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Sample records for igert indoor environmental

  1. Fostering science communication and outreach through video production in Dartmouth's IGERT Polar Environmental Change graduate program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond Wagner, C. R.; McDavid, L. A.; Virginia, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Dartmouth's NSF-supported IGERT Polar Environmental Change graduate program has focused on using video media to foster interdisciplinary thinking and to improve student skills in science communication and public outreach. Researchers, educators, and funding organizations alike recognize the value of video media for making research results more accessible and relevant to diverse audiences and across cultures. We present an affordable equipment set and the basic video training needed as well as available Dartmouth institutional support systems for students to produce outreach videos on climate change and its associated impacts on people. We highlight and discuss the successes and challenges of producing three types of video products created by graduate and undergraduate students affiliated with the Dartmouth IGERT. The video projects created include 1) graduate student profile videos, 2) a series of short student-created educational videos for Greenlandic high school students, and 3) an outreach video about women in science based on the experiences of women students conducting research during the IGERT field seminar at Summit Station and Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. The 'Science in Greenland--It's a Girl Thing' video was featured on The New York Times Dot Earth blog and the Huffington Post Green blog among others and received international recognition. While producing these videos, students 1) identified an audience and created story lines, 2) worked in front of and behind the camera, 3) utilized low-cost digital editing applications, and 4) shared the videos on multiple platforms from social media to live presentations. The three video projects were designed to reach different audiences, and presented unique challenges for content presentation and dissemination. Based on student and faculty assessment, we conclude that the video projects improved student science communication skills and increased public knowledge of polar science and the effects of climate change.

  2. Indoor environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Health (IEH) is a comprehensive term that includes the effects of quantity of air, light and noise in a space and the physical, physiological and psychological aspects from colours, aesthetics, services, outdoor climate...

  3. Indoor environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, SA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Health (IEH) is a comprehensive term that includes the effects of quantity of air, light and noise in a space and the physical, physiological and psychological aspects from colours, aesthetics, services, outdoor climate...

  4. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  5. Performance Indicators of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    environmental framework for the promotion of a healthy and comfortable ... (n.d.) consists of six metrics namely: Indoor air quality (IAQ) ..... Quality. Thermal quality measurement in the hospital ...... article/pii/S036013231300142X. Jensen, K.

  6. Providing better indoor environmental quality brings economicbenefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Seppanen, Olli

    2007-06-01

    This paper summarizes the current scientific evidence that improved indoor environmental quality can improve work performance and health. The review indicates that work and school work performance is affected by indoor temperature and ventilation rate. Pollutant source removal can sometimes improve work performance. Based on formal statistical analyses of existing research results, quantitative relationships are provided for the linkages of work performance with indoor temperature and outdoor air ventilation rate. The review also indicates that improved health and related financial savings are obtainable from reduced indoor tobacco smoking, prevention and remediation of building dampness, and increased ventilation. Example cost-benefit analyses indicate that many measures to improve indoor temperature control and increase ventilation rates will be highly cost effective, with benefit-cost ratios as high as 80 and annual economic benefits as high as $700 per person.

  7. Indoor environmental health in schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, B.M. [Envirodesic Certification Program, Stouffville, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Indoor health is a concern today because unhealthy environments can cause adverse health effects, poor learning and teaching and increased costs. The holistic view of the environment and human health links sick kids, absenteeism, teacher illness, education costs and mouldy schools. An historical perspective is provided on the problem and its treatment referring to: 1962 and chemical susceptibility, 1975 and open systems theory, 1978 and high risk groups, 1985 and pollution and education in Toronto, 1987 and health environments for Canadians, 1995 and the National Education Association in the U.S., 1997 and a U.S. Executive Order, 1998 and the Texas Dept. of Health, 1998 and the U.S. EPS website 'IAQ Tools for Schools', and 1998 and 'The air children breathe.' It is known that pollutants adversely affect health, that children are highly susceptible, that the role in schools has being known for decades, and that information is now available worldwide through the Internet. The reasons why mould is a problem are listed, and the effects of an unhealthy indoor environment are referred to. The benefits of a healthy indoor environment are listed, and the various means of creating a healthy indoor environment are outlined. New developments are referred to including: fresh air, building envelope, building leakage, airtightness of buildings, tight envelope and air supply, low-emission materials, maintenance and cleaning, strategy and financing, collaboration, and the possibility of healthy schools.

  8. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more polluted than ambient air, the USEPA lists poor IAQ as a major environmental concern. In the sections that follow, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. In some cases, exposure may be acute, with one or more pets (and owners) experiencing signs within a relatively short period. However, most exposures are episodic or chronic, making it difficult to definitively link poor IAQ to respiratory or other adverse health outcomes. Age or underlying immunologic, cardiac, or respiratory disease may further complicate the clinical picture, as those patients may be more sensitive to (and affected by) lower concentrations than prove problematic for healthy housemates. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoors, we will discuss how certain home conditions can worsen indoor air quality and will briefly discuss measures to improve IAQ for owners and their pets. In this overview presentation, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoo

  9. Indoor air-assessment: Indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, K.W.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    In the report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbestos) or more complex mixtures or classes of compounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens. Concentration data for individual carcinogenic compounds in complex mixtures are usually far from complete. The data presented for complex mixtures often include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity. Their inclusion is justified, however, by the possibility that further work may show them to be carcinogens, cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or that they may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein) for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures

  10. Indoor Environmental Contaminants in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of environmental contaminants can affect the health and safety of a school environment. This page covers the basics on issues your school may face, including asbestos, chemicals, formaldehyde, lead, mercury, PCBs and radon.

  11. Reflections on the State of Research: Indoor Environmental Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel; Corsi, Richard

    2011-01-01

    that with parallel research and writing efforts culminating with internal review and revision cycles. In this paper, we present our choices for the most important research findings on indoor environmental quality from the past three decades followed by a discussion of the most important research questions in our......More than 30 years after the First International Indoor Climate Symposium, ten researchers from the USA, Slovakia, Sweden, and Denmark gathered to review the current status of indoor environmental research. We initiated our review with discussions during the 1-day meeting and followed...

  12. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants....... This paper discusses and presents a number of comfort indicators that includes both the temporal variation and the degree of discomfort in the calculations. A test case comprising a ventilated office building is used to show the application of the various comfort indices. It is found that the new comfort...

  13. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  14. Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Sarka; Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickaël; Ribéron, Jacques; Kirchner, Severine; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-03-01

    A national survey on indoor environmental quality covering 567 residences in mainland France was performed during 2003-2005. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, CO2, and the indoor air pollutants: fourteen individual volatile organic compounds (VOC), four aldehydes and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. The measured indoor concentrations were analyzed for correlations with the building characteristics: type of dwelling, period of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation system, building material, attached garage and retrofitting. The median night time air exchange rate (AER) for all dwellings was 0.44 h-1. The night time AER was higher in apartments (median = 0.49 h-1) than in single-family houses (median = 0.41 h-1). Concentration of formaldehyde was approximately 30% higher in dwellings built after 1990 compared with older ones; it was higher in dwellings with mechanical ventilation and in concrete buildings. The VOC concentrations depended on the building characteristics to various extents. The sampling season influenced the majority of the indoor climate parameters and the concentrations of the air pollutants to a higher degree than the building characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that the indoor-outdoor difference in specific humidity, a proxy for number of occupants and their indoor activities, remained a significant predictor for most gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The other strong predictors were outdoor concentration, smoking, attached garage and AER (in descending order).

  15. Indoor air - assessment: Methods of analysis for environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.R.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1990-06-01

    The monograph describes, in a general way, published sampling procedures and analytical approaches for known and suspected carcinogens. The primary focus is upon carcinogens found in indoor air, although the methods described are applicable to other media or environments. In cases where there are no published methods for a particular pollutant in indoor air, methods developed for the workplace and for ambient air are included since they should be adaptable to indoor air. Known and suspected carcinogens have been grouped into six categories for the purposes of this and related work. The categories are radon, asbestos, organic compounds, inorganic species, particles, and non-ionizing radiation. Some methods of assessing exposure that are not specific to any particular pollutant category are covered in a separate section. The report is the fifth in a series of EPA/Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office Monographs

  16. Indoor environmental quality in Hellenic hospital operating rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dascalaki, Elena G.; Gaglia, Athina G.; Balaras, Constantinos A. [Group Energy Conservation, Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa and Vas. Pavlou, GR 152 36 P. Penteli (Greece); Lagoudi, Argyro [Terra Nova Ltd., Environmental Engineering Consultancy, Athens, Kaisareias 39, GR 115 27 Athens (Greece)

    2009-05-15

    Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in hospital operating rooms (ORs) constitutes a major challenge for the proper design and operation of an energy efficient hospital. A subjective assessment of the indoor environment along with a short monitoring campaign was performed during the audits of 18 ORs at nine major Hellenic hospitals. A total of 557 medical personnel participated in an occupational survey, providing data for a subjective assessment of IEQ in the audited ORs. The OR personnel reported work related health symptoms and an assessment of indoor conditions (thermal, visual and acoustical comfort, and air quality). Overall, personnel reported an average of 2.24 work-related symptoms each, and 67.2% of respondents reported at least one. Women suffer more health symptoms than men. Special dispositions, such as smoking and allergies, increase the number of reported symptoms for male and female personnel. Personnel that perceive satisfactory indoor comfort conditions (temperature, humidity, ventilation, light, and noise) average 1.18 symptoms per person, while for satisfactory indoor air quality the average complaints are 0.99. The perception of satisfactory IEQ (satisfactory comfort conditions and air quality) reduces the average number of health complaints to 0.64 symptoms per person and improves working conditions, even in a demanding OR environment. (author)

  17. Environmental burdens of a Finnish indoor swimming pool; Uimahallin ympaeristoekuormitukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaahterus, T.; Saari, A.

    2001-07-01

    In this study the environmental burdens of a Finnish indoor swimming pool generated by its energy consumption were calculated. The calculations were made by using a calculation method based on LCA methodology. Calculations were made of 50 years period. The energy consumption dating from the time of the indoor swimming pool causes towards the gross-floor area a nearly four times bigger environmental load than for example a block of flats and indoor ice- skating rink. On a block of flats and indoor ice-skating rink the energy consumption dating from the time of the use causes more than 90 % of the environmental burdens of the whole life span. One can suppose that at the indoor swimming pool the share of the energy consumption dating from the time of the use only is emphasized. In this study confine therefore to dealing with the environmental loads caused only by the energy consumption dating from the time of the use. The results of these calculations showed that the energy flow of the life cycle energy consumption was 193 000 MJ/brm{sup 2}. 11,2 ton per gross-floor area CO{sub 2} equivalents, 21 kg per gross-floor area SO{sub 2} equivalents and 290 g per gross-floor area ethene equivalents of environmental burdens were caused. The main factor causing the most environmental loads were the need of heating energy. The need of heating energy produced 75 % of the CO{sub 2} equivalents, 70 % of the SO{sub 2} equivalents and 59 % of the ethene equivalents. The need of the electric energy produced 23 % of the CO{sub 2} equivalents, 23 % of the SO{sub 2} equivalents and 17 % of the ethene equivalents. Of the heating energy the share of the warming of water was 56 %. The most significant part of the electric energy were consumed in the use of the sauna stoves and vapor sauna (31 %) and heating pumps and water elements (30 %). Almost all (87 %) of the energy, consumed during the life cycle, was produced with non-renewable energy sources. The source information of the energy was

  18. Urbanization Reduces Transfer of Diverse Environmental Microbiota Indoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudra Parajuli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Expanding urbanization is a major factor behind rapidly declining biodiversity. It has been proposed that in urbanized societies, the rarity of contact with diverse environmental microbiota negatively impacts immune function and ultimately increases the risk for allergies and other immune-mediated disorders. Surprisingly, the basic assumption that urbanization reduces exposure to environmental microbiota and its transfer indoors has rarely been examined. We investigated if the land use type around Finnish homes affects the diversity, richness, and abundance of bacterial communities indoors. Debris deposited on standardized doormats was collected in 30 rural and 26 urban households in and near the city of Lahti, Finland, in August 2015. Debris was weighed, bacterial community composition determined by high throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform, and the percentage of four different land use types (i.e., built area, forest, transitional, and open area within 200 m and 2000 m radiuses from each household was characterized. The quantity of doormat debris was inversely correlated with coverage of built area. The diversity of total bacterial, Proteobacterial, Actinobacterial, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes communities decreased as the percentage of built area increased. Their richness followed the same pattern except for Firmicutes for which no association was observed. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria and particularly Gammaproteobacteria increased, whereas that of Actinobacteria decreased with increasing built area. Neither Phylum Firmicutes nor Bacteroidetes varied with coverage of built area. Additionally, the relative abundance of potentially pathogenic bacterial families and genera increased as the percentage of built area increased. Interestingly, having domestic animals (including pets only altered the association between the richness of Gammaproteobacteria and diversity of

  19. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston MA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitate Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  20. Design of environmentally friendly calcium sulfate-based building materials : towards an improved indoor air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the performance based design and development of an environmentally friendly calcium sulfate-based indoor building product towards an improved indoor air quality. Here "environmental friendly" is referred to the environment related subjects including: (1) the selection of raw

  1. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more pol...

  2. Indoor microclimate in a South African school: impact of indoor environmental factors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Essah, EA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Demand for good indoor air quality is increasing as people recorgnise the risks to their health and productivity from indoor pollutants. There is a tendency to reduce ventilation rates to ensure energy conservation in buildings; in this instance...

  3. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

  4. Indoor air quality in the Karns research houses: baseline measurements and impact of indoor environmental parameters on formaldehyde concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, T.G.; Fung, K.W.; Tromberg, B.J.; Hawthorne, A.R.

    1985-12-01

    Baseline indoor air quality measurements, a nine-month radon study, and an environmental parameters study examining the impact of indoor temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) levels on formaldehyde (CH 2 O) concentrations have been performed in three unoccupied research homes located in Karns, Tennessee. Inter-house comparison measurements of (1) CH 2 O concentration, (2) CH 2 O emission rates from primary CH 2 O emission sources, (3) radon and radon daughter concentrations, and (4) air exchange rates indicate that the three homes are similar. The results of the nine-month radon study indicate indoor concentrations consistently below the EPA recommended level of 4 pCi/L. Evidence was found that crawl-space concentrations may be reduced using heat pump systems whose outdoor units circulate fresh air through the crawl-space. The modeled results of the environmental parameters study indicate approximate fourfold increases in CH 2 O concentrations from 0.07 to 0.27 ppM for seasonal T and RH conditions of 20 0 C, 30% RH and 29 0 C, 80% RH, respectively. Evaluation of these environmental parameters study data with steady-state CH 2 O concentration models developed from laboratory studies of the environmental dependence of CH 2 O emissions from particleboard underlayment indicate good correlations between the laboratory and field studies

  5. Energy and indoor environmental quality in relocatable classrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apte, Michael; Hodgson, Alfred; Shendell, Derek; Dibartolomeo, Dennis; Hochi, Toshifumi; Kumar, Satish; Lee, Seung-Min; Liff, Shawna; Rainer, Leo; Schmidt, Richard; Sullivan, Douglas; Diamond, Richard; Fisk, William

    2002-01-01

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are commonly utilized by school districts with changing demographics and enrollment sizes. Four energy-efficient RCs were designed and constructed for this study to demonstrate technologies that simultaneously attempt to improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Two were installed at each of two school districts, and energy use and IEQ parameters were monitored during occupancy. Two (one per school) were finished with materials selected for reduced emissions of toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each RC had two HVAC systems, alternated weekly, consisting of a standard heat-pump system and an indirect-direct evaporative cooling (IDEC) system with gas-fired hydronic heating. The hypothesized advantages of the IDEC include continuous outside air ventilation at(ge)7.5 L s(sup -1) per person,(approx)70% less cooling energy and efficient particle filtration. Measurements include: carbon dioxide, particles, VOCs, temperature, humidity, thermal comfort, noise, meteorology, and energy use. Preliminary IEQ monitoring results are reported

  6. Predictive control techniques for energy and indoor environmental quality management in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotsa, D. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, 3, Romanou str., 73133, Hania, Crete (Greece); Pouliezos, A. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Production Engineering and Management, University Campus, Kounoupidiana, 73100 Hania (Greece); Stavrakakis, G.; Lazos, C. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, University Campus, Kounoupidiana, 73100 Hania (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the present paper is to present a model-based predictive controller, combined with a Building Energy Management System (BEMS). The overall system predicts the indoor environmental conditions of a specific building and selects the most appropriate actions so as to reach the set points and contribute to the indoor environmental quality by minimizing energy costs. The controller is tested using a BEMS installation in Hania, Crete, Greece. (author)

  7. BRIDGING OUTDOOR AND INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL SIMULATION FOR ASSESSING AND AIDING SUSTAINABLE URBAN NEIGHBOURHOOD DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban dwellers in cities located in hot-arid or hothumid regions have greater needs to live in between outdoor and indoor environments. The sustainability of urban building design in these regions cannot be fully assessed by indoor environmental simulation not taking into account the microclimatic factors of the surrounding urban neighbourhood. We find that the current suites of outdoor and indoor simulation software do not connect with each other to give us a holistic understanding of both outdoor and indoor simulation results. This paper reports on our current development of a methodological framework for bridging the current gap between outdoor and indoor environmental simulation. Our objective is that assessment of sustainability at an urban neighbourhood level can be carried out more holistically, and hence achieving more valid environmental simulations from an urban  dwelling point of view. The outdoor-indoor coupling methodology is currently modelled on a digital work flow among three key software platforms: (1 ENVImet for urban neighbourhood outdoor simulation, (2 Ecotect for building indoor simulation, (3 uCampus for combined outdoor-indoor 3D visualisation modelling of an entire urban neighbourhood including its individual buildings. A case study of a new neighbourhood development proposed for New Cairo is presented to demonstrate how indoor environmental simulation can be grounded on outdoor environmental simulation of the urban neighbourhood. Graphical outputs from this outdoorindoor coupling approach to neighbourhood simulation can be further brought together onto a Web-based 3D virtual reality modelling platform to enable wider accessibility.

  8. Environmental Loads of a Finnish indoor training iceskating rink in the Context of LCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaahterus, T.; Saari, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this study the environmental burdens generated by its essential building elements and systems of a typical new indoor training ice-skating rink during entire life cycle were calculated. The calculations were made by using a calculation method developed at Helsinki University of Technology at the department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Construction Economics and Management. The developed method is based on LCA -methodology and follows the principle of the ISO 14040 Environmental Management standard. In the calculations the life cycle of the indoor training iceskating rink was divided in four main phases: new construction, maintenance and energy, repair, and demolition. In each life cycle phase all the material and energy flows and emissions were calculated. Almost all (99 %) of the building elements in the indoor training ice skating rink were made of non-renewable materials. Also the energy, consumed during the life cycle, was mainly (81 %) produced with non-renewable energy sources. The life cycle phases causing the most environmental loads were energy and new construction. The energy phase consumed 92 % of the total energy and produced 91 of the CO 2 equivalents and 74 % of the SO 2 equivalents. In the new-construction phase 6 % of the life cycle energy was consumed, and 64 % of the ethene equivalents were produced. In addition to these 79 % of the building materials were used in the new- construction phase. The calculations were also tested against the sensitivity to different presumption changes. Two kinds of presumptions were made: ones that could be influenced by project control and others which refer to the future of the building and could not be influenced by project control. The calculations of the environmental loads of the indoor training ice skating rink were most sensitive to changes in the usage profiles and indoor temperature. For example one of the usage profile increased the environmental loads of the indoor training ice skating rink

  9. A study of diurnal variations of radon and thoron concentrations in different indoor environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Preeti; Prasad, Mukesh; Ramola, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    The measurements for diurnal variations in radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) concentrations were performed in the different indoor conditions of Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India by using AlphaGUARD, Portable Radon Monitor and RAD7. While selecting the dwellings, the ventilation conditions, building materials, life style of the inhabitants and their exposure time indoors were also considered. The behavior of indoor radon and thoron concentrations was observed for different type of dwellings with different environmental conditions. The measurement techniques, results obtained and comparison of the results are discussed in details. (author)

  10. Indoor radon and environmental gamma radiation in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Stokes, M.J.; Luo, D.L.; Zhang, C.X.

    1992-01-01

    Activated charcoal canisters have been used to measured the indoor radon concentrations of 160 sites in different buildings in Hong Kong during the period from July to October 1990. The average value is 40.0 Bq.m -3 . Furthermore, CR-39 nuclear track detectors and two kinds of LiF TLDs have been used to measure the average indoor radon concentrations and the absorbed gamma dose rates in air of 71 sites over the period from January to April 1991. The results all show log-normal distribution. The indoor radon concentrations are respectively 72.2 Bq.m -3 and 155.4 Bq.m -3 for dwellings and offices, while the absorbed gamma dose rates in air are respectively 213.0 nGy.h -1 and 198.3 nGy.h -1 . (author)

  11. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    OpenAIRE

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments, influence the perception of comfort.To meet the objective, the following actions were taken: (1) a literature survey exploring which indoor environmental parameters (thermal, acoustic, visualenvironmen...

  12. A holistic approach to improving indoor environmental quality: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milam, J.A.; Kinser, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    One of the big six accounting firms recently consolidated several offices into a regional headquarters located in a southern metropolitan city. This regional headquarters involved seven floors totalling 187,000 square feet of tenant space in a new high rise building. The accounting firm realized that improving their employees' work environment would provide significant savings from increased worker productivity and reduced absenteeism. Therefore, the firm retained Environmental Design International (EDI) to provide consulting services to create and maintain an environmentally healthy office space. The creation of a healthy, productive and safe indoor environment involves a total, holistic approach to the various elements that affect indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in a building. A holistic approach requires detailed evaluation of all areas that impact indoor environmental quality and not just the more common review of HVAC systems. This case study shows that the optimization of a healthy indoor environment is an endless, all inclusive process: beginning with the initial construction material selections and environmental systems design; continuing through the construction and commissioning phases; and progressing to pro-active monitoring of IEQ parameters to protect the tenant's investment in a healthy, productive and safe indoor environment

  13. Building Information Modeling (BIM) for Indoor Environmental Performance Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report is a part of a research assignment carried out by students in the 5ETCS course “Project Byggeri – [entitled as: Building Information Modeling (BIM) – Modeling & Analysis]”, during the 3rd semester of master degree in Civil and Architectural Engineering, Department of Engineering, Aarhus...... University. This includes seven papers describing BIM for Sustainability, concentrating specifically on individual topics regarding to Indoor Environment Performance Analysis....

  14. Quantitative relationships between occupant satisfaction and satisfaction aspects of indoor environmental quality and building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Schiavon, S.; Goins, J.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines which subjectively evaluated indoor environmental parameters and building features mostly affect occupants' satisfaction in mainly US office buildings. The study analyzed data from a web-based survey administered to 52 980 occupants in 351 office buildings over 10 years...... by the Center for the Built Environment. The survey uses 7-point ordered scale questions pertaining to satisfaction with indoor environmental parameters, workspace, and building features. The average building occupant was satisfied with his/her workspace and building. Proportional odds ordinal logistic...

  15. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments...... and storage, noise level and visual privacy. However, if job performance is considered, then satisfaction with the main indoor environmental parameters should be addressed first as they affected self-estimated job performance to the highest extent. The present study showed that overall satisfaction...... with personal workspace affected significantly the self-estimated job performance. Increasing overall satisfaction with the personal workspace by about 15% would correspond to an increase of self-estimated job performance by 3.7%. Among indoor environmental parameters and building features, satisfaction...

  16. Indoor environmental quality and ventilation in U.S. office buildings: A view of current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    Much of the current focus on indoor environmental quality and ventilation in US office buildings is a response to sick building syndrome and occupant complaints about building-related health symptoms, poor indoor air quality, and thermal discomfort. The authors know that serious ``sick-building`` problems occur in a significant number of US office buildings and that a significant proportion of the occupants in many normal (non-sick) buildings report building-related health symptoms. Concerns about the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke have also focused attention on the indoor environment. The major responses of industry and governments, underway at the present time, are to restrict smoking in offices, to attempt to reduce the emissions of indoor pollutants, and to improve the operation of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Better air filtration, improved HVAC commissioning and maintenance, and increased provisions for individual control of HVAC are some of the improvements in HVAC that are currently being, evaluated. In the future, the potential for improved productivity and reduced airborne transmission of infectious disease may become the major driving force for improved indoor environments.

  17. International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocol: Concepts and Practices for Improved Indoor Environmental Quality, Volume II (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    This protocol serves as a framework to determine energy and water savings resulting from the implementation of an energy efficiency program. It is also intended to help monitor the performance of renewable energy systems and to enhance indoor environmental quality in buildings.

  18. Satisfaction and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Frontczak, Monika; Schiavon, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines how satisfaction with indoor environmental parameters and building features affects satisfaction and self-estimated job performance. The analyses used subjective responses from around 50, 000 occupants collected mainly in US office buildings using a web-based survey administered...

  19. Influence of User Behaviour on Indoor Environmental Quality and Heating Energy Consumptions in Danish Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    Models of occupants’ interactions with heating controls based on measurements were implemented in a simulation program. Simulation results were given as probability distributions of energy consumption and indoor environmental quality depending on user behaviour. Heating set-point behaviour of 13...

  20. Questionnaire survey on factors influencing comfort with indoor environmental quality in Danish housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Andersen, Rune Vinther; Wargocki, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    . A total of 2499 questionnaires were sent to inhabitants of the most common types of housing in Denmark; 645 persons replied (response rate of 26%). The results show that the main indoor environmental parameters (visual, acoustic and thermal conditions, and air quality) are considered by occupants......A questionnaire survey in Danish homes investigated the factors that influence occupants’ comfort. The questionnaire contained questions on inhabitants’ behaviour, their knowledge as regards building systems designed for controlling the indoor environment and the ways in which they achieve comfort...

  1. Predicted and actual indoor environmental quality: Verification of occupants' behaviour models in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2016-01-01

    with the building controls (windows, thermostats, solar shading etc.). During the last decade, studies about stochastic models of occupants' behaviour in relation to control of the indoor environment have been published. Often the overall aim of these models is to enable more reliable predictions of building...... performance using building energy performance simulations (BEPS). However, the validity of these models has only been sparsely tested. In this paper, stochastic models of occupants' behaviour from literature were tested against measurements in five apartments. In a monitoring campaign, measurements of indoor....... However, comparisons of the average stochastic predictions with the measured temperatures, relative humidity and CO2 concentrations revealed that the models did not predict the actual indoor environmental conditions well....

  2. A Generalized Model for Indoor Location Estimation Using Environmental Sound from Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Galván-Tejada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The indoor location of individuals is a key contextual variable for commercial and assisted location-based services and applications. Commercial centers and medical buildings (e.g., hospitals require location information of their users/patients to offer the services that are needed at the correct moment. Several approaches have been proposed to tackle this problem. In this paper, we present the development of an indoor location system which relies on the human activity recognition approach, using sound as an information source to infer the indoor location based on the contextual information of the activity that is realized at the moment. In this work, we analyze the sound information to estimate the location using the contextual information of the activity. A feature extraction approach to the sound signal is performed to feed a random forest algorithm in order to generate a model to estimate the location of the user. We evaluate the quality of the resulting model in terms of sensitivity and specificity for each location, and we also perform out-of-bag error estimation. Our experiments were carried out in five representative residential homes. Each home had four individual indoor rooms. Eleven activities (brewing coffee, cooking, eggs, taking a shower, etc. were performed to provide the contextual information. Experimental results show that developing an indoor location system (ILS that uses contextual information from human activities (identified with data provided from the environmental sound can achieve an estimation that is 95% correct.

  3. Fieldwork measurement of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in Malaysian platinum-rated green office buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharim, Asniza Hamimi Abdul; Samad, Muna Hanim Abdul; Ismail, Mazran

    2017-10-01

    An Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) fieldwork assessment was conducted in the Platinum-rated GBI office building located in Putrajaya Malaysia. The aim of the study is to determine the current indoor performance of the selected green office building. The field measurement consists of several IEQ parameters counted under the GBI Malaysia namely the Thermal Comfort of temperature, relative humidity, air movement and heat transfer as well as solar radiation. This field measurement also comprises of the measurement for the background noise, visual lighting and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) focusing on the aspect of carbon dioxide concentration. All the selected indoor parameters were measured for the period of five working days and the results were compared to the Malaysian Standard. Findings of the field measurement show good indoor performance of the Platinum rated office building that complies with the GBI standard. It is hoped that the research findings will be beneficial for future design and construction of office building intended to be rated under the GBI Malaysia.

  4. Environmental burden of acute respiratory infection and pneumonia due to indoor smoke in Dhading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, M; Dhakal, P; Shrestha, N; Baral, K; Maskey, M

    2010-04-01

    ARI and pneumonia is one of the major public health problems in Nepal which always ranks highest position among the top ten diseases. One of the risk factor of ARI and pneumonia is indoor smoke from kitchen where primary source of cooking is solid biomass fuel. This study was carried out in order to estimate the burden of ARI and pneumonia due to indoor smoke. ARI and pneumonia was chosen as it is one of the significant public health problem among under five children in Nepal and responsible for high number of premature deaths. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dhading district. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used for data collection considering ward as a cluster. The environmental burden of ARI and pneumonia due to indoor smoke was calculated using the WHO Environmental Burden of Disease Series. About 87 percent of households were using solid biomass fuel as a primary source of fuel. The under five children exposed to solid fuel use was 41313. The total 1284 Disability Adjusted Life Years were lost due to ARI and pneumonia and about 50 percent of it was attributed by Indoor smoke in household. The solid biomass fuel was primary source of energy for cooking in Dhading district which is attributing about 50 percent of burden of ARI and pneumonia among under five children.

  5. Energy impact of indoor environmental policy for air-conditioned offices of Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.; Shi, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    Air-conditioned office buildings are one of the biggest energy consumers of electricity in developed cities in the subtropical climate regions. A good energy policy for the indoor environment should respond to both the needs of energy conservation and the needs for a desirable indoor healthy environment with a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) generation. This study evaluates energy implications and the corresponding CO 2 generation of some indoor environmental policies for air-conditioned office buildings in the subtropical climate. In particular, the thermal energy consumption in an air-conditioned office building was evaluated by the heat gains through the building fabric, the transport of outdoor fresh air for ventilation, and the heat generated by the occupant and equipment in the space. With the Monte-Carlo sampling technique and the parameters from the existing office building stocks of Hong Kong, the energy consumption profiles of air-conditioned office buildings in Hong Kong were evaluated. Energy consumption profiles were simulated for certain indoor environmental quality (IEQ) policies on indoor air temperature and CO 2 concentration settings in the offices, with other building parameters remaining unchanged. The impact assessment and the regression models described in this study may be useful for evaluation of energy performances of IEQ policies. They will also be useful for the promotion of energy-saving measures in air-conditioned office buildings in Hong Kong. This study presented a useful source of references for policymakers, building professionals and end users to quantify the energy and environmental impacts due to an IEQ policy for air-conditioned office buildings

  6. A contemporary method for monitoring indoor radon and environmental conditions at a remote test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renken, K.J.; Coursin, S.

    1996-01-01

    A state-of-the-art method for automatically monitoring indoor radon and environmental conditions at a remote test site is described. A Wisconsin home that exhibited elevated radon levels has been installed with automated PC-data acquisition system (PC-DAS) that includes: a laptop PC, a data acquisition cardcage, a commercial data acquisition software program plus sensors to measure radon gas concentrations, differential pressures, indoor air quality and meteorological conditions. The isolated PC-DAS is connected to a PC in a university laboratory via a modem and a communications software package. Experimental data is monitored and saved by the remote PC in real time and then automatically downloaded to the lab computer at selected intervals. An example of the formatted field results is presented and analysed. This documentation of the set-up, the off-the-shelf computer hardware and software, and the procedures should assist investigations requiring flexible remote long-term radon and environmental monitoring. (Author)

  7. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose environmental conditions are substandard. This scenario has negative consequences on the health of the DCC attendees and yet information on some of the indicators such as the level of sanitary practices is not adequately ...

  8. Report on HVAC option selections for a relocatable classroom energy and indoor environmental quality field study

    OpenAIRE

    Apte, Michael G.; Delp, Woody W.; Diamond, Richard C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Kumar, Satish; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2001-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that efforts to simultaneously develop energy efficient building technologies and to improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) are unfeasible. The primary reason for this is that IEQ improvements often require additional ventilation that is costly from an energy standpoint. It is currently thought that health and productivity in work and learning environments requires adequate, if not superior, IEQ. Despite common assumptions, opportunities do exist to design bui...

  9. Efficiency assessment of indoor environmental policy for air-conditioned offices in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    To reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through thermal energy conservation, air-conditioned offices in the subtropics are recommended to operate within specified ranges of indoor temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. As thermal discomfort leads to productivity loss, some indoor environmental policies for air-conditioned offices in Hong Kong are investigated in this study with relation to thermal energy consumption, CO 2 emissions from electricity use, and productivity loss due to thermal discomfort. Occupant thermal response is specifically considered as an adaptive factor in evaluating the energy consumption and productivity loss. The energy efficiency of an office is determined by the productivity which corresponds to the CO 2 generated. The results found that a policy with little impact on occupant thermal comfort and worker productivity would improve the office efficiency while the one with excessive energy consumption reduction would result in a substantial productivity loss. This study is a useful reference source for evaluating an indoor thermal environmental policy regarding the energy consumption, CO 2 emissions reduction, thermal comfort and productivity loss in air-conditioned offices in subtropical areas.

  10. Review of the indoor environmental quality and energy consumption studies for low income households in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokotsa, D; Santamouris, M

    2015-12-01

    The term energy poverty is used to describe a situation of a household not able to satisfy socially and materially the required levels of its energy services. Energy and fuel poverty is an increasing problem in the European Union. Although the specific conditions vary from country to country the drivers defining fuel and energy poverty are similar in all Europe. This paper aims to present the state of the art regarding the energy demand and indoor environmental quality of low income households in Europe. The characteristics of this specific population group are presented including details on the specific energy consumption, the indoor comfort and finally the impact of the specific living conditions on the occupants' health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An evaluation model for indoor environmental quality (IEQ) acceptance in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, A.C.K.; Mui, K.W.; Wong, L.T.; Law, L.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in residential buildings is examined from the prospect of an occupant's acceptance in four aspects: thermal comfort, indoor air quality, noise level and illumination level. Based on the evaluations by 125 occupants living in 32 typical residential apartments in Hong Kong, this study proposes empirical expressions to approximate the overall IEQ acceptance with respect to four contributors, namely operative temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, equivalent noise level and illumination level, via a multivariate logistic regression model. A range of IEQ acceptances for regular residential conditions is determined and the dependence of the predicted overall IEQ acceptance on the variations of the contributors is discussed. The proposed overall IEQ acceptance can be used as a quantitative assessment criterion for similar residential environments where an occupant's evaluation is expected. (author)

  12. [Real-time measurement of indoor particulate matter originating from environmental tobacco smoke: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; Majno, Edoardo; Rossetti, Edoardo; Paredi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Short-term measurement of suspended particulate matter has been recently made possible since the release of laser-operating portable instruments. Data of a pilot study of field evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with a portable instrument are reported. We analysed the concentrations of total suspended particle (TSP) and of the fine particles PM10, PM7, PM2.5 and PM1 released indoor from a single cigarette, and their levels inside smoking- and non-smoking-areas of a restaurant. The results indicate that ETS creates high level indoor particulate pollution, with concentrations of PM10 exceeding air quality standards. This kind of field evaluation could allow a more careful assessing of short-term exposure to ETS and its relevance to public health.

  13. Environmental Loads of a Finnish indoor training iceskating rink in the Context of LCA; Jaeaehallirakennuksen aiheuttamat ympaeristoekuormitukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaahterus, T.; Saari, A.

    2001-07-01

    In this study the environmental burdens generated by its essential building elements and systems of a typical new indoor training ice-skating rink during entire life cycle were calculated. The calculations were made by using a calculation method developed at Helsinki University of Technology at the department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Construction Economics and Management. The developed method is based on LCA -methodology and follows the principle of the ISO 14040 Environmental Management standard. In the calculations the life cycle of the indoor training iceskating rink was divided in four main phases: new construction, maintenance and energy, repair, and demolition. In each life cycle phase all the material and energy flows and emissions were calculated. Almost all (99 %) of the building elements in the indoor training ice skating rink were made of non-renewable materials. Also the energy, consumed during the life cycle, was mainly (81 %) produced with non-renewable energy sources. The life cycle phases causing the most environmental loads were energy and new construction. The energy phase consumed 92 % of the total energy and produced 91 of the CO{sub 2} equivalents and 74 % of the SO{sub 2} equivalents. In the new-construction phase 6 % of the life cycle energy was consumed, and 64 % of the ethene equivalents were produced. In addition to these 79 % of the building materials were used in the new- construction phase. The calculations were also tested against the sensitivity to different presumption changes. Two kinds of presumptions were made: ones that could be influenced by project control and others which refer to the future of the building and could not be influenced by project control. The calculations of the environmental loads of the indoor training ice skating rink were most sensitive to changes in the usage profiles and indoor temperature. For example one of the usage profile increased the environmental loads of the indoor training ice

  14. High concentrations of cadmium, cerium and lanthanum in indoor air due to environmental tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhlandt, Antje; Schierl, Rudolf; Diemer, Juergen; Koch, Christoph; Bolte, Gabriele; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Fromme, Hermann; Nowak, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important sources for indoor air pollution and a substantial threat to human health, but data on the concentrations of the trace metals cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La) in context with ETS exposure are scarce. Therefore the aim of our study was to quantify Ce and La concentrations in indoor air with high ETS load. Methods: In two subsequent investigations Ce, La and cadmium (Cd) in 3 smokers' (11 samples) and 7 non-smokers' (28 samples) households as well as in 28 hospitality venues in Southern Germany were analysed. Active sampling of indoor air was conducted continuously for seven days in every season in the smokers' and non-smokers' residences, and for 4 h during the main visiting hours in the hospitality venues (restaurants, pubs, and discotheques). Results: In terms of residences median levels of Cd were 0.1 ng/m 3 for non-smokers' and 0.8 ng/m 3 for smokers' households. Median concentrations of Ce were 0.4 ng/m 3 and 9.6 ng/m 3 , and median concentrations of La were 0.2 ng/m 3 and 5.9 ng/m 3 for non-smokers' and for smokers' households, respectively. In the different types of hospitality venues median levels ranged from 2.6 to 9.7 ng/m 3 for Cd, from 18.5 to 50.0 ng/m 3 for Ce and from 10.6 to 23.0 ng/m 3 for La with highest median levels in discotheques. Conclusions: The high concentrations of Ce and La found in ETS enriched indoor air of smokers' households and hospitality venues are an important finding as Ce and La are associated with adverse health effects and data on this issue are scarce. Further research on their toxicological, human and public health consequences is urgently required. - Highlights: ► We quantified cer, lanthanum and cadmium concentrations in indoor air. ► Cer and lanthanum concentrations were high in tobacco smoke enriched locations. ► Both elements can be considered as good markers for indoor air quality.

  15. An energy performance assessment for indoor environmental quality (IEQ) acceptance in air-conditioned offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an acceptable indoor environmental quality (IEQ) for air-conditioned office buildings consumes a considerable amount of thermal energy. This study correlates thermal energy consumption with the overall occupant acceptance of IEQ in some air-conditioned offices. An empirical expression of an IEQ index associated with thermal comfort, indoor air quality, aural and visual comfort is used to benchmark the offices. Employing input parameters obtained from the building stocks of Hong Kong, the office portfolios regarding the thermal energy consumption and the IEQ index are determined by Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, an energy-to-acceptance ratio and an energy-to-IEQ improvement ratio are proposed to measure the performance of energy consumption for the IEQ in the air-conditioned offices. The ratios give the thermal energy consumption corresponding to a desirable percentage of IEQ acceptances and to an IEQ upgrade, respectively. The results showed a non-linear increasing trend of annual thermal energy consumption for IEQ improvement at the offices of higher IEQ benchmarks. The thermal energy consumption for visual comfort and indoor air quality would also be significant in these offices. This study provides useful information that incorporates the IEQ in air-conditioned offices into the development of performance evaluation measures for thermal energy consumption.

  16. Measurements of environmental radon - 222 concentrations in indoors and outdoors in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawy, M.A.; Morsey, A.A.; Kotb, M.A.; Osman, A.; El-Haag, A.

    1990-01-01

    The major contribution to population exposure from natural radiation arises from the inhalation of the decay products of radon. Substantial surveys are being conducted by several investigators to estimate the indoor and outdoor exposure nationally and to discover regional variations. In this work, radon concentration in the indoors and outdoor air was determined using the can technique and employing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector for lengthy exposures. The range of radon - 222 activity in this survey was 54 -299 PCi.m -3 in Cairo, 22 - 171 PCi.m -3 in Alexandria and 89 - 370 PCi.m -3 in Asiut. Measurements carried out in Aswan and Sinai ranged between 98 - 411 PCi.m -3 . Values of indoors and outdoors radon concentrations were found to vary with time of day, geographic location, season and height above ground. Further work is going on to study the different parameters affecting the levels of the environmental radon. The national survey and associated studies is expected to yield data that may correlate radon activity with some respiratory diseases, particularly lung cancer. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs

  17. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-08-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical environment at the shooting range. This was an environmental case study of 58 male and female shooters from two indoor shooting ranges with assumed different ventilation and cleaning conditions. Information was obtained on general conditions including age, gender, tobacco and alcohol use, and shooting conditions: weapon type, number of shots fired, frequency of stays at the shooting range and hygiene habits. A venous blood sample was drawn to determine blood lead concentrations; 14 non-shooters were included as controls. Almost 60% of the shooters, hereof five out of 14 women, had a blood lead concentration above 0.48 micromol/l, a level causing long-term health concern. All controls had blood lead values below 0.17 micromol/l. Independent significant associations with blood lead concentrations above 0.48 micromol/l were found for shooting at a poorly ventilated range, use of heavy calibre weapons, number of shots and frequency of stays at the shooting range. A large proportion of Danish recreational indoor shooters had potentially harmful blood lead concentrations. Ventilation, amounts of shooting, use of heavy calibre weapons and stays at the shooting ranges were independently associated with increased blood lead. The technical check at the two ranges was performed by the Danish Technological Institute and costs were defrayed by the Danish Rifle Association. To pay for the analyses of blood lead, the study was supported by the The Else & Mogens Wedell-Wedellsborg Foundation. The Danish Regional Capital Scientific Ethics Committee approved the study, protocol number H-4-2010-130.

  18. Quantitative relationships between occupant satisfaction and aspects of indoor environmental quality and building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Schiavon, Stefano; Goins, John

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines which indoor environmental parameters and building features contribute occupants’ satisfaction in office buildings. The study analyzed data from a web-based survey administered to 52,980 occupants in 351 office buildings over ten years at the Center for the Built Environment...... parameters listed in the survey contributed to overall workspace satisfaction. The most important parameters were: satisfaction with amount of space (odds ratio OR 1.57), noise (OR 1.27) and visual privacy (OR 1.26). Satisfaction with amount of space was not noticeably affected by size of workspace...

  19. Measurements of Energy Performance and Indoor Environmental Quality in 10 Danish Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the first results from a large Danish project regarding measurements of energy performance and indoor environmental quality in 10 Danish Passive Houses. The project includes both qualitative and quantitative analyses. This paper describes the first results from the quantitative...... part. The house considered in this paper has an air change rate (ACR) of 0.34 h-1 and the results from the first few months of measurements show excellent results when relative humidity (RH) and CO2-levels are considered. When the temperatures are assessed problems with slight overheating are found...... used for heating domestic hot water is very similar to conventional houses....

  20. Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitat Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  1. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  2. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  3. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems–Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Shepherd, T. A.; Li, H.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens’ activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  4. Indoor environmental risk factors in young asthmatics: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, A; Wickman, M; Hedlin, G; Pershagen, G; Rietz, H; Nordvall, S L

    1995-11-01

    One hundred and ninety three children with asthma and 318 controls aged 1-4 years were evaluated for atopic heredity and exposure to possible indoor risk factors for asthma-for example exposure to furred pets, tobacco smoke, and home dampness. A subgroup of cases were classified as cat and/or dog allergic on the basis of skin prick tests. Heredity for asthma was a significant risk factor (odds ratio (OR) 3.0, confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 4.6). Environmental tobacco smoke was associated with an excess risk for asthma (OR 1.7, CI 1.1 to 2.3) and signs of home dampness tended to increase this risk (OR 1.3, CI 0.9 to 2.0). High dose exposure to cat and/or dog resulted in an increased risk only in asthma cases sensitised to cat and/or dog (OR 2.7, CI 1.0 to 7.3). A combination of high dose exposure to cat and/or dog, environmental tobacco smoke and damp housing was associated with an OR of 8.0 (CI 1.9 to 34.1). Raised indoor humidity has been shown to reflect low air exchange, which may also lead to increased doses of inhaled aeroallergens and tobacco smoke, and contribute to the interaction between the three risk factors.

  5. Indoor Environment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports progress during the year 1992 in the Indoor Environment Program in the Energy and Environment Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Studies in the following areas are reported: energy performance and ventilation in buildings; physical and chemical characterization of indoor air pollutants; indoor radon; indoor air quality; exposure to indoor air pollutants and risk analysis. Pollutants of particular interest include: radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions including environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides

  6. Headache symptoms and indoor environmental parameters: Results from the EPA BASE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen E Tietjen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of migraine and headache symptoms in a national sample of US office employees. Also, we explored the association of headache symptoms with indoor environmental parameters of the work place. Background: Sick building syndrome (SBS, which includes headache, is a common global phenomenon, but the underlying environmental cause is uncertain. Materials and Methods: We used data from the 1994-1998 US Environmental Protection Agency′s (EPA Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation, a cross-sectional study of workers employed in 100 public and private office buildings across 25 states. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to assess headache frequency and prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed (SRPD migraine. Indoor environmental parameters (IEP were collected per EPA protocol from each building over a 1-week period and included carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature, relative humidity, particulate matter, volatile organic compound, illuminance, and sound level. The standards of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers were used to categorize IEP as either within- or out-of-comfort range for human dwelling. These limits delineate whether a parameter value is safe for human dwelling. Out-of-comfort range IEPs are associated with SBS and other human diseases. SRPD migraine and headache frequency were the primary outcome measures of the study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed for the purpose of assessing the association between the outcome variable and IEPs. Results: Of the 4326 participants, 66% were females and 60% were between 30 and 49 years. Headache frequency during the last 4 weeks was as follows: None in 31%, 1-3 days in 38%, 1-3 days per week in 18%, and every or almost every workday in 8%. Females had higher SRPD migraine prevalence compared to males (27% vs. 11%, P<0.001 and were more

  7. A holistic approach for the assessment of the indoor environmental quality, student productivity, and energy consumption in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorizas, Paraskevi Vivian; Assimakopoulos, Margarita-Niki; Santamouris, Mattheos

    2015-05-01

    The perception of the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) through questionnaires in conjunction with in-field measurements related to the indoor air quality (IAQ), the thermal comfort and the lighting environment were studied in nine naturally ventilated schools of Athens, Greece. Cluster analysis was carried out in order to determine the ranges of indoor air pollutants, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and ventilation rates at which the students were satisfied with the indoor environment. It was found that increased levels of particulate matter did not have a negative effect on students' perception while students seemed to link the degradation of IAQ with temperature variations. Statistically significant correlations were further found between measurement results and students' perception of the IEQ. Students' sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and performance of schoolwork were also investigated as a function of the levels of indoor air pollutants and ventilation, and there were found significant positive correlations between particulate matter (PM) and certain health symptoms. Students' learning performance seemed to be affected by the ventilation rates and carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentrations while certain health effects positively correlated to the levels of PM and CO₂. The energy consumption of schools was rather low compared to other national findings, and both the electricity and oil consumption for heating positively correlated to the levels of indoor air pollutants.

  8. Outdoor and indoor dose assessment using environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Costa Rica lies at the intersection of the Cocos and Caribbean plates in Central America. It has mountain ranges with many active volcanoes along its territory. Its soils are predominantly of volcanic origin. Natural radiation measurements utilising environmental CaF 2 :Dy thermoluminescence dosimeters were used for the first time in Costa Rica by the Dosimetry Section of the Atomic, Nuclear and Molecular Sciences Research Center of the University of Costa Rica. Seven hundred outdoor measurements were obtained in a 3.5-year period at eight different sites throughout the country. One hundred and seventy-four indoor readings were also collected at four sites for a 2-year period. Population-weighted averages give 82 nGy h -1 for outdoors and 130 nGy h -1 for indoors. The values lie on the upper range of worldwide reported values due to reported soil characteristics rich in uranium and potassium. A preliminary population-weighted value of 0.74 mSv/year for the effective dose is calculated for natural terrestrial gamma radiation in Costa Rica

  9. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D; Butz, Arlene M; Hackstadt, Amber J; Williams, D'Ann L; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2015-02-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area.

  10. HEALTH STATUS, ENVIRONMENTAL LIVING CONDITIONS AND MICROBIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY AMONG MIGRANT WORKER HOUSEHOLDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Suknongbung, Siranee; Vatanasomboon, Pisit; Sujirarut, Dusit

    2017-03-01

    A large number of migrants have move to cities in Thailand seeking employment. These people may be at increased risk for environmental health problems. We studied the health status, environmental living conditions and microbial indoor air quality (IAQ) among selected groups of migrant workers and their households in Mueang District, Samut Sakhon, central Thailand. We conducted a cross sectional study of 240 migrant workers and their households randomly selected by multistage sampling. The person responsible for hygiene at each studied household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Two indoor air samples were taken from each household (480 indoor air samples) to determine bacterial and fungal counts using a Millipore air tester; 240 outdoor air samples were collected for comparison. Ninety-nine point six percent of study subjects were Myanmar, 74.2% were aged 21-40 years, 91.7% had a primary school level education or lower and 53.7% had stayed in Thailand less than 5 years. Eight point three percent had a history of an underlying disease, 20.8% had a recent history of pulmonary tuberculosis in a family member within the previous year. Forty-three point eight percent had a current illness related to IAQ during a previous month. Twenty-one point three were current cigarette smokers, 15.0% were current alcohol consumers, and 5.0% exercises ≥3 times per week. Forty-nine point two percent never opened the windows of their bedrooms or living rooms for ventilation, 45% never cleaned their window screens, and 38.3% never put their pillows or mattresses in the sunlight. The mean(±SD) air bacterial count was 230(±229) CFU/m3 (outdoor air = 128±82 CFU/ m3), and the mean fungal count was 630(±842) CFU/m3 (outdoor air = 138±94 CFU/ m3). When the bacterial and fungal counts were compared with the guidelines of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, the bacterial counts in 6.5% of houses surveyed and the fungal counts in 28.8% of house

  11. Quantitative relationships between occupant satisfaction and satisfaction aspects of indoor environmental quality and building design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontczak, M; Schiavon, S; Goins, J; Arens, E; Zhang, H; Wargocki, P

    2012-04-01

    The article examines which subjectively evaluated indoor environmental parameters and building features mostly affect occupants' satisfaction in mainly US office buildings. The study analyzed data from a web-based survey administered to 52,980 occupants in 351 office buildings over 10 years by the Center for the Built Environment. The survey uses 7-point ordered scale questions pertaining to satisfaction with indoor environmental parameters, workspace, and building features. The average building occupant was satisfied with his/her workspace and building. Proportional odds ordinal logistic regression shows that satisfaction with all 15 parameters listed in the survey contributed significantly to overall workspace satisfaction. The most important parameters were satisfaction with amount of space (odds ratio OR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.55-1.59), noise level (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.25-1.29), and visual privacy (OR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.24-1.28). Satisfaction with amount of space was ranked to be most important for workspace satisfaction, regardless of age group (below 30, 31-50 or over 50 years old), gender, type of office (single or shared offices, or cubicles), distance of workspace from a window (within 4.6 m or further), or satisfaction level with workspace (satisfied or dissatisfied). Satisfaction with amount of space was not related to the gross amount of space available per person. To maximize workspace satisfaction, designer should invest in aspects that increase satisfaction with amount of space and storage, noise level, and visual privacy. Office workers will be most satisfied with their workspace and building when located close to a window in a private office. This may affect job satisfaction, work performance, and personal and company productivity. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. The effects of indoor environmental exposures on pediatric asthma: a discrete event simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian M Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood across all socioeconomic classes and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization among children. Asthma exacerbations have been associated with exposure to residential indoor environmental stressors such as allergens and air pollutants as well as numerous additional factors. Simulation modeling is a valuable tool that can be used to evaluate interventions for complex multifactorial diseases such as asthma but in spite of its flexibility and applicability, modeling applications in either environmental exposures or asthma have been limited to date. Methods We designed a discrete event simulation model to study the effect of environmental factors on asthma exacerbations in school-age children living in low-income multi-family housing. Model outcomes include asthma symptoms, medication use, hospitalizations, and emergency room visits. Environmental factors were linked to percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%, which in turn was linked to risk equations for each outcome. Exposures affecting FEV1% included indoor and outdoor sources of NO2 and PM2.5, cockroach allergen, and dampness as a proxy for mold. Results Model design parameters and equations are described in detail. We evaluated the model by simulating 50,000 children over 10 years and showed that pollutant concentrations and health outcome rates are comparable to values reported in the literature. In an application example, we simulated what would happen if the kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans were improved for the entire cohort, and showed reductions in pollutant concentrations and healthcare utilization rates. Conclusions We describe the design and evaluation of a discrete event simulation model of pediatric asthma for children living in low-income multi-family housing. Our model simulates the effect of environmental factors (combustion pollutants and allergens

  13. Indoor Environmental Factors and Occurrence of Lung Function Decline in Adult Residents in Summer in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Kebin, Li; Yin, Tang; Jie, Xu

    2016-11-01

    There is conflicting reports on the respiratory health effects of indoor risk factor exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the association of indoor environmental factors to pulmonary function in an adult population in Zunyi City of Southwest China. Between July and Sep 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of people aged ≥18 yr in 11 inner-city areas of Zunyi. Data on asthma and asthma-related symptoms and selected home environmental factors were assessed by questionnaire. Lung function measurements, including FVC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC and PEFR, were assessed and compared. Exposure to indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 was monitored by measurement of PM 2.5 emission relative concentration. Cooking oil fumes, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and coal fuel use were associated with impaired lung function among adults in summer season ( P oil fumes, pest in kitchen, mosquito repellent, fluffy blanket, pets, visible mold in bedroom and ETS (active and passive smoking) tended to exhibit greater decreases in FVC, FEV 1 and PEFR values compared with their non-exposed counterparts ( P kitchen, sleeping area and outdoor were 486.0cpm, 463.0cpm and 459.0cpm, respectively. PM 2.5 relative concentration in indoor kitchen and sleeping area were significant higher than outdoor ( P kitchen, sleeping area risk factors and ETS exposure and a reduction in lung function in summer was revealed in Zunyi.

  14. Research on the Implementation of Technological Measures for Controlling Indoor Environmental Quality in Green Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruozhu; Liu, Pengda; Qian, Yongmei

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the design technology of controlling indoor quality in engineering practice, it is proposed that, in framework system of green residential building design, how to realize the design idea of controlling the indoor environment quality, and the design technology with feasibility, including the sunshine and lighting, indoor air quality and thermal environment, sound insulation and noise reduction measures, etc.. The results of all will provide a good theoretical supportting for the design of green residential building.

  15. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  16. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical...

  17. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Tappler, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Shelton, Janie F; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-06

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria). Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants) were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality.

  18. Influence of environmental factors on indoor radon concentration levels in the basement and ground floor of a building – A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Dong; Liao, Maili; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2015-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to measure indoor radon concentrations variations and observe any correlations with indoor and outdoor atmospheric parameters for over a period of one year. Indoor environmental parameters and radon concentrations were measured on an hourly basis in a two-story building both in a laboratory on the well-ventilated ground floor and in the basement below it which had negligible ventilation. The monthly average indoor radon concentration value of 29 ± 21 Bq m"−"3 in the laboratory was below the ICRP recommended limit of 200–300 Bq m"−"3. The monthly normalization factor for that location ranged from 0.5 to 2.0, while the seasonal normalization factor ranged from 0.78 to 2.0. In the unventilated basement, however, the average monthly indoor radon concentration was 1083 ± 6 Bq m"−"3 with little seasonal variation. The basement is only used for storage and thus the elevated radon concentration does not pose a serious health risk. The results indicated that indoor radon levels are higher in the autumn–winter season than in the spring–summer season. Analysis further showed that indoor radon concentrations negatively correlated with indoor humidity (correlation coefficient R = −0.14, p < 0.01), outdoor temperature (correlation coefficient R = −0.3, p < 0.01), outdoor dew point temperature (correlation coefficient R = −0.17, p < 0.01) and outdoor wind speeds (correlation coefficient R = −0.25, p < 0.05). Radon concentrations correlated positively with outdoor barometric pressure (correlation coefficient R = 0.35, p < 0.01), indoor–outdoor temperature difference (correlation coefficient R = 0.32, p < 0.05) and indoor–outdoor barometric pressure difference (correlation coefficient R = 0.67, p < 0.01). Indoor temperature, indoor barometric pressure and outdoor wind direction showed no clear correlations with indoor radon concentration. - Highlights: • Environmental variables and

  19. Energy Impacts of Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits of Apartments in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Norris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Monthly gas and electricity use data from a set of 13 study apartments and 20 control apartments from three apartment buildings (B1 B3) in California were analyzed. The study apartments were retrofit with simultaneous energy savings and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) improvements as the goal. The control apartments were not retrofit. Pre-retrofit modeling indicated annual energy savings of 21percent, 17percent, and 27percent for the study apartments in B1-B3, respectively. Based on a comparison of changes in energy use of study apartments to energy use changes of control apartments, total measured savings of gas energy plus site electrical energy were 28percent in B1, 5percent in B2, and 3percent in B3. Given the small number of study apartments and the substantial changes in energy use within control apartments, the project yielded no conclusive evidence of energy savings. Apartment energy use increased with number of occupants and with floor area; however, the association with occupancy was most evident. Climate differences did not appear to be the major driver for the variability in energy use among apartments. Changes in occupant behaviors affecting energy use may have overwhelmed and obscured the energy savings in this small number of buildings. Much larger prior studies employing similar retrofits indicate that the retrofits usually do save energy.

  20. Indoor concentrations of radon 222 and its daughters: sources, range, and environmental influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    The author here reviews what is presently known about factors affecting indoor concentrations of radon 222 and its daughters. In US single-family homes, radon concentrations are found to average about 1.5 pCi/1, but substantially higher concentrations occur frequently: perhaps a million US homes have concentrations exceeding 8 pCi/1 (from which occupants receive radiation doses comparable to those now experienced by uranium miners). The major contributor to indoor radon is ordinary soil underlying homes, with this radon being transported indoors primarily by the slight depressurization that occurs toward the bottom of a house interior (due to indoor-outdoor temperature differences and winds). Water from underground sources contributes significantly in a minority of cases, primarily residences with private wells, with public water supplies contributing only a few percent of indoor radon, even when drawn from wells. The strong variability in indoor concentrations is associated primarily with variability in the amount of radon entering homes from these various sources, and secondarily with differences in ventilation rates. However, for a given entry rate, the ventilation rate is the key determinant of indoor concentrations. Human doses are also influenced strongly by the chemical behavior of the daughters (i.e., decay products of radon), and considerable progress has been made recently in investigating a major aspect of this behavior, i.e., the manner in which daughters attach to airborne particles, to walls, and - indeed - to the lining of the lung itself, where the key radiation dose occurs

  1. Indoor environmental factors associated with pulmonary function among adults in an acid rain-plagued city in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Zhang, Longju; Luo, Ya; Tang, Yin; Tuo, Fangxu; Yang, Jiaqi; Xu, Jie

    2017-04-01

    To assess the association of indoor environmental risk factors with respiratory function among adults in an acid rain-plagued city in China where coal use is frequent. The subjects were randomly selected in the winter season. Information on selected home environmental factors was collected through administered questionnaires. Additionally, pulmonary function tests, including Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ), FEV 1 /FVC and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were also performed in participants. This study showed that, among a variety of risk factors, coal fuel use, cooking oil fumes and active and passive smoking exposure together with asthma in childhood were important factors for deterioration of pulmonary function among adults in the winter season (p kitchen was located in the living room or bedroom, who opened their windows only occasionally or never, who noted the presence of cooking oil fumes and pests, whose bedroom was shared by 3 or more residents and who kept pets tended to exhibit lower values of FVC, FEV 1 and PEFR values compared with non-exposed counterparts (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated impaired pulmonary function among adults who were exposed to indoor risk factors, such as coal fires and cigarette smoking compared to non-users in the winter season and emphasizes the need for public health efforts to decrease exposure to indoor air pollution.

  2. Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of school classrooms: Case study in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Muna Hanim Abdul; Aziz, Zalena Abdul; Isa, Mohd Hafizal Mohd

    2017-10-01

    Thermal Comfort is one of the key criteria for occupants' comfort and productivity in a building. In schools, it is vital for a conduciveness for teaching and learning environment. Thermal comfort is dependent on air temperature, humidity, radiation, internal lighting, air movement, activities, clothing and climatic change and is part of the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) components which have has significant effects on occupants. The main concern over energy and running cost has meant that most public schools in Malaysia are designed for natural ventilation and not air-conditioning. The building envelope plays a significant role in reducing the radiant heat and keeps the interior cooler than the outdoor temperature for acceptable thermal comfort level. The requirement of Industrial Building System (IBS) as the envelope system for school building in Malaysia could affect the role of envelope as a climate moderator. This paper is based on a research conducted on two schools in Malaysia of varied construction materials as the building envelopes to ascertain the thermal comfort level of the classrooms. Elements of IEQ such as air temperature, air movement, daylighting and noise level were taken of various classrooms to fulfill the required objectives of determining the level of quality. The data collected and analysed from the study shows that in terms of air temperature which range from 28°C to 34.5°C, the schools do not achieve the recommended comfort level for tropical climate. As for daylighting element, results also show that some classrooms suffered with too much glare whilst others had insufficient daylighting. The findings also show the unsatisfactory level of air movement in the classrooms as well as an unacceptable noise level exceeding the allowable threshold. This research also concluded that the use of materials and orientation in the school design are the major determinant factors towards good IEQ levels in school buildings.

  3. Public effective doses from environmental natural gamma exposures indoors and outdoors in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Roositalab, Jalil; Mohammadi, Jahangir

    2015-01-01

    The effective doses of public in Iran due to external gamma exposures from terrestrial radionuclides and from cosmic radiation indoors and outdoors of normal natural background radiation areas were determined by measurements and by calculations. For direct measurements, three measurement methods were used including a NaI(TI) scintillation survey meter for preliminary screening, a pressurised ionising chamber for more precise measurements and early warning measurement equipment systems. Measurements were carried out in a large number of locations indoors and outdoors ∼1000 houses selected randomly in 36 large cities of Iran. The external gamma doses of public from living indoors and outdoors were also calculated based on the radioactivity measurements of samples taken from soil and building materials by gamma spectrometry using a high-resolution HPGe system. The national mean background gamma dose rates in air indoors and outdoors based on measurements are 126.9±24.3 and 111.7±17.72 nGy h -1 , respectively. When the contribution from cosmic rays was excluded, the values indoors and outdoors are 109.2±20.2 and 70.2±20.59.4 nGy h -1 , respectively. The dose rates determined for indoors and outdoors by calculations are 101.5±9.2 and 72.2±9.4 nGy h -1 , respectively, which are in good agreement with directly measured dose rates within statistical variations. By considering a population-weighted mean for terrestrial radiation, the ratio of indoor to outdoor dose rates is 1.55. The mean annual effective dose of each individual member of the public from terrestrial radionuclides and cosmic radiation, indoors and outdoors, is 0.86±0.16 mSv y -1 by measurements and 0.8±0.2 mSv y -1 by calculations. The results of this national survey of public annual effective doses from national natural background external gamma radiation determined by measurements and calculations indoors and outdoors of 1000 houses in 36 cities of Iran are presented and discussed. (authors)

  4. Environmental and indoor study of Radon concentration in San Joaquin area, Queretaro, Mexico, first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinojo Alonso, N.A.; Kotsarenko, A.; Yutsis, V.; Hernandez Silva, G.; Perego, P.; Fazio, M.; Grimalsky, V.; Koshevaya, S.; Foglia, F.; Cortes Silva, A.; García Martínez, R.; Martínez Reyes, J.; Norini, G.; Groppelli, G.

    2013-01-01

    A highly contaminated zone with a maximum over 57,000 Bq/m 3 was discovered in a populated community “Agua de Venados” during the 2009–2011 soil Radon survey in San Joaquin, Queretaro State, Mexico. The indoor Radon monitoring accomplished in 2 different époques in a nearby 4 dwellings has shown an increased Radon hazard in 1 of the 4 buildings (about 300 Bq/m 3 ) during a rainy season and highly elevated indoor Radon levels (over 400 Bq/m 3 ) already in 3 buildings during a dry season. The averaged diurnal indoor Radon variations are in a correlation with the atmospheric pressure and the air humidity and are independent on the air temperature. The maximum indoor Radon hazard for dwellings is estimated for the morning interval 5–10 a.m. - Highlights: ► Emanative zone of 57,000 Bq/m 3 was found in area “Agua de Venados”. ► Indoor Radon level in a nearby dwellings elevates during a dry season. ► Maximum risk for residents was estimated during the daily interval 5–10 a.m

  5. Validation of Environmental Stress Index by Measuring Infrared Radiation as a Substitute for Solar Radiation in Indoor Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The exposure of individuals to heat at different jobs warrants the use of heat stress evaluation indices. Objectives The aim of this study was to validate environmental stress index using an infrared radiation (IR measurement instrument as a substitute for pyranometer in indoor workplaces. Methods This study was conducted on 2303 indoor workstations in different industries in Isfahan, Iran, during July, August, and September in 2012. The intensity of the Infrared Radiation (IR (w/m2 was measured at five-centimeter distances in six different directions, above, opposite, right, left, behind and below the globe thermometer. Then, the dry globe temperature (Ta, wet globe temperature (Tnw, globe temperature (Tg and relative humidity (RH were also simultaneously measured. The data were analyzed using correlation and regression by the SPSS18 software. Results The study results indicate that a high correlation (r = 0.96 exists between the environmental stress index (ESI and the values of wet bulb globe temperature (P < 0.01. According to the following equation, WBGT = 1.086 × ESI - 1.846, the environmental stress index is able to explain 91% (R2 = 0.91 of the WBGT index variations (P < 0.01. Conclusions Based on the results, to study heat stress in indoor workplaces when the WBGT measurement instrument is not available and also in short-term exposures (shorter than 30 minutes when measuring the wet bulb globe temperature shows a considerable error, it is possible to calculate the environmental stress index and accordingly to the WBGT index, by measuring the parameters of dry bulb temperature (Ta, relative humidity (RH, and infrared radiation intensity that can be easily measured in a short time.

  6. Analytical solutions to compartmental indoor air quality models with application to environmental tobacco smoke concentrations measured in a house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R; Klepeis, Neil E; Switzer, Paul

    2003-08-01

    This paper derives the analytical solutions to multi-compartment indoor air quality models for predicting indoor air pollutant concentrations in the home and evaluates the solutions using experimental measurements in the rooms of a single-story residence. The model uses Laplace transform methods to solve the mass balance equations for two interconnected compartments, obtaining analytical solutions that can be applied without a computer. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) sources such as the cigarette typically emit pollutants for relatively short times (7-11 min) and are represented mathematically by a "rectangular" source emission time function, or approximated by a short-duration source called an "impulse" time function. Other time-varying indoor sources also can be represented by Laplace transforms. The two-compartment model is more complicated than the single-compartment model and has more parameters, including the cigarette or combustion source emission rate as a function of time, room volumes, compartmental air change rates, and interzonal air flow factors expressed as dimensionless ratios. This paper provides analytical solutions for the impulse, step (Heaviside), and rectangular source emission time functions. It evaluates the indoor model in an unoccupied two-bedroom home using cigars and cigarettes as sources with continuous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), respirable suspended particles (RSP), and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH). Fine particle mass concentrations (RSP or PM3.5) are measured using real-time monitors. In our experiments, simultaneous measurements of concentrations at three heights in a bedroom confirm an important assumption of the model-spatial uniformity of mixing. The parameter values of the two-compartment model were obtained using a "grid search" optimization method, and the predicted solutions agreed well with the measured concentration time series in the rooms of the home. The door and window positions in

  7. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely associated with host factors than with environmental conditions. We concluded from the experience of this study that building-related health complaints should be investigated at the work-area level and not at a building-wide level. An occupant-centric medical evaluation should guide environmental investigations, especially when screening results of building

  8. Indoor environmental quality and energy consumption relation in offices: case study of two offices in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashrafian, Touraj; Moazzen Ferdos, Nazanin [Islamic Azad University Tabriz branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: t.ashrafian@gmail.com, email: moazzen_arch@yahoo.com; Haghlesan, Masoud [Islamic Azad University, Ilkhichi Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: mhaghlesan@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, therefore the quality of the indoor environment has a significant impact on human health. However, improving indoor environment quality (IEQ) requires a higher energy consumption through increasing lighting, heating and cooling. The aim of this study is to determine an appropriate level of IEQ with the least energy consumption possible. The relation between energy consumption and IEQ in 2 offices in Iran has been studied through the use of questionnaires and simulations. It was found that IEQ has a great impact on workers' productivity and that diminishing the energy consumption does not necessarily translate into economic benefits. In addition it was found that lighting and heating are the main sources of energy consumption and that noise and light are what most influence worker productivity. This study highlighted the relation between energy consumption and IEQ and pointed out the most important factors.

  9. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F.; Gallagher, Daniel J.; Barton, Jo L.

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future

  10. Current state of the science: health effects and indoor environmental quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Clifford S; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of the relationship between human health and the indoor environment continues to evolve. Previous research on health and indoor environments has tended to concentrate on discrete pollutant sources and exposures and on specific disease processes. Recently, efforts have been made...... environments. Advances in source characterization include a better understanding of how chemicals are transported and processed within spaces and the role that other factors such as lighting and building design may play in determining health. Efforts are under way to improve our ability to measure exposures...

  11. A case study investigation of the indoor environmental noise in four urban South African hospitals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Reenen, CA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This multiple case study was designed to investigate acoustics in multi-bed general wards in four urban South African hospitals. Evidence-based research shows that a quiet indoor environment has positive outcomes for hospital patients and staff...

  12. Do new and renovated schools and kindergartens secure sufficiently high indoor environmental quality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Hviid, Christian Anker; Skupien, Agata

    2016-01-01

    or less similar as their conventional counterparts as regards measured parameters of indoor environment. Subjective evaluations made by pupils and teachers did not always match the physical measurements. There were also differences in subjective evaluations made by children and by teachers. In conclusion...

  13. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand

  14. Environmental assessments on schools located on or near former industrial facilities: Feedback on attenuation factors for the prediction of indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Virginie; Coftier, Aline; Zornig, Clément; Léprond, Hubert; Scamps, Mathilde; Gilbert, Dominique

    2018-06-01

    One of the goals of the French national campaign called "Etablissements Sensibles (Sensitive Establishments)" is to evaluate indoor air degradation in schools because of vapor intrusion of volatile compounds from soil gases towards the indoor air, related to the presence of former industrial sites on or near the establishment. During this campaign, as recommended by the United States of Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), indoor air quality was evaluated from soil gas concentrations using generic attenuation factors, and extra investigations into soil gases and indoor air were performed when the estimated values exceeded target indoor air concentrations. This study exploits matched data on subsurface soil gases and indoor air that came from the "Sensitive Establishments" campaign. It aims to consolidate and refine the use of attenuation factors as a function of environmental variables acquired routinely during environmental assessments. We have been able to select the measured environmental variables that have the most influence on vapor intrusion using Principal Components Analysis and hypotheses tests. Since the collected data are mainly related to weak sources (only 15% schools required risk management measures related to vapor intrusion), halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOC) were selected as tracer compounds for vapor intrusion for this study. This choice enables the exclusion or minimization of background sources contributions. From the results we have calculated the descriptive statistics of the attenuation factors distribution for the subslab-to-indoor air pathway and refined the attenuation factors for this pathway through an easily obtained parameter, building age. Qualitative comparison of attenuation factors according to the building age shows that attenuation factors observed for building less than 50 years are lower than attenuation factors for buildings 50 years old and above. These results show the utility of creating databases for

  15. NIAID, NIEHS, NHLBI, and MCAN Workshop Report: The indoor environment and childhood asthma-implications for home environmental intervention in asthma prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Diane R; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Arshad, Syed Hasan; Celedón, Juan C; Chapman, Martin D; Chew, Ginger L; Cook, Donald N; Custovic, Adnan; Gehring, Ulrike; Gern, James E; Johnson, Christine C; Kennedy, Suzanne; Koutrakis, Petros; Leaderer, Brian; Mitchell, Herman; Litonjua, Augusto A; Mueller, Geoffrey A; O'Connor, George T; Ownby, Dennis; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Persky, Victoria; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Ramsey, Clare D; Salo, Päivi M; Schwaninger, Julie M; Sordillo, Joanne E; Spira, Avrum; Suglia, Shakira F; Togias, Alkis; Zeldin, Darryl C; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2017-10-01

    Environmental exposures have been recognized as critical in the initiation and exacerbation of asthma, one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; and Merck Childhood Asthma Network sponsored a joint workshop to discuss the current state of science with respect to the indoor environment and its effects on the development and morbidity of childhood asthma. The workshop included US and international experts with backgrounds in allergy/allergens, immunology, asthma, environmental health, environmental exposures and pollutants, epidemiology, public health, and bioinformatics. Workshop participants provided new insights into the biologic properties of indoor exposures, indoor exposure assessment, and exposure reduction techniques. This informed a primary focus of the workshop: to critically review trials and research relevant to the prevention or control of asthma through environmental intervention. The participants identified important limitations and gaps in scientific methodologies and knowledge and proposed and prioritized areas for future research. The group reviewed socioeconomic and structural challenges to changing environmental exposure and offered recommendations for creative study design to overcome these challenges in trials to improve asthma management. The recommendations of this workshop can serve as guidance for future research in the study of the indoor environment and on environmental interventions as they pertain to the prevention and management of asthma and airway allergies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Environmental Assessment for the Indoor Training Facility, U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Cadet Area. Aluminum would be 35 used on all columns , beam cladding, and window frame trim to provide a visual connection 36 FINAL EA – USAFA INDOOR...and intramural sports played at the Academy. 17 The facility exterior would be white precast concrete, blue polycarbonate, aluminum and 18 glass. The...present there provide a high degree of connectivity between habitat types and 11 maintain migration corridors. Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk

  17. Environmental assessment of indoor radon gas exposure health hazards and some of its public risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Abd El-Razik. Z.; Ibrahim, M.Se.; Ragab, M.H.; El-Bukhari, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examine the relationship between indoor radon gas exposure and the cancer risk and housing characteristics in lung cancer risk houses (CRH) compared to non lung cancer risk houses (NCRH). Mean radon concentrations measured by active method were significantly higher among CRH compared to NCRH, 9:93 pCi/L versus 4.56 pCi/L, respectively. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation as regards radon levels in all examined houses. Indoor radon concentrations show statistically significance in houses with bad ventilation (low air change rate) compared to houses with good ventilation (high air change rate). Houses with floor material of tiles, had statistically significant higher radon concentrations. Neither finishing wall material nor indoor gas source shows statistically significance as regard radon levels. Radon levels > 4 pCi/L (US EPA action level) were statistically significance higher in bed rooms compared levels in living rooms. High radon concentrations were reported in lung cane risk houses and in houses with bad ventilation

  18. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    autism spectrum disorder. A random sample of 10 such families confirmed that the diagnoses had been made by medical professionals, in accordance with the Swedish system for monitoring children's health. An analysis of the associations between indoor environmental variables in 2000 as well as other......Potential contributions of environmental chemicals and conditions to the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders are the subject of considerable cur-rent research and speculation. The present paper describes the results of a study undertaken as part of a larger project devoted to the connection......, follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC...

  19. Interdisciplinary Graduate Training in Polar Environmental Change: Field-based learning in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, R. A.; Holm, K.; Whitecloud, S.; Levy, L.; Kelly, M. A.; Feng, X.; Grenoble, L.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the NSF-funded Integrative Graduate Education Research Traineeship (IGERT) program at Dartmouth College is to develop a new cohort of environmental scientists and engineers with an interdisciplinary understanding of polar regions and their importance to global environmental change. The Dartmouth IGERT challenges Ph.D. students to consider the broader dimensions of their research and to collaborate with scientists from other disciplines, educators, and policy makers. IGERT students will focus on research questions that are relevant to the needs of local people experiencing climate change and on understanding the ethical responsibilities and benefits of conducting research in partnership with northern residents and institutions. Seven Ph.D. students from the departments of Earth Sciences, Engineering, and Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Dartmouth College make up the first IGERT cohort for the five-year program. The Dartmouth IGERT curriculum will focus on three main components of polar systems responding to recent climate change: the cryosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycles. The integrating experience of the core curriculum is the Greenland Field Seminar that will take place in Kangerlussuaq (terrestrial and aquatic systems), Summit Camp (snow and ice) and Nuuk, Greenland (human dimensions of change). In Nuuk, IGERT students will share their science and develop partnerships with students, educators, and policy makers at the University of Greenland, the Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), and other Greenlandic institutions. In summer 2009 the authors conducted preliminary fieldwork near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland to develop aspects of the science curriculum for the 2010 Greenland Field Seminar and to explore research topics for IGERT Fellows (Levy and Whitecloud). Examples of results presented here are designed to develop field-based learning activities. These include soil and vegetation relationships as a function of aspect

  20. Assessing indoor air quality options: Final environmental impact statement on new energy-efficient home programs: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report discusses the impact of energy conservation measures on indoor air quality in various size residential buildings. This volume includes appendices on ventilation rates, indoor pollutant levels, health effects, human risk assessment, radon, fiberglass hazards, tobacco smoke, mitigation

  1. Report on HVAC option selections for a relocatable classroom energy and indoor environmental quality field study; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apte, Michael G.; Delp, Woody W.; Diamond, Richard C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Kumar, Satish; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2001-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that efforts to simultaneously develop energy efficient building technologies and to improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) are unfeasible. The primary reason for this is that IEQ improvements often require additional ventilation that is costly from an energy standpoint. It is currently thought that health and productivity in work and learning environments requires adequate, if not superior, IEQ. Despite common assumptions, opportunities do exist to design building systems that provide improvements in both energy efficiency and IEQ. This report outlines the selection of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to be used in demonstrating such an opportunity in a field study using relocatable school classrooms. Standard classrooms use a common wall mounted heat pump HVAC system. After reviewing alternative systems, a wall-mounting indirect/direct evaporative cooling system with an integral hydronic gas heating is selected. The anticipated advantages of this system include continuous ventilation of 100 percent outside air at or above minimum standards, projected cooling energy reductions of about 70 percent, inexpensive gas heating, improved airborne particle filtration, and reduced peak load electricity use. Potential disadvantages include restricted climate regions and possible increases in indoor relative humidity levels under some conditions

  2. Debating the future of comfort: environmental sustainability, energy consumption and the indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappells, H.; Shove, E.

    2005-02-01

    Vast quantities of energy are consumed in heating and cooling to provide what are now regarded as acceptable standards of thermal comfort. In the UK as in a number of other countries, there is a real danger that responses in anticipation of global warming and climate change - including growing reliance on air-conditioning - will increase energy demand and CO{sub 2} emissions even further. This is an appropriate moment to reflect on the history and future of comfort, both as an idea and as a material reality. Based on interviews and discussions with UK policy makers and building practitioners involved in specifying and constructing what will become the indoor environments of the future, four possible scenarios are identified each with different implications for energy and resource consumption. By actively promoting debate about the indoor environment and associated ways of life, it may yet be possible to avoid becoming locked into social and technical trajectories that are ultimately unsustainable. The aim of this paper is to inspire and initiate just such a discussion through demonstrating that comfort is a highly negotiable socio-cultural construct. (author)

  3. Assessment of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ: Students Well-Being in University Classroom with the Application of Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Nurul Malina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental quality (IEQ in a building is an important element to perceive the good health and comfort level for the building occupants. However, each building contributes different environmental quality results towards the indoor spaces and the occupants. Learning environment is one of the spaces that need attention as it is related to student’s well being as well as their learning performance. Existing knowledge on IEQ is still limited concerning the desirable levels of air quality, maintenance, and other factors affecting IEQ in Malaysian educational establishment. Therefore, the study of indoor environment quality in buildings has been carried out in educational building as it acts as important place in learning process. The methodologies used to conduct this research are divided into two methods, which are classroom measurement normal condition and classroom intervention setting. This is done in order to compare and monitor the improvement of environment in the classroom. This research focuses on the comparison of IEQ in different classroom environment setting and the student satisfaction level in their normal classroom environment. Measurement of temperature (°C, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2, Volatile Organic Compound (VOC, dust particles (PM10, lighting (lux, and noise (decibel in the classroom were collected and questionnaires were distributed among the students. This research found that most of the elements in the classroom was incompliance with the standard threshold limit value. The level of VOC in the classroom was noted to be significantly high (11.7ppm compared to the standard threshold limit. An intervention on the normal condition classroom was set up with selected plant placed in the classroom. Results show a tremendous reduction in the percentage of relative humidity, level of TVOC, as well as CO2.

  4. A Self-Sustained Wireless Multi-Sensor Platform Integrated with Printable Organic Sensors for Indoor Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chang Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A self-sustained multi-sensor platform for indoor environmental monitoring is proposed in this paper. To reduce the cost and power consumption of the sensing platform, in the developed platform, organic materials of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS/EB-PANI are used as the sensing films for humidity and CO2 detection, respectively. Different from traditional gas sensors, these organic sensing films can operate at room temperature without heating processes or infrared transceivers so that the power consumption of the developed humidity and the CO2 sensors can be as low as 10 μW and 5 μW, respectively. To cooperate with these low-power sensors, a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS system-on-chip (SoC is designed to amplify and to read out multiple sensor signals with low power consumption. The developed SoC includes an analog-front-end interface circuit (AFE, an analog-to-digital convertor (ADC, a digital controller and a power management unit (PMU. Scheduled by the digital controller, the sensing circuits are power gated with a small duty-cycle to reduce the average power consumption to 3.2 μW. The designed PMU converts the power scavenged from a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC module into required supply voltages for SoC circuits operation under typical indoor illuminance conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first multiple environmental parameters (Temperature/CO2/Humidity sensing platform that demonstrates a true self-powering functionality for long-term operations.

  5. A Self-Sustained Wireless Multi-Sensor Platform Integrated with Printable Organic Sensors for Indoor Environmental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Chang; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Wu, Ching-Da; Su, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Yang; Huang, Yang-Jing; Peng, Sheng-Yu; Yu, Shih-An; Lin, Chih-Ting; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2017-03-29

    A self-sustained multi-sensor platform for indoor environmental monitoring is proposed in this paper. To reduce the cost and power consumption of the sensing platform, in the developed platform, organic materials of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS/EB-PANI are used as the sensing films for humidity and CO₂ detection, respectively. Different from traditional gas sensors, these organic sensing films can operate at room temperature without heating processes or infrared transceivers so that the power consumption of the developed humidity and the CO₂ sensors can be as low as 10 μW and 5 μW, respectively. To cooperate with these low-power sensors, a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) system-on-chip (SoC) is designed to amplify and to read out multiple sensor signals with low power consumption. The developed SoC includes an analog-front-end interface circuit (AFE), an analog-to-digital convertor (ADC), a digital controller and a power management unit (PMU). Scheduled by the digital controller, the sensing circuits are power gated with a small duty-cycle to reduce the average power consumption to 3.2 μW. The designed PMU converts the power scavenged from a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) module into required supply voltages for SoC circuits operation under typical indoor illuminance conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first multiple environmental parameters (Temperature/CO₂/Humidity) sensing platform that demonstrates a true self-powering functionality for long-term operations.

  6. Associations between multiple indoor environmental factors and clinically confirmed allergic disease in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    , rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. Method: A crosssectional case-cohort study (n = 500) based on 2835 children, aged 3–5 years, responding to a questionnaire, consisted of 300 subjects randomly selected and 200 cases with at least two parentally reported doctor diagnosed allergic diseases (asthma, allergic...... rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic dermatitis). The same physician conducted a clinical examination of all the 500 children including structured interview on allergic heredity, clinical and medical history. Specific s-IgE against inhalant and food allergens was determined. The homes were investigated by inspectors...... assessing air change rates, relative humidity, temperature, CO2, and dust samples were collected for analyses of indoor allergens, phthalates, nicotine and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The diagnosis of allergic disease was based on internationally accepted criteria. Result: In the base group (n = 300) asthma...

  7. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality is rapidly becoming a major environmental concern because a significant amount of people spend a substantial amount of time in a variety of different indoor environments. Health effects from indoor pollutants fall into two categories: those that are experienced immediately after exposure and those that do not show up until years later. They are: radon, formaldehyde, asbestos, lead and household organic chemicals. The authors presented a source-by-source look at the most common indoor air pollutants, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce their levels in the home. There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: one method is source control, another is through ventilation improvements, and the third is the utilization of some sort of mechanical device such as air cleaners

  8. Indoor environmental exposures for children with asthma enrolled in the HEAL study, post-Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, L Faye; Chulada, Patricia C; Kennedy, Suzanne; White, LuAnn; Wildfire, Jeremy; Cohn, Richard D; Mitchell, Herman; Thornton, Eleanor; El-Dahr, Jane; Mvula, Mosanda M; Sterling, Yvonne; Martin, William J; Stephens, Kevin U; Lichtveld, Maureen

    2012-11-01

    Rain and flooding from Hurricane Katrina resulted in widespread growth of mold and bacteria and production of allergens in New Orleans, Louisiana, which may have led to increased exposures and morbidity in children with asthma. The goal of the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) study was to characterize post-Katrina exposures to mold and allergens in children with asthma. The homes of 182 children with asthma in New Orleans and surrounding parishes were evaluated by visual inspection, temperature and moisture measurements, and air and dust sampling. Air was collected using vacuum-pump spore traps and analyzed for > 30 mold taxa using bright field microscopy. Dust was collected from the children's beds and bedroom floors and analyzed for mouse (Mus m 1), dust mite (Der p 1), cockroach (Bla g 1), and mold (Alternaria mix) allergens using ELISA. More than half (62%) of the children were living in homes that had been damaged by rain, flooding, or both. Geometric mean indoor and outdoor airborne mold levels were 501 and 3,958 spores/m3, respectively. Alternaria antigen was detected in dust from 98% of homes, with 58% having concentrations > 10 µg/g. Mus m 1, Der p 1, and Bla g 1 were detected in 60%, 35%, and 20% of homes, respectively, at low mean concentrations. Except for Alternaria antigen in dust, concentrations of airborne mold (ratio of indoor to outdoor mold) and dust allergens in the homes of HEAL children were lower than measurements found in other studies, possibly because of extensive post-Katrina mold remediation and renovations, or because children moved into cleaner homes upon returning to New Orleans.

  9. Analysis of Major Nutritional Components of Pleurotus pulmonarius During the Cultivation in Different Indoor Environmental Conditions on Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariqul Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus pulmonarius was cultivated in three different environmental conditions, in ambient indoor environment (System 1, in humidifying without ventilation (System 2 and in humidifying with ventilation (System 3 to analyse the major nutritional contents. Sawdust was the main substrate for all the cultivation systems. The lowest temperature and the highest optimal humidity were found in System 3. The temperature and humidity had shown statistically significant among the three cultivation Systems. The highest numbers of flushes was found both in System 2 and System 3 but System 1 was produced mushrooms till 3rd flush. About 29.5%, 28.3%, 28.5% protein; 59.0%, 55.8%, 54.3% carbohydrate and 3.8%, 3.5%, 3.3% lipid were found in System 1, System 2 and System 3 respectively. The protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents were shown statistically insignificant among the cultivation systems. The highest value of protein, carbohydrate and lipid were found for the sample of 1st flush in all the cultivation systems but the values were started to decrease with the increased numbers of flushes significantly. So, this study shown that, although the environmental conditions of the three cultivation systems were varied significantly but the protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents were existed their normal values in all cases but the values were decreased by the increased numbers of flushes.

  10. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Indoor-Air Quality Implementation Plan. A report to Congress under Title IV of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986: radon gas and indoor air-quality research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The EPA Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan provides information on the direction of EPA's indoor air program, including the Agency's policy on indoor air and priorities for research and information dissemination over the next two years. EPA submitted the report to Congress on July 2, 1987 as required by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. There are five appendices to the report: Appendix A--Preliminary Indoor Air Pollution Information Assessment; Appendix B--FY 87 Indoor Air Research Program; Appendix C--EPA Radon Program; Appendix D--Indoor Air Resource History (Published with Appendix C); Appendix E--Indoor Air Reference Data Base

  11. The combined effects of many different indoor environmental factors on acceptability and office work performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Wyon, David Peter

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-nine young-adult subjects of both genders were randomly assigned to four groups. One group performed simulated office work for two hours in a set of poor environmental conditions, with overhead fluorescent lighting, recorded traffic noise from a busy street, 27 degrees C (80.6 degrees F....../individual choice levels, and the self-reported performance of office tasks improved, although measured performance could not be shown to differ significantly between treatment groups....

  12. VIEWS OF GENERAL PRACTITIONERS ON INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKSIN THE PERINATAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys eIbanez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe aim of this study was to determine the views of general practitioners (GP on pollution in infant's home.MethodsFour semi-structured focus group with 31 general practitioners (GP were conducted in two french departments in November 2009, February, March and April 2010. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis.ResultsPerinatal care is a special health issue and a time of privileged sensitisation. The attitude of health risks are well known in the case of traditionally toxic substances. In the case of emerging environmental exposure, these attitudes depend on the knowledge, beliefs and experience specific to each practitioner. GPs were acquiring a new role in the field of environmental health, whilst at the same time coming to grips with their own strengths and limitations. The implementation of prevention depends on factors which are specific to the practitioner, but also related to the parents and the organisation of the medical practice.DiscussionThe sensitisation of GPs to environmental medicine, promotion of eco-citizen education, development of research, and the distribution of information, are some of the means which need to be implemented to prevent harmful exposure of the infant.

  13. Indoor environmental quality differences between office types in LEED-certified buildings in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young S. [School of Planning, Design, and Construction, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Guerin, Denise A. [College of Design, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN 55108 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The study compared IAQ, thermal quality, and lighting quality between 5 different office types in LEED-certified buildings in relation to employees' environmental satisfaction and their job performance. This was to provide workplaces where workers in each specific office environment could be provided with appropriate office settings regarding these IEQ criteria when organizations comply with LEED standards. The five types of office included private enclosed, private shared, open-plan with high cubicle over 5', open-plan with low cubicle lower than 5', and open-plan with no partitions (bullpen) offices. The study found IAQ enhanced workers' job performance in enclosed private offices more than both high cubicles and low cubicles. All four office types had higher satisfaction with the amount of light and visual comfort of light as well as more enhancement with job performance due to lighting quality than high cubicles. There was no difference in thermal quality between the five office types. IAQ and lighting quality were not different between enclosed private, enclosed shared, and bullpen office types, either. The study findings suggest a careful workplace design considering the height of partitions in LEED-certified buildings to improve employee's environmental satisfaction and job performance. (author)

  14. Indoor Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Carslaw, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to encapsulate the importance, ubiquity, and complexity of indoor chemistry. We discuss the many sources of indoor air pollutants and summarize their chemical reactions in the air and on surfaces. We also summarize some of the known impacts of human occupants, who act as sources...... and sinks of indoor chemicals, and whose activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, smoking) can lead to extremely high pollutant concentrations. As we begin to use increasingly sensitive and selective instrumentation indoors, we are learning more about chemistry in this relatively understudied environment....

  15. Do Certified Buildings Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality and Performance of Office Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Nuno Alexandre Faria; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of sustainability consciousness, the awareness of stakeholders for high performance buildings has also increased. The concept of green buildings has appeared. Several voluntary environmental rating schemes for buildings were created. Their focus has been energy conservation...... on productivity and that an average employee cost can be >10-100 times higher than the rental operation and maintenance costs (Morrell, 2005; Persramet al., 2007). There is however lack of consistent and systematic data benchmarking benefits of green building, in particular as regards IEQ and the effects...... (Lee, 2011), the green building do not have to necessarily meet this postulation. Quite limited numbers of credits for enhancing IEQ offered by the schemes will certainly not very much help that the high IEQ is guaranteed. The present paper surveyed literature on green buildings to examine whether...

  16. Relationship between Quality of Building Maintenance Management Services for Indoor Environmental Quality and Occupant Satisfaction: Case Study of Bus Terminal Buildings in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Full Chong Choon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance is often defined as the series of activities undertaken to take care of the building structure and services to ensure the intended functions and optimal performance of a building life cycle. The management department of a building is usually responsible for the enhancement of the indoor environment quality by service delivery and for boosting occupant productivity and satisfaction. Thus, a salient point of this study is to determine the current level of the building’s maintenance management service for indoor environmental quality in Penang bus terminals, along with its occupant satisfaction with regards to the services provided in the building. The assessment of the indoor environmental quality includes the evaluation of thermal comfort, lighting condition, air quality and cleanliness. Apart from that, qualitative and quantitative methodologies were applied during the process of data collection and analysis. A questionnaire survey was distributed to 500 of the targeted population for each bus terminal, including passengers and the staff. In this study, the conclusion was drawn in which the maintenance management service level of the bus terminal was directly proportional to occupant satisfaction. However, the current quality of maintenance management services in the bus terminals are still not up to the level of the occupants’ satisfaction.

  17. Indoor Tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proof that indoor tanning is safer than tanning outdoors. Indoor tanning systems give concentrated UV exposure regardless ... For example, it’s essential for promoting good bone health. While UV ... a tan to get that benefit. According to the Surgeon General, fair and light- ...

  18. Indoor Air Quality and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cincinelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ has received increasing attention from the international scientific community, political institutions, and environmental governances for improving the comfort, health, and wellbeing of building occupants.[...

  19. Design an Indoor Air Quality Controller Based on LPC2478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Shuheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality is very important to our lives, because we spend most of our time indoor. In order to improve the air quality of indoor, this paper designs an indoor environment quality monitoring and controlling system based on ARM microcontroller LPC2478. It will do a real-time monitoring work for detecting the indoor environmental factors and comprehensively evaluate its air quality level. While the indoor air quality status is "poor", this intelligent system will automatically start the heat exchange ventilator for indoor environmental quality improvement. The results compared to traditional natural ventilation method show the better performance of proposed system.

  20. Indoor Photography

    OpenAIRE

    Sagers, Stephen; Patterson, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Photography is the science of recording light in an artistic way to create a pleasing image. Indoor photography requires a photographer to become familiar with some of the built in functions of a camera.

  1. Healthy indoors : achieving healthy indoor environments in Canada : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    A large proportion of the lives of Canadians is spent indoors, whether in vehicles, restaurants, shopping malls, offices or houses. The health of people working and living in those indoor settings might be damaged a a result, despite best efforts. Indoor pollution has been identified as one of the most serious risks to human health, according to numerous leading authorities, among them the American Lung Association, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). A large number of cancer deaths are attributed to indoor pollution each year in the United States, as well as respiratory health problems. A causal link between certain indoor exposures and the development and provocation of asthma was established recently in a report on asthma and indoor air quality published by the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine. Exposure to indoor pollutants has also resulted in thousands of children experiencing elevated blood lead levels. Not enough attention is paid in Canada to pollution in buildings by government agencies, corporations and other non-governmental organizations and citizens. Not much seems to have changed in the past thirty years. An ambitious strategy by Pollution Probe was described in this document, listing the initial goals and measures required to achieve those goals. The creation of Healthy Indoors Partnership (HIP) was proposed to regroup all the stakeholders under the same umbrella. refs., tabs

  2. The Bonneville Power Administration new energy-efficient homes programs: Final environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Assessing indoor air quality options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    BPA has underway marketing and incentive programs to encourage the construction of new energy-efficient homes that comply with Model Conservation Standards (MCS) developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council. These homes are designed to have lower infiltration rates than current building practices provide, which is likely to contribute to increased levels of indoor air pollutants, and may adversely affect the health of occupants. BPA's current and past new homes programs maintained ventilation rates comparable to those found in current practice homes by requiring balanced mechanical ventilation. BPA now proposes to give builders and consumers more flexibility by increasing the options for protecting indoor air quality in its new homes programs. This proposal is the impetus for this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which was prepared for BPA by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. BPS is preparing this EIS to assess whether other techniques maintain indoor air quality comparable to that found in homes built using current practices. Although many pollutants are potentially of great concern, our analysis concentrates on radon and formaldehyde. It is based on measured concentrations of these pollutants and measured ventilation rates in current practice. Ventilation was measured using fan pressurization tests, which measure only air leakage, and perfluorocarbon tracer gas (PFT) tests, which account for ventilation from mechanical devices and occupant behavior in addition to air leakage. These tests yielded two different estimates. We used these data to estimate pollutant concentrations and lifetime cancer rates under three alternative actions. Under all of the alternatives, radon had a much greater effect than formaldehyde. 102 refs

  3. Nordic interdisciplinary reviews of the scientific literature concerning the relationsiip between indoor environmental factors and health, Nordworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Jan; Bornehag, C.-G.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between indoor air environments and health is, however, a truly interdisciplinary area involving numerous disciplines. Scientific work is primarily "within disciplinary", often resulting in conclusions that would not stand in an interdisciplinary context. Results are mostly...... today, a number of interdisciplinary scientific groups have been created within the Nordic countries with the aim at reviewing the scientific literature within specific areas, and creating an interdisciplinary consensus on the present state of the art. Results from four so-called NORD-groups (NORDVOC...

  4. [The comparison of the indoor environmental factors associated with asthma and related allergies among school-child between urban and suburban areas in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hai-bo; Deng, Fu-rong; Sun, Ji-dong; Wu, Shao-wei; Sun, Xiu-ming; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Yan-hua; Guo, Xin-biao

    2010-07-01

    To study the indoor environmental factors associated with the prevalence of asthma and related allergies among school children. A cluster sampling method was used and the ISAAC questionnaire was conducted. A total of 4612 elementary students under Grade Five of 7 schools were enrolled in the survey for the impact of indoor environmental factors on the prevalence of asthma and related allergies in several urban and suburban schools of Beijing. A total of 4060 sample were finally analyzed including 1992 urban and 2068 suburban. The prevalence of wheeze, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema in the past 12 months was 3.1% (61/1992), 5.3% (106/1992), 1.1% (22/1992) among urban children while 1.3% (27/2068), 3.1% (65/2068), 1.0% (22/2068) among suburban children respectively. The prevalence of wheeze and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis of the past 12 months in urban were both significantly higher than that in suburban (χ(2) = 14.77, 11.93, P children (5.3% (105/1992), 29.4% (586/1992)) were significantly (χ(2) = 39.03, 147.22, P interior decoration had different influence on the prevalence of asthma and related allergies among school children in the two areas. The significant impact of passive smoking on having asthma ever among suburban children was observed (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.17 - 6.23) while no significant result in urban (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.71 - 1.58); the percentage of interior decoration was 84.0% (1673/1992) among urban children and 80.0% (1655/2068) among suburban children, there was significant impact of interior decoration on the prevalence of having eczema ever among urban children (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.17 - 2.10) but no significant results were found in suburban sample (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.76 - 1.48). The prevalence of asthma and related allergies among school children is much higher in urban areas than that in suburban areas and the indoor environmental factors such as passive smoking and interior decoration may differently explain the

  5. Indoor aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawska, L.; Afshari, Alireza; N. Bae, G.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by growing considerations of the scale, severity, and risks associated with human exposure to indoor particulate matter, this work reviewed existing literature to: (i) identify state-of-the-art experimental techniques used for personal exposure assessment; (ii) compare exposure levels...

  6. Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Norman, Bourassa; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshfumi; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Wang, Duo

    2008-04-04

    An improved HVAC system for portable classrooms was specified to address key problems in existing units. These included low energy efficiency, poor control of and provision for adequate ventilation, and excessive acoustic noise. Working with industry, a prototype improved heat pump air conditioner was developed to meet the specification. A one-year measurement-intensive field-test of ten of these IHPAC systems was conducted in occupied classrooms in two distinct California climates. These measurements are compared to those made in parallel in side by side portable classrooms equipped with standard 10 SEER heat pump air conditioner equipment. The IHPAC units were found to work as designed, providing predicted annual energy efficiency improvements of about 36 percent to 42 percent across California's climate zones, relative to 10 SEER units. Classroom ventilation was vastly improved as evidenced by far lower indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations. TheIHPAC units were found to provide ventilation that meets both California State energy and occupational codes and the ASHRAE minimum ventilation requirements; the classrooms equipped with the 10 SEER equipment universally did not meet these targets. The IHPAC system provided a major improvement in indoor acoustic conditions. HVAC system generated background noise was reduced in fan-only and fan and compressor modes, reducing the nose levels to better than the design objective of 45 dB(A), and acceptable for additional design points by the Collaborative on High Performance Schools. The IHPAC provided superior ventilation, with indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations that showed that the Title 24 minimum ventilation requirement of 15 CFM per occupant was nearly always being met. The opposite was found in the classrooms utilizing the 10 SEER system, where the indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations frequently exceeded levels that reflect inadequate ventilation. Improved ventilation conditions in the IHPAC lead to

  7. A Case Study of Indoor Garden-Based Learning with Hydroponics and Aquaponics: Evaluating Pro-Environmental Knowledge, Perception, and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Schneller, Andrew; Schofield, Casey A.; Frank, Jenna; Hollister, Eliza; Mamuszka, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed methods evaluation of an indoor garden-based learning curriculum for 5th and 6th graders which incorporated aquaponics and hydroponics technologies. This study provides a better understanding of the extent to which indoor gardening technologies can be used within the formal curriculum as an effective teaching tool.…

  8. The measurement of 222Rn and its relationship to environmental variables: Factors controlling indoor radon: Final report for the contract period June 1, 1982 to August 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.

    1986-01-01

    The report summarizes a project in which a new detector for measuring ''radon only'' was designed and built. The units built were then used to measure hourly data indoors and outdoors in two locations to investigate the apportionment of the indoor radon source term

  9. The measurement of 222Rn and its relationship to environmental variables: Factors controlling indoor radon: Final report for the contract period June 1, 1982 to May 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.

    1985-01-01

    Indoor levels of radon-222 and daughter nuclei were monitored at various locations within a single family dwelling and in an apartment building. Indoor levels were correlated with soil temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, rain and time of year. 9 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs

  10. Indoor exposure to environmental cigarette smoke, but not other inhaled particulates associates with respiratory symptoms and diminished lung function in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Husemoen, Lise L N; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) can induce airway inflammation and exacerbation of asthma. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of exposure to indoor sources of PM. We investigated the associations between self-reported exposure to indoor sources of PM and lower airway sympto...

  11. How indoor environment affects performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyon, David Peter; Wargocki, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    , in the form of answers to 40 frequently asked questions. Our answers are based on the results of behavioral experiments conducted to date. We offer no opinions on long-term health effects of indoor environmental quality. We provide some references to relevant sources, but there is not enough space for all...

  12. Modeling Associations between Principals' Reported Indoor Environmental Quality and Students' Self-Reported Respiratory Health Outcomes Using GLMM and ZIP Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyinbo, Oluyemi; Matilainen, Markus; Turunen, Mari; Putus, Tuula; Shaughnessy, Richard; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this paper was to examine associations between school building characteristics, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and health responses using questionnaire data from both school principals and students. From 334 randomly sampled schools, 4248 sixth grade students from 297 schools participated in a questionnaire. From these schools, 134 principals returned questionnaires concerning 51 IEQ related questions of their school. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to study the associations between IEQ indicators and existence of self-reported upper respiratory symptoms, while hierarchical Zero Inflated Poisson (ZIP)-models were used to model the number of symptoms. Significant associations were established between existence of upper respiratory symptoms and unsatisfactory classroom temperature during the heating season (ORs 1.45 for too hot and cold, and 1.27 for too cold as compared to satisfactory temperature) and dampness or moisture damage during the year 2006-2007 (OR: 1.80 as compared to no moisture damage), respectively. The number of upper respiratory symptoms was significantly associated with inadequate ventilation and dampness or moisture damage. A higher number of missed school days due to respiratory infections were reported in schools with inadequate ventilation (RR: 1.16). The school level IEQ indicator variables described in this paper could explain a relatively large part of the school level variation observed in the self-reported upper respiratory symptoms and missed school days due to respiratory infections among students.

  13. Modeling Associations between Principals’ Reported Indoor Environmental Quality and Students’ Self-Reported Respiratory Health Outcomes Using GLMM and ZIP Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyemi Toyinbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper was to examine associations between school building characteristics, indoor environmental quality (IEQ, and health responses using questionnaire data from both school principals and students. Methods: From 334 randomly sampled schools, 4248 sixth grade students from 297 schools participated in a questionnaire. From these schools, 134 principals returned questionnaires concerning 51 IEQ related questions of their school. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM were used to study the associations between IEQ indicators and existence of self-reported upper respiratory symptoms, while hierarchical Zero Inflated Poisson (ZIP—models were used to model the number of symptoms. Results: Significant associations were established between existence of upper respiratory symptoms and unsatisfactory classroom temperature during the heating season (ORs 1.45 for too hot and cold, and 1.27 for too cold as compared to satisfactory temperature and dampness or moisture damage during the year 2006–2007 (OR: 1.80 as compared to no moisture damage, respectively. The number of upper respiratory symptoms was significantly associated with inadequate ventilation and dampness or moisture damage. A higher number of missed school days due to respiratory infections were reported in schools with inadequate ventilation (RR: 1.16. Conclusions: The school level IEQ indicator variables described in this paper could explain a relatively large part of the school level variation observed in the self-reported upper respiratory symptoms and missed school days due to respiratory infections among students.

  14. Modeling Associations between Principals’ Reported Indoor Environmental Quality and Students’ Self-Reported Respiratory Health Outcomes Using GLMM and ZIP Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyinbo, Oluyemi; Matilainen, Markus; Turunen, Mari; Putus, Tuula; Shaughnessy, Richard; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this paper was to examine associations between school building characteristics, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and health responses using questionnaire data from both school principals and students. Methods: From 334 randomly sampled schools, 4248 sixth grade students from 297 schools participated in a questionnaire. From these schools, 134 principals returned questionnaires concerning 51 IEQ related questions of their school. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to study the associations between IEQ indicators and existence of self-reported upper respiratory symptoms, while hierarchical Zero Inflated Poisson (ZIP)—models were used to model the number of symptoms. Results: Significant associations were established between existence of upper respiratory symptoms and unsatisfactory classroom temperature during the heating season (ORs 1.45 for too hot and cold, and 1.27 for too cold as compared to satisfactory temperature) and dampness or moisture damage during the year 2006–2007 (OR: 1.80 as compared to no moisture damage), respectively. The number of upper respiratory symptoms was significantly associated with inadequate ventilation and dampness or moisture damage. A higher number of missed school days due to respiratory infections were reported in schools with inadequate ventilation (RR: 1.16). Conclusions: The school level IEQ indicator variables described in this paper could explain a relatively large part of the school level variation observed in the self-reported upper respiratory symptoms and missed school days due to respiratory infections among students. PMID:27043595

  15. Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, I; Maynard, R L

    2005-09-01

    Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend

  16. Airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around a thermal manikin - Impact of specific personal and indoor environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Tham, Kwok Wai; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    , and ventilation flow considerably affected airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around the thermal manikin. Under the specific set of conditions studied, the most favorable airflow patterns in preventing the feet pollution from reaching the breathing zone was transverse flow from the front......This study presents a summary of experimental measurements on the airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around a non-breathing thermal manikin. The two objectives are: (1) to examine the extent to which personal (body posture, clothing insulation, table positioning) and environmental...... factors (room air temperature and ventilation flow) affect the airflow characteristic (velocity and temperature) around the thermal manikin and (2) to examine the pollution distribution within the convective boundary layer (CBL) around a thermal manikin and personal exposure to two types of airborne...

  17. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  18. [Health evaluation of fine particulate matter in indoor air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    When evaluating the health effects of indoor air fine particulate matter, the indoor dynamics as well as the physical, chemical and biological properties of fine particles have to be considered. The indoor air fraction PM2.5 largely stems from outdoor air. Accordingly, the German Working Group on Indoor Guideline Values of the Federal Environmental Agency and the States' Health Authorities also recommends WHO's (2006) 24-hour mean guideline value of 25 microg PM2,5 per cubic meter for indoor air evaluation. In contrast to PM2.5, coarse particles (PM10) in schools, kindergartens and dwellings show much higher indoor air concentrations. Additional sources indoors have to be assumed. Because of the different composition of indoor air compared to outdoor air and due to the lack of dose-response relationships of coarse particles in indoor air, the health effects of indoor air PM10 can not be evaluated yet. Sufficient and consistent ventilation is an indispensable basis to reduce PM concentrations in indoor spaces. Furthermore, known sources of PM indoors should be detected consequently and subsequently minimized.

  19. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Timothy Dvonch, J.; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 °C, 13.8 °C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  20. Slovak Republic, indoor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.; Daniel, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this report the annual average effective doses from indoor radon exposure were calculated for each district of Slovakia. The population-weighted arithmetic mean of indoor radon concentration was calculated for every district considering different types of houses.

  1. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  2. Indoor multipath mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragünas, Kostas; Borre, Kai

    2010-01-01

    There are many applications that require continuous positioning in combined outdoor urban and indoor environments. GNSS has been used for a long time in outdoor environments, while indoor positioning is still a challenging task. One of the major degradations that GNSS receivers experience indoors...

  3. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of Mizoram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalramengzami, R.; Laldawngliana, C.; Sinha, D.; Ghosh, S.; Dwivedi, K.K.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of indoor radon has been measured in some dwellings of Mizoram state by employing time integrated method using solid state nuclear track detector. This state is located in the north eastern region of India which has been identified as a high background area. The indoor radon levels determined in this work are compared with data obtained from other regions of India and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribed safe limit. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs

  4. Indoor air. Seminar of Zentrale Informationsstelle, Umweltberatung Bayern. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, U.; Haury, H.J.

    1994-02-01

    This seminar dealt with the subject of indoor air pollution and welcomed participants from environmental consultancy agencies and authorities and institutions related with environmental protection. Leading scientists from research and authorities presented the current state of knowledge abut the risks of indoorair pollution. The papers contained in these proceedings addressed: room climate and sick-building syndrome; allergens in indoor spaces; pollutants emitted by exemplary building materials; pollutant levels of organic compounds in indoor spaces; air quality in motor vehicle interiors; indoor air pollution - risk assessment and need for actions. (Uhe) [de

  5. The correlation of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system with other environmental parameters in commercial buildings as possible indicator for indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Soo Shen; Mak, Joon Wah; Chen, Donald K F; Ambu, Stephen

    2017-02-07

    The free-living protozoan Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen that is ubiquitous in our environment. However, its role in affecting indoor air quality and ill-health of indoor occupants is relatively unknown. The present study investigated the presence of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system and its correlation with other indoor air quality parameters, used in the industry code of practice and its potential as an indicator for indoor air quality. Indoor air quality assessments were carried out in nine commercial buildings with approval from the building management, and the parameters assessed were as recommended by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. The presence of Acanthamoeba was determined through dust swabs from the ventilation system and indoor furniture. Logistic regression was performed to study the correlation between assessed parameters and occupants' complaints. A total of 107 sampling points were assessed and 40.2% of the supplying air diffuser and blowing fan and 15% of the furniture were positive for cysts. There was a significant correlation between Acanthamoeba detected from the ventilation system with ambient total fungus count (r=0.327; p=0.01) and respirable particulates (r=0.276; p=0.01). Occupants' sick building syndrome experience also correlated with the presence of Acanthamoeba in the ventilation system (r=0.361; p=0.01) and those detected on the furniture (r=0.290; p=0.01). Logistic regression showed that there was a five-fold probability of sick building syndrome among occupants when Acanthamoeba was detected in the ventilation system.

  6. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-11-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure.

  7. 41 CFR 102-80.25 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? 102-80.25 Section 102-80.25... Environmental Management Indoor Air Quality § 102-80.25 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? Federal agencies must assess indoor air quality of buildings as...

  8. Indoor air quality – buildings design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhásová Šenitková Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention is being paid to indoor air quality as one of the main health and well-being factors. The indoor research is concerned mostly to indoor air chemicals within indoor engineering related to building design. The providing good indoor air quality can be achieved effectively by avoiding or reducing indoor air pollution sources and by selecting low-polluting building materials, both being low-cost and energyefficient solutions. On the base of the last large experimental monitoring results, it was possible to know the level of selected indoor chemicals occurrence, rank them as well as to predict the tendencies of occurrence and establish the priorities for the future. There has been very limited attention to rigorous analysis of buildings actual environmental impacts to date. Healthy/green/sustainable building practices are typically applied in unsystematic and inconsistent ways often without resolution of inherent conflicts between and among such practices. Designers, products manufacturers, constructors, and owners declare their buildings and the applied technologies to be beneficial to the environment without validating those claims.

  9. Workplace Safety: Indoor Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Construction Safety and Health Emergency Preparedness for Business Occupational Respiratory Disease Surveillance (ORDS) Office Environment Storm and Flood Cleanup Tuberculosis Follow NIOSH Facebook Flickr Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A- ...

  10. Monocular Vision SLAM for Indoor Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel indoor navigation and ranging strategy via monocular camera. By exploiting the architectural orthogonality of the indoor environments, we introduce a new method to estimate range and vehicle states from a monocular camera for vision-based SLAM. The navigation strategy assumes an indoor or indoor-like manmade environment whose layout is previously unknown, GPS-denied, representable via energy based feature points, and straight architectural lines. We experimentally validate the proposed algorithms on a fully self-contained microaerial vehicle (MAV with sophisticated on-board image processing and SLAM capabilities. Building and enabling such a small aerial vehicle to fly in tight corridors is a significant technological challenge, especially in the absence of GPS signals and with limited sensing options. Experimental results show that the system is only limited by the capabilities of the camera and environmental entropy.

  11. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  12. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  13. The influence of a student's 'home' climate on room temperature and indoor environmental controls use in a modern halls of residence

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Rucha; Teli, Despoina; James, Patrick; Bourikas, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive comfort theory states that over time people adapt to their normal environment. Therefore, people from different climates are expected to have different thermal preferences and behaviours, which could lead to ‘performance gap’ in buildings with occupants of diverse climate backgrounds. This study investigates the influence of occupants’ thermal history on use of controls and indoor temperature preference in a newly built halls of residence building complex in Southampton, UK, which pr...

  14. Feasible Indoor Air-related measures against Avian Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franchimon, F.; Pernot, C.E.E.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Olesen, BW; Wargocki, P; Strøm-Tejsen, P; Zukowska, D; Toftum, J

    2008-01-01

    The threat of a new pandemic has forced the WHO to publish preparedness plans. Although WHO recognized the effect of airborne transmission of the causative agent, they did not attempt to include feasible measures for indoor environmental control as yet. The efficacy of indoor humidity control

  15. Indoor air quality in low-energy houses in the Netherlands: Does mechanical ventilation provide a healthy indoor environment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvers, J.R.; Boxem, G.; Wit, de M.H.; Strøm-Tejsen, P; Olesen, B.W.; Wargocki, P; Zukowska, D; Toftum, J

    2008-01-01

    Increasing environmental awareness has led to new, energy-efficient building standards such as the German Passivhaus-standard. This study was designed to investigate the indoor air quality (IAQ) of four different Dutch low-energy houses built according to this standard. Air flow, indoor air

  16. Perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort in European “Modern” office buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakellaris, I.A.; Saraga, D.E.; Mandin, C.; Roda, C.; Fossati, S.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Carrer, P.; Dimitroulopoulou, S.; Mihucz, V.G.; Szigeti, T.; Hänninen, O.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.G.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to

  17. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Contact Us Share Introduction to Indoor Air Quality Health Effects Primary Causes Identifying Problems Improving IAQ ...

  18. Indoor environment program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  19. Indoor environment program - 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  20. Indoor ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, S.O.; Lindvall, T.; Maansson, L-G.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation in indoor air is discussed in the perspective of the effective dose equivalents from other sources of radiation. Estimates of effective doses equivalents from indoor radon and its contribution to lung cancer incidence are reviewed. Swedish experiences with cost effective remedial actions are presented. The authors present optimal strategies for screening measurements and remedial actions in cost-benefit perspective. (author.)

  1. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  2. EML indoor radon workshop, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Lowder, W.; Fisenne, I.; Knutson, E.O.; Hinchliffe, L.

    1983-07-01

    A workshop on indoor radon, held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) on November 30 and December 1, 1982, covered recent developments in radon daughter research and development. Thirty papers were presented dealing with standardization and quality assurance measurement methods, surveys, measurements strategy, physical mechanisms of radon and radon daughter transport and development of guidance standards for indoor exposures. The workshop concluded with a planning session that identified the following needs: (1) national and international intercomparisons of techniques for measuring radon and radon daughter concentrations, working level and radon exhalation flux density; (2) development and refinement of practical measurement techniques for thoron and its daughter products; (3) quantitative definition of the sources of indoor radon and the mechanisms of transport into structures; (4) better knowledge of the physical properties of radon daughters; (5) more complete and accurate data on the population exposure to radon, which can only be met by broadly based surveys; and (6) more international cooperation and information exchange among countries with major research programs

  3. Indoor Climate Quality Assessment -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansaldi, Roberta; Asadi, Ehsan; Costa, José Joaquim

    This Guidebook gives building professionals useful support in the practical measurements and monitoring of the indoor climate in buildings. It is evident that energy consumption in a building is directly influenced by required and maintained indoor comfort level. Wireless technologies for measure...... for measurement and monitoring have allowed a significantly increased number of possible applications, especially in existing buildings. The Guidebook illustrates several cases with the instrumentation of the monitoring and assessment of indoor climate.......This Guidebook gives building professionals useful support in the practical measurements and monitoring of the indoor climate in buildings. It is evident that energy consumption in a building is directly influenced by required and maintained indoor comfort level. Wireless technologies...

  4. Sustainable Design of EPA's Campus in Research Triangle Park, NC—Environmental Performance Specifications in Construction Contracts—Section 01445 Testing for Indoor Air Quality, Baseline IAQ, and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    More information on testing for maximum indoor pollutant concentrations for acceptance of the facility, as well as requirements for Independent Materials Testing of specific materials anticipated to have major impact on indoor air quality.

  5. Indoor air problems in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    Respiratory disease and mortality due to indoor air pollution are amongst the greatest environmental threats to health in the developing countries of Asia. World-wide, acute respiratory infection is the cause of death of at least 5 million children under the age of 5 every year. The World Bank has claimed that smoke from biomass fuels resulted in an estimated 4 million deaths annually amongst infants and children. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries. Combustion in its various forms must head the list of pollution sources in Asia. Combustion of various fuels for domestic heating, lighting and cooking comprises the major source of internally generated pollutants and combustion in industrial plants, power generation and transportation is the major cause of externally generated pollutants. The products of pyrolysis and combustion include many compounds with well-known adverse health effects. These include gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 , volatile organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and nitroamines as well as respirable particulates of variable composition. The nature and magnitude of the health risks posed by these materials vary with season, climate, location housing, method of ventilation, culture and socio-economic status. The most important cause of lung cancer in non-smokers in Northern Asia is the domestic combustion of smoky coal. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning is common in many Asian countries. Roads traffic exhaust pollution is worse in the major cities of South East Asia than almost anywhere else in the world and this externally generated air pollution forms the indoor air for the urban poor. Despite all these major problems there has been a tendency for international agencies to focus attention and resources on the more trivial problems of indoor air encountered in the affluent countries of the West. Regulatory agencies in Asia have been too frequently persuaded that their problems of indoor air pollution are

  6. Indoor Air Pollution and Health Risks among Rural Dwellers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.3 No.2 2010 ... occurrence of air pollution related health problems among the rural dwellers, one ... Key words: Indoor environment, air quality, rural health, fuel-wood.

  7. Indoor air radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references

  8. Reevaluation of time spent indoors used for exposure dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsumi; Fujimoto, Kenzo

    2016-01-01

    A time spent indoors of sixteen hours per day (indoor occupancy factor: 0.67) has been used to assess the radiation dose of residents who spend daily life in the area contaminated due to the nuclear accident in Japan. However, much longer time is considered to be spent indoors for recent modern life. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has been used an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 since 1977 and a few reports suggested much higher indoor occupancy factors. Therefore it is important to reevaluate the indoor occupancy factor using current available survey data in Japan, such as 'NHK 2010 National Time Use Survey' and 'Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities' of Statistics Bureau with certain assumption of time spent indoors in each daily activity. The total time spent indoors in a day is calculated to be 20.2 hours and its indoor occupancy factor is 0.84. Much lower indoor occupancy factors were derived from the survey data by Statistics Bureau for 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years old groups and farmers who spend most of their time outdoors although present estimated indoor occupancy factor of 0.84 is still lower than those found in some of the relevant reports. A rounded indoor occupancy factor of 0.80 might be the appropriate conservative reference value to be used for the dose estimation of people who live in radioactively contaminated areas and for other relevant purposes of exposure assessment, taken into consideration the present results and values reported in United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and UNSCEAR. (author)

  9. An indoor chemical cocktail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovski, Sasho; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2018-02-01

    In the past 50 years, many of the contaminants and chemical transformations that occur in outdoor waters, soils, and air have been elucidated. However, the chemistry of the indoor environment in which we live most of the time—up to 90% in some societies—is not nearly as well studied. Recent work has highlighted the wealth of chemical transformations that occur indoors. This chemistry is associated with 3 of the top 10 risk factors for negative health outcomes globally: household air pollution from solid fuels, tobacco smoking, and ambient particulate matter pollution (1). Assessments of human exposure to indoor pollutants must take these reactive processes into consideration.

  10. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Preventing Skin Cancer Through Reduction of Indoor Tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M.; Fox, Kathleen A.; Guy, Gery P.; Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Sampson, Blake P.; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices. PMID:23683987

  12. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs

  13. Asthma and asthma related symptoms in 23,326 Chinese children in relation to indoor and outdoor environmental factors: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fan, E-mail: liufan-sky@163.com [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Zhao, Yang, E-mail: zhaoyang_cmu@126.com [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Liu, Yu-Qin, E-mail: xinxin_lyq@163.com [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang071506@126.com [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Sun, Jing, E-mail: sunjingjl_2007@126.com [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Huang, Mei-Meng, E-mail: gghuangmeimeng@163.com [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: liuyi256@126.com [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Dong, Guang-Hui, E-mail: donggh5@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510080 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Background: Both the levels and patterns of outdoor and indoor air pollutants have changed dramatically during the last decade in China. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of the present air pollution on the health of Chinese children. This study examines the association between outdoor and indoor air pollution and respiratory diseases among children living in Liaoning, a heavy industrial province of China. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 23,326 Chinese children aged 6 to 13 years was conducted in 25 districts of 7 cities in Northeast China during 2009. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 10 μm (PM{sub 10}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxides (NO{sub 2}), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 25 districts. We used two-level logistic regression models to examine the effects of yearly variations in exposure to each pollutant, controlling for important covariates. Results: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher for those dwelling close to a busy road, those living near smokestacks or factories, those living with smokers, those living in one-story houses typically with small yards, and those with home renovation, bedroom carpet or pets. Ventilation device use was associated with decreased odds of asthma in children. The adjusted odds ratio for diagnosed-asthma was 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–1.45) per 31 μg/m{sup 3} increase in PM{sub 10}, 1.23 (95%CI, 1.14–1.32) per 21 μg/m{sup 3} increase in SO{sub 2}, 1.25 (95%CI, 1.16–1.36) per 10 μg/m{sup 3} increase in NO{sub 2}, and 1.31 (95%CI, 1.21–1.41) per 23 μg/m{sup 3} increase in O{sub 3}, respectively. Conclusion: Outdoor and indoor air pollution was associated with an increased likelihood of respiratory morbidity among Chinese children. - Highlights: • We studied air pollution and respiratory health in 23,326 Chinese children. • Home renovation, carpet

  14. Asthma and asthma related symptoms in 23,326 Chinese children in relation to indoor and outdoor environmental factors: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fan; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Huang, Mei-Meng; Liu, Yi; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Background: Both the levels and patterns of outdoor and indoor air pollutants have changed dramatically during the last decade in China. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of the present air pollution on the health of Chinese children. This study examines the association between outdoor and indoor air pollution and respiratory diseases among children living in Liaoning, a heavy industrial province of China. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 23,326 Chinese children aged 6 to 13 years was conducted in 25 districts of 7 cities in Northeast China during 2009. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 ) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 25 districts. We used two-level logistic regression models to examine the effects of yearly variations in exposure to each pollutant, controlling for important covariates. Results: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher for those dwelling close to a busy road, those living near smokestacks or factories, those living with smokers, those living in one-story houses typically with small yards, and those with home renovation, bedroom carpet or pets. Ventilation device use was associated with decreased odds of asthma in children. The adjusted odds ratio for diagnosed-asthma was 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–1.45) per 31 μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 , 1.23 (95%CI, 1.14–1.32) per 21 μg/m 3 increase in SO 2 , 1.25 (95%CI, 1.16–1.36) per 10 μg/m 3 increase in NO 2 , and 1.31 (95%CI, 1.21–1.41) per 23 μg/m 3 increase in O 3 , respectively. Conclusion: Outdoor and indoor air pollution was associated with an increased likelihood of respiratory morbidity among Chinese children. - Highlights: • We studied air pollution and respiratory health in 23,326 Chinese children. • Home renovation, carpet, and pet were associated with increased ORs of asthma

  15. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  16. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  17. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-06-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  18. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  19. Assessing future trends in indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van de Wiel, H.J.; Lebret, E.; van der Lingen, W.K.; Eerens, H.C.; Vaas, L.H.; Leupen, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Several national and international health organizations have derived concentration levels below which adverse effects on men are not expected or levels below which the excess risk for individuals is less than a specified value. For every priority pollutant indoor concentrations below this limit are considered healthy. The percentage of Dutch homes exceeding such a limit is taken as a measure of indoor air quality for that component. The present and future indoor air quality of the Dutch housing stock is described for fourteen air pollutants. The highest percentages are scored by radon, environmental tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from unvented combustion, and the potential presence of housedust mite and mould allergen in damp houses. Although the trend for all priority pollutants is downward the most serious ones remain high in the coming decades if no additional measures will be instituted

  20. Towards Mobile Information Systems for Indoor Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Internet of things (IOT and indoor positioning technologies such as Wi-Fi and RFID, indoor mobile information systems have become a new research hotspot. Based on the unique features of indoor space and urgent needs on indoor mobile applications, in this paper we analyze some key issues in indoor mobile information systems, including positioning technologies in indoor environments, representation models for indoor spaces, query processing techniques for indoor moving objects, and index structures for indoor mobile applications. Then, we present an indoor mobile information management system named IndoorDB. Finally, we give some future research topics about indoor mobile information systems.

  1. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  2. Sampling strategies for indoor radon investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent investigations prompted by concern about the environmental effects of residential energy conservation have produced many accounts of indoor radon concentrations far above background levels. In many instances time-normalized annual exposures exceeded the 4 WLM per year standard currently used for uranium mining. Further investigations of indoor radon exposures are necessary to judge the extent of the problem and to estimate the practicality of health effects studies. A number of trends can be discerned as more indoor surveys are reported. It is becoming increasingly clear that local geological factors play a major, if not dominant role in determining the distribution of indoor radon concentrations in a given area. Within a giving locale, indoor radon concentrations tend to be log-normally distributed, and sample means differ markedly from one region to another. The appreciation of geological factors and the general log-normality of radon distributions will improve the accuracy of population dose estimates and facilitate the design of preliminary health effects studies. The relative merits of grab samples, short and long term integrated samples, and more complicated dose assessment strategies are discussed in the context of several types of epidemiological investigations. A new passive radon sampler with a 24 hour integration time is described and evaluated as a tool for pilot investigations

  3. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  4. Air-Sense: indoor environment monitoring evaluation system based on ZigBee network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Hu, Liang; Yang, Disheng; Liu, Hengchang

    2017-08-01

    In the modern life, people spend most of their time indoors. However, indoor environmental quality problems have always been affecting people’s social activities. In general, indoor environmental quality is also related to our indoor activities. Since most of the organic irritants and volatile gases are colorless, odorless and too tiny to be seen, because we have been unconsciously overlooked indoor environment quality. Consequently, our body suffer a great health problem. In this work, we propose Air-Sense system which utilizes the platform of ZigBee Network to collect and detect the real-time indoor environment quality. What’s more, Air-Sense system can also provide data analysis, and visualizing the results of the indoor environment to the user.

  5. Natural indoor gamma background in Coonoor environment of South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, R.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Mugunthamanikand, N.; Raghunath, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Indoor natural radiation dose existing in dwellings of Coonoor have been estimated using thermoluminescent dosimeters. TLDs are displayed in indoors and are replaced after three-month period. The seasonal averages of the dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent are calculated from the measured results. Geographical and seasonal variations as well as the differences between indoor to outdoor dose rates have also been studied. Very good correlation exists between the indoor dose rates measured by LTD and environmental radiation dosimeter with correlation coefficient of 0.91. The annual effective dose equivalent to the Coonoor population due to indoor gamma radiation was estimated to be 970 μSv/y for the period of 1997-1998. (author)

  6. Measurement and analysis of environmental exposure factors in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86. 1. environmental survey. Vol. 3c. Indoor situation in homes: Indoor air. Description of VOC in the indoor air of the Federal Republic of Germany; Messung und Analyse von Umweltbelastungsfaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86. 1. Umwelt-Survey. Bd. 3c. Wohn-Innenraum: Raumluft. Deskription fluechtiger organischer Verbindungen in der Raumluft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Chutsch, M.; Henke, M.; Huber, M.; Kliem, C.; Leiske, M.; Mailahn, M.; Schulz, C.; Schwarz, E.; Seifert, B.; Ullrich, D.

    1992-05-01

    This volume is based upon the data of the research project ``Environment and Health - Measurement and Analysis of Environmental Exposure Factors in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86`` (1st Environment Survey). These data were established for a representative sample of n=2731 cases selected by age, sex, and community size. It constitutes part C of the third report volume and contains the description of the concentrations of a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in indoor air from households of the general population of the Federal Republic of Germany (sub-sample). Function and objectives of this third part of evaluated data are to give, as far as possible, a precise assessment of the exposure to VOC in households among the general population of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1985/86. This is to gie interested persons an orientation and a classifying survey of laboratory results to be evaluatd. In this sense, the estimated distributions of the measured concentrations are presented for the entire population as well as for the below menioned subpopulations classified by outdoor temperatures, community size, type of region, number of persons in industrial jobs in the urban/rural area, building density, year of construction of the house, floor area of home, type of heating, type of fuel, number of persons in household, children (below 14 years) in household, smokers in household, age of floor covering, age of wall coating, age of furniture, new painting/wall-paper/furniture in recent months, presence of chipboard on walls/floor, furniture from chipboard (in the case of formaldehyde only), use of insecticides, room fresheners/deodorants in toilet and of cleansing agents/disinfectants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Berichtsband basiert auf den Daten der Studie ``Messung und Analyse von Umweltbelastungsfaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86 - Umwelt und Gesundheit`` (1. Umwelt-Survey), der eine nach Alter, Geschlecht und

  7. Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurraß, Julia; Heinzow, Birger; Aurbach, Ute; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bufe, Albrecht; Buzina, Walter; Cornely, Oliver A; Engelhart, Steffen; Fischer, Guido; Gabrio, Thomas; Heinz, Werner; Herr, Caroline E W; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Köberle, Martin; Lichtnecker, Herbert; Lob-Corzilius, Thomas; Merget, Rolf; Mülleneisen, Norbert; Nowak, Dennis; Rabe, Uta; Raulf, Monika; Seidl, Hans Peter; Steiß, Jens-Oliver; Szewszyk, Regine; Thomas, Peter; Valtanen, Kerttu; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A

    2017-04-01

    In April 2016, the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventative Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin (GHUP)) together with other scientific medical societies, German and Austrian medical societies, physician unions and experts has provided an AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies) guideline 'Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure'. This guideline shall help physicians to advise and treat patients exposed indoors to mold. Indoor mold growth is a potential health risk, even without a quantitative and/or causal association between the occurrence of individual mold species and health effects. Apart from the allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and the mycoses caused by mold, there is only sufficient evidence for the following associations between moisture/mold damages and different health effects: Allergic respiratory diseases, asthma (manifestation, progression, exacerbation), allergic rhinitis, exogenous allergic alveolitis and respiratory tract infections/bronchitis. In comparison to other environmental allergens, the sensitizing potential of molds is estimated to be low. Recent studies show a prevalence of sensitization of 3-10% in the total population of Europe. The evidence for associations to mucous membrane irritation and atopic eczema (manifestation, progression, exacerbation) is classified as limited or suspected. Inadequate or insufficient evidence for an association is given for COPD, acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in children, rheumatism/arthritis, sarcoidosis, and cancer. The risk of infections from indoor molds is low for healthy individuals. Only molds that are capable to form toxins can cause intoxications. The environmental and growth conditions and especially the substrate determine whether toxin formation occurs, but indoor air concentrations are always very low. In the case of indoor moisture/mold damages, everyone can be affected by odor effects and

  8. A View Indoors, Indoor Environment Division's e-Article Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  9. NIAID, NIEHS, NHLBI, and MCAN Workshop Report : The indoor environment and childhood asthma-implications for home environmental intervention in asthma prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gold, Diane R; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Arshad, Syed Hasan; Celedón, Juan C; Chapman, Martin D; Chew, Ginger L; Cook, Donald N; Custovic, Adnan; Gehring, Ulrike; Gern, James E; Johnson, Christine C; Kennedy, Suzanne; Koutrakis, Petros; Leaderer, Brian; Mitchell, Herman E; Litonjua, Augusto A; Mueller, Geoffrey A; O'Connor, George T; Ownby, Dennis; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Persky, Victoria; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Ramsey, Clare D; Salo, Päivi M; Schwaninger, Julie M; Sordillo, Joanne E; Spira, Avrum; Suglia, Shakira F; Togias, Alkis; Zeldin, Darryl C; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2017-01-01

    Environmental exposures have been recognized as critical in the initiation and exacerbation of asthma, one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; National Heart, Lung, and Blood

  10. Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA's regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA's lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants

  11. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sun is by using these tips for skin cancer prevention. Indoor tanning is not a safe way to get vitamin ... to previous findings on the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer. Only a small number of people reported ...

  12. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  13. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  14. Indoor combustion and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W

    2008-08-01

    Indoor combustion produces both gases (eg, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide) and particulate matter that may affect the development or exacerbation of asthma. Sources in the home include both heating devices (eg, fireplaces, woodstoves, kerosene heaters, flued [ie, vented] or nonflued gas heaters) and gas stoves for cooking. This article highlights the recent literature examining associations between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma development and severity. Since asthma is a chronic condition affecting both children and adults, both age groups are included in this article. Overall, there is some evidence of an association between exposure to indoor combustion and asthma, particularly asthma symptoms in children. Some sources of combustion such as coal stoves have been more consistently associated with these outcomes than other sources such as woodstoves.

  15. Indoor environment and pupils' health in primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, F.; van Bronswijk, J.E.M.H.; Sundell, Jan

    2006-01-01

    the associations between indoor environmental quality in Dutch schools and pupils' health, also taking into account the children's home environment and personal factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 11 classrooms in 11 different schools in the Netherlands. The study included exposure measurements......Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. The indoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it is unclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment. The paper aims to assess......, building inspections, and a questionnaire survey on pupils' health and domestic exposure. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and non-parametric tests were performed to assess relationships. None of the schools complied with all indoor environmental quality standards. The importance of both the school...

  16. Indoor wayfinding and navigation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of navigation systems for wayfinding and navigation in the outdoors, researchers have devoted their efforts in recent years to designing navigation systems that can be used indoors. This book is a comprehensive guide to designing and building indoor wayfinding and navigation systems. It covers all types of feasible sensors (for example, Wi-Fi, A-GPS), discussing the level of accuracy, the types of map data needed, the data sources, and the techniques for providing routes and directions within structures.

  17. 室内环境中的有机磷酸酯及环境毒理研究%Organophosphate Esters in Indoor Environment and Its Environmental Toxicology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 耿存珍

    2015-01-01

    With the worldwide restrictions on the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers ( PBDEs ) , organophosphate esters ( OPEs) have already become the main substitute of PBDEs.It has aroused the people's attention to the situation of OPEs due to the production and consumption of OPEs increasing year by year and being easily emitted to the surrounding areas.In this paper, the information on residual concentration of OPEs was mainly analyzed, which is from dust in different buildings from different countries, parts of electronic products and indoor decorating materials.The progress on the toxicology was summarized and the methods and models of risk assessment of OPEs were introduced.Lastly, the research focus and direction of OPEs in future was put forward.%随着全球对溴代阻燃剂的禁用,有机磷酸酯类化合物(OPEs)已成为溴代阻燃剂的主要替代品,其产量与用量逐年升高,并且OPEs极易释放到环境中,因此,近年来OPEs逐渐引起了人们的广泛关注.本文重点查阅了不同国家建筑物室内的灰尘(粉尘)和部分电子产品和家用装饰材料中的OPEs残留浓度等资料,对其毒理学研究进展进行了综述,并介绍了OPEs的风险评价方法和模式,展望了其未来的研究方向和研究重点.

  18. Graph Model Based Indoor Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin

    2009-01-01

    The tracking of the locations of moving objects in large indoor spaces is important, as it enables a range of applications related to, e.g., security and indoor navigation and guidance. This paper presents a graph model based approach to indoor tracking that offers a uniform data management...

  19. A Study on Public Opinion Poll and Policy on Indoor Air Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.S.; Lee, H.S.; Kong, S.Y.; Ku, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to review previous studies on indoor air pollution and to propose national strategies and policy measures for protecting public health from indoor air pollution based on the results of public survey research. Indoor air has the potential to be polluted by hazardous materials that might lead to serious health problems. It is well known that the indoor spaces are more polluted than outdoor ones, which can be a major health problem for those that live in urban areas who spend most of their time indoors. In Korea, studies on indoor air pollution are usually conducted under the auspices of academic research, which only focus on particular types of indoor spaces and certain concepts of indoor air quality. Thus, at present, the studies on the policies or policy measures concerning indoor air quality management are difficult to find in the country. The governmental agencies that are presently involved in the management of indoor air quality include: the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Construction and Transportation, Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development, and Ministry of Environment. However, due to differing regulatory standards between the concerned agencies, the national management of indoor air quality has so far proven to be ineffective. Although the Ministry of Environment recently proposed a law to manage indoor air quality, it is only focuses on managing particular types of indoor spaces not regulated by other governmental bodies and is not effective in the effort towards a national managing system for indoor air pollution. According to a survey conducted by the Korea Environment Institute (KEI), the residents of the Seoul metropolitan area have been felt that environmental pollution negatively affects their health, and especially consider outdoor air pollution to be the most harmful type of pollution. Although these urban residents spend more than 20 hours a day indoors, the survey shows that they do not

  20. Intrinsic vs. spurious long-range memory in high-frequency records of environmental radioactivity. Critical re-assessment and application to indoor 222Rn concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, R. V.; Potirakis, S. M.; Barbosa, S. M.; Matos, J. A. O.; Pereira, A. J. S. C.; Neves, L. J. P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The presence or absence of long-range correlations in the environmental radioactivity fluctuations has recently attracted considerable interest. Among a multiplicity of practically relevant applications, identifying and disentangling the environmental factors controlling the variable concentrations of the radioactive noble gas radon is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we present a critical re-assessment of a multiplicity of complementary methods that have been previously applied for evaluating the presence of long-range correlations and fractal scaling in environmental radon variations with a particular focus on the specific properties of the underlying time series. As an illustrative case study, we subsequently re-analyze two high-frequency records of indoor radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several weeks of continuous measurements at a high temporal resolution of five minutes.Our results reveal that at the study site, radon concentrations exhibit complex multi-scale dynamics with qualitatively different properties at different time-scales: (i) essentially white noise in the high-frequency part (up to time-scales of about one hour), (ii) spurious indications of a non-stationary, apparently long-range correlated process (at time scales between some hours and one day) arising from marked periodic components, and (iii) low-frequency variability indicating a true long-range dependent process. In the presence of such multi-scale variability, common estimators of long-range memory in time series are prone to fail if applied to the raw data without previous separation of time-scales with qualitatively different dynamics.

  1. Intrinsic vs. spurious long-range memory in high-frequency records of environmental radioactivity - Critical re-assessment and application to indoor 222Rn concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik V.; Potirakis, Stelios M.; Barbosa, Susana M.; Matos, Jose A. O.

    2015-04-01

    The presence or absence of long-range correlations in environmental radioactivity fluctuations has recently attracted considerable interest. Among a multiplicity of practically relevant applications, identifying and disentangling the environmental factors controlling the variable concentrations of the radioactive noble gas Radon is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we present a critical re-assessment of a multiplicity of complementary methods that have been previously applied for evaluating the presence of long-range correlations and fractal scaling in environmental Radon variations with a particular focus on the specific properties of the underlying time series. As an illustrative case study, we subsequently re-analyze two high-frequency records of indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several months of continuous measurements at a high temporal resolution of five minutes. Our results reveal that at the study site, Radon concentrations exhibit complex multi-scale dynamics with qualitatively different properties at different time-scales: (i) essentially white noise in the high-frequency part (up to time-scales of about one hour), (ii) spurious indications of a non-stationary, apparently long-range correlated process (at time scales between hours and one day) arising from marked periodic components probably related to tidal frequencies, and (iii) low-frequency variability indicating a true long-range dependent process, which might be dominated by a response to meteorological drivers. In the presence of such multi-scale variability, common estimators of long-range memory in time series are necessarily prone to fail if applied to the raw data without previous separation of time-scales with qualitatively different dynamics. We emphasize that similar properties can be found in other types of geophysical time series (for

  2. Indoor Radon Hazard: Impact Indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alitto, G.; Nicoletti, G.

    2006-01-01

    How is possible to quantify, quickly, the effects of the Radon and the risk to it associated in relationship to the physical characteristics of the environments in which it is appraised? the concentration activity of Radon, valued in confined environments, it doesn't represent a meaningful and discriminating datum, or however exhaustive, for the respect of the negative effects from it induced. They exist, in fact, at the same concentration of the gas, different environmental configurations in which, risk related to exposure can also vary considerably. The estimation of the goodness of a indoor environment regarding ionizing radiations, excluding in this treatment those responsible of external exposure (gamma), it undoubtedly goes connected to a whole series of chemical-physical parameters proper of that environment. From this the demand has risen to create an impact index that kept track of all these aspects [it

  3. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  4. Indoor Tanning (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re treating more and more young patients for skin cancer. Indoor Tanning vs. Sunlight The sun's rays contain two types ... and put yourself at even greater risk for skin cancer. What Tanning Salons Don't Tell You Studies show that ...

  5. Modeling indoor air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepper, D. W; Carrington, David B

    2009-01-01

    ... and ventilation from the more popular textbooks and monographs. We wish to especially acknowledge Dr. Xiuling Wang, who diligently converted many of our old FORTRAN codes into MATLAB files, and also developed the COMSOL example files. Also we thank Ms. Kathryn Nelson who developed the website for the book and indoor air quality computer codes. We are grateful to ...

  6. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  7. Indoor air quality research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The various types of pollutant found in indoor air are introduced and the effects on the health of the occupants of buildings summarized. The ''sick'' building syndrome is described in detail and the need for further investigation into its causes and remedies is stressed. 8 tabs

  8. Evolution of the indoor biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura J; Adams, Rachel I; Bateman, Ashley; Bik, Holly M; Hawks, John; Hird, Sarah M; Hughes, David; Kembel, Steven W; Kinney, Kerry; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Levy, Gabriel; McClain, Craig; Meadow, James F; Medina, Raul F; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Moreau, Corrie S; Munshi-South, Jason; Nichols, Lauren M; Palmer, Clare; Popova, Laura; Schal, Coby; Täubel, Martin; Trautwein, Michelle; Ugalde, Juan A; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Few biologists have studied the evolutionary processes at work in indoor environments. Yet indoor environments comprise approximately 0.5% of ice-free land area--an area as large as the subtropical coniferous forest biome. Here we review the emerging subfield of 'indoor biome' studies. After defining the indoor biome and tracing its deep history, we discuss some of its evolutionary dimensions. We restrict our examples to the species found in human houses--a subset of the environments constituting the indoor biome--and offer preliminary hypotheses to advance the study of indoor evolution. Studies of the indoor biome are situated at the intersection of evolutionary ecology, anthropology, architecture, and human ecology and are well suited for citizen science projects, public outreach, and large-scale international collaborations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring Indoor Air Quality for Enhanced Occupational Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarma, Rui; Marques, Gonçalo; Ferreira, Bárbara Roque

    2017-02-01

    Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Because people spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, several studies have pointed out the impact of indoor air quality on the etiopathogenesis of a wide number of non-specific symptoms which characterizes the "Sick Building Syndrome", involving the skin, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the eyes and the nervous system, as well as many building related diseases. Thus, indoor air quality (IAQ) is recognized as an important factor to be controlled for the occupants' health and comfort. The majority of the monitoring systems presently available is very expensive and only allow to collect random samples. This work describes the system (iAQ), a low-cost indoor air quality monitoring wireless sensor network system, developed using Arduino, XBee modules and micro sensors, for storage and availability of monitoring data on a web portal in real time. Five micro sensors of environmental parameters (air temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and luminosity) were used. Other sensors can be added for monitoring specific pollutants. The results reveal that the system can provide an effective indoor air quality assessment to prevent exposure risk. In fact, the indoor air quality may be extremely different compared to what is expected for a quality living environment. Systems like this would have benefit as public health interventions to reduce the burden of symptoms and diseases related to "sick buildings".

  10. Environmental Radiation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is an electronic and print journal compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and...

  11. Waste-based materials; capability, application and impact on indoor environment – literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Rode, Carsten; Kolarik, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses various sustainable materials utilizing waste products with the focus on their properties having an impact on the indoor environmental conditions and indoor air quality (IAQ). Materials included in the review are selected considering the following aspects......: sustainability, cradle to cradle perspective, application, their impact on indoor environment and human well-being. The attempt of the paper is to cover a wide spectrum of information so to provide better understanding of waste utilization in construction industry....

  12. INDOOR SUBSPACING TO IMPLEMENT INDOORGML FOR INDOOR NAVIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to an increasing demand for indoor navigation, there are great attempts to develop applicable indoor network. Representation for a room as a node is not sufficient to apply complex and large buildings. As OGC established IndoorGML, subspacing to partition the space for constructing logical network is introduced. Concerning subspacing for indoor network, transition space like halls or corridors also have to be considered. This study presents the subspacing process for creating an indoor network in shopping mall. Furthermore, categorization of transition space is performed and subspacing of this space is considered. Hall and squares in mall is especially defined for subspacing. Finally, implementation of subspacing process for indoor network is presented.

  13. Indoor Subspacing to Implement Indoorgml for Indoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    According to an increasing demand for indoor navigation, there are great attempts to develop applicable indoor network. Representation for a room as a node is not sufficient to apply complex and large buildings. As OGC established IndoorGML, subspacing to partition the space for constructing logical network is introduced. Concerning subspacing for indoor network, transition space like halls or corridors also have to be considered. This study presents the subspacing process for creating an indoor network in shopping mall. Furthermore, categorization of transition space is performed and subspacing of this space is considered. Hall and squares in mall is especially defined for subspacing. Finally, implementation of subspacing process for indoor network is presented.

  14. Towards Indoor Transportation Mode Detection using Mobile Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2015-01-01

    Transportation mode detection is a growing field of research, in which a variety of methods have been developed for detecting transportation modes foremost for outdoor travels. It has been employed in application areas such as public transportation, environmental footprint profiling, and context......-aware mobile assistants. For indoor travels the problem of transportation mode detection has received comparatively little attention, even though diverse transportation modes, such as biking, electric vehicles, and scooters, are used indoors, especially in large building complexes. The potential applications...... are diverse, may also extend beyond indoor variants of the above outdoor applications, and include, e.g., scheduling and progress tracking for mobile workers, management of vehicular resources, and navigation support. However, for indoor transportation mode detection, both the physical environment as well...

  15. Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Orosa, José A

    2012-01-01

    There are many aspects to consider when evaluating or improving an indoor environment; thermal comfort, energy saving, preservation of materials, hygiene and health are all key aspects which can be improved by passive methods of environmental control. Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments endeavours to fill the lack of analysis in this area by using over ten years of research to illustrate the effects of methods such as thermal inertia and permeable coverings; for example, the use of permeable coverings is a well known passive method, but its effects and ways to improve indoor environments have been rarely analyzed.   Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments  includes both software simulations and laboratory and field studies. Through these, the main parameters that characterize the behavior of internal coverings are defined. Furthermore, a new procedure is explained in depth which can be used to identify the real expected effects of permeable coverings such ...

  16. Respiratory Effects of Indoor Heat and the Interaction with Air Pollution in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Meredith C; Belli, Andrew J; Waugh, Darryn; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Peng, Roger D; Williams, D'Ann L; Paulin, Laura; Saha, Anik; Aloe, Charles M; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Hansel, Nadia N

    2016-12-01

    There is limited evidence of the effect of exposure to heat on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity, and the interactive effect between indoor heat and air pollution has not been established. To determine the effect of indoor and outdoor heat exposure on COPD morbidity and to determine whether air pollution concentrations modify the effect of temperature. Sixty-nine participants with COPD were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study, and data from the 601 participant days that occurred during the warm weather season were included in the analysis. Participants completed home environmental monitoring with measurement of temperature, relative humidity, and indoor air pollutants and simultaneous daily assessment of respiratory health with questionnaires and portable spirometry. Participants had moderate to severe COPD and spent the majority of their time indoors. Increases in maximal indoor temperature were associated with worsening of daily Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale scores and increases in rescue inhaler use. The effect was detected on the same day and lags of 1 and 2 days. The detrimental effect of temperature on these outcomes increased with higher concentrations of indoor fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide (P pollution concentrations. For patients with COPD who spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor heat exposure during the warmer months represents a modifiable environmental exposure that may contribute to respiratory morbidity. In the context of climate change, adaptive strategies that include optimization of indoor environmental conditions are needed to protect this high-risk group from the adverse health effects of heat.

  17. Indoor radon II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the growing interest in and public concern about indoor radon, APCA, in April 1987, sponsored the Second International Specialty Conference on Indoor Radon. This book is the proceedings of this conference and includes discussions on: A current assessment of the nature of the problem; Issues related to health effects and risk assessment; The development of public and private sector initiatives; Research into methods of control and prevention; International perspectives; and Measurement methods and programs. The material is intended for the technically oriented and for those responsible for developing programs and initiatives to address this important public health issue. Contributors include federal, state, and provincial program officials and members of the academic and private sectors

  18. Indoor Environmental Risk Factors for Occupant Symptoms in 100U.S. Office Buildings: Summary of Three Analyses from the EPA BASEStudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Cozen, M.; Brightman, H.S.; Apte,M.; Erdmann, C.A.; Brunner, G.; Girman, J.R.

    2006-02-01

    This paper summarizes three analyses of data on building-related environmental factors and occupant symptoms collected from 100 representative large U.S. office buildings. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found increased occupant symptoms associated with a number of building-related factors, including lower ventilation rates even at the current guideline levels, lack of scheduled cleaning for air-conditioning drain pans and cooling coils, poor condition of cooling coils, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lower outdoor air intake height. Some expected relationships were not found, and several findings were opposite of expected. Although requiring replication, these findings suggest preventive actions to reduce occupant symptoms in office buildings.

  19. The Automobiles as Indoors.

    OpenAIRE

    Songul Acar Vaizoglu; Bekir Kaplan; Cagatay Guler

    2010-01-01

    In this review we aimed to attract attention to toxic chemicals in cars and their effect on health. People spend most of their times in indoors such as houses, workplaces, malls, sport centers, train, transportation vehicles (train, plane, cars). In US, citizens spend nearly 100 minutes in cars per day. There are safety problems in cars except than seatbelt and airbag. Some of these are seats, furnishing, cushions for arm and head, floor covering, accessories and plastic parts. In a study con...

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  1. Natural radiation exposure indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Cliff, K.D.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the state of knowledge of indoor natural radiation exposure in the U.K. and the current survey work the N.R.P.B. is carrying out in this field. Discussion is limited in this instance to the improvement in estimation of population exposure and the identification of areas and circumstances in which high exposure occur, rather than the study of properties of a building and methods of building affecting exposure to radiation. (U.K.)

  2. In search of the comfortable indoor environment: A comparison of the utility of objective and subjective indicators of indoor comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Niklas; Skoog, Jennie [Building Services Engineering, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Vaestfjaell, Daniel [Department of Psychology, Goeteborg University (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Today, many procedures for assessing the indoor environment rely on both subjective and objective indicators (e.g. ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004; ISO 10551). It is however unclear how these two types of measurements are related to perceived comfort. This article aims at assessing the relative utility of subjective (rating scale measures) and objective indicators of perceived comfort of indoor environments. In a hospital setting, physical environmental variables (e.g. temperature, relative humidity and noise level) were simultaneously measured as respondents (both patients and staff) rated their perception of the indoor environment. Regression analyses indicated that the subjective sensory ratings were significantly better than objective indicators at predicting overall rated indoor comfort. These results are discussed in relation to existing measurement procedures and standards. (author)

  3. Indoor navigation by image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Io Teng; Leong, Chi Chong; Hong, Ka Wo; Pun, Chi-Man

    2017-07-01

    With the progress of smartphones hardware, it is simple on smartphone using image recognition technique such as face detection. In addition, indoor navigation system development is much slower than outdoor navigation system. Hence, this research proves a usage of image recognition technique for navigation in indoor environment. In this paper, we introduced an indoor navigation application that uses the indoor environment features to locate user's location and a route calculating algorithm to generate an appropriate path for user. The application is implemented on Android smartphone rather than iPhone. Yet, the application design can also be applied on iOS because the design is implemented without using special features only for Android. We found that digital navigation system provides better and clearer location information than paper map. Also, the indoor environment is ideal for Image recognition processing. Hence, the results motivate us to design an indoor navigation system using image recognition.

  4. Vitality of plants to live in the indoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuri, Mohd Mahathir Suhaimi; Leman, A. M.; Hariri, Azian; Idris, Ahmad Fu'ad; Afandi, Azizi

    2017-09-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is generally a public concern because 90% of people spend their time indoor. IAQ must be preserved wisely to guarantee the health of the building occupants. One of the ways to maintain the quality of air is by placing plants in the building. However, all plants come from the outdoor, and the environment is different compared to indoor. Environmental factors such as temperature and light will absolutely affect the growth of the plant. Light and temperature that are too bright or too deem can wither the plants. Nevertheless, certain plant is capable of adapting with different situation after assimilation process has been conducted. This study intends to analyze the capacity of seven selected plants (Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plant, Spider Plant, and Syngonium) to live in an indoor environment. The vitality of plants is based on photosynthetic level that is measured using leaf - chamber (LI-COR 6400). Two groups of plants were located in indoor and outdoor (indigenous location) setting, and were allowed to assimilate for two months before measurement were carried out. The results for the plant located indoor shows that only Spider Plant cannot perform photosynthesis under 300 lux, where the photosynthetic value remains negative. Meanwhile, other plants such as Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plant, and Syngonium that were left indoor showed similar 300 lux in which conform the ability of the plants to perform photosynthesis with the value of 0.3, 0.15, 0.35, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.1. In comparison, all of the plants that were stationed indoor and outdoor (except Spider Plant), the light compensation point (LCP) for indoor shows smaller value than the outdoor. This is because all the indoor plants had down - regulated their photosynthesis process by becoming more sensitive to light after their assimilation. From this study, it can be concluded that all plants except Spider Plant is able to live

  5. Development of a model to calculate the economic implications of improving the indoor climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Lynge

    on performance. The Bayesian Network uses a probabilistic approach by which a probability distribution can take this variation of the different indoor variables into account. The result from total building economy calculations indicated that depending on the indoor environmental change (improvement...

  6. Characterizing Aggregated Exposure to Primary Particulate Matter: Recommended Intake Fractions for Indoor and Outdoor Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Apte, Joshua Schulz

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM_(2.5)) from indoor and outdoor sources is a leading environmental contributor to global disease burden. In response, we established under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative a coupled indoor-outdoor emission-to-exposure framework to provide...

  7. Indoor air quality: The hidden side of the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bluyssen, P.M.; Clausen, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The physical environment can be defined and understood in manv different ways, both from its nature, e.g., thermal, accoustic, etc., or its dimension, e.g., global, local, urban, indoors. The indoor environment is much more than the space or the light effects; it is the result of a complex

  8. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  9. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Residential Indoor Temperature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, Mike [Arrow Electronics, Centennial, CO (United States); Brown, David [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Norton, Paul [Norton Energy Research and Development, Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, Chris [Ingersoll-Rand Corp., Dublin (Ireland)

    2017-04-07

    In this study, we are adding to the body of knowledge around answering the question: What are good assumptions for HVAC set points in U.S. homes? We collected and analyzed indoor temperature data from US homes using funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) program, due to the program's reliance on accurate energy simulation of homes. Simulations are used to set Building America goals, predict the impact of new building techniques and technologies, inform research objectives, evaluate home performance, optimize efficiency packages to meet savings goals, customize savings approaches to specific climate zones, and myriad other uses.

  11. The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in the urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Anna Palm

    2012-11-01

    To assess the effect of the indoor environment on the urban fate of organic chemicals, an 8-compartment indoor-inclusive steady state multimedia chemical fate model was developed. The model includes typical urban compartments (air, soil, water, sediment, and urban film) and a novel module representing a generic indoor environment. The model was parameterized to the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden and applied to four organic chemicals with different physical-chemical characteristics and use patterns: formaldehyde, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, di-ethylhexylphthalate and decabromodiphenyl ether. The results show that emissions to indoor air may increase the steady state mass and residence time in the urban environment by a factor of 1.1 to 22 for the four chemicals, compared to if emissions are assigned to outdoor air. This is due to the nested nature of the indoor environment, which creates a physical barrier that prevents chemicals from leaving the urban system with outflowing air. For DEHP and BDE 209, the additional partitioning to indoor surfaces results in a greater importance of the indoor removal pathways from surfaces. The outdoor environmental concentrations of these chemicals are predicted to be lower if emitted to indoor air than if emitted to outdoor air because of the additional indoor removal pathways of dust and indoor film, leading to loss of chemical from the system. For formaldehyde and 2,4,6-TBP outdoor environmental concentrations are not affected by whether the release occurs indoors or outdoors because of the limited partitioning to indoor surfaces. A sensitivity analysis revealed that there appears to be a relationship between logK(OA) and the impact of the ventilation rate on the urban fate of organic chemicals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in the urban landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Anna Palm, E-mail: anna.cousins@ivl.se

    2012-11-01

    To assess the effect of the indoor environment on the urban fate of organic chemicals, an 8-compartment indoor-inclusive steady state multimedia chemical fate model was developed. The model includes typical urban compartments (air, soil, water, sediment, and urban film) and a novel module representing a generic indoor environment. The model was parameterized to the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden and applied to four organic chemicals with different physical-chemical characteristics and use patterns: formaldehyde, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, di-ethylhexylphthalate and decabromodiphenyl ether. The results show that emissions to indoor air may increase the steady state mass and residence time in the urban environment by a factor of 1.1 to 22 for the four chemicals, compared to if emissions are assigned to outdoor air. This is due to the nested nature of the indoor environment, which creates a physical barrier that prevents chemicals from leaving the urban system with outflowing air. For DEHP and BDE 209, the additional partitioning to indoor surfaces results in a greater importance of the indoor removal pathways from surfaces. The outdoor environmental concentrations of these chemicals are predicted to be lower if emitted to indoor air than if emitted to outdoor air because of the additional indoor removal pathways of dust and indoor film, leading to loss of chemical from the system. For formaldehyde and 2,4,6-TBP outdoor environmental concentrations are not affected by whether the release occurs indoors or outdoors because of the limited partitioning to indoor surfaces. A sensitivity analysis revealed that there appears to be a relationship between logK{sub OA} and the impact of the ventilation rate on the urban fate of organic chemicals. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel indoor-inclusive multimedia urban fate model is developed and applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissions indoors may increase the urban chemical residence time. Black

  13. The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in the urban landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousins, Anna Palm

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effect of the indoor environment on the urban fate of organic chemicals, an 8-compartment indoor-inclusive steady state multimedia chemical fate model was developed. The model includes typical urban compartments (air, soil, water, sediment, and urban film) and a novel module representing a generic indoor environment. The model was parameterized to the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden and applied to four organic chemicals with different physical–chemical characteristics and use patterns: formaldehyde, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, di-ethylhexylphthalate and decabromodiphenyl ether. The results show that emissions to indoor air may increase the steady state mass and residence time in the urban environment by a factor of 1.1 to 22 for the four chemicals, compared to if emissions are assigned to outdoor air. This is due to the nested nature of the indoor environment, which creates a physical barrier that prevents chemicals from leaving the urban system with outflowing air. For DEHP and BDE 209, the additional partitioning to indoor surfaces results in a greater importance of the indoor removal pathways from surfaces. The outdoor environmental concentrations of these chemicals are predicted to be lower if emitted to indoor air than if emitted to outdoor air because of the additional indoor removal pathways of dust and indoor film, leading to loss of chemical from the system. For formaldehyde and 2,4,6-TBP outdoor environmental concentrations are not affected by whether the release occurs indoors or outdoors because of the limited partitioning to indoor surfaces. A sensitivity analysis revealed that there appears to be a relationship between logK OA and the impact of the ventilation rate on the urban fate of organic chemicals. -- Highlights: ► A novel indoor-inclusive multimedia urban fate model is developed and applied. ► Emissions indoors may increase the urban chemical residence time. ► Indoor removal from surfaces constitutes an additional loss process

  14. Indoor Positioning System using Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Sahil Puri

    2015-01-01

    This Paper on Bluetooth Indoor Positioning System is the intersection of Bluetooth Technology and Indoor Positioning Systems. Almost every smartphone today is Bluetooth enabled, making the use of the technology more flexible. We aim at using the RSSI value of Bluetooth signals to track the location of a device.

  15. Psychotropic substances in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia; Patriarca, Claudia; Balducci, Catia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of drugs in outdoor air has been established, but few investigations have been conducted indoors. This study focused on psychotropic substances (PSs) at three schools, four homes and one office in Rome, Italy. The indoor drug concentrations and the relationships with the outdoor atmosphere were investigated. The optimised monitoring procedure allowed for the determination of cocaine, cannabinoids and particulate fractions of nicotine and caffeine. In-field experiments were performed during the winter, spring and summer seasons. Psychotropic substances were observed in all indoor locations. The indoor concentrations often exceeded those recorded both outdoors at the same sites and at the atmospheric pollution control network stations, indicating that the drugs were released into the air at the inside sites or were more persistent. During winter, the relative concentrations of cannabinol, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol depended on site and indoor/outdoor location at the site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on models for radon, which are developed not only to describe the behavior of radon and daughters since the moment that radon is created in natural sources by the alpha decay of 226 Ra up to the point that doses to humans are estimated based on the inhalation of radon and its progeny. The objective of a model should be determinant in defining the model structure and boundaries. Modeling indoors radon is particularly useful when the 226 Ra concentration in building materials and soils can be known before a house will be built with such 226 Ra bearing materials and over 226 Ra rich soils. The reported concentrations of 226 Ra in building materials range from 0.3 Bq · kg -1 in wood to about 2.6 x 10 3 Bq · kg -1 in aerated concrete based on alum shale. 30 In addition, when a house is built on a soil containing a high 226 Ra concentration, radon exhalation from the soil contributes to increase radon concentration indoors. The reported radon exhalation from soils range from 3.4 Bq · m -2 · s -1 in latosolic soil from Osaka, Japan to about 53 mBq · m -2 · s -1 in chernozemic soil from Illinois

  17. Indoor Location Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  18. The carbon footprint of indoor Cannabis production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan

    2012-01-01

    The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production – legal in some jurisdictions and illicit in others – utilizes highly energy intensive processes to control environmental conditions during cultivation. This article estimates the energy consumption for this practice in the United States at 1% of national electricity use, or $6 billion each year. One average kilogram of final product is associated with 4600 kg of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, or that of 3 million average U.S. cars when aggregated across all national production. The practice of indoor cultivation is driven by criminalization, pursuit of security, pest and disease management, and the desire for greater process control and yields. Energy analysts and policymakers have not previously addressed this use of energy. The unchecked growth of electricity demand in this sector confounds energy forecasts and obscures savings from energy efficiency programs and policies. While criminalization has contributed to the substantial energy intensity, legalization would not change the situation materially without ancillary efforts to manage energy use, provide consumer information via labeling, and other measures. Were product prices to fall as a result of legalization, indoor production using current practices could rapidly become non-viable. - Highlights: ► The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production utilizes highly energy intensive processes and is highly inefficient. ► In the United States, this represents an annual energy expenditure of $6 billion. ► One kg of final product is associated with emissions of 4600 kg of CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. ► Aggregate U.S. emissions are equivalent those of 3 million cars. ► Energy analysts and policymakers have not previously addressed this use of energy.

  19. Employing RADIANCE to refine indoor photocatalytic oxidation modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelzers, R.S.; Yu, Q.; Mangkuto, R.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) gained great attention in the last years as one of the foremost environmental concerns and it is therefore imperative that effective methods are developed to conserve IAQ. Currently, the novel technology photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a potential alternative. A

  20. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  1. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized

  2. Reflections on the history of indoor air science, focusing on the last 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, J

    2017-07-01

    The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science, 26 992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air. Topics of concern were first radon, environmental tobacco smoke, and lung cancer, followed by volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and sick building syndrome, house dust-mites, asthma and allergies, Legionnaires disease, and other airborne infections. Later emerged dampness/mold-associated allergies and today's concern with "modern exposures-modern diseases." Ventilation, thermal comfort, indoor air chemistry, semi-volatile organic compounds, building simulation by computational fluid dynamics, and fine particulate matter are common topics today. From their beginning in Denmark and Sweden, then in the USA, the indoor air sciences now show increasing activity in East and Southeast Asia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Current Indoor Air Quality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    People spend more than two thirds of their daily time indoors. Hence, maintaining a healthy indoor environment is indispensable for the prevention of building related illness. In Japan, guidelines for indoor air quality have been established for 13 volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs). These guidelines are now under revision by the Committee on Sick House Syndrome: Indoor Air Pollution. In order to gain information on the current indoor air pollutants and their levels, we carried out a nation-wide survey of VOCs and aldehydes in indoor residential air during 2012-2013. In this review, I concisely summarized the current indoor air quality of Japan.

  4. 76 FR 213 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... due to, for example, a threatened violation of applicable environmental, safety, and health... legally enforceable rights, benefits, or responsibilities, substantive or procedural, not otherwise... failed in indoor tests. Whether the explosives or propellants were tested indoors or outdoors, the...

  5. Indoor environment; Binnenmilieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogeling, J.J.N.M.; Van Weele, A.M. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boerstra, A.C. [BBA Boerstra Binnenmilieu Advies, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cox, C.W.J. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Kurvers, S.R. [Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Thierauf, I. [Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelofsen, C.P.G. [Grontmij Technical Management, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    This issue is dedicated to several aspects of the indoor environment in buildings: air quality, thermal climate, noise, light and view or panorama. [Dutch] De kwaliteit van het binnenmilieu wordt bepaald door de factoren als binnenluchtkwaliteit, thermisch binnenklimaat, geluid, daglicht, kunstlicht en uitzicht. De gemiddelde Nederlander brengt 80 tot 90% van zijn tijd binnen door. Het is dan ook van het grootste belang dat het binnenmilieu in gebouwen van een dusdanige kwaliteit is dat gebouwgebruikers zich gezond en comfortabel voelen. Het binnenmilieu omvat alle fysische (temperatuur, vochtigheid, geluid, licht), chemische en biologische factoren in een gebouw die van invloed zijn op gezondheid en welzijn van de gebruikers. Binnenmilieu is onder te verdelen in de aspecten thermisch binnenklimaat, luchtkwaliteit, geluid, licht en uitzicht. Soms vallen ook elektromagnetische velden psychologische aspecten als privacy en groenbeleving eronder. Deze ThemaTech staat geheel in het teken van binnenluchtkwaliteit, het thermische binnenklimaat, geluid, daglicht, kunstlicht en uitzicht.

  6. Indoor biological pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    2000-01-01

    Inside buildings - besides the umpteen toxic substances emanating from materials and appliances used daily for the most assorted activities - there are may be a number of different pathogenic micro-organisms able to cause diseases and respiratory system infections. Indoor pollution caused by biological agents may be due not only to living microorganisms, but also to dead ones or to the produce of their metabolism as well as to allergens. The most efficient precautionary measure against biological agents is to ventilate the rooms one lives in. In case of air-conditioning, it's good rule to keep air pipes dry and clean, renewing filters at regular intervals in order to avoid fungi and bacteria from settling in [it

  7. Sustainable indoor lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Mercatelli, Luca; Farini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Encompassing a thorough survey of the lighting techniques applied to internal illumination characterized by high efficiency, optimized color and architectural integration, a consolidated summary of the latest scientific, technical and architectural research is presented in order to give the reader an overview of the different themes with their interactions and mutual effects.   This book describes light principles, methodologies and realisations for indoor illumination at low consumption. Power efficiency, color characteristics and architectural aspects are analyzed in terms of their  practical application, with the interactions between scientific, technological and architectural features considered in order to supply a complete overview, which can be read both at technical level and at user level. Introducing photometric and radiometric quantities and laws, the book first discusses tests and measurements assessing lighting and color characteristics before examining in detail artificial light sources with p...

  8. Indoor Positioning Using GPS Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik; Godsk, Torben

    2010-01-01

    It has been considered a fact that GPS performs too poorly inside buildings to provide usable indoor positioning. We analyze results of a measurement campaign to improve on the understanding of indoor GPS reception characteristics. The results show that using state-of-the-art receivers GPS...... low signal-to-noise ratios, multipath phenomena or bad satellite constellation geometry. We have also measured the indoor performance of embedded GPS receivers in mobile phones which provided lower availability and accuracy than state-of-the-art ones. Finally, we consider how the GPS performance...

  9. Indoor environmental quality and building energy efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Reenen, T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available :  Air movement  Air quality Thermal Comfort A comprehensive international body of work has been developed over the past 100 years to obtain a measure of understanding of the seemingly elusive parameters that determine thermal comfort. A list... are:  Air temperature  Radiant temperature1  Humidity  Air movement  Metabolic rate  Clothing levels/insulation Uniformity of sensation can also play a role in perceived levels of comfort (CIBSE 2006). This refers to instances where...

  10. Indoor radon and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time on the basis of the Spitak earthquake of December 1988 (Armenia, December 1988) experience it is found out that the earthquake causes intensive and prolonged radon splashes which, rapidly dispersing in the open space of close-to-earth atmosphere, are contrastingly displayed in covered premises (dwellings, schools, kindergartens) even if they are at considerable distance from the earthquake epicenter, and this multiplies the radiation influence on the population. The interval of splashes includes the period from the first fore-shock to the last after-shock, i.e. several months. The area affected by radiation is larger vs. Armenia's territory. The scale of this impact on population is 12 times higher than the number of people injured in Spitak, Leninakan and other settlements (toll of injured - 25 000 people, radiation-induced diseases in people - over 300 000). The influence of radiation directly correlates with the earthquake force. Such a conclusion is underpinned by indoor radon monitoring data for Yerevan since 1987 (120 km from epicenter) 5450 measurements and multivariate analysis with identification of cause-and-effect linkages between geo dynamics of indoor radon under stable and conditions of Earth crust, behavior of radon in different geological mediums during earthquakes, levels of room radon concentrations and effective equivalent dose of radiation impact of radiation dose on health and statistical data on public health provided by the Ministry of Health. The following hitherto unexplained facts can be considered as consequences of prolonged radiation influence on human organism: long-lasting state of apathy and indifference typical of the population of Armenia during the period of more than a year after the earthquake, prevalence of malignant cancer forms in disaster zones, dominating lung cancer and so on. All urban territories of seismically active regions are exposed to the threat of natural earthquake-provoked radiation influence

  11. Core public health functions for BC : evidence review : air quality-indoor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copes, R.; Ouellette, V.; Lee, K.S.; Brauer, M. [British Columbia Ministry of Health, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    Indoor sources of pollutants can have a major impact on the health of Canadians, as pollutant concentrations are often higher indoors than outdoors. This paper assessed data compiled by public health indoor air interventions. The aim of the study was to identify the current state of evidence on the impacts of indoor pollution in order to develop performance improvement plans for public health programs in British Columbia (BC). The literature review used several databases to review interventions involving humidity control; ventilation; particulate matter; indoor allergens; and environmental tobacco smoke. Results of the review showed that improving inadequate ventilation can significantly decrease the prevalence of sick building syndrome as well as other self-reported symptoms attributed to indoor air pollution. A review of the literature also demonstrated that many building ventilation systems are not functioning to design specifications. The poor quality of studies on the health impacts of particulate matter or dust made it difficult to fully assess the benefits of particle filtration on human health. Studies investigating the impacts of controlling indoor allergens suggested that the avoidance of dust mites may benefit people with allergies. Evidence gained from studies on environmental tobacco smoke showed that banning or restricting smoking will reduce the burden of illness from pollutants in indoor air. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Core public health functions for BC : evidence review : air quality-indoor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copes, R.; Ouellette, V.; Lee, K.S.; Brauer, M.

    2006-04-01

    Indoor sources of pollutants can have a major impact on the health of Canadians, as pollutant concentrations are often higher indoors than outdoors. This paper assessed data compiled by public health indoor air interventions. The aim of the study was to identify the current state of evidence on the impacts of indoor pollution in order to develop performance improvement plans for public health programs in British Columbia (BC). The literature review used several databases to review interventions involving humidity control; ventilation; particulate matter; indoor allergens; and environmental tobacco smoke. Results of the review showed that improving inadequate ventilation can significantly decrease the prevalence of sick building syndrome as well as other self-reported symptoms attributed to indoor air pollution. A review of the literature also demonstrated that many building ventilation systems are not functioning to design specifications. The poor quality of studies on the health impacts of particulate matter or dust made it difficult to fully assess the benefits of particle filtration on human health. Studies investigating the impacts of controlling indoor allergens suggested that the avoidance of dust mites may benefit people with allergies. Evidence gained from studies on environmental tobacco smoke showed that banning or restricting smoking will reduce the burden of illness from pollutants in indoor air. 20 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Ozone (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor ...

  14. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor ...

  15. The influence of photocatalytic interior paints on indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Joonas; Wirtanen, Leif

    2008-06-01

    A clean indoor air is important for the well-being and health of people. Lately, new photocatalytic paints have been launched on the market, which are claimed to have air-purifying effects. Photocatalysis initiates radical reactions. Radicals are formed when a photocatalyst (e.g. TiO2) is subjected to radiation. Typical radicals are the hydroxyl radical (radOH) and the superoxide radical (radO2-). Radicals cause chain reactions, which degrade and decompose organic compounds. The end products of these chain reactions are water and carbon dioxide, if the reactions are fully completed (mineralization). If mineralization does not take place, then a great number of side products can be formed, whose properties are not well understood. The side products of photocatalytic reactions can be permanent and stabile. The decomposition of indoor air impurities on the surface of photocatalytic paints is not obvious. The ability of photocatalytic indoor paints to reduce chemical indoor air impurities is the key issue of this study. Six different paints with different binder systems, such as lime, polyorganic siloxane, silica sol-gel and organic binders, were examined. The experiments were divided into three topics: degradation of an organic binder, photocatalytic decomposition of formaldehyde, and a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture consisting of five different indoor air VOCs. All tests were carried out in an environmental test chamber under dynamic conditions. The test results indicate that many indoor pollutants are generated under normal- and UVA-light. Typical compounds formed include formaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde, etc. A clear decrease of formaldehyde or the VOC mixture concentration was not observed. All possibly generated compounds could not be collected or analyzed in this research project, but the measurements show that photocatalytic reactions do not generate only carbon dioxide and water. Photocatalytic decomposition of indoor air impurities can, however

  16. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  17. Investigation of Indoor Climate in a Naturally Ventilated Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2008-01-01

    A measuring program in a naturally ventilated office building in Copenhagen was carried out to document the indoor climate and ventilation system performance during a year. It included a questionnaire regarding the perceived indoor environmental quality and physical measurements of thermal comfort...... to a combination of poor control of solar shading and a very high local heat load that was above the Danish recommendations for naturally ventilated office buildings. Both measured and perceived indoor air quality in the building was in general very high. The measured air flow rates was relatively high due...... to the need for cooling in the office building, while the level of infiltration was quite low indicating an airtight construction....

  18. Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yi; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Mao, I-Fang; Lu, Chung-Yen

    2016-12-02

    Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS) in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), ozone (O₃), airborne particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ), bacteria and fungi. Results showed that the CO₂, CO and HCHO levels met the stipulated standards as regulated by Taiwan's Indoor Air Quality Management Act (TIAQMA). However, elevated PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels were measured at most stations. TVOCs and bacterial concentrations at some stations measured in summer were higher than the regulated standards stipulated by Taiwan's Environmental Protection Administration. Further studies should be conducted to reduce particulate matters, TVOCs and bacteria in the air of subway stations.

  19. Indoor radon measurements and methodologies in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.; Lopez, F.O.; Arnaud, M.I.; Oliveira, A.A.; Neman, R.S.; Hadler, J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Paulo, S.R.; Osorio, A.M.; Aparecido, R.; Rodriguez, C.; Moreno, V.; Vasquez, R.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Martinez, T.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, I.; Segovia, N.; Pena, P.; Tamez, E.; Pereyra, P.; Lopez-Herrera, M.E.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2001-01-01

    According to the current international guidelines concerning environmental problems, it is necessary to evaluate and to know the indoor radon levels, specially since most of the natural radiation dose to man comes from radon gas and its progeny. Several countries have established National Institutions and National Programs for the study of radon and its connection with lung cancer risk and public health. The aim of this work is to present the indoor radon measurements and the detection methods used for different regions of Latin America (LA) in countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. This study shows that the passive radon devices based on alpha particle nuclear track methodology (NTM) is one of the more generalized methods in LA for long term indoor radon measurements, CR-39, LR-115 and Makrofol being the more commonly used detector materials. The participating institutions and the radon level measurements in the different countries are presented in this contribution

  20. Indoor Thermal Environment in Tropical Climate Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Nazhatulzalkis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal environment is one of the criteria in sustainable building. This criterion is important in ensuring a healthy indoor environment for the occupants. The consideration of environmental concerns at the early design stage would effectively integrate the sustainability of the building environment. Global climate changes such as global warming do affect human comfort since people spend most of their time and activities in the building. The increasing of urban population required additional housing for households, as well as places to shop, office and other facilities. Occupants are now more conscious the importance of sustainability for a better quality of life. Good thermal environment is essential for human wellness and comfort. A residential environment will influence residents’ health and safety. The global warming increase the earth’s temperature and greenhouse emission to the atmosphere cause adverse effects to the outdoor environment. Residential developments modify the materials, structure and energy balance in urban climate effects of human economic activities. As an indoor environment is influenced by the outdoor condition, the factors affecting indoor thermal environment are crucial in improving a comfortable and healthy environment in residential building. The microclimatic of a site such as temperature and relative humidity, and wind movement led to the variation of indoor thermal environment in the building.

  1. Development of Indoor Air Pollution Concentration Prediction by Geospatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyati Pradini Yudison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available People living near busy roads are potentially exposed to traffic-induced air pollutants. The pollutants may intrude into the indoor environment, causing health risks to the occupants. Prediction of pollutant exposure therefore is of great importance for impact assessment and policy making related to environmentally sustainable transport. This study involved the selection of spatial interpolation methods that can be used for prediction of indoor air quality based on outdoor pollutant mapping without indoor measurement data. The research was undertaken in the densely populated area of Karees, Bandung, Indonesia. The air pollutant NO2 was monitored in this area as a preliminary study. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were measured by passive diffusion tube. Outdoor NO2 concentrations were measured at 94 locations, consisting of 30 roadside and 64 outdoor locations. Residential indoor NO2 concentrations were measured at 64 locations. To obtain a spatially continuous air quality map, the spatial interpolation methods of inverse distance weighting (IDW and Kriging were applied. Selection of interpolation method was done based on the smallest root mean square error (RMSE and standard deviation (SD. The most appropriate interpolation method for outdoor NO2 concentration mapping was Kriging with an SD value of 5.45 µg/m3 and an RMSE value of 5.45 µg/m3, while for indoor NO2 concentration mapping the IDW was best fitted with an RMSE value of 5.92 µg/m3 and an SD value of 5.92 µg/m3.

  2. Indoor air pollution and respiratory health in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentayeb, Malek; Simoni, Marzia; Norback, Dan; Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Viegi, Giovanni; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    Data on respiratory effects of indoor air pollution in elderly are scanty. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge on adverse respiratory effects of indoor air pollution in individuals aged over 65 years, by presenting existing epidemiological evidence. Using MEDLINE database through PubMed, we identified relevant publications published between 1991 and 2011 in English on respiratory health effects of indoor air pollution in elderly (>65 years). A total of 61 studies were found and after application of the inclusion criteria: (i) epidemiologic studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals between January 1991 and December 2011, (ii) study population with age over or equal 65 years, and (iii) outcome of respiratory symptoms and disease with the exclusion of lung cancer, 33 relevant publications were selected. Most of them showed significant relationships between exposure to major indoor air pollutants and various short-term and long-term respiratory health outcomes such as wheezing, breathlessness, cough, phlegm, asthma, COPD, lung cancer and more rarely lung function decline. The most consistent relationship is found between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Further studies in the elderly population are needed in order to define causal relationships between exposures to indoor air pollution and underlying mechanisms in this sub-population.

  3. Lead Poisoning at an Indoor Firing Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Wook; Park, Won Ju

    2017-10-01

    In March 2014, a 39-year-old Korean male presented with a 6-month history of various nonspecific symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, asthenia, irritability, elevated blood pressure, palpitation, eyestrain, and tinnitus. His occupational history revealed that he had been working as an indoor firing range manager for 13 months; therefore, he was subjected to a blood lead level (BLL) test. The test results showed a BLL of 64 μg/dL; hence, he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and immediately withdrawn from work. As evident from the workplace environmental monitoring, the level of lead exposure in the air exceeded its limit (0.015-0.387 mg/m³). He received chelation treatment with calcium-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1 g/day) for 5 days without any adverse effects. In the follow-up results after 2 months, the BLL had decreased to 9.7 μg/dL and the symptoms resolved. This report represents the first occupational case of lead poisoning in firing ranges in Korea, and this necessitates institutional management to prevent the recurrence of poisoning through this route. Workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. In clinical practice, it is essential to question the patient about his occupational history. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  4. An RFID Indoor Positioning Algorithm Based on Bayesian Probability and K-Nearest Neighbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Ding, Ye; Li, Peng; Wang, Ruchuan; Li, Yizhu

    2017-08-05

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used in outdoor environmental positioning. However, GPS cannot support indoor positioning because there is no signal for positioning in an indoor environment. Nowadays, there are many situations which require indoor positioning, such as searching for a book in a library, looking for luggage in an airport, emergence navigation for fire alarms, robot location, etc. Many technologies, such as ultrasonic, sensors, Bluetooth, WiFi, magnetic field, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), etc., are used to perform indoor positioning. Compared with other technologies, RFID used in indoor positioning is more cost and energy efficient. The Traditional RFID indoor positioning algorithm LANDMARC utilizes a Received Signal Strength (RSS) indicator to track objects. However, the RSS value is easily affected by environmental noise and other interference. In this paper, our purpose is to reduce the location fluctuation and error caused by multipath and environmental interference in LANDMARC. We propose a novel indoor positioning algorithm based on Bayesian probability and K -Nearest Neighbor (BKNN). The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter can filter some abnormal RSS values. The proposed BKNN algorithm has the smallest location error compared with the Gaussian-based algorithm, LANDMARC and an improved KNN algorithm. The average error in location estimation is about 15 cm using our method.

  5. An RFID Indoor Positioning Algorithm Based on Bayesian Probability and K-Nearest Neighbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is widely used in outdoor environmental positioning. However, GPS cannot support indoor positioning because there is no signal for positioning in an indoor environment. Nowadays, there are many situations which require indoor positioning, such as searching for a book in a library, looking for luggage in an airport, emergence navigation for fire alarms, robot location, etc. Many technologies, such as ultrasonic, sensors, Bluetooth, WiFi, magnetic field, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID, etc., are used to perform indoor positioning. Compared with other technologies, RFID used in indoor positioning is more cost and energy efficient. The Traditional RFID indoor positioning algorithm LANDMARC utilizes a Received Signal Strength (RSS indicator to track objects. However, the RSS value is easily affected by environmental noise and other interference. In this paper, our purpose is to reduce the location fluctuation and error caused by multipath and environmental interference in LANDMARC. We propose a novel indoor positioning algorithm based on Bayesian probability and K-Nearest Neighbor (BKNN. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter can filter some abnormal RSS values. The proposed BKNN algorithm has the smallest location error compared with the Gaussian-based algorithm, LANDMARC and an improved KNN algorithm. The average error in location estimation is about 15 cm using our method.

  6. Conference particulate matter and indoor environment, I.N.E.R.I.S.; Particulate matter and indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Comprehensive characterisation of indoor and outdoor air as well as pollution emission sources Integrated health and environmental risk assessment Scientific and technical basis for airborne pollution management and control Fine and coarse particles. The sources of indoor air pollution are originate separately, are transported separately, are removed from atmosphere by different mechanisms, have different optical properties, have different chemical properties, require different control techniques. for the health effects due to particles, they decrease the lung function, increase respiratory symptoms, increase chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, increased cardiovascular disease, increased mortality. The different sources contributing to the highest concentrations are: concentrations: tobacco smoking, cooking, vacuuming, dusting and sweeping, heaters, stoves, fireplaces and some other non identified sources. In the future we want more focus on fine and ultra fine particles, investigate source apportionment of particles, better understanding and quantification of exposure, to implement guidelines for particle concentration in indoor air and find better cleaning technologies. (N.C.)

  7. Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: Review of influencing factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodas, Natasha; Loh, Miranda; Shin, Hyeong-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major contributor to the global human disease burden. The indoor environment is of particular importance when considering the health effects associated with PM2.5 exposures because people spend the majority of their time indoors and PM2.5 exposures...... per unit mass emitted indoors are two to three orders of magnitude larger than exposures to outdoor emissions. Variability in indoor PM2.5 intake fraction (iFin,total), which is defined as the integrated cumulative intake of PM2.5 per unit of emission, is driven by a combination of building......-specific, human-specific, and pollutant-specific factors. Due to a limited availability of data characterizing these factors, however, indoor emissions and intake of PM2.5 are not commonly considered when evaluating the environmental performance of product life cycles. With the aim of addressing this barrier...

  8. Quick Estimation Model for the Concentration of Indoor Airborne Culturable Bacteria: An Application of Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor airborne culturable bacteria are sometimes harmful to human health. Therefore, a quick estimation of their concentration is particularly necessary. However, measuring the indoor microorganism concentration (e.g., bacteria usually requires a large amount of time, economic cost, and manpower. In this paper, we aim to provide a quick solution: using knowledge-based machine learning to provide quick estimation of the concentration of indoor airborne culturable bacteria only with the inputs of several measurable indoor environmental indicators, including: indoor particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10, temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration. Our results show that a general regression neural network (GRNN model can sufficiently provide a quick and decent estimation based on the model training and testing using an experimental database with 249 data groups.

  9. The Automobiles as Indoors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Acar Vaizoglu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review we aimed to attract attention to toxic chemicals in cars and their effect on health. People spend most of their times in indoors such as houses, workplaces, malls, sport centers, train, transportation vehicles (train, plane, cars. In US, citizens spend nearly 100 minutes in cars per day. There are safety problems in cars except than seatbelt and airbag. Some of these are seats, furnishing, cushions for arm and head, floor covering, accessories and plastic parts. In a study conducted in Japan, more than 160 volatile organic compounds (VOC had been determined in new cars and a three years old car. Some of the pollutants are formaldehyde, toluen, xylene, ethylbenzene and styrene. Also Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, which may be degradated by sunshine in hot seasons are measured within the outomobiles. There is a big gap of studies about the pollutants in cars and researches have to be conducted. Manufacturers should use nonhazardous material or less toxic chemicals to reduce exposure of VOCs, PBDEs and phthalates. Drivers can reduce the these chemicals by using solar reflectors and avoiding to park under sunlight. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 665-672

  10. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing

  11. Influence of user behavior on unsatisfactory indoor thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Biao; Long, Enshen; Meng, Xi; Zhang, Yuanze; Hou, Dongqi; Du, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The methodology of numerical simulation of 3D heat-flux visualization is proposed. • A full-scale model of prototype office for each influential factor was set up. • The simulation results were compared with the indoor occupant comfort levels. • The contrast of average temperature increase due to user behavior was presented. - Abstract: In areas of China that have hot summers and cold winters, the overall performance of HVAC systems in the poorly-insulated existing office buildings is generally not satisfactory, especially in extreme weather conditions. The reasons for the unsatisfactory indoor thermal environment were deduced, and to validate the findings, a methodology of numerical simulation for 3D heat-flux visualization was proposed. A full-scale model of a prototype office room was created, with representative working conditions for the characteristics of particular building. The results of the heat-flux visualization and temperature distribution showed that the overall effect was resulted from merged reasons, and that significance ranking of each reason varied when the outside environmental conditions changed. The simulation results were compared with the indoor occupant comfort levels of the volunteers who worked in the target room. Models of possible influential factors such as the outdoor temperature, opening or closing windows, and the effect of window shading devices (WSD) were set up. The influence of user behavior on indoor temperature in opening window, or not using WSD was proven to be significant in causing unfavorable indoor conditions. According to the visualized evaluation and analysis of the various factors, corresponding methods for both improving indoor thermal conditions and saving energy are proposed

  12. Enabling Indoor Location-Based Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura

    Indoor spaces have always attracted interest from different scientific disciplines. Relatively recent interest in indoor settings by computer scientists is driven in part by the increasing use of smartphones, which serve as a platform for service delivery and can generate extensive volumes...... of trajectory data that can be used to study how people actually use indoor spaces. In this dissertation, we contribute partial solutions that address challenges in indoor positioning and indoor trajectory management and analysis. The key enabler of indoor location-based services and indoor movement analysis...... is a well-functioning positioning system that can be easily deployed in most public places. Different technologies are able to provide indoor positioning with different accuracy and coverage, but it is difficult to find a technology that by itself can provide good positioning in the many different layouts...

  13. Cooperative Agreement Funding for Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  14. Antimicrobial Treatments of Indoor Mold and Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological contaminants especially mold in buildings are known to act as sources of indoor air pollution, discomfort, asthma and pulmonary disease to building occupants. Sick buildings are evidence of extremely problematic indoor air quality (IAQ), often resulting from unacceptab...

  15. Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ), which meets three times a year, was established by Congress to coordinate the activities of the Federal Government on issues relating to Indoor Air Quality.

  16. Fatigability in basic indoor mobility in nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Ekmann, Anette; Thinggaard, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and associated health factors of indoor mobility-related fatigability in nonagenarians.......To evaluate the prevalence and associated health factors of indoor mobility-related fatigability in nonagenarians....

  17. In search of a common European approach to a healthy indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adan, Olaf C G; Ng-A-Tham, Julie; Hanke, Wojtek

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, policymakers in Europe and around the world are realizing the importance of healthy indoor environments for public health. Certain member states of the European Union (EU) have already achieved successes in improving indoor environmental quality, such as controlling certain...... barriers: a) the subsidiarity principle in EU policymaking, introducing decentralization of decision making to the member states; b) fragmentation of the topic of the indoor environment; c) the differences in climate and governance among different member states that make a common policy difficult; and d...

  18. External eye symptoms in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, P

    2017-03-01

    Eye irritation, for example dry or irritated eyes, is generally among top three reported symptoms in office-like environments, in particular among workplaces with cognitive demanding visual display unit (VDU) work. The symptoms are especially among middle and advanced ages and particularly among women more than men. The symptoms are also among the most commonly reported complaints in the eye clinic. To be in a position to interpret the high prevalence of eye symptoms, a multidisciplinary and integrated approach is necessary that involves the external eye physiology (separate from internal eye effects), eye diseases (evaporative dry eye (DE), aqueous-deficient DE, and gland dysfunctions), and risk factors that aggravate the stability of precorneal tear film (PTF) resulting in hyperosmolarity and initiation of inflammatory reactions. Indoor environmental, occupational and personal risk factors may aggravate the PTF stability; factors such as age, contact lenses, cosmetics, diet, draft, gender, low humidity and high temperature, medication, outdoor and combustion pollutants, and VDU work. Psychological stressors may further influence the reporting behavior of eye symptoms. The impact of the risk factors may occur in a combined and exacerbating manner. © 2016 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Manual on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues

  20. Manual on indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  1. Differential barometric-based positioning technique for indoor elevation measurement in IoT medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Wen, Yingyou; Zhao, Dazhe

    2017-07-20

    Medical applications have begun to benefit from Internet of Things (IoT) technology through the introduction of wearable devices. Several medical applications require accurate patient location as various changes affect pressure parameters inside the body. This study aims to develop a system to measure indoor altitude for IoT medical applications. We propose a differential barometric-based positioning system to estimate the altitude between a reference sensor and a localizing sensor connected to the human body. The differential barometric altimetry model is introduced to estimate indoor elevations and eliminate environmental artifacts. In addition, a Gaussian filter processing is adopted to remove noise from the elevation measurements. The proposed system is then investigated through extensive experiments, using various evaluation criteria. The results indicate that the proposed system yielded good accuracy with reduced implementation complexity and fewer costs. The proposed system is resilient compared to other indoor localization approaches, even when numerous environmental artifacts in indoor environments are present.

  2. Literature survey on how different factors influence human comfort in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    examined the extent to which other factors unrelated to the indoor environment, such as individual characteristics of building occupants, building-related factors and outdoor climate including seasonal changes, influence whether the indoor environment is evaluated as comfortable or not. The results suggest...... environmental conditions influencing comfort in the built environment were surveyed: thermal, visual and acoustic, as well as air quality. The literature was surveyed to determine which of these conditions were ranked by building users as being the most important determinants of comfort. The survey also...... quality. Thermal comfort is ranked by building occupants to be of greater importance compared with visual and acoustic comfort and good air quality. It also seems to influence to a higher degree the overall satisfaction with indoor environmental quality compared with the impact of other indoor...

  3. 9 CFR 3.102 - Facilities, indoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.102 Section 3... Marine Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.102 Facilities, indoor. (a) Ambient temperature. The air and water temperatures in indoor facilities shall be sufficiently regulated by heating or...

  4. Multi-dimensional indoor location information model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Zlatanova, S.; Huang, L.; Zhou, Y.; Du, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the increasing requirements of seamless indoor and outdoor navigation and location service, a Chinese standard of Multidimensional Indoor Location Information Model is being developed, which defines ontology of indoor location. The model is complementary to 3D concepts like CityGML and

  5. Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2008-01-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame ret...... remarkably well with levels measured in dermal hand wipes for SVOCs possessing a wide range of octanol-air partition coefficients....

  6. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  7. Climate change consequences for the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists warn us about climate change and its effects on the outdoor environment. These effects can have significant consequences for the indoor environment, also in the Netherlands. Climate changes will affect different aspects of the indoor environment as well as the stakeholders of that indoor

  8. Study on indoor radon exposure and its effect on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei

    2005-01-01

    Radon and its daughters relate to people health. Radon widely exists in the nature. The paper discusses the source, exposure and activity level of indoor radon, systematically analyzes the hazards and dose-response of residential radon exposure, and at last indicates the concrete method of controlling residential radon concentration. By interdicting radon pollution source and ventilation might effectively reduce indoor radon concentration and improve environmental air quality. (authors)

  9. Changes to indoor air quality as a result of relocating families from slums to public housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Soledad; Ruiz, Pablo; Koifman, Rosalina

    2013-05-01

    One largely unstudied benefit of relocating families from slums to public housing is the potential improvement in indoor air quality (IAQ). We compared families that moved from slums to public housing with those that remained living in slums in Santiago, Chile in terms of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as main indicator of change. A cross-sectional study of 98 relocated families and 71 still living in slums was carried out, obtaining indoor and outdoor samples by a Personal Environmental Monitor. Home characteristics, including indoor air pollution sources were collected through questionnaires. Multivariate regression models included the intervention (public housing or slum), indoor pollution sources, outdoor PM2.5 and family characteristics as predictors. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were higher in slums (77.8 μg m-3 [SD = 35.7 μg m-3]) than in public housing (55.7 μg m-3 [SD = 34.6 μg m-3], p slum houses. The multivariate analysis showed that housing intervention significantly decreased indoor PM2.5 (10.4 μg m-3) after adjusting by the other predictors. Outdoor PM2.5 was the main predictor of indoor PM2.5. Other significant factors were water heating fuels and indoor smoking. Having infants 1-23 months was associated with a lowering of indoor PM2.5. Our results suggest that a public housing program that moves families from slums to public housing improves indoor air quality directly and also indirectly through air pollution sources.

  10. Indoor radon concentration and outdoor/indoor pressure difference correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Fronka, A.; Moucka, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the current approach to the radon issue, the radon risk for people living in a building is estimated based on the average indoor radon concentration. Short-term measurements as usually applied fail to reflect the wide range of radon variations arising from ventilation, radon supply and, in particular, human activities in the building. For this reason, efforts are made to find a new approach to the assessment of the quality of a building as a radon barrier, independent of the weather conditions and residential habits. A simple model of radon volume activity entering the building at a constant rate and simultaneously ventilated at a constant rate is applicable to this task. The rate of radon ingress can be regarded as a parameter making it possible to quantify the leakage of structures provided the barrier against the radon in a soil gas. The ventilation rate, on the other hand, characterizes the leakage of the whole building envelope at a given outdoor/indoor pressure difference. A unique measuring technique called the blower door exists whereby a defined pressure difference between the indoor and outdoor atmosphere can be established. Under such conditions both the ventilation rate and the rate of radon ingress can be measured and expressed as a function of the pressure difference. An analysis of the model of a room with a constant ventilation and constant radon supply is presented and the relationship between radon supply and ventilation rate can be assumed. Some experimental results show how the model can be utilized. The real indoor-outdoor air pressure differences, the indoor-soil air pressure differences, and some effects of different ventilation regimes are given. Other experiments, which have been done by using the blower door method, illustrate the possible effects and some restrictions for a routine application are discussed

  11. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    When a problem affects one out of every 13 children, it clearly is an issue that schools must address. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), that is the incident rate for asthma among the nation's children. The inflammatory disease causes a person's airways to constrict, leading to wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness…

  12. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of R and D on radon in the indoor environment at SCK-CEN is to (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions; to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps. Progress and main achievements in 1997 are reported on

  13. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  14. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  15. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  16. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history,…

  17. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATION UNIT CONVERSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migration of volatile chemicals from the subsurface into overlying buildings is called vapor intrusion (VI). Volatile organic chemicals in contaminated soils or groundwater can emit vapors, which can migrate through subsurface soils and may enter the indoor air of overlying buil...

  18. Ventilation influence upon indoor air radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Deyuan

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level. Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition, although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level. Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level. Therefore, the total indoor air Rn levels are normal > ventilation > exhaust or in-draft > exhaust plus in-draft

  19. Determination of fluorotelomer alcohols in selected consumer products and preliminary investigation of their fate in the indoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established an ongoing effort to identify the major perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) sources in nonoccupational indoor environments and characterize their transport and fate. This study determined the concentrations of perfluorote...

  20. Tetrabromobisphenol A in Indoor Dust from Houses and Internet Cafes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Pythias B. Espino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A or TBBPA is a widely used brominated flame retardant in modern materials such as electronic products, plastics and building materials. TBBPA can leach out of flame retardant-treated products during production, use, reuse, and final disposal of these consumer products. It has thus become a contemporary environmental contaminant. This study reports the levels of TBBPA in indoor dust from houses (n=4 and internet cafes (n=5 in Angono and Quezon City, in the Philippines. TBBPA in indoor dust was analyzed by ultrasonication-assisted hexane extraction and HPLC-UV determination. The instrument and method detection limits were 0.004 ng uL-1 and 1275 ng g-1, respectively. The standard calibration solutions ranged from 0.03 to 0.30 ng uL-1 (r2=0.9956. The extraction recovery was 78% (n=3. TBBPA was found in six of the nine indoor dust samples studied where the concentrations ranged from not detected to 4916 ng g-1. The occurrence and levels of TBBPA in indoor dusts are significant and suggest the need for further investigations especially in other microenvironments where people may be exposed to this contaminant.

  1. Indoor air quality and the law in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P

    1999-12-01

    With the greater use of air-conditioned offices in Singapore, achieving good indoor air quality has become an important issue. The laws that impose duties upon designers and contractors with respect to the design and construction of air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) systems are set out in the Building Control Regulations and the Singapore Standard Code of Practice for Mechanical Ventilation and Air-conditioning in Buildings (hereinafter "SS CP 13:1980"). ACMV maintenance is governed by the Environmental Public Health Act, the Building and Common Property (Maintenance and Management) Act, and the Land Titles (Strata) Act, as well as by lease or tenancy agreements. Designers, contractors, developers, building owners and management corporations may also be liable to the workers, occupants and other premises users for indoor air quality (IAQ)-related injuries under the general principles of contract and tort. Recently, the Guidelines for Good Indoor Air Quality in Office Premises was issued by the Ministry of Environment to complement SS CP 13:1980 toward improving the indoor air quality of air-conditioned office premises. Although the Guidelines have no statutory effect, they may be adopted as contractual requirements in construction, lease and maintenance contracts. They may also be used to determine the relevant standard of duty of care required to discharge tortious liability. This paper looks at the existing laws and rules affecting the design, construction and maintenance of air-conditioned offices in light of Part III of the Ministry's Guidelines.

  2. Measurements of indoor 222Rn concentration in two art galleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Braz, Delson; Jesus, Edgar Francisco de; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Medeiros, Geiza; Zouain, Felipe; Pitassi, Gabriel; Leite, Carlos Barros; Cardoso, Katia

    2009-01-01

    It is point out that radon and their decay products in environment give high dose to human lung. Studies indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has been considered probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after of smoking. A passive-type radon detector was used for measuring indoor radon concentration in two art galleries at Rio de Janeiro city during 90 days January to March, 2009. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occupational and public radon exposure in art galleries and museums. This paper shows the preliminary results of samples collected at two art galleries located in Gavea, Rio de Janeiro city. 30 LEXAN (GE) track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor). The samples were collected in the same building which is a construction of XIX century. The analysis of the results suggests that the 222 Rn concentration levels are different in both sampling site, in closed environmental, demonstrating that, although the construction materials are the same the absence of circulating air is a factor very important to increase the concentration of indoor Rn. (author)

  3. CSI Frequency Domain Fingerprint-Based Passive Indoor Human Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive indoor personnel detection technology is now a hot topic. Existing methods have been greatly influenced by environmental changes, and there are problems with the accuracy and robustness of detection. Passive personnel detection based on Wi-Fi not only solves the above problems, but also has the advantages of being low cost and easy to implement, and can be better applied to elderly care and safety monitoring. In this paper, we propose a passive indoor personnel detection method based on Wi-Fi, which we call FDF-PIHD (Frequency Domain Fingerprint-based Passive Indoor Human Detection. Through this method, fine-grained physical layer Channel State Information (CSI can be extracted to generate feature fingerprints so as to help determine the state in the scene by matching online fingerprints with offline fingerprints. In order to improve accuracy, we combine the detection results of three receiving antennas to obtain the final test result. The experimental results show that the detection rates of our proposed scheme all reach above 90%, no matter whether the scene is human-free, stationary or a moving human presence. In addition, it can not only detect whether there is a target indoors, but also determine the current state of the target.

  4. Individually Controlled Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and inhaled air quality in buildings to which occupants are exposed has an effect on their health, comfort, performance and productivity. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform environment. However, large...... individual differences in physiological and psychological response, clothing insulation, activity, preference for air temperature and movement, etc., exist between people. Environmental conditions acceptable for most of the occupants in buildings may be achieved by providing each occupant...

  5. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  6. Indoor air quality handbook: for designers, builders, and users of energy efficient residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to assist designers, builders, and users of energy efficient residences to achieve the goals of energy efficiency and maintenance of high indoor air quality simultaneously. The handbook helps in identifying and controlling potential problems of indoor air quality. It identifies sources and discusses effective ways to decrease concentrations of air contaminants. It focuses on indoor air quality in both single and multifamily energy-efficient residences. Information about commercial structures such as hospitals and office buildings is presented when it also applies to residences. Basic concepts of contaminants and their concentrations, sources and removal mechanisms, contaminant distribution, heat transfer, and air exchange are discussed. The effects of the building system on indoor air quality are examined. The effects of the external environment, building envelope, environmental control systems, interior design, furnishings, and inhabitants on the emission, dispersion, and removal of indoor air contaminants as well as direct and indirect effects of energy-efficient features are discussed. The health effects of specific air contaminants and the health standards developed for them are examined. Available methods for predicting and measuring contaminants and for evaluating human responses are discussed. Methods and equipment available for the control of indoor air pollution once the contaminants have been identified are also evaluated. The potential legal aspects, including regulatory intervention and civil lawsuits, of failure to evaluate and control indoor air pollution are discussed. A list of references, a glossary, and an index are also included

  7. A 2-year study of seasonal indoor radon variations in northern Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Chrosniak, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    The concentrations of indoor radon in the basements of homes located in northern Virginia average about 1.4 times the first-floor radon concentrations. Basement indoor radon concentrations exhibit seasonal variations that can be related to home use patterns of the occupants. Little indoor radon difference was seen between homes that have concrete block basement walls and poured concrete basement walls, but homes that use oil or gas furnaces for heating have ∼ 25% lower indoor radon than homes that use electrical heating systems. Particular geological units seem to be associated with elevated indoor radon concentrations, and several units are associated with indoor radon concentrations that exceed 4 pCi/l (the U.S. Environmental Agency action level) at some time in more than 40% of the homes. Comparative studies between indoor radon and total gamma aeroradioactivity show that aeroradioactivity can be accurately used to estimate community radon hazards. When combined with information about the home heating system, geology and aeroradioactivity can be used to identify problem homes

  8. Design and Development of a Nearable Wireless System to Control Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Lighting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salamone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of the project “open source smart lamp” aimed at designing and developing a smart object able to manage and control the indoor environmental quality (IEQ of the built environment. A first version of this smart object, built following a do-it-yourself (DIY approach using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, and techniques of additive manufacturing, allows the adjustment of the indoor thermal comfort quality (ICQ, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. As is well known, the IEQ is a holistic concept including indoor air quality (IAQ, indoor lighting quality (ILQ and acoustic comfort, besides thermal comfort. The upgrade of the smart lamp bridges the gap of the first version of the device providing the possibility of interaction with the air exchange unit and lighting system in order to get an overview of the potential of a nearable device in the management of the IEQ. The upgraded version was tested in a real office equipped with mechanical ventilation and an air conditioning system. This office was occupied by four workers. The experiment is compared with a baseline scenario and the results show how the application of the nearable device effectively optimizes both IAQ and ILQ.

  9. Indoor house pollution: appliance emissions and indoor ambient concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, T [Univ. of Santiago, Chile; Soto, H; Lissi, E; Cisternas, R

    1983-01-01

    Emissions rates for CO, NO, NO/sub 2/ adn CH/sub 2/O from several unvented gas and kerosene heaters frequently employed in domestic heating have been measured. The indoor concentrations generated by these emissions are evaluated and compared to those determined in typical houses. It is found that both the predicted and measured values exceed the short term air quality standards accepted in most countries.

  10. Fast Fingerprint Database Maintenance for Indoor Positioning Based on UGV SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning technology has become more and more important in the last two decades. Utilizing Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI fingerprints of Signals of OPportunity (SOP is a promising alternative navigation solution. However, as the RSSIs vary during operation due to their physical nature and are easily affected by the environmental change, one challenge of the indoor fingerprinting method is maintaining the RSSI fingerprint database in a timely and effective manner. In this paper, a solution for rapidly updating the fingerprint database is presented, based on a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV platform NAVIS. Several SOP sensors were installed on NAVIS for collecting indoor fingerprint information, including a digital compass collecting magnetic field intensity, a light sensor collecting light intensity, and a smartphone which collects the access point number and RSSIs of the pre-installed WiFi network. The NAVIS platform generates a map of the indoor environment and collects the SOPs during processing of the mapping, and then the SOP fingerprint database is interpolated and updated in real time. Field tests were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. The results showed that the fingerprint databases can be quickly created and updated with a higher sampling frequency (5Hz and denser reference points compared with traditional methods, and the indoor map can be generated without prior information. Moreover, environmental changes could also be detected quickly for fingerprint indoor positioning.

  11. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  13. Indoor plants as air cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Christensen, Jan H.; Müller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Plants have been used decoratively indoors for centuries. For the last 25-30 years, their beneficial abilities to reduce the levels of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the indoor air have also been investigated. Previous studies have shown that VOCs are removed by the plant itself...... experiments is not directly transferrable to real life settings. The largest problem is the use of closed chambers where there is no air exchange. This also results in a declining VOC concentration over time. Due to this limitation, we constructed a new experimental system which among others can allow for air...... exchange and a constant VOC concentration. With the new system it was found that removal rates obtained in chambers with air exchange and constant VOC concentration were significantly higher than removal rates obtained in closed chambers. This means that removal rates obtained in closed chambers may...

  14. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH IN ROMA VILLAGES IN SLOVAKIA AND ROMANIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Coman, Alexandru; Gallová, Eva; Ďuricová, Janka; Kállayová, Daniela; Kvaková, Mária; Bošák, Ľuboš

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The objective of this paper is to provide information on indoor air quality and on the quality of the broader indoor environment of the houses in Roma villages in Slovakia and Romania and to discuss possible implications for health. Methods Indoor air was sampled in 11 houses in a Romanian Roma village and in 19 houses in a Slovakian Roma village. Levels of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), total particulate matter (PM), temperature and humidity were measured. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to obtain additional information on the indoor environment and behavioural factors. We have sampled the same houses in winter and in summer. Results Levels of CO and CO2 were higher in winter in both countries as compared to summer. The limit value of 10 mg/m3 CO was exceeded in a few cases in both countries. In general, levels of CO, CO2 and PM were higher in Romania. Further environmental and behavioural hazards such as indoor smoking, pets inside or lack of ventilation were found. The reported self-perceived quality of the indoor environment was poor in many aspects. Conclusions Our findings of CO, CO2 and PM levels suggest that indoor air pollution in Roma settlements has the potential to be a health threat. The fact that the inhabitants spend a relatively long time inside the houses and that a number of additional environmental and behavioural hazards were identified by our study emphasizes the importance of the indoor air quality for health and thus priority attention should be paid to these issues by health authorities and researchers. Further research is essential and study designs must consider cultural background and specific characteristics of the community, especially in order to obtain valid data on health outcomes. PMID:23285520

  16. Introduction to the risk assessment workshop on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the emerging importance of the indoor air-quality problem and associated health risk concerns, on December 6-8, 1988 a three-day workshop on indoor air-quality risk assessment was jointly organized by Harvard University, Energy and Environmental Policy Center, and the Harvard School of Public Health. This introduction briefly summarizes the objectives of the workshop and its agenda. The workshop consisted of presentations and discussions by researchers from academic, government, and private institutions. Among the participants were those who have been involved in the design of major field studies of human exposure, physicians and toxicologists involved in clinical studies, human exposure modelers, and epidemiologists and health risk assessors. The overall objective of the workshop was to examine the critical elements needed to perform risk assessments on major indoor air pollutants. Eight pollutants were chosen for discussion: environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, radon, volatile organic compounds, biologicals, man-made mineral fibers, nitrogen dioxide, and semivolatile organic compounds. Twenty-two papers were presented in the workshop. Eight of these papers are published in this issue of Risk Analysis. Nine of the remaining fourteen will shortly be published in the 'Exposure Assessment Section' issue of the Journal of Toxicology and Industrial Health

  17. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  18. Indoor Air Quality and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous contaminants in indoor air and their potential to cause or exacerbate asthma continue to be a subject of public health concern. Many agents are causally associated with or can exacerbate asthma, particularly in children. For formaldehyde, an established respiratory irritant based on numerous studies, the evidence for an association with asthma is still considered only limited or suggestive. However, there is no evidence that indicates increased sensitivity to sensory irritation to formaldehyde in people often regarded as susceptible such as asthmatics. Acrolein, but not formaldehyde, was significantly associated with asthma in a large cohort of children. This prompted an evaluation of this highly irritating chemical that had never previously been considered in the context of the indoor air/childhood asthma issue. Because acrolein is more potent than formaldehyde as a respiratory irritant and ubiquitous in indoor air, it is plausible that previous studies on potential risk factors and childhood asthma may be confounded by formaldehyde acting as an unrecognized proxy for acrolein.

  19. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.; Sexton, K.

    1983-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  20. The Isprs Benchmark on Indoor Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshelham, K.; Díaz Vilariño, L.; Peter, M.; Kang, Z.; Acharya, D.

    2017-09-01

    Automated generation of 3D indoor models from point cloud data has been a topic of intensive research in recent years. While results on various datasets have been reported in literature, a comparison of the performance of different methods has not been possible due to the lack of benchmark datasets and a common evaluation framework. The ISPRS benchmark on indoor modelling aims to address this issue by providing a public benchmark dataset and an evaluation framework for performance comparison of indoor modelling methods. In this paper, we present the benchmark dataset comprising several point clouds of indoor environments captured by different sensors. We also discuss the evaluation and comparison of indoor modelling methods based on manually created reference models and appropriate quality evaluation criteria. The benchmark dataset is available for download at: html"target="_blank">http://www2.isprs.org/commissions/comm4/wg5/benchmark-on-indoor-modelling.html.

  1. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  2. Residential indoor air quality guideline : carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless gas that can be produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, but is most often formed during the incomplete combustion of organic materials. In the indoor environment, CO occurs directly as a result of emissions from indoor sources or as a result of infiltration from outdoor air containing CO. Studies have shown that the use of specific sources can lead to increased concentrations of CO indoors. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined the factors influencing the introduction, dispersion and removal of CO indoors. The health effects of exposure to low and higher concentrations of CO were discussed. Residential maximum exposure limits for CO were presented. Sources and concentrations in indoor environments were also examined. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Assessment of external dose indoors in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilkyte, L.; Butkus, D.; Morkunas, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was an assessment of external exposure indoors and its dependence on construction materials and indoor radon concentrations in Lithuanian living houses. Relationship of absorbed dose rate in air indoors and activity indexes of the most commonly used construction materials (wood, concrete and bricks) have been studied using results received in measurements done in >4700 rooms in 1995-2005. Possible connections of dose rate indoors with indoor radon concentrations are also discussed. Findings of this study helped to make an assessment of the mean value of effective dose of Lithuanian population due to external exposure indoors which is equal to 0.58 mSv y -1 . The received data might also be used in improvement of quality of personal dosimetric measurements done in premises constructed of different construction materials. (authors)

  4. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  5. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM, Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  6. Accurate estimation of indoor travel times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Stisen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to accurately estimate indoor travel times is crucial for enabling improvements within application areas such as indoor navigation, logistics for mobile workers, and facility management. In this paper, we study the challenges inherent in indoor travel time estimation, and we propose...... the InTraTime method for accurately estimating indoor travel times via mining of historical and real-time indoor position traces. The method learns during operation both travel routes, travel times and their respective likelihood---both for routes traveled as well as for sub-routes thereof. InTraTime...... allows to specify temporal and other query parameters, such as time-of-day, day-of-week or the identity of the traveling individual. As input the method is designed to take generic position traces and is thus interoperable with a variety of indoor positioning systems. The method's advantages include...

  7. Association between Four-Level Categorisation of Indoor Exposure and Perceived Indoor Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Tähtinen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and test a tool for assessing urgency of indoor air quality (IAQ measures. The condition of the 27 buildings were investigated and results were categorized. Statistical test studied the differences between the categories and the employees’ complaints about their work environment. To study the employees’ experiences of the work premises, a validated indoor air (IA questionnaire was used. This study reveals a multifaceted problem: many factors affecting IAQ may also affect perceived IAQ, making it difficult to separate the impurity sources and ventilation system deficiencies affecting to employee experiences. An examination of the relationship between the categories and perceived IAQ revealed an association between the mould odour perceived by employees and mould detected by the researcher. A weak link was also found between the assessed categories and environmental complaints. However, we cannot make far-reaching conclusions regarding the assessed probability of abnormal IA exposure in the building on the basis of employee experiences. According to the results, categorising tool can partly support the assessment of the urgency for repairs when several factors that affect IAQ are taken into account.

  8. Association between Four-Level Categorisation of Indoor Exposure and Perceived Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tähtinen, Katja; Lappalainen, Sanna; Karvala, Kirsi; Remes, Jouko; Salonen, Heidi

    2018-04-04

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a tool for assessing urgency of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures. The condition of the 27 buildings were investigated and results were categorized. Statistical test studied the differences between the categories and the employees’ complaints about their work environment. To study the employees’ experiences of the work premises, a validated indoor air (IA) questionnaire was used. This study reveals a multifaceted problem: many factors affecting IAQ may also affect perceived IAQ, making it difficult to separate the impurity sources and ventilation system deficiencies affecting to employee experiences. An examination of the relationship between the categories and perceived IAQ revealed an association between the mould odour perceived by employees and mould detected by the researcher. A weak link was also found between the assessed categories and environmental complaints. However, we cannot make far-reaching conclusions regarding the assessed probability of abnormal IA exposure in the building on the basis of employee experiences. According to the results, categorising tool can partly support the assessment of the urgency for repairs when several factors that affect IAQ are taken into account.

  9. Indoor radon seasonal variability at different floors of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Francesco, S.; Tommasone, F. Pascale; Cuoco, E.; Tedesco, D.

    2010-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations have been measured with the α track etch integrated method in public buildings in the town of Pietramelara, north-western Campania, Southern Italy. In particular, our measurements were part of an environmental monitoring program originally aimed at assessing the range of seasonal fluctuations in indoor radon concentrations, at various floors of the studied buildings. However, subsequent analysis of the data and its comparison with the meteorological data recorded in the same period has shown an unexpected pattern at the different floors. In this report we present data suggesting that, besides the well-known medium and longterm periodicity, there could also be a differentiation in major meteorological controlling factors at the different floors of the buildings, a fact that does not appear to have been reported previously. While the lower floors proved to be markedly affected by rainfall, for the upper floors, instead, a different behaviour has been detected, which could possibly be related to global solar radiation.

  10. Indoor Decontamination Textiles by Photocatalytic Oxidation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeezullah Memon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of researches have been made to make the textile intelligent and smarter; this is achieved by imparting functionality to the textile materials. The indoor environment possesses a variety of pollutants which do not come from the outer environment, but they come from the inner environment itself. Today, the smarter fabrics that may clean the indoor air have been studied by various researchers. The smarter fabrics contain the nanocoating of semiconductor oxides, mostly TiO2; thus the synthesis and application of these nanoparticles on the textile material have been reviewed in this paper. Moreover, there are lots of environmental and health issues regarding nanoparticles that have also been discussed in brief.

  11. Indoor Tanning Dependence in Young Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Atkins, Michael B; Ahn, Jaeil; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2017-11-01

    Background: There is mounting evidence that young people can develop a dependence on indoor tanning, but research on factors associated with indoor tanning dependence remains limited. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with indoor tanning dependence in a community sample of 389 non-Hispanic white young adult women ages 18 to 30 who had indoor tanned ≥1 time in the past year. Participants completed measures of indoor tanning dependence, including the modified CAGE and modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV psychiatric screening assessments, indoor tanning behavior and beliefs, and behavioral and psychiatric comorbidity. Results: Overall, 22.6% of the sample screened positive for indoor tanning dependence. In multivariable analyses, indoor tanning dependence was associated with younger age of indoor tanning initiation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79; P = 0.017], indoor tanning ≥20 times in the past year (aOR = 3.03; P = 0.015), stronger beliefs about the benefits of tanning (aOR = 2.15; P = 0.004), greater perceived susceptibility to indoor tanning risks (aOR = 2.72; P tanning dependence among young, non-Hispanic white women is associated with behaviors that increase the risk of skin cancer, beliefs favoring the perceived benefits of tanning, and comorbid risks such as stronger beliefs about physical appearance and depressed mood. Impact: Comprehensive skin cancer prevention efforts should address indoor tanning dependence among young women and its leading risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1636-43. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Internet-Based Indoor Navigation Services

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinalipour-Yazti, Demetrios; Laoudias, Christos; Georgiou, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone advances are leading to a class of Internet-based Indoor Navigation services. IIN services rely on geolocation databases that store indoor models, comprising floor maps and points of interest, along with wireless, light, and magnetic signals for localizing users. Developing IIN services creates new information management challenges - such as crowdsourcing indoor models, acquiring and fusing big data velocity signals, localization algorithms, and custodians' location privacy. Here, ...

  13. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in indoor and outdoor air in an eight-home study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jane C.; Mack, Gregory A.; Kuhlman, Michael R.; Wilson, Nancy K.

    A pilot field study was performed in Columbus, OH, during the winter of 1986/1987. The objectives were to determine the feasibility of the use of a newly developed quiet sampler in indoor air sampling for particles and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) and to measure the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in air in selected residences. Eight homes were chosen for sampling on the basis of these characteristics: electric/gas heating system, electric/gas cooking appliances, and the absence/presence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The indoor sampler was equipped with a quartz-fiber filter to collect particles followed by XAD-4 resin to trap SVOC. A PS-1 sampler with a similar sampling module was used outdoors. The indoor air was sampled in the kitchen and living room areas over two consecutive 8-h periods. The outdoor air was sampled concurrently with the indoor samples over a 16-h period. Fifteen PAH, five nitro-PAH, five oxygenated PAH, and three nitrogen heterocyclic compounds were determined in these samples. The most abundant PAH found indoors was naphthalene. The indoor concentrations of PAH derivatives were lower than those of their parent compounds. Average concentrations of all but three target compounds (naphthalene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, pyrene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, and 2-nitrofluoranthene) were higher indoors than outdoors. Environmental tobacco smoke was the most significant influence on indoor pollutant levels. Homes with gas heating systems had higher indoor pollutant levels than homes with electric heating systems. However, the true effects of heating and cooking systems were not characterized as accurately as the effects of ETS because of the small sample sizes and the lack of statistical significance for most pollutant differences in the absence of ETS. The concentrations of PAH marker compounds (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) correlated well with the concentrations

  15. Indoor air quality: a UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadge, A.

    1995-01-01

    Outdoor air quality has generally improved in the UK over the last 2 decades but during this period changing conditions within the home have tended to reduce ventilation and increase the opportunity for accumulation of undesirable levels of indoor air pollutants. Information obtained from laboratory and epidemiological studies suggest that indoor air pollutants are an important cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality in the UK. This paper reviews the major indoor air pollutants of concern in the UK and considers some of the special issues relevant to indoor environment. (author) 3 figs., 37 refs

  16. Capturing Hotspots For Constrained Indoor Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Finding the hotspots in large indoor spaces is very important for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation and guidance. The tracking data coming from indoor tracking are huge in volume and not readily available for finding hotspots. This paper presents a graph......-based model for constrained indoor movement that can map the tracking records into mapping records which represent the entry and exit times of an object in a particular location. Then it discusses the hotspots extraction technique from the mapping records....

  17. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with incidental high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia on the indoor climate and

  18. Characterization of indoor bioaerosols from a hospital ward in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of indoor bioaerosols from a hospital ward in a tropical ... assessment of indoor air quality and determine pathogenic microorganisms due to particle fall-out. Key words: Indoor air, bioaerosols, hospital ward, tropical setting ...

  19. MY 20 YEARS EXPERIENCE IN CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES IN CHINA: (1) STUDIES ON LUNG CANCER AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN YUNNAN AND (2) HEALTH EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a research health scientist at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, I have been very fortunate to have opportunities to work as a principal investigator for two major environmental health research projects. The first study was conducted in 1983-1996 under a formal U.S.-China ...

  20. Risk factors for severe injury following indoor and outdoor falls in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hyu

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the characteristics of indoor and outdoor falls in older patients and the factors related to severe injury in the emergency department (ED). In total, 26,515 patients fell indoors and 19,581 outdoors. The general and clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups and factors associated with severe injury following the falls were evaluated. Younger males fell more frequently outdoors than indoors. The common activities during outdoor falls were sports and leisure activities. Environmental hazards lead to more outdoor falls than indoor falls. Factors associated with severe injury after indoor falls were transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility rather than individual transportation, fall from stairs rather than fell over, and a head and neck injury rather than a lower extremity injury. Factors related to severe injury after outdoor falls were male sex, transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility or by another method rather than individual transportation, state employed, fall from stairs rather than fell over, head and neck or thorax or abdomen injury rather than a lower extremity injury. Transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility, and head and neck injury were risks for severe injury following indoor and outdoor falls in elderly subjects. Efforts to identify the risk factors for severe injury and for falling itself are important to prevent and reduce fall injuries in elderly subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Impact of air fresheners and deodorizers on the indoor total volatile organic compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Hideto; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Obama, Tomoko; Miyagawa, Makoto; Yoshikawa, Jun; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Tokunaga, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a growing health concern because of the increased incidence of the building-related illness, such as sick-building syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity/idiopathic environmental intolerance. In order to effectively reduce the unnecessary chemical exposure in the indoor environment, it would be important to quantitatively compare the emissions from many types of sources. Besides the chemical emissions from the building materials, daily use of household products may contribute at significant levels to the indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, we investigated the emission rate of VOCs and carbonyl compounds for 30 air fresheners and deodorizers by the standard small chamber test method (JIS A 1901). The total VOC (TVOC) emission rates of these household products ranged from the undetectable level (fragrances in the products account for the major part of the TVOC emissions. Based on the emission rates, the impacts on the indoor TVOC were estimated by the simple model with a volume of 17.4 m3 and a ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The mean of the TVOC increment for the indoor air fresheners was 170 microg/m3, accounting for 40% of the current provisional target value, 400 microg/m3. These results suggest that daily use of household products can significantly influence the indoor air quality.

  2. Estimation of sources and factors affecting indoor VOC levels using basic numerical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Mentese

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs are a concern due to their adverse health effects and extensive usage. Levels of indoor VOCs were measured in six homes located in three different towns in Çanakkale, Turkey. Monthly indoor VOC samples were collected by passive sampling throughout a year. The highest levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC, benzene, toluene, and xylenes occurred in industrial, rural, and urban sites in a descending order. VOC levels were categorized as average values annually, during the heating period, and non-heating period. Several building/environmental factors together with occupants’ habits were scored to obtain a basic indoor air pollution index (IAPi for the homes. Bivariate regression analysis was applied to find the associations between the pollutant levels and home scores. IAPi scores were found to be correlated with average indoor VOC levels. In particular, very strong associations were found for occupants’ habits. Furthermore, observed indoor VOC levels were categorized by using self-organizing map (SOM and two simple scoring approaches, rounded average and maximum value methods, to classify the indoor environments based on their VOC compositions (IAPvoc. Three classes were used for both IAPi and IAPvoc approaches, namely “good”, “moderate”, and “bad”. There is an urgent need for indexing studies to determine the potential sources and/or factors affecting observed VOCs. This study gives a basic but good start for further studies.

  3. Development of an indoor air quality checklist for risk assessment of indoor air pollutants by semiquantitative score in nonindustrial workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan1, B Mohd Rafee1, Juahir Hafizan2, AZF Azman1, AM Nizar3, Z Izwyn4, AA Muhaimin5, MA Syafiq Yunos6, AR Anita1, J Muhamad Hanafiah1, MS Shaharuddin1, A Mohd Ibthisham7, Mohd Hasmadi Ismail8, MN Mohamad Azhar1, HS Azizan1, I Zulfadhli9, J Othman101Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia; 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT, Industrial Technology Division (BTI, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Malaysia; 7Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 8Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 9Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 10Department of Counsellor Education and Counselling Psychology (DCECP, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: To meet the current diversified health needs in workplaces, especially in nonindustrial workplaces in developing countries, an indoor air quality (IAQ component of a participatory occupational safety and health survey should be included.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and suggest a multidisciplinary, integrated IAQ checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants. This IAQ checklist proposed to support

  4. Indoor aerosol modeling for assessment of exposure and respiratory tract deposited dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Tareq; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Löndahl, Jakob; Lazaridis, Mihalis; Hänninen, Otto

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the major environmental problems that influence people's health. Exposure to harmful particulate matter (PM) occurs both outdoors and indoors, but while people spend most of their time indoors, the indoor exposures tend to dominate. Moreover, higher PM concentrations due to indoor sources and tightness of indoor environments may substantially add to the outdoor originating exposures. Empirical and real-time assessment of human exposure is often impossible; therefore, indoor aerosol modeling (IAM) can be used as a superior method in exposure and health effects studies. This paper presents a simple approach in combining available aerosol-based modeling techniques to evaluate the real-time exposure and respiratory tract deposited dose based on particle size. Our simple approach consists of outdoor aerosol data base, IAM simulations, time-activity pattern data-base, physical-chemical properties of inhaled aerosols, and semi-empirical deposition fraction of aerosols in the respiratory tract. These modeling techniques allow the characterization of regional deposited dose in any metric: particle mass, particle number, and surface area. The first part of this presentation reviews recent advances in simple mass-balance based modeling methods that are needed in analyzing the health relevance of indoor exposures. The second part illustrates the use of IAM in the calculations of exposure and deposited dose. Contrary to previous methods, the approach presented is a real-time approach and it goes beyond the exposure assessment to provide the required information for the health risk assessment, which is the respiratory tract deposited dose. This simplified approach is foreseen to support epidemiological studies focusing on exposures originating from both indoor and outdoor sources.

  5. Impact of ventilation systems and energy savings in a building on the mechanisms governing the indoor radon activity concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignan, Bernard; Powaga, Emilie

    2017-11-23

    For a given radon potential in the ground and a given building, the parameters affecting the indoor radon activity concentration (IRnAC) are indoor depressurization of a building and its air change rate. These parameters depend mainly on the building characteristics, such as airtightness, and on the nature and performances of the ventilation system. This study involves a numerical sensitivity assessment of the indoor environmental conditions on the IRnAC in buildings. A numerical ventilation model has been adapted to take into account the effects of variations in the indoor environmental conditions (depressurization and air change rate) on the radon entry rate and on the IRnAC. In the context of the development of a policy to reduce energy consumption in a building, the results obtained showed that IRnAC could be strongly affected by variations in the air permeability of the building associated with the ventilation regime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Indoor climate optimization with limited resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, A.; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    This report presents experimental data and models for optimisation of the indoor climate parameters temperature, noise, draught and window opening. Results are based on experiments with human subjects performed in climate chambers at University of the Philippines. The report may assist building...... designers to balance attention and resources between the parameters of the indoor climate when resources are less than optimal....

  7. Allegheny County Clean Indoor Air Act Exemptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List and location of all the businesses and social clubs who have received an exemption from the Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act. “The Clean Indoor Air Act, Act...

  8. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, positioning systems are becoming available that enable indoor location-based services. As a result, indoor tracking data is also becoming available. This paper puts focus on one use of such data, namely the identification of typical movement patterns...

  9. In-plane user positioning indoors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, N.; Özçelebi, T.; Lukkien, J.J.; Skoric, B.; Ignatenko, T.

    2014-01-01

    Indoor positioning is a service required by many smart environment applications for various purposes, such as activity classification, indoor navigation and context awareness. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the user positioning problem based on in-plane detection enabled by a set of

  10. Indoor Air Quality: Maryland Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, College Park. Office of Administration and Finance.

    Less than adequate indoor air quality in schools can lead to a higher risk of health problems, an increase in student and teacher absenteeism, diminished learning, and even hazardous conditions. An indoor air quality program that addresses the planning, design, maintenance, and operation of public school buildings should be implemented at the…

  11. Indoor Air Quality Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems. Some pollutants can be chemicals, gases, and living or

  12. Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Indoor air quality is a major concern for educators involved in the development of new school facilities, or the remodeling and maintenance of existing ones. This guide addresses the issue of air quality, the health concerns involved, and procedures for minimizing the impact of pollutants in the school environment. It defines common indoor air…

  13. Online Risk Prediction for Indoor Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Calders, Toon

    2016-01-01

    Technologies such as RFID and Bluetooth have received considerable attention for tracking indoor moving objects. In a time-critical indoor tracking scenario such as airport baggage handling, a bag has to move through a sequence of locations until it is loaded into the aircraft. Inefficiency or in...... reduce the operation cost....

  14. Indoor household pesticides: hazardous waste concern or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J M; Guiney, P D; Howard, P H; Aronson, D B; Gray, D A

    2000-01-01

    Many indoor household pesticides are efficient and useful tools for a variety of functions necessary to maintain clean, sanitary, and pleasant homes and institutional facilities, and to provide significant public health benefits. They do so by incorporating active ingredients and formulation technology that have not been associated with significant environmental impact in use or when disposed in landfills. Chemical and environmental fate properties, toxicological characteristics, and use patterns of indoor household pesticides that distinguish them from other categories of pesticides which have been associated with environmental contamination should be recognized when HHW policy is debated and established by governmental agencies. Most indoor household pesticides as defined here should not be considered hazardous waste or HHW because those relatively few containers, often no longer full, that have been disposed with MSW over the years have not been associated with environmental contamination. The tiny amounts of those product residues that will reach MSW landfills have been shown, in general, not to have chemical or environmental fate characteristics that would make them susceptible to leaching. Those that do have the potential to leach based on these characteristics, in most cases, do not represent a threat to human health based on toxicological considerations. However, compounds such as propoxur, which are very mobile and relatively persistent in soil and in addition have been associated with significant potential health effects, may be targeted by the screening process as described here and could be selected for further investigation as candidates for special waste management status (such as HHW). Our analysis and recommendations have not been extended to the many types of lawn and garden pesticides that are commonly used by homeowners and are frequently brought to HHW programs. However, their potential for groundwater contamination could also be judged using

  15. Human perception, productivity and symptoms related to indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P

    1998-08-01

    Three objectives of the present study are formulated: (1) to investigate whether total sensory pollution load on the air in space can be estimated by adding sensory pollution loads from the individual pollution sources; (2) to develop alternative reference exposures which can be used to calibrate sensory evaluations of the air quality indoors made by trained subjects; and (3) to investigate whether decreasing the pollution loads on the air indoors is an effective measure for improving the perceived air quality, reducing the prevalence of health symptoms and increasing people`s productivity. Limited data exist on the addition of families of sensory pollution, sources, i.e., building materials, people and tobacco smoke (research was mainly performed on building materials), and that no field study on addition has been carried out previously. Consequently, laboratory and field experiments on the addition of families of sensory pollution sources were undertaken. Reducing the sensory pollution load on the air indoors proved to be an effective and energy-efficient measure to improve the perceived quality of air, to lower the prevalence of symptoms and to improve productivity. Suggestions for future experiments are made including, i.a., using other sub-populations of subjects stratified for age, sensitivity and type of work, other pollution sources, as well as the independent measures design and repeated exposures to the same environmental conditions. (EG) 209 refs.

  16. Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, ozone (O3, airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, bacteria and fungi. Results showed that the CO2, CO and HCHO levels met the stipulated standards as regulated by Taiwan’s Indoor Air Quality Management Act (TIAQMA. However, elevated PM10 and PM2.5 levels were measured at most stations. TVOCs and bacterial concentrations at some stations measured in summer were higher than the regulated standards stipulated by Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration. Further studies should be conducted to reduce particulate matters, TVOCs and bacteria in the air of subway stations.

  17. Indoor tetrachloroethylene levels and determinants in Paris dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Célina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Ramond, Anna; Momas, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    There is growing public health concern about indoor air quality. Tetrachloroethylene (PERC), a chlorinated volatile organic compound widely used as a solvent in dry cleaning facilities, can be a residential indoor air pollutant. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS (Pollution and asthma Risk: an Infant Study) birth cohort, this study firstly aimed to document domestic PERC levels, and then to identify the factors influencing these levels using standardized questionnaires about housing characteristics and living conditions. Air samples were collected in the child's bedroom over one week using passive devices when infants were 1, 6, 9, and 12 months. PERC was identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PERC annual domestic level was calculated by averaging seasonal levels. PERC was omnipresent indoors, annual levels ranged from 0.6 to 124.2 μg/m3. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models showed that proximity to dry cleaning facilities, do-it-yourself activities (e.g.: photographic development, silverware), presence of air vents, and building construction date (<1945) were responsible for higher domestic levels of PERC. This study, conducted in an urban context, provides helpful information on PERC contamination in dwellings, and identifies parameters influencing this contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Indoor Climate of Large Glazed Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Ole Juhl; Madsen, Christina E.; Heiselberg, Per

    In recent years large glazed spaces has found increased use both in connection with renovation of buildings and as part of new buildings. One of the objectives is to add an architectural element, which combines indoor- and outdoor climate. In order to obtain a satisfying indoor climate it is crui...... it is cruicial at the design stage to be able to predict the performance regarding thermal comfort and energy consumption. This paper focus on the practical implementation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the relation to other simulation tools regarding indoor climate.......In recent years large glazed spaces has found increased use both in connection with renovation of buildings and as part of new buildings. One of the objectives is to add an architectural element, which combines indoor- and outdoor climate. In order to obtain a satisfying indoor climate...

  19. Characterizing the source of radon indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1983-09-01

    Average indoor radon concentrations range over more than two orders of magnitude, largely because of variability in the rate at which radon enters from building materials, soil, and water supplies. Determining the indoor source magnitude requires knowledge of the generation of radon in source materials, its movement within materials by diffusion and convection, and the means of its entry into buildings. This paper reviews the state of understanding of indoor radon sources and transport. Our understanding of generation rates in and movement through building materials is relatively complete and indicates that, except for materials with unusually high radionuclide contents, these sources can account for observed indoor radon concentrations only at the low end of the range observed. Our understanding of how radon enters buildings from surrounding soil is poorer, however recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that soil may be the predominant source in many cases where the indoor radon concentration is high. 73 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  20. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  1. Evolution of Indoor Positioning Technologies: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon F. Brena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning systems (IPS use sensors and communication technologies to locate objects in indoor environments. IPS are attracting scientific and enterprise interest because there is a big market opportunity for applying these technologies. There are many previous surveys on indoor positioning systems; however, most of them lack a solid classification scheme that would structurally map a wide field such as IPS, or omit several key technologies or have a limited perspective; finally, surveys rapidly become obsolete in an area as dynamic as IPS. The goal of this paper is to provide a technological perspective of indoor positioning systems, comprising a wide range of technologies and approaches. Further, we classify the existing approaches in a structure in order to guide the review and discussion of the different approaches. Finally, we present a comparison of indoor positioning approaches and present the evolution and trends that we foresee.

  2. Accumulative effects of indoor air pollution exposure on leukocyte telomere length among non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Nan; Mu, Xinlin; Wang, Guilian; Ren, Yu'ang; Su, Shu; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Bin; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is an important environmental factor that contributes to the burden of various diseases. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with telomere shortening. However, the association between chronic indoor air pollution from household fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length has not been studied. In our study, 137 cancer-free non-smokers were recruited. Their exposure levels to indoor air pollution from 1985 to 2014 were assessed using a face-to-face interview questionnaire, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured using a monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method. Accumulative exposure to solid fuel usage for cooking was negatively correlated with LTL. The LTL of residents who were exposed to solid fuel combustion for three decades (LTL = 0.70 ± 0.17) was significantly shorter than that of other populations. In addition, education and occupation were related to both exposure to solid fuel and LTL. Sociodemographic factors may play a mediating role in the correlation between leukocyte telomere length and environmental exposure to indoor air pollution. In conclusion, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution may cause LTL dysfunction. - Highlights: • This is the first study to investigate a clear association between indoor air pollution and leukocyte telomere length. • Chronic exposure to household solid fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length presented a negative correlation. • Shortest leukocyte telomere length belonged to population cooking for longest time. • Education and occupation were remarkably associated with leukocyte telomere length via relating with indoor air pollution. - Long-term exposure to household solid fuel combustion is negatively associated with LTL.

  3. Indoor radon in Tunisian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labidi, S.; Al-Azmi, Darwish; Ben Salah, R.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in four well-known spas of Tunisia using nuclear track detectors. The radon concentrations in these spas were found to be in the range of 19 - 870 Bq.m -3 . The equilibrium factor F between radon and its progeny was found to vary in the range of 0.2 - 0.5, depending upon the ventilation rates within the buildings of the spas. Using the exposure-dose conversion factor, the effective doses to patients and workers were estimated and the dose was found to vary in the range 3.7 x 10 -3 - 12.5 x 10 -3 mSv.y -1 and 0.45 - 1.5 mSv.y -1 for patients and workers, respectively. These values are well inside the limit recommended for the annual dose limit of 20 mSv.y -1 for an occupational worker. The radium content in the groundwater of all four spas was measured and the results showed no correlation between the 226 Ra concentration in water and radon concentration in indoor air of the investigated spas. (authors)

  4. Indoor air and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, G.; Rudolph, R.; Muckelmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infections of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chemico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  5. Indoor radon and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises the epidemiological literature on domestic exposure to radon and risk for childhood leukaemia. The results of 12 ecological studies show a consistent pattern of higher incidence and mortality rates for childhood leukaemia in areas with higher average indoor radon concentrations. Although the results of such studies are useful to generate hypotheses, they must be interpreted with caution, as the data were aggregated and analysed for geographical areas and not for individuals. The seven available case - control studies of childhood leukaemia with measurement of radon concentrations in the residences of cases and controls gave mixed results, however, with some indication of a weak (relative risk < 2) association with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The epidemiological evidence to date suggests that an association between indoor exposure to radon and childhood leukaemia might exist, but is weak. More case - control studies are needed, with sufficient statistical power to detect weak associations and based on designs and methods that minimise misclassification of exposure and provide a high participation rate and low potential selection bias. (authors)

  6. Predictors of Indoor Radon Concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1989-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joan A; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; Rasmussen, Sara G; Irving, Jennifer K; Pollak, Jonathan; Locke, Paul A; Schwartz, Brian S

    2015-11-01

    Radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer worldwide. Most indoor exposure occurs by diffusion of soil gas. Radon is also found in well water, natural gas, and ambient air. Pennsylvania has high indoor radon concentrations; buildings are often tested during real estate transactions, with results reported to the Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). We evaluated predictors of indoor radon concentrations. Using first-floor and basement indoor radon results reported to the PADEP between 1987 and 2013, we evaluated associations of radon concentrations (natural log transformed) with geology, water source, building characteristics, season, weather, community socioeconomic status, community type, and unconventional natural gas development measures based on drilled and producing wells. Primary analysis included 866,735 first measurements by building, with the large majority from homes. The geologic rock layer on which the building sat was strongly associated with radon concentration (e.g., Axemann Formation, median = 365 Bq/m3, IQR = 167-679 vs. Stockton Formation, median = 93 Bq/m3, IQR = 52-178). In adjusted analysis, buildings using well water had 21% higher concentrations (β = 0.191, 95% CI: 0.184, 0.198). Buildings in cities (vs. townships) had lower concentrations (β = -0.323, 95% CI: -0.333, -0.314). When we included multiple tests per building, concentrations declined with repeated measurements over time. Between 2005 and 2013, 7,469 unconventional wells were drilled in Pennsylvania. Basement radon concentrations fluctuated between 1987 and 2003, but began an upward trend from 2004 to 2012 in all county categories (p Pennsylvania, 1989-2013. Environ Health Perspect 123:1130-1137; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409014.

  7. Predictors of Indoor Radon Concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1989–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joan A.; Ogburn, Elizabeth L.; Rasmussen, Sara G.; Irving, Jennifer K.; Pollak, Jonathan; Locke, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer worldwide. Most indoor exposure occurs by diffusion of soil gas. Radon is also found in well water, natural gas, and ambient air. Pennsylvania has high indoor radon concentrations; buildings are often tested during real estate transactions, with results reported to the Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Objectives We evaluated predictors of indoor radon concentrations. Methods Using first-floor and basement indoor radon results reported to the PADEP between 1987 and 2013, we evaluated associations of radon concentrations (natural log transformed) with geology, water source, building characteristics, season, weather, community socioeconomic status, community type, and unconventional natural gas development measures based on drilled and producing wells. Results Primary analysis included 866,735 first measurements by building, with the large majority from homes. The geologic rock layer on which the building sat was strongly associated with radon concentration (e.g., Axemann Formation, median = 365 Bq/m3, IQR = 167–679 vs. Stockton Formation, median = 93 Bq/m3, IQR = 52–178). In adjusted analysis, buildings using well water had 21% higher concentrations (β = 0.191, 95% CI: 0.184, 0.198). Buildings in cities (vs. townships) had lower concentrations (β = –0.323, 95% CI: –0.333, –0.314). When we included multiple tests per building, concentrations declined with repeated measurements over time. Between 2005 and 2013, 7,469 unconventional wells were drilled in Pennsylvania. Basement radon concentrations fluctuated between 1987 and 2003, but began an upward trend from 2004 to 2012 in all county categories (p Pennsylvania, 1989–2013. Environ Health Perspect 123:1130–1137; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409014 PMID:25856050

  8. Accumulative effects of indoor air pollution exposure on leukocyte telomere length among non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Mu, Xinlin; Wang, Guilian; Ren, Yu'ang; Su, Shu; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Bin; Tao, Shu

    2017-08-01

    Indoor air pollution is an important environmental factor that contributes to the burden of various diseases. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with telomere shortening. However, the association between chronic indoor air pollution from household fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length has not been studied. In our study, 137 cancer-free non-smokers were recruited. Their exposure levels to indoor air pollution from 1985 to 2014 were assessed using a face-to-face interview questionnaire, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured using a monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method. Accumulative exposure to solid fuel usage for cooking was negatively correlated with LTL. The LTL of residents who were exposed to solid fuel combustion for three decades (LTL = 0.70 ± 0.17) was significantly shorter than that of other populations. In addition, education and occupation were related to both exposure to solid fuel and LTL. Sociodemographic factors may play a mediating role in the correlation between leukocyte telomere length and environmental exposure to indoor air pollution. In conclusion, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution may cause LTL dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Indoor air quality : Tools for schools action kits for Canadian schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Few people realize that indoor air pollution can contribute to health effects like asthma. Several agencies, notably the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have indicated that levels of indoor pollutants can be significantly higher than those found outside. As such, poor indoor air quality (IAQ) could impact the health of students and staff, as well as the educational process and costs. Many factors can influence IAQ, including building materials, furnishings, cleaning agents, pesticides, printing and copying devices, and more. Reduction in IAQ can also result from tighter buildings and reduced ventilation. This kit was developed by Health Canada in collaboration with the Indoor Air Quality Working Group of the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Environmental and Occupational Health (CEOH) to provide school officials with the tools to prevent, identify, assess, and address most indoor air problems while minimizing cost and involvement. It was suggested that trained professionals should perform the limited and well-defined set of operations and maintenance activities described in the kit.

  10. A CFD study for evaluating the effects of natural ventilation on indoor comfort conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mora-Pérez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in improving energy efficiency in buildings due to the increased awareness about environmental impact and energy cost. Natural ventilation is an environmentally friendly technique which has become more attractive way for reducing energy use while it also provides acceptable comfort conditions. The research shows a case study building in which the natural ventilation effect due to wind-driven forces on indoor comfort conditions is evaluated. Moreover, the architectural solutions selected during the building design phase to improve the natural ventilation behaviour are successfully validated in a full-scale building. The indoor comfort conditions are evaluated through contrasted performance indicators: draught risk (DR, predicted percentage of dissatisfied people (PPD and predicted mean vote (PMV indexes. The results show that air movement due to natural ventilation allows increasing indoor air temperature maintaining the initial comfort conditions. Therefore, the mechanical air conditioning use can be postponed until the indoor air temperature is high and would, consequently, reduce the total building energy consumption. Thereby, a proper natural ventilation focus during the initial design stage could improve the building energy efficiency without compromising the indoor comfort conditions.

  11. A statistical procedure for the qualification of indoor dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Valdirene O.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Sato, Ivone M.

    2009-01-01

    The materials science advance has contributed to the humanity. Notwithstanding, serious environmental and human health problems are often observed. Thereby, many worldwide researchers have focused their work to diagnose, assess and monitor several environmental systems. In this work, a statistical procedure (on a 0.05 significance level) that allows verifying if indoor dust samples have characteristics of soil/sediment is presented. Dust samples were collected from 69 residences using a domestic vacuum cleaner in four neighborhoods of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, between 2006 and 2008. The samples were sieved in the fractions of 150-75 (C), 75-63 (M) and <63 μm (F). The elemental concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). Afterwards, the indoor samples results (group A) were compared to the group of 109 certificated reference materials, which included different kinds of geological matrices, such as clay, sediment, sand and sludge (group B) and to the continental crust values (group C). Initially, the Al/Si ratio was calculated for the groups (A, B, C). The variance analysis (ANOVA), followed by Tukey test, was used to find out if there was a significant difference between the concentration means of the considered groups. According to the statistical tests; the group B presented results that are considered different from others. The interquartile range (IQR) was used to detected outlier values. ANOVA was applied again and the results (p ≥ 0.05) showed equality between ratios means of the three groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that the indoor dust samples have characteristic of soil/sediment. The statistical procedure may be used as a tool to clear the information about contaminants in dust samples, since they have characteristic of soil and may be compared with values reported by environmental control organisms. (author)

  12. Indoor Radon Exposure in Italian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Azara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess radon concentration in schoolrooms in a city located in the midwest of Italy. Methods: A two-phase environmental study was carried out in 19 school buildings of 16 primary, secondary, and tertiary schools. Results: Median (interquartile range—IQR indoor radon concentration in schoolrooms was 91.6 (45.0–140.3 Bq/m3. The highest (median 952.8 Bq/m3 radon concentration was found in one (3.6% classroom, located in a building of a primary school whose median concentration was 185 Bq/m3. Radon concentration was significantly correlated with the number of students and teachers, foundation wall construction material, and with the absence of underground floors. A geopedological survey was performed close to the building with highest radon level, showing the presence of granite and tonalithic granodiorite in the soil. Conclusions: Radon levels should be routinely assessed where individuals live or work. Schools are susceptible targets, because of childhood stay and the long daily stay of occupants. Low-cost interventions, such as implementation of natural air ventilation and school maintenance, can reduce radon levels, limiting individual exposure.

  13. Mathematical models for indoor radon prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanca, A.; Pessina, V.; Dallara, G.

    1995-01-01

    It is known that the indoor radon (Rn) concentration can be predicted by means of mathematical models. The simplest model relies on two variables only: the Rn source strength and the air exchange rate. In the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) model several environmental parameters are combined into a complex equation; besides, a correlation between the ventilation rate and the Rn entry rate from the soil is admitted. The measurements were carried out using activated carbon canisters. Seventy-five measurements of Rn concentrations were made inside two rooms placed on the second floor of a building block. One of the rooms had a single-glazed window whereas the other room had a double pane window. During three different experimental protocols, the mean Rn concentration was always higher into the room with a double-glazed window. That behavior can be accounted for by the simplest model. A further set of 450 Rn measurements was collected inside a ground-floor room with a grounding well in it. This trend maybe accounted for by the LBL model

  14. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  15. A Single Usage of a Kitchen Degreaser Can Alter Indoor Aerosol Composition for Days.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Jaroslav; Makeš, Otakar; Ondráček, Jakub; Cusack, Michael; Talbot, Nicholas; Vodička, Petr; Kubelová, Lucie; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 11 (2017), s. 5907-5912 ISSN 0013-936X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 - HEXACOMM Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : indoor aerosol * mono- ethanol amine * aerosol transformation Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 6.198, year: 2016

  16. Indoor Air Quality in Schools (IAQ): The Importance of Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundersingh, David; Bearg, David W.

    This article highlights indoor air quality and exposure to pollutants at school. Typical air pollutants within schools include environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, allergens, pathogens, radon, pesticides, lead, and dust. Inadequate ventilation, inefficient…

  17. Integrated indoor and outdoor exposure assessment framework for fine particulate matter pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Thomas E; Hodas, Natasha; Apte, Joshua S.

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease report demonstrates that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is the major environmental contributor to mortality. Exposures outdoors (ambient) and indoors (household) contribute almost qually to this burden. Unfortunately, the health impacts from exposure t...

  18. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program: Benefits of Improving Air Quality in the School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools (IAQ TfS) Program to help schools prevent, identify, and resolve their IAQ problems. This publication describes the program and its advantages, explaining that through simple, low-cost measures, schools can: reduce IAQ-related health risks and…

  19. Genetic diversity of Aspergillus fumigatus in indoor hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Ricardo; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor

    2010-09-01

    Environmental isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus are less studied than those recovered from clinical sources. In the present study, the genetic diversity among such environmental isolates was assessed, as well as their dispersion ability and the acquisition of new strains in 19 medical units of the same hospital. A. fumigatus isolates were genotyped using a single multiplex PCR-based reaction with eight microsatellite markers and an insertion/deletion polymorphism. A total of 130 unique genotypes were found among a total of 250 A. fumigatus isolates. Genotypic diversity ranged from 0.86 to 1 in samples from hospital rooms, and there was no correlation between these samples and the presence of high-efficiency particulate air filters or any other air filtration system. Four of the six most prevalent A. fumigatus strains were recovered from water samples. The occurrence of microvariation was common among environmental isolates, which affected each of the microsatellite markers. The assessment of the genetic diversity of A. fumigatus is a useful tool for illustrating the presence or absence of specific clonal populations in a clinical setting. A. fumigatus populations were highly dynamic indoors, and new populations were found in just a few months. Due to the high indoor dispersion capability of A. fumigatus, more attention should be given to strains with increased pathogenic potential or reduced susceptibility to anti-fungal drugs.

  20. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants' Comfort in European "Modern" Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A; Saraga, Dikaia E; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G; Bluyssen, Philomena M

    2016-04-25

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers' comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants' comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 "modern" office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants' comfort. The highest association with occupants' overall comfort was found for "noise", followed by "air quality", "light" and "thermal" satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that "noise inside the buildings" was highly associated with occupants' overall comfort. "Layout of the offices" was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building's location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants.

  1. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A.; Saraga, Dikaia E.; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G.; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building’s location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  2. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Sakellaris

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality, and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index, and building characteristics (office type and building’s location. Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants.

  3. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  4. Normal and seasonally amplified indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; King, D.

    1995-01-01

    Winter and summer indoor radon measurements are reported for 121 houses in Freehold, New Jersey. When presented as winter:summer ratios of indoor radon, the data closely approximate a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean is 1.49. Freehold is located on the fairly flat coastal plain. The winter:summer ratios are believed to represent the norm for regions of the U.S. with cold winters and hot summers. The Freehold data set can be compared to corresponding data sets from other locations to suggest seasonal perturbations of indoor radon arising from unusual causes

  5. Assessment of indoor environment of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y; Kovanen, K [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Indoor Environment and Systems

    1996-12-31

    The synthetical assessment of indoor environment has become world-wide topic in recent years. Many research evidences have shown that the quality of indoor air is a multi-factor influenced issue. Building Research Establishment (BRE) in United Kingdom has worked out a series of assessing methods for different kinds of buildings. Whereas, in Finland, National Building Code of Finland has been used for many years. The comparison between the two approaches in assessing indoor air quality will be addressed in this presentation. Each issue considered in the above two approaches is discussed by referring the recent research highlights. (author)

  6. Assessment of indoor environment of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y.; Kovanen, K. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Indoor Environment and Systems

    1995-12-31

    The synthetical assessment of indoor environment has become world-wide topic in recent years. Many research evidences have shown that the quality of indoor air is a multi-factor influenced issue. Building Research Establishment (BRE) in United Kingdom has worked out a series of assessing methods for different kinds of buildings. Whereas, in Finland, National Building Code of Finland has been used for many years. The comparison between the two approaches in assessing indoor air quality will be addressed in this presentation. Each issue considered in the above two approaches is discussed by referring the recent research highlights. (author)

  7. A Semantic-Based Indexing for Indoor Moving Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Tingting Ben; Xiaolin Qin; Ning Wang

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of indoor positioning, driven by techniques like RFID, Bluetooth, and smart phones, enables a variety of indoor location-based services (LBSs). Efficient queries based on semantic-constraint in indoor spaces play an important role in supporting and boosting LBSs. However, the existing indoor index techniques cannot support these semantic constraints-based queries. To solve this problem, this paper addresses the challenge of indexing moving objects in indoor spaces,...

  8. Assessment of indoor environment in Paris child day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Célina; Barral, Sophie; Ravelomanantsoa, Hanitriniala; Dusséaux, Murielle; Tribout, Martin; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Children are sensitive to indoor environmental pollution. Up until now there has been a lack of data on air quality in child day care centers. The aim of this study is to document the indoor environment quality of Paris child day care centers by repeated measurements, and to compare pollutant levels in child day care centers with levels in Paris dwellings. We selected 28 child day care centers frequented by a random sample of babies who participated in the PARIS birth cohort environmental investigation, and visited the child day care centers for one week twice in one year. Biological contaminants assessed were fungi, endotoxin, dust mite allergens, and chemical pollutants: aldehydes, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Relative humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide levels were measured simultaneously. A standardized questionnaire was used to gather information about the buildings and their inhabitants. Airborne endotoxin levels in child day care centers were higher than those found in Paris dwellings. Dust mite allergens in child day care centers were below the threshold level for sensitization in the majority of samples, and in common with dwelling samples. Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most commonly identified genera fungi. The child day care center indoor/outdoor ratio for most chemical pollutants was above unity except for NO2, the levels for NO2 being significantly higher than those measured in homes. Chemical and biological contamination in child day care centers appears to be low, apart from endotoxin and NO2. Failure to take child exposure in child day care centers into account could result in an overestimation of children's exposure to other pollutants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Indoor and Outdoor Levels and Sources of Submicron Particles (PM1) at Homes in Edmonton, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B; Wallace, Lance A; Wheeler, Amanda J; MacNeill, Morgan; Héroux, Marie-Ève

    2015-06-02

    Exposure to submicron particles (PM1) is of interest due to their possible chronic and acute health effects. Seven consecutive 24-h PM1 samples were collected during winter and summer 2010 in a total of 74 nonsmoking homes in Edmonton, Canada. Median winter concentrations of PM1 were 2.2 μg/m(3) (interquartile range, IQR = 0.8-6.1 μg/m(3)) and 3.3 μg/m(3) (IQR = 1.5-6.9 μg/m(3)) for indoors and outdoors, respectively. In the summer, indoor (median 4.4 μg/m(3), IQR = 2.4-8.6 μg/m(3)) and outdoor (median 4.3 μg/m(3), IQR = 2.6-7.4 μg/m(3)) levels were similar. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify and apportion indoor and outdoor sources of elements in PM1 mass. Nine sources contributing to both indoor and outdoor PM1 concentrations were identified including secondary sulfate, soil, biomass smoke and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), traffic, settled and mixed dust, coal combustion, road salt/road dust, and urban mixture. Three additional indoor sources were identified i.e., carpet dust, copper-rich, and silver-rich. Secondary sulfate, soil, biomass smoke and ETS contributed more than 70% (indoors: 0.29 μg/m(3), outdoors: 0.39 μg/m(3)) of measured elemental mass in PM1. These findings can aid understanding of relationships between submicron particles and health outcomes for indoor/outdoor sources.

  10. An Indoor Location-Based Control System Using Bluetooth Beacons for IoT Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jun-Ho; Seo, Kyungryong

    2017-12-19

    The indoor location-based control system estimates the indoor position of a user to provide the service he/she requires. The major elements involved in the system are the localization server, service-provision client, user application positioning technology. The localization server controls access of terminal devices (e.g., Smart Phones and other wireless devices) to determine their locations within a specified space first and then the service-provision client initiates required services such as indoor navigation and monitoring/surveillance. The user application provides necessary data to let the server to localize the devices or allow the user to receive various services from the client. The major technological elements involved in this system are indoor space partition method, Bluetooth 4.0, RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) and trilateration. The system also employs the BLE communication technology when determining the position of the user in an indoor space. The position information obtained is then used to control a specific device(s). These technologies are fundamental in achieving a "Smart Living". An indoor location-based control system that provides services by estimating user's indoor locations has been implemented in this study (First scenario). The algorithm introduced in this study (Second scenario) is effective in extracting valid samples from the RSSI dataset but has it has some drawbacks as well. Although we used a range-average algorithm that measures the shortest distance, there are some limitations because the measurement results depend on the sample size and the sample efficiency depends on sampling speeds and environmental changes. However, the Bluetooth system can be implemented at a relatively low cost so that once the problem of precision is solved, it can be applied to various fields.

  11. An Indoor Location-Based Control System Using Bluetooth Beacons for IoT Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Huh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The indoor location-based control system estimates the indoor position of a user to provide the service he/she requires. The major elements involved in the system are the localization server, service-provision client, user application positioning technology. The localization server controls access of terminal devices (e.g., Smart Phones and other wireless devices to determine their locations within a specified space first and then the service-provision client initiates required services such as indoor navigation and monitoring/surveillance. The user application provides necessary data to let the server to localize the devices or allow the user to receive various services from the client. The major technological elements involved in this system are indoor space partition method, Bluetooth 4.0, RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication and trilateration. The system also employs the BLE communication technology when determining the position of the user in an indoor space. The position information obtained is then used to control a specific device(s. These technologies are fundamental in achieving a “Smart Living”. An indoor location-based control system that provides services by estimating user’s indoor locations has been implemented in this study (First scenario. The algorithm introduced in this study (Second scenario is effective in extracting valid samples from the RSSI dataset but has it has some drawbacks as well. Although we used a range-average algorithm that measures the shortest distance, there are some limitations because the measurement results depend on the sample size and the sample efficiency depends on sampling speeds and environmental changes. However, the Bluetooth system can be implemented at a relatively low cost so that once the problem of precision is solved, it can be applied to various fields.

  12. Indoor Positioning using Wi-Fi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Krarup, Mads Vering; Stisen, Allan

    The past decade has witnessed substantial research on methods for indoor Wi-Fi positioning. While much effort has gone into achieving high positioning accuracy and easing fingerprint collection, it is our contention that the general problem is not sufficiently well understood, thus preventing...... deployments and their usage by applications to become more widespread. Based on our own and published experiences on indoor Wi-Fi positioning deployments, we hypothesize the following: Current indoor Wi-Fi positioning systems and their utilization in applications are hampered by the lack of understanding...... of the requirements present in the real-world deployments. In this paper, we report findings from qualitatively studying organisational requirements for indoor Wi-Fi positioning. The studied cases and deployments cover both company and public-sector settings and the deployment and evaluation of several types...

  13. 9 CFR 3.126 - Facilities, indoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., vents, fans, or air-conditioning and shall be ventilated so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. (c) Lighting. Indoor housing facilities shall have ample lighting, by natural or artificial means...

  14. Finding dense locations in indoor tracking data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    for semi-constrained indoor movement, and then uses this to map raw tracking records into mapping records representing object entry and exit times in particular locations. Then, an efficient indexing structure, the Dense Location Time Index (DLT-Index) is proposed for indexing the time intervals...... of the mapping table, along with associated construction, query processing, and pruning techniques. The DLT-Index supports very efficient aggregate point queries, interval queries, and dense location queries. A comprehensive experimental study with real data shows that the proposed techniques can efficiently......Finding the dense locations in large indoor spaces is very useful for getting overloaded locations, security, crowd management, indoor navigation, and guidance. Indoor tracking data can be very large and are not readily available for finding dense locations. This paper presents a graph-based model...

  15. Publications about Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications and resources that relate to indoor air quality in schools, and design tools for schools. These publications cover a wide range of issues, including IAQ management, student performance, asthma, mold and moisture, and radon.

  16. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  17. Indoor Climate and Air Quality Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valbjørn, O.; Hagen, H.; Kukkonen, E.

    This report presents a stepwise method for the investigation of and remedial actions for indoor climate and air quality problems. The report gives the basis for evaluation of the prevalence and causes of building related symptoms like mucosal irritation and headache. The report adresses members...... of occupational health and safety organisations, consulting engineers and architects, and also the people responsible for the operation of buildings and installations which is essential for the indoor climate and air quality....

  18. Conceptual spatial representations for indoor mobile robots

    OpenAIRE

    Zender, Henrik; Mozos, Oscar Martinez; Jensfelt, Patric; Kruijff, Geert-Jan M.; Wolfram, Burgard

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach for creating conceptual representations of human-made indoor environments using mobile robots. The concepts refer to spatial and functional properties of typical indoor environments. Following findings in cognitive psychology, our model is composed of layers representing maps at different levels of abstraction. The complete system is integrated in a mobile robot endowed with laser and vision sensors for place and object recognition. The system also incorporate...

  19. Indoor radon pollution: update. Bibliographic series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, S.A.

    1988-12-01

    This bibliography focuses on indoor radon pollution problems and is organized according to the following major topic areas: I-Overview (covering general areas such as law and policy, popular press, communication and education, indoor air and books); II-Health Effects (epidemiology, risk estimates, and dosimetry); III-Exposure (house construction, geology, source, physical properties, and radon in water); IV-Surveys (national and international case studies); V-Mitigation; and VI-Measurement Techniques. Section VIII-Appendix, lists State Contacts

  20. Education of indoor enviromental engineering technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kic, P.; Zajíček, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, Spec. 1 (2011), s. 83-90 ISSN 1406-894X. [Biosystems Engineering 2011. Tartu, 12.05.2011-13.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Biosystems engineering * indoor environment * study * programs Subject RIV: AM - Education http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/VS/zajicek-education of indoor enviromental engineering technology.pdf

  1. Distributed Monocular SLAM for Indoor Map Building

    OpenAIRE

    Ruwan Egodagamage; Mihran Tuceryan

    2017-01-01

    Utilization and generation of indoor maps are critical elements in accurate indoor tracking. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is one of the main techniques for such map generation. In SLAM an agent generates a map of an unknown environment while estimating its location in it. Ubiquitous cameras lead to monocular visual SLAM, where a camera is the only sensing device for the SLAM process. In modern applications, multiple mobile agents may be involved in the generation of such maps,...

  2. Assessment of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in an Educational, Research and Treatment Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Rostami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital environments contain different types of microorganisms. Airborne fungi are one of these microbes and the major source of hospital indoor contamination that will be able to cause airborne fungal diseases. In the current study, the total count and diversity of the airborne filamentous and yeasts fungi were investigated in indoor and outdoor air of selective wards of Emam Reza Educational, Research and Treatment Center. This cross-sectional study was performed during the fall season. One hundred and ninety-two environmental samples of indoor and outdoor air from hematology, infectious diseases, Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU wards were collected by open plate technique (on Sabouraud dextrose agar media once a week. The cultures were then examined and evaluated according to macroscopic and microscopic examination criteria. In this study, 67 (62.03% of indoor samples and 81 (96.42% of outdoor samples were positive for fungi. The most isolated fungi were yeast species (17.12%, Penicillium spp. (16.34%, Alternaria spp. (14.39%, Aspergillus niger (11.28%, A. flavus (8.95%, respectively. Almost all of the wards showed high rates of contamination by various fungi. However, the analysis of the data showed that indoor air of hematology ward had the highest fungal pollution. In contrast, the outdoor air of ENT had the highest fungal pollution. Thus, these results demonstrated that the cleansing and disinfection procedures in the hospital wards should be improved yet.

  3. Prediction of Human Performance Using Electroencephalography under Different Indoor Room Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tinghe; Mao, Zijing; Xu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Lin; Pack, Daniel J.; Dong, Bing; Huang, Yufei

    2018-01-01

    Varying indoor environmental conditions is known to affect office worker’s performance; wherein past research studies have reported the effects of unfavorable indoor temperature and air quality causing sick building syndrome (SBS) among office workers. Thus, investigating factors that can predict performance in changing indoor environments have become a highly important research topic bearing significant impact in our society. While past research studies have attempted to determine predictors for performance, they do not provide satisfactory prediction ability. Therefore, in this preliminary study, we attempt to predict performance during office-work tasks triggered by different indoor room temperatures (22.2 °C and 30 °C) from human brain signals recorded using electroencephalography (EEG). Seven participants were recruited, from whom EEG, skin temperature, heart rate and thermal survey questionnaires were collected. Regression analyses were carried out to investigate the effectiveness of using EEG power spectral densities (PSD) as predictors of performance. Our results indicate EEG PSDs as predictors provide the highest R2 (> 0.70), that is 17 times higher than using other physiological signals as predictors and is more robust. Finally, the paper provides insight on the selected predictors based on brain activity patterns for low- and high-performance levels under different indoor-temperatures. PMID:29690601

  4. Indoor/Outdoor Air Quality Assessment at School near the Steel Plant in Taranto (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Gilio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the air quality in primary school placed in district of Taranto (south of Italy, an area of high environmental risk because of closeness between large industrial complex and urban settlement. The chemical characterization of PM2.5 was performed to identify origin of pollutants detected inside school and the comparison between indoor and outdoor levels of PAHs and metals allowed evaluating intrusion of outdoor pollutants or the existence of specific indoor sources. The results showed that the indoor and outdoor levels of PM2.5, BaP, Cd, Ni, As, and Pb never exceeded the target values issued by World Health Organization (WHO. Nevertheless, high metals and PAHs concentrations were detected especially when school were downwind to the steel plant. The I/O ratio showed the impact of outdoor pollutants, especially of industrial markers as Fe, Mn, Zn, and Pb, on indoor air quality. This result was confirmed by values of diagnostic ratio as B(aP/B(gP, IP/(IP + BgP, BaP/Chry, and BaP/(BaP + Chry, which showed range characteristics of coke and coal combustion. However, Ni and As showed I/O ratio of 2.5 and 1.4, respectively, suggesting the presence of indoor sources.

  5. Investigation of the relationship between earthquakes and indoor radon concentrations at a building in Gyeongju, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Wook Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article measured and analyzed the indoor radon concentrations at one university building in Gyeongju, Republic of Korea, to investigate if there is any relationship between earthquakes and indoor radon concentration. Since 12 September 2016, when two 5.1 and 5.8 magnitude earthquakes occurred, hundreds of aftershocks affected Gyeongju until January 2017. The measurements were made at the ground floor of the Energy Engineering Hall of Dongguk University in Gyeongju over a period between February 2016 and January 2017. The measurements were made with an RAD7 detector on the basis of the US Environmental Protection Agency measurement protocol. Each measurement was continuously made every 30 minutes over the measurement period every month. Among earthquakes with 2.0 or greater magnitude, the earthquakes whose occurrence timings fell into the measurement periods were screened for further analysis. We observed similar spike-like patterns between the indoor radon concentration distributions and earthquakes: a sudden increase in the peak indoor radon concentration 1–4 days before an earthquake, gradual decrease before the earthquake, and sudden drop on the day of the earthquake if the interval between successive earthquakes was moderately longer, for example, 3 days in this article. Keywords: Earthquakes, Gyeongju, Indoor Radon Concentration, RAD7, Radon Anomaly

  6. Do indoor environments in schools influence student performance? A review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Heath, Garvin A.

    2004-11-24

    Limited research is available on potential adverse effects of school environments on academic performance, despite strong public concern. We examine the scientific evidence relevant to this relationship by reviewing available research relating schools and other indoor environments to human performance or attendance. As a primary focus, we critically review evidence for direct relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in buildings and performance or attendance. As a secondary focus, we summarize, without critique, evidence on potential connections indirectly linking IEQ to performance or attendance: relationships between IEQ and health, between health and performance or attendance, and between attendance and performance. The most persuasive direct evidence showed increases in indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and outdoor concentrations of several specific pollutants to be related to reduced school attendance. The most persuasive indirect evidence showed indoor dampness and microbiologic pollutants to be related to asthma and respiratory infections, which have in turn been related to reduced performance and attendance. Furthermore, a substantial scientific literature links poor IEQ (e.g., low ventilation rate, excess moisture or formaldehyde) with respiratory and other health effects in children and adults. Overall, evidence suggests that poor IEQ in schools can influence the performance and attendance of students, primarily through health effects from indoor pollutants. Also, inadequate IEQ in schools seems sufficiently common to merit strong public concern. Evidence is available to justify (1) immediate actions to protect IEQ in schools and (2) focused research on exposures, prevention, and causation, to better guide policies and actions on IEQ in schools.

  7. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonturbel, Francisco E.; Barbieri, Enio; Herbas, Cristian; Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children. - Highlights: → We measured polymetallic pollution in household indoor dust from a mining town. → Toxic elements (Pb, As, Cd, Sb) in dust are correlated, suggesting a common origin. → The most polluted houses are within a 1 km radius around the mining center. → Carrying mining workwear home increases indoor pollution. → Lead concentrations in dust represent a serious concern for Public Health (600 μg/g). - In a typical Andean mining city, the urban indoor pollution with toxic metallic elements is directly related to the closeness of the mining activities.

  8. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonturbel, Francisco E., E-mail: fonturbel@ug.uchile.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Barbieri, Enio [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Herbas, Cristian [Universidad Mayor de San Andres, IGEMA Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Geologicas y del Medio Ambiente), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andres, SELADIS Institute (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnostico e Investigacion en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2011-10-15

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children. - Highlights: > We measured polymetallic pollution in household indoor dust from a mining town. > Toxic elements (Pb, As, Cd, Sb) in dust are correlated, suggesting a common origin. > The most polluted houses are within a 1 km radius around the mining center. > Carrying mining workwear home increases indoor pollution. > Lead concentrations in dust represent a serious concern for Public Health (600 {mu}g/g). - In a typical Andean mining city, the urban indoor pollution with toxic metallic elements is directly related to the closeness of the mining activities.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Indoor Sound Quality Evaluation Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tuan Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoors sound field distribution is important to Room Acoustics, but the field suffers numerous problems, for example, multipath propagation and scattering owing to sound absorption by furniture and other aspects of décor. Generally, an ideal interior space must have a sound field with clear quality. This provides both the speaker and the listener with a pleasant conversational environment. This investigation uses the Finite Element Method to assess the acoustic distribution based on the indoor space and chamber volume. In this situation, a fixed sound source at different frequencies is used to simulate the acoustic characteristics of the indoor space. This method considers the furniture and decoration sound absorbing material and thus different sound absorption coefficients and configurations. The preliminary numerical simulation provides a method that can forecast the distribution of sound in an indoor room in complex situations. Consequently, it is possible to arrange interior furnishings and appliances to optimize acoustic distribution and environmental friendliness. Additionally, the analytical results can also be used to calculate the Reverberation Time and speech intelligibility for specified indoor space.

  10. Adaptive Indoor Positioning Model Based on WLAN-Fingerprinting for Dynamic and Multi-Floor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Husni Alshami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System demonstrates the significance of Location Based Services but it cannot be used indoors due to the lack of line of sight between satellites and receivers. Indoor Positioning Systems are needed to provide indoor Location Based Services. Wireless LAN fingerprints are one of the best choices for Indoor Positioning Systems because of their low cost, and high accuracy, however they have many drawbacks: creating radio maps is time consuming, the radio maps will become outdated with any environmental change, different mobile devices read the received signal strength (RSS differently, and peoples’ presence in LOS between access points and mobile device affects the RSS. This research proposes a new Adaptive Indoor Positioning System model (called DIPS based on: a dynamic radio map generator, RSS certainty technique and peoples’ presence effect integration for dynamic and multi-floor environments. Dynamic in our context refers to the effects of people and device heterogeneity. DIPS can achieve 98% and 92% positioning accuracy for floor and room positioning, and it achieves 1.2 m for point positioning error. RSS certainty enhanced the positioning accuracy for floor and room for different mobile devices by 11% and 9%. Then by considering the peoples’ presence effect, the error is reduced by 0.2 m. In comparison with other works, DIPS achieves better positioning without extra devices.

  11. Environmental microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  12. Exposure to unusually high indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    Unusually high indoor radon concentrations were reported in a small village in western Tyrol, Austria. The authors have measured the seasonal course of indoor radon concentrations in 390 houses of this village. 71% of houses in winter and 33% in summer, showed radon values on the ground floor above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq/cm 3 . This proportion results in an unusually high indoor radon exposure of the population. The radon source was an 8,700-year-old rock slide of granite gneiss, the largest of the alpine crystalline rocks. It has a strong emanating power because its rocks are heavily fractured and show a slightly increased uranium content. Previous reports show increased lung cancer mortality, myeloid leukemia, kidney cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer resulting from indoor radon exposure. However, many studies fail to provide accurate information on indoor radon concentrations, classifying them merely as low, intermediate, and high, or they record only minor increases in indoor radon concentrations. Mortality data for 1970-91 were used to calculate age and sex standardized mortality rates (SMR) for 51 sites of carcinoma. The total population of Tyrol were controls. A significantly higher risk was recorded for lung cancer. The high SMR for lung cancer in female subjects is especially striking. Because the numbers were low for the other cancer sites, these were combined in one group to calculate the SMR. No significant increase in SMR was found for this group

  13. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, W.J.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs

  14. NFC Internal: An Indoor Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdenizci, Busra; Coskun, Vedat; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation systems have recently become a popular research field due to the lack of GPS signals indoors. Several indoors navigation systems have already been proposed in order to eliminate deficiencies; however each of them has several technical and usability limitations. In this study, we propose NFC Internal, a Near Field Communication (NFC)-based indoor navigation system, which enables users to navigate through a building or a complex by enabling a simple location update, simply by touching NFC tags those are spread around and orient users to the destination. In this paper, we initially present the system requirements, give the design details and study the viability of NFC Internal with a prototype application and a case study. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the system and compare it with existing indoor navigation systems. It is seen that NFC Internal has considerable advantages and significant contributions to existing indoor navigation systems in terms of security and privacy, cost, performance, robustness, complexity, user preference and commercial availability. PMID:25825976

  15. NFC Internal: An Indoor Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Ozdenizci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indoor navigation systems have recently become a popular research field due to the lack of GPS signals indoors. Several indoors navigation systems have already been proposed in order to eliminate deficiencies; however each of them has several technical and usability limitations. In this study, we propose NFC Internal, a Near Field Communication (NFC-based indoor navigation system, which enables users to navigate through a building or a complex by enabling a simple location update, simply by touching NFC tags those are spread around and orient users to the destination. In this paper, we initially present the system requirements, give the design details and study the viability of NFC Internal with a prototype application and a case study. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the system and compare it with existing indoor navigation systems. It is seen that NFC Internal has considerable advantages and significant contributions to existing indoor navigation systems in terms of security and privacy, cost, performance, robustness, complexity, user preference and commercial availability.

  16. Do indoor environments influence asthma and asthma-related symptoms among adults in homes? A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the results of epidemiological studies focusing on the detrimental effects of home environmental factors on asthma morbidity in adults. We reviewed the literature on indoor air quality (IAQ, physical and sociodemographic factors, and asthma morbidity in homes, and identified commonly reported asthma, allergic, and respiratory symptoms involving the home environment. Reported IAQ and asthma morbidity data strongly indicated positive associations between indoor air pollution and adverse health effects in most studies. Indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke. Environmental exposure may increase an adult’s risk of developing asthma and also may increase the risk of asthma exacerbations. Evaluation of present IAQ levels, exposure characteristics, and the role of exposure to these factors in relation to asthma morbidity is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity.

  17. Indoor metallic pollution and children exposure in a mining city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Enio, E-mail: enniobg@gmail.com [IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Fontúrbel, Francisco E. [Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Herbas, Cristian [Instituto IGEMA, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Barbieri, Flavia L. [IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, SELADIS (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnóstico e Investigación en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Berlin School of Public Health, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Gardon, Jacques [IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, SELADIS (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnóstico e Investigación en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); IRD, HSM, Montpellier (France)

    2014-07-01

    Mining industries are known for causing strong environmental contamination. In most developing countries, the management of mining wastes is not adequate, usually contaminating soil, water and air. This situation is a source of concern for human settlements located near mining centers, especially for vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations of the metallic concentrations between household dust and children hair, comparing these associations in two different contamination contexts: a mining district and a suburban non-mining area. We collected 113 hair samples from children between 7 and 12 years of age in elementary schools in the mining city of Oruro, Bolivia. We collected 97 indoor dust samples from their households, as well as information about the children's behavior. Analyses of hair and dust samples were conducted to measure As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Cu and Zn contents. In the mining district, there were significant correlations between non-essential metallic elements (As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Sn) in dust and hair, but not for essential elements (Cu and Zn), which remained after adjusting for children habits. Children who played with dirt had higher dust-hair correlations for Pb, Sb, and Cu (P = 0.006; 0.022 and 0.001 respectively) and children who put hands or toys in their mouths had higher dust-hair correlations of Cd (P = 0.011). On the contrary, in the suburban area, no significant correlations were found between metallic elements in dust and children hair and neither children behavior nor gender modified this lack of associations. Our results suggest that, in a context of high metallic contamination, indoor dust becomes an important exposure pathway for children, modulated by their playing behavior. - Highlights: • Mining activities are an important source of environmental pollution. • Mining pollution contaminated also indoor homes, creating a risk to population. • Indoor dust and hair concentrations

  18. Indoor metallic pollution and children exposure in a mining city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, Enio; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Herbas, Cristian; Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Mining industries are known for causing strong environmental contamination. In most developing countries, the management of mining wastes is not adequate, usually contaminating soil, water and air. This situation is a source of concern for human settlements located near mining centers, especially for vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations of the metallic concentrations between household dust and children hair, comparing these associations in two different contamination contexts: a mining district and a suburban non-mining area. We collected 113 hair samples from children between 7 and 12 years of age in elementary schools in the mining city of Oruro, Bolivia. We collected 97 indoor dust samples from their households, as well as information about the children's behavior. Analyses of hair and dust samples were conducted to measure As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Cu and Zn contents. In the mining district, there were significant correlations between non-essential metallic elements (As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Sn) in dust and hair, but not for essential elements (Cu and Zn), which remained after adjusting for children habits. Children who played with dirt had higher dust-hair correlations for Pb, Sb, and Cu (P = 0.006; 0.022 and 0.001 respectively) and children who put hands or toys in their mouths had higher dust-hair correlations of Cd (P = 0.011). On the contrary, in the suburban area, no significant correlations were found between metallic elements in dust and children hair and neither children behavior nor gender modified this lack of associations. Our results suggest that, in a context of high metallic contamination, indoor dust becomes an important exposure pathway for children, modulated by their playing behavior. - Highlights: • Mining activities are an important source of environmental pollution. • Mining pollution contaminated also indoor homes, creating a risk to population. • Indoor dust and hair concentrations in As

  19. Indoor Multi-Dimensional Location GML and Its Application for Ubiquitous Indoor Location Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Qing; Li, Yun; Xiong, Qing; Zlatanova, S.; Ding, Yulin; Zhang, Yeting; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Geography Markup Language (GML) standard provides basic types and a framework for defining geo-informational data models such as CityGML and IndoorGML, which provide standard information models for 3D city modelling and lightweight indoor network navigation.

  20. Spatial subdivision of complex indoor environments for 3D indoor navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diakite, A.A.; Zlatanova, S.

    2018-01-01

    As we realize that we spend most of our time in increasingly complex indoor environments, applications to assist indoor activities (e.g. guidance) have gained a lot of attention in the recent years. The advances in ubiquitous computing made possible the development of several spatial models

  1. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Lony, R.J.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study on the performance based design for the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia

  2. Variation of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in different outdoor and indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovska, Zdenka; Janevik, Emilija; Taleski, Vaso [Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Stip (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Boev, Blazo [Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Stip (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Zunic, Zora S. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' ' Vinca' ' , Belgrade (Serbia); Ivanova, Kremena; Tsenova, Martina [National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria); Ristova, Mimoza [University in Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematic, Institute of Physics, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Ajka, Sorsa [Croatian Geological Survey, Zagreb (Croatia); Bossew, Peter [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Subject of this study is an investigation of the variations of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in outdoor and indoor environments of 40 dwellings, 31 elementary schools and five kindergartens. The buildings are located in three municipalities of two, geologically different, areas of the Republic of Macedonia. Indoor radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track detectors, deployed in the most occupied room of the building, between June 2013 and May 2014. During the deploying campaign, indoor and outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were measured simultaneously at the same location. It appeared that the measured values varied from 22 to 990 Bq/m{sup 3} for indoor radon concentrations, from 50 to 195 nSv/h for outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates, and from 38 to 184 nSv/h for indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. The geometric mean value of indoor to outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates was found to be 0.88, i.e. the outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were on average higher than the indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. All measured can reasonably well be described by log-normal distributions. A detailed statistical analysis of factors which influence the measured quantities is reported. (orig.)

  3. Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part I. Collection methods and descriptive analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Clifford P; Zhang, Junfeng; Turpin, Barbara J; Morandi, Maria T; Colome, Steven; Stock, Thomas H; Spektor, Dalia M; Korn, Leo; Winer, Arthur M; Kwon, Jaymin; Meng, Qing Yu; Zhang, Lin; Harrington, Robert; Liu, Weili; Reff, Adam; Lee, Jong Hoon; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Mohan, Kishan; Shendell, Derek; Jones, Jennifer; Farrar, L; Maberti, Slivia; Fan, Tina

    2005-11-01

    This study on the relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) was undertaken to collect data for use in evaluating the contribution of outdoor sources of air toxics and particulate matter (PM) to personal exposure. The study was not designed to obtain a population-based sample, but rather to provide matched indoor, outdoor, and personal concentrations in homes that varied in their proximity to outdoor pollution sources and had a wide range of air exchange rates (AERs). This design allowed examination of relations among indoor, outdoor, and personal concentrations of air toxics and PM across a wide range of environmental conditions; the resulting data set obtained for a wide range of environmental pollutants and AERs can be used to evaluate exposure models. Approximately 100 households with residents who do not smoke participated in each of three cities in distinct locations expected to have different climates and housing characteristics: Elizabeth, New Jersey; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. Questionnaires were administered to characterize homes, neighborhoods, and personal activities that might affect exposures. The concentrations of a suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds, as well as the fraction of airborne particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter personal air samples were collected simultaneously. During the same 48-hour period, the AER (exchanges/hr; x hr(-1)) was determined in each home, and carbonyl compounds were measured inside vehicle cabins driven by a subset of the participants. In most of the homes, measurements were made twice, during two different seasons, to obtain a wide distribution of AERs. This report presents in detail the data collection methods, quality control measures, and initial analyses of data distributions and relations among indoor, outdoor, and personal concentrations. The results show that indoor sources dominated personal and indoor air concentrations

  4. Radon measurements in indoor workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, S.; Matsumoto, M.; Furukawa, M.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujitaka, K.; Pan, J.; Kurosawa, R.

    1996-01-01

    Radon measurements in several office buildings located in Tokyo were carried out with two types of device to study the time-dependent radon concentration in indoor workplaces. Both types of device use the electrostatic field for the collection of 218 Po onto the electrode of the detector. One provides an average radon concentration throughout the day. The other, in which a weekly timer is installed in the circuit of the electrode of the device, provides an average radon concentration during working hours (9:00-17:00, Monday-Friday). Although radon concentrations in Japanese dwellings have been found to be generally low, relatively high concentrations were observed in the office buildings. No consistent seasonal variation was recognised in this study. Little difference of average radon concentrations between working hours and the whole day was found throughout the year in two offices. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed in other offices. The operation of an air conditioner might change the radon concentration during working hours. From the results of radon measurements the average effective dose in the workplace was estimated to be 0.23 mSv for 2000 working hours in a year. (Author)

  5. Indoor radon -- a strategic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Even the average 222 Rn concentration in US homes corresponds to an estimated individual lifetime risk of fatal lung cancer between 0.1% and 1%, depending on whether one smokes or not. Perhaps 50,000 to 100,000 homes have ten times the average or more, implying radiation doses to the occupants at or above the occupational radiation limit. But even this picture has been exaggerated by information provided the public by the EPA and the media, associating with nonsmokers risk estimated for smokers, and -- due to a faulty monitoring protocol -- giving the impression that a large fraction of homes have elevated levels. The result has been a program that focuses in fact on slightly-above-average indoor levels, while having no program for rapidly identifying and assisting those living at genuinely high levels. A sensible and effective strategy, in contrast, would (1) rely on accurate and specific public information, (2) recommend a monitoring protocol yielding the annual-average concentration in living space, the parameter of health significance, (3) constitute a national program to identify systematically and rapidly the areas of the country where the bulk of the high-radon homes occur, (4) build a sensible long-term research and action program associated with lower concentrations. Accomplishing these purposes will require a commitment to careful analysis and planning, involving an effective interaction with the scientific community, that has so far not been demonstrated

  6. Gender, airborne chemical monitoring, and physical work environment are related to indoor air symptoms among nonindustrial workers in the Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, Aizat Ismail; Hafizan, Juahir; Baharudin, Mohd Rafee; Azman, Ahmad Zaid Fattah; Izwyn, Zulkapri; Zulfadhli, Ismail; Syahidatussyakirah, Katis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of airborne chemicals and the physical work environment risk element on the indoor air symptoms of nonindustrial workers. A cross-sectional study consisting of 200 office workers. A random selection of 200 buildings was analyzed for exposure and indoor air symptoms based on a pilot study in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. A set of modified published questionnaires by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and a previous study (MM040NA questionnaire) pertaining to indoor air symptoms was used in the evaluation process of the indoor air symptoms. Statistical analyses involving logistic regression and linear regression were used to determine the relationship between exposure and indoor air symptoms for use in the development of an indoor risk matrix. The results indicate that some indoor air pollutants (carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compound, and dust) are related to indoor air symptoms of men and women. Temperature and relative humidity showed a positive association with complaints related to the perceived indoor environmental condition (drafts and inconsistency of temperature). Men predominantly reported general symptoms when stratification of gender involved exposure to formaldehyde. Women reported high levels of complaints related to mucosal and general symptoms from exposure to the dust level indoors. Exposure to pollutants (total volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde) and physical stressors (air temperature and relative humidity) influence reported symptoms of office workers. These parameters should be focused upon and graded as one of the important elements in the grading procedure when qualitatively evaluating the indoor environment.

  7. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Bi Xinhui; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo

    2006-01-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 μg m -3 were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 μg m -3 recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R 2 of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R 2 of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic and

  8. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2006-07-31

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 microg m(-3) were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 microg m(-3) recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R(2) of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R(2) of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic

  9. Integrated Management of Residential Indoor Air Quality: A Call for Stakeholders in a Changing Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Marie-Eve; Poulin, Patrick; Campagna, Céline; Leclerc, Jean-Marc

    2017-11-25

    A paradigm change in the management of environmental health issues has been observed in recent years: instead of managing specific risks individually, a holistic vision of environmental problems would assure sustainable solutions. However, concrete actions that could help translate these recommendations into interventions are lacking. This review presents the relevance of using an integrated indoor air quality management approach to ensure occupant health and comfort. At the nexus of three basic concepts (reducing contaminants at the source, improving ventilation, and, when relevant, purifying the indoor air), this approach can help maintain and improve indoor air quality and limit exposure to several contaminants. Its application is particularly relevant in a climate change context since the evolving outdoor conditions have to be taken into account during building construction and renovation. The measures presented through this approach target public health players, building managers, owners, occupants, and professionals involved in building design, construction, renovation, and maintenance. The findings of this review will help the various stakeholders initiate a strategic reflection on the importance of indoor air quality and climate change issues for existing and future buildings. Several new avenues and recommendations are presented to set the path for future research activities.

  10. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  11. Behaviors of radon in indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Sadamu; Shimo, Michikuni.

    1987-01-01

    The source of radon ( 222 Rn) in the atmosphere is radioactive nuclide, uranium ( 238 U), which exists fairly common throughout the earth's crust. Radium ( 226 Ra) descended from uranium produce radon ( 222 Rn) of noble gas by decay. After formation in the ground, radon diffuses into the atmosphere. Without exception radon decay products are heavy metals which soon become attached to natural aerosols. Therefore, radon and its daughters (decay products) appear also in indoor environment, and generally, their concentration levels become higher than that of outdoor air due to build-up effects in the closed indoor environments. With the progress of the study on the influence of radon and its daughers on human health, it has become clear that they act effectively as an exciting cause of lung cancer. So, the study on the risk evaluation of them in room air has become to be very important. Concequently, the behaviors of radon and its daughters in indoor environment, first of all, should be studied in detail for the accurate estimation of the risk caused by them. In this special edition, fundamental characteristics of radon and its daughters, some measuring methods, theoretical considerations and some observational evidences obtained from various circumstances of indoor environment are described inorder to grasp and understand the behaviors of radon and its daughters in the indoor environment. (author)

  12. Photocatalytic surface reactions on indoor wall paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthammer, T; Fuhrmann, F

    2007-09-15

    The reduction of indoor air pollutants by air cleaning systems has received considerable interest, and a number of techniques are now available. So far, the method of photocatalysis was mainly applied by use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in flow reactors under UV light of high intensity. Nowadays, indoor wall paints are equipped with modified TiO2 to work as a catalyst under indoor daylight or artificial light. In chamber experiments carried out under indoor related conditions itwas shown thatthe method works for nitrogen dioxide with air exchange and for formaldehyde without air exchange at high concentrations. In further experiments with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a small effect was found for terpenoids with high kOH rate constants. For other VOCs and carbon monoxide there was no degradation at all or the surface acted as a reversible sink. Secondary emissions from the reaction of paint constituents were observed on exposure to light. From the results it is concluded that recipes of photocatalytic wall paints need to be optimized for better efficiency under indoor conditions.

  13. [Preventive effects of sound insulation windows on the indoor noise levels in a street residential building in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Huang, Jing; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    To evaluate the preventive effects of sound insulation windows on traffic noise. Indoor noise levels of the residential rooms (on both the North 4th ring road side and the campus side) with closed sound insulation windows were measured using the sound level meter, and comparisons with the simultaneously measured outdoor noise levels were made. In addition, differences of indoor noise levels between rooms with closed sound insulation windows and open sound insulation windows were also compared. The average outdoor noise levels of the North 4th ring road was higher than 70 dB(A), which exceeded the limitation stated in the "Environmental Quality Standard for Noise" (GB 3096-2008) in our country. However, with the sound insulation windows closed, the indoor noise levels reduced significantly to the level under 35 dB(A) (Pwindows had significant influence on the indoor noise levels (Pwindow, when the sound insulation windows were closed, the indoor noise levels reduced 18.8 dB(A) and 8.3 dB(A) in residential rooms facing North 4th ring road side and campus side, respectively. The results indicated that installation of insulation windows had significant noise reduction effects on street residential buildings especially on the rooms facing major traffic roads. Installation of the sound insulation windows has significant preventive effects on indoor noise in the street residential building.

  14. [Association between indoor contamination and respiratory diseases in children living in Temuco and Padre Las Casas, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas R, Edith; Barrios C, Sara; Dorner P, Anita; Osorio S, Ximena

    2008-06-01

    Indoor air pollution, is the main cause of population exposure to polluting agents. To establish an environmental profile of indoor contamination emission sources in families of children under 5 years that assist to kindergartens in Temuco and Padre Las Casas. To associate respiratory disease episodes in children with indoor contamination. Cross sectional analysis of 355 family groups subjected to questionnaires about indoor contamination and number of respiratory disease episodes. Forty six percent of mothers or caregivers smoked, 37% smoked at home and 93% smoked one to two cigarettes per day. There was a significant association between respiratory diseases in children and drying clothes in the kitchen, using firewood for heating and the presence of humidity in the dwelling. Mothers identified as indoor contaminants the use of braziers in 76% of cases and firewood stoves in 24%. Ninety seven percent considered that these appliances were detrimental for respiratory health. The lack of awareness about indoor contamination among subjects of low socioeconomic status should prompt educational campaigns to modify behaviors in their dwellings.

  15. Indoor Air Quality Assessment and Study of Different VOC Contributions within a School in Taranto City, South of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Marzocca

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children spend a large amount of time in school environments and when Indoor Air Quality (IAQ is poor, comfort, productivity and learning performances may be affected. The aim of the present study is to characterize IAQ in a primary school located in Taranto city (south of Italy. Because of the proximity of a large industrial complex to the urban settlement, this district is one of the areas identified as being at high environmental risk in Italy. The study carried out simultaneous monitoring of indoor and outdoor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC concentrations and assessed different pollutants’ contributions on the IAQ of the investigated site. A screening study of VOC and determination of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX, sampled with Radiello® diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption, were carried out in three classrooms, in the corridor and in the yard of the school building. Simultaneously, Total VOC (TVOC concentration was measured by means of real-time monitoring, in order to study the activation of sources during the monitored days. The analysis results showed a prevalent indoor contribution for all VOC except for BTEX which presented similar concentrations in indoor and outdoor air. Among the determined VOC, Terpenes and 2-butohxyethanol were shown to be an indoor source, the latter being the indoor pollutant with the highest concentration.

  16. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-27

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p heating periods.

  17. Indoor radon concentration data: Its geographic and geologic distribution, an example from the Capital District, NY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.J.; Overeynder, H.M.; Thomas, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Most studies of the geographic distribution of indoor radon levels are plotted by county or ZIP code. This method is used for the radon potential maps produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH). The basis for the mapping is the mean or median indoor radon count for all the data provided by NYSDOH within each geographic area. While testing the indoor radon analyses provided to the authors by CMT Independent Laboratories, we discovered data that deviated markedly from the EPA and NYSDOH means for the Capital District of New York (Albany and surrounding counties). Their screening indoor radon average concentrations in pCi/L, indicate low potential for Schenectady (3.0), Saratoga (3.2), and Albany (3.7) counties; and moderate potential for Rensselaer (6.4) and Columbia (7.0) counties. Our database of over 3,000 analyses contains over 800 records of indoor radon counts above 4 pCi/L (14-47% of each county's analyses), many high enough to be rated as a serious health hazard. In order to obtain greater precision of information, the authors plotted their indoor radon data by street address using MapInfo, a geographic Information System (GIS), and StreetInfo, MapInfo's TIGER address database. We compared the geographic distribution of our data to both the Bedrock Geology and Surficial Geology Maps of New York State. The results show a striking relationship of radon concentrations to bedrock, faults and permeability of surficial material. Data being compiled and mapped by street address by the NYSDOH in Erie County in western New York, confirm our results

  18. Occurrence, sources and human exposure assessment of SCCPs in indoor dust of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hua; Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Huo, Chun-Yan; Li, Wen-Long; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Hai-Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-06-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are widely used chemicals in household products and might cause adverse human health effects. However, limited information is available on the occurrence of SCCPs in indoor environments and their exposure risks on humans. In this study the concentrations, profiles and human exposure of SCCPs in indoor dust from five different indoor environments, including commercial stores, residential apartments, dormitories, offices and laboratories were characterized. The SCCPs levels ranged from 10.1 to 173.0 μg/g, with the median and mean concentration of 47.2 and 53.6 μg/g, respectively. No significant difference was found on concentrations among the five microenvironments. The most abundant compounds in indoor dust samples were homologues of C 13 group, Cl 7 group and N 20 (N is the total number of C and Cl) group. In the five microenvironments, commercial stores were more frequently exposed to shorter carbon chained and higher chlorinated homologues. Three potential sources for SCCPs were identified by the multiple linear regression of factor score model and correspondence analysis. The major sources of SCCPs in indoor dust were technical mixtures of CP-42 (42% chlorine, w/w) and CP-52 b (52% chlorine, w/w). The total daily exposure doses and hazard quotients (HQ) were calculated by the human exposure models, and they were all below the reference doses and threshold values, respectively. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of SCCPs. Infants and toddlers were at risk of SCCPs based on predicted HQ values, which were exceeded the threshold for neoplastic effects in the worst case. Our results on the occurrences, sources and human exposures of SCCPs will be useful to provide a better understanding of SCCPs behaviors in indoor environment in China, and to support environmental risk evaluation and regulation of SCCPs in the world. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), released in 2002, is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  20. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  1. Publications and Resources About Indoor airPLUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented are useful materials to help you build homes that meet Indoor airPLUS specifications and to promote Indoor airPLUS qualified homes. These materials are FREE of charge and are available in PDF.

  2. Indoor air quality in cold climates: hazards and abatement measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walkinshaw, D. S

    1986-01-01

    The first APCA Conference on Indoor Air Quality, held April 29, 30 and May 1, 1985 in Ottawa, featured some 67 presentations covering many aspects of indoor air quality, with the focus on cold climate...

  3. VOC source identification from personal and residential indoor, outdoor and workplace microenvironment samples in EXPOLIS-Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Rufus D. [KTL-Finnish National Inst. of Public Health, Dept. of Environmental Hygiene, Kuopio (Finland); California Univ., School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jurvelin, J. [KTL-Finnish National Inst. of Public Health, Dept. of Environmental Hygiene, Kuopio (Finland); Jyvaeskylae Polytechnic, School of Engineering and Technology, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Koistinen, K. [KTL-Finnish National Inst. of Public Health, Dept. of Environmental Hygiene, Kuopio (Finland); Saarela, K. [VTT, Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Jantunen, M. [EC JRC, Inst. of the Environment, Ispra (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Principal component analyses (varimax rotation) were used to identify common sources of 30 target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in residential outdoor, residential indoor and workplace microenvironment and personal 48-h exposure samples, as a component of the EXPOLIS-Helsinki study. Variability in VOC concentrations in residential outdoor microenvironments was dominated by compounds associated with long-range transport of pollutants, followed by traffic emissions, emissions from trees and product emissions. Variability in VOC concentrations in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) free residential indoor environments was dominated by compounds associated with indoor cleaning products, followed by compounds associated with traffic emissions, long-range transport of pollutants and product emissions. Median indoor/outdoor ratios for compounds typically associated with traffic emissions and long-range transport of pollutants exceeded 1, in some cases quite considerably, indicating substantial indoor source contributions. Changes in the median indoor/outdoor ratios during different seasons reflected different seasonal ventilation patterns as increased ventilation led to dilution of those VOC compounds in the indoor environment that had indoor sources. Variability in workplace VOC concentrations was dominated by compounds associated with traffic emissions followed by product emissions, long-range transport and air fresheners. Variability in VOC concentrations in ETS free personal exposure samples was dominated by compounds associated with traffic emissions, followed by long-range transport, cleaning products and product emissions. VOC sources in personal exposure samples reflected the times spent in different microenvironments, and personal exposure samples were not adequately represented by any one microenvironment, demonstrating the need for personal exposure sampling. (Author)

  4. Editorial input for the right price: tobacco industry support for a sheet metal indoor air quality manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard; Balbach, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Following legal action in the 1990s, internal tobacco industry documents became public, allowing unprecedented insight into the industry's relationships with outside organizations. During the 1980s and 1990s, the National Energy Management Institute (NEMI), established by the Sheet Metal Workers International Association and the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association, (SMACNA) received tobacco industry funding to establish an indoor air quality services program. But the arrangement also required NEMI to serve as an advocate for industry efforts to defeat indoor smoking bans by arguing that ventilation was a more appropriate solution to environmental tobacco smoke. Drawing on tobacco industry documents, this paper describes a striking example of the ethical compromises that accompanied NEMI's collaboration with the tobacco industry, highlighting the solicitation of tobacco industry financial support for a SMACNA indoor air quality manual in exchange for sanitizing references to the health impact of environmental tobacco smoke prior to publication.

  5. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles to control fungal infections in indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyá, Cecilia; Bellotti, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Fungi grow especially in dark and moist areas, deteriorating the indoor environment and causing infections that particularly affect immunosuppressed individuals. Antimicrobial coatings have as principal objective to prevent biofilm formation and infections by incorporation of bioactive additives. In this sense, metallic nanoparticles, such as silver, have proven to be active against different microorganisms specially bacteria. Biosynthesized method is a promising environmentally friendly option to obtain nanoparticles. The aim of this research was assess the employment of plants extracts of Aloysia triphylla (cedrón), Laurelia sempervirens (laurel) and Ruta chalepensis (ruda) to obtain silver nanoparticles to be used as an antimicrobial additive to a waterborne coating formulation. The products obtained were assessed against fungal isolates from biodeteriorated indoor coatings. The fungi were identified by conventional and molecular techniques as Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternate. The results revealed that the coating with silver nanoparticles obtained with L. sempervirens extract at 60 °C with a size of 9.8 nm was the most efficient against fungal biofilm development.

  6. Categories of adverse health effects from indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weetman, D.F.; Munby, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a lack of precision in the definition of health, which leads to confusion in the assessment of adverse effects arising from indoor air pollution. Adverse health effects range from annoyance to life-threatening conditions. Survey responses suggest that males and females differ in their perception of a healthy person, but both sexes envisage a male in terms of positive fitness, strength, energy and the possession of an athletic body, rather than how long one was likely to live. Psychological fitness was relatively unimportant in describing the health of others, but was rates as very important with respect to one's own health. Mortality statistics tend to obscure the proportion of the population who suffer chronic illness that is not life threatening. Although health is largely determined by genetic constitution, lifestyle and environmental factors, the morale of an individual is also important. A new classification of the adverse effects on health of indoor air pollution is proposed: this includes 'comfort' responses, such as sick building syndrome (category 1); acute chemical effects, the nature of which depends upon the specific intoxicant (category 2B), and perceived chronic grave risk, including cancer causation (category 3). The magnitude of risk in this latter category is imprecise, because its measurement involves the technique of quantitative risk assessment. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 158 refs

  7. Air quality inside subway metro indoor environment worldwide: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Hao, Jinliang

    2017-10-01

    The air quality in the subway metro indoor microenvironment has been of particular public concern. With specific reference to the growing demand of green transportation and sustainable development, subway metro systems have been rapidly developed worldwide in last decades. The number of metro commuters has continuously increased over recent years in metropolitan cities. In some cities, metro system has become the primary public transportation mode. Although commuters typically spend only 30-40min in metros, the air pollutants emitted from various interior components of metro system as well as air pollutants carried by ventilation supply air are significant sources of harmful air pollutants that could lead to unhealthy human exposure. Commuters' exposure to various air pollutants in metro carriages may cause perceivable health risk as reported by many environmental health studies. This review summarizes significant findings in the literature on air quality inside metro indoor environment, including pollutant concentration levels, chemical species, related sources and health risk assessment. More than 160 relevant studies performed across over 20 countries were carefully reviewed. These comprised more than 2000 individual measurement trips. Particulate matters, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls and airborne bacteria have been identified as the primary air pollutants inside metro system. On this basis, future work could focus on investigating the chronic health risks of exposure to various air pollutants other than PM, and/or further developing advanced air purification unit to improve metro in-station air quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bluetooth Indoor Positioning System using Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Christian; Jensen, Casper Svenning; Luckow, Kasper Søe

    2011-01-01

    Indoor Positioning has been an active research area in the last decade, but so far, commercial Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs) have been sparse. The main obstacle towards widely available IPSs has been the lack of appropriate, low cost technologies, that enable indoor positioning. While Wi-Fi...... infrastructures are ubiquitous, consumer-oriented Wi-Fi enabled mobile phones have been missing. Conversely, while Bluetooth technology is present in the vast majority of consumer mobile phones, Bluetooth infrastructures have been missing. Bluetooth infrastructures have typically been installed as part...... of complete hardware/software IPSs that often incur a substantial hardware cost. Furthermore, Bluetooth has low power consumption compared to Wi-Fi devices, which promotes longer battery life-time on mobile phones. In this paper, we present a Bluetooth IPS based entirely on commodity-grade products...

  9. Indoor radon levels in coastal Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Indoor radon levels have been measured in selected dwellings of coastal Karnataka using LR-115 type II peelable films and it is found to vary from 28.4 to 45.6 Bq m -3 with a geometric mean value of 35.7 Bq m -3 . The annual effective dose equivalent to the population of the region due to inhalation of radon was estimated from the measured data on radon level and is found to be in the range 1.9 - 3.1 mSv y -1 with a mean value 2.4 mSv y -1 . The correlation between indoor radon level and radium content in the underlying soil were studied. No definite correlation was observed to exist between indoor radon level and radium content in soil. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, G; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    1999-01-01

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe.

  11. A proposed UAV for indoor patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Catherine; Watfa, Mohamed; El Mouden, Yassine; Sahir, Sana; Ali, Afrah; Niavarani, Ali; Lutfi, Aoun; Copiaco, Abigail; Agarwal, Vaibhavi; Afsari, Kiyan; Johnathon, Chris; Okafor, Onyeka; Ayad, Marina

    2015-09-10

    Indoor flight, obstacle avoidance and client-server communication of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) raises several unique research challenges. This paper examines current methods and associated technologies adapted within the literature toward autonomous UAV flight, for consideration in a proposed system for indoor healthcare administration with a quadcopter. We introduce Healthbuddy, a unique research initiative towards overcoming challenges associated with indoor navigation, collision detection and avoidance, stability, wireless drone-server communications and automated decision support for patient care in a GPS-denied environment. To address the identified research deficits, a drone-based solution is presented. The solution is preliminary as we develop and refine the suggested algorithms and hardware system to achieve the research objectives.

  12. [Indoor air pollution in southeast Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, P; Oyarzún, M; Walter, T; von Baer, D; Romieu, I

    1998-04-01

    Indoor air pollution could play an important role in the susceptibility to respiratory diseases of vulnerable individuals, such as elders and infants. To evaluate indoor air pollution in a low income population of South East Santiago. A domiciliary survey of contaminant sources was carried out in the bouses of a cohort of 522 children less than one year old. Using a case-control design, 121 children consulting for respiratory diseases were considered as cases and 131 healthy infants of the same age and sex were considered as controls. In the houses of both groups, active monitors for particulate matter (PM10) and passive monitors for NO2 were installed. Forty two percent of fathers and 30% of mothers were smokers, and in two thirds of the families there was at least one smoker. Eighty five percent used portable heaters in winter. Of these, 77% used kerosene as fuel. Only 27% had water heating appliances. The rest heated water on the kitchen store or on bonfires. Most kitchen stoves used liquid gas as fuel. Twenty four hour PM10 was 109 +/- 3.2 micrograms/m3. Mean indoor and outdoor NO2 in 24 h was 108 +/- 76.3 and 84 +/- 53.6 micrograms/m3 respectively. Indoor NO2 levels were related to the use of heating devices and smoking. No differences in PM10 and NO2 levels were observed between cases and controls. There is a clear relationship between indoor pollution and contaminating sources. Indoor NO2 levels are higher than outdoors.

  13. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  14. Barcode based localization system in indoor environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Ilkovičová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the era of intelligent buildings, there is a need to create indoornavigation systems, what is steadily a challenge. QR (Quick Response codesprovide accurate localization also in indoor environment, where other navigationtechniques (e.g. GPS are not available. The paper deals with the issues of posi-tioning using QR codes, solved at the Department of Surveying, Faculty of CivilEngineering SUT in Bratislava. Operating principle of QR codes, description ofthe application for positioning in indoor environment based on OS Android forsmartphones are described.

  15. Indoor air pollution caused by geothermal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the little-known but potentially serious indoor air quality problems that may occur where buildings are constructed on geothermal ground. The main problems are related to seepage of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, radon and other gases from soil cavities directly into indoor air through perforations in the structure. These gases present a health hazard, and hydrogen sulphide, which is particularly corrosive, may cause problems electrical and electronic systems. Counter-measures are not always effective, so developments in such areas should only be undertaken with a clear understanding of site-specific issues and their possible solutions. (author)

  16. EVALUATION OF AIR PURIFICATION DEVICES FOR CONTROL OF INDOOR PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because people spend most of their time indoors (89%), the indoor environment is a primary determinant of particle exposure. The indoor environment is especially an important determinant for the very young, the very old, and those with underlying cardiopulmonary disease because...

  17. Plants for Sustainable Improvement of Indoor Air Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilli, Federico; Fares, Silvano; Ghirardo, Andrea; Visser, de Pieter; Calatayud, Vicent; Muñoz, Amalia; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sebastiani, Federico; Alivernini, Alessandro; Varriale, Vincenzo; Menghini, Flavio

    2018-01-01

    Indoor pollution poses a serious threat to human health. Plants represent a sustainable but underexploited solution to enhance indoor air quality. However, the current selection of plants suitable for indoors fails to consider the physiological processes and mechanisms involved in phytoremediation.

  18. Microbiological assessment of indoor air of teaching hospital wards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the objective of this study is to provide fundamental data related to the microbial quality of indoor air of Jimma University Specialized Hospital wards, to estimate the health hazard and to create standards for indoor air quality control. METHODS: The microbial quality of indoor air of seven wards of Jimma University ...

  19. Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

  20. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  1. An architectural framework for 5G indoor communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Kishor; Prasad, R. Venkatesha; Niemegeers, Ignas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we emphasize on indoor networks in 5G era. We explore the possible technologies and architectural solutions for 5G indoor communications. Owing to the fact that requirements for indoor and outdoor communications will be quite different in the next generation networks, we try to define

  2. Influence of indoor formaldehyde pollution on respiratory system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The decoration of interior spaces can lead to dangerous levels of indoor formaldehyde pollution. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million deaths per year in developing countries. Objectives To assess the prevalence of indoor formaldehyde pollution caused by decoration and ...

  3. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  4. Factors influencing indoor concentrations of radon and daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hengde

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between indoor concentrations of 222 Rn and its daughters and some influencing factors is discussed and expressions of concentrations are derived with relation to radon exhalation rate from indoor surfaces, air exchange rate and daughter deposition velocities on indoor surfaces. Experimental methods for determining radon exhalation rate, air exchange rate and daughter deposition velocities are also mentioned

  5. A Critical Review of Naphthalene Sources and Exposures Relevant to Indoor and Outdoor Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Jia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Both the recent classification of naphthalene as a possible human carcinogen and its ubiquitous presence motivate this critical review of naphthalene’s sources and exposures. We evaluate the environmental literature on naphthalene published since 1990, drawing on nearly 150 studies that report emissions and concentrations in indoor, outdoor and personal air. While naphthalene is both a volatile organic compound and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, concentrations and exposures are poorly characterized relative to many other pollutants. Most airborne emissions result from combustion, and key sources include industry, open burning, tailpipe emissions, and cigarettes. The second largest source is off-gassing, specifically from naphthalene’s use as a deodorizer, repellent and fumigant. In the U.S., naphthalene’s use as a moth repellant has been reduced in favor of para-dichlorobenzene, but extensive use continues in mothballs, which appears responsible for some of the highest indoor exposures, along with off-label uses. Among the studies judged to be representative, average concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 1.7 μg m-3 in non-smoker’s homes, and from 0.02 to 0.31 μg m-3 outdoors in urban areas. Personal exposures have been reported in only three European studies. Indoor sources are the major contributor to (non-occupational exposure. While its central tendencies fall well below guideline levels relevant to acute health impacts, several studies have reported maximum concentrations exceeding 100 μg m-3, far above guideline levels. Using current but draft estimates of cancer risks, naphthalene is a major environmental risk driver, with typical individual risk levels in the 10-4 range, which is high and notable given that millions of individuals are exposed. Several factors influence indoor and outdoor concentrations, but the literature is inconsistent on their effects. Further investigation is needed to better characterize naphthalene

  6. Assessment and predictor determination of indoor aldehyde levels in Paris newborn babies' homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassonville, C; Demattei, C; Laurent, A-M; Le Moullec, Y; Seta, N; Momas, I

    2009-08-01

    Exposure to indoor chemical air pollutants expected to be potentially involved in allergic respiratory diseases in infants is poorly documented. A specific environmental investigation included in a birth cohort study was carried out to first assess indoor airborne aldehyde levels, using passive devices and their variability within 1 year (1, 6, 9 and 12 months) in the bedroom of 196 Paris infants, and second, to identify predictors for aldehyde concentrations using interviewer administered questionnaires about housing factors. Comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels were measured simultaneously. Aldehydes were detected in almost all dwellings and geometric mean levels (geometric standard deviation) at the first visit were respectively for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, hexanal, and pentanal 19.4 (1.7) microg/m(3), 8.9 (1.8) microg/m(3), 25.3 (3.1) microg/m(3), 3.7 (2.3) microg/m(3), consistent with earlier published results. Generalized Estimating Equation multivariate analyses showed that, apart from comfort parameters, aeration and season, the main indoor aldehyde sources were either continuous (building materials and coverings especially when they were new) or discontinuous (smoking, use of air fresheners and cleaning products, DIY etc...). Finally, the data collected by questionnaires should be sufficient to enable us to classify each infant in our cohort study according to his/her degree of exposure to the main aldehydes. This analysis contributed to document indoor aldehyde levels in Parisian homes and to identify factors determining these levels. In the major part of newborn babies' homes, indoor formaldehyde levels were above the guideline value of 10 microg/m(3) proposed by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety for long-term exposure. Given this result, it is essential to study the health impact of exposure to aldehydes especially formaldehyde on the incidence of respiratory and allergic symptoms, particularly during the

  7. Indoor environment and installations in nursing home; Binnenmilieu en installaties in het verpleeghuis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoof, J.; Kort, H.S.M.; Duijnstee, M.S.H. [Kenniscentrum Innovatie van Zorgverlening, Faculteit Gezondheidszorg, Hogeschool Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hensen, J.L.M.; Rutten, P.G.S. [Unit Building Physics and Systems, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    The majority of nursing home residents are older adults with dementia. People with dementia may have an altered sensitivity for indoor environmental conditions, which can induce problematic behaviour with burdensome symptoms. This paper provides an overview of the ageing of senses and needs of older adults with dementia in relation to the indoor environment. Results can help designers and building services engineers to create optima[ environmental conditions in nursing homes. [Dutch] De verpleeghuizen in Nederland bieden zorg en verblijf aan ouderen met een intensieve zorgvraag. Het grote aantal installaties dat in deze woonvorm aanwezig is dient zo te worden ontworpen en geinstalleerd dat deze optimaal comfort bieden aan bewoners en zorgprofessionals. Ouderen met dementie vormen de grootste groep bewoners en hebben zeer specifieke behoeften voor het binnenmilieu. Door hiervan uit te gaan bij ontwerp en installatie, ontstaat een verpleeghuis dat ten dienste staat van alle bewoners en overige gebouwgebruikers.

  8. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion

  9. Measurements of MIMO Indoor Channels at 1800 MHz with Multiple Indoor and Outdoor Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaldén Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes several configurations for multiple base stations in indoor MIMO systems and compares their performance. The results are based on channel measurements realized with a MIMO testbed. The receiver was moved along several routes and floors on an office building. Both outdoor and indoor locations are considered for the transmitters or base stations, which allow the analysis of not only indoor but also outdoor-to-indoor environment. The use of 2 base stations with different system level combinations of the two is analyzed. We show that the configuration with base station selection provides almost as good performance as a full water-filling scheme when the 2 base stations are placed at different locations. Also the spatial correlation properties for the different configurations are analyzed and the importance of considering path loss when evaluating capacity is highlighted.

  10. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.

  11. Very volatile organic compounds: An understudied class of indoor air pollutants: Keynote: Indoor Air 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Salthammer, T.

    2016-01-01

    Very volatile organic compounds (VVOCs), as categorized by the WHO, are an important subgroup of indoor pollutants and cover a wide spectrum of chemical substances. Some VVOCs are components of products commonly used indoors, some result from chemical reactions and some are reactive precursors of secondary products. Nevertheless, there is still no clear and internationally accepted definition of VVOCs. Current approaches are based on the boiling point, and the saturation vapor pressure or ref...

  12. Energy saving and indoor climate optimization using sunscreen techniques; Energieeinsparung und Raumklimaoptimierung mit Sonnenschutztechnik. Intelligente Fassadenkonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-09-15

    The total view of a building is supposed to display representative impression. Spectacular architecture ensures public notice. On the other hand it is necessary to take care of the needs of the people using the specific building, including indoor climate quality. The social requirement concerning environmental protection and energy saving is of high relevance. The realization of these requirements is performed using natural venting, dynamic insulation and daylight management based on an intelligent control of windows and sun screens.

  13. Organic indoor air pollutants: occurrence, measurement, evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salthammer, Tunga; Uhde, Erik

    2009-01-01

    ... hand, organic chemical pollutants emitted from materials and appliances can adversely affect human health. People in developed countries spend more than 90% of their time indoors. In the light of this fact, the cleanliness of occupied spaces such as buildings, houses, and transportation systems becomes very important. In contemporary so...

  14. Measuring low-frequency noise indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    that is exceeded in 10% of the volume of a room (L10) is proposed as a rational and objective target for a measurement method. In Sweden and Denmark rules exist for measuring low-frequency noise indoors. The performance of these procedures was investigated in three rooms. The results from the Swedish method were...

  15. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  16. Indoor Location Fingerprinting with Heterogeneous Clients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous wireless clients measure signal strength differently. This is a fundamental problem for indoor location fingerprinting, and it has a high impact on the positioning accuracy. Mapping-based solutions have been presented that require manual and error-prone calibration for each new clie...

  17. 9 CFR 3.26 - Facilities, indoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or air conditioning, and shall be ventilated so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. The ambient temperature shall not be allowed to rise above 85 °F. (c) Lighting. Indoor housing... constructed and maintained so that they are substantially impervious to moisture and may be readily sanitized. ...

  18. Redispersion of indoor surface contamination: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansone, E.B.; Slein, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of surface contamination as a potential source of exposure to hazardous materials is discussed. Data from the literature concerning the resuspension of indoor surface contamination are presented. Reported procedures for quantitating surface contamination are compared. It is suggested that, despite its limitations, surface contamination monitoring may be useful in estimating potential risks from hazardous materials. (Auth.)

  19. Indoor radon measurements in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.mx; Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bogard, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6480 (United States); Gaso, I. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ponciano, G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mena, M.; Segovia, N. [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-15

    Mexico City is one of the most populated cities in the world with almost 22 million inhabitants, located at an altitude of 2200 m. The old city was founded on an ancient lake and the zone is known by its high seismicity; indoor radon determination is an important public health issue. In this paper the data of indoor radon levels in Mexico City, measured independently by two research groups, both using Nuclear Track Detector systems but different methodologies, are correlated. The measurements were done during similar exposure periods of time, at family houses from the political administrative regions of the city. The results indicate a correlation coefficient between the two sets of data of R=0.886. Most of the differences between the two sets of data are inherent to houses having extreme (very high or very low indoor radon) included in the statistics of each group. The total average indoor radon found in Mexico City considering the two methods was 87Bqm{sup -3}.

  20. CARBON ADSORPTION FOR INDOOR AIR CLEANING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the use of carbon adsorption for indoor air cleaning, focusing on the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using granular activated carbon (GAC). It addresses GAC performance in two directions. Initially, it presents performance measurements for GAC at...

  1. Indoor Coal Use and Early Childhood Growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ghosh, R.; Amirian, E.; Dostál, Miroslav; Šrám, Radim; Hertz-Picciotto, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 6 (2011), s. 492-497 ISSN 1072-4710 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/50/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution, * coal heating * indoor air pollutants Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.140, year: 2011

  2. Ventilation strategies and indoor environment in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the other building types, the school building has much higher occupancy density and ventilation demand. In Demark, most of the school buildings are ventilated by natural manner. There is a risk of poor indoor environment associated with the lack of ventilation system or insufficient...

  3. Growth of indoor fungi on gypsum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Frank J J; van Laarhoven, Karel A; Wosten, Han; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To have a better understanding of fungal growth on gypsum building materials to prevent indoor fungal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gypsum is acquired by mining or as a by-product of flue-gas desulfurization or treatment of phosphate ore for the production of fertilizer. Natural gypsum,

  4. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO 2 , CO, SO 2 , and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  5. Personal control over indoor climate and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerstra, A.C.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    A multilayer study was designed to investigate how having or not having control over one’s indoor climate affects work performance in office buildings. The study consisted of 2 stages. The HOPE database (with results from a large study in 64 European office buildings) was reanalyzed on correlations

  6. An Innovative Gateway for Indoor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marias Giannis F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Enabling the pervasive paradigm requires the incorporation of location information. Retrieving location data has been a field of ongoing research for both the outdoor and indoor wireless systems. The results in the cellular scenario are already mature and location architectures have been standardized. Recent research is ongoing for indoor-positioning mechanisms, resulting in implementations that vary. A platform that enables the deployment of location-based services in heterogeneous indoor and WLAN-based communication systems will address difficulties in cooperating with different positioning systems. For that purpose, we have designed a novel entity, called Gateway WLAN Location Center (GWLC, which hides the heterogeneous functions of the indoor positioning architectures, incorporating a unified framework for retrieving location data of users and objects. The GWLC platform has been designed to meet objectives such as modularity, scalability, as well as portability, and to facilitate open interfaces. In this contribution, we elaborate on the design principles and the functionality of GWLC. We also provide performance results, obtained through real experiments.

  7. Medical management after indoor fires: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, L.; van Harten, S. M.; Patka, P.; Bierens, J. J. L. M.; Boers, M.; Luitse, J. S. K.; Mackie, D. P.; Trouwborst, A.; Gouma, D. J.; Kreis, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    Fires involving mass burn casualties require extreme efforts and flexibility from the regular health care system. The cafe fire in Volendam, which occurred shortly after midnight on the first of January 2001, resulted in the worst indoor mass burns incident in Dutch history. During the extensive

  8. Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem Khan, A A; Mohan Karuppayil, S

    2012-10-01

    Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health.

  9. Indoor environment and allergy except housedust mite; Jukankyo to allergy ni kansuru dani igai no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, F.; Nishima, S.

    1998-05-31

    Pathopoiesis factors of allergic diseases include immune antibody productivity sthenia reacting with antigens such as mite or the like in allergy reaction which is regarded as based on genetic fact (atopic diathesis), and environmental factors as external factors. The environmental factors are further classified into specific factors (antigens) and nonspecific factors. The former factors include the indoor factors such as mite, mould, animals bred indoor, etc., and outdoor factors such as pollen and so on. The latter factors include indoor factors such as passive smoking, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, etc., and outdoor factors such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, airborne particles and so on. In this paper, the environmental factors in relation to allergic diseases expect mite are introduced. Besides mould, cockroach/insect, fur dust and dandruff of animals, adjustment of room temperature/humidity, smoking, indoor and outdoor air pollution are mentioned as the environmental factors expect mite, and the cause-effect relations thereof are explained. 24 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality (ToPIQ - the protocol of a new study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. Since decades it is well documented that ETS can be harmful to human health and causes premature death and disease. In comparison to the huge research on toxicological substances of ETS, less attention was paid on the concentration of indoor ETS-dependent particulate matter (PM. Especially, investigation that focuses on different tobacco products and their concentration of deeply into the airways depositing PM-fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 must be stated. The tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality study (ToPIQS will approach this issue by device supported generation of indoor ETS and simultaneously measurements of PM concentration by laser aerosol spectrometry. Primarily, the ToPIQ study will conduct a field research with focus on PM concentration of different tobacco products and within various microenvironments. It is planned to extend the analysis to basic research on influencing factors of ETS-dependent PM concentration.

  11. Assessment of Thailand indoor set-point impact on energy consumption and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamtraipat, N.; Khedari, J.; Hirunlabh, J.; Kunchornrat, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation of indoor set-point standard of air-conditioned spaces as a tool to control electrical energy consumption of air-conditioners in Thailand office buildings and to reduce air pollutants. One hundred and forty-seven air-conditioned rooms in 13 buildings nationwide were used as models to analyze the electricity consumption of air-conditioning systems according to their set indoor temperatures, which were below the standard set-point and were accounted into a large scale. Then, the electrical energy and environmental saving potentials in the country were assessed by the assumption that adaptation of indoor set-point temperature is increased up to the standard set-point of 26 o C. It was concluded that the impacts of indoor set-point of air-conditioned rooms, set at 26 o C, on energy saving and on environment are as follows: The overall electricity consumption saving would be 804.60 GWh/year, which would reduce the corresponding GHGs emissions (mainly CO 2 ) from power plant by 579.31x10 3 tons/year

  12. Neural computing thermal comfort index PMV for the indoor environment intelligent control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Yifei

    2013-03-01

    Providing indoor thermal comfort and saving energy are two main goals of indoor environmental control system. An intelligent comfort control system by combining the intelligent control and minimum power control strategies for the indoor environment is presented in this paper. In the system, for realizing the comfort control, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is designed as the control goal, and with chastening formulas of PMV, it is controlled to optimize for improving indoor comfort lever by considering six comfort related variables. On the other hand, a RBF neural network based on genetic algorithm is designed to calculate PMV for better performance and overcoming the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation better. The formulas given in the paper are presented for calculating the expected output values basing on the input samples, and the RBF network model is trained depending on input samples and the expected output values. The simulation result is proved that the design of the intelligent calculation method is valid. Moreover, this method has a lot of advancements such as high precision, fast dynamic response and good system performance are reached, it can be used in practice with requested calculating error.

  13. A survey of perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides in indoor and outdoor air using passive air samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeib, M.; Harner, T. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada (Canada); Wilford, B.; Jones, K. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Environmental Science; Zhu, J. [Chemistry Research Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has recently emerged as a priority environmental pollutant due to its widespread detection in biological samples from remote regions including the Arctic and the Mid-North Pacific Ocean. Because PFOS is fairly involatile, it is hypothesized that its occurrence in remote regions is the result of atmospheric transport of more volatile precursor compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASs). PFASs are used in variety of consumer products for water and oil resistance including surface treatments for fabric, upholstery, carpet, paper and leather. In a recent pilot study employing high volume air samples, indoor air concentrations of PFASs were approximately 100 times greater than outdoor levels. This is of significance because people typically spend about 90% of their time indoors 5 and this exposure may serve as an important uptake pathway. Indoor air also serves as a source of PFASs to the outside where PFASs are ultimately transported and distributed throughout the environment. The current study is intended to be a more comprehensive survey of indoor and outdoor air allowing more confident conclusions to be made. Passive air samplers comprised of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were used. These are quiet, non-intrusive samplers that operate without the aid of a pump or electricity. Air movement delivers chemical to the sampler which has a high retention capacity for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PUF disks samplers have been previously used successfully to monitor different classes of hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants POPs.

  14. Improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort in office building by using combination filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabrein, H.; Yusof, M. Z. M.; Hariri, A.; Leman, A. M.; Afandi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Poor indoor air quality and thermal comfort condition in the workspace affected the occupants’ health and work productivity, especially when adapting the recirculation of air in heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. The recirculation of air was implemented in this study by mixing the circulated returned indoor air with the outdoor fresh air. The aims of this study are to assess the indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) in the office buildings, equipped with combination filters. The air filtration technique consisting minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) filter and activated carbon fiber (ACF) filter, located before the fan coil units. The findings of the study show that the technique of mixing recirculation air with the fresh air through the combination filters met the recommended thermal comfort condition in the workspace. Furthermore, the result of the post-occupancy evaluation (POE) and the environmental measurements comply with the ASHRAE 55 standard. In addition, the level of CO2 concentration continued to decrease during the period of the measurement.

  15. Indoor Environment Program - 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indoor Environment Program

    1996-11-01

    The forty-five chemists, physicists, biologists, architects, engineers, staff, and students of the Indoor Environment Program are all working to solve the problems of indoor air quality, health, comfort, and energy use associated with the indoor environment. A common thread throughout this work is the importance of ventilation--both for its role in supporting human health and comfort as well as for its liability in requiring large amounts of energy to heat and cool it. The importance of understanding these interactions can be illustrated by two examples: the health and productivity of workers (Fisk and Rosenfeld, 1996) and the performance of sensitive equipment in clean room environments (Faulkner, et d., 1996). During the past year, we estimated the magnitudes of health and productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments. The ratio of the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments to the costs of the improvements ranges between 20 and 50. A second example is from our Clean Room Energy Efficiency Study: Clean rooms utilize large amounts of electricity to operate fans that recirculate air at very high flow rates through particle filters. Usually, the fans operate continuously at full speed, even when the clean room is unused. To reduce the energy use in a research clean room, the rate of air recirculation was controlled in response to real-time measurements of particle concentration. With this new control system, fan energy use decreased by 65% to 85% while maintaining particle concentrations below the allowable limits except during occasional one-minute periods. The estimated payback period for this technology is one to four years.

  16. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, James F; Rona, Roberto J; Oyarzun, Manuel J; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semirural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  17. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, J.F.; Rona, R.J.; Oyarzun, M.J.; Amigo, H.; Bustos, P. [Kings College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. for Public Health Science

    2008-04-15

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semi-rural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  18. Indoor Risk Factors for Cough and Their Relation to Wheeze and Sensitization in Chilean Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, James F.; Rona, Roberto J.; Oyarzun, Manuel J.; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Methods. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semirural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Results. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Conclusions. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity. PMID:17666696

  19. A Foundation for Efficient Indoor Distance-Aware Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Hua; Cao, Xin; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    model that integrates indoor distance seamlessly. To enable the use of the model as a foundation for query processing, we develop accompanying, efficient algorithms that compute indoor distances for different indoor entities like doors as well as locations. We also propose an indexing framework......Indoor spaces accommodate large numbers of spatial objects, e.g., points of interest (POIs), and moving populations. A variety of services, e.g., location-based services and security control, are relevant to indoor spaces. Such services can be improved substantially if they are capable of utilizing...... that accommodates indoor distances that are pre-computed using the proposed algorithms. On top of this foundation, we develop efficient algorithms for typical indoor, distance-aware queries. The results of an extensive experimental evaluation demonstrate the efficacy of the proposals....

  20. Indoor-outdoor concentrations of fine particulate matter in school building microenvironments near a mine tailing deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality in school classrooms is a major pediatric health concern because children are highly susceptible to adverse effects from xenobiotic exposure. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 emitted from mining waste deposits within and near cities in northern Chile is a serious environmental problem. We measured PM2.5 in school microenvironments in urban areas of Chañaral, a coastal community whose bay is contaminated with mine tailings. PM2.5 levels were measured in six indoor and outdoor school environments during the summer and winter of 2012 and 2013. Measurements were taken during school hours on two consecutive days. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were 12.53–72.38 μg/m3 in the summer and 21.85–100.53 μg/m3 in winter, while outdoor concentrations were 11.86–181.73 μg/m3 in the summer and 21.50–93.07 μg/m3 in winter. Indoor/outdoor ratios were 0.17–2.76 in the summer and 0.64–4.49 in winter. PM2.5 levels were higher in indoor microenvironments during the winter, at times exceeding national and international recommendations. Our results demonstrate that indoor air quality Chañaral school microenvironments is closely associated with outdoor air pollution attributable to the nearby mine tailings. Policymakers should enact environmental management strategies to minimize further environmental damage and mitigate the risks that this pollution poses for pediatric health.