-like growth factor receptor inhibitors: baby or the bathwater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Douglas

    2012-07-03

    The success of targeted therapies for cancer is undisputed; strong preclinical evidence has resulted in the approval of several new agents for cancer treatment. The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) appeared to be one of these promising new targets. Substantial population and preclinical data have all pointed toward this pathway as an important regulator of tumor cell biology. Although early results from clinical trials that targeted the IGF1R showed some evidence of response, larger randomized phase III trials have not shown clear clinical benefit of targeting this pathway in combination with conventional strategies. These disappointing results have resulted in the discontinuation of several anti-IGF1R programs. However, the conduct of these trials has brought to the forefront several important factors that need to be considered in the conduct of future clinical trials. The need to develop biomarkers, a clearer understanding of insulin receptor function, and defining rational combination regimens all require further consideration. In this commentary, the current state of IGF1R inhibitors in cancer therapy is reviewed.

  6. 1.42 A crystal structure of mini-IGF-1(2): an analysis of the disulfide isomerization property and receptor binding property of IGF-1 based on the three-dimensional structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Caihong; Tang Yuehua; Feng Youmin; An Xiaomin; Chang Wenrui; Liang Dongcai

    2004-01-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) share a homologous sequence, a similar three-dimensional structure and weakly overlapping biological activity, but IGF-1 folds into two thermodynamically stable disulfide isomers, while insulin folds into one unique stable tertiary structure. This is a very interesting phenomenon in which one amino acid sequence encodes two three-dimensional structures, and its molecular mechanism has remained unclear for a long time. In this study, the crystal structure of mini-IGF-1(2), a disulfide isomer of an artificial analog of IGF-1, was solved by the SAD/SIRAS method using our in-house X-ray source. Evidence was found in the structure showing that the intra-A-chain/domain disulfide bond of some molecules was broken; thus, it was proposed that disulfide isomerization begins with the breakdown of this disulfide bond. Furthermore, based on the structural comparison of IGF-1 and insulin, a new assumption was made that in insulin the several hydrogen bonds formed between the N-terminal region of the B-chain and the intra-A-chain disulfide region of the A-chain are the main reason for the stability of the intra-A-chain disulfide bond and for the prevention of disulfide isomerization, while Phe B1 and His B5 are very important for the formation of these hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the receptor binding property of IGF-1 was analyzed in detail based on the structural comparison of mini-IGF-1(2), native IGF-1, and small mini-IGF-1

  7. Depletion of the type 1 IGF receptor delays repair of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, Benjamin W.; Kerr, Martin; Chitnis, Meenali M.; Lodhia, Kunal; Wang, Yong; Riedemann, Johann; Rochester, Mark; Protheroe, Andrew S.; Brewster, Simon F.; Macaulay, Valentine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: IGF-1R depletion sensitizes prostate cancer cells to ionizing radiation and DNA-damaging cytotoxic drugs. This study investigated the hypothesis that IGF-1R regulates DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Methods: We tested effects of IGF-1R siRNA transfection on the repair of radiation-induced DSBs by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence for γH2AX, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Homologous recombination (HR) was quantified by reporter assays, and cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry. Results: We confirmed that IGF-1R depletion sensitized DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells to ionizing radiation. DU145 control transfectants resolved radiation-induced DSBs within 24 h, while IGF-1R depleted cells contained 30–40% unrepaired breaks at 24 h. IGF-1R depletion induced significant reduction in DSB repair by HR, although the magnitude of the repair defect suggests additional contributory factors. Radiation-induced G2-M arrest was attenuated by IGF-1R depletion, potentially suppressing cell cycle-dependent processes required for HR. In contrast, IGF-1R depletion induced only minor radiosensitization in LNCaP cells, and did not influence repair. Cell cycle profiles were similar to DU145, so were unlikely to account for differences in repair responses. Conclusions: These data indicate a role for IGF-1R in DSB repair, at least in part via HR, and support use of IGF-1R inhibitors with DNA damaging cancer treatments.

  8. Depletion of the type 1 IGF receptor delays repair of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Benjamin W; Kerr, Martin; Chitnis, Meenali M; Lodhia, Kunal; Wang, Yong; Riedemann, Johann; Rochester, Mark; Protheroe, Andrew S; Brewster, Simon F; Macaulay, Valentine M

    2012-06-01

    IGF-1R depletion sensitizes prostate cancer cells to ionizing radiation and DNA-damaging cytotoxic drugs. This study investigated the hypothesis that IGF-1R regulates DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. We tested effects of IGF-1R siRNA transfection on the repair of radiation-induced DSBs by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence for γH2AX, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Homologous recombination (HR) was quantified by reporter assays, and cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry. We confirmed that IGF-1R depletion sensitized DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells to ionizing radiation. DU145 control transfectants resolved radiation-induced DSBs within 24 h, while IGF-1R depleted cells contained 30-40% unrepaired breaks at 24 h. IGF-1R depletion induced significant reduction in DSB repair by HR, although the magnitude of the repair defect suggests additional contributory factors. Radiation-induced G2-M arrest was attenuated by IGF-1R depletion, potentially suppressing cell cycle-dependent processes required for HR. In contrast, IGF-1R depletion induced only minor radiosensitization in LNCaP cells, and did not influence repair. Cell cycle profiles were similar to DU145, so were unlikely to account for differences in repair responses. These data indicate a role for IGF-1R in DSB repair, at least in part via HR, and support use of IGF-1R inhibitors with DNA damaging cancer treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. IGF-1 prevents simvastatin-induced myotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Annalisa; Sanvee, Gerda M; Brecht, Karin; Kratschmar, Denise V; Odermatt, Alex; Bouitbir, Jamal; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Statins are generally well tolerated, but treatment with these drugs may be associated with myopathy. The mechanisms of statin-associated myopathy are not completely understood. Statins inhibit AKT phosphorylation by an unclear mechanism, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) activates the IGF-1/AKT signaling pathway and promotes muscle growth. The aims of the study were to investigate mechanisms of impaired AKT phosphorylation by simvastatin and to assess effects of IGF-1 on simvastatin-induced myotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 mouse myotubes were exposed to 10 μM simvastatin and/or 10 ng/mL IGF-1 for 18 h. Simvastatin inhibited the IGF-1/AKT signaling pathway, resulting in increased breakdown of myofibrillar proteins, impaired protein synthesis and increased apoptosis. Simvastatin inhibited AKT S473 phosphorylation, indicating reduced activity of mTORC2. In addition, simvastatin impaired stimulation of AKT T308 phosphorylation by IGF-1, indicating reduced activation of the IGF-1R/PI3K pathway by IGF-1. Nevertheless, simvastatin-induced myotoxicity could be at least partially prevented by IGF-1. The protective effects of IGF-1 were mediated by activation of the IGF-1R/AKT signaling cascade. Treatment with IGF-1 also suppressed muscle atrophy markers, restored protein synthesis and inhibited apoptosis. These results were confirmed by normalization of myotube morphology and protein content of C2C12 cells exposed to simvastatin and treated with IGF-1. In conclusion, impaired activity of AKT can be explained by reduced function of mTORC2 and of the IGF-1R/PI3K pathway. IGF-1 can prevent simvastatin-associated cytotoxicity and metabolic effects on C2C12 cells. The study gives insight into mechanisms of simvastatin-associated myotoxicity and provides potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  10. The cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and regulates myostatin gene expression in skeletal myoblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, R.; Fuentes, E.N.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •IGF-1 induces the activation of CREB via IGF-1R/PI3K/PLC signaling pathway. •Calcium dependent signaling pathways regulate myostatin gene expression. •IGF-1 regulates myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription in skeletal myoblast. -- Abstract: Myostatin, a member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. We have previously reported that IGF-1 induces a transient myostatin mRNA expression, through the activation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) in an IP 3 /calcium-dependent manner. Here we examined the activation of CREB transcription factor as downstream targets of IGF-1 during myoblast differentiation and its role as a regulator of myostatin gene expression. In cultured skeletal myoblast, IGF-1 induced the phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB via IGF-1 Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Phospholipase C gamma (PLC γ), signaling pathways. Also, IGF-1 induced calcium-dependent molecules such as Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II), Extracellular signal-regulated Kinases (ERK), Protein Kinase C (PKC). Additionally, we examined myostatin mRNA levels and myostatin promoter activity in differentiated myoblasts stimulated with IGF-1. We found a significant increase in mRNA contents of myostatin and its reporter activity after treatment with IGF-1. The expression of myostatin in differentiated myoblast was downregulated by the transfection of siRNA–CREB and by pharmacological inhibitors of the signaling pathways involved in CREB activation. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches together these data demonstrate that IGF-1 regulates the myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation

  11. The cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and regulates myostatin gene expression in skeletal myoblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuloaga, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Fuentes, E.N.; Molina, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Víctor Lamas 1290, PO Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Valdés, J.A., E-mail: jvaldes@unab.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Víctor Lamas 1290, PO Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •IGF-1 induces the activation of CREB via IGF-1R/PI3K/PLC signaling pathway. •Calcium dependent signaling pathways regulate myostatin gene expression. •IGF-1 regulates myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription in skeletal myoblast. -- Abstract: Myostatin, a member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. We have previously reported that IGF-1 induces a transient myostatin mRNA expression, through the activation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) in an IP{sub 3}/calcium-dependent manner. Here we examined the activation of CREB transcription factor as downstream targets of IGF-1 during myoblast differentiation and its role as a regulator of myostatin gene expression. In cultured skeletal myoblast, IGF-1 induced the phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB via IGF-1 Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Phospholipase C gamma (PLC γ), signaling pathways. Also, IGF-1 induced calcium-dependent molecules such as Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II), Extracellular signal-regulated Kinases (ERK), Protein Kinase C (PKC). Additionally, we examined myostatin mRNA levels and myostatin promoter activity in differentiated myoblasts stimulated with IGF-1. We found a significant increase in mRNA contents of myostatin and its reporter activity after treatment with IGF-1. The expression of myostatin in differentiated myoblast was downregulated by the transfection of siRNA–CREB and by pharmacological inhibitors of the signaling pathways involved in CREB activation. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches together these data demonstrate that IGF-1 regulates the myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation.

  12. Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling enhances growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of gefitinib (Iressa) in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camirand, Anne; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Young, Fiona; Pollak, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Gefitinib (Iressa, ZD 1839, AstraZeneca) blocks the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and inhibits proliferation of several human cancer cell types including breast cancer. Phase II clinical trials with gefitinib monotherapy showed an objective response of 9 to 19% in non-small-cell lung cancer patients and less than 10% for breast cancer, and phase III results have indicated no benefit of gefitinib in combination with chemotherapy over chemotherapy alone. In order to improve the antineoplastic activity of gefitinib, we investigated the effects of blocking the signalling of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), a tyrosine kinase with a crucial role in malignancy that is coexpressed with EGFR in most human primary breast carcinomas. AG1024 (an inhibitor of IGF-1R) was used with gefitinib for treatment of MDA468, MDA231, SK-BR-3, and MCF-7 breast cancer lines, which express similar levels of IGF-1R but varying levels of EGFR. Proliferation assays, apoptosis induction studies, and Western blot analyses were conducted with cells treated with AG1024 and gefitinib as single agents and in combination. Gefitinib and AG1024 reduced proliferation in all lines when used as single agents, and when used in combination revealed an additive-to-synergistic effect on cell growth inhibition. Flow cytometry measurements of cells stained with annexin V-propidium iodide and cells stained for caspase-3 activation indicated that adding an IGF-1R-targeting strategy to gefitinib results in higher levels of apoptosis than are achieved with gefitinib alone. Gefitinib either reduced or completely inhibited p42/p44 Erk kinase phosphorylation, depending on the cell line, while Akt phosphorylation was reduced by a combination of the two agents. Overexpression of IGF-1R in SK-BR-3 cells was sufficient to cause a marked enhancement in gefitinib resistance. These results indicate that IGF-1R signaling reduces the antiproliferative effects of

  13. When Bcl-2 Is Absent, Anti-IGF1R Antibody Is Effective | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of new agents being developed to treat cancer are able to kill cancer cells and cause tumor regression, but the mechanisms by which these drugs act, and the biological processes by which they induce cancer cell death are not clear. Understanding which pathways and proteins are influenced by an agent may help predict tumor responses and refine treatment regimens.

  14. Cross-talk between IGF-1 and estrogen receptors attenuates intracellular changes in ventral spinal cord 4.1 motoneuron cells due to interferon-gamma exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookyoung; Nozaki, Kenkichi; Smith, Joshua A.; Krause, James S.; Banik, Naren L.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neuroprotective growth factor that promotes neuronal survival by inhibition of apoptosis. In order to examine whether IGF-1 exerts cytoprotective effects against extracellular inflammatory stimulation, ventral spinal cord 4.1 (VSC4.1) motoneuron cells were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Our data demonstrated apoptotic changes, increased calpain:calpastatin and Bax:Bcl-2 ratios, and expression of apoptosis related proteases (caspase-3 and −12) in motoneurons rendered by IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. Post-treatment with IGF-1 attenuated these changes. In addition, IGF-1 treatment of motoneurons exposed to IFN-γ decreased expression of inflammatory markers (cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-kappa B:inhibitor of kappa B ratio). Furthermore, IGF-1 attenuated the loss of expression of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rα and IGF-1Rβ) and estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) induced by IFN-γ. To determine whether the protective effects of IGF-1 are associated with ERs, ERs antagonist ICI and selective siRNA targeted against ERα and ERβ were used in VSC4.1 motoneurons. Distinctive morphological changes were observed following siRNA knockdown of ERα and ERβ. In particular, apoptotic cell death assessed by TUNEL assay was enhanced in both ERα and ERβ-silenced VSC4.1 motoneurons following IFN-γ and IGF-1 exposure. These results suggest that IGF-1 protects motoneurons from inflammatory insult by a mechanism involving pivotal interactions with ERα and ERβ. PMID:24188094

  15. Cross-talk between IGF-1 and estrogen receptors attenuates intracellular changes in ventral spinal cord 4.1 motoneuron cells because of interferon-gamma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookyoung; Nozaki, Kenkichi; Smith, Joshua A; Krause, James S; Banik, Naren L

    2014-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neuroprotective growth factor that promotes neuronal survival by inhibition of apoptosis. To examine whether IGF-1 exerts cytoprotective effects against extracellular inflammatory stimulation, ventral spinal cord 4.1 (VSC4.1) motoneuron cells were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Our data demonstrated apoptotic changes, increased calpain:calpastatin and Bax:Bcl-2 ratios, and expression of apoptosis-related proteases (caspase-3 and -12) in motoneurons rendered by IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. Post-treatment with IGF-1 attenuated these changes. In addition, IGF-1 treatment of motoneurons exposed to IFN-γ decreased expression of inflammatory markers (cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-kappa B:inhibitor of kappa B ratio). Furthermore, IGF-1 attenuated the loss of expression of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rα and IGF-1Rβ) and estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) induced by IFN-γ. To determine whether the protective effects of IGF-1 are associated with ERs, ERs antagonist ICI and selective siRNA targeted against ERα and ERβ were used in VSC4.1 motoneurons. Distinctive morphological changes were observed following siRNA knockdown of ERα and ERβ. In particular, apoptotic cell death assessed by TUNEL assay was enhanced in both ERα and ERβ-silenced VSC4.1 motoneurons following IFN-γ and IGF-1 exposure. These results suggest that IGF-1 protects motoneurons from inflammatory insult by a mechanism involving pivotal interactions with ERα and ERβ. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. c-kitpos GATA-4 high rat cardiac stem cells foster adult cardiomyocyte survival through IGF-1 paracrine signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanako Kawaguchi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resident c-kit positive (c-kitpos cardiac stem cells (CSCs could be considered the most appropriate cell type for myocardial regeneration therapies. However, much is still unknown regarding their biological properties and potential.We produced clones of high and low expressing GATA-4 CSCs from long-term bulk-cultured c-kitpos CSCs isolated from adult rat hearts. When c-kitpos GATA-4 high expressing clonal CSCs (cCSCs were co-cultured with adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, we observed increased survival and contractility of the cardiomyocytes, compared to cardiomyocytes cultured alone, co-cultured with fibroblasts or c-kitpos GATA-4 low expressing cCSCs. When analysed by ELISA, the concentration of IGF-1 was significantly increased in the c-kitpos GATA-4 high cCSC/cardiomyocyte co-cultures and there was a significant correlation between IGF-1 concentration and cardiomyocyte survival. We showed the activation of the IGF-1 receptor and its downstream molecular targets in cardiomyocytes co-cultured with c-kitpos GATA-4 high cCSCs but not in cardiomyocytes that were cultured alone, co-cultured with fibroblasts or c-kitpos GATA-4 low cCSCs. Addition of a blocking antibody specific to the IGF-1 receptor inhibited the survival of cardiomyocytes and prevented the activation of its signalling in cardiomyocytes in the c-kitpos GATA-4 high cCSC/cardiomyocyte co-culture system. IGF-1 supplementation or IGF-1 high conditioned medium taken from the co-culture of c-kitpos GATA-4 high cCSCs plus cardiomyocytes did extend the survival and contractility of cardiomyocytes cultured alone and cardiomyocytes co-cultured with c-kitpos GATA-4 low cCSCs.c-kitpos GATA-4 high cCSCs exert a paracrine survival effect on cardiomyocytes through induction of the IGF-1R and signalling pathway.

  17. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) That Signal via Protein Kinase A (PKA) Cross-talk at Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS1) to Activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Nathan C; White, Morris F; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary E

    2016-12-30

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activate PI3K/v-AKT thymoma viral oncoprotein (AKT) to regulate many cellular functions that promote cell survival, proliferation, and growth. However, the mechanism by which GPCRs activate PI3K/AKT remains poorly understood. We used ovarian preantral granulosa cells (GCs) to elucidate the mechanism by which the GPCR agonist FSH via PKA activates the PI3K/AKT cascade. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is secreted in an autocrine/paracrine manner by GCs and activates the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) but, in the absence of FSH, fails to stimulate YXXM phosphorylation of IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) required for PI3K/AKT activation. We show that PKA directly phosphorylates the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunit myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) to activate PP1 associated with the IGF1R-IRS1 complex. Activated PP1 is sufficient to dephosphorylate at least four IRS1 Ser residues, Ser 318 , Ser 346 , Ser 612 , and Ser 789 , and promotes IRS1 YXXM phosphorylation by the IGF1R to activate the PI3K/AKT cascade. Additional experiments indicate that this mechanism also occurs in breast cancer, thyroid, and preovulatory granulosa cells, suggesting that the PKA-dependent dephosphorylation of IRS1 Ser/Thr residues is a conserved mechanism by which GPCRs signal to activate the PI3K/AKT pathway downstream of the IGF1R. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Crosstalk between TEMs and endothelial cells modulates angiogenesis and metastasis via IGF1-IGF1R signalling in epithelial ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xinjing; Zhu, Qinyi; Lin, Yingying; Wu, Li; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Kai; He, Qizhi; Xu, Congjian; Wan, Xiaoping; Wang, Xipeng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death from gynaecologic malignancies and has a poor prognosis due to metastasis. Drugs targeting the angiogenesis pathway significantly improve patient outcome. However, the key factors linking angiogenesis and metastasis have not been elucidated. In this study, we found Tie2 expressing monocytes (CD14+Tie2+, TEMs) as key contributors to angiogenesis and metastasis of EOC. Methods: Tissue slides were evaluated by immunofluore...

  19. Effects of age and insulin-like growth factor-1 on rat neurotrophin receptor expression after nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, T David; Alton, Timothy B; Apel, Peter J; Cai, Jiaozhong; Barnwell, Jonathan C; Sonntag, William E; Smith, Thomas L; Li, Zhongyu

    2016-10-01

    Neurotrophin receptors, such as p75(NTR) , direct neuronal response to injury. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) mediates the increase in p75(NTR) during aging. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aging and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) treatment on recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Young and aged rats underwent tibial nerve transection with either local saline or IGF-1 treatment. Neurotrophin receptor mRNA and protein expression were quantified. Aged rats expressed elevated baseline IGF-1R (34% higher, P = 0.01) and p75(NTR) (68% higher, P < 0.01) compared with young rats. Post-injury, aged animals expressed significantly higher p75(NTR) levels (68.5% above baseline at 4 weeks). IGF-1 treatment suppressed p75(NTR) gene expression at 4 weeks (17.2% above baseline, P = 0.002) post-injury. Local IGF-1 treatment reverses age-related declines in recovery after peripheral nerve injuries by suppressing p75(NTR) upregulation and pro-apoptotic complexes. IGF-1 may be considered a viable adjuvant therapy to current treatment modalities. Muscle Nerve 54: 769-775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. IGF-1 and insulin as growth hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2004-01-01

    IGF-1 generated in the liver is the anabolic effector and linear growth promoting hormone of the pituitary growth hormone (GH). This is evidenced by dwarfism in states of congenital IGF-1 deficiency, Igf1 gene mutation/deletions or knockouts, and in Laron syndrome (LS), due to GH receptor gene mutations/deletions or IGF-1 receptor blocking. In a positive way, daily IGF-1 administration to stunted patients with LS or hGH gene deletion accelerates linear growth velocity. IGF-1 acts on the proliferative cells of the epiphyseal cartilage. IGF-1 also induces organ and tissue growth; its absence causing organomicria. Insulin shares a common ancestry with IGF-1 and with 45% amino acid homology, as well as very close relationships in the structure of its receptors and post-receptor cascade, also acts as a growth hormone. It has protein anabolic activity and stimulates IGF-1 synthesis. Pancreas agenesis causes short babies, and obese children with hyperinsulinism, with or without pituitary GH, have an accelerated growth rate and skeletal maturation; so do babies with macrosomia. Whether the insulin growth effect is direct, or mediated by IGF-1 or leptin is controversial.

  1. The association of TP53 mutations with the resistance of colorectal carcinoma to the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitor picropodophyllin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Quan; Wei, Feng; Lv, Guoyue; Li, Chunsheng; Liu, Tongjun; Hadjipanayis, Costas G; Zhang, Guikai; Hao, Chunhai; Bellail, Anita C

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence indicating the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays a critical role in the progression of human colorectal carcinomas. IGF-1R is an attractive drug target for the treatment of colon cancer. Picropodophyllin (PPP), of the cyclolignan family, has recently been identified as an IGF-1R inhibitor. The aim of this study is to determine the therapeutic response and mechanism after colorectal carcinoma treatment with PPP. Seven colorectal carcinoma cell lines were treated with PPP. Following treatment, cells were analyzed for growth by a cell viability assay, sub-G1 apoptosis by flow cytometry, caspase cleavage and activation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by western blot analysis. To examine the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of PPP, mice implanted with human colorectal carcinoma xenografts underwent PPP treatment. PPP treatment blocked the phosphorylation of IGF-1R, AKT and ERK and inhibited the growth of TP53 wild-type but not mutated colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The treatment of PPP also induced apoptosis in TP53 wild-type cells as evident by the presence of sub-G1 cells and the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, DNA fragmentation factor-45 (DFF45), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). The loss of BAD phosphorylation in the PPP-treated TP53 wild type cells further suggested that the treatment induced apoptosis through the BAD-mediated mitochondrial pathway. In contrast, PPP treatment failed to induce the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK and caspase cleavage in TP53 mutated colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Finally, PPP treatment suppressed the growth of xenografts derived from TP53 wild type but not mutated colorectal carcinoma cells. We report the association of TP53 mutations with the resistance of treatment of colorectal carcinoma cells in culture and in a xenograft mouse model with the IGF-1R inhibitor PPP. TP53 mutations often occur in colorectal

  2. Insulin, IGF-1, and GH Receptors Are Altered in an Adipose Tissue Depot-Specific Manner in Male Mice With Modified GH Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Berryman, Darlene E; Comisford, Ross; Frank, Stuart J; List, Edward O; Bjerre, Mette; Frystyk, Jan; Kopchick, John J

    2017-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a determinant of glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue (AT) function. Using 7-month-old transgenic mice expressing the bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene and growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-/-) mice, we examined whether changes in GH action affect glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance and AT expression of proteins involved in the interrelated signaling pathways of GH, insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin. Furthermore, we searched for AT depot-specific differences in control mice. Glycated hemoglobin levels were reduced in bGH and GHR-/- mice, and bGH mice displayed impaired gluconeogenesis as judged by pyruvate tolerance testing. Serum IGF-1 was elevated by 90% in bGH mice, whereas IGF-1 and insulin were reduced by 97% and 61% in GHR-/- mice, respectively. Igf1 RNA was increased in subcutaneous, epididymal, retroperitoneal, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots in bGH mice (mean increase ± standard error of the mean in all five depots, 153% ± 27%) and decreased in all depots in GHR-/- mice (mean decrease, 62% ± 4%). IGF-1 receptor expression was decreased in all AT depots of bGH mice (mean decrease, 49% ± 6%) and increased in all AT depots of GHR-/- mice (mean increase, 94% ± 8%). Insulin receptor expression was reduced in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and BAT depots in bGH mice (mean decrease in all depots, 56% ± 4%) and augmented in subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and BAT depots in GHR-/- mice (mean increase: 51% ± 1%). Collectively, our findings indicate a role for GH in influencing hormone signaling in AT in a depot-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  3. Cyclic-glycine-proline accelerates mammary involution by promoting apoptosis and inhibiting IGF-1 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Mallah, Gagandeep; McMahon, Christopher D; Guan, Jian; Singh, Kuljeet

    2017-12-01

    In rodents, post-lactational involution of mammary glands is characterized by the loss of mammary epithelial cells via apoptosis, which is associated with a decline in the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Overexpression of IGF-1 delays involution by inhibiting apoptosis of epithelial cells and preserving the remaining secretory alveoli. Cyclic-glycine-proline (cGP), a metabolite of IGF-1, normalizes IGF-1 function under pathological conditions by regulating the bioavailability of IGF-1. The present study investigated the effect of cGP on the physiological decline in IGF-1 function during post-lactational mammary involution. Rat dams were gavaged with either cGP (3 mg/kg) or saline once per day from post-natal d8-22. Before collecting tissue on post-natal d23, a pair of mammary glands were sealed on d20 (72 hr-engorgement, thus representative of late-involution) and d22 (24 hr-engorgement, thus representative of mid-involution), while the remaining glands were allowed to involute naturally (early-involution). During early-involution, cGP accelerated the loss of mammary cells through apoptosis, resulting in an earlier clearance of intact secretory alveoli compared with the control group. This coincided with an earlier up-regulation of the cell survival factors, Bcl-xl and IGF-1R, in the early-involution cGP glands compared with the control glands. During late-involution, cGP reduced the bioactivity of IGF-1, which was evident through decreased phosphorylation of IGF-1R in the regressed alveoli. Maternal administration of cGP did not alter milk production and composition during early-, peak-, or late-stage of lactation. These data show that cGP accelerates post-lactational involution by promoting apoptosis and the physiological decline in IGF-1 function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparisons of mRNA expression for insulin-like growth factor (IGF) type 2 receptor (IGF2R) and IGF-1 in small ovarian follicles between cattle selected and not selected for twin ovulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both IGF-1 and -2 stimulate ovarian follicular cell proliferation and antral follicle development. Actions of IGF-1 and -2 are mediated through the IGF type 1 receptor, whereas binding of IGF-2 to the IGF2R results in its degradation. Information on the role of IGF2R in regulating bovine follicula...

  5. MicroRNA-375 Inhibits Growth and Enhances Radiosensitivity in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Targeting Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs have emerged as key players in various human biological processes, including tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the roles of miR-375 in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Methods: We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to detect miR-375 expression in OSCC tissues and corresponding normal oral epithelial tissues and analyze the correlation of miR-375 expression with OSCC metastasis and patient’s survival. Then, the effects of miR-375 expression on proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and radiosensitivity in OSCC cells were determined by using MTT, flow cytometry and clonogenic survival assays. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to test whether miR-375 binds to the 3’-untranslated region (3’-UTR of target mRNA. Results: The expression level of miR-375 in OSCC tissues was significantly lower than that in normal oral epithelial tissues, and low miR-375 expression was correlated with higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and poor survival of OSCC patients. Upregulation of miR-375 significantly inhibits growth, induces cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, increases apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity in OSCC cells. Analysis of luciferase activity demonstrated that miR-375 binds to the 3’-UTR of insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R. Small interfering RNA (shRNA-mediated IGF-1R knockdown mimics the effects of miR-375 upregulation, while overexpression of IGF-1R partially reverses those effects in OSCC cells. Conclusion: It was obviously demonstrated that miRNA-375 inhibits growth and enhances radiosensitivity in OSCC cells by targeting IGF-1R, suggesting that miR-375 may be a potential therapeutic target for OSCC patients.

  6. Heat shock protein 90-sheltered overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor contributes to malignancy of thymic epithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinig, Marco; Mayer, Philipp; Harjung, Andreas; Goeppert, Benjamin; Malz, Mona; Penzel, Roland; Neumann, Olaf; Hartmann, Arndt; Dienemann, Hendrik; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Schirmacher, Peter; Kern, Michael André; Chiosis, Gabriela; Rieker, Ralf Joachim

    2011-04-15

    The underlying molecular mechanisms of thymic epithelial malignancies (TEMs) are poorly understood. Consequently, there is a lack of efficacious targeted therapies and patient prognosis remains dismal, particularly for advanced TEMs. We sought to investigate protumorigenic mechanism relevant to this understudied cancer. Recently established cell lines derived from thymic epithelial tumors were used as a model system. The antitumor activity of specific heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors was investigated by an analysis of cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis using MTT-assays and flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to investigate the altered expression of Hsp90 clients. Pharmacological inhibitors against select Hsp90 clients, as well as RNAi, were employed to test the relevance of each client independently. Tissue microarray analysis was performed to match the in vitro findings with observations obtained from patient-derived samples. Hsp90 inhibition significantly reduces cell viability of thymic carcinoma cells, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and blocks invasiveness. Hsp90 inhibition triggers the degradation of multiple oncogenic clients, for example insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), CDK4, and the inactivation of PI3K/Akt and RAF/Erk signaling. Mechanistically, the IGF/IGF-1R-signaling axis contributes to the establishment of the antiapoptotic phenotype of thymic cancer cells. Finally, IGF-1R is overexpressed in advanced TEMs. We have unraveled a novel protumorigenic mechanism in TEMs, namely Hsp90-capacitated overexpression of IGF-1R, which confers apoptosis evasion in malignant thymic epithelial cells. Our data indicate that Hsp90 inhibition, which simultaneously blocks multiple cancer hallmarks, represents a therapeutic strategy in TEMs that may merit evaluation in clinical trials. ©2011 AACR.

  7. Self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells requires insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and ERBB2 receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Schulz, Thomas C.; Sherrer, Eric S.; Dauphin, Derek S.; Shin, Soojung; Nelson, Angelique M.; Ware, Carol B.; Zhan, Mei; Song, Chao-Zhong; Chen, Xiaoji; Brimble, Sandii N.; McLean, Amanda; Galeano, Maria J.; Uhl, Elizabeth W.; D'Amour, Kevin A.; Chesnut, Jonathan D.; Rao, Mahendra S.

    2007-01-01

    Despite progress in developing defined conditions for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) cultures, little is known about the cell-surface receptors that are activated under conditions supportive of hESC self-renewal. A simultaneous interrogation of 42 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in hESCs following stimulation with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) conditioned medium (CM) revealed rapid and prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R); less prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members, including ERBB2 and ERBB3; and trace phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptors. Intense IGF1R and IR phosphorylation occurred in the absence of MEF conditioning (NCM) and was attributable to high concentrations of insulin in the proprietary KnockOut Serum Replacer (KSR). Inhibition of IGF1R using a blocking antibody or lentivirus-delivered shRNA reduced hESC self-renewal and promoted differentiation, while disruption of ERBB2 signaling with the selective inhibitor AG825 severely inhibited hESC proliferation and promoted apoptosis. A simple defined medium containing an IGF1 analog, heregulin-1β (a ligand for ERBB2/ERBB3), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and activin A supported long-term growth of multiple hESC lines. These studies identify previously unappreciated RTKs that support hESC proliferation and self-renewal, and provide a rationally designed medium for the growth and maintenance of pluripotent hESCs. PMID:17761519

  8. Transgenic Wuzhishan minipigs designed to express a dominant-negative porcine growth hormone receptor display small stature and a perturbed insulin/IGF-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feida; Li, Yong; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xingju; Liu, Chuxin; Tian, Kai; Bolund, Lars; Dou, Hongwei; Yang, Wenxian; Yang, Huanming; Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Du, Yutao

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic mitogen with widespread influence on cellular growth and differentiation as well as on glucose and lipid metabolism. GH binding to the growth hormone receptor (GHR) on hepatocytes prompts expression of insulin growth factor I (IGF-1) involved in nutritionally induced compensatory hyperplasia of pancreatic β-cell islets and insulin release. A prolonged hyperactivity of the IGF-1/insulin axis in the face of insulinotropic nutrition, on the other hand, can lead to collapse of the pancreatic islets and glucose intolerance. Individuals with Laron syndrome carry mutations in the GHR gene resulting in severe congenital IGF-1 deficiency and elevated GH serum levels leading to short stature as well as perturbed lipid and glucose metabolism. However, these individuals enjoy a reduced prevalence of acne, cancer and possibly diabetes. Minipigs have become important biomedical models for human conditions due to similarities in organ anatomy, physiology, and metabolism relative to humans. The purpose of this study was to generate transgenic Wuzhishan minipigs by handmade cloning with impaired systemic GHR activity and assess their growth profile and glucose metabolism. Transgenic minipigs featuring overexpression of a dominant-negative porcine GHR (GHR(dm)) presented postnatal growth retardation and proportionate dwarfism. Molecular changes included elevated GH serum levels and mild hyperglycemia. We believe that this model may prove valuable in the study of GH functions in relation to cancer, diabetes and longevity.

  9. IGF-1 induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Stat5 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanzong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ben; Sun, Qi; He, Zhaobin; Hong, Jianguo; Kuehn, Florian; Liu, Enyu; Zhang, Zongli

    2017-12-19

    It has been reported that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and EMT of HCC was not fully elucidated. In the present work, we found that the expression of N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1, Snail2, and Twist1 was positively associated with IGF-1R expression, while E-cadherin expression was negatively associated with IGF-1 expression in human HCC samples. Furthermore, we observed that IGF-1 up-regulated the expression of N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1, Snail2 and Twist1, and down-regulated the expression of E-cadherin. In addition, Stat5 was induced in IGF-1-treated HepG2 and Hep3B cells, and Stat5 inhibition or siRNA significantly affected IGF-1-induced EMT in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. In conclusion, IGF-1 induces EMT of HCC via Stat5 signaling pathway. Thus, IGF-1/Stat5 can be recommended as a potential and novel therapeutic strategy for HCC patients.

  10. Insulin-like growth factor type-1 receptor down-regulation associated with dwarfism in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J W; Elsasser, T H; Greger, D L; Wittenberg, S; de Vries, F; Distl, O

    2007-10-01

    Perturbations in endocrine functions can impact normal growth. Endocrine traits were studied in three dwarf calves exhibiting retarded but proportionate growth and four phenotypically normal half-siblings, sired by the same bull, and four unrelated control calves. Plasma 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations in dwarfs and half-siblings were in the physiological range and responded normally to injected thyroid-releasing hormone. Plasma glucagon concentrations were different (dwarfs, controls>half-siblings; Pcontrols, Pcontrols, P=0.08). Responses of GH to xylazine and to a GH-releasing-factor analogue were similar in dwarfs and half-siblings. Relative gene expression of IGF-1, IGF-2, GH receptor (GHR), insulin receptor, IGF-1 type-1 and -2 receptors (IGF-1R, IGF-2R), and IGF binding proteins were measured in liver and anconeus muscle. GHR mRNA levels were different in liver (dwarfsdwarfism in studied calves.

  11. Anti-pancreatic cancer activity of ONC212 involves the unfolded protein response (UPR) and is reduced by IGF1-R and GRP78/BIP

    OpenAIRE

    Lev, Avital; Lulla, Amriti R.; Wagner, Jessica; Ralff, Marie D.; Kiehl, Joshua B.; Zhou, Yan; Benes, Cyril H.; Prabhu, Varun V.; Oster, Wolfgang; Astsaturov, Igor; Dicker, David T.; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is chemo-resistant and metastasizes early with an overall five-year survival of ∼8.2%. First-in-class imipridone ONC201 is a small molecule in clinical trials with anti-cancer activity. ONC212, a fluorinated-ONC201 analogue, shows preclinical efficacy in melanoma and hepatocellular-cancer models. We investigated efficacy of ONC201 and ONC212 against pancreatic cancer cell lines (N=16 including 9 PDX-cell lines). We demonstrate ONC212 efficacy in 4 in-vivo models including ON...

  12. The GH-IGF1 axis and longevity. The paradigm of IGF1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2008-01-01

    Primary or secondary IGF1 deficiency has been implicated in shortening of lifespan. This paper reviews available data on the influence of IGF1 deficiency on lifespan and longevity in animals and man. It has been shown that inactivation of the IGF1 gene or of the GH receptor in both invertebrates (C-elegans, flies-Drosphila) and rodents (mice and rats), leading to IGF1 deficiency, prolong life, particularly in females. In man, evaluation of the 2 largest cohorts of patients with Laron syndrome (inactive GH receptor resulting in IGF1 deficiency) in Israel and Ecuador revealed that despite their dwarfism and marked obesity, patients are alive at the ages of 75-78 years, with some having reached even more advanced ages. It is assumed that a major contributing factor is their protection from cancer, a major cause of death in the general population.

  13. Adenovirus E4-ORF1 Dysregulates Epidermal Growth Factor and Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptors To Mediate Constitutive Myc Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Kathleen; Kumar, Manish; Taruishi, Midori; Javier, Ronald T.

    2015-01-01

    The E4-ORF1 protein encoded by human adenovirus stimulates viral replication in human epithelial cells by binding and activating cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) at the plasma membrane and cellular Myc in the nucleus. In this study, we showed that E4-ORF1 hijacks the tyrosine kinase activities of cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and insulin receptor (InsR)/insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R), as well as the lipid kinase activity of PI3K, to mediate const...

  14. MicroRNA-133a suppresses multiple oncogenic membrane receptors and cell invasion in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Kai Wang

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs cause high mortality worldwide, and the cancer progression can be activated by several genetic events causing receptor dysregulation, including mutation or amplification. MicroRNAs are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules that function in gene silencing and have emerged as the fine-tuning regulators during cancer progression. MiR-133a is known as a key regulator in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, and it acts as a tumor suppressor in various cancers. This study demonstrates that miR-133a expression negatively correlates with cell invasiveness in both transformed normal bronchial epithelial cells and lung cancer cell lines. The oncogenic receptors in lung cancer cells, including insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R, TGF-beta receptor type-1 (TGFBR1, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, are direct targets of miR-133a. MiR-133a can inhibit cell invasiveness and cell growth through suppressing the expressions of IGF-1R, TGFBR1 and EGFR, which then influences the downstream signaling in lung cancer cell lines. The cell invasive ability is suppressed in IGF-1R- and TGFBR1-repressed cells and this phenomenon is mediated through AKT signaling in highly invasive cell lines. In addition, by using the in vivo animal model, we find that ectopically-expressing miR-133a dramatically suppresses the metastatic ability of lung cancer cells. Accordingly, patients with NSCLCs who have higher expression levels of miR-133a have longer survival rates compared with those who have lower miR-133a expression levels. In summary, we identified the tumor suppressor role of miR-133a in lung cancer outcome prognosis, and we demonstrated that it targets several membrane receptors, which generally produce an activating signaling network during the progression of lung cancer.

  15. Differential expression of growth factor receptors and membrane-bound tumor markers for imaging in male and female breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen F Vermeulen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Male breast cancer accounts for 0.5-1% of all breast cancers and is generally diagnosed at higher stage than female breast cancers and therefore might benefit from earlier detection and targeted therapy. Except for HER2 and EGFR, little is known about expression of growth factor receptors in male breast cancer. We therefore investigated expression profiles of growth factor receptors and membrane-bound tumor markers in male breast cancer and gynecomastia, in comparison with female breast cancer. METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing 133 male breast cancer and 32 gynecomastia cases were stained by immunohistochemistry for a panel of membrane-bound targets and compared with data on 266 female breast cancers. RESULTS: Growth factor receptors were variably expressed in 4.5% (MET up to 38.5% (IGF1-R of male breast cancers. Compared to female breast cancer, IGF1-R and carbonic anhydrase 12 (CAXII were more frequently and CD44v6, MET and FGFR2 less frequently expressed in male breast cancer. Expression of EGFR, HER2, CAIX, and GLUT1 was not significantly different between male and female breast cancer. Further, 48.1% of male breast cancers expressed at least one and 18.0% expressed multiple growth factor receptors. Since individual membrane receptors are expressed in only half of male breast cancers, a panel of membrane markers will be required for molecular imaging strategies to reach sensitivity. A potential panel of markers for molecular imaging, consisting of EGFR, IGF1-R, FGFR2, CD44v6, CAXII, GLUT1, and CD44v6 was positive in 77% of male breast cancers, comparable to female breast cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Expression patterns of growth factor receptors and hypoxia membrane proteins in male breast cancer are different from female breast cancer. For molecular imaging strategies, a putative panel consisting of markers for EGFR, IGF1-R, FGFR2, GLUT1, CAXII, CD44v6 was positive in 77% of cases and might be considered for development of

  16. Anabolic effects of IGF-1 signaling on the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahimic, Candice G. T.; Wang, Yongmei; Bikle, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the anabolic effects of IGF-1 signaling on the skeleton, emphasizing the requirement for IGF-1 signaling in normal bone formation and remodeling. We first discuss the genomic context, splicing variants, and species conservation of the IGF-1 locus. The modulation of IGF-1 action by growth hormone (GH) is then reviewed while also discussing the current model which takes into account the GH-independent actions of IGF-1. Next, the skeletal phenotypes of IGF-1-deficient animals are described in both embryonic and postnatal stages of development, which include severe dwarfism and an undermineralized skeleton. We then highlight two mechanisms by which IGF-1 exerts its anabolic action on the skeleton. Firstly, the role of IGF-1 signaling in the modulation of anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone will be discussed, presenting in vitro and in vivo studies that establish this concept and the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms involving Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and the ephrins. Secondly, the crosstalk of IGF-1 signaling with mechanosensing pathways will be discussed, beginning with the observation that animals subjected to skeletal unloading by hindlimb elevation are unable to mitigate cessation of bone growth despite infusion with IGF-1 and the failure of IGF-1 to activate its receptor in bone marrow stromal cell cultures from unloaded bone. Disrupted crosstalk between IGF-1 signaling and the integrin mechanotransduction pathways is discussed as one of the potential mechanisms for this IGF-1 resistance. Next, emerging paradigms on bone-muscle crosstalk are examined, focusing on the potential role of IGF-1 signaling in modulating such interactions. Finally, we present a future outlook on IGF research. PMID:23382729

  17. Identification of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) as a downstream target for IGF1 action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Karthik; Lapkina-Gendler, Lena; Sarfstein, Rive; Gurwitz, David; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Laron, Zvi; Yakar, Shoshana; Werner, Haim

    2018-01-30

    Laron syndrome (LS), or primary growth hormone (GH) insensitivity, is the best-characterized entity among the congenital insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) deficiencies. Life-long exposure to minute endogenous IGF1 levels is linked to low stature as well as a number of endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. While elevated IGF1 is correlated with increased cancer incidence, epidemiological studies revealed that patients with LS do not develop tumors. The mechanisms associated with cancer protection in LS are yet to be discovered. Recent genomic analyses identified a series of metabolic genes that are overrepresented in patients with LS. Given the augmented expression of these genes in a low IGF1 milieu, we hypothesized that they may constitute targets for IGF1 action. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) plays a critical role in cellular redox control by thioredoxin. TXNIP serves as a glucose and oxidative stress sensor, being commonly silenced by genetic or epigenetic events in cancer cells. Consistent with its enhanced expression in LS, we provide evidence that TXNIP gene expression is negatively regulated by IGF1. These results were corroborated in animal studies. In addition, we show that oxidative and glucose stresses led to marked increases in TXNIP expression. Supplementation of IGF1 attenuated TXNIP levels, suggesting that IGF1 exerts its antiapoptotic effect via inhibition of TXNIP Augmented TXNIP expression in LS may account for cancer protection in this condition. Finally, TXNIP levels could be potentially useful in the clinic as a predictive or diagnostic biomarker for IGF1R-targeted therapies.

  18. IGF-1 facilitates thrombopoiesis primarily through Akt activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shilei; Hu, Mengjia; Shen, Mingqiang; Wang, Song; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Fang; Tang, Yong; Wang, Xinmiao; Zeng, Hao; Chen, Mo; Gao, Jining; Wang, Fengchao; Su, Yongping; Xu, Yang; Wang, Junping

    2018-05-25

    It is known that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) also functions as a hematopoietic factor, while its direct effect on thrombopoiesis remains unclear. In this study, we show that IGF-1 is able to promote CD34+ cell differentiation toward megakaryocytes (MKs), as well as the facilitation of proplatelet formation (PPF) and platelet production from cultured MKs. The in vivo study demonstrates that IGF-1 administration accelerates platelet recovery in mice after 6.0Gy of irradiation and in mice that received bone marrow transplantation (BMT) following 10.0Gy of lethal irradiation. Subsequent investigations reveal that ERK1/2 and Akt activation mediate the effect of IGF-1 on thrombopoiesis. Notably, Akt activation induced by IGF-1 is more apparent than that of ERK1/2, compared with that of thrombopoietin (TPO) treatment. Moreover, the effect of IGF-1 on thrombopoiesis is independent of TPO signaling, because IGF-1 treatment can also lead to a significant increase of platelet counts in homozygous TPO receptor mutant mice. Further analysis indicates that the activation of Akt triggered by IGF-1 requires the assistance of steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3). Therefore, our data reveal a distinct role of IGF-1 in regulating thrombopoiesis, providing new insights into TPO-independent regulation of platelet generation. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  19. Differential roles of SS18-SSX fusion gene and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in synovial sarcoma cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toernkvist, Maria; Natalishvili, Natalia; Xie Yuntao; Girnita, Ada; D'Arcy, Padraig; Brodin, Bertha; Axelson, Magnus; Girnita, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Recently we demonstrated that the synovial sarcoma specific fusion gene SS18-SSX is crucial for cyclin D1 expression and is linked to cell proliferation. In this report we explore the role of SS18-SSX and IGF-1R for their potential functions in cellular proliferation and survival in cultured synovial sarcoma cells. We found that targeting of SS18-SSX mRNA by antisense oligonucleotide treatment drastically and rapidly decreased cell proliferation but caused only a slight increase of apoptosis. The synovial sarcoma cells were confirmed to express IGF-1R, and treatment with an IGF-1R inhibitor resulted in substantially reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis in these cells. Conversely, inhibition of the IGF-1R resulted only in a slight to moderate decrease in DNA synthesis. In conclusion, SS18-SSX and IGF-1R seem to play important but different roles in maintaining malignant growth of synovial sarcoma cells. Whereas SS18-SSX maintains cyclin D1 and cell proliferation, IGF-1R protects from apoptosis

  20. Plasma and tissue insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) as a prognostic marker for prostate cancer and anti-IGF-IR agents as novel therapeutic strategy for refractory cases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Emine Elif

    2011-09-15

    Cancer database analysis indicates that prostate cancer is one of the most seen cancers in men meanwhile composing the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among developed countries. Current available therapies are surgery, radiotherapy and androgene ablation for prostate carcinoma. The response rate is as high nearly 90% however, most of these recur or become refractory and androgene independent (AI). Therefore recent studies intensified on molecular factors playing role on development of prostate carcinoma and novel treatment strategies targetting these factors and their receptors. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its primary receptor insulin-like growth factor receptor-I (IGF-IR) are among these factors. Biologic functions and role in malign progression are primarily achieved via IGF-IR which is a type 2 tyrosine kinase receptor. IGF-IR plays an important role in mitogenesis, angiogenesis, transformation, apoptosis and cell motility. It also generates intensive proliferative signals leading to carcinogenesis in prostate tissue. So IGF-IR and its associated signalling system have provoked considerable interest over recent years as a novel therapeutic target in cancer. In this paper it is aimed to sum up the lately published literature searching the relation of IGF-IR and prostate cancer in terms of incidence, pathologic features, and prognosis. This is followed by a discussion of the different possible targets within the IGF-1R system, and drugs developed to interact at each target. A systems-based approach is then used to review the in vitro and in vivo data in the published literature of the following compounds targeting IGF-1R components using specific examples: growth hormone releasing hormone antagonists (e.g. JV-1-38), growth hormone receptor antagonists (e.g. pegvisomant), IGF-1R antibodies (e.g. CP-751,871, AVE1642/EM164, IMC-A12, SCH-717454, BIIB022, AMG 479, MK-0646/h7C10), and IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitors (e.g. BMS-536942, BMS-554417

  1. Aging, Atherosclerosis, and IGF-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Anwar, Asif; Shai, Shaw-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an endocrine and autocrine/paracrine growth factor that circulates at high levels in the plasma and is expressed in most cell types. IGF-1 has major effects on development, cell growth and differentiation, and tissue repair. Recent evidence indicates that IGF-1 reduces atherosclerosis burden and improves features of atherosclerotic plaque stability in animal models. Potential mechanisms for this atheroprotective effect include IGF-1–induced reduction in oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, proinflammatory signaling, and endothelial dysfunction. Aging is associated with increased vascular oxidative stress and vascular disease, suggesting that IGF-1 may exert salutary effects on vascular aging processes. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive update on IGF-1's ability to modulate vascular oxidative stress and to limit atherogenesis and the vascular complications of aging. PMID:22491965

  2. Effects of insulin analogs and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on proliferation and cellular energy metabolism in papillary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He L

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Liang He,1,* Siliang Zhang,2,* Xiaowen Zhang,3 Rui Liu,2 Haixia Guan,2 Hao Zhang1 1Department of Thyroid Surgery, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Endocrine Institute and The Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate the expressions of the insulin receptor (IR, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R in normal thyroid tissue, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC tissues, and PTC cells, and to examine the possible role of insulin analogs and GLP-1R agonists in cell proliferation and energy metabolism in PTC cells.Methods: The expressions of IR, IGF-1R, and GLP-1R in PTC tissues and PTC cell lines were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, respectively. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Levels of members of the phosphoinositol-3 kinase/AKT serine/threonine kinase (Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk signaling pathways were measured by western blotting. Energy metabolism of PTC cell lines was analyzed using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux analyzer.Results: Three receptors could be detected in both PTC tissues and PTC cell lines. Expressions of IGF-1R and GLP-1R were more obvious in PTC than in normal thyroid cells. Neither insulin, four insulin analogs, and two GLP-1R agonists showed significant effects on the proliferation of PTC cells, nor did they influence the levels of Akt/p-Akt and Erk/p-Erk. None of these antidiabetic agents could change the mitochondrial

  3. Hsp90α forms a stable complex at the cilium neck for the interaction of signalling molecules in IGF-1 receptor signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhong; Zou, Xinle; Wei, Zhuang; Wu, Yuan; Li, Rongxia; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Zhengjun; Liao, Kan

    2015-01-01

    The primary cilium is composed of an axoneme that protrudes from the cell surface, a basal body beneath the membrane and a transition neck in between. It is a sensory organelle on the plasma membrane, involved in mediating extracellular signals. In the transition neck region of the cilium, the microtubules change from triplet to doublet microtubules. This region also contains the transition fibres that crosslink the axoneme with the membrane and the necklace proteins that regulate molecules being transported into and out of the cilium. In this protein-enriched, complex area it is important to maintain the correct assembly of all of these proteins. Here, through immunofluorescent staining and protein isolation, we identify the molecular chaperone Hsp90α clustered at the periciliary base. At the transition neck region, phosphorylated Hsp90α forms a stable ring around the axoneme. Heat shock treatment causes Hsp90α to dissipate and induces resorption of cilia. We further identify that Hsp90α at the transition neck region represents a signalling platform on which IRS-1 interacts with intracellular downstream signalling molecules involved in IGF-1 receptor signalling. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. IGF-1 contributes to the expansion of melanoma-initiating cells through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coz, Vincent; Zhu, Chaobin; Devocelle, Aurore; Vazquez, Aimé; Boucheix, Claude; Azzi, Sandy; Gallerne, Cindy; Eid, Pierre; Lecourt, Séverine; Giron-Michel, Julien

    2016-12-13

    Melanoma is a particularly virulent human cancer, due to its resistance to conventional treatments and high frequency of metastasis. Melanomas contain a fraction of cells, the melanoma-initiating cells (MICs), responsible for tumor propagation and relapse. Identification of the molecular pathways supporting MICs is, therefore, vital for the development of targeted treatments. One factor produced by melanoma cells and their microenvironment, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF- 1), is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness features in several cancers.We evaluated the effect of IGF-1 on the phenotype and chemoresistance of B16-F10 cells. IGF-1 inhibition in these cells prevented malignant cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and lung colony formation in immunodeficient mice. IGF-1 downregulation also markedly inhibited EMT, with low levels of ZEB1 and mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, CD44, CD29, CD105) associated with high levels of E-cadherin and MITF, the major regulator of melanocyte differentiation. IGF-1 inhibition greatly reduced stemness features, including the expression of key stem markers (SOX2, Oct-3/4, CD24 and CD133), and the functional characteristics of MICs (melanosphere formation, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, side population). These features were associated with a high degree of sensitivity to mitoxantrone treatment.In this study, we deciphered new connections between IGF-1 and stemness features and identified IGF-1 as instrumental for maintaining the MIC phenotype. The IGF1/IGF1-R nexus could be targeted for the development of more efficient anti-melanoma treatments. Blocking the IGF-1 pathway would improve the immune response, decrease the metastatic potential of tumor cells and sensitize melanoma cells to conventional treatments.

  5. Association between GH receptor polymorphism (exon 3 deletion), serum IGF1, semen quality, and reproductive hormone levels in 838 healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, M; Jensen, Rikke Bodin; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    =467) GHRd3/d3 homozygous individuals (n=69) tended to have larger semen volume (3.2 (2.4-4.3) vs 3.6 (2.6-4.7) ml, P=0.053) and higher serum inhibin-B levels (208 pg/ml (158-257) vs 227 pg/ml (185-264), P=0.050). Semen quality, levels of gonadotropins, testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone......-binding globulin, and IGF1 were not associated with GHRd3 genotype. A twofold increase in serum IGF1 was associated with a 13% (4-23) increase in calculated free testosterone (P=0.004). By contrast IGF1 was inversely associated with serum inhibin-B (P=0.027), but showed no associations to semen quality. GHR...

  6. MicroRNA-99a inhibits insulin-induced proliferation, migration, dedifferentiation, and rapamycin resistance of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zi-wei; Guo, Rui-wei; Lv, Jin-lin; Wang, Xian-mei; Ye, Jin-shan; Lu, Ni-hong; Liang, Xing; Yang, Li-xia

    2017-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by insulin resistance and are subsequently at high risk for atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia has been associated with proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have been demonstrated to be the underlying signaling pathways. Recently, microRNA-99a (miR-99a) has been suggested to regulate the phenotypic changes of VSMCs in cancer cells. However, whether it is involved in insulin-induced changes of VSCMs has not been determined. In this study, we found that insulin induced proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of mouse VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the stimulating effects of high-dose insulin on proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of mouse VSMCs were found to be associated with the attenuation of the inhibitory effects of miR-99a on IGF-1R and mTOR signaling activities. Finally, we found that the inducing effect of high-dose insulin on proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of VSMCs was partially inhibited by an active mimic of miR-99a. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-99a plays a key regulatory role in the pathogenesis of insulin-induced proliferation, migration, and phenotype conversion of VSMCs at least partly via inhibition of IGF-1R and mTOR signaling. Our results provide evidence that miR-99a may be a novel target for the treatment of hyperinsulinemia-induced atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Suggesting a new mechanism of insulin-triggered VSMC functions. • Providing a new therapeutic strategies that target atherosclerosis in T2DM patients. • Providing a new strategies that target in-stent restenosis in T2DM patients.

  7. Relationship between adiponectin, leptin, IGF-1 and total lipid peroxides plasma concentrations in patients with systemic sclerosis: possible role in disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna; Kuźnik-Trocha, Kornelia; Komosińska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Kucharz, Eugeniusz; Kotulska, Anna; Olczyk, Krystyna

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between adiponectin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and total lipid peroxide (TLP) concentrations, and its possible role in the development of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc), were evaluated in this study. Plasma adipokines and IGF-1 levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, whereas TLP levels were determined using a photometric test, in 36 dcSSc patients and 40 healthy controls matched by age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Plasma levels of adipokines were significantly lowered, while TLP and IGF-1 were increased in dcSSc patients compared to controls. Adiponectin correlated significantly with leptin (r = 0.44), TLP (r = -0.54), CRP (r = -0.47), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r = -0.40) and duration of disease (r = -0.44). A significant relationship was found between leptinemia and IGF-1 (r = -0.40), TLP (r = 0.44), duration of disease (r = -0.38) and BMI (r = 0.65). TLP correlated with IGF-1 (r = -0.43), C-reactive protein (r = 0.47), ESR (r = 0.49) and duration of disease (r = 0.46), while IGF-1 correlated with ESR (r = -0.40). Adipose tissue may play a complex role in the development of dcSSc, affecting both the metabolic state of the organism, as well as free radical-induced connective tissue degradation. Although, leptin seems to exert a pro-oxidative effect and both adiponectin and IGF-1 appear to prevent free radical damage, confirmation of the above effects requires further research. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Effects of the antitumor drug OSI-906, a dual inhibitor of IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor, on the glycemic control, β-cell functions, and β-cell proliferation in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yoshida, Eiko; Shimizu, Mari; Horigome, Yuka; Tuno, Takayuki; Hayasaka, Moe; Abe, Shiori; Fuse, Masahiro; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    The IGF-1 receptor has become a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of OSI-906 (linstinib), a dual inhibitor of IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor, for solid cancers has been examined in clinical trials. The effects of OSI-906, however, on the blood glucose levels and pancreatic β-cell functions have not yet been reported. We investigated the impact of OSI-906 on glycemic control, insulin secretion, β-cell mass, and β-cell proliferation in male mice. Oral administration of OSI-906 worsened glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner in the wild-type mice. OSI-906 at a dose equivalent to the clinical daily dose (7.5 mg/kg) transiently evoked glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2-deficient mice and mice with diet-induced obesity, both models of peripheral insulin resistance, exhibited more severe glucose intolerance after OSI-906 administration than glucokinase-haploinsufficient mice, a model of impaired insulin secretion. Phloridzin improved the hyperglycemia induced by OSI-906 in mice. In vitro, OSI-906 showed no effect on insulin secretion from isolated islets. After daily administration of OSI-906 for a week to mice, the β-cell mass and β-cell proliferation rate were significantly increased. The insulin signals in the β-cells were apparently unaffected in those mice. Taken together, the results suggest that OSI-906 could exacerbate diabetes, especially in patients with insulin resistance. On the other hand, the results suggest that the β-cell mass may expand in response to chemotherapy with this drug.

  9. Serum levels of bioactive IGF1 and physiological markers of ageing in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Poul Frølund; Hansen, Mette; Frystyk, Jan; Espelund, Ulrick; Christiansen, Jens S; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Fisker, Sanne

    2014-02-01

    Senescent changes in body composition and muscle strength are accompanied by reduced production of GH and IGF1, but the causal relationship remains elusive. We speculate that serum bioactive IGF1, measured by the IGF1 kinase receptor activation assay, is closer related to human physiological ageing than total IGF1 measured by immunoassay. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 150 adult males and females, between 20 and 70 years. After an overnight fasting, serum levels of bioactive IGF1, total IGF1 and IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and IGFBP3 were assessed. Furthermore, body composition and muscle strength was measured. Total IGF1 levels were higher in females (P=0.048). Bioactive IGF1 were identical in males and females (P=0.31), decreasing with age. Total IGF1 tended to decrease more with age compared with bioactive IGF1 (-1.48 vs -0.89 percent/year, P=0.052). Total body fat (TBF) was lower and BMI was higher in males (Page. Knee extension and elbow flexion force were higher in males (P=0.001 and P=0.001), but decreased with age in both genders.  Total but not bioactive IGF1 was positively correlated to TBF, knee extension and muscle function in males. In multiple linear regression, only age predicted total IGF1, whereas age and IGFBP1 predicted bioactive IGF1. Bioactive IGF1 tends to decrease to a lesser extent than total IGF1 with age and was not correlated with measures of body composition or muscle strength. Therefore, levels of circulating bioactive IGF1 does not appear to be a better biomarker of physiological ageing than total IGF1.

  10. Influence of Maternal Undernutrition and Overfeeding on Cardiac Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor and Ventricular Size in Fetal Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Ford, Stephen P.; Nijland, Mark J.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Ren, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Intrauterine nutrition status is reported to correlate with risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Either under- or over-nutrition during early to mid gestation contributes to altered fetal growth and ventricular geometry. This study was designed to examine myocardial expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α (CTNFRα) and its down-stream mediator signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) on maternal under- or over-nutrition-induced changes in fetal heart weight. Multiparous ewes were fed with 50% (nutrient-restricted, NR), 100% (control) or 150% (overfed, OF) of NRC requirements from 28 to 78 days of gestation (dG; Term 148 dG). Ewes were euthanized on day 78, and the gravid uteri and fetuses recovered. Ventricular protein expression of CTNFRα, STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3, insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) were quantitated using western blot. Plasma cortisol levels were higher in both NR and OF fetuses whereas plasma IGF-1 levels were lower and higher, in NR and OF fetuses. Fetal weights were reduced by 29.9% in NR ewes and were increased by 22.2% in fetuses from OF ewes compared to control group. Nutrient restriction did not affect fetal heart or ventricular weights whereas overfeeding increased heart and ventricular weights. Protein expression of CTNFRα in fetal ventricular tissue was reduced in OF group whereas STAT3 and pSTAT3 levels were reduced in both NR and OF groups. Expression of IGF-1R and IGFBP3 was unaffected in either NR or OF group. These data suggested that compared with maternal undernutrition, intrauterine overfeeding during early to mid gestation is associated with increases fetal blood concentrations of cortisol and IGF-1 in association with ventricular hypertrophy where reduced expression of CNTFRα and STAT3 may play a role. PMID:17869083

  11. Antibody-based therapeutics against components of the IGF system

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yang; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor (IGF-1R) is overexpressed in most human neoplasms tested so far. Many tumors in young patients produce high levels of the IGF-1R ligands, IGF-I and IGF-II. Given the complexity of the IGF signaling pathway, its complete inhibition may require combination therapies with antibodies targeting both IGF-1R and IGF-II.

  12. Cerebellar Insulin/IGF-1 signaling in diabetic rats: Effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mariana Eiras; Ribeiro, Alessandra Mussi; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Arantes, Luciana Mendonça; Luciano, Eliete; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; de Almeida Leme, José Alexandre Curiacos; Medeiros, Alessandra; Bertolini, Natália Oliveira; Sibuya, Clarice Yoshiko; Gomes, Ricardo José

    2017-02-03

    The Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease associated with loss of brain regions such as the cerebellum, increasing the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the brain of diabetic and PD organisms the insulin/IGF-1 signaling is altered. Exercise training is an effective intervention for the prevention of neurodegerative diseases since it release neurotrophic factors and regulating insulin/IGF-1 signaling in the brain. This study aimed to evaluate the proteins involved in the insulin/IGF-1 pathway in the cerebellum of diabetic rats subjected to exercise training protocol. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary diabetic (SD) and trained diabetic (TD). Diabetes was induced by Alloxan (ALX) (32mg/kgb.w.). The training program consisted in swimming 5days/week, 1h/day, during 6 weeks, supporting an overload corresponding to 90% of the anaerobic threshold. At the end, cerebellum was extracted to determinate the protein expression of GSK-3β, IRβ and IGF-1R and the phosphorylation of β-amyloid, Tau, ERK1+ERK2 by Western Blot analysis. All dependent variables were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with significance level of 5%. Diabetes causes hyperglycemia in both diabetic groups; however, in TD, there was a reduction in hyperglycemia compared to SD. Diabetes increased Tau and β-amyloid phosphorylation in both SD and TD groups. Furthermore, aerobic exercise increased ERK1+ERK2 expression in TC. The data showed that in cerebellum of diabetic rats induced by alloxan there are some proteins expression like Parkinson cerebellum increased, and the exercise training was not able to modulate the expression of these proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oolong tea prevents cardiomyocyte loss against hypoxia by attenuating p-JNK mediated hypertrophy and enhancing P-IGF1R, p-akt, and p-Badser136 activity and by fortifying NRF2 antioxidation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Chen, Bih-Cheng; Ju, Da-Tong; Chen, Ray-Jade; Lai, Chao-Hung; Huang, Pei-Jane; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2018-02-01

    Tea, the most widely consumed natural beverage has been associated with reduced mortality risk from cardiovascular disease. Oolong tea is a partially fermented tea containing high levels of catechins, their degree of oxidation varies between 20%-80% causing differences in their active metabolites. In this study we examined the effect of oolong tea extract (OTE) obtained by oxidation at low-temperature for short-time against hypoxic injury and found that oolong tea provides cyto-protective effects by suppressing the JNK mediated hypertrophic effects and by enhancing the innate antioxidant mechanisms in neonatal cardiomyocytes and in H9c2 cells. OTE effectively attenuates 24 h hypoxia-triggered cardiomyocyte loss by suppressing caspase-3-cleavage and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. OTE also enhances the IGFIR/p-Akt associated survival-mechanism involving the elevation of p-Bad ser136 in a dose-dependent manner to aid cellular adaptations against hypoxic challenge. The results show the effects and mechanism of Oolong tea to provide cardio-protective benefits during hypoxic conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cetuximab Resistance in Squamous Carcinomas of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract Is Driven by Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ida; Lindsted, Trine; Fröhlich, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    a range of different EGFR- targeted agents have been disappointing. Cetuximab is currently the only EGFR-targeted agent approved by the FDA for treatment of SCCUAT. However, intrinsic and acquired cetuximab resistance is a major problem for effective therapy. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms...... by continuous selective pressure in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that resistant clones maintain partial dependency on EGFR and that RTK plasticity mediated by HER3 and IGF1R plays an essential role. A multi-target mAb mixture against EGFR, HER3, and IGF1R was able to overcome cetuximab resistance...

  15. Serum IGF1 and insulin levels in girls with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2012-01-01

    IGF1 plays an important role in growth and metabolism during puberty. IGF1 levels are increased in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). However, the relationship with insulin before and during gonadal suppression is unknown. In addition, the influence of the exon 3-deleted GH receptor gene...

  16. Unbound (bioavailable IGF1 enhances somatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Elis

    2011-09-01

    Understanding insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1 biology is of particular importance because, apart from its role in mediating growth, it plays key roles in cellular transformation, organ regeneration, immune function, development of the musculoskeletal system and aging. IGF1 bioactivity is modulated by its binding to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs and the acid labile subunit (ALS, which are present in serum and tissues. To determine whether IGF1 binding to IGFBPs is necessary to facilitate normal growth and development, we used a gene-targeting approach and generated two novel knock-in mouse models of mutated IGF1, in which the native Igf1 gene was replaced by Des-Igf1 (KID mice or R3-Igf1 (KIR mice. The KID and KIR mutant proteins have reduced affinity for the IGFBPs, and therefore present as unbound IGF1, or ‘free IGF1’. We found that both KID and KIR mice have reduced serum IGF1 levels and a concomitant increase in serum growth hormone levels. Ternary complex formation of IGF1 with the IGFBPs and the ALS was markedly reduced in sera from KID and KIR mice compared with wild type. Both mutant mice showed increased body weight, body and bone lengths, and relative lean mass. We found selective organomegaly of the spleen, kidneys and uterus, enhanced mammary gland complexity, and increased skeletal acquisition. The KID and KIR models show unequivocally that IGF1-complex formation with the IGFBPs is fundamental for establishing normal body and organ size, and that uncontrolled IGF bioactivity could lead to pathological conditions.

  17. IGF-1 and Survival in ESRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ting; Gama Axelsson, Thiane; Heimbürger, Olof; Bárány, Peter; Stenvinkel, Peter; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives IGF-1 deficiency links to malnutrition in CKD patients; however, it is not clear to what extent it associates with survival among these patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Serum IGF-1 and other biochemical, clinical (subjective global assessment), and densitometric (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) markers of nutritional status and mineral and bone metabolism were measured in a cohort of 365 Swedish clinically stable CKD stage 5 patients (median age of 53 years) initiating dialysis between 1994 and 2009; in 207 patients, measurements were also taken after 1 year of dialysis. Deaths were registered during a median follow-up of 5 years. Associations of mortality with baseline IGF-1 and changes of IGF-1 after 1 year of dialysis were evaluated by Cox models. Results At baseline, IGF-1 concentrations associated negatively with age, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, poor nutritional status, IL-6, and osteoprotegerin and positively with body fat mass, bone mineral density, serum phosphate, calcium, and fibroblast growth factor-23. At 1 year, IGF-1 had increased by 33%. In multivariate regression, low age, diabetes mellitus, and high serum phosphate and calcium associated with IGF-1 at baseline, and in a mixed model, these factors, together with high fat body mass, associated with changes of IGF-1 during the first 1 year of dialysis. Adjusting for calendar year of inclusion, age, sex, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, IL-6, and poor nutritional status, a 1 SD higher level of IGF-1 at baseline associated with lower mortality risk (hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.98). Persistently low or decreasing IGF-1 levels during the first 1 year on dialysis predicted worse survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 4.50). Conclusion In incident dialysis patients, low serum IGF-1 associates with body composition and markers of mineral and bone metabolism, and it

  18. Role of heterotrimeric G protein and calcium in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Loreto; Cea, Paola; Rocco, Paola; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Rivera-Mejias, Pablo; Sotomayor-Flores, Cristian; Quiroga, Clara; Criollo, Alfredo; Ibarra, Cristian; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-04-01

    In the heart, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide with pro-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic actions. The pro-hypertrophic properties of IGF-1 have been attributed to the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Recently, we reported that IGF-1 also increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels through a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein. Here we investigate whether this Ca(2+) signal is involved in IGF-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our results show that the IGF-1-induced increase in Ca(2+) level is abolished by the IGF-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG538, PTX and the peptide inhibitor of Gβγ signaling, βARKct. Increases in the activities of Ca(2+) -dependent enzymes calcineurin, calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were observed at 5 min after IGF-1 exposure. AG538, PTX, βARKct, and the dominant negative PKCα prevented the IGF-1-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Participation of calcineurin and CaMKII in ERK phosphorylation was discounted. IGF-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, determined by cell size and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), was prevented by AG538, PTX, βARKct, dominant negative PKCα, and the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. Inhibition of calcineurin with CAIN did not abolish IGF-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We conclude that IGF-1 induces hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocytes by activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity/βγ-subunits of a PTX-sensitive G protein/Ca(2+) /PKCα/ERK pathway without the participation of calcineurin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 17β-estradiol induces stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkaid, Anissa; Duguay, Sabrina R.; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Surette, Marc E.

    2015-01-01

    To sustain cell growth, cancer cells exhibit an altered metabolism characterized by increased lipogenesis. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) catalyzes the production of monounsaturated fatty acids that are essential for membrane biogenesis, and is required for cell proliferation in many cancer cell types. Although estrogen is required for the proliferation of many estrogen-sensitive breast carcinoma cells, it is also a repressor of SCD-1 expression in liver and adipose. The current study addresses this apparent paradox by investigating the impact of estrogen on SCD-1 expression in estrogen receptor-α-positive breast carcinoma cell lines. MCF-7 and T47D mammary carcinomas cells and immortalized MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells were hormone-starved then treated or not with 17β-estradiol. SCD-1 activity was assessed by measuring cellular monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid (MUFA/SFA) ratios, and SCD-1 expression was measured by qPCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses. The role of SCD-1 in cell proliferation was measured following treatment with the SCD-1 inhibitor A959372 and following SCD-1 silencing using siRNA. The involvement of IGF-1R on SCD-1 expression was measured using the IGF-1R antagonist AG1024. The expression of SREBP-1c, a transcription factor that regulates SCD-1, was measured by qPCR, and by immunoblot analyses. 17β-estradiol significantly induced cell proliferation and SCD-1 activity in MCF-7 and T47D cells but not MCF-10A cells. Accordingly, 17β-estradiol significantly increased SCD-1 mRNA and protein expression in MCF-7 and T47D cells compared to untreated cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 4-OH tamoxifen or siRNA silencing of estrogen receptor-α largely prevented 17β-estradiol-induced SCD-1 expression. 17β-estradiol increased SREBP-1c expression and induced the mature active 60 kDa form of SREBP-1. The selective SCD-1 inhibitor or siRNA silencing of SCD-1 blocked the 17β-estradiol-induced cell proliferation and increase in

  20. Interactions between IGFBP-3 and Nuclear Receptors in Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    in notochord differentiation (Odenthal et al., 1996) as well as the dominant-negative IGF-1R overexpression mutant (Eivers et al., 2004). Discussion...Odenthal J, Haffter P, Vogelsang E, Brand M, van Eeden FJ, Furutani-Seiki M et al. (1996). Mutations affecting the formation of the notochord in the

  1. IGF-1 deficiency impairs neurovascular coupling in mice: implications for cerebromicrovascular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter; Tarantini, Stefano; Ashpole, Nicole M; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Milne, Ginger L; Valcarcel-Ares, Noa M; Menyhart, Akos; Farkas, Eszter; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2015-12-01

    Aging is associated with marked deficiency in circulating IGF-1, which has been shown to contribute to age-related cognitive decline. Impairment of moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) via neurovascular coupling is thought to play a critical role in the genesis of age-related cognitive impairment. To establish the link between IGF-1 deficiency and cerebromicrovascular impairment, neurovascular coupling mechanisms were studied in a novel mouse model of IGF-1 deficiency (Igf1(f/f) -TBG-Cre-AAV8) and accelerated vascular aging. We found that IGF-1-deficient mice exhibit neurovascular uncoupling and show a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory test, mimicking the aging phenotype. IGF-1 deficiency significantly impaired cerebromicrovascular endothelial function decreasing NO mediation of neurovascular coupling. IGF-1 deficiency also impaired glutamate-mediated CBF responses, likely due to dysregulation of astrocytic expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors and impairing mediation of CBF responses by eicosanoid gliotransmitters. Collectively, we demonstrate that IGF-1 deficiency promotes cerebromicrovascular dysfunction and neurovascular uncoupling mimicking the aging phenotype, which are likely to contribute to cognitive impairment. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. IGF-1 modulates gene expression of proteins involved in inflammation, cytoskeleton, and liver architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Diaz, V J; Castilla-Cortazar, I; Martín-Estal, I; García-Magariño, M; Aguirre, G A; Puche, J E; de la Garza, R G; Morales, L A; Muñoz, U

    2017-05-01

    Even though the liver synthesizes most of circulating IGF-1, it lacks its receptor under physiological conditions. However, according to previous studies, a damaged liver expresses the receptor. For this reason, herein, we examine hepatic histology and expression of genes encoding proteins of the cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, and cell-cell molecules and inflammation-related proteins. A partial IGF-1 deficiency murine model was used to investigate IGF-1's effects on liver by comparing wild-type controls, heterozygous igf1 +/- , and heterozygous mice treated with IGF-1 for 10 days. Histology, microarray for mRNA gene expression, RT-qPCR, and lipid peroxidation were assessed. Microarray analyses revealed significant underexpression of igf1 in heterozygous mice compared to control mice, restoring normal liver expression after treatment, which then normalized its circulating levels. IGF-1 receptor mRNA was overexpressed in Hz mice liver, while treated mice displayed a similar expression to that of the controls. Heterozygous mice showed overexpression of several genes encoding proteins related to inflammatory and acute-phase proteins and underexpression or overexpression of genes which coded for extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton, and cell junction components. Histology revealed an altered hepatic architecture. In addition, liver oxidative damage was found increased in the heterozygous group. The mere IGF-1 partial deficiency is associated with relevant alterations of the hepatic architecture and expression of genes involved in cytoskeleton, hepatocyte polarity, cell junctions, and extracellular matrix proteins. Moreover, it induces hepatic expression of the IGF-1 receptor and elevated acute-phase and inflammation mediators, which all resulted in liver oxidative damage.

  3. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and its active peptide (1-3)IGF1 enhance the expression of synaptic markers in neuronal circuits through different cellular mechanisms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corvin, Aiden P

    2012-06-27

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and its active peptide (1-3)IGF1 modulate brain growth and plasticity and are candidate molecules for treatment of brain disorders. IGF1 N-terminal portion is naturally cleaved to generate the tri-peptide (1-3)IGF1 (glycine-praline-glutamate). IGF1 and (1-3)IGF have been proposed as treatment for neuropathologies, yet their effect on nerve cells has not been directly compared. In this study we examine the effects of IGF1 and (1-3)IGF1 in primary cortical cultures and measure the expression levels of markers for intracellular pathways and synaptic function. We find that both treatments activate the IGF1 receptor and enhance the expression of synaptic markers, however, they activate different intracellular pathways. Furthermore, (1-3)IGF1 administration increases the expression of endogenous IGF1, suggesting a direct interaction between the two molecules. The results show that the two molecules increase the expression of synaptic proteins through activating different cellular mechanisms.

  4. Insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracz, Adam F.; Szczylik, Cezary; Porta, Camillo; Czarnecka, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence is highest in highly developed countries and it is the seventh most common neoplasm diagnosed. RCC management include nephrectomy and targeted therapies. Type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) pathway plays an important role in cell proliferation and apoptosis resistance. IGF-1 and insulin share overlapping downstream signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) stimulation may promote malignant transformation promoting cell proliferation, dedifferentiation and inhibiting apoptosis. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients with IGF1R overexpression have 70 % increased risk of death compared to patients who had tumors without IGF1R expression. IGF1R signaling deregulation may results in p53, WT, BRCA1, VHL loss of function. RCC cells with high expression of IGF1R are more resistant to chemotherapy than cells with low expression. Silencing of IGF1R increase the chemosensitivity of ccRCC cells and the effect is greater in VHL mutated cells. Understanding the role of IGF-1 signaling pathway in RCC may result in development of new targeted therapeutic interventions. First preclinical attempts with anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibodies or fragment antigen-binding (Fab) fragments alone or in combination with an mTOR inhibitor were shown to inhibit in vitro growth and reduced the number of colonies formed by of RCC cells

  5. Superoxide anion radicals induce IGF-1 resistance through concomitant activation of PTP1B and PTEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karmveer; Maity, Pallab; Krug, Linda; Meyer, Patrick; Treiber, Nicolai; Lucas, Tanja; Basu, Abhijit; Kochanek, Stefan; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Geiger, Hartmut; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved IGF-1 signalling pathway is associated with longevity, metabolism, tissue homeostasis, and cancer progression. Its regulation relies on the delicate balance between activating kinases and suppressing phosphatases and is still not very well understood. We report here that IGF-1 signalling in vitro and in a murine ageing model in vivo is suppressed in response to accumulation of superoxide anions () in mitochondria, either by chemical inhibition of complex I or by genetic silencing of -dismutating mitochondrial Sod2. The -dependent suppression of IGF-1 signalling resulted in decreased proliferation of murine dermal fibroblasts, affected translation initiation factors and suppressed the expression of α1(I), α1(III), and α2(I) collagen, the hallmarks of skin ageing. Enhanced led to activation of the phosphatases PTP1B and PTEN, which via dephosphorylation of the IGF-1 receptor and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate dampened IGF-1 signalling. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of PTP1B and PTEN abrogated -induced IGF-1 resistance and rescued the ageing skin phenotype. We thus identify previously unreported signature events with , PTP1B, and PTEN as promising targets for drug development to prevent IGF-1 resistance-related pathologies. PMID:25520316

  6. Relationship between serum IGF-1 and skeletal muscle IGF-1 mRNA expression to phosphocreatine recovery after exercise in obese men with reduced GH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Murphy, Caitlin A; Shih, Cynthia W; Frontera, Walter; Torriani, Martin; Irazoqui, Javier E; Makimura, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    GH and IGF-1 are believed to be physiological regulators of skeletal muscle mitochondria. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between GH/IGF-1 and skeletal muscle mitochondria in obese subjects with reduced GH secretion in more detail. Fifteen abdominally obese men with reduced GH secretion were treated for 12 weeks with recombinant human GH. Subjects underwent (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery as an in vivo measure of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and percutaneous muscle biopsies to assess mRNA expression of IGF-1 and mitochondrial-related genes at baseline and 12 weeks. At baseline, skeletal muscle IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly associated with PCr recovery (r = 0.79; P = .01) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (r = 0.87; P = .001), mitochondrial transcription factor A (r = 0.86; P = .001), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ (r = 0.72; P = .02), and PPARα (r = 0.75; P = .01) mRNA expression, and trended to an association with PPARγ coactivator 1-α (r = 0.59; P = .07) mRNA expression. However, serum IGF-1 concentration was not associated with PCr recovery or any mitochondrial gene expression (all P > .10). Administration of recombinant human GH increased both serum IGF-1 (change, 218 ± 29 μg/L; P IGF-1 mRNA in muscle (fold change, 2.1 ± 0.3; P = .002). Increases in serum IGF-1 were associated with improvements in total body fat (r = -0.53; P = .04), trunk fat (r = -0.55; P = .03), and lean mass (r = 0.58; P = .02), but not with PCr recovery (P > .10). Conversely, increase in muscle IGF-1 mRNA was associated with improvements in PCr recovery (r = 0.74; P = .02), but not with body composition parameters (P > .10). These data demonstrate a novel association of skeletal muscle mitochondria with muscle IGF-1 mRNA expression, but independent of serum IGF-1 concentrations.

  7. The Role of Type I Insulin Like Growth Factor Receptor (IGF-IR) in Adult and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMEL, M.M.; HAMMAM, A.A.; ELHOSEINY, Sh.M.; MOKHLES, A.; MOHSEN, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Type 1 insulin like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) is over expressed in many tumors including hematological cancers. It is a critical signaling molecule for tumor cell proliferation and survival. Data suggest that IGF-IR antibodies can effectively and specifically inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Blockage of IGF-IR expression could be a promising therapeutic approach for the management of cancer patients. Aim of Work: To characterize the expression pattern of IGF-IR gene in malignant lymphoblasts of children and adults suffering from ALL in relation to clinical features at diagnosis. Patients and Methods: The expression of IGF-IR was analyzed in 60 patients with ALL, 30 childhood ALL (16 newly diagnosed and 14 in complete remission) and 30 adulthood ALL (15 newly diagnosed and 15 in complete remission) together with 20 normal age and sex matched healthy controls using a Real-Time Quantitative Reverse- Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTQ-PCR) to assess the possible relation, association or correlation between IGF-IR expression and ALL clinical and laboratory features at diagnosis. Results: IGF-IR was expressed in all 60 patients with ALL; the expression levels of IGF-IR were significantly higher in newly diagnosed patients than in patients in complete remission (CR) and controls (p<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in the expression of IGF-IR between patients with different clinical and laboratory features. Conclusion: IGF-1R seems to play a crucial role in patients with ALL since it is expressed in all ALL cases (adulthood and childhood). Therefore, new therapeutic agents targeting IGF-1R may provide a better chance for those patients

  8. Exercise and obesity in fibromyalgia: beneficial roles of IGF-1 and resistin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjersing, Jan L; Erlandsson, Malin; Bokarewa, Maria I; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2013-02-27

    correlated negatively with ∆free IGF-1 (r=-0.711; P=0.032). Exercise reduced fatigue in all FM patients, this effect was achieved earlier in lean patients. Baseline levels of resistin in both serum and CSF associated negatively with fatigue. Resistin was increased after the exercise period which correlated with decreased fatigue. Changes in IGF-1 indicate similar long-term effects in obese patients. This study shows reduced fatigue after moderate exercise in FM and indicates the involvement of IGF-1 and resistin in these beneficial effects. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00643006.

  9. Metabolic Fingerprints of Circulating IGF-1 and the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knacke, Henrike; Pietzner, Maik; Do, Kieu Trinh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: IGF-1 is known for its various physiological and severe pathophysiological effects on human metabolism; however, underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unsolved. To reveal possible molecular mechanisms mediating these effects, for the first time, we associated serum IGF-1 levels...... with multifluid untargeted metabolomics data. METHODS: Plasma/urine samples of 995 nondiabetic participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania were characterized by mass spectrometry. Sex-specific linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association of IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGF binding protein 3 ratio...... with metabolites. Additionally, the predictive ability of the plasma and urine metabolome for IGF-1 was assessed by orthogonal partial least squares analyses. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We revealed a multifaceted image of associated metabolites with large sex differences. Confirming previous reports, we detected...

  10. IGF-1, oxidative stress, and atheroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Anwar, Asif; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which early endothelial dysfunction and subintimal modified lipoprotein deposition progress to complex, advanced lesions that are predisposed to erosion, rupture and thrombosis. Oxidative stress plays a critical role not only in initial lesion formation but also in lesion progression and destabilization. While growth factors are thought to promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, thereby increasing neointima, recent animal studies indicate that IGF-1 exerts pleiotropic anti-oxidant effects along with anti-inflammatory effects that together reduce atherosclerotic burden. This review discusses the effects of IGF-1 in vascular injury and atherosclerosis models, emphasizing the relationship between oxidative stress and potential atheroprotective actions of IGF-1. PMID:20071192

  11. IGF-1 Regulates Vertebral Bone Aging Through Sex-Specific and Time-Dependent Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpole, Nicole M; Herron, Jacquelyn C; Mitschelen, Matthew C; Farley, Julie A; Logan, Sreemathi; Yan, Han; Ungvari, Zoltan; Hodges, Erik L; Csiszar, Anna; Ikeno, Yuji; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Sonntag, William E

    2016-02-01

    Advanced aging is associated with increased risk of bone fracture, especially within the vertebrae, which exhibit significant reductions in trabecular bone structure. Aging is also associated with a reduction in circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). Studies have suggested that the reduction in IGF-1 compromises healthspan, whereas others report that loss of IGF-1 is beneficial because it increases healthspan and lifespan. To date, the effect of decreases in circulating IGF-1 on vertebral bone aging has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we delineate the consequences of a loss of circulating IGF-1 on vertebral bone aging in male and female Igf(f/f) mice. IGF-1 was reduced at multiple specific time points during the mouse lifespan: early in postnatal development (crossing albumin-cyclic recombinase [Cre] mice with Igf(f/f) mice); and in early adulthood and in late adulthood using hepatic-specific viral vectors (AAV8-TBG-Cre). Vertebrae bone structure was analyzed at 27 months of age using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and quantitative bone histomorphometry. Consistent with previous studies, both male and female mice exhibited age-related reductions in vertebral bone structure. In male mice, reduction of circulating IGF-1 induced at any age did not diminish vertebral bone loss. Interestingly, early-life loss of IGF-1 in females resulted in a 67% increase in vertebral bone volume fraction, as well as increased connectivity density and increased trabecular number. The maintenance of bone structure in the early-life IGF-1-deficient females was associated with increased osteoblast surface and an increased ratio of osteoprotegerin/receptor-activator of NF-κB-ligand (RANKL) levels in circulation. Within 3 months of a loss of IGF-1, there was a 2.2-fold increase in insulin receptor expression within the vertebral bones of our female mice, suggesting that local signaling may compensate for the loss of circulating IGF-1. Together, these data

  12. Serum levels of IGF-1 and IGF-BP3 are associated with event-free survival in adult Ewing sarcoma patients treated with chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot S

    2017-06-01

    with improved EFS and a trend for improved OS in Ewing sarcoma patients treated with VIDE chemotherapy. These findings suggest the need for further investigation of the IGF-1 pathway as a biomarker of disease progression in patients with Ewing sarcoma. Keywords: Ewing sarcoma, chemotherapy, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-BP3, IGF-1R, survival, biomarkers

  13. The significance of measuring serum IGF1, IGFBP3 and OST for the judgement of abnormal skeletal development and therapeutic monitoring in precocious children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhiying; Zhao Ruifang; Lv Xiaomei; Gu Fanlei; Cai Depei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of measuring serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF 1 ), insulin-like growth factor binding protein III (IGFBP 3 ) and osteocalcin (OST) for evaluating acceleration of skeletal growth and skeletal maturity, and its value for therapeutic monitoring in precocious children. Methods: Serum IGF 1 and IGFBP 3 were measured with immunoradiometric assay, serum OST was measured with radioimmunoassay in 117 girls with idiopathic precocious puberty. The girls were grouped according to age, and various parameters collected from them were compared with normal values of matched girls. Furthermore, the girls were grouped according to Tanner's staging (the extent of precocious puberty), the analysis of correlativity between various parameters to the extent of precocious puberty was performed, and the analysis of correlativity between the level of serum IGF 1 and advancing of bone age was performed. Various parameters were measured once more in 38 of the study girls after six months of the treatment, and the parameters were compared with that before treatment. Results: 1) The levels of serum IGF 1 and OST in the girls with precocious puberty were elevated obviously than that in matched normal girls, but the level of serum IGFBP 3 was reduced obviously than that in matched normal girls. It was demonstrated that typical elevation of serum IGF 1 and OST occurred in normal adolescence appeared ahead of time in the girls with precocious puberty. 2) The extent of precocious puberty correlated closely with the level of serum IGF 1 (r=0.489, P 1 (r=0.411, P 1 was. 3) After the treatment, the concentration of serum IGF 1 reduced from (455.52 ± 119.45) μg/L to (284.55 ± 99.52) μg/L (P 1 and OST reduced obviously. Conclusions: Serum IGF 1 and OST could act as quantitative parameters for evaluating acceleration of skeletal growth and advancing of skeletal maturity in girls with idiopathic true precocious puberty. It could act as a parameter for therapeutic

  14. Cyclic glycine-proline regulates IGF-1 homeostasis by altering the binding of IGFBP-3 to IGF-1

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Jian; Gluckman, Peter; Yang, Panzao; Krissansen, Geoff; Sun, Xueying; Zhou, Yongzhi; Wen, Jingyuan; Phillips, Gemma; Shorten, Paul R.; McMahon, Chris D.; Wake, Graeme C.; Chan, Wendy H. K.; Thomas, Mark F.; Ren, April; Moon, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The homeostasis of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is essential for metabolism, development and survival. Insufficient IGF-1 is associated with poor recovery from wounds whereas excessive IGF-1 contributes to growth of tumours. We have shown that cyclic glycine-proline (cGP), a metabolite of IGF-1, can normalise IGF-1 function by showing its efficacy in improving the recovery from ischemic brain injury in rats and inhibiting the growth of lymphomic tumours in mice. Further investigation ...

  15. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Secreted IGF-1 Protects Myoblasts from the Negative Effect of Myostatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gehmert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin, a TGF-β family member, is associated with inhibition of muscle growth and differentiation and might interact with the IGF-1 signaling pathway. Since IGF-1 is secreted at a bioactive level by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs, these cells (ASCs provide a therapeutic option for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD. But the protective effect of stem cell secreted IGF-1 on myoblast under high level of myostatin remains unclear. In the present study murine myoblasts were exposed to myostatin under presence of ASCs conditioned medium and investigated for proliferation and apoptosis. The protective effect of IGF-1 was further examined by using IGF-1 neutralizing and receptor antibodies as well as gene silencing RNAi technology. MyoD expression was detected to identify impact of IGF-1 on myoblasts differentiation when exposed to myostatin. IGF-1 was accountable for 43.6% of the antiapoptotic impact and 48.8% for the proliferative effect of ASCs conditioned medium. Furthermore, IGF-1 restored mRNA and protein MyoD expression of myoblasts under risk. Beside fusion and transdifferentiation the beneficial effect of ASCs is mediated by paracrine secreted cytokines, particularly IGF-1. The present study underlines the potential of ASCs as a therapeutic option for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and other dystrophic muscle diseases.

  16. IGF-1 induces SOCS-2 but not SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 transcription in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cai-Zhi; Luo, Yuan; Limbu, Samwel Mchele; Chen, Li-Qiao; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2018-05-20

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a crucial role in regulating growth in vertebrates whereas suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) act as feedback inhibitors of the GH/IGF-1 axis. Although SOCS-2 binds the IGF-1 receptor and inhibits IGF-1-induced STAT3 activation, presently there is no clear evidence as to whether IGF-1 could induce SOCS gene expression. The current study aimed to determine whether IGF-1 could induce the transcription of SOCS in juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ). We show that there is a common positive relationship between the mRNA expression of IGF-I and SOCS-2 under different nutritional statuses and stimulants, but not the mRNA expression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 Furthermore, rhIGF-1 treatment and transcriptional activity assay confirmed the hypothesis that IGF-1 could induce SOCS-2 expression, whereas it had no effect or even decreased the expression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 Overall, we obtained evidence that the transcription of SOCS-2, but not SOCS-1 or SOCS-3, could be induced by IGF signaling, suggesting that SOCS-2 serves as a feedback suppressor of the IGF-1 axis in juvenile Nile tilapia. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. IGF system targeted therapy: Therapeutic opportunities for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefers-Visser, J A L; Meijering, R A M; Reyners, A K L; van der Zee, A G J; de Jong, S

    2017-11-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system comprises multiple growth factor receptors, including insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), insulin receptor (IR) -A and -B. These receptors are activated upon binding to their respective growth factor ligands, IGF-I, IGF-II and insulin, and play an important role in development, maintenance, progression, survival and chemotherapeutic response of ovarian cancer. In many pre-clinical studies anti-IGF-1R/IR targeted strategies proved effective in reducing growth of ovarian cancer models. In addition, anti-IGF-1R targeted strategies potentiated the efficacy of platinum based chemotherapy. Despite the vast amount of encouraging and promising pre-clinical data, anti-IGF-1R/IR targeted strategies lacked efficacy in the clinic. The question is whether targeting the IGF-1R/IR signaling pathway still holds therapeutic potential. In this review we address the complexity of the IGF-1R/IR signaling pathway, including receptor heterodimerization within and outside the IGF system and downstream signaling. Further, we discuss the implications of this complexity on current targeted strategies and indicate therapeutic opportunities for successful targeting of the IGF-1R/IR signaling pathway in ovarian cancer. Multiple-targeted approaches circumventing bidirectional receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) compensation and prevention of system rewiring are expected to have more therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1): a growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z

    2001-01-01

    Aim—To contribute to the debate about whether growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) act independently on the growth process. Methods—To describe growth in human and animal models of isolated IGF-1 deficiency (IGHD), such as in Laron syndrome (LS; primary IGF-1 deficiency and GH resistance) and IGF-1 gene or GH receptor gene knockout (KO) mice. Results—Since the description of LS in 1966, 51 patients were followed, many since infancy. Newborns with LS are shorter (42–47 cm) than healthy babies (49–52 cm), suggesting that IGF-1 has some influence on intrauterine growth. Newborn mice with IGF-1 gene KO are 30% smaller. The postnatal growth rate of patients with LS is very slow, the distance from the lowest normal centile increasing progressively. If untreated, the final height is 100–136 cm for female and 109–138 cm for male patients. They have acromicia, organomicria including the brain, heart, gonads, genitalia, and retardation of skeletal maturation. The availability of biosynthetic IGF-1 since 1988 has enabled it to be administered to children with LS. It accelerated linear growth rates to 8–9 cm in the first year of treatment, compared with 10–12 cm/year during GH treatment of IGHD. The growth rate in following years was 5–6.5 cm/year. Conclusion—IGF-1 is an important growth hormone, mediating the protein anabolic and linear growth promoting effect of pituitary GH. It has a GH independent growth stimulating effect, which with respect to cartilage cells is possibly optimised by the synergistic action with GH. PMID:11577173

  19. The physiological response of obese rat model with rambutan peel extract treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu Lestari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body weight gain, expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1 receptor on obese rat model treated with rambutan peel extract (RPE as a physiological response. Methods: Normal and obese rat feed with normal and high calorie diet around 1 2 weeks and continued to treat with ellagic acid, RPE 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg body weight respectively. Physiological responses observed were weight gain and expression of Igf-1 with its receptor. Body weight of rat was weighed once per week. Expression of Igf-1 and igf-1R observed with fluorescence immunohistochemistry. The intensity of Igf-1 and Igf-1R expression was analysis using FSX-BSW software. Results: The lowest weight gain was obtained on obese rat model treated with RPE 30 mg/kg body weight. The expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1R were reduced on obese rat model treated with RPE compared with obese rat model of non treatment (P<0.05. The low expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1R was found on obese rat model treated with ellagic acid and RPE 30 mg/kg body weight. Conclusions: The RPE was effecting to the physiological response on obese rat model. The RPE 30 mg/kg body weight inhibited body weight gain and decreased the expression of Igf-1 and Igf- 1R of obese rat model.

  20. Correlation between GH and IGF-1 during treatment for acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Edward H; Jane, John A; Thorner, Michael O; Pledger, Carrie L; Sheehan, Jason P; Vance, Mary Lee

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE The relationship between growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in patients with acromegaly as serial levels drop over time after treatment has not been examined previously. Knowledge of this relationship is important to correlate pretreatment levels that best predict response to treatment. To examine the correlation between GH and IGF-1 and IGF-1 z-scores over a wide range of GH levels, the authors examined serial GH and IGF-1 levels at intervals before and after surgery and radiosurgery for acromegaly. METHODS This retrospective analysis correlates 414 pairs of GH and IGF-1 values in 93 patients with acromegaly. RESULTS Absolute IGF-1 levels increase linearly with GH levels only up to a GH of 4 ng/ml, and with IGF-1 z-scores only to a GH level of 1 ng/ml. Between GH levels of 1 and 10 ng/ml, increases in IGF-1 z-scores relative to changes in GH diminish and then plateau at GH concentrations of about 10 ng/ml. From patient to patient there is a wide range of threshold GH levels beyond which IGF-1 increases are no longer linear, GH levels at which the IGF-1 response plateaus, IGF-1 levels at similar GH values after the IGF-1 response plateaus, and of IGF-1 levels at similar GH levels. CONCLUSIONS In acromegaly, although IGF-1 levels represent a combination of the integrated effects of GH secretion and GH action, the tumor produces GH, not IGF-1. Nonlinearity between GH and IGF-1 occurs at GH levels far below those previously recognized. To monitor tumor activity and tumor viability requires measurement of GH levels.

  1. Doxorubicin impairs the insulin-like growth factor-1 system and causes insulin-like growth factor-1 resistance in cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Fabbi

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 promotes the survival of cardiomyocytes by activating type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R. Within the myocardium, IGF-1 action is modulated by IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, which sequesters IGF-1 away from IGF-1R. Since cardiomyocyte apoptosis is implicated in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, we investigated the effects of the anthracycline, doxorubicin, on the IGF-1 system in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.Besides inducing apoptosis, concentrations of doxorubicin comparable to those observed in patients after bolus infusion (0.1-1 µM caused a progressive decrease in IGF-1R and increase in IGFBP-3 expression. Exogenous IGF-1 was capable to rescue cardiomyocytes from apoptosis triggered by 0.1 and 0.5 µM, but not 1 µM doxorubicin. The loss of response to IGF-1 was paralleled by a significant reduction in IGF-1 availability and signaling, as assessed by free hormone levels in conditioned media and Akt phosphorylation in cell lysates, respectively. Doxorubicin also dose-dependently induced p53, which is known to repress the transcription of IGF1R and induce that of IGFBP3. Pre-treatment with the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, prevented apoptosis and the changes in IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 elicited by doxorubicin. The decrease in IGF-1R and increase in IGFBP-3, as well as apoptosis, were also antagonized by pre-treatment with the antioxidant agents, N-acetylcysteine, dexrazoxane, and carvedilol.Doxorubicin down-regulates IGF-1R and up-regulates IGFBP-3 via p53 and oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. This leads to resistance to IGF-1 that may contribute to doxorubicin-initiated apoptosis. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in human cardiomyocytes and explore the possibility of manipulating the IGF-1 axis to protect against anthracycline cardiotoxicity.

  2. Dual Targeting of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Collateral Pathways in Cancer: Combating Drug Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Joseph A., E-mail: jaludwig@mdanderson.org; Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Salah-Eddine [Departments of Sarcoma Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Lee, Ho-Young [Departments of Thoracic Head & Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Naing, Aung [Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Benjamin, Robert [Departments of Sarcoma Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2011-07-26

    The insulin-like growth factor pathway, regulated by a complex interplay of growth factors, cognate receptors, and binding proteins, is critically important for many of the hallmarks of cancer such as oncogenesis, cell division, growth, and antineoplastic resistance. Naturally, a number of clinical trials have sought to directly abrogate insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) function and/or indirectly mitigate its downstream mediators such as mTOR, PI3K, MAPK, and others under the assumption that such therapeutic interventions would provide clinical benefit, demonstrable by impaired tumor growth as well as prolonged progression-free and overall survival for patients. Though a small subset of patients enrolled within phase I or II clinical trials revealed dramatic clinical response to IGF-1R targeted therapies (most using monoclonal antibodies to IGF-1R), in toto, the anticancer effect has been underwhelming and unsustained, as even those with marked clinical responses seem to rapidly acquire resistance to IGF-1R targeted agents when used alone through yet to be identified mechanisms. As the IGF-1R receptor is just one of many that converge upon common intracellular signaling cascades, it is likely that effective IGF-1R targeting must occur in parallel with blockade of redundant signaling paths. Herein, we present the rationale for dual targeting of IGF-1R and other signaling molecules as an effective strategy to combat acquired drug resistance by carcinomas and sarcomas.

  3. Oncogenic fusion proteins adopt the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Haim; Meisel-Sharon, Shilhav; Bruchim, Ilan

    2018-02-19

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) has been identified as a potent anti-apoptotic, pro-survival tyrosine kinase-containing receptor. Overexpression of the IGF1R gene constitutes a typical feature of most human cancers. Consistent with these biological roles, cells expressing high levels of IGF1R are expected not to die, a quintessential feature of cancer cells. Tumor specific chromosomal translocations that disrupt the architecture of transcription factors are a common theme in carcinogenesis. Increasing evidence gathered over the past fifteen years demonstrate that this type of genomic rearrangements is common not only among pediatric and hematological malignancies, as classically thought, but may also provide a molecular and cytogenetic foundation for an ever-increasing portion of adult epithelial tumors. In this review article we provide evidence that the mechanism of action of oncogenic fusion proteins associated with both pediatric and adult malignancies involves transactivation of the IGF1R gene, with ensuing increases in IGF1R levels and ligand-mediated receptor phosphorylation. Disrupted transcription factors adopt the IGF1R signaling pathway and elicit their oncogenic activities via activation of this critical regulatory network. Combined targeting of oncogenic fusion proteins along with the IGF1R may constitute a promising therapeutic approach.

  4. Dual Targeting of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Collateral Pathways in Cancer: Combating Drug Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Joseph A.; Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Salah-Eddine; Lee, Ho-Young; Naing, Aung; Benjamin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor pathway, regulated by a complex interplay of growth factors, cognate receptors, and binding proteins, is critically important for many of the hallmarks of cancer such as oncogenesis, cell division, growth, and antineoplastic resistance. Naturally, a number of clinical trials have sought to directly abrogate insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) function and/or indirectly mitigate its downstream mediators such as mTOR, PI3K, MAPK, and others under the assumption that such therapeutic interventions would provide clinical benefit, demonstrable by impaired tumor growth as well as prolonged progression-free and overall survival for patients. Though a small subset of patients enrolled within phase I or II clinical trials revealed dramatic clinical response to IGF-1R targeted therapies (most using monoclonal antibodies to IGF-1R), in toto, the anticancer effect has been underwhelming and unsustained, as even those with marked clinical responses seem to rapidly acquire resistance to IGF-1R targeted agents when used alone through yet to be identified mechanisms. As the IGF-1R receptor is just one of many that converge upon common intracellular signaling cascades, it is likely that effective IGF-1R targeting must occur in parallel with blockade of redundant signaling paths. Herein, we present the rationale for dual targeting of IGF-1R and other signaling molecules as an effective strategy to combat acquired drug resistance by carcinomas and sarcomas

  5. Dual Targeting of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Collateral Pathways in Cancer: Combating Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Naing

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor pathway, regulated by a complex interplay of growth factors, cognate receptors, and binding proteins, is critically important for many of the hallmarks of cancer such as oncogenesis, cell division, growth, and antineoplastic resistance. Naturally, a number of clinical trials have sought to directly abrogate insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R function and/or indirectly mitigate its downstream mediators such as mTOR, PI3K, MAPK, and others under the assumption that such therapeutic interventions would provide clinical benefit, demonstrable by impaired tumor growth as well as prolonged progression-free and overall survival for patients. Though a small subset of patients enrolled within phase I or II clinical trials revealed dramatic clinical response to IGF-1R targeted therapies (most using monoclonal antibodies to IGF-1R, in toto, the anticancer effect has been underwhelming and unsustained, as even those with marked clinical responses seem to rapidly acquire resistance to IGF-1R targeted agents when used alone through yet to be identified mechanisms. As the IGF-1R receptor is just one of many that converge upon common intracellular signaling cascades, it is likely that effective IGF-1R targeting must occur in parallel with blockade of redundant signaling paths. Herein, we present the rationale for dual targeting of IGF-1R and other signaling molecules as an effective strategy to combat acquired drug resistance by carcinomas and sarcomas.

  6. Does the GH/IGF-1 axis contribute to skeletal sexual dimorphism? Evidence from mouse studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongbo; Mohan, Subburaman; Yakar, Shoshana

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of the gonadotropic axis to skeletal sexual dimorphism (SSD) was clarified in recent years. Studies with animal models of estrogen receptor (ER) or androgen receptor (AR) null mice, as well as mice with bone cell-specific ablation of ER or AR, revealed that both hormones play major roles in skeletal acquisition, and that estrogen regulates skeletal accrual in both sexes. The growth hormone (GH) and its downstream effector, the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are also major determinants of peak bone mass during puberty and young adulthood, and play important roles in maintaining bone integrity during aging. A few studies in both humans and animal models suggest that in addition to the differences in sex steroid actions on bone, sex-specific effects of GH and IGF-1 play essential roles in SSD. However, the contributions of the somatotropic (GH/IGF-1) axis to SSD are controversial and data is difficult to interpret. GH/IGF-1 are pleotropic hormones that act in an endocrine and autocrine/paracrine fashion on multiple tissues, affecting body composition as well as metabolism. Thus, understanding the contribution of the somatotropic axis to SSD requires the use of mouse models that will differentiate between these two modes of action. Elucidation of the relative contribution of GH/IGF-1 axis to SSD is significant because GH is approved for the treatment of normal children with short stature and children with congenital growth disorders. Thus, if the GH/IGF-1 axis determines SSD, treatment with GH may be tailored according to sex. In the following review, we give an overview of the roles of sex steroids in determining SSD and how they may interact with the GH/IGF-1 axis in bone. We summarize several mouse models with impaired somatotropic axis and speculate on the possible contribution of that axis to SSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Over-stimulation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling by western diet may promote diseases of civilization: lessons learnt from laron syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz Gerd; John Swen; Melnik Bodo C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway drives an evolutionarily conserved network that regulates lifespan and longevity. Individuals with Laron syndrome who carry mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene that lead to severe congenital IGF-1 deficiency with decreased insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) exhibit reduced prevalence rates of acne, diabetes and cancer. Western diet with high intake of hyperglycemic carbohydrates and insulinotropic dairy over-stimulat...

  8. Growth hormone mediates pubertal skeletal development independent of hepatic IGF-1 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtland, Hayden-William; Sun, Hui; Beth-On, Mordechay; Wu, Yingjie; Elis, Sebastien; Rosen, Clifford J; Yakar, Shoshana

    2011-04-01

    Deficiencies in either growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with reductions in bone size during growth in humans and animal models. Liver-specific IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice, which have 75% reductions in serum IGF-1, were created previously to separate the effects of endocrine (serum) IGF-1 from autocrine/paracrine IGF-1. However, LID mice also have two- to threefold increases in GH, and this may contribute to the observed pubertal skeletal phenotype. To clarify the role of GH in skeletal development under conditions of significantly reduced serum IGF-1 levels (but normal tissue IGF-1 levels), we studied the skeletal response of male LID and control mice to GH inhibition by pegvisomant from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Treatment of LID mice with pegvisomant resulted in significant reductions in body weight, femur length (Le), and femur total area (Tt.Ar), as well as further reductions in serum IGF-1 levels by 8 weeks of age, compared with the mean values of vehicle-treated LID mice. Reductions in both Tt.Ar and Le were proportional after treatment with pegvisomant. On the other hand, the relative amount of cortical tissue formed (RCA) in LID mice treated with pegvisomant was significantly less than that in both vehicle-treated LID and control mice, indicating that antagonizing GH action, either directly (through GH receptor signaling inhibition) or indirectly (through further reductions in serum/tissue IGF-1 levels), results in disproportionate reductions in the amount of cortical bone formed. This resulted in bones with significantly reduced mechanical properties (femoral whole-bone stiffness and work to failure were markedly decreased), suggesting that compensatory increases of GH in states of IGF-1 deficiency (LID mice) act to protect against a severe inhibition of bone modeling during growth, which otherwise would result in bones that are too weak for normal and/or extreme loading conditions. Copyright © 2011 American Society for

  9. Circulating IGF1 regulates hippocampal IGF1 levels and brain gene expression during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Han; Mitschelen, Matthew; Bixler, Georgina V; Brucklacher, Robert M; Farley, Julie A; Han, Song; Freeman, Willard M; Sonntag, William E

    2011-01-01

    GH and its anabolic mediator, IGF1, are important not only in somatic growth but also in the regulation of brain function. Even though GH treatment has been used clinically to improve body composition and exercise capacity in adults, its influence on central nervous system function has only recently been recognized. This is also the case for children with childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) where GH has been used to stimulate bone growth and enhance final adult height. Circulating IGF1 is tra...

  10. Cyclic glycine-proline regulates IGF-1 homeostasis by altering the binding of IGFBP-3 to IGF-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Gluckman, Peter; Yang, Panzao; Krissansen, Geoff; Sun, Xueying; Zhou, Yongzhi; Wen, Jingyuan; Phillips, Gemma; Shorten, Paul R.; McMahon, Chris D.; Wake, Graeme C.; Chan, Wendy H. K.; Thomas, Mark F.; Ren, April; Moon, Steve; Liu, Dong-Xu

    2014-03-01

    The homeostasis of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is essential for metabolism, development and survival. Insufficient IGF-1 is associated with poor recovery from wounds whereas excessive IGF-1 contributes to growth of tumours. We have shown that cyclic glycine-proline (cGP), a metabolite of IGF-1, can normalise IGF-1 function by showing its efficacy in improving the recovery from ischemic brain injury in rats and inhibiting the growth of lymphomic tumours in mice. Further investigation in cell culture suggested that cGP promoted the activity of IGF-1 when it was insufficient, but inhibited the activity of IGF-1 when it was excessive. Mathematical modelling revealed that the efficacy of cGP was a modulated IGF-1 effect via changing the binding of IGF-1 to its binding proteins, which dynamically regulates the balance between bioavailable and non-bioavailable IGF-1. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of auto-regulation of IGF-1, which has physiological and pathophysiological consequences and potential pharmacological utility.

  11. Personalized Radiation Oncology: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Other Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Geoff S; Krause, Mechthild; McKenna, W Gillies; Baumann, Michael

    Molecular biomarkers are currently evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies in order to establish predictors for treatment decisions in radiation oncology. The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are described in the following text. Among them, the most data are available for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that plays a major role for prognosis of patients after radiotherapy, but seems also to be involved in mechanisms of radioresistance, specifically in repopulation of tumour cells between radiotherapy fractions. Monoclonal antibodies against the EGFR improve locoregional tumour control and survival when applied during radiotherapy, however, the effects are heterogeneous and biomarkers for patient selection are warranted. Also other RTK´s such as c-Met and IGF-1R seem to play important roles in tumour radioresistance. Beside the potential to select patients for molecular targeting approaches combined with radiotherapy, studies are also needed to evluate radiotherapy adaptation approaches for selected patients, i.e. adaptation of radiation dose, or, more sophisticated, of target volumes.

  12. E-Peptides Control Bioavailability of IGF-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczek, Agnieszka; Perlas, Emarald; Winn, Nadine; Nastasi, Tommaso; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a potent cytoprotective growth factor that has attracted considerable attention as a promising therapeutic agent. Transgenic over-expression of IGF-1 propeptides facilitates protection and repair in a broad range of tissues, although transgenic mice over-expressing IGF-1 propeptides display little or no increase in IGF-1 serum levels, even with high levels of transgene expression. IGF-1 propeptides are encoded by multiple alternatively spliced transcripts including C-terminal extension (E) peptides, which are highly positively charged. In the present study, we use decellularized mouse tissue to show that the E-peptides facilitate in vitro binding of murine IGF-1 to the extracellular matrix (ECM) with varying affinities. This property is independent of IGF-1, since proteins consisting of the E-peptides fused to relaxin, a related member of the insulin superfamily, bound equally avidly to decellularized ECM. Thus, the E-peptides control IGF-1 bioavailability by preventing systemic circulation, offering a potentially powerful way to tether IGF-1 and other therapeutic proteins to the site of synthesis and/or administration. PMID:23251442

  13. IGF-1 deficiency impairs cerebral myogenic autoregulation in hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Tarantini, Stefano; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Mitschelen, Matthew; Koller, Akos; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2014-12-01

    Aging impairs autoregulatory protection in the brain, exacerbating hypertension-induced cerebromicrovascular injury, neuroinflammation, and development of vascular cognitive impairment. Despite the importance of the age-related decline in circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in cerebrovascular aging, the effects of IGF-1 deficiency on functional adaptation of cerebral arteries to high blood pressure remain elusive. To determine whether IGF-1 deficiency impairs autoregulatory protection, hypertension was induced in control and IGF-1-deficient mice (Igf1(f/f)+TBG-iCre-AAV8) by chronic infusion of angiotensin-II. In hypertensive control mice, cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation was extended to higher pressure values and the pressure-induced tone of middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) was increased. In hypertensive IGF-1-deficient mice, autoregulation was markedly disrupted, and MCAs did not show adaptive increases in myogenic tone. In control mice, the mechanism of adaptation to hypertension involved upregulation of TRPC channels in MCAs and this mechanism was impaired in hypertensive IGF-1-deficient mice. Likely downstream consequences of cerebrovascular autoregulatory dysfunction in hypertensive IGF-1-deficient mice included exacerbated disruption of the blood-brain barrier and neuroinflammation (microglia activation and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines), which were associated with impaired hippocampal cognitive function. Collectively, IGF-1 deficiency impairs autoregulatory protection in the brain of hypertensive mice, potentially exacerbating cerebromicrovascular injury and neuroinflammation mimicking the aging phenotype.

  14. IGF-1: The Jekyll & Hyde of the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbi, Sriram; Quipildor, Gabriela Farias; Barzilai, Nir; Huffman, Derek M; Milman, Sofiya

    2018-05-08

    The IGF-1 signaling pathway has emerged as a major regulator of the aging process, from rodents to humans. However, given the pleiotropic actions of IGF-1, its role in the aging brain remains complex and controversial. While IGF-1 is clearly essential for normal development of the central nervous system, conflicting evidence has emerged from preclinical and human studies regarding its relationship to cognitive function, as well as cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. This review delves into the current state of the evidence examining the role of IGF-1 in the aging brain, encompassing preclinical and clinical studies. A broad examination of the data indicates that IGF-1 may indeed play opposing roles in the aging brain, depending on the underlying pathology and context. Some evidence suggests that in the setting of neurodegenerative diseases that manifest with abnormal protein deposition in the brain, such as Alzheimer's disease, reducing IGF-1 signaling may serve a protective role by slowing disease progression and augmenting clearance of pathologic proteins to maintain cellular homeostasis. In contrast, inducing IGF-1 deficiency has also been implicated in dysregulated function of cognition and the neurovascular system, suggesting that some IGF-1 signaling may be necessary for normal brain function. Furthermore, states of acute neuronal injury, which necessitate growth, repair and survival signals to persevere, typically demonstrate salutary effects of IGF-1 in that context. Appreciating the dual, at times opposing "Dr. Jekyll" and "Mr. Hyde" characteristics of IGF-1 in the aging brain, will bring us closer to understanding its impact and devising more targeted IGF-1-related interventions.

  15. Role of the insulin-like growth factor 1 axis and visceral adiposity in oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, C L

    2012-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked obesity with many cancers. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 axis may be an important mediator in obesity-associated cancer. This study examined the relationship between IGF-1 and its receptor (IGF-1R) in oesophageal adenocarcinoma, a cancer strongly linked to obesity.

  16. Association between Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is a key regulator of muscle development and metabolism in birds and other vertebrate. Our objective was to determine the association between IGF1 gene polymorphism and carcass traits in FUNAAB Alpha chicken. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of 50 normal feathered ...

  17. The single IGF-1 partial deficiency is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction and is restored by IGF-1 replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olleros Santos-Ruiz, M; Sádaba, M C; Martín-Estal, I; Muñoz, U; Sebal Neira, C; Castilla-Cortázar, I

    2017-08-01

    We previously described in cirrhosis and aging, both conditions of IGF-1 deficiency, a clear hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction with increased oxidative damage. In both conditions, the hepatic mitochondrial function was improved with low doses of IGF-1. The aim of this work was to explore if the only mere IGF-1 partial deficiency, without any exogenous insult, is responsible for hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction. Heterozygous (igf1 +/- ) mice were divided into two groups: untreated and treated mice with low doses of IGF-1. WT group was used as controls. Parameters of hepatic mitochondrial function were determined by flow cytometry, antioxidant enzyme activities were determined by spectrophotometry, and electron chain transport enzyme levels were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. Liver expression of genes coding for proteins involved in mitochondrial protection and apoptosis was studied by microarray analysis and RT-qPCR. Hz mice showed a significant reduction in hepatic mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATPase activity, and an increase in intramitochondrial free radical production and proton leak rates, compared to controls. These parameters were normalized by IGF-1 replacement therapy. No significant differences were found between groups in oxygen consumption and antioxidant enzyme activities, except for catalase, whose activity was increased in both Hz groups. Relevant genes coding for proteins involved in mitochondrial protection and survival were altered in Hz group and were reverted to normal in Hz+IGF-1 group. The mere IGF-1 partial deficiency is per se associated with hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction sensitive to IGF-1 replacement therapy. Results in this work prove that IGF-1 is involved in hepatic mitochondrial protection, because it is able to reduce free radical production, oxidative damage and apoptosis. All these IGF-1 actions are mediated by the modulation of the expression of genes encoding citoprotective

  18. Autophagy resolves early retinal inflammation in Igf1-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Arroba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is a growth factor with differentiating, anti-apoptotic and metabolic functions in the periphery, and anti-inflammatory properties in the nervous system. Mice that have mutations in the Igf1 gene, rendering the gene product inactive (Igf1−/−, present with age-related visual loss accompanied by structural alterations in the first synapses of the retinal pathway. Recent advances have revealed a crucial role of autophagy in immunity and inflammation. Keeping in mind this close relationship, we aimed to decipher these processes in the context of the defects that occur during ageing in the retina of Igf1−/− mice. Tnfa and Il1b mRNAs, and phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK were elevated in the retinas of 6- and 12-month old Igf1−/− mice compared to those in age-matched Igf1+/+ controls. In 6-month-old Igf1−/− retinas, increased mRNA levels of the autophagy mediators Becn1, Atg9, Atg5 and Atg4, decreased p62 (also known as SQSTM1 protein expression together with an increased LC3-II:LC3-I ratio reflected active autophagic flux. However, in retinas from 12-month-old Igf1−/− mice, Nlrp3 mRNA, processing of the IL1β pro-form and immunostaining of active caspase-1 were elevated compared to those in age-matched Igf1+/+ controls, suggesting activation of the inflammasome. This effect concurred with accumulation of autophagosomes and decreased autophagic flux in the retina. Microglia localization and status of activation in the retinas of 12-month-old Igf1+/+ and Igf1−/− mice, analyzed by immunostaining of Cd11b and Iba-1, showed a specific distribution pattern in the outer plexiform layer (OPL, inner plexiform layer (IPL and inner nuclear layer (INL, and revealed an increased number of activated microglia cells in the retina of 12-month-old blind Igf1−/− mice. Moreover, reactive gliosis was exclusively detected in the retinas from 12-month-old blind Igf1−/− mice. In conclusion, this study

  19. The Regulatory Mechanism of MLT/MT1 Signaling on the Growth of Antler Mesenchymal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (MLT plays an important role in regulating the physiological cycle of seasonal breeding animals. Melatonin receptor I (MT1 is effectively expressed in the cambium layer of deer antler. However, the function and metabolic mechanism of MLT/MT1 signaling in the mesenchymal cells of sika deer remain to be further elucidated. In this work, we detected the effects of MLT/MT1 signaling on mesenchymal cells proliferation and the interaction between MLT/MT1 and IGF1/IGF1-R signaling. The results show that (1 deer antler mesenchymal cells actually express MT1; (2 exogenous melatonin significantly promotes mesenchymal cells proliferation, while MT1 knock-down significantly impairs the positive effects of melatonin; and (3 melatonin significantly enhanced IGF1/IGF1-R signaling, as both the expression of IGF1 and IGF-1R increased, while MT1 knock-down significantly decreased IGF1-R expression and IGF1 synthesis. In summary, these data verified that MLT/MT1 signaling plays a crucial role in antler mesenchymal proliferation, which may be mediated by IGF1/IGF1-R.

  20. Cardiac insulin-like growth factor-1 and cyclins gene expression in canine models of ischemic or overpacing cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudabady, Maryam; Mathieu, Myrielle; Touihri, Karim; Hadad, Ielham; Da Costa, Agnes Mendes; Naeije, Robert; Mc Entee, Kathleen

    2009-10-09

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and cyclins are thought to play a role in myocardial hypertrophic response to insults. We investigated these signaling pathways in canine models of ischemic or overpacing-induced cardiomyopathy. Echocardiographic recordings and myocardial sampling for measurements of gene expressions of IGF-1, its receptor (IGF-1R), TGFbeta and of cyclins A, B, D1, D2, D3 and E, were obtained in 8 dogs with a healed myocardial infarction, 8 dogs after 7 weeks of overpacing and in 7 healthy control dogs. Ischemic cardiomyopathy was characterized by moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction and eccentric hypertrophy, with increased expressions of IGF-1, IGF-1R and cyclins B, D1, D3 and E. Tachycardiomyopathy was characterized by severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and dilation with no identifiable hypertrophic response. In the latter model, only IGF-1 was overexpressed while IGF-1R, cyclins B, D1, D3 and E stayed unchanged as compared to controls. The expressions of TGFbeta, cyclins A and D2 were comparable in the 3 groups. The expression of IGF-1R was correlated with the thickness of the interventricular septum, in systole and diastole, and to cyclins B, D1, D3 and E expression. These results agree with the notion that IGF-1/IGF-1R and cyclins are involved in the hypertrophic response observed in cardiomyopathies.

  1. Suppression of Homologous Recombination by insulin-like growth factor-1 inhibition sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Oreekha; Beauchamp, Marie-Claude; Nader, Paul Abou; Laskov, Ido; Iqbal, Sanaa; Philip, Charles-André; Yasmeen, Amber; Gotlieb, Walter H.

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of homologous recombination (HR) is found in close to 50 % of ovarian and breast cancer. Tumors with BRCA1 mutations show increased expression of the Insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R). We previously have shown that inhibition of IGF-1R results in growth inhibition and apoptosis of ovarian tumor cells. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between HR and sensitivity to IGF-1R inhibition. Further, we hypothesized that IGF-1R inhibition might sensitize HR proficient cancers to Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Using ovarian and breast cancer cellular models with known BRCA1 status, we evaluated their HR functionality by RAD51 foci formation assay. The 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) of Insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor kinase inhibitor (IGF-1Rki) in these cells was assessed, and western immunoblotting was performed to determine the expression of proteins involved in the IGF-1R pathway. Moreover, IGF-1R inhibitors were added on HR proficient cell lines to assess mRNA and protein expression of RAD51 by qPCR and western blot. Also, we explored the interaction between RAD51 and Insulin receptor substance 1 (IRS-1) by immunoprecipitation. Next, combination effect of IGF-1R and PARP inhibitors was evaluated by clonogenic assay. Cells with mutated/methylated BRCA1 showed an impaired HR function, and had an overactivation of the IGF-1R pathway. These cells were more sensitive to IGF-1R inhibition compared to HR proficient cells. In addition, the IGF-IR inhibitor reduced RAD51 expression at mRNA and protein levels in HR proficient cells, and sensitized these cells to PARP inhibitor. Targeting IGF-1R might lead to improved personalized therapeutic approaches in cancer patients with HR deficiency. Targeting both PARP and IGF-1R might increase the clinical efficacy in HR deficient patients and increase the population of patients who may benefit from PARP inhibitors

  2. Endothelin-1-induced focal cerebral ischemia in the growth hormone/IGF-1 deficient Lewis Dwarf rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Mitschelen, Matthew; Toth, Peter; Ashpole, Nicole M; Farley, Julie A; Hodges, Erik L; Warrington, Junie P; Han, Song; Fung, Kar-Ming; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Sonntag, William E

    2014-11-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Growth hormone (GH) and its anabolic mediator, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, decrease with advancing age and this decline has been shown to promote vascular dysfunction. In addition, lower GH/IGF-1 levels are associated with higher stroke mortality in humans. These results suggest that decreased GH/IGF-1 level is an important factor in increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases. This study was designed to assess whether GH/IGF-1-deficiency influences the outcome of cerebral ischemia. We found that endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in a modest but nonsignificant decrease in cerebral infarct size in GH/IGF-1 deficient dw/dw rats compared with control heterozygous littermates and dw/dw rats with early-life GH treatment. Expression of endothelin receptors and endothelin-1-induced constriction of the middle cerebral arteries were similar in the three experimental groups. Interestingly, dw/dw rats exhibited reduced brain edema and less astrocytic infiltration compared with their heterozygous littermates and this effect was reversed by GH-treatment. Because reactive astrocytes are critical for the regulation of poststroke inflammatory processes, maintenance of the blood-brain barrier and neural repair, further studies are warranted to determine the long-term functional consequences of decreased astrocytic activation in GH/IGF-1 deficient animals after cerebral ischemia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.

  3. Regulation of skeletal growth and mineral acquisition by the GH/IGF-1 axis: Lessons from mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakar, Shoshana; Isaksson, Olle

    2016-06-01

    The growth hormone (GH) and its downstream mediator, the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), construct a pleotropic axis affecting growth, metabolism, and organ function. Serum levels of GH/IGF-1 rise during pubertal growth and associate with peak bone acquisition, while during aging their levels decline and associate with bone loss. The GH/IGF-1 axis was extensively studied in numerous biological systems including rodent models and cell cultures. Both hormones act in an endocrine and autocrine/paracrine fashion and understanding their distinct and overlapping contributions to skeletal acquisition is still a matter of debate. GH and IGF-1 exert their effects on osteogenic cells via binding to their cognate receptor, leading to activation of an array of genes that mediate cellular differentiation and function. Both hormones interact with other skeletal regulators, such as sex-steroids, thyroid hormone, and parathyroid hormone, to facilitate skeletal growth and metabolism. In this review we summarized several rodent models of the GH/IGF-1 axis and described key experiments that shed new light on the regulation of skeletal growth by the GH/IGF-1 axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of IGF-1 on Trk Expressing DRG Neurons with HIV-gp120- Induced Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Zhen; Chi, Heng; Bi, Yanwen; Song, Lijun; Liu, Huaxiang

    2016-01-01

    HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 is the main protein that causes HIVassociated sensory neuropathy. However, the underlying mechanisms of gp120-induced neurotoxicity are still unclear. There are lack effective treatments for relieving HIV-related neuropathic symptoms caused by gp120-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk)A, TrkB, and TrkC expression in primary cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with gp120-induced neurotoxicity was investigated. The effects of IGF-1 on distinct Trk-positive DRG neurons with gp120-induced neurotoxicity were also determined. The results showed that gp120 not only dose-dependently induced DRG neuronal apoptosis and inhibited neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth, but also decreased distinct Trk expression levels. IGF-1 rescued DRG neurons from apoptosis and improved neuronal survival of gp120 neurotoxic DRG neurons in vitro. IGF-1 also improved TrkA and TrkB, but not TrkC, expression in gp120 neurotoxic conditions. The effects of IGF-1 could be blocked by preincubation with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. These results suggested that gp120 may have a wide range of neurotoxicity on different subpopulations of DRG neurons, while IGF-1 might only relieve some subpopulations of DRG neurons with gp120-induced neurotoxicity. These data provide novel information of mechanisms of gp120 neurotoxicity on primary sensory neurons and the potential therapeutic effects of IGF-1 on gp120-induced neurotoxicity.

  5. NREM sleep architecture and relation to GH/IGF-1 axis in Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrillo, Elisabetta; Bizzarri, Carla; Cappa, Marco; Bruni, Oliviero; Pavone, Martino; Cutrera, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Laron syndrome (LS), known as growth hormone (GH) receptor deficiency, is a rare form of inherited GH resistance. Sleep disorders were described as a common feature of adult LS patients, while no data are available in children. Bi-directional interactions between human sleep and the somatotropic system were previously described, mainly between slow wave sleep and the nocturnal GH surge. To analyze the sleep macro- and microstructure in LS and to evaluate the influence of substitutive insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) therapy on it. Two young LS females underwent polysomnography; the first study was performed during IGF-1 therapy, the second one after a 3-month wash-out period. In both patients, the sleep macrostructure showed that time in bed, sleep period time, total sleep time, sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement (REM) percentage were all increased during wash-out. The sleep microstructure (cyclic alternating pattern: CAP) showed significantly higher EEG slow oscillations (A1%) in NREM sleep, both during IGF-1 therapy and wash-out. Sleep macrostructure in LS children is slightly affected by substitutive IGF-1 therapy. Sleep microstructure shows an increase of A1%, probably related to abnormally high hypothalamic GHRH secretion, due to GH insensitivity. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Blood Brain Barrier and Neuroinflammation Are Critical Targets of IGF-1-Mediated Neuroprotection in Stroke for Middle-Aged Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bake, Shameena; Selvamani, Amutha; Cherry, Jessica; Sohrabji, Farida

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-induced cerebral infarction is more severe in older animals as compared to younger animals, and is associated with reduced availability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. This study determined the effect of post-stroke IGF-1 treatment, and used microRNA profiling to identify mechanisms underlying IGF-1’s neuroprotective actions. Post-stroke ICV administration of IGF-1 to middle-aged female rats reduced infarct volume by 39% when measured 24h later. MicroRNA analyses of ischemic tissue collected at the early post-stroke phase (4h) indicated that 8 out of 168 disease-related miRNA were significantly downregulated by IGF-1. KEGG pathway analysis implicated these miRNA in PI3K-Akt signaling, cell adhesion/ECM receptor pathways and T-and B-cell signaling. Specific components of these pathways were subsequently analyzed in vehicle and IGF-1 treated middle-aged females. Phospho-Akt was reduced by ischemia at 4h, but elevated by IGF-1 treatment at 24h. IGF-1 induced Akt activation was preceded by a reduction of blood brain barrier permeability at 4h post-stroke and global suppression of cytokines including IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. A subset of these cytokines including IL-6 was also suppressed by IGF-1 at 24h post-stroke. These data are the first to show that the temporal and mechanistic components of post-stroke IGF-1 treatment in older animals, and that cellular components of the blood brain barrier may serve as critical targets of IGF-1 in the aging brain. PMID:24618563

  7. IGF-1 Alleviates High Fat Diet-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Insulin Signaling and Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingmei; Yuan, Ming; Bradley, Katherine M.; Dong, Feng; Anversa, Piero; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with reduced plasma IGF-1 levels, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and cardiac dysfunction. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of IGF-1 on high fat diet-induced oxidative, myocardial, geometric and mitochondrial responses. FVB and cardiomyocyte-specific IGF-1 overexpression transgenic mice were fed a low (10%) or high fat (45%) diet to induce obesity. High fat diet feeding led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma levels of leptin, interleukin-6, insulin and triglyceride as well as reduced circulating IGF-1 levels. Echocardiography revealed reduced fractional shortening, increased end systolic and diastolic diameter, increased wall thickness, and cardiac hypertrophy in high fat-fed FVB mice. High fat diet promoted ROS generation, apoptosis, protein and mitochondrial damage, reduced ATP content, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, contractile and intracellular Ca2+ dysregulation, including depressed peak shortening and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, and dampened intracellular Ca2+ rise and clearance. Western blot analysis revealed disrupted phosphorylation of insulin receptor, post-receptor signaling molecules IRS-1 (tyrosine/serine phosphorylation), Akt, GSK3β, Foxo3a, mTOR, as well as downregulated expression of mitochondrial proteins PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and UCP-2. Intriguingly, IGF-1 mitigated high fat diet feeding-induced alterations in ROS, protein and mitochondrial damage, ATP content, apoptosis, myocardial contraction, intracellular Ca2+ handling and insulin signaling, but not whole body glucose intolerance and cardiac hypertrophy. Exogenous IGF-1 treatment also alleviated high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction. Our data revealed that IGF-1 alleviates high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction despite persistent cardiac remodeling, possibly due to preserved cell survival, mitochondrial function and insulin signaling. PMID:22275536

  8. GPER1-mediated IGFBP-1 induction modulates IGF-1-dependent signaling in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri-Gohar, Ali; Houston, Kevin D

    2016-02-15

    Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is a commonly prescribed adjuvant therapy for estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer patients. To determine if extracellular factors contribute to the modulation of IGF-1 signaling after tamoxifen treatment, MCF-7 cells were treated with IGF-1 in conditioned medium (CM) obtained from 4-OHT-treated MCF-7 cells and the accumulation of phospho-Akt (S473) was measured. CM inhibited IGF-1-dependent cell signaling and suggesting the involvement of extracellular factors (ie. IGFBPs). A significant increase in IGFBP-1 mRNA and extracellular IGFBP-1 protein was observed in 4-OHT-treated MCF-7 cells. Knockdown experiments demonstrated that both GPER1 and CREB mediate IGFBP-1 induction. Furthermore, experiments showed that 4-OHT-dependent IGFBP-1 transcription is downstream of GPER1-activation in breast cancer cells. Additionally, neutralization and knockdown experiments demonstrated a role for IGFBP-1 in the observed inhibition of IGF-1 signaling. These results suggested that 4-OHT inhibits IGF-1 signaling via GPER1 and CREB mediated extracellular IGFBP-1 accumulation in breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. A Novel Mechanism of Androgen Receptor Action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Jr, Charles T

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, the authors had determined that the androgen receptor controls the expression of the cell-surface receptor for the hormone IGF-1 at the level of translation of the IGF-1 receptor mRNA...

  10. The Interaction Between IGF-1, Atherosclerosis and Vascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yusuke; Quevedo, Henry C.; Tiwari, Summit; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Anwar, Asif; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    The process of vascular aging encompasses alterations in the function of endothelial (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via oxidation, inflammation, cell senescence and epigenetic modifications, increasing the probability of atherosclerosis. Aged vessels exhibit decreased endothelial antithrombogenic properties, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inflammatory signaling, increased migration of VSMCs to the subintimal space, impaired angiogenesis and increased elastin degradation. The key initiating step in atherogenesis is subendothelial accumulation of apolipoprotein-B containing low density lipoproteins resulting in activation of endothelial cells and recruitment of monocytes. Activated endothelial cells secrete “chemokines” that interact with cognate chemokine receptors on monocytes and promote directional migration. Recruitment of immune cells establishes a pro-inflammatory status, further causing elevated oxidative stress, which in turn triggers a series of events including apoptotic or necrotic death of vascular and non-vascular cells. Increased oxidative stress is also considered to be a key factor in mechanisms of aging-associated changes in tissue integrity and function. Experimental evidence indicates that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-survival effects on the vasculature, reducing atherosclerotic plaque burden and promoting features of atherosclerotic plaque stability. PMID:24943302

  11. 17β-Estradiol-induced cell proliferation requires estrogen receptor (ER) α monoubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Piergiorgio; Pesiri, Valeria; Marino, Maria; Acconcia, Filippo

    2011-07-01

    Protein monoubiquitination (monoUbq) (i.e., the attachment of one single ubiquitin to the substrate) is a non-proteolytic reversible modification that controls protein functions. Among other proteins, the estrogen receptor α (ERα), which mediates the pleiotropic effects of the cognate hormone 17β-estradiol (E2), is a monoubiquitinated protein. Although it has been demonstrated that E2 rapidly reduces ERα monoUbq in breast cancer cells, the impact of monoUbq in the regulation of the ERα activities is poorly appreciated. Here, we show that mutation of the ERα monoUbq sites prevents the E2-induced ERα phosphorylation in the serine residue 118 (S118), reduces ERα transcriptional activity, and precludes the ERα-mediated extranuclear activation of signaling pathways (i.e., AKT activation) thus impeding the E2-induced cyclin D1 promoter activation and consequently cell proliferation. In addition, the interference with ERα monoUbq deregulates E2-induced association of ERα to the insulin like growth factor receptor (IGF-1-R). Altogether these data demonstrate an inherent role for monoUbq in ERα signaling and point to the physiological function of ERα monoUbq in the regulation of E2-induced cell proliferation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. IGF1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity of Mitral Cells in Olfactory Memory during Social Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihui; Chen, Zijun; Shang, Congping; Yan, Fei; Shi, Yingchao; Zhang, Jiajing; Qu, Baole; Han, Hailin; Wang, Yanying; Li, Dapeng; Südhof, Thomas C; Cao, Peng

    2017-07-05

    During social transmission of food preference (STFP), mice form long-term memory of food odors presented by a social partner. How does the brain associate a social context with odor signals to promote memory encoding? Here we show that odor exposure during STFP, but not unconditioned odor exposure, induces glomerulus-specific long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength selectively at the GABAergic component of dendrodendritic synapses of granule and mitral cells in the olfactory bulb. Conditional deletion of synaptotagmin-10, the Ca 2+ sensor for IGF1 secretion from mitral cells, or deletion of IGF1 receptor in the olfactory bulb prevented the socially relevant GABAergic LTP and impaired memory formation after STFP. Conversely, the addition of IGF1 to acute olfactory bulb slices elicited the GABAergic LTP in mitral cells by enhancing postsynaptic GABA receptor responses. Thus, our data reveal a synaptic substrate for a socially conditioned long-term memory that operates at the level of the initial processing of sensory information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intrauterine growth restriction and differential patterns of hepatic growth and expression of IGF1, PCK2, and HSDL1 mRNA in the sheep fetus in late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Sheridan; Morrison, Janna L; McMillen, I Caroline

    2009-06-01

    Fetal adaptations to periods of substrate deprivation can result in the programming of glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction in later life. Placental insufficiency can be associated with either sparing or sacrifice of fetal liver growth, and these different responses may have different metabolic consequences. It is unclear what intrahepatic mechanisms determine the differential responses of the fetal liver to substrate restriction. We investigated the effects of placental restriction (PR) on liver growth and the hepatic expression of SLC2A1, IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R, PPARGC1A, PPARA, PRKAA1, PRKAA2, PCK2, and HSDL1 mRNA in fetal sheep at 140-145 days of gestation. A mean gestational arterial partial pressure of oxygen less than 17 mmHg was defined as hypoxic, and a relative liver of weight more than 2 SD below the mean liver weight of controls was defined as reduced liver growth. Fetuses therefore were defined as control-normoxic (C-N; n = 9), PR-normoxic (PR-N; n = 7), PR-hypoxic (PR-H; n = 8), or PR-hypoxic reduced liver growth (PR-H RLG; n = 4). Hepatic SLC2A1 mRNA expression was highest (P fetal substrate restriction may exist that protect the liver from decreased growth and, potentially, from a decreased responsiveness to the actions of insulin in postnatal life.

  14. Mechanisms Underlying Testicular Damage and Dysfunction in Mice With Partial IGF-1 Deficiency and the Effectiveness of IGF-1 Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Cortázar, Inma; Gago, Alberto; Muñoz, Úrsula; Ávila-Gallego, Elena; Guerra-Menéndez, Lucía; Sádaba, María Cruz; García-Magariño, Mariano; Olleros Santos-Ruiz, María; Aguirre, G A; Puche, Juan Enrique

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) deficiency can cause testicular damage and to examine changes of the testicular morphology and testicular function-related gene expression caused by IGF-1 deficiency. Therefore, this study aims to determine the benefits of low doses of IGF-1 and to explore the mechanisms underlying the IGF-1 replacement therapy. A murine model of IGF-1 deficiency was used to avoid any factor that could contribute to testicular damage. Testicular weight, score of histopathological damage, and gene expressions were studied in 3 experimental groups of mice: controls (wild-type Igf1(+/+)), heterozygous Igf1(+/-) with partial IGF-1 deficiency, and heterozygous Igf1(+/-) treated with IGF-1. Results show that the partial IGF-1 deficiency induced testicular damage and altered expression of genes involved in IGF-1 and growth hormone signaling and regulation, testicular hormonal function, extracellular matrix establishment and its regulation, angiogenesis, fibrogenesis, inflammation, and cytoprotection. In addition, proteins involved in tight junction expression were found to be reduced. However, low doses of IGF-1 restored the testicular damage and most of these parameters. IGF-1 deficiency caused the damage of the blood-testis barrier and testicular structure and induced the abnormal testicular function-related gene expressions. However, low doses of IGF-1 constitute an effective replacement therapy that restores the described testicular damage. Data herein show that (1) cytoprotective activities of IGF-1 seem to be mediated by heat shock proteins and that (2) connective tissue growth factor could play a relevant role together with IGF-1 in the extracellular matrix establishment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The GH/IGF-1 axis in ageing and longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Edward O.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Murrey, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Secretion of growth hormone (GH), and consequently that of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), declines over time until only low levels can be detected in individuals aged ≥60 years. This phenomenon, which is known as the ‘somatopause’, has led to recombinant human GH being widely promoted and abused as an antiageing drug, despite lack of evidence of efficacy. By contrast, several mutations that decrease the tone of the GH/IGF-1 axis are associated with extended longevity in mice. In humans, corresponding or similar mutations have been identified, but whether these mutations alter longevity has yet to be established. The powerful effect of reduced GH activity on lifespan extension in mice has generated the hypothesis that pharmaceutically inhibiting, rather than increasing, GH action might delay ageing. Moreover, mice as well as humans with reduced activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis are protected from cancer and diabetes mellitus, two major ageing-related morbidities. Here, we review data on mouse strains with alterations in the GH/IGF-1 axis and their effects on lifespan. The outcome of corresponding or similar mutations in humans is described, as well as the potential mechanisms underlying increased longevity and the therapeutic benefits and risks of medical disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis in humans. PMID:23591370

  16. Expression of growth factor receptors and targeting of EGFR in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ling; Hausmann, Martin; Dietmaier, Wolfgang; Kellermeier, Silvia; Pesch, Theresa; Stieber-Gunckel, Manuela; Lippert, Elisabeth; Klebl, Frank; Rogler, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a malignant neoplasm of the bile ducts or the gallbladder. Targeting of growth factor receptors showed therapeutic potential in palliative settings for many solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of seven growth factor receptors in CC cell lines and to assess the effect of blocking the EGFR receptor in vitro. Expression of EGFR (epithelial growth factor receptor), HGFR (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor), IGF2R (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor) and VEGFR1-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3) were examined in four human CC cell lines (EGI-1, HuH28, OZ and TFK-1). The effect of the anti-EGFR-antibody cetuximab on cell growth and apoptosis was studied and cell lines were examined for KRAS mutations. EGFR, HGFR and IGFR1 were present in all four cell lines tested. IGFR2 expression was confirmed in EGI-1 and TFK-1. No growth-inhibitory effect was found in EGI-1 cells after incubation with cetuximab. Cetuximab dose-dependently inhibited growth in TFK-1. Increased apoptosis was only seen in TFK-1 cells at the highest cetuximab dose tested (1 mg/ml), with no dose-response-relationship at lower concentrations. In EGI-1 a heterozygous KRAS mutation was found in codon 12 (c.35G>A; p.G12D). HuH28, OZ and TFK-1 lacked KRAS mutation. CC cell lines express a pattern of different growth receptors in vitro. Growth factor inhibitor treatment could be affected from the KRAS genotype in CC. The expression of EGFR itself does not allow prognoses on growth inhibition by cetuximab

  17. Expression of growth factor receptors and targeting of EGFR in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellermeier Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CC is a malignant neoplasm of the bile ducts or the gallbladder. Targeting of growth factor receptors showed therapeutic potential in palliative settings for many solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of seven growth factor receptors in CC cell lines and to assess the effect of blocking the EGFR receptor in vitro. Methods Expression of EGFR (epithelial growth factor receptor, HGFR (hepatocyte growth factor receptor IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, IGF2R (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor and VEGFR1-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3 were examined in four human CC cell lines (EGI-1, HuH28, OZ and TFK-1. The effect of the anti-EGFR-antibody cetuximab on cell growth and apoptosis was studied and cell lines were examined for KRAS mutations. Results EGFR, HGFR and IGFR1 were present in all four cell lines tested. IGFR2 expression was confirmed in EGI-1 and TFK-1. No growth-inhibitory effect was found in EGI-1 cells after incubation with cetuximab. Cetuximab dose-dependently inhibited growth in TFK-1. Increased apoptosis was only seen in TFK-1 cells at the highest cetuximab dose tested (1 mg/ml, with no dose-response-relationship at lower concentrations. In EGI-1 a heterozygous KRAS mutation was found in codon 12 (c.35G>A; p.G12D. HuH28, OZ and TFK-1 lacked KRAS mutation. Conclusion CC cell lines express a pattern of different growth receptors in vitro. Growth factor inhibitor treatment could be affected from the KRAS genotype in CC. The expression of EGFR itself does not allow prognoses on growth inhibition by cetuximab.

  18. IGF-1 Promotes Brn-4 Expression and Neuronal Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells via the PI3K/Akt Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinhua; Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Xiang; Guo, Yuxiu; Sun, Xiaohui; Chen, Geng; Li, Haoming; Li, Pengcheng; Lu, Xiaohui; Tian, Meiling; Qin, Jianbing; Zhou, Hui; Jin, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that transcription factor Brn-4 is upregulated in the surgically denervated hippocampus in vivo, promoting neuronal differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. The molecules mediating Brn-4 upregulation in the denervated hippocampus remain unknown. In this study we examined the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in hippocampus following denervation. Surgical denervation led to a significant increase in IGF-1 expression in vivo. We also report that IGF-1 treatment on NSCs in vitro led to a marked acceleration of Brn-4 expression and cell differentiation down neuronal pathways. The promotion effects were blocked by PI3K-specific inhibitor (LY294002), but not MAPK inhibitor (PD98059); levels of phospho-Akt were increased by IGF-1 treatment. In addition, inhibition of IGF-1 receptor (AG1024) and mTOR (rapamycin) both attenuated the increased expression of Brn-4 induced by IGF-1. Together, the results demonstrated that upregulation of IGF-1 induced by hippocampal denervation injury leads to activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which in turn gives rise to upregulation of the Brn-4 and subsequent stem cell differentiation down neuronal pathways. PMID:25474202

  19. IGF-1 promotes Brn-4 expression and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Our previous studies indicated that transcription factor Brn-4 is upregulated in the surgically denervated hippocampus in vivo, promoting neuronal differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs in vitro. The molecules mediating Brn-4 upregulation in the denervated hippocampus remain unknown. In this study we examined the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in hippocampus following denervation. Surgical denervation led to a significant increase in IGF-1 expression in vivo. We also report that IGF-1 treatment on NSCs in vitro led to a marked acceleration of Brn-4 expression and cell differentiation down neuronal pathways. The promotion effects were blocked by PI3K-specific inhibitor (LY294002, but not MAPK inhibitor (PD98059; levels of phospho-Akt were increased by IGF-1 treatment. In addition, inhibition of IGF-1 receptor (AG1024 and mTOR (rapamycin both attenuated the increased expression of Brn-4 induced by IGF-1. Together, the results demonstrated that upregulation of IGF-1 induced by hippocampal denervation injury leads to activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which in turn gives rise to upregulation of the Brn-4 and subsequent stem cell differentiation down neuronal pathways.

  20. Increased linear bone growth by GH in the absence of SOCS2 is independent of IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Ross; Ahmed, Syed F; Staines, Katherine A; Pass, Chloe; Jasim, Seema; MacRae, Vicky E; Farquharson, Colin

    2015-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) signaling is essential for postnatal linear bone growth, but the relative importance of GHs actions on the liver and/or growth plate cartilage remains unclear. The importance of liver derived insulin like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for endochondral growth has recently been challenged. Here, we investigate linear growth in Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-2 (SOCS2) knockout mice, which have enhanced growth despite normal systemic GH/IGF-1 levels. Wild-type embryonic ex vivo metatarsals failed to exhibit increased linear growth in response to GH, but displayed increased Socs2 transcript levels (P growth over a 12 day period. Despite this increase, IGF-1 transcript and protein levels were not increased in response to GH. In accordance with these data, IGF-1 levels were unchanged in GH-challenged postnatal Socs2(-/-) conditioned medium despite metatarsals showing enhanced linear growth. Growth-plate Igf1 mRNA levels were not elevated in juvenile Socs2(-/-) mice. GH did however elevate IGF-binding protein 3 levels in conditioned medium from GH challenged metatarsals and this was more apparent in Socs2(-/-) metatarsals. GH did not enhance the growth of Socs2(-/-) metatarsals when the IGF receptor was inhibited, suggesting that IGF receptor mediated mechanisms are required. IGF-2 may be responsible as IGF-2 promoted metatarsal growth and Igf2 expression was elevated in Socs2(-/-) (but not WT) metatarsals in response to GH. These studies emphasise the critical importance of SOCS2 in regulating GHs ability to promote bone growth. Also, GH appears to act directly on the metatarsals of Socs2(-/-) mice, promoting growth via a mechanism that is independent of IGF-1. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparison of IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1) levels in bovine serum sampled three times during the day using validated equine IGF-1 elisa

    OpenAIRE

    Mrkun J.; Kosec M.; Zrimšek Petra

    2009-01-01

    Cows in negative energy balance exhibit reduced fertility, mediated by metabolic signals that influence the reproductive system. Measurement of IGF-1 contributes to the diagnosis of negative energy balance. The aim of this study was to investigate possible variations in IGF-1 levels in samples taken at different times of the day. Equine IGF-1 ELISA was used for measuring IGF-1 in bovine samples. Statistical analysis was applied to the results. Using scatter diagrams fitted with Deming regress...

  2. Elevated Serum Levels of IGF-1 Are Sufficient to Establish Normal Body Size and Skeletal Properties Even in the Absence of Tissue IGF-1

    OpenAIRE

    Elis, Sebastien; Courtland, Hayden-William; Wu, Yingjie; Rosen, Clifford J; Sun, Hui; Jepsen, Karl J; Majeska, Robert J; Yakar, Shoshana

    2010-01-01

    Use of recombinant insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as a treatment for primary IGF-1 deficiency in children has become increasingly common. When untreated, primary IGF-1 deficiency may lead to a range of metabolic disorders, including lipid abnormalities, insulin resistance, and decreased bone density. To date, results of this therapy are considered encouraging; however, our understanding of the role played by IGF-1 during development remains limited. Studies on long-term treatment with r...

  3. Involvement of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 signaling on the conspicuousness of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Yoriko; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Hachiya, Akira; Kitahara, Takashi

    2010-11-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious esthetic defects for many women. We previously reported that the severity of impairment of skin architecture around facial pores correlates well with the appearance of facial pores in several ethnic groups. In our last report, we showed that serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) correlate well with facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. However, our results could not fully explain the implication between facial pores and IGF signaling. In this study, we conducted a histological analysis of facial skin to determine whether potential changes in IGF-1 availability occur in the skin with or without conspicuous pores. Immunohistochemical observations showed that expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is limited to the suprapapillary epidermis around facial pores and to basal cells of rete pegs without tips in epidermis with conspicuous pores. In contrast, in basal cells of skin without conspicuous pores, IGFBP-3 expression is very low. Ki-67 and IGF-1 receptor-positive cells are abundant in basal cells in the tips of the rete pegs in skin with typical epidermal architecture around facial pores. No obvious differences were observed in the expression of filaggrin, involucrin, K1, K6 or K17 in skin with or without conspicuous pores. However, increased expression of K16 was observed in skin with conspicuous pores suggesting hyperproliferation. These results suggest that the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 signaling pathway is involved in the formation of conspicuous facial pores due to the epidermal architecture around facial pores.

  4. IGF-1 promotes the development and cytotoxic activity of human NK cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Fang; Sun, Rui; Fu, Binqing; Wang, Fuyan; Guo, Chuang; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a critical regulator of many physiological functions, ranging from longevity to immunity. However, little is known about the role of IGF-1 in natural killer cell development and function. Here, we identify an essential role for IGF-1 in the positive regulation of human natural killer cell development and cytotoxicity. Specifically, we show that human natural killer cells have the ability to produce IGF-1 and that differential endogenous IGF-1 expression...

  5. The Association between IGF-1 Polymorphisms, IGF-1 Serum Levels, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, C.M.M.; van Turenhout, L.C.; Deijen, J.B.; Koppes, L.L.J.; van Mechelen, W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Drent, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether

  6. The association between IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum levels, and cognitive functions in healthy adults: The amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, C.M.M.; Turenhout, L.C. van; Deijen, J.B.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Twisk, J.W.R.; Drent, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether

  7. The association between IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum levels, and cognitive functions in healthy adults: the Amsterdam Growth and Health longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, C.M.M.; Turenhout, L.C. van; Deijen, J.B.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Twisk, J.W.R.; Drent, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether

  8. Profile of mecasermin for the long-term treatment of growth failure in children and adolescents with severe primary IGF-1 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Fintini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Fintini, Claudia Brufani, Marco CappaEndocrinology Unit, “Bambino Gesù” Children’s Hospital-IRCCS, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHI or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 deficiency (IGFD is characterized by deficit of IGF-1 production due to alteration of response of growth hormone (GH receptor to GH. This syndrome is due to mutation of GH receptor or IGF-1 gene and patients affected showed no response to GH therapy. The only treatment is recombinant IGF-1 (mecasermin, which has been available since 1986, but approved in the United States by the US Food and Drug Administration only in 2005 and in Europe by the European Medicines Agency in 2007. To date, few studies are available on long-term treatment with mecasermin in IGFD patients and some of them have a very small number of subjects. In this review we discuss briefly clinical features of severe primary IGFD, laboratory findings, and indications for treatment. Results of long-term therapy with rhIGF1 (mecasermin in patients affected by severe primary IGFD and possible side effects are explained.Keywords: mecasermin, therapy, Laron syndrome, IGF-1

  9. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 system plays a central role in the growth and development of the mammary gland. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) have been proposed as candidate genes for milk production traits. This study involved a population of 163 Montbeliarde cows.

  10. Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF Binding Protein-2, Independently of IGF-1, Induces GLUT-4 Translocation and Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruhalem Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 is the predominant IGF binding protein produced during adipogenesis and is known to increase the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU in myotubes. We investigated the IGFBP-2-induced changes in basal and insulin-stimulated GU in adipocytes and the underlying mechanisms. We further determined the role of insulin and IGF-1 receptors in mediating the IGFBP-2 and the impact of IGFBP-2 on the IGF-1-induced GU. Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with IGFBP-2 in the presence and absence of insulin and IGF-1. Insulin, IGF-1, and IGFBP-2 induced a dose-dependent increase in GU. IGFBP-2 increased the insulin-induced GU after long-term incubation. The IGFBP-2-induced impact on GU was neither affected by insulin or IGF-1 receptor blockage nor by insulin receptor knockdown. IGFBP-2 significantly increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, AMPK, TBC1D1, and PKCζ/λ and induced GLUT-4 translocation. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K and AMPK significantly reduced IGFBP-2-stimulated GU. In conclusion, IGFBP-2 stimulates GU in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through activation of PI3K/Akt, AMPK/TBC1D1, and PI3K/PKCζ/λ/GLUT-4 signaling. The stimulatory effect of IGFBP-2 on GU is independent of its binding to IGF-1 and is possibly not mediated through the insulin or IGF-1 receptor. This study highlights the potential role of IGFBP-2 in glucose metabolism.

  11. IGF-II Promotes Stemness of Neural Restricted Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Amber N.; Schneider, Joel S.; Qin, Mei; Tyler, William A.; Pintar, John E.; Fraidenraich, Diego; Wood, Teresa L.; Levison, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II regulate brain development and growth through the IGF type 1 receptor (IGF-1R). Less appreciated is that IGF-II, but not IGF-I, activates a splice variant of the insulin receptor (IR) known as IR-A. We hypothesized that IGF-II exerts distinct effects from IGF-I on neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs) via its interaction with IR-A. Immunofluorescence revealed high IGF-II in the medial region of the subventricular zone (SVZ) comprising the neural stem cell niche, with IGF-II mRNA predominant in the adjacent choroid plexus. The IGF-1R and the IR isoforms were differentially expressed with IR-A predominant in the medial SVZ, whereas the IGF-1R was more abundant laterally. Similarly, IR-A was more highly expressed by NSPs, whereas the IGF-1R was more highly expressed by lineage restricted cells. In vitro, IGF-II was more potent in promoting NSP expansion than either IGF-I or standard growth medium. Limiting dilution and differentiation assays revealed that IGF-II was superior to IGF-I in promoting stemness. In vivo, NSPs propagated in IGF-II migrated to and took up residence in periventricular niches while IGF-I-treated NSPs predominantly colonized white matter. Knockdown of IR or IGF-1R using shRNAs supported the conclusion that the IGF-1R promotes progenitor proliferation, whereas the IR is important for self-renewal. Q-PCR revealed that IGF-II increased Oct4, Sox1, and FABP7 mRNA levels in NSPs. Our data support the conclusion that IGF-II promotes the self-renewal of neural stem/progenitors via the IR. By contrast, IGF-1R functions as a mitogenic receptor to increase precursor abundance. PMID:22593020

  12. Native and Complexed IGF-1: Biodistribution and Pharmacokinetics in Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulia Huhtala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of childhood characterized by selective death of cortical neurons. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 is important in embryonic development and is considered as a potential therapeutic agent for several disorders of peripheral and central nervous systems. In circulation IGF-1 is mainly bound to its carrier protein IGFBP-3. As a therapeutic agent IGF-1 has shown to be more active as free than complexed form. However, this may cause side effects during the prolonged treatment. In addition to IGFBP-3 the bioavailability of IGF-1 can be modulated by using mesoporous silicon nanoparticles (NPs which are optimal carriers for sustained release of unstable peptide hormones like IGF-1. In this study we compared biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and bioavailability of radiolabeled free IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3, and IGF-1/NP complexes in a Cln1-/- knockout mouse model. IGF-1/NP was mainly accumulated in liver and spleen in all studied time points, whereas minor and more constant amounts were measured in other organs compared to free IGF-1 or IGF-1/IGFBP-3. Also concentration of IGF-1/NP in blood was relatively high and stable during studied time points suggesting continuous release of IGF-1 from the particles.

  13. Early IGF-1 primes visual cortex maturation and accelerates developmental switch between NKCC1 and KCC2 chloride transporters in enriched animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Laura; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Melani, Riccardo; Deidda, Gabriele; Landi, Silvia; Narducci, Roberta; Cancedda, Laura; Maffei, Lamberto; Berardi, Nicoletta

    2017-02-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has a remarkable impact on brain development. Continuous exposure to EE from birth determines a significant acceleration of visual system maturation both at retinal and cortical levels. A pre-weaning enriched experience is sufficient to trigger the accelerated maturation of the visual system, suggesting that factors affected by EE during the first days of life might prime visual circuits towards a faster development. The search for such factors is crucial not only to gain a better understanding of the molecular hierarchy of brain development but also to identify molecular pathways amenable to be targeted to correct atypical brain developmental trajectories. Here, we showed that IGF-1 levels are increased in the visual cortex of EE rats as early as P6 and this is a crucial event for setting in motion the developmental program induced by EE. Early intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of IGF-1 in standard rats was sufficient to mimic the action of EE on visual acuity development, whereas blocking IGF-1 signaling by i.c.v. injections of the IGF-1 receptor antagonist JB1 prevented the deployment of EE effects. Early IGF-1 decreased the ratio between the expression of NKCC1 and KCC2 cation/chloride transporters, and the reversal potential for GABA A R-driven Cl - currents (E Cl ) was shifted toward more negative potentials, indicating that IGF-1 is a crucial factor in accelerating the maturation of GABAergic neurotransmission and promoting the developmental switch of GABA polarity from excitation to inhibition. In addition, early IGF-1 promoted a later occurring increase in its own expression, suggesting a priming effect of early IGF-1 in driving post-weaning cortical maturation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Picropodophyllin inhibits tumor growth of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Shu-Cheng; Guo, Wei; Tao, Ze-Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We identified that PPP inhibits IGF-1R/Akt pathway in NPC cells. •PPP dose-dependently inhibits NPC cell proliferation in vitro. •PPP suppresses tumor growth of NPC in nude mice. •PPP have little effect on microtubule assembly. -- Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a cell membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and plays important roles in cell transformation, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a selective IGF-1R inhibitor and shows promising antitumor effects for several human cancers. However, its antitumor effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of PPP in NPC using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model. We found that PPP dose-dependently decreased the IGF-induced phosphorylation and activity of IGF-1R and consequently reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, one downstream target of IGF-1R. In addition, PPP inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PPP for NPC cell line CNE-2 was ⩽1 μM at 24 h after treatment and ⩽0.5 μM at 48 h after treatment, respectively. Moreover, administration of PPP by intraperitoneal injection significantly suppressed the tumor growth of xenografted NPC in nude mice. Taken together, these results suggest targeting IGF-1R by PPP may represent a new strategy for treatment of NPCs with positive IGF-1R expression

  15. Picropodophyllin inhibits tumor growth of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Shu-Cheng [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tao, Ze-Zhang, E-mail: zezhangtao@gmail.com [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •We identified that PPP inhibits IGF-1R/Akt pathway in NPC cells. •PPP dose-dependently inhibits NPC cell proliferation in vitro. •PPP suppresses tumor growth of NPC in nude mice. •PPP have little effect on microtubule assembly. -- Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a cell membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and plays important roles in cell transformation, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a selective IGF-1R inhibitor and shows promising antitumor effects for several human cancers. However, its antitumor effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of PPP in NPC using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model. We found that PPP dose-dependently decreased the IGF-induced phosphorylation and activity of IGF-1R and consequently reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, one downstream target of IGF-1R. In addition, PPP inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PPP for NPC cell line CNE-2 was ⩽1 μM at 24 h after treatment and ⩽0.5 μM at 48 h after treatment, respectively. Moreover, administration of PPP by intraperitoneal injection significantly suppressed the tumor growth of xenografted NPC in nude mice. Taken together, these results suggest targeting IGF-1R by PPP may represent a new strategy for treatment of NPCs with positive IGF-1R expression.

  16. Significant blockade of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases by MGCD516 (Sitravatinib), a novel small molecule inhibitor, shows potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Parag P; Ivy, Kathryn S; Musi, Elgilda; de Stanchina, Elisa; Schwartz, Gary K

    2016-01-26

    Sarcomas are rare but highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors with a median survival of 10-18 months for metastatic disease. Mutation and/or overexpression of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including c-Met, PDGFR, c-Kit and IGF1-R drive defective signaling pathways in sarcomas. MGCD516 (Sitravatinib) is a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting multiple RTKs involved in driving sarcoma cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MGCD516 both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models in vivo. MGCD516 treatment resulted in significant blockade of phosphorylation of potential driver RTKs and induced potent anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Furthermore, MGCD516 treatment of tumor xenografts in vivo resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. Efficacy of MGCD516 was superior to imatinib and crizotinib, two other well-studied multi-kinase inhibitors with overlapping target specificities, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report describing MGCD516 as a potent multi-kinase inhibitor in different models of sarcoma, superior to imatinib and crizotinib. Results from this study showing blockade of multiple driver signaling pathways provides a rationale for further clinical development of MGCD516 for the treatment of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma.

  17. Hepatic JAK2 protects against atherosclerosis through circulating IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramaniyam, Tharini; Schroer, Stephanie A; Li, Angela; Luk, Cynthia T; Shi, Sally Yu; Besla, Rickvinder; Dodington, David W; Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Brunt, Jara J; Lopes, Joshua; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Bazinet, Richard P; Bendeck, Michelle P; Robbins, Clinton S; Woo, Minna

    2017-07-20

    Atherosclerosis is considered both a metabolic and inflammatory disease; however, the specific tissue and signaling molecules that instigate and propagate this disease remain unclear. The liver is a central site of inflammation and lipid metabolism that is critical for atherosclerosis, and JAK2 is a key mediator of inflammation and, more recently, of hepatic lipid metabolism. However, precise effects of hepatic Jak2 on atherosclerosis remain unknown. We show here that hepatic Jak2 deficiency in atherosclerosis-prone mouse models exhibited accelerated atherosclerosis with increased plaque macrophages and decreased plaque smooth muscle cell content. JAK2's essential role in growth hormone signalling in liver that resulted in reduced IGF-1 with hepatic Jak2 deficiency played a causal role in exacerbating atherosclerosis. As such, restoring IGF-1 either pharmacologically or genetically attenuated atherosclerotic burden. Together, our data show hepatic Jak2 to play a protective role in atherogenesis through actions mediated by circulating IGF-1 and, to our knowledge, provide a novel liver-centric mechanism in atheroprotection.

  18. Regulation of IGF-1 signaling by microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Jin eJung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates critical biological processes including development, homeostasis, and aging. Dysregulation of this pathway has been implicated in a myriad of diseases such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders, making the IGF-1 signaling pathway a prime target to develop therapeutic and intervention strategies. Recently, small non-coding RNA molecules in ~22 nucleotide length, microRNAs (miRNAs, have emerged as a new regulator of biological processes in virtually all organ systems and increasing studies are linking altered miRNA function to disease mechanisms. A miRNA binds to 3’UTRs of multiple target genes and coordinately down-regulates their expression, thereby exerting a profound influence on gene regulatory networks. Here we review the components of the IGF-1 signaling pathway that are known targets of miRNA regulation, and highlight recent studies that suggest therapeutic potential of these miRNAs against various diseases.

  19. Sustained IGF-1 Secretion by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Improves Infarcted Heart Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagno, Luiza L; Carvalho, Deivid; Mesquita, Fernanda; Louzada, Ruy A; Andrade, Bruno; Kasai-Brunswick, Taís H; Lago, Vivian M; Suhet, Grazielle; Cipitelli, Debora; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro; Campos-de-Carvalho, Antonio C

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism by which stem cell-based therapy improves heart function is still unknown, but paracrine mechanisms seem to be involved. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) secrete several factors, including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which may contribute to myocardial regeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether the overexpression of IGF-1 in ADSCs (IGF-1-ADSCs) improves treatment of chronically infarcted rat hearts. ADSCs were transduced with a lentiviral vector to induce IGF-1 overexpression. IGF-1-ADSCs transcribe100- to 200-fold more IGF-1 mRNA levels compared to nontransduced ADSCs. IGF-1 transduction did not alter ADSC immunophenotypic characteristics even under hypoxic conditions. However, IGF-1-ADSCs proliferate at higher rates and release greater amounts of growth factors such as IGF-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Importantly, IGF-1 secreted by IGF-1-ADSCs is functional given that Akt-1 phosphorylation was remarkably induced in neonatal cardiomyocytes cocultured with IGF-1-ADSCs, and this increase was prevented with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor treatment. Next, we tested IGF-1-ADSCs in a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model. MI was performed by coronary ligation, and 4 weeks after MI, animals received intramyocardial injections of either ADSCs (n = 7), IGF-1-ADSCs (n = 7), or vehicle (n = 7) into the infarcted border zone. Left ventricular function was evaluated by echocardiography before and after 6 weeks of treatment, and left ventricular hemodynamics were assessed 7 weeks after cell injection. Notably, IGF-1-ADSCs improved left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac contractility index, but did not reduce scar size when compared to the ADSC-treated group. In summary, transplantation of ADSCs transduced with IGF-1 is a superior therapeutic approach to treat MI compared to nontransduced ADSCs, suggesting that gene and cell

  20. IGF-1 colocalizes with muscle satellite cells following acute exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amanda; Joanisse, Sophie; Moore, Daniel R; Bellamy, Leeann M; Mitchell, Cameron J; Phillips, Stuart M; Parise, Gianni

    2014-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. The aim of this study was to quantify the change in satellite cell (SC) specific IGF-1 colocalization following exercise. We observed a significant increase (p IGF-1 colocalization from baseline to 72 h after a bout of resistance exercise. This strongly supports a role for IGF-1 in human SC function following exercise.

  1. C. elegans VANG-1 modulates life span via insulin/IGF-1-like signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Honnen

    Full Text Available The planar cell polarity (PCP pathway is highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and a PCP-like pathway has recently been described in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The developmental function of this pathway is to coordinate the orientation of cells or structures within the plane of an epithelium or to organize cell-cell intercalation required for correct morphogenesis. Here, we describe a novel role of VANG-1, the only C. elegans ortholog of the conserved PCP component Strabismus/Van Gogh. We show that two alleles of vang-1 and depletion of the protein by RNAi cause an increase of mean life span up to 40%. Consistent with the longevity phenotype vang-1 animals also show enhanced resistance to thermal- and oxidative stress and decreased lipofuscin accumulation. In addition, vang-1 mutants show defects like reduced brood size, decreased ovulation rate and prolonged reproductive span, which are also related to gerontogenes. The germline, but not the intestine or neurons, seems to be the primary site of vang-1 function. Life span extension in vang-1 mutants depends on the insulin/IGF-1-like receptor DAF-2 and DAF-16/FoxO transcription factor. RNAi against the phase II detoxification transcription factor SKN-1/Nrf2 also reduced vang-1 life span that might be explained by gradual inhibition of insulin/IGF-1-like signaling in vang-1. This is the first time that a key player of the PCP pathway is shown to be involved in the insulin/IGF-1-like signaling dependent modulation of life span in C. elegans.

  2. Circulating levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio and colorectal adenomas: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeong Sook; Keum, NaNa; Zhang, Xuehong; Cho, Eunyoung; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2015-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, and is thereby implicated in carcinogenesis. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) may antagonize IGF-1 action, leading to inhibition of the potential tumorigenicity of IGF-1. We conducted this meta-analysis to estimate the association between IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio and the risk of colorectal adenomas (CRAs). Further, we investigated whether this association was different between occurrent and recurrent CRA, by adjustment for obesity, and by advanced CRA. Pubmed and Embase were searched up to April, 2015 to identify relevant observational studies and summary odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was estimated using a random-effects model. A total of 12 studies (11 studies including 3038 cases for IGF-1, 12 studies including 3208 cases for IGFBP-3, and 7 studies including 1867 cases for IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio) were included in this meta-analysis. The summary ORs of occurrent CRA for the highest versus lowest category of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio were 1.13 (95% CI: 0.95-1.34), 0.99 (0.84-1.16), and 1.05 (0.86-1.29), respectively. Higher IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio were significantly associated with decreased risk of recurrent CRA (OR for IGF-1=0.60 [95% CI: 0.42-0.85]; IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio=0.65 [0.44-0.96]). A stratified analysis by advancement of occurrent CRA produced a significant summary OR of IGF-1 for advanced CRA (OR=2.21 [1.08-4.52]) but not for non-advanced CRA (OR=0.89 [0.55-1.45]). We did not find significant publication bias or heterogeneity. Circulating levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their molar ratio were not associated with the risk of occurrence of CRA, but IGF-1 was associated with the increased risk for occurrence of advanced CRA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The Direct Binding of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) to Integrin αvβ3 Is Involved in IGF-1 Signaling*

    OpenAIRE

    Saegusa, Jun; Yamaji, Satoshi; Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Wu, Chun-Yi; Lam, Kit S.; Liu, Fu-Tong; Takada, Yoko K.; Takada, Yoshikazu

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed that ligand occupancy of integrin αvβ3 with extracellular matrix ligands (e.g. vitronectin) plays a critical role in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. We found that expression of αvβ3 enhanced IGF-1-induced proliferation of Chinese hamster ovary cells in serum-free conditions (in the absence of vitronectin). We hypothesized that the direct integrin binding to IGF-1 may play a role in IGF-1 signaling. We demonstrated that αvβ3 specifically and directly bound ...

  4. Novel functional polymorphism in IGF-1 gene associated with multiple sclerosis: A new insight to MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Majid; Abdolmohammadi, Reza; Ebadi, Hamid; Farazmandfar, Touraj

    2017-04-01

    Interactions between several genes and environment may play a role in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). The IGF-1 plays a key role in proliferation, maintenance and survival of nerve cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that IGF-1 may be a target for prediction and control MS. We aimed to analysis IGF-1 gene promoter sequence, to investigate the effect of the single nucleotide variants on IGF-1 expression and its association with MS. We enrolled 339 MS patients and 431 healthy controls. A specific region in IGF-1 gene promoter was investigated by SSCP analysis. All samples were genotyped by SSP-PCR. In-vitro and in-vivo IGF-1 production was measured by ELISA assay. IGF-1 expression in PBMCs was measured using real-time PCR. We identified a T to C single nucleotide substitution at position -1089 and a C to T at position -383 from transcription start site in the IGF-1 gene promoter. There was a significant association between MS and genotypes IGF-1(-383) C/T (p=0.001) and IGF-1(-383) C/C (pMS (p=0.001). In-vitro and in-vivo IGF-1 level showed that IGF-1 production in samples with genotype IGF-1(-383) C/C significantly was less than T/T (p=0.004) but not T/C (p=0.220). According to IGF-1 roles in CNS and our results, this study suggests that low IGF-1 level may be associated with susceptibility to MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental approach to IGF-1 therapy in CCl4-induced acute liver damage in healthy controls and mice with partial IGF-1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Garza, Luis A; Puche, Juan E; Aguirre, Gabriel A; Muñoz, Úrsula; García-Magariño, Mariano; De la Garza, Rocío G; Castilla-Cortazar, Inma

    2017-05-04

    Cell necrosis, oxidative damage, and fibrogenesis are involved in cirrhosis development, a condition in which insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels are diminished. This study evaluates whether the exogenous administration of low doses of IGF-1 can induce hepatoprotection in acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver damage compared to healthy controls (Wt Igf +/+ ). Additionally, the impact of IGF-1 deficiency on a damaged liver was investigated in mice with a partial deficit of this hormone (Hz Igf1 +/- ). Three groups of 25 ± 5-week-old healthy male mice (Wt Igf +/+ ) were included in the protocol: untreated controls (Wt). Controls that received CCl 4 (Wt + CCl 4 ) and Wt + CCl 4 were treated subcutaneously with IGF-1 (2 µg/100 g body weight/day) for 10 days (Wt + CCl 4  + IGF1). In parallel, three IGF-1-deficient mice (Hz Igf1 +/- ) groups were studied: untreated Hz, Hz + CCl 4 , and Hz + CCl 4  + IGF-1. Microarray and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses, serum aminotransferases levels, liver histology, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed at the end of the treatment in all groups. All data represent mean ± SEM. An altered gene coding expression pattern for proteins of the extracellular matrix, fibrosis, and cellular protection were found, as compared to healthy controls, in which IGF-1 therapy normalized in the series including healthy mice. Liver histology showed that Wt + CCl 4  + IGF1 mice had less oxidative damage, fibrosis, lymphocytic infiltrate, and cellular changes when compared to the Wt + CCl 4 . Moreover, there was a correlation between MDA levels and the histological damage score (Pearson's r = 0.858). In the IGF-1-deficient mice series, similar findings were identified, denoting a much more vulnerable hepatic parenchyma. IGF1 treatment improved the biochemistry, histology, and genetic expression of pro-regenerative and cytoprotective factors in both series

  6. INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR (IGF-1 IN CNS AND CEREBROVASCULAR AGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Sonntag

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is an important anabolic hormone that decreases with age. In the past two decades extensive research has determined that the reduction in IGF-1 is an important component of the age-related decline in cognitive function in multiple species including humans. Deficiency in circulating IGF-1 results in impairment in processing speed and deficiencies in both spatial and working memory. Replacement of IGF-1 or factors that increase IGF-1 to old animals and humans reverses many of these cognitive deficits. Despite the overwhelming evidence for IGF-1 as an important neurotrophic agent, the specific mechanisms through which IGF-1 acts have remained elusive. Recent evidence indicates that IGF-1 is both produced by and has important actions on the cerebrovasculature as well as neurons and glia. Nevertheless, the specific regulation and actions of brain- and vascular-derived IGF-1 is poorly understood. The diverse effects of IGF-1 discovered thus far reveal a complex endocrine and paracrine system essential for integrating many of the functions necessary for brain health. Identification of the mechanisms of IGF-1 actions will undoubtedly provide critical insight into regulation of brain function in general and the causes of cognitive decline with age.

  7. IGF1 stimulates greater muscle hypertrophy in the absence of myostatin in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebry, Alexander; Oldham, Jenny; Shavlakadze, Tea; Grounds, Miranda D; Sheard, Philip; Fiorotto, Marta L; Falconer, Shelley; Smith, Heather K; Berry, Carole; Jeanplong, Ferenc; Bracegirdle, Jeremy; Matthews, Kenneth; Nicholas, Gina; Senna-Salerno, Mônica; Watson, Trevor; McMahon, Christopher D

    2017-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth. However, it remains unclear whether these proteins have mutually dependent, or independent, roles. To clarify this issue, we crossed myostatin null ( Mstn -/- ) mice with mice overexpressing Igf1 in skeletal muscle ( Igf1 + ) to generate six genotypes of male mice; wild type ( Mstn +/+ ), Mstn +/- , Mstn -/- , Mstn +/+ :Igf1 + , Mstn +/- :Igf1 + and Mstn -/- :Igf1 + Overexpression of Igf1 increased the mass of mixed fibre type muscles (e.g. Quadriceps femoris ) by 19% over Mstn +/+ , 33% over Mstn +/- and 49% over Mstn -/- ( P  Myostatin regulated the number, while IGF1 regulated the size of myofibres, and the deletion of Mstn and Igf1 + independently increased the proportion of fast type IIB myosin heavy chain isoforms in T. anterior (up to 10% each, P  myostatin is absent and IGF1 is in excess. Finally, we show that myostatin and IGF1 regulate skeletal muscle size, myofibre type and gonadal fat through distinct mechanisms that involve increasing the total abundance and phosphorylation status of AKT and rpS6. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Importance of circulating IGF-1 for normal cardiac morphology, function and post infarction remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharin Täng, M; Redfors, B; Lindbom, M; Svensson, J; Ramunddal, T; Ohlsson, C; Shao, Y; Omerovic, E

    2012-12-01

    IGF-1 plays an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis, and plasma levels of IGF-1 correlate inversely with systolic function in heart failure. It is not known to what extent circulating IGF-1 secreted by the liver and local autocrine/paracrine IGF-1 expressed in the myocardium contribute to these beneficial effects on cardiac function and morphology. In the present study, we used a mouse model of liver-specific inducible deletion of the IGF-1 gene (LI-IGF-1 -/- mouse) in an attempt to evaluate the importance of circulating IGF-I on cardiac morphology and function under normal and pathological conditions, with an emphasis on its regulatory role in myocardial phosphocreatine metabolism. Echocardiography was performed in LI-IGF-1 -/- and control mice at rest and during dobutamine stress, both at baseline and post myocardial infarction (MI). High-energy phosphate metabolites were compared between LI-IGF-1 -/- and control mice at 4 weeks post MI. We found that LI-IGF-1 -/- mice had significantly greater left ventricular dimensions at baseline and showed a greater relative increase in cardiac dimensions, as well as deterioration of cardiac function, post MI. Myocardial creatine content was 17.9% lower in LI-IGF-1 -/- mice, whereas there was no detectable difference in high-energy nucleotides. These findings indicate an important role of circulating IGF-1 in preserving cardiac structure and function both in physiological settings and post MI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Salivary and serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) assays in anorexic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszynska, Elzbieta; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Slopien, Agnieszka; Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor, Marta; Rajewski, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary and serum free IGF-1 concentration of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) in comparison to an average population. A controlled clinical trial was designed for an age- and gender-matched group of 121 AN patients and 77 healthy individuals. A clinical examination was made and blood and salivary samples were taken during the acute stage of AN (BMI measuring free IGF-1 was used. Anorexic patients had significant reductions in salivary unstimulated flow rate (UFR), pH and free IGF-1 levels in their saliva and serum. Significant correlations between serum IGF-1 and BMI; salivary IGF-1 and UFR and pH were detected. Salivary and serum IGF-1 analyses appear to be a reliable biochemical indicator of malnutrition in AN patients. Measurement of salivary IGF-1 levels would allow new perspectives in monitoring AN in its early stages.

  10. IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms predict circulating IGF levels but not breast cancer risk: findings from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa V Patel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IGF-1 has been shown to promote proliferation of normal epithelial breast cells, and the IGF pathway has also been linked to mammary carcinogenesis in animal models. We comprehensively examined the association between common genetic variation in the IGF1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 genes in relation to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels and breast cancer risk within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3. This analysis included 6,912 breast cancer cases and 8,891 matched controls (n = 6,410 for circulating IGF-I and 6,275 for circulating IGFBP-3 analyses comprised primarily of Caucasian women drawn from six large cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype patterns were characterized in the regions surrounding IGF1 and the genes coding for two of its binding proteins, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. In total, thirty haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP were selected to provide high coverage of common haplotypes; the haplotype structure was defined across four haplotype blocks for IGF1 and three for IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. Specific IGF1 SNPs individually accounted for up to 5% change in circulating IGF-I levels and individual IGFBP3 SNPs were associated up to 12% change in circulating IGFBP-3 levels, but no associations were observed between these polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Logistic regression analyses found no associations between breast cancer and any htSNPs or haplotypes in IGF1, IGFBP1, or IGFBP3. No effect modification was observed in analyses stratified by menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, body mass index, or postmenopausal hormone therapy, or for analyses stratified by stage at diagnosis or hormone receptor status. In summary, the impact of genetic variation in IGF1 and IGFBP3 on circulating IGF levels does not appear to substantially influence breast cancer risk substantially among primarily Caucasian postmenopausal women.

  11. Suckling induced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) release in mother rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lékó, András H; Cservenák, Melinda; Dobolyi, Árpád

    2017-12-01

    Lactation involves significant neuroendocrine changes. The elevated prolactin (PRL) release from the pituitary, induced markedly by suckling, is the most relevant example. Suckling also causes a significant and rapid elevation in growth hormone (GH) levels. GH is necessary for milk synthesis as milk yield is stopped completely in the absence of PRL and GH, while the absence of PRL alone causes only a 50% reduction. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in the GH axis. GH exerts its effects through IGF-1 in the periphery, for example in the mammary gland. In addition, IGF-1 is responsible for the long-loop feedback control of GH secretion. IGF-1 secretion has not been established yet in mothers. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of suckling on serum IGF-1 level in rat mothers and correlated it with serum PRL levels. We examined a potential mechanism of the regulation of IGF-1 level during suckling by administering IGF-1 into the lateral ventricle of rat mothers continuously for 12days, or acutely, right before the start of suckling. We described that suckling affected IGF-1 release based on one-way repeated measures ANOVA (F=10.8 and pIGF-1 level 30min after the start of suckling (pIGF-1 release. The prolonged central IGF-1 administration diminished the suckling-induced IGF-1 surge (F=9.19 and pIGF-1 release either by elevating PRL or GH. Long-loop feedback via IGF-1 in the GH axis can diminish this action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stromelysin-3 over-expression enhances tumourigenesis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines: involvement of the IGF-1 signalling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennerich Detlev

    2007-01-01

    fibroblasts leads to the stimulation of the IGF-1R pathway in carcinoma cells, thus enhancing their proliferative capacity. In addition, further different cellular processes seem to be activated by ST-3, possibly accounting for the dual role of ST-3 in tumour progression and metastasis.

  13. Stromelysin-3 over-expression enhances tumourigenesis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines: involvement of the IGF-1 signalling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, Grit; Lehmann, Kerstin E; Reule, Matthias; Tschirschmann, Miriam; Dankert, Niels; Stout-Weider, Karen; Lauster, Roland; Schrock, Evelin; Mennerich, Detlev; Duda, Georg N

    2007-01-01

    Stromelysin-3 (ST-3) is over-expressed in the majority of human carcinomas including breast carcinoma. Due to its known effect in promoting tumour formation, but its impeding effect on metastasis, a dual role of ST-3 in tumour progression, depending on the cellular grade of dedifferentiation, was hypothesized. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of ST-3 in vivo and in vitro on the oestrogen-dependent, non-invasive MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell line as well as on the oestrogen-independent, invasive MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell line. Therefore an orthotopic human xenograft tumour model in nude mice, as well as a 3D matrigel cell culture system, were employed. Using both in vitro and in vivo techniques, we have demonstrated that over-expression of ST-3 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells leads to both increased cell numbers and tumour volumes. This observation was dependent upon the presence of growth factors. In particular, the enhanced proliferative capacity was in MCF-7/ST-3 completely and in MDA-MB-231/ST-3 cells partially dependent on the IGF-1 signalling pathway. Microarray analysis of ST-3 over-expressing cells revealed that in addition to cell proliferation, further biological processes seemed to be affected, such as cell motility and stress response. The MAPK-pathway as well as the Wnt and PI3-kinase pathways, appear to also play a potential role. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that breast cancer cell lines of different differentiation status, as well as the non-tumourigenic cell line MCF-10A, have a comparable capability to induce endogenous ST-3 expression in fibroblasts. These data reveal that ST-3 is capable of enhancing tumourigenesis in highly differentiated 'early stage' breast cancer cell lines as well as in further progressed breast cancer cell lines that have already undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We propose that ST-3 induction in tumour fibroblasts leads to the stimulation of the IGF-1R pathway in

  14. The regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine function by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Andrew; Divall, Sara; Wu, Sheng

    2014-10-01

    The mammalian reproductive hormone axis regulates gonadal steroid hormone levels and gonadal function essential for reproduction. The neuroendocrine control of the axis integrates signals from a wide array of inputs. The regulatory pathways important for mediating these inputs have been the subject of numerous studies. One class of proteins that have been shown to mediate metabolic and growth signals to the CNS includes Insulin and IGF-1. These proteins are structurally related and can exert endocrine and growth factor like action via related receptor tyrosine kinases. The role that insulin and IGF-1 play in controlling the hypothalamus and pituitary and their role in regulating puberty and nutritional control of reproduction has been studied extensively. This review summarizes the in vitro and in vivo models that have been used to study these neuroendocrine structures and the influence of these growth factors on neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hisataka Moriwaki; Masaya Kubota; Masahito Shimizu; Takuji Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs) possess a...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK240639 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240639 J013067H13 (P24062) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_RAT 8e-15 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK103523 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103523 J033131K11 (P08069) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) (CD221 antigen) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 rec...eptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_HUMAN 7e-15 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK102832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102832 J033109I17 (P08069) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) (CD221 antigen) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 rec...eptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_HUMAN 1e-15 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK102758 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102758 J033107C10 (P24062) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_RAT 9e-18 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK069546 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069546 J023023F24 (Q60751) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_MOUSE 2e-14 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK111596 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111596 J013093N17 (P24062) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_RAT 6e-15 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK069234 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069234 J023010G02 (Q60751) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_MOUSE 6e-15 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK072806 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072806 J023137F15 (P24062) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_RAT 4e-14 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK103704 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103704 J033136N12 (P24062) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_RAT 7e-26 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK073168 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073168 J033023H13 (Q60751) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_MOUSE 4e-12 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK068056 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068056 J013132O11 (P24062) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_RAT 8e-12 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK099840 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099840 J013108C16 (Q60751) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_MOUSE 1e-13 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK072806 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072806 J023137F15 (Q60751) Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor (EC 2....7.1.112) (Insulin-like growth factor I receptor) [Contains: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor alpha chain; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor beta chain] IGF1R_MOUSE 6e-14 ...

  9. IGF-1 promotes the development and cytotoxic activity of human NK cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Fang; Sun, Rui; Fu, Binqing; Wang, Fuyan; Guo, Chuang; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a critical regulator of many physiological functions, ranging from longevity to immunity. However, little is known about the role of IGF-1 in natural killer cell development and function. Here, we identify an essential role for IGF-1 in the positive regulation of human natural killer cell development and cytotoxicity. Specifically, we show that human natural killer cells have the ability to produce IGF-1 and that differential endogenous IGF-1 expression leads to disparate cytotoxicity in human primary natural killer cells. Moreover, miR-483-3p is identified as a critical regulator of IGF-1 expression in natural killer cells. Overexpression of miR-483-3p has an effect similar to IGF-1 blockade and decreased natural killer cell cytotoxicity, whereas inhibition of miR-483-3p has the opposite effect, which is reversible with IGF-1 neutralizing antibody. These findings indicate that IGF-1 and miR-483-3p belong to a new class of natural killer cell functional modulators and strengthen the prominent role of IGF-1 in innate immunity. PMID:23403580

  10. IGF-1 Has Plaque-Stabilizing Effects in Atherosclerosis by Altering Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Thüsen, Jan H.; Borensztajn, Keren S.; Moimas, Silvia; van Heiningen, Sandra; Teeling, Peter; van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Biessen, Erik A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is important for the maintenance of plaque stability in atherosclerosis due to its effects on vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) phenotype. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the effects of the highly inflammatory milieu of the atherosclerotic plaque on IGF-1 signaling and stability-related phenotypic parameters of murine vSMCs in vitro, and the effects of IGF-1 supplementation on plaque phenotype in an atherosclerotic mouse model. M1-polarized, macrophage-conditioned medium inhibited IGF-1 signaling by ablating IGF-1 and increasing IGF-binding protein 3, increased vSMC apoptosis, and decreased proliferation. Expression of α-actin and col3a1 genes was strongly attenuated by macrophage-conditioned medium, whereas expression of matrix-degrading enzymes was increased. Importantly, all of these effects could be corrected by supplementation with IGF-1. In vivo, treatment with the stable IGF-1 analog Long R3 IGF-1 in apolipoprotein E knockout mice reduced stenosis and core size, and doubled cap/core ratio in early atherosclerosis. In advanced plaques, Long R3 IGF-1 increased the vSMC content of the plaque by more than twofold and significantly reduced the rate of intraplaque hemorrhage. We believe that IGF-1 in atherosclerotic plaques may have a role in preventing plaque instability, not only by modulating smooth muscle cell turnover, but also by altering smooth muscle cell phenotype. PMID:21281823

  11. Over-stimulation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling by western diet may promote diseases of civilization: lessons learnt from laron syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Gerd

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 pathway drives an evolutionarily conserved network that regulates lifespan and longevity. Individuals with Laron syndrome who carry mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR gene that lead to severe congenital IGF-1 deficiency with decreased insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS exhibit reduced prevalence rates of acne, diabetes and cancer. Western diet with high intake of hyperglycemic carbohydrates and insulinotropic dairy over-stimulates IIS. The reduction of IIS in Laron subjects unmasks the potential role of persistent hyperactive IIS mediated by Western diet in the development of diseases of civilization and offers a rational perspective for dietary adjustments with less insulinotropic diets like the Paleolithic diet.

  12. Over-stimulation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling by western diet may promote diseases of civilization: lessons learnt from laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C; John, Swen Malte; Schmitz, Gerd

    2011-06-24

    The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway drives an evolutionarily conserved network that regulates lifespan and longevity. Individuals with Laron syndrome who carry mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene that lead to severe congenital IGF-1 deficiency with decreased insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) exhibit reduced prevalence rates of acne, diabetes and cancer. Western diet with high intake of hyperglycemic carbohydrates and insulinotropic dairy over-stimulates IIS. The reduction of IIS in Laron subjects unmasks the potential role of persistent hyperactive IIS mediated by Western diet in the development of diseases of civilization and offers a rational perspective for dietary adjustments with less insulinotropic diets like the Paleolithic diet.

  13. A summary of the influence of exogenous estrogen administration across the lifespan on the GH/IGF-1 axis and implications for bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southmayd, Emily A; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2017-02-01

    Bone growth, development, and remodeling are modulated by numerous circulating hormones. Throughout the lifespan, the extent to which each of the hormones impacts bone differs. Understanding the independent and combined impact of these hormones on controlling bone remodeling allows for the development of more informed decision making regarding pharmacology, specifically the use of hormonal medication, at all ages. Endocrine control of bone health in women is largely dictated by the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. Growth hormone, secreted from the pituitary gland, stimulates cells in almost every tissue to secrete IGF-1, although the majority of circulating IGF-1 is produced hepatically. Indeed, systemic IGF-1 concentrations have been found to be correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) in both pre- and post-menopausal women and is often used as a marker of bone formation. Sex steroids produced by the ovaries, namely estradiol, mediate bone resorption through binding to estrogen receptors on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Specifically, by increasing osteoclast apoptosis and decreasing osteoblast apoptosis, adequate estrogen levels prevent excessive bone resorption, which helps to explain the rapid decline in bone mass that occurs with the menopausal decrease in estrogen production. Though there are documented correlations between endogenous estrogen concentrations and GH/IGF-1 dynamics, this relationship changes across the lifespan as sex-steroid dynamics fluctuate and, possibly, as tissue responsiveness to GH stimulation decreases. Aside from the known role of endogenous sex steroids on bone health, the impact of exogenous estrogen administration is of interest, as exogenous formulations further modulate GH and IGF-1 production. However, the effect and extent of GH and IGF-1 modulation seems to be largely dependent on age at administration and route of administration. Specifically

  14. Central insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) restores whole-body insulin action in a model of age-related insulin resistance and IGF-1 decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Derek M; Farias Quipildor, Gabriela; Mao, Kai; Zhang, Xueying; Wan, Junxiang; Apontes, Pasha; Cohen, Pinchas; Barzilai, Nir

    2016-02-01

    Low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is associated with improved longevity, but is paradoxically linked with several age-related diseases in humans. Insulin-like growth factor-1 has proven to be particularly beneficial to the brain, where it confers protection against features of neuronal and cognitive decline. While aging is characterized by central insulin resistance in the face of hyperinsulinemia, the somatotropic axis markedly declines in older humans. Thus, we hypothesized that increasing IGF-1 in the brain may prove to be a novel therapeutic alternative to overcome central insulin resistance and restore whole-body insulin action in aging. Utilizing hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we show that old insulin-resistant rats with age-related declines in IGF-1 level demonstrate markedly improved whole-body insulin action, when treated with central IGF-1, as compared to central vehicle or insulin (P IGF-1, but not insulin, suppressed hepatic glucose production and increased glucose disposal rates in aging rats (P IGF-1 action in the brain and periphery provides a 'balance' between its beneficial and detrimental actions. Therefore, we propose that strategies aimed at 'tipping the balance' of IGF-1 action centrally are the optimal approach to achieve healthy aging and longevity in humans. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. IGF1 as predictor of all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease in an elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Raymond, Ilan; Kistorp, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IGF1 is believed to influence ageing and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) through complex mechanisms. Reduced IGF1 levels might be causally associated with conditions accompanying ageing including development of CVD. However, in animal models reduced GH-IGF1 signalling...... increases lifespan. Reduced IGF1 activity might also be associated with longevity in humans. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate if plasma IGF1 levels were associated with all cause mortality, and the development of chronic heart failure (CHF) and a major CV event. PATIENTS AND DESIGN: A population...... systolic function and without prevalent CVD. Outcomes were ascertained after 5 years using hospital discharge diagnoses. RESULTS: Adjustment for risk factors IGF1 values in the fourth quartile versus values below the fourth quartile was associated with increased mortality (n=103), hazard ratio (HR) 1...

  16. The trajectory of IGF-1 across age and duration of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Mari; LeCaire, Tamara J; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Herrera, Victor M; Danielson, Kirstie K

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with type 1 diabetes may have low IGF-1, related to insulinopenia and insulin resistance. There are few longitudinal studies of IGF-1 levels to establish its pattern in type 1 diabetes with duration and age, and to examine whether IGF-1 tracks within individuals over time. We examine age and duration trends, and the relationship of IGF-1 to gender, glycaemic control, insulin level and other factors. Participants in the Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study, an incident cohort study of type 1 diabetes diagnosed May 1987-April 1992, were followed for up to 18 years with IGF-1 samples up to age 45 for women and age 37 for men. IGF-1 is lower with type 1 diabetes than in normative samples. Although, the pattern across age resembles that in normative samples with a peak in adolescence and slow decline after age 20, the adolescent peak is delayed for women with type 1 diabetes. There was low to moderate tracking of IGF-1 within an individual. Higher insulin dose was associated with higher IGF-1 as was puberty, and female gender. Adjusted for these factors, IGF-1 declined rapidly across early diabetes duration. Lower HbA1c was most strongly related to higher IGF-1 at Tanner stages 1 and 2. IGF-1 is low in type 1 diabetes, with a delayed adolescent peak in women and is especially influenced by glycaemic control in early and pre-adolescence. High variability within an individual is likely a challenge in investigating associations between IGF-1 and long-term outcomes, and may explain contradictory findings. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Estimated Prestroke Peak VO2 Is Related to Circulating IGF-1 Levels During Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattlage, Anna E; Rippee, Michael A; Abraham, Michael G; Sandt, Janice; Billinger, Sandra A

    2017-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is neuroprotective after stroke and is regulated by insulin-like binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). In healthy individuals, exercise and improved aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake; peak VO 2 ) increases IGF-1 in circulation. Understanding the relationship between estimated prestroke aerobic fitness and IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 after stroke may provide insight into the benefits of exercise and aerobic fitness on stroke recovery. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 to estimated prestroke peak VO 2 in individuals with acute stroke. We hypothesized that (1) estimated prestroke peak VO 2 would be related to IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and (2) individuals with higher than median IGF-1 levels will have higher estimated prestroke peak VO 2 compared to those with lower than median levels. Methods Fifteen individuals with acute stroke had blood sampled within 72 hours of hospital admission. Prestroke peak VO 2 was estimated using a nonexercise prediction equation. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results Estimated prestroke peak VO 2 was significantly related to circulating IGF-1 levels (r = .60; P = .02) but not IGFBP-3. Individuals with higher than median IGF-1 (117.9 ng/mL) had significantly better estimated aerobic fitness (32.4 ± 6.9 mL kg -1 min -1 ) than those with lower than median IGF-1 (20.7 ± 7.8 mL kg -1 min -1 ; P = .03). Conclusions Improving aerobic fitness prior to stroke may be beneficial by increasing baseline IGF-1 levels. These results set the groundwork for future clinical trials to determine whether high IGF-1 and aerobic fitness are beneficial to stroke recovery by providing neuroprotection and improving function. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Low Levels of IGF-1 Contribute to Alveolar Macrophage Dysfunction in Cystic Fibrosis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessich, Jamie L.; Nymon, Amanda B.; Moulton, Lisa A; Dorman, Dana; Ashare, Alix

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are major contributors to lung innate immunity. Although alveolar macrophages from CFTR−/− mice have impaired function, no study has investigated primary alveolar macrophages in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). CF patients have low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and our prior studies demonstrate a relationship between IGF-1 and macrophage function. We hypothesize that reduced IGF-1 in CF leads to impaired alveolar macrophage function and chronic infections. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were obtained from 8 CF subjects and 8 healthy subjects. Macrophages were isolated from BAL fluid. We measured the ability of alveolar macrophages to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Subsequently, macrophages were incubated with IGF-1 prior to inoculation with bacteria to determine the effect of IGF-1 on bacterial killing. We found a significant decrease in bacterial killing by CF alveolar macrophages compared to controls. CF subjects had lower serum and BAL IGF-1 levels compared to healthy controls. Exposure to IGF-1 enhanced alveolar macrophage macrophages in both groups. Finally, exposing healthy alveolar macrophages to CF BAL fluid decreased bacterial killing, and this was reversed by the addition of IGF-1, while IGF-1 blockade worsened bacterial killing. Our studies demonstrate that alveolar macrophage function is impaired in patients with CF. Reductions in IGF-1 levels in CF contribute to the impaired alveolar macrophage function. Exposure to IGF-1 ex vivo, results in improved function of CF alveolar macrophages. Further studies are needed to determine whether alveolar macrophage function can be enhanced in vivo with IGF-1 treatment. PMID:23698746

  19. Low Levels of IGF-1 Contribute to Alveolar Macrophage Dysfunction in Cystic Fibrosis1

    OpenAIRE

    Bessich, Jamie L.; Nymon, Amanda B.; Moulton, Lisa A; Dorman, Dana; Ashare, Alix

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are major contributors to lung innate immunity. Although alveolar macrophages from CFTR−/− mice have impaired function, no study has investigated primary alveolar macrophages in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). CF patients have low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and our prior studies demonstrate a relationship between IGF-1 and macrophage function. We hypothesize that reduced IGF-1 in CF leads to impaired alveolar macrophage function and chronic infectio...

  20. IGF-1 has sexually dimorphic, pleiotropic, and time-dependent effects on healthspan, pathology, and lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpole, Nicole M; Logan, Sreemathi; Yabluchanskiy, Andriy; Mitschelen, Matthew C; Yan, Han; Farley, Julie A; Hodges, Erik L; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Chen, Sixia; Georgescu, Constantin; Hubbard, Gene B; Ikeno, Yuji; Sonntag, William E

    2017-04-01

    Reduced circulating levels of IGF-1 have been proposed as a conserved anti-aging mechanism that contributes to increased lifespan in diverse experimental models. However, IGF-1 has also been shown to be essential for normal development and the maintenance of tissue function late into the lifespan. These disparate findings suggest that IGF-1 may be a pleiotropic modulator of health and aging, as reductions in IGF-1 may be beneficial for one aspect of aging, but detrimental for another. We postulated that the effects of IGF-1 on tissue health and function in advanced age are dependent on the tissue, the sex of the animal, and the age at which IGF-1 is manipulated. In this study, we examined how alterations in IGF-1 levels at multiple stages of development and aging influence overall lifespan, healthspan, and pathology. Specifically, we investigated the effects of perinatal, post-pubertal, and late-adult onset IGF-1 deficiency using genetic and viral approaches in both male and female igf f/f C57Bl/6 mice. Our results support the concept that IGF-1 levels early during lifespan establish the conditions necessary for subsequent healthspan and pathological changes that contribute to aging. Nevertheless, these changes are specific for each sex and tissue. Importantly, late-life IGF-1 deficiency (a time point relevant for human studies) reduces cancer risk but does not increase lifespan. Overall, our results indicate that the levels of IGF-1 during development influence late-life pathology, suggesting that IGF-1 is a developmental driver of healthspan, pathology, and lifespan.

  1. IGF-1 Prevents Diastolic and Systolic Dysfunction Associated with Cardiomyopathy and Preserves Adrenergic Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, Steve R.; Boslett, James; Russell, Duncan; del Rio, Carlos; Alecusan, Joe; Zweier, Jay L.; Ziolo, Mark T.; Hamlin, Robert; Mohler, Peter J.; Curran, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Aims Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-dependent signaling promotes exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy. However, the in vivo therapeutic potential of IGF-1 for heart disease is not well established. Here we test the potential therapeutic benefits of IGF-1 on cardiac function using an in vivo model of chronic catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. Methods Rats were perfused with isoproterenol via osmotic pump (1 mg/kg/day) and treated with 2 mg/kg IGF-1 (2 mg/kg/day, 6 days a week) for 2 or 4 weeks. Echocardiography, ECG, and blood pressure were assessed. In vivo pressure-volume loop studies were conducted at 4 weeks. Heart sections were analyzed for fibrosis and apoptosis, and relevant biochemical signaling cascades were assessed. Results After 4 weeks, diastolic function (EDPVR, EDP, tau, E/A ratio), systolic function (PRSW, ESPVR, dP/dtmax), and structural remodeling (LV chamber diameter, wall thickness) were all adversely affected in isoproterenol-treated rats. All these detrimental effects were attenuated in rats treated with Iso+IGF-1. Isoproterenol-dependent effects on BP were attenuated by IGF-1 treatment. Adrenergic sensitivity was blunted in isoproterenol-treated rats but was preserved by IGF-1 treatment. Immunoblots indicate that cardioprotective p110α signaling and activated Akt are selectively upregulated in Iso+IGF-1 treated hearts. Expression of iNOS was significantly increased in both the Iso and Iso+IGF-1 groups, however tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) levels were decreased in the Iso group and maintained by IGF-1 treatment. Conclusion IGF-1 treatment attenuates diastolic and systolic dysfunction associated with chronic catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy while preserving adrenergic sensitivity and promoting BH4 production. These data support the potential use of IGF-1 therapy for clinical applications for cardiomyopathies. PMID:26399932

  2. High fat-diet and saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibits IGF-1 function in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, S A; Loeser, R F; Chubinskaya, S; Willey, J S; Yammani, R R

    2017-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes matrix synthesis and cell survival in cartilage. Chondrocytes from aged and osteoarthritic cartilage have a reduced response to IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) present in a high-fat diet on IGF-1 function in cartilage and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. C57BL/6 male mice were maintained on either a high-fat (60% kcal from fat) or a low-fat (10% kcal from fat) diet for 4 months. Mice were then sacrificed; femoral head cartilage caps were collected and tre