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Sample records for ige skin test

  1. Association of skin test reactivity, specific IgE, total IgE, and eosinophils with nasal symptoms in a community-based population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, JHJ; Kerkhof, M; deMonchy, JGR; Schouten, JP; Rijcken, B

    Background: Skin prick tests and measurement of specific IgE are important markers possible allergic causes of disorders of the upper respiratory tract. Objective: In this study we investigated the association of skin test reactivity and specific IgE positivity to five common aeroallergens

  2. Positive Skin Test or Specific IgE to Penicillin Does Not Reliably Predict Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tannert, Line Kring; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: According to guidelines, patients are diagnosed with penicillin allergy if skin test (ST) result or specific IgE (s-IgE) to penicillin is positive. However, the true sensitivity and specificity of these tests are presently not known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance ...

  3. Disagreement between skin prick test and specific IgE in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, BLK; Følsgaard, N V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test (SPT) and measurement of serum-specific IgE (sIgE) level are important tools for the clinician to diagnose allergic sensitization. However, little is known about the agreement between the two methods in young children. METHODS: SPT and sIgE levels were assessed...... points was analyzed using kappa statistics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inhalant allergen sensitization increased during childhood diagnosed by both sIgE levels (0.6% to 4.2% to 18.1% to 24.8%, P ... sensitization increased during childhood when diagnosed from sIgE (7.8% to 12.1% to 15.0% to 18.9%, P IgE levels was poor to moderate (all κ-coefficients ≤ 0.60) and decreased from...

  4. Positive Skin Test or Specific IgE to Penicillin Does Not Reliably Predict Penicillin Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannert, Line Kring; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Skov, Per Stahl; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    According to guidelines, patients are diagnosed with penicillin allergy if skin test (ST) result or specific IgE (s-IgE) to penicillin is positive. However, the true sensitivity and specificity of these tests are presently not known. To investigate the clinical relevance of a positive ST result and positive s-IgE and to study the reproducibility of ST and s-IgE. A sample of convenience of 25 patients with positive penicillin ST results, antipenicillin s-IgE results, or both was challenged with their culprit penicillin. Further 19 patients were not challenged, but deemed allergic on the basis of a recent anaphylactic reaction or delayed reactions to skin testing. Another sample of convenience of 18 patients, 17 overlapping with the 25 challenged, with initial skin testing and s-IgE (median, 25; range, 3-121), months earlier (T -1 ), was repeat skin tested and had s-IgE measured (T 0 ), and then skin tested and had s-IgE measured 4 weeks later (T 1 ). Only 9 (36%) of 25 were challenge positive. There was an increased probability of being penicillin allergic if both ST result and s-IgE were positive at T 0 . Positive ST result or positive s-IgE alone did not predict penicillin allergy. Among the 18 patients repeatedly tested, 46.2% (12 of 25) of positive ST results at T -1 were reproducibly positive at T 0 . For s-IgE, 54.2% (14 of 24) positive measurements were still positive at T 0 and 7 converted to positive at T 1 . The best predictor for a clinically significant (IgE-mediated) penicillin allergy is a combination of a positive case history with simultaneous positive ST result and s-IgE or a positive challenge result. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sesame allergy: role of specific IgE and skin-prick testing in predicting food challenge results.

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    Permaul, Perdita; Stutius, Lisa M; Sheehan, William J; Rangsithienchai, Pitud; Walter, Jolan E; Twarog, Frank J; Young, Michael C; Scott, Jordan E; Schneider, Lynda C; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2009-01-01

    There are conflicting data regarding the diagnostic value of sesame-specific IgE and sesame skin test. Currently, there are no established thresholds that predict clinical reactivity. We examined the correlation of sesame ImmunoCAP and skin-prick test (SPT) results with oral challenge outcomes in children suspected of having a sesame food allergy. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children, aged 2-12 years, receiving a sesame ImmunoCAP level, SPT, and food challenge from January 2004 to August 2008 at Children's Hospital Boston and affiliated allergy clinics. Food challenges were conducted in cases of questionable clinical history or a negative ImmunoCAP and/or negative SPT despite a convincing history. Thirty-three oral sesame challenges were conducted. Of the 33 challenges performed, 21% (n = 7) failed and 79% (n = 26) passed. A sesame-specific IgE level of > or = 7 kU(A)/L showed specificity of >90%. An SPT wheal size of > or = 6 mm showed specificity of >90%. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for sesame-specific IgE revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.56. ROC curve analysis for SPT wheal size revealed an AUC of 0.67. To our knowledge, this study represents the largest number of sesame challenges performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of both sesame-specific IgE and SPT. Based on our sample, both tests are not good predictors of true sesame allergy as determined by an oral challenge. We were unable to establish a threshold with a 95% positive predictive value for both sesame-specific IgE and SPT.

  6. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...

  7. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... with apple and A72 showed a good diagnostic value with a sensitivity of more than 70% and a specificity of 100%. The SCT showed a poor sensitivity to apple, A72 and commercial apple extract. The ML test was not suitable in detecting specific IgE to apple compared with the CAP test. In daily practice...... a detailed case history about symptoms of oral allergy syndrome combined with a SPT with fresh apple peel or A72 will be useful....

  8. Comparison of IgE test results with intradermal skin tests for dust mites and storage mites in atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiel, J; Cekiera, A

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is one of the most frequent allergic diseases in dogs. There are many methods of treating its symptoms but specific immunotherapy has recently gained high popularity. Before the application of specific immunotherapy, it is necessary to identify the allergens provoking the reaction of hypersensitivity in the selected animal. This raises a question about the method of allergen identification the medical practitioner decides to use in order to obtain the most credible result. The authors of the present study decided to compare the results of intradermal allergic tests and the results of an IgE screening test carried out using the FcɛRIα receptor method. The aim of the study was to compare the results of both tests directed to dust and storage mites. The study proves that in case of the IgE screening tests (for a group of allergens), the sensitivity is quite high (85 to 90.69%) but the specificity of these tests is insufficient (25 to 50%). In case of antibodies for the selected mites the sensitivity and specificity was too low (65.1 to 89.4% for the sensitivity, with only 14.2 to 33.3% for the specificity). Only in case of D. petronyssinus the results were higher with the sensitivity calculated at 65.1% and the specificity at 80%. The IgE screening test carried out using the FcɛRIα receptor method is reliable only in case of screening test for mites and the intradermal allergic test remains the gold standard for allergy testing.

  9. [Correlation between the magnitude of skin prick test reactivity and pollen-specific serum IgE levels in patients with respiratory allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlachi-Corona, Laura; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; López-García, Aída Inés; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; Carcaño-Pérez, María Socorro Yolanda; Marín-Marín, Araceli; Garrido-Priego, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    For the etiological diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases skin tests or specific serum IgE determination are used. To determine the correlation between the extent of reactivity to cutaneous prick tests and the levels of pollen specific serum IgE in patients with respiratory allergy. A prolective, descriptive and transversal study was done with patients of both genders, aged 2 to 60 years, who attended for the first time at the service of Allergy and Clinical Immunology of University Hospital of Puebla, Mexico, with presumptive diagnosis of respiratory allergy. All patients underwent clinical history, skin prick tests with standardized allergenic extracts and quantification of pollen specific serum IgE by chemiluminescence method. We estimated the correlation index r using the statistical method Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient; a value r equal to or higher than 0.70 was considered a significant relationship or a high correlation. Nine-one patients were included, of whom 58.2% were female. The diagnoses were: allergic rhinitis (79.1%), asthma and allergic rhinitis (16.5%) and only asthma (4.4%). Only significant correlation was found in patients with allergic rhinitis for Rumex crispus (r = 0.702) and in patients with asthma and rhinitis for Ambrosia trifida (r = 1). Only for Rumex crispus and Ambrosia trifida, the skin prick tests or the determination of specific serum IgE levels are comparable diagnostic methods of allergic respiratory diseases.

  10. IgE antibodies and skin tests in immediate hypersensitivity reactions to infliximab in inflammatory bowel disease: impact on infliximab retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréling, Estelle; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Poreaux, Claire; Morali, Alain; Waton, Julie; Schmutz, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Barbaud, Annick

    2015-10-01

    Infliximab (IFX) is used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (HR) to IFX are frequently reported. We investigated immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated mechanisms underlying immediate HR to IFX. We also evaluated the clinical utility of allergological tests as well as the tolerability of IFX retreatment in these patients. This was a prospective single-center study including IBD patients with previous immediate HR to IFX. Skin tests to IFX, including prick tests and intradermal tests, and measurement of anti-IFX IgE antibodies were performed at least 4 weeks after HR. In case of negative skin tests and absence of IgE antibodies, readministration of IFX was performed with a twice-reduced infusion rate. In case of positive tests or recurrence of HR during readministration of IFX, a 12-step desensitization or induction of tolerance protocol was proposed. A total of 24 IBD patients were included (Crohn's disease: n=20). Prick tests to IFX were all negative. Intradermal test was positive in one patient. Anti-IFX IgE antibodies were not detected in 21 patients and were detected in three patients (significant level in one patient and intermediate level in two patients). No relationship was observed between positive skin tests and the presence of anti-IFX IgE antibodies. Switch to adalimumab was well tolerated in 10/11 patients. The readministration of IFX was well tolerated in 4/11 patients. Desensitization to IFX was successful in three out of four patients. The vast majority of immediate HR to IFX is not IgE-mediated. Allergological tests are of poor clinical utility. Desensitization or induction of tolerance protocol may allow continuation of IFX therapy in IBD patients with a history of immediate HR.

  11. Racial differences in the association of CD14 polymorphisms with serum total IgE levels and allergen skin test reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ZongYao Wang,1 John S Sundy,1 Catherine M Foss,1 Huiman X Barnhart,2 Scott M Palmer,1 Sallie D Allgood,3 Evan Trudeau,1 Katie M Alexander,3 Marc C Levesque31Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, 3Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USABackground: The CD14 C-159T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP has been investigated widely as a candidate genetic locus in patients with allergic disease. There are conflicting results for the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP with total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels and atopy. There are limited data regarding the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP in subjects of African ancestry. The aim of the study was to determine whether the C-159T SNP and other CD14 SNPs (C1188G, C1341T were associated with total serum IgE levels and with allergy skin test results in nonatopic and atopic subjects; as well as in Caucasian and African American subjects.Methods: A total of 291 participants, 18–40 years old, were screened to determine whether they were atopic and/or asthmatic. Analyses were performed to determine the association between CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes with serum IgE levels and with the number of positive skin tests among Caucasian or African American subjects.Results: We found no significant association of serum total IgE level with CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes within nonatopic or atopic subjects. Subjects with CD14-159 T alleles had significantly more positive allergen skin tests than subjects without CD14-159 T alleles (P = 0.0388. There was a significant association between the CD14 1188 G allele, but not the CD14 1341 T allele, with the number of positive skin-test results in Caucasians, but not in African Americans.Conclusion: These results support a possible association between CD14 polymorphisms and atopy. CD14-159 T or CD14 1188 G alleles were associated with atopic

  12. Effects of geohelminth infection and age on the associations between allergen-specific IgE, skin test reactivity and wheeze: a case-control study

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    Moncayo, A-L; Vaca, M; Oviedo, G; Workman, L J; Chico, M E; Platts-Mills, T A E; Rodrigues, L C; Barreto, M L; Cooper, P J

    2013-01-01

    Background Most childhood asthma in poor populations in Latin America is not associated with aeroallergen sensitization, an observation that could be explained by the attenuation of atopy by chronic helminth infections or effects of age. Objective To explore the effects of geohelminth infections and age on atopy, wheeze, and the association between atopy and wheeze. Methods A case-control study was done in 376 subjects (149 cases and 227 controls) aged 7–19 years living in rural communities in Ecuador. Wheeze cases, identified from a large cross-sectional survey, had recent wheeze and controls were a random sample of those without wheeze. Atopy was measured by the presence of allergen-specific IgE (asIgE) and skin prick test (SPT) responses to house dust mite and cockroach. Geohelminth infections were measured in stools and anti-Ascaris IgE in plasma. Results The fraction of recent wheeze attributable to anti-Ascaris IgE was 45.9%, while those for SPT and asIgE were 10.0% and 10.5% respectively. The association between atopy and wheeze was greater in adolescents than children. Although Anti-Ascaris IgE was strongly associated with wheeze (adj. OR 2.24 (95% CI 1.33–3.78, P = 0.003) and with asIgE (adj. OR 5.34, 95% CI 2.49–11.45, P Ascaris IgE was an important risk factor. Our data provided only limited evidence that active geohelminth infections attenuated the association between atopy and wheeze in endemic areas or that age modified this association. The role of allergic sensitization to Ascaris in the development of wheeze, independent of atopy, requires further investigation. PMID:23278881

  13. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

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    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens.

  14. Diagnostic values for egg white specific IgE levels with the skin prick test in Turkish children with egg white allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacaroglu, H T; Erdem, S B; Karaman, S; Dogan, D; U Karkiner, C S; T Kanık, E; Can, D

    The diagnostic values for the skin prick test (SPT) diameters and egg white-specific IgE (EW-sIgE) levels that will allow us to predict the result of the oral food challenge test (OFC) in the diagnosis of egg white allergy vary by the community where the study is carried out. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic values of SPT and EW-sIgE levels in the diagnosis of egg white allergy. 59 patients followed with the diagnosis of egg allergy September 2013 to September 2015 were included in our retrospective cross-sectional study. The patients were investigated in terms of egg and anaphylaxis history or the requirement of the OFC positivity. The demographic, clinical and laboratory findings of the cases were recorded, and they were compared with the patients with the suspected egg allergy but negative OFC (n=47). In the study, for all age groups, the value of 5mm in SPT was found to be significant at 96.4% positive predictive value (PPV) and 97.8% specificity and the value of 5.27kU/L for EW-sIgE was found to be significant at 76% PPV and 86.6% specificity for egg white. The diagnostic power of the SPT for egg white (AUC: 72.2%) was determined to be significantly higher compared to the diagnostic power of the EW-sIgE (AUC: 52.3%) (p<0.05). Along with the determination of the diagnostic values of communities, the rapid and accurate diagnosis of the children with a food allergy will be ensured, and the patient follow-up will be made easier. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Ascaris Lumbricoides specific IgE on tuberculin skin test responses in children in a high-burden setting: a cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soelen, Nelda; Mandalakas, Anna M; Kirchner, H Lester; Walzl, Gerhard; Grewal, Harleen M S; Jacobsen, Marc; Hesseling, Anneke C

    2012-09-11

    M.tuberculosis (M.tb) is associated with enhanced T helper cell type 1 (Th1) immune responses while helminth infection is associated with T helper cell type 2 (Th2) immune responses. Our aim was to investigate whether helminth infection could influence the ability to generate an appropriate Th1 immune response that is characterized by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST), in M.tb exposed children. We completed a community-based, cross sectional household contact tracing study, using matched enrolment of HIV negative children with and without documented household M.tb exposure. We documented demographics, clinical characteristics, HIV status, M.tb exposure (using a standard contact score) and M.tb infection status (TST > = 10 mm). Ascaris lumbricoides-specific IgE was used as proxy for Ascaris infection/exposure. Of 271 children (median age 4 years (range: 4 months to 15 years)) enrolled, 65 participants (24%) were serum positive for Ascaris IgE. There were 168 (62%) children with a documented household tuberculosis contact and 107 (40%) were (TST) positive overall.A positive TST was associated with increasing age (Odds Ratio (OR) =1.17, p Ascaris IgE was not associated with TST status in univariate analysis (OR = 0.9, p = 0.6), but multivariable logistic regression analysis suggested an inverse association between Ascaris IgE status and a positive TST (OR = 0.6, p = 0.08), when adjusted for age, and M.tb contact score. The addition of an age interaction term to the model suggested that the age effect was stronger among Ascaris IgE positive children; the effect of being Ascaris IgE positive significantly reduced the odds of being TST positive amongst younger children while this effect weakened with increasing age. Our preliminary findings highlight a high prevalence of both Ascaris exposure/infection and M.tb infection in children in an urban setting. Helminth exposure/infection may reduce the immune response following M.tb exposure when controlling for

  16. Are basophil histamine release and high affinity IgE receptor expression involved in asymptomatic skin sensitization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Assing, K; Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj

    2006-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-sensitized persons with positive skin prick test, but no allergy symptoms, are classified as being asymptomatic skin sensitized (AS). The allergic type 1 disease is dependant on IgE binding to the high affinity IgE-receptor (FcepsilonRI) expressed on basophils and mast cells...

  17. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...... history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass....

  18. The skin prick test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, F; Incorvaia, C; Cavaliere, C; Di Cara, G; Marcucci, F; Esposito, S; Masieri, S

    2018-01-01

    The skin prick test (SPT) is the most common test for the diagnosis of allergy. SPT is performed by pricking the skin, usually in the volar surface of the forearm, with a lancet through a drop of an allergen extract and is usually the first choice test in the diagnostic workup for allergic diseases because of its reliability, safety, convenience and low cost. SPT is minimally invasive and has the advantage of testing multiple allergens in 15 to 20 min. In children, SPT is far less disturbing than venipuncture and is used to obtain a sample of serum to measure specific IgE through in vitro tests. There is a good correlation (about 85-95%) between SPT and in vitro tests. Globally, SPT is an excellent diagnostic tool, with a positive predictive value ranging from 95-100%. SPTs can identify sensitivity to inhalants, foods, some drugs, occupational allergens, hymenoptera venom and latex. However, the relevance of such sensitivity to allergens should always be carefully interpreted in the light of the clinical history, because sensitization and clinical allergy may not coincide. In regards to safety, though the reports of systemic reactions, and particularly anaphylaxis, are very rare, in vitro IgE tests should be preferred if previous severe reactions emerge from the patient’s clinical history.

  19. Serum Malassezia-specific IgE in dogs with recurrent Malassezia otitis externa without concurrent skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Elizabeth A; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2016-08-01

    Immediate-type hypersensitivity (ITH), mediated by IgE, to Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized in atopic dogs with recurrent yeast dermatitis and otitis externa (OE). Malassezia-associated OE commonly occurs in dogs without other signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to detect Malassezia-specific IgE in the sera of dogs with recurrent Malassezia OE without concurrent skin disease. Sera from healthy dogs were used for comparison. An FcεRIα-based ELISA was used to measure Malassezia-specific IgE. There was no significant difference between number of positive affected dogs (6/21, 29%) and number of positive unaffected dogs (15/86, 17%) (P=0.36). There was also no significant difference in the concentrations of Malassezia-specific IgE between the two groups (P=0.97). Malassezia-specific IgE did not distinguish between patient groups so, as with other canine allergens, serum IgE reactivity for Malassezia could not be used to differentiate between diseased and healthy patients. The presence of Malassezia-specific IgE in some of the affected dogs might indicate ITH to Malassezia in those dogs. Evaluation of ITH via intradermal test reactivity and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy might clarify the role of Malassezia-associated ITH in similarly affected dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  1. Nanotechnologies for In Vitro IgE Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märki, Iwan; Rebeaud, Fabien

    2017-07-01

    This review discusses the recent advances in the development of IgE antibody assays based on nanotechnologies. IgE blood testing is an important part of the diagnostic workup of IgE-mediated hypersentivity. We also address the challenges in moving from an academic proof-of-concept to a product routinely used by allergy experts. Several nanotechnologies have been applied to the field of IgE testing: nanoparticles are used either as a support to capture analytes or as a detection tool to enhance the measurement signal. Nanofluidics allows to reduce assay time by enhancing molecular interaction. Nanotechnologies bring forth new methods for in vitro IgE testing. Substantial advantages such as lower sample volume, shorter assay time, simplified procedures, and lower analytic sensitivity, without affecting test precision and accuracy, can be achieved thanks to nanotechnologies.

  2. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (rye I and rye II). I. Prevalence of reactivity to the allergens and correlations among skin test, IgE antibody, and IgG antibody data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Grant, J H; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    In a stratified random sample of 320 white adults, the prevalence of puncture skin test positivity (ST +) to Lolium perenne (rye grass)-pollen extract (LPE) was 16%. Fifteen percent of all subjects (or 84% of subjects classified LPE IgE antibody positive [Ab +]) was classified IgE Ab + to highly purified Lol p I (Rye I), and 4% of all subjects (or 26% of subjects classified LPE IgE Ab +) was classified IgE Ab + to highly purified Lol p II (Rye II). These data and similar results obtained in an allergy-enriched group of 361 subjects are consistent with previous studies that Lol I is a major allergen and Lol II is a minor allergen of LPE. Whether we studied LPE, Lol I, or Lol II, responder subjects were younger than nonresponder subjects and more male than female subjects were responders. We then investigated the quantitative interrelationships among ST, IgE, and IgG Ab responsiveness to LPE, Lol I, and Lol II in the allergy-enriched group. For each allergen, log-log correlations were strong and significant for ST versus IgE Ab and for IgE Ab versus IgG Ab. All subjects IgE Ab + to Lol I or Lol II were IgG Ab + to that allergen, supporting other evidence for a commonality in the genetic control influencing the production of IgE and IgG Abs to a given allergen. Log-log correlations among ST end points, IgE Ab levels, or IgG Ab levels were strong for LPE versus either Lol I or Lol II but weak between Lol I and Lol II, consistent with the reported lack of cross-reactivity between Lol I and Lol II. Despite these findings, almost all Lol II + subjects were Lol I + by ST (98%), IgE Ab (91%), and IgG Ab (83%), suggesting that the Ia-restricted immune recognition of both these molecules is at least in part under a common genetic control.

  3. Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and 18: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuanu Ikechukwu U

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test (SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP, rs1800925 (promoter region and rs2066960 (intron 1. Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs. Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456; SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69. Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57 and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13. Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.

  4. Detection of IgE insulin antibody with radioallergosorbent test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Nakayama, H.; Sasaki, T.; Watanabe, T.; Aoki, S.; Saito, N.

    1978-01-01

    An in vitro method for detecting IgE insulin antibody using the principle of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is described. In six patients with insulin allergy, the RAST values were higher than in normal persons or insulin-treated diabetics without insulin allergy. No differences were observed between normal persons and insulin-treated diabetics without insulin allergy. Moreover, it was observed that in one patient treated with highly purified insulin, there was a gradual decrease of RAST value parallel to the radioinsulin binding activity and clinical allergic symptoms. The RAST value of insulin is slightly inhibited by non-IgE antibodies and is, therefore, a semiquantitative value. However, the RAST is simple to perform and reproducible; it is therefore very useful in the detection of IgE insulin antibodies. (orig.) [de

  5. A new framework for the interpretation of IgE sensitization tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Ollert, M; Aalberse, R; Austin, M; Custovic, A; DunnGalvin, A; Eigenmann, P A; Fassio, F; Grattan, C; Hellings, P; Hourihane, J; Knol, E; Muraro, A; Papadopoulos, N; Santos, A F; Schnadt, S; Tzeli, K

    2016-11-01

    IgE sensitization tests, such as skin prick testing and serum-specific IgE, have been used to diagnose IgE-mediated clinical allergy for many years. Their prime drawback is that they detect sensitization which is only loosely related to clinical allergy. Many patients therefore require provocation tests to make a definitive diagnosis; these are often expensive and potentially associated with severe reactions. The likelihood of clinical allergy can be semi-quantified from an IgE sensitization test results. This relationship varies though according to the patients' age, ethnicity, nature of the putative allergic reaction and coexisting clinical diseases such as eczema. The likelihood of clinical allergy can be more precisely estimated from an IgE sensitization test result, by taking into account the patient's presenting features (pretest probability). The presence of each of these patient-specific factors may mean that a patient is more or less likely to have clinical allergy with a given test result (post-test probability). We present two approaches to include pretest probabilities in the interpretation of results. These approaches are currently limited by a lack of data to allow us to derive pretest probabilities for diverse setting, regions and allergens. Also, cofactors, such as exercise, may be necessary for exposure to an allergen to result in an allergic reaction in specific IgE-positive patients. The diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergy is now being aided by the introduction of allergen component testing which may identify clinically relevant sensitization. Other approaches are in development with basophil activation testing being closest to clinical application. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Food-specific serum IgE and IgG reactivity in dogs with and without skin disease: lack of correlation between laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jonathan I; Hendricks, Anke; Loeffler, Anette; Chang, Yu-Mei; Verheyen, Kristien L; Garden, Oliver A; Bond, Ross

    2014-10-01

    Despite conflicting data on their utility and no reports on interlaboratory reproducibility, serum food-specific antibodies are commonly assayed in first-opinion canine practice. To determine both the variability of test results between two laboratories and the frequencies and magnitudes of food reactivity in dogs of different disease status. Sera were obtained from eight dogs with cutaneous adverse food reaction (Group A), 22 with nonfood-induced atopic dermatitis (Group B), 30 with an allergic/inflammatory phenotype (Group C), 12 with miscellaneous skin diseases (Group D) and nine healthy dogs (Group E). Paired sera were submitted to two laboratories (A and B) for assays of food-specific IgE and IgG antibodies. Numbers of positive IgE and IgG tests determined by each laboratory in Groups A, B, D and E were comparable (Group C not included). Significant differences in the magnitude of IgE reactivity between groups for each allergen were seen only for lamb (Laboratory A, P = 0.003); lamb reactivity in Group D exceeded Group E (P = 0.004) but was comparable between all other groups. Agreement (kappa statistic) between the two laboratories' tests was 'moderate' for one antigen (potato IgE), 'fair' for four (corn IgE, rice IgE and IgG and soya bean IgG), 'slight' for eight (six IgE and two IgG) and 'less than chance' for the remaining six antigens (three IgE and three IgG). These laboratories' tests appear to have dubious predictive clinical utility because they neither correlate nor distinguish between dogs of different disease status. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Unscrambling Egg Allergy: The Diagnostic Value of Specific IgE Concentrations and Skin Prick Tests for Ovomucoid and Egg White in the Management of Children with Hen’s Egg Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Marriage, D. E.; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, M.; Unsworth, D. J.; Henderson, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Resolution of egg allergy occurs in the majority of egg allergic children. Positive specific IgE antibodies to ovomucoid (OVM) have been suggested to be of greater predictive value for persistent egg allergy than specific IgE to egg white. The performance of OVM-specific IgE antibody levels in a cohort of children referred for a routine egg challenge was compared with egg white specific IgE levels in predicting a positive egg challenge. 24/47 subjects had persistent egg allergy. Receiver oper...

  8. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not well controlled with medicine Hives and angioedema Food allergies Skin rashes ( dermatitis ), in which the skin becomes ... prick test may also be used to diagnose food allergies. Intradermal tests are not used to test for ...

  9. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hay fever (allergic rhinitis) Allergic asthma Dermatitis (eczema) Food allergies Penicillin allergy Bee venom allergy Latex allergy Skin ... and dust mites. Skin testing may help diagnose food allergies. But because food allergies can be complex, you ...

  10. Involvement of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants-specific IgE in pollen allergy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Hidenori; Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Yuma; Kawada, Michitsugu; Takato, Yoshiki; Shinagawa, Kiyomi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Saito, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Specific IgE antibodies against the low-molecular-weight carbohydrate antigen that does not bridge IgE molecules on mast cells are not associated with clinical symptoms. Cross reactivity can be determined in allergen-specific IgE detection assays when the carbohydrate structures between pollen allergens and plant derived food allergens are similar; in such cases, false positive results for grain or legume allergens can be reported for pollen allergic patients who are not sensitized to those allergens. This phenomenon arises owing to the presence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). This study aimed to assess the impact of CCD interference on the results for pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies in the general adult population and to perform CCD inhibition tests evaluating the involvement of CCD on samples positive to pollen allergens. Serum samples from 322 subjects were tested for IgE antibodies to pollens and CCD. The research subjects were given questionnaires about pollen allergic symptoms to help assess the presence of allergies. Allergen IgE antibodies for Japanese cedar, Japanese cypress, orchard grass, ragweed, MUXF, bromelain, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and ascorbate oxidase (ASOD) were analyzed. It was observed that among individuals who tested positive to any of the pollen allergens, the positive ratio of CCD-specific IgE antibody was the highest for HRP (13.5%-50.0%). The results from the inhibition tests revealed that CCD was marginally present. Although IgE antibodies for cedar pollen did not react with CCD, IgE antibodies for Japanese cypress, orchard grass, and ragweed might be detected by the presence of CCD. The results of the inhibition tests revealed the obvious presence of CCD suggesting its involvement. Considering these findings, careful evaluation of patient IgE results should be performed for Japanese cypress, orchard grass, and ragweed.

  11. Local IgE production in the nasal mucosa: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, W. J.; Vinke, J. G.; Kleinjan, A.

    2000-01-01

    IgE is one of the most important markers for allergy. The presence of specific IgE on skin mast cells (skin test) and/or the existence of specific IgE in serum (RAST) indicates sensitization, but not necessarily clinical allergy, in the target organ. Discrepancies between sensitization and disease

  12. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Know your options Allergy skin tests About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  13. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  14. Contribution of Phadebas IgE test to typification of allergic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cap, J.; Spanar, E.; Holan, J.; Zahradny, V.

    1976-01-01

    Experience is reported with the examination of serum immunoglobulin E in a control group (n=22), in a group of asthmatics with bacterial allergy (n=25) and in a group of asthmatics with antibody allergy (n=33). In the examination by radioimmunosorbent method (Phadebas IgE Test) the levels of IgE over 500 mU/ml were considered as proof of allergy of the antibody type where other etiological factors could be excluded. A marked immunosuppressive effect of corticoids on the level of IgE is pointed out. The method mentioned is considered as suitable for the objective typification of allergic patients. (author)

  15. A new framework for the interpretation of IgE sensitization tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, G; Ollert, M; Aalberse, R.

    2016-01-01

    tests to make a definitive diagnosis; these are often expensive and potentially associated with severe reactions. The likelihood of clinical allergy can be semi-quantified from an IgE sensitization test results. This relationship varies though according to the patients' age, ethnicity, nature...... of the putative allergic reaction and coexisting clinical diseases such as eczema. The likelihood of clinical allergy can be more precisely estimated from an IgE sensitization test result, by taking into account the patient's presenting features (pretest probability). The presence of each of these patient...

  16. Skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens by filaggrin mutation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, M G; Johansen, J D; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations are positively associated with sensitization to aero allergens. We hypothesized that FLG mutations would also have an effect on the mean size of positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions as well as the number of positive reactions....... OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of FLG mutations on the mean size and the number of positive SPT reactions, as well as the association with positive specific IgE. METHODS: A random sample of 3335 adults from the general population in Denmark was genotyped for the R501X and 2282del4 mutations in the FLG....... SPT and specific IgE measurements to common aeroallergens were also performed. RESULTS: FLG mutations did not influence the mean size and number of positive SPT reactions. Also, no association was found between FLG mutations and specific IgE measurements. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that FLG...

  17. A diagnostic test for scabies: IgE specificity for a recombinant allergen of Sarcoptes scabiei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Rama; Hales, Belinda; Viberg, Linda; Pizzuto, Susan; Holt, Deborah; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Currie, Bart J; Walton, Shelley F

    2011-12-01

    Scabies infestations are difficult to diagnose clinically and current serologic tests have less than 50% accuracy. To develop more reliable diagnosis of scabies, specific IgE antibodies to a major scabies antigen recombinant Sar s 14.3 (rSar s 14.3) were measured in 140 plasma samples from scabies-infested and control subject groups using dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassays (DELFIA). Levels of rSar s 14.3-specific IgE were quantified, and cross-reactivity with its house dust mite homologue, Der p 14, was assessed. The rSar s 14.3 DELFIA showed excellent diagnostic capability, with 100% sensitivity and 93.75% specificity for distinguishing subjects with current scabies infestation from control, uninfested subjects. Recombinant Der p 14 preparation was ineffective at inhibiting IgE binding to rSar s 14.3. This study shows that quantification of levels of IgE antibody to rSar s 14.3 is a highly sensitive method for diagnosis of scabies infestation in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Usefulness of basophil activation test for the diagnosis of IgE mediated hypersensitivity to tetanus toxoid vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, Blanca; Méndez, Yesica; Feo-Brito, Francisco; Urra, José Miguel

    2018-03-01

    A great number of vaccinated patients develop specific anti-tetanus toxoid IgE, but usually do not undergo any adverse effect. Most of the allergic reactions to tetanus toxoid vaccine usually present with unspecific symptoms of local inflammation. In the presence of severe reactions, and in a special way if the vaccine is provided together with other drugs, it is difficult to establish which is the harmful drug responsible for IgE-mediated adverse reaction. A patient with an anaphylactic reaction after the administration of Toxoid Tetanic (TT) along with several drugs is described. All skin test were negative. The basophils activation test (BAT) in a clear way, identified TT as the allergen that triggered anaphylaxis. The results achieved demonstrates the usefulness of BAT to clarify patients with hypersensibility to tetanus toxoide when the clinic is severe and the vaccine has been administered together with other drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Total serum IgE level influences oral food challenge tests for IgE-mediated food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimukai, K; Hayashi, K; Tsumura, Y; Nomura, I; Narita, M; Ohya, Y; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K

    2015-03-01

    Probability curves predicting oral food challenge test (OFC) results based on specific IgE levels are widely used to prevent serious allergic reactions. Although several confounding factors are known to affect probability curves, the main factors that affect OFC outcomes are currently unclear. We hypothesized that an increased total IgE level would reduce allergic reactivity. Medical records of 337 and 266 patients who underwent OFCs for 3.5 g boiled hen's egg white and 3.1 ml raw cow's milk, respectively, were examined retrospectively. We subdivided the patients into three groups based on total IgE levels and age by percentile (75th percentiles), and logistic regression analyses were performed on each group. Patients with higher total IgE levels were significantly less responsive. In addition, age did not significantly affect the OFC results. Therefore, total IgE levels should be taken into account when predicting OFC results based on food-specific IgE levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparison of the results of intradermal test reactivity and serum allergen-specific IgE measurement for Malassezia pachydermatis in atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenhoff, Willam E; Frank, Glenn R; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2014-12-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal flora of canine skin. Malassezia hypersensitivity is recognized as a trigger for clinical signs of atopic dermatitis (AD) in some dogs. Determinations of Malassezia hypersensitivity are often made with intradermal testing (IDT), which may have limited availability in a first-opinion veterinary practice. The purpose of this study was to compare immediate IDT reactivity to M. pachydermatis with results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to detect anti-Malassezia IgE. Eighty-four dogs with a clinical diagnosis of AD. Multi-allergen IDT was performed on all dogs. Serum testing for allergen-specific IgE against a panel of common environmental allergens and M. pachydermatis was performed by ELISA using the FcεRIα receptor fragment as a detection reagent, with results reported as adjusted optical density (OD). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyse the results of the two tests. The median adjusted OD of the anti-Malassezia IgE ELISA for dogs reactive and nonreactive to M. pachydermatis on IDT was 0.137 and 0.024, respectively. Analysis of the ROC curve suggested a cut-off point for the anti-Malassezia ELISA that yielded a sensitivity of 77.0% and a specificity of 89% relative to IDT results. Substantial agreement was demonstrated between IDT reactivity and anti-Malassezia IgE as detected by the FcεRIα receptor reagent. Although correlation with a clinical diagnosis of Malassezia dermatitis was not attempted in this study, the results indicate that the ELISA may be used to demonstrate the presence of immediate-type Malassezia hypersensitivity in dogs with AD. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents 1. ... to Results / Skin and Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 2 Page ...

  2. Sensitization to Aeroallergens in Patients with Respiratory Allergies Based on Skin-Prick Test Results

    OpenAIRE

    Lokaj-Berisha, V; Berisha, N; Lumezi, B; Ahmetaj, L; Bejtullahu, G; Karahoda, N; Pupovci, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to identify the most common aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis. Methods: The study enrolled 102 participants including 64 patients with respiratory allergies (among them 15 were clinically diagnosed as asthma patients, 41 with rhinitis, 8 were both) and 38 healthy controls. All of participants were subject of skin prick tests (SPT) with series of common allergenic extracts. Sera from all participants were tested for total IgE and eosinophi...

  3. Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Skov, P S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to standardize and evaluate technically optimized food allergen extracts for use in skin prick test (SPT). The standardization procedure comprised 36 allergic histories in 32 food allergic patients with 21 healthy, non-atopic individuals serving as controls. The patients...... had a history of allergic symptoms upon ingestion of either cow's milk (n=3), hen's egg (n=9), wheat (n=4), hazelnut (n=14) or cod (n=6). They also had specific IgE in serum to the food in question and a positive SPT with a fresh preparation of the food. The diagnosis had been confirmed by a double......-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, except for the hazelnut-allergic patients. The controls were subjected to an open food challenge with all the foods to ensure tolerance. The standardization was performed by means of titrated SPT in accordance with the guidelines on biological standardization from...

  4. Improvements in skin-testing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Warner W

    2006-01-01

    Allergy skin testing is the primary modality used in the diagnosis of allergic diseases and guides development of treatment and avoidance plans. The goal of the Allergist is to skin test the appropriate population with a device and technique that minimizes pain while maximizing sensitivity and specificity. The debate involving the use of intradermal versus skin-prick testing in the diagnosis of aeroallergy has been long lasting. Past and present medical literature will be reviewed, establishing the lack of diagnostic use of intradermal testing in the setting of aeroallergy. New skin devices continue to be developed with a trend toward production of multidevices. Performance characteristics of various skin test devices will be reviewed with an emphasis on sensitivity, specificity, and variability of skin-prick testing devices. Significant statistical differences exist between all devices tested and reported in the literature. Whether these statistical differences equate to clinical differences is not known. With this review the practicing allergist should carefully evaluate multiple different devices and choose a device that suits their practice needs. In addition, allergists must ensure that technicians are sufficiently trained on the correct use of their device and should conduct continuing education to ensure that proper skin testing techniques are being used in their practice. Finally, the use of skin testing in pediatrics will be reviewed with a focus on safety. Care should be taken when skin testing infants < or = 6 months of age, especially in the setting of eczema and a family history of atopy.

  5. [Increase in orders for specific IgE tests and more positive results in children in 1985-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatenburg de Jong, A; Dikkeschei, L D; Brand, P L P

    2008-08-09

    To describe changes over time in the number of allergy tests for specific IgE ordered and outcomes in children, to help address the question whether the increase in allergies is due to an actual increase in sensitisation or an increase in diagnostic awareness of allergies among physicians. Retrospective and descriptive. We reviewed the results of all specific IgE tests performed in our hospital's laboratory for children 0-18 years of age in the period 1985-2003. This included tests ordered by both general practitioners and hospital-based specialists. We analysed trends over time in the number of tests ordered (as an indicator ofdiagnostic awareness) and test results (as an indicator ofsensitisation). Between 1989 and 1995, the annual number of tests ordered increased from 1 per 10,000 children to 95 per 10,000 children and remained stable thereafter. Before 1990, more than 90% of tests were ordered by hospital-based specialists; after 1990, approximately 70% of the tests were ordered by general practitioners (p < 0.001). The proportion of positive tests remained stable at approximately 27% until 1991, after which it increased to more than 45% (p < 0.001). The increase in the proportion of positive tests suggests an increase in atopic sensitization between 1985 and 2000 which has stabilized since.

  6. Opisthorchis felineus negatively associates with skin test reactivity in Russia-EuroPrevall-International Cooperation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, O S; Janse, J J; Ogorodova, L M; Fedotova, M M; Achterberg, R A; Verweij, J J; Fernández-Rivas, M; Versteeg, S A; Potts, J; Minelli, C; van Ree, R; Burney, P; Yazdanbakhsh, M

    2017-07-01

    Most studies on the relationship between helminth infections and atopic disorders have been conducted in (sub)tropical developing countries where exposure to multiple parasites and lifestyle can confound the relationship. We aimed to study the relationship between infection with the fish-borne helminth Opishorchis felineus and specific IgE, skin prick testing, and atopic symptoms in Western Siberia, with lifestyle and hygiene standards of a developed country. Schoolchildren aged 7-11 years were sampled from one urban and two rural regions. Skin prick tests (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) against food and aeroallergens were measured, and data on allergic symptoms and on demographic and socioeconomic factors were collected by questionnaire. Diagnosis of opisthorchiasis was based on PCR performed on stool samples. Of the 732 children included, 34.9% had opisthorchiasis. The sensitization to any allergen when estimated by positive SPT was 12.8%, while much higher, 24.0%, when measured by sIgE. Atopic symptoms in the past year (flexural eczema and/or rhinoconjunctivitis) were reported in 12.4% of the children. SPT was positively related to flexural eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, but not to wheezing. Opisthorchiasis showed association with lower SPT response, as well as borderline association with low IgE reactivity to any allergen. However, the effect of opisthorchiasis on SPT response was not mediated by IgE, suggesting that opisthorchiasis influences SPT response through another mechanism. Opisthorchiasis also showed borderline association with lower atopic symptoms. There is a negative association between a chronic helminth infection and skin prick test reactivity even in a developed country. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ige, AO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ige, AO. Vol 9, No 1-2 (2013) - Articles Relationship Between Body Weight and Growth Traits of Crossbred Fulani Ecotype Chicken in Derived Savannah Zone of Nigeria. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0331-5428. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  8. International regulatory requirements for skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Amber B; Strickland, Judy; Allen, David; Casati, Silvia; Zuang, Valérie; Barroso, João; Whelan, Maurice; Régimbald-Krnel, M J; Kojima, Hajime; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Jong Kwon; Kim, Tae Sung; Delgado, Isabella; Rios, Ludmila; Yang, Ying; Wang, Gangli; Kleinstreuer, Nicole

    2018-03-05

    Skin sensitization test data are required or considered by chemical regulation authorities around the world. These data are used to develop product hazard labeling for the protection of consumers or workers and to assess risks from exposure to skin-sensitizing chemicals. To identify opportunities for regulatory uses of non-animal replacements for skin sensitization tests, the needs and uses for skin sensitization test data must first be clarified. Thus, we reviewed skin sensitization testing requirements for seven countries or regions that are represented in the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM). We noted the type of skin sensitization data required for each chemical sector and whether these data were used in a hazard classification, potency classification, or risk assessment context; the preferred tests; and whether alternative non-animal tests were acceptable. An understanding of national and regional regulatory requirements for skin sensitization testing will inform the development of ICATM's international strategy for the acceptance and implementation of non-animal alternatives to assess the health hazards and risks associated with potential skin sensitizers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Performing IgE serum testing due to bioinformatics matches in the allergenicity assessment of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E

    2008-10-01

    Proteins introduced into genetically modified (GM) organisms through genetic engineering must be evaluated for their potential to cause allergic disease under various national laws and regulations. The Codex Alimentarius Commission guidance document (2003) calls for testing of serum IgE binding to the introduced protein if the gene was from an allergenic source, or the sequence of the transferred protein has >35% identity in any segment of 80 or more amino acids to a known allergen or shares significant short amino acid identities. The Codex guidance recognized that the assessment will evolve based on new scientific knowledge. Arguably, the current criteria are too conservative as discussed in this paper and they do not provide practical guidance on serum testing. The goals of this paper are: (1) to summarize evidence supporting the level of identity that indicates potential risk of cross-reactivity for those with existing allergies; (2) to provide example bioinformatics results and discuss their interpretation using published examples of proteins expressed in transgenic crops; and (3) to discuss key factors of experimental design and methodology for serum IgE tests to minimize the rate of false negative and false positive identification of potential allergens and cross-reactive proteins.

  10. Lack of Correlation between Severity of Clinical Symptoms, Skin Test Reactivity, and Radioallergosorbent Test Results in Venom-Allergic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington RJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To retrospectively examine the relation between skin test reactivity, venom-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE antibody levels, and severity of clinical reaction in patients with insect venom allergy. Method Thirty-six patients (including 15 females who presented with a history of allergic reactions to insect stings were assessed. The mean age at the time of the reactions was 33.4 ± 15.1 years (range, 4-76 years, and patients were evaluated 43.6 ± 90 months (range, 1-300 months after the reactions. Clinical reactions were scored according to severity, from 1 (cutaneous manifestations only to 3 (anaphylaxis with shock. These scores were compared to scores for skin test reactivity (0 to 5, indicating the log increase in sensitivity from 1 μg/mL to 0.0001 μg/mL and radioallergosorbent test (RAST levels (0 to 4, indicating venom-specific IgE levels, from undetectable to >17.5 kilounits of antigen per litre [kUA/L]. Results No correlation was found between skin test reactivity (Spearman's coefficient = 0.15, p = .377 or RAST level (Spearman's coefficient = 0.32, p = .061 and the severity of reaction. Skin test and RAST scores both differed significantly from clinical severity (p p = .042. There was no correlation between skin test reactivity and time since reaction (Spearman's coefficient = 0.18, p = .294 nor between RAST and time since reaction (r = 0.1353, p = .438. Elimination of patients tested more than 12 months after their reaction still produced no correlation between skin test reactivity (p = .681 or RAST score (p = .183 and the severity of the clinical reaction. Conclusion In venom-allergic patients (in contrast to reported findings in cases of inhalant IgE-mediated allergy, there appears to be no significant correlation between the degree of skin test reactivity or levels of venom-specific IgE (determined by RAST and the severity of the clinical reaction.

  11. Clinical value of radiocontrast media skin tests as a prescreening and diagnostic tool in hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae-Hoon; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Yang, Min-Suk; Song, Woo-Jung; Choi, Sang-Il; Kim, Jae-Hyoung; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-04-01

    Some radiocontrast media (RCM) hypersensitivity reactions may have underlying IgE- or T-cell-mediated mechanisms. RCM skin testing may be useful for predicting future reactions. To investigate the clinical value of RCM skin testing before computed tomography and after RCM hypersensitivity reactions. Patients who underwent RCM skin testing were a prospective sample of convenience at a single medical center and were tested just before their pending nonionic RCM-enhanced computed tomogram. In addition, skin test data of patients who were referred to the allergy clinic because of their previous RCM hypersensitivity reactions were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 1048 patients enrolled in the study prospectively. Of these, 672 (64.1%) had never been exposed to RCM. Of the 376 previously exposed to RCM, 61 (16.2%) had a history of at least one mild RCM-associated reaction, 56 (91.8%) had immediate reactions, and 5 had no-immediate reactions. There was only 1 positive immediate hypersensitivity RCM skin test result (0.09%). There were 51 mild immediate reactions (4.9%), 1 moderate immediate reaction (0.09%), 8 mild nonimmediate reactions (0.76%), and 1 moderate nonimmediate reaction (0.09%). There was only 1 positive delayed hypersensitivity skin test result (0.09%), retrospectively determined, in 1 (11.1%) of the nonimmediate RCM-associated reactions. Sensitivity of RCM skin testing was significantly higher with severe immediate reactions (57.1%) than mild reactions (12.9%) and moderate reactions (25.0%) in the retrospective review of diagnostic skin test data (P = .03). RCM skin testing for screening is of no clinical utility in predicting hypersensitivity reactions. RCM skin testing may have modest utility in retrospectively evaluating severe adverse reactions. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Is serum total IgE levels a good predictor of allergies in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satwani, Hema; Rehman, Arshalooz; Ashraf, Sohail; Hassan, Anwar

    2009-10-01

    To study the role of Serum Total IgE levels as a marker of allergy and to see its association with different host and environmental factors, its association with different systemic allergies and with the increased allergic systemic involvement. A cross sectional comparative study was conducted at Liaquat National Hospital Paediatric Medicine Unit and Outpatient Clinic, from December 2007 to October 2008. Two hundred and fifty eight children in the age group 6 months to 12 years meeting the inclusion criteria, were enrolled for the study. Complete blood count and serum total IgE levels were done in all patients. Data was collected and tabulated. Chi-square was applied to test the association of serum Total IgE levels with different variables using SPSS and p-value of 0.05), though the correlation of serum total IgE levels was seen with weight of the patient (p children. Among environmental factors serum total IgE levels had a strong association with exposure to passive smoking (p allergies, skin allergy (0.608), food allergy (p allergies with serum IgE levels. Serum total IgE level is a good predictor of allergy in children. It is influenced by early weaning, early bottle feeding, exposure to passive smoking, pollen, cold, and pets and is associated with blood eosinophilia. Also serum total IgE level is a strong predictor of allergy in asthmatic children.

  13. The skin prick test - European standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzerling, Lucie; Mari, Adriano; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bresciani, Megon; Burbach, Guido; Darsow, Ulf; Durham, Stephen; Fokkens, Wytske; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Haahtela, Tari; Bom, Ana Todo; Wöhrl, Stefan; Maibach, Howard; Lockey, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase

  14. Alternative test models for skin aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motoki; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean; Morita, Akimichi

    2018-02-25

    Increasing ethical concerns regarding animal experimentation have led to the development of various alternative methods based on the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction, and Replacement), first described by Russell and Burch in 1959. Cosmetic and skin aging research are particularly susceptible to concerns related to animal testing. In addition to animal welfare reasons, there are scientific and economic reasons to reduce and avoid animal experiments. Importantly, animal experiments may not reflect findings in humans mainly because of the differences of architectures and immune responses between animal skin and human skin. Here we review the shift from animal testing to the development and application of alternative non-animal based methods and the necessity and benefits of this shift. Some specific alternatives to animal models are discussed, including biochemical approaches, two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell cultures, and volunteer studies, as well as future directions, including genome-based research and the development of in silico computer simulations of skin models. Among the in vitro methods, three-dimensional reconstructed skin models are highly popular and useful alternatives to animal models however still have many limitations. With careful selection and skillful handling, these alternative methods will become indispensable for modern dermatology and skin aging research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for detection of IgE antibodies to Brugia malayi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Sitti; van Ree, Ronald; Mangali, Andarias; Supali, Taniawati; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Sartono, Erliyani

    2003-01-01

    The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific IgE antibodies to Brugia malayi was compared with the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for use in immunoepidemiological studies of lymphatic filariasis. Sera used were from individuals (aged 5-82 years) living in an area endemic for lymphatic

  16. House dust mites as potential carriers for IgE sensitization to bacterial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoro, S; Mittermann, I; Resch-Marat, Y; Vrtala, S; Nehr, M; Hirschl, A M; Wikberg, G; Lundeberg, L; Johansson, C; Scheynius, A; Valenta, R

    2018-01-01

    IgE reactivity to antigens from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is common in patients suffering from respiratory and skin manifestations of allergy, but the routes and mechanisms of sensitization are not fully understood. The analysis of the genome, transcriptome and microbiome of house dust mites (HDM) has shown that Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) species are abundant bacteria within the HDM microbiome. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether HDM are carriers of bacterial antigens leading to IgE sensitization in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Plasma samples from patients with AD (n = 179) were analysed for IgE reactivity to a comprehensive panel of microarrayed HDM allergen molecules and to S. aureus and E. coli by IgE immunoblotting. Antibodies specific for S. aureus and E. coli antigens were tested for reactivity to nitrocellulose-blotted extract from purified HDM bodies, and the IgE-reactive antigens were detected by IgE immunoblot inhibition experiments. IgE antibodies directed to bacterial antigens in HDM were quantified by IgE ImmunoCAP™ inhibition experiments. IgE reactivity to bacterial antigens was significantly more frequent in patients with AD sensitized to HDM than in AD patients without HDM sensitization. S. aureus and E. coli antigens were detected in immune-blotted HDM extract, and the presence of IgE-reactive antigens in HDM was demonstrated by qualitative and quantitative IgE inhibition experiments. House dust mites (HDM) may serve as carriers of bacteria responsible for the induction of IgE sensitization to microbial antigens. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P bee venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kU A /L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kU A /L) compared with adults (5.10 kU A /L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kU A /L) (P venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting the outcome of oral food challenges with hen's egg through skin test end-point titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, S; Businco, A Di Rienzo; Alessandri, C; Panetta, V; Restani, P; Matricardi, P M

    2009-08-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the diagnostic 'gold standard' of food allergies but it is laborious and time consuming. Attempts to predict a positive OFC through specific IgE assays or conventional skin tests so far gave suboptimal results. To test whether skin test with titration curves predict with enough confidence the outcome of an oral food challenge. Children (n=47; mean age 6.2 +/- 4.2 years) with suspected and diagnosed allergic reactions to hen's egg (HE) were examined through clinical history, physical examination, oral food challenge, conventional and end-point titrated skin tests with HE white extract and determination of serum specific IgE against HE white. Predictive decision points for a positive outcome of food challenges were calculated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for HE white using IgE concentration, weal size and end-point titration (EPT). OFC was positive (Sampson's score >or=3) in 20/47 children (42.5%). The area under the ROC curve obtained with the EPT method was significantly bigger than the one obtained by measuring IgE-specific antibodies (0.99 vs. 0.83, P<0.05) and weal size (0.99 vs. 0.88, P<0.05). The extract's dilution that successfully discriminated a positive from a negative OFC (sensitivity 95%, specificity 100%) was 1 : 256, corresponding to a concentration of 5.9 microg/mL of ovotransferrin, 22.2 microg/mL of ovalbumin, and 1.4 microg/mL of lysozyme. EPT is a promising approach to optimize the use of skin prick tests and to predict the outcome of OFC with HE in children. Further studies are needed to test whether this encouraging finding can be extended to other populations and food allergens.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of skin tests in the diagnosis of clarithromycin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Francesca; Barni, Simona; Pucci, Neri; Rossi, Elisabetta; Azzari, Chiara; de Martino, Maurizio; Novembre, Elio

    2010-05-01

    Clarithromycin is one of the most frequently prescribed oral macrolidic antibiotics in the pediatric population. Suspected adverse reactions to clarithromycin have been frequently described by parents of children examined in pediatric allergy units, but there is a lack of reliable methods available in detecting the presence of specific IgE antibodies. To investigate the prevalence of a clarithromycin allergy in children seen in a pediatric allergy unit using standardized skin tests and oral provocation tests (OPTs). Sixty-four children were referred with a history of a clarithromycin-associated adverse drug reaction. All these children underwent skin tests and OPTs. The nonirritating intradermal skin test concentration for clarithromycin was determined in a control group of 18 children who had tolerated clarithromycin in the previous month. The threshold nonirritating intradermal concentration was established at the 10:2 dilution (0.5 mg/mL). Nine of the 64 children had an immediately positive intradermal response to the 10:2 dilution and only 1 child to the 10:3 dilution (0.05 mg/mL). None had positive skin prick test results or delayed skin responses to intradermal tests. Four of 64 children (6%) with previously described adverse reactions due to clarithromycin intake had a positive OPT reaction. When we correlated the intradermal skin test results to the OPT results, intradermal test sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 90%, respectively. Intradermal tests seem to be useful in allergologic workup in children with suspected clarithromycin hypersensitivity and may help reduce the need for OPTs.

  20. Evaluation of the Luciferase Assay-Based In Vitro Elicitation Test for Serum IgE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Results: The area under the ROC curves was highest in the EXiLE test (0.977, followed by CAP-FEIA (0.926 and degranulation (0.810. At an optimal cutoff range (1.648-1.876 calculated from the ROC curve of the EXiLE test, sensitivity and specificity were 0.944 and 0.917, respectively. A 95% positive predictive value was given at a cutoff level of 2.054 (fold increase in luciferase expression by logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: In contrast to in vivo tests, the EXiLE test appears to be a useful tool in diagnosing patients suspected of having IgE-dependent EW allergy without the risk of severe systemic reactions.

  1. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  2. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

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    Hamid Reza Kianifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. Results: The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9% and skin (48.8%. 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow’s milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. Conclusions: The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  3. Exploring the temporal development of childhood IgE profiles to allergen components

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    Önell Annica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children often develop allergies that may or not persist into adulthood. Although the different allergic symptoms over time have been well documented, the underlying pattern of sensitization to various proteins and subsequent allergy development is unexplored. The aim was to study the sensitization pattern to allergen components over time from infancy to adulthood in a group of infants with heredity for allergic diseases. Methods IgE profiles were monitored in a group of 67 children from 6 months to 18 years using a microarray chip (ImmunoCAP® ISAC containing 103 allergen components derived from 47 allergen sources. The chip IgE profile was compared with clinical history, skin prick test results and diagnoses (atopic dermatitis, asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis at each time point for each child. Results IgE profiles were unique for each child and showed broad agreement with the results of skin prick tests and doctors’ diagnoses. In addition, close examination of the IgE profiles often revealed early indication of subsequent allergies. IgE profiles also facilitated the examination of cross-reactivity contra co-sensitization, thereby greatly enhancing the possibility for managing patients. Conclusion This explorative description indicates that sensitization pattern to allergen components differs over time as well as among allergic individuals when examined with microarray technology.

  4. Identification of rice proteins recognized by the IgE antibodies of patients with food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliáš, Jaroslav; Humlová, Zuzana; Halada, Petr; Hábová, Věra; Janatková, Ivana; Tučková, Ludmila

    2013-09-18

    Similarity among food allergens is a great problem affecting the specificity of diagnosis and treatment of allergic patients. We have observed that 80% of patients with food (including wheat) and pollen allergies have increased IgE antibodies against rice proteins. By immunoblotting, we documented that boiling decreased solubility and IgE reactivity of PBS-extracted rice and wheat proteins, yet in SDS extracts this reactivity was only slightly changed. The sera of patients highly positive on the IgE immunoblot and positive in basophil activation and skin prick test with boiled rice components were used for characterizing the IgE-binding proteins separated by 1D or 2D electrophoresis. Using mass spectrometry, we identified 22 rice SDS soluble proteins. Six of them were new thermostable potential rice allergens: glutelin C precursor, granule-bound starch synthase 1 protein, disulfide isomerase-like 1-1 protein, hypothetical protein OsI_13867, putative acid phosphatase precursor 1, and a protein encoded by locus Os02g0453600. All of the identified rice proteins differed from known wheat allergens, except proteins belonging to the α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family. Furthermore, we would suggest that in patients with high IgE reactivity to wheat and rice components, the IgE immunoblot and skin prick test with boiled rice proteins could be beneficial before diet recommendation.

  5. Serum specific IgE responses to inhalant allergens sensitization

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    Iris Rengganis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum specific immunoglobulin E (ssIgE sensitization to common inhalant allergens has not been studied in Indonesia. This study aimed to evaluate specific IgE production of common inhalant allergens in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis in Jakarta, Indonesia.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in adult patients with respiratory allergy from September to December 2016 at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. Patients were included if they showed at least one positive skin prick test (SPT to environmental allergens. Serum specific IgE was assayed by using multiple allergosorbent methods. Inhalant allergens tested were dust mites, pollen, cockroach, animal dander, and mould. Serum IgE level more than 0.35 kU/L was considered positive.Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled (76% women. Dust mites made up 75% of sensitization, followed by cat/dog (31%, cockroach (27%, pollen (24%, and mould (6%. Almost all patients sensitized to cockroach, pollen, cat/dog epithelia and mould were also co-sensitized with dust mites. Twenty two percent of patients were negative to all tested allergens.Conclusion: IgE-sensitization to inhalant allergens varies widely in respiratory allergic patients. House dust and storage mites are the most common allergens. About one-fifth of the subjects did not show specific-IgE sensitization. Thus, this test should always be combined with SPT to diagnose allergy.

  6. Terasaki-ELISA for murine IgE-antibodies.I.Quality of the detecting antibody: production and specificity testing of antisera specific for IgE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Soeting, P.W.C.; Radl, J.; Linde-Preesman, van der A.A.

    1989-01-01

    In order to develop an ELISA for the quantitative determination of murine IgE, antisera specific for murine IgE were prepared in the goat and rabbit. As immunogen, monoclonal IgE antibody mixtures of several allotypically different hybridomas were used. Before use, these antibodies were purified

  7. Autologous serum and plasma skin tests in chronic spontaneous urticaria: A reappraisal

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    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to assess autologous serum skin test (ASST vs autologous plasma skin test (APST response in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU patients and study the significance of intensity of positive responses in relation to clinicoepidemiological parameters. Materials and Methods: One hundred CSU patients and 100 age and sex-matched controls were recruited. The demographic and clinical features were recorded in all patients and routine investigations were performed. ASST and APST tests were performed as per the standard guidelines. Results: The mean duration of illness was 4.85 ± 5.07 years, 90% patients were APST (+, 68% ASST (+, and 22 patients were only APST (+. Positive predictive value (PPV of ASST and APST was 90.7% and 95.7%, respectively. A significant inverse association was seen between thyroid status and serum IgE levels with APST and ASST positivity. Conclusion: APST appears to have better PPV and high intensity of positive response on autologous tests, and correlates with ANA positivity and angioedema.

  8. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  9. Diagnostic relevance of IgE sensitization profiles to eight recombinant Phleum pratense molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, F; Mastrorilli, C; Tripodi, S; Ricci, G; Perna, S; Panetta, V; Asero, R; Dondi, A; Bianchi, A; Maiello, N; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Frediani, T; Macrì, F; Lucarelli, S; Dello Iacono, I; Patria, M F; Varin, E; Peroni, D; Chini, L; Moschese, V; Bernardini, R; Pingitore, G; Pelosi, U; Tosca, M; Paravati, F; Sfika, I; Businco, A Di Rienzo; Povesi Dascola, C; Comberiati, P; Frediani, S; Lambiase, C; Verga, M C; Faggian, D; Plebani, M; Calvani, M; Caffarelli, C; Matricardi, P M

    2018-03-01

    Grass pollen-related seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SARg) is clinically heterogeneous in severity, comorbidities, and response to treatment. The component-resolved diagnostics disclosed also a high heterogeneity at molecular level. Our study aimed at analyzing the characteristics of the IgE sensitization to Phleum pratense molecules and investigating the diagnostic relevance of such molecules in childhood. We examined 1120 children (age 4-18 years) with SARg. Standardized questionnaires on atopy were acquired through informatics platform (AllergyCARD™). Skin prick tests were performed with pollen extracts. Serum IgE to airborne allergens and eight P. pratense molecules (rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, rPhl p 4, rPhl p 5b, rPhl p 6, rPhl p 7, rPhl p 11, rPhl p 12) were tested by ImmunoCAP FEIA. The analysis of IgE responses against eight P. pratense molecules showed 87 profiles. According to the number of molecules recognized by IgE, the more complex profiles were characterized by higher serum total IgE, higher grass-specific serum IgE, and higher number and degree of sensitization to pollens. The most frequent IgE sensitization profile was the monomolecular Phl p 1. Sensitization to Phl p 7 was a reliable biomarker of asthma, whereas Phl p 12 of oral allergy syndrome. Sensitization to Phl p 7 was associated with a higher severity of SARg, and complex profiles were associated with longer disease duration. In a large pediatric population, the complexity of IgE sensitization profiles against P. pratense molecules is related to high atopic features although useless for predicting the clinical severity. The detection of serum IgE to Phl p 1, Phl p 7, and Phl p 12 can be used as clinical biomarkers of SARg and comorbidities. Further studies in different areas are required to test the impact of different IgE molecular profiles on AIT response. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  10. Identification of IgE binding to Api g 1-derived peptides.

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    Ruppel, Elvira; Aÿ, Bernhard; Boisguerin, Prisca; Dölle, Sabine; Worm, Margitta; Volkmer, Rudolf

    2010-11-02

    Celery is a frequent cause of food allergy in pollen-sensitized patients and can induce severe allergic reactions. Clinical symptoms cannot be predicted by skin prick tests (SPTs) or by determining allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Our aim was to identify specific IgE binding peptides by using an array technique. For our study, the sera of 21 patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) to celery, as well as the sera of 17 healthy patients were used. Additionally, all patients underwent skin tests along with determinations of specific IgE binding. The major allergen of celery Api g 1.0101 (Apium graveolens) was synthesized as an array of overlapping peptides and probed with the patients' sera. We developed an improved immunoassay protocol by investigating peptide lengths, peptide densities, incubation parameters, and readout systems, which could influence IgE binding. Sera of celery-allergic patients showed binding to three distinct regions of Api g 1.0101. The region including amino acids 100 to 126 of Api g 1.0101 is the most important region for IgE binding. This region caused a fivefold higher binding of IgE from the sera of celery-allergic patients compared to those of healthy individuals. In particular, one peptide (VLVPTADGGSIC) was recognized by all sera of celery-allergic patients. In contrast, no binding to this peptide was detected in sera of the healthy controls. Our improved assay strategy allows us to distinguish between celery-allergic and healthy individuals, but needs to be explored in a larger cohort of well-defined patients.

  11. Testing the "toxin hypothesis of allergy": Mast cells, IgE, and innate and acquired immune responses to venoms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mindy; Starkl, Philipp; Marichal, Thomas; Galli, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Work in mice indicates that innate functions of mast cells, particularly degradation of venom toxins by mast cell-derived proteases, can enhance resistance to certain arthropod or reptile venoms. Recent reports indicate that acquired Th2 immune responses associated with the production of IgE antibodies, induced by Russell’s viper venom or honeybee venom, or by a component of honeybee venom, bee venom phospholipase 2 (bvPLA2), can increase the resistance of mice to challenge with potentially lethal doses of either of the venoms or bvPLA2. These findings support the conclusion that, in contrast to the detrimental effects associated with allergic Th2 immune responses, mast cells and IgE-dependent immune responses to venoms can contribute to innate and adaptive resistance to venom-induced pathology and mortality. PMID:26210895

  12. High serum β-lactams specific/total IgE ratio is associated with immediate reactions to β-lactams antibiotics.

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    Alessandra Vultaggio

    Full Text Available Total serum IgE result from the combination of specific and non-specific pools. High specific/total IgE ratio may reflect high level of allergen-specific IgE on mast cells. No data regarding its applications to drug allergies is available. One hundred seventy-one patients with a history of immediate reactions to β-lactams, confirmed by positive skin testing, and 122 control subjects tolerant to β-lactams, were studied. CAP System was used for the detection of serum total and specific IgE antibodies. The specific/total IgE ratio was tested for diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional criteria. We finally performed a simulation study to expand our investigation of the performance of the specific/total IgE ratio index in a scenario in which the new CAP detection threshold is lowered further. Specific/total IgE ratio values ≥0.002 were observed more frequently in reactive than in controls. Seventy-four of 80 subjects with values ≥0.002 were allergic to β-lactams, yielding a positive predictive value of 92.5%. The application of specific/total IgE ratio significantly improves the positive likelihood ratio and the overall diagnostic performance. In addition, we showed the capability of this new criterion to identify true reactive patients even among subjects with high levels of total IgE (>200 kU/L. Significant increase in both receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve and sensitivity were observed in imputed case of the simulation study. The β-lactams-specific/total IgE ratio may be an additional index compared to the common criterion of positivity to a single hapten in the allergological work-up of patients with β-lactams immediate adverse reactions.

  13. Hyper IgE in Childhood Eczema and Risk of Asthma in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chantel; Hon, Kam Lun; Kung, Jeng Sum Charmaine; Pong, Nga Hin; Leung, Ting-Fan; Wong, Chun Kwok

    2016-06-10

    Atopic eczema is a common childhood disease associated with high IgE and eosinophilia. We characterized the clinical features associated with hyper-IgE (defined as IgE > 2000 IU/L) in eczema. Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS), family and personal history of atopy, skin prick test (SPT) for common food and aeroallergens, highest serum IgE ever and eosinophil counts were evaluated in 330 children eczema patients. Childhood-NESS (NESS performed at 10 years of age) were further analyzed. IgE correlated with NESS (spearman coefficient 0.35, p hyper-IgE (n = 163) were associated with male gender (p = 0.002); paternal atopy (p = 0.026); personal history of atopic rhinitis (p = 0.016); asthma (p hyper-IgE was associated with personal history of asthma (exp(B) = 5.12, p = 0.002) and eczema severity during childhood and adolescence (p hyper-IgE. For patients >10years of age, food allergen sensitization was associated with hyper-IgE (p = 0.008). Hyper-IgE is independently associated with asthma, more severe atopy and more severe eczema during childhood and adolescence. IgE > 2000 IU/L may be a tool to aid prognostication of this chronic relapsing dermatologic disease and its progression to asthma.

  14. IgE antibodies of fish allergic patients cross-react with frog parvalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, C; Thill, L; Grigioni, F; Lehners, C; Falagiani, P; Ferrara, A; Romano, C; Stevens, W; Hentges, F

    2004-06-01

    The major allergens in fish are parvalbumins. Important immunoglobulin (Ig)E cross-recognition of parvalbumins from different fish species has been shown. Recently frog parvalbumin alpha has been found to be responsible for a case of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis triggered by the ingestion of frog meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether IgE antibodies of fish allergic persons cross-react with frog parvalbumin and to appreciate its clinical relevance. The sera of 15 fish allergic patients and one fish and frog allergic patient were tested by IgE-immunoblotting against frog muscle extract. Sera were tested against recombinant parvalbumin alpha and beta from Rana esculenta. Skin prick tests were performed in selected patients with recombinant frog parvalbumin. Ca(2+) depletion experiments and inhibition studies with purified cod and frog recombinant parvalbumin were done to characterize the cross-reactive pattern. Fourteen of the sera tested had IgE antibodies recognizing low molecular weight components in frog muscle extract. Calcium depletion experiments or inhibition of patient sera with purified cod parvalbumin led to a significant or complete decrease in IgE binding. When tested against recombinant parvalbumins, three of 13 sera reacted with alpha parvalbumin and 11 of 12 reacted with beta parvalbumin from R. esculenta. Skin prick tests performed with recombinant frog parvalbumin were positive in fish allergic patients. Inhibition studies showed that a fish and frog allergic patient was primarily sensitized to fish parvalbumin. Cod parvalbumin, a major cross-reactive allergen among different fish species, shares IgE binding epitopes with frog parvalbumin. This in vitro cross-reactivity seems to be also clinically relevant. Parvalbumins probably represent a new family of cross-reactive allergens.

  15. Natural history of skin prick test reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Nielsen, Jesper; Meteran, Howraman; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions to airborne allergens may have important consequences for affected individuals and are believed to be unstable through life, although evidence from longitudinal studies is limited. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in skin prick reactivity during 20 years in a random...

  16. Elevated levels of IgG and IgG4 to Malassezia allergens in atopic eczema patients with IgE reactivity to Malassezia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, Catharina; Tengvall Linder, Maria; Aalberse, Rob C.; Scheynius, Annika

    2004-01-01

    The opportunistic yeast Malassezia is considered to be one of the factors that can contribute to atopic eczema (AE). Elevated serum IgE levels, T-cell proliferation and positive skin prick test (SPT) and atopy patch test (APT) reactions to Malassezia are found among AE patients. Sera from 127 AE

  17. Skin corrosion and irritation test of sunscreen nanoparticles using reconstructed 3D human skin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghye Choi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Effects of nanoparticles including zinc oxide nanoparticles, titanium oxide nanoparticles, and their mixtures on skin corrosion and irritation were investigated by using in vitro 3D human skin models (KeraSkinTM and the results were compared to those of an in vivo animal test. Methods Skin models were incubated with nanoparticles for a definite time period and cell viability was measured by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Skin corrosion and irritation were identified by the decreased viability based on the pre-determined threshold. Results Cell viability after exposure to nanomaterial was not decreased to the pre-determined threshold level, which was 15% after 60 minutes exposure in corrosion test and 50% after 45 minutes exposure in the irritation test. IL-1α release and histopathological findings support the results of cell viability test. In vivo test using rabbits also showed non-corrosive and non-irritant results. Conclusions The findings provide the evidence that zinc oxide nanoparticles, titanium oxide nanoparticles and their mixture are ‘non corrosive’ and ‘non-irritant’ to the human skin by a globally harmonized classification system. In vivo test using animals can be replaced by an alternative in vitro test.

  18. Skin Testing for Allergic Rhinitis: A Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common type of allergy worldwide. The accuracy of skin testing for allergic rhinitis is still debated. This health technology assessment had two objectives: to determine the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing in patients with suspected allergic rhinitis and to estimate the costs to the Ontario health system of skin testing for allergic rhinitis. We searched All Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CRD Health Technology Assessment Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing for allergic rhinitis using nasal provocation as the reference standard. For the clinical evidence review, data extraction and quality assessment were performed using the QUADAS-2 tool. We used the bivariate random-effects model for meta-analysis. For the economic evidence review, we assessed studies using a modified checklist developed by the (United Kingdom) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. We estimated the annual cost of skin testing for allergic rhinitis in Ontario for 2015 to 2017 using provincial data on testing volumes and costs. We meta-analyzed seven studies with a total of 430 patients that assessed the accuracy of skin-prick testing. The pooled pair of sensitivity and specificity for skin-prick testing was 85% and 77%, respectively. We did not perform a meta-analysis for the diagnostic accuracy of intradermal testing due to the small number of studies (n = 4). Of these, two evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing in confirming negative skin-prick testing results, with sensitivity ranging from 27% to 50% and specificity ranging from 60% to 100%. The other two studies evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing as a stand-alone tool for diagnosing allergic rhinitis, with sensitivity ranging from 60

  19. Skin Testing for Allergic Rhinitis: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabali, Conrad; Chan, Brian; Higgins, Caroline; Holubowich, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is the most common type of allergy worldwide. The accuracy of skin testing for allergic rhinitis is still debated. This health technology assessment had two objectives: to determine the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing in patients with suspected allergic rhinitis and to estimate the costs to the Ontario health system of skin testing for allergic rhinitis. Methods We searched All Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CRD Health Technology Assessment Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing for allergic rhinitis using nasal provocation as the reference standard. For the clinical evidence review, data extraction and quality assessment were performed using the QUADAS-2 tool. We used the bivariate random-effects model for meta-analysis. For the economic evidence review, we assessed studies using a modified checklist developed by the (United Kingdom) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. We estimated the annual cost of skin testing for allergic rhinitis in Ontario for 2015 to 2017 using provincial data on testing volumes and costs. Results We meta-analyzed seven studies with a total of 430 patients that assessed the accuracy of skin-prick testing. The pooled pair of sensitivity and specificity for skin-prick testing was 85% and 77%, respectively. We did not perform a meta-analysis for the diagnostic accuracy of intradermal testing due to the small number of studies (n = 4). Of these, two evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing in confirming negative skin-prick testing results, with sensitivity ranging from 27% to 50% and specificity ranging from 60% to 100%. The other two studies evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing as a stand-alone tool for diagnosing allergic rhinitis, with

  20. Morphometric analyses of the skin of dogs with atopic dermatitis and correlations with cutaneous and plasma histamine and total serum IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, J S; Yager, J A; Eyre, P; Parker, W M

    1990-05-01

    In order to improve the diagnostic value of histopathologic examination of skin biopsy samples from dogs with atopic dermatitis and, perhaps, to identify any differences from the normal state that may predispose to this skin condition, we compared the anatomic and cellular morphology of skin from three standard sites in 21 normal and 15 atopic dogs. The standard sites were lateral neck, dorsal rump, and craniolateral abdomen. No differences between the two groups were found in the means of area or thickness of the stratum corneum or the remainder of the epidermis at any site. The area of sebaceous glands, but not apocrine sweat glands, was larger in the atopic group (P less than or equal to 0.05 for the lateral neck skin and P less than or equal to 0.1 for the dorsal rump skin). The mean number of non-metachromatic mononuclear cells in combined skin samples (126 microns 2) in atopic dogs (91.0 +/- 28.7) was significantly greater (P less than or equal to 0.01) than for the control normal dogs (65.3 +/- 19.3); the mean number of mast cells in atopic dogs (12.39 +/- 6.44) was similarly greater than in the controls (8.48 +/- 5.14; P less than or equal to 0.1). Eosinophils were significantly increased in atopic dog skin (P less than or equal to 0.01). with the mean for all three sites combined of 0.81 +/- 0.90 compared with a mean of 0.06 +/- 0.15 for normal dogs. Numbers of circulating blood eosinophils were not significantly different in the atopic and normal group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Evaluation of a Novel Rapid Test System for the Detection of Specific IgE to Hymenoptera Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Pfender

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Allergy Lateral Flow Assay (ALFA is a novel rapid assay for the detection of sIgE to allergens. The objective of this study is the evaluation of ALFA for the detection of sIgE to bee venom (BV and wasp venom (WV in insect venom allergic patients. Methods. Specific IgE to BV and WV was analyzed by ALFA, ALLERG-O-LIQ, and ImmunoCAP in 80 insect venom allergic patients and 60 control sera. Sensitivity and specificity of ALFA and correlation of ALFA and ImmunoCAP results were calculated. Results. The sensitivity/specificity of ALFA to the diagnosis was 100%/83% for BV and 82%/97% for WV. For insect venom allergic patients, the Spearman correlation coefficient for ALFA versus ImmunoCAP was 0.79 for BV and 0.80 for WV. However, significant differences in the negative control groups were observed. Conclusion. ALFA represents a simple, robust, and reliable tool for the rapid detection of sIgE to insect venoms.

  2. Skin prick test results in patients with atopic symptoms in Yozgat district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çölgeçen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Skin prick test (SPT is used widely and fastly to determine the allergens in atopic disease. We aimed in this study to analysis the relationship between total serum IgE (T.IgE and allergens that found by SPT and looking over the frequency of allergens. Methods: We evaluated clinical findings and SPT results and T.IgE levels of 190 patients who admitted to dermatology outpatient clinic, retrospectively. Rsults: 53 (27.9% patients had idiopathic generalized pruritus (IGP, 41 (21.6% had atopic dermatitis (AD, 40 (21.1% had chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU, 38 (20% had allergic rhinitis (AR, and 18 (9.5% had allergic asthma (AA. 123 (64.7% patients had positive reaction to at least one or more allergen on SPT. Of these patients 28 were IGP, 30 were AD, 20 were CIU, 28 were AR, and 17 were AA. The most common allergens were pine pollen (25.3%, wheat pollen (18.4%, and dog epithelium (15.8%. The mean levels of T.IgE was 382.61 ± 517.28 IU/ml (1-2500. T.IgE is higher 54.9% of patients. It was seen that DPT positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with increased T.IgE levels than those with normal total serum IgE level (p<0.05. Conclusion: We think that pine tree and wheat pollens are the most commonly encountered allergens at Yozgat area. Moreover, our findings indicated to the requirement and benefits of DPT in patients with AD, AR and AA in addition to the those KİU and İJP, particularly in patients with increased T.IgE levels, although further studies with larger sample size are needed. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 64-68

  3. Comparison of ImmunoCAP and Immulite serum specific IgE assays for the assessment of egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, François; Bégin, Philippe; Paradis, Louis; Lacombe-Barrios, Jonathan; Paradis, Jean; Des Roches, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Egg specific IgE levels are frequently used in combination with skin-prick tests to guide clinical decisions and to monitor egg allergy evolution in children. We compared both Immulite and ImmunoCAP egg specific IgE assays in egg allergic children, and found a linear correlation between both assays with a mean Immulite:ImmunoCAP ratio of 3. This is relevant information for clinicans wishing to estimate values from one assay to the other, as most literature has been published using the ImmunoCAP system.

  4. Validation of basophil histamine release against the autologous serum skin test and outcome of serum-induced basophil histamine release studies in a large population of chronic urticaria patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platzer, M H; Grattan, C E H; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous histamine-releasing factors (HRFs) are involved in 30-60% of patients with chronic urticaria (CU). Evidence for their existence comes from in vivo studies of autoreactivity with the autologous serum skin test (ASST), in vitro immunoassays demonstrating autoantibodies against the immuno......Endogenous histamine-releasing factors (HRFs) are involved in 30-60% of patients with chronic urticaria (CU). Evidence for their existence comes from in vivo studies of autoreactivity with the autologous serum skin test (ASST), in vitro immunoassays demonstrating autoantibodies against...... the immunoglobulin E (IgE) or the high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) and serum-induced histamine release (HR) from basophils and mast cells. We have examined the correlation between the ASST and a new basophil histamine-releasing assay (the HR-Urtikaria test) in a group of well-characterized CU patients...

  5. Allergenicity of Ascaris lumbricoides tropomyosin and IgE sensitization among asthmatic patients in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, N; Erler, A; Briza, P; Puccio, F; Ferreira, F; Caraballo, L

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides induces a Th2 response and specific IgE synthesis in humans. This confers antiparasite immunity but could modify the natural history of allergic diseases in the tropics, justifying the study of its allergenic composition. We analyzed the allergenic properties of Ascaris tropomyosin and the frequency of sensitization in subjects exposed to the parasite. cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription PCR, cloned into pQE30-UA and purified as a 6× His-tagged protein. Equivalence with its natural counterpart was analyzed by cross-inhibition and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Specific IgE was measured by ELISA in 175 asthmatics and 170 nonasthmatics naturally exposed to the parasite and sensitized to the Ascaris extract. The cDNA encoded 287 residues with high sequence identity with other invertebrate tropomyosins. The 40-kDa protein was recognized by human serum and affinity-purified anti-rBlo t 10 IgE. Specific IgE to tropomyosin could represent approximately 50% of the total IgE response to the extract. Ascaris tropomyosin induced wheal and flare in skin prick tests and histamine release from basophils. Although the prevalence of IgE to Ascaris tropomyosin was higher in asthmatic patients, logistic regression analysis suggested that this result was biased by sensitization to mites. A. lumbricoides tropomyosin (Asc l 3) is a new allergen that binds specific IgE, induces mediator release from effector cells and is cross-reactive to mite tropomyosins. IgE reactivity to this allergen is very frequent in both asthmatic and normal subjects sensitized to Ascaris extract. The potential role of Ascaris tropomyosin in asthma pathogenesis in tropical regions should be further investigated. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. IgE Abs to Der p 1 and Der p 2 as diagnostic markers of house dust mite allergy as defined by a bronchoprovocation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Minami

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: IgE to nDer p 1 and/or rDer p 2 was highly predictive of allergen-induced IAR. These findings validate the clinical usefulness of measuring the levels of IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 as a diagnostic tool for genuine HDM allergy.

  7. Double positivity to bee and wasp venom: improved diagnostic procedure by recombinant allergen-based IgE testing and basophil activation test including data about cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Bernadette; Krischan, Lilian; Darsow, Ulf; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies to both bee and wasp venom can be due to a sensitivity to both insect venoms or due to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). Investigating whether a basophil activation test (BAT) with both venoms as well as with bromelain and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or recombinant allergen-based IgE testing can improve the diagnostic procedure. Twenty-two Hymenoptera-venom allergic patients with sIgE antibodies to both bee and wasp venom were studied. sIgE antibodies to MUXF3 CCD, bromelain, HRP, rApi m 1, and rVes v 5 were determined, and a BAT (Flow2 CAST) with venom extracts, bromelain, and HRP was performed. Further recombinant allergen-based IgE testing was done by using an ELISA, if required. The reactivity of basophils was calculated from the insect venom concentration at half-maximum stimulation. Double positivity/double negativity/single positivity to rApi m 1 and rVes v 5 was seen in 12/1/9 patients. Further recombinant allergen-based IgE testing in the last ones revealed positive results to the other venom in all cases except one. BAT was double positive/double negative/single positive in 6/2/14 patients. Four patients with negative results in sIgE antibodies to CCDs had positive results in BAT. BAT with bromelain/HRP showed a sensitivity of 50%/81% and a specificity of 91%/90%. Component-resolved IgE testing elucidates the pattern of double positivity, showing a majority of true double sensitizations independent of CCD sensitization. BAT seems to add more information about the culprit insect even if the true clinical relevance of BAT is not completely determined because of ethical limitations on diagnostic sting challenges. BAT with HRP is a good method to determine sensitivity to CCDs. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation of symptoms with total IgE and specific IgE levels in patients presenting with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karli, Rifat; Balbaloglu, Evrim; Uzun, Lokman; Cinar, Fikret; Ugur, Mehmet Birol

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of symptoms in patients with presumed allergic rhinitis on the basis of their medical history and physical examination with the levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE, and to question the necessity of these tests in diagnosis. The records of 295 patients, who had at least two complaints of nasal itching, nasal obstruction, runny discharge and sneezing, and/or presumed as allergic rhinitis on physical examination findings were retrospectively screened. The correlation between the levels of IgE, specific inhalant IgE, and food-specific serum IgE were evaluated in these patients. A total of 70 cases (23.7%) were determined to have a total value of IgE under 20 U/ml, 113 cases (38.3%) with IgE values between 20 U/ml and 100 U/ml, and 100 cases with IgE values above 100 U/ml. Results of total IgE could not be obtained in 12 (4.06%) patients. Dermatophagoides farinae was the most common allergy in this group with 74 (68.5%) cases. The determination of IgE in allergic rhinitis is a supportive method. However, it cannot be recommended for routine use because of the time loss and high cost.

  9. Bacterial cellulose skin masks-Properties and sensory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Guilherme; de Mello, Carolina Véspoli; Chiari-Andréo, Bruna Galdorfini; Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; Pecoraro, Édison; Trovatti, Eliane

    2017-09-29

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a versatile material produced by microorganisms in the form of a membranous hydrogel, totally biocompatible, and endowed with high mechanical strength. Its high water-holding capacity based on its highly porous nanofibrillar structure allows BC to incorporate and to release substances very fast, thus being suitable for the preparation of skincare masks. The preparation and characterization of cosmetic masks based on BC membranes and active cosmetics. The masks were prepared by the simple incorporation of the cosmetic actives into BC membranes, used as a swelling matrix. The masks were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), sensory tests, and skin moisture tests on volunteers. The results of sensory tests revealed the good performance of BC, being considered effective by the panel of volunteers, specially for adhesion to the skin (7.7 at the score scale), and improvement of the skin moisture (the hydration effect increased 76% in 75% of the volunteers that used vegetable extract mask formulation [VEM]), or a decrease in skin hydration (80% of the volunteers showed 32.6% decrease on skin hydration using propolis extract formulation [PEM] treatment), indicating the BC nanofiber membranes can be used to skincare applications. The results demonstrate the BC can be used as an alternative support for cosmetic actives for skin treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nickel deposited on the skin-visualization by DMG test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Anneli; Skare, Lizbet; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2011-03-01

    Nickel is the most common cause of contact allergy and an important risk factor for hand eczema. Visualization techniques may be powerful in showing exposures. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test might be used to establish skin exposure to nickel. To develop and evaluate methods for visualization of nickel on the skin by the DMG test and hand imprints. Nickel solutions at different concentrations were applied in duplicate on the hands in healthy subjects (n = 5). The DMG test and acid wipe sampling for quantification were then performed. Hand imprints were taken after manipulation of nickel-releasing tools (n = 1), and in workers performing their normal tasks (n = 7). The imprints were developed by the DMG test. The DMG test on hands gave positive results in all subjects. The lowest concentration giving rise to a colour change was set to 0.13 µg/cm(2) for DMG testing on skin. DMG test-developed imprints worked well except when hands were heavily contaminated by other particles/dust. The DMG test may be used as a simple and powerful tool for visualization of nickel on skin. DMG test-developed hand imprints may, in the future, be used for semi-quantitative or quantitative exposure assessment. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Skin provocation tests may help to diagnose atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawro, T; Lehmann, S; Altrichter, S; Fluhr, J W; Zuberbier, T; Church, M K; Maurer, M; Metz, M

    2016-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disorder. Its diagnosis relies on clinical judgment. Mild and untypical manifestations may cause diagnostic difficulties. Biomarkers for the differential diagnostic workup of AD are needed. To test whether the results of skin provocation with cowhage, an established model of histamine-independent pruritus, and histamine are different in AD patients and healthy subjects and whether these tests may be used as diagnostic markers of AD. Twenty-two AD patients and 18 healthy controls were subjected to topical cowhage provocation and skin prick testing with histamine and assessed for differences in the quality, intensity, and persistence of itch, for wheal diameter, volume, and flare size and intensity. Patients with AD, compared with healthy controls, exhibited significantly smaller histamine-induced flares (P skin provocation tests should be investigated in further studies. Long persistence of cowhage-induced itch and diminished histamine-induced flare in nonlesional skin may support diagnosis of AD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Skin test reactivity of allergic subjects to basidiomycetes' crude extracts in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E; Nazario-Jiménez, Sylvette; López-Malpica, Fernando; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín

    2011-11-01

    Fungal allergies can be detected by the skin prick test with extracts of the organisms, but not all fungi, including the basidiomycetes, are being examined. We determined the level of sensitization to basidiomycetes in allergic subjects and compared their reactivity to commercial extracts commonly used to detect allergies. Crude spore extracts of the basidiomycetes Ganoderma applanatum, Chlorophyllum molybdites, and Pleurotus ostreatus, which are known to release numerous spores, were examined along with commercial extracts on 33 subjects with asthma, allergic or non-allergic rhinitis. Overall, affected subjects showed the highest reactivity to mites (36%), followed by Ganoderma applanatum (30%), grass (27%) Chlorophyllum molybdites (12%) and Pleurotus ostreatus (12%). Allergic rhinitis patients were most reactive to mites (58%), grass (42%), Ganoderma applanatum (25%), Penicillium spp. (25%), and cat (17%). Those with asthma primarily responded to mites (44%), Ganoderma applanatum (44%), grass (33%), and Pleurotus ostreatus (22%). IgE levels correlated with positive basidiomycetes extracts. This finding, coupled with higher reactivity to basidiospores as compared to mitospores, and the similar sensitivities of patients to G. applanatum and mites, suggest that basidiomycetes are important allergen sources in the tropics.

  13. Skin test reactivity of allergic subjects to basidiomycetes’ crude extracts in a tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E.; Nazario-Jiménez, Sylvette; López-Malpica, Fernando; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín

    2012-01-01

    Fungal allergies can be detected by the skin prick test with extracts of the organisms, but not all fungi, including the basidiomycetes, are being examined. We determined the level of sensitization to basidiomycetes in allergic subjects and compared their reactivity to commercial extracts commonly used to detect allergies. Crude spore extracts of the basidiomycetes Ganoderma applanatum, Chlorophyllum molybdites, and Pleurotus ostreatus, which are known to release numerous spores, were examined along with commercial extracts on 33 subjects with asthma, allergic or non-allergic rhinitis. Overall, affected subjects showed the highest reactivity to mites (36%), followed by Ganoderma applanatum (30%), grass (27%) Chlorophyllum molybdites (12%) and Pleurotus ostreatus (12%). Allergic rhinitis patients were most reactive to mites (58%), grass (42%), Ganoderma applanatum (25%), Penicillium spp. (25%), and cat (17%). Those with asthma primarily responded to mites (44%), Ganoderma applanatum (44%), grass (33%), and Pleurotus ostreatus (22%). IgE levels correlated with positive basidiomycetes extracts. This finding, coupled with higher reactivity to basidiospores as compared to mitospores, and the similar sensitivities of patients to G. applanatum and mites, suggest that basidiomycetes are important allergen sources in the tropics. PMID:21506892

  14. Reliability of skin testing as a measure of nutritional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forse, R.A.; Christou, N.; Meakins, J.L.; MacLean, L.D.; Shizgal, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    The reliability of skin testing to assess the nutritional state was evaluated in 257 patients who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The nutritional state was assessed by determining body composition, by multiple-isotope dilution. Immunocompetence was simultaneously evaluated by skin testing with five recall antigens. These measurements were carried out before and at two-week intervals during TPN. A statistically significant relationship existed between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. A body composition consistent with malnutrition was present in the anergic patients, while body composition was normal in the patients who reacted normally to skin testing. However, a considerable overlap existed as 43% of the reactive patients were malnourished, and 21% of the anergic patients were normally nourished. Thirty-seven (43%) of the 86 anergic patients converted and became reactive during TPN, and their body composition improved significantly. The remaining 49 anergic patients (57%) did not convert, and their body composition did not change despite similar nutritional support. The principal difference between the two groups of anergic patients was the nature of the therapy administered. In the anergic patients who converted, therapy was aggressive and appropriate, and clinical improvement occurred in 23 (62.2%) of the patients, with a mortality of 5.4%. In the 49 patients who remained anergic, therapy was often inappropriate or unsuccessful, with clinical improvement in only three (6.1%) of the patients and a mortality of 42.8%. The data demonstrated a significant relationship between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. However, because of the wide overlap, skin testing does not accurately assess a person's nutritional state. The persistence of the anergic state is indicative of a lack of response to therapy

  15. Geographical variation in the prevalence of positive skin tests to environmental aeroallergens in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, P-J; Chinn, S; Janson, C; Kogevinas, M; Burney, P; Jarvis, D

    2007-03-01

    Many studies have reported the prevalence of sensitization using skin prick tests. However, comparisons between studies and between regions are difficult because the number and the type of allergens tested vary widely. Using the European Community Health Respiratory Survey I data, the geographical variation of sensitization to environmental allergen as measured by skin tests was established. Adults aged 20-44 years, living in 35 centres in 15 developed countries, underwent skin tests for allergy to nine common aeroallergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, timothy grass, cat, Cladosporium herbarium, Alternaria alternata, birch, Olea europea, common ragweed and Parietaria judaica. The age-sex standardized prevalence of sensitization was determined and centres with high (95% confidence interval above and excluding study median) and low prevalence (95% confidence interval below and excluding study median) of sensitization to each allergen and to any of the nine allergens were identified. There was substantial geographical variation in the prevalence of sensitization to each of the nine allergens tested and in the prevalence of sensitization to any allergen (lowest 17.1%, median 36.8% and highest 54.8%). Sensitization to D. pteronyssinus, grass pollen and cat were usually the most prevalent (median between centre 21.7%, 16.9% and 8.8%, respectively). Timothy grass sensitization was higher than that for any other pollen species. As expected, geographical variations of sensitization to environmental allergen were observed across centres. These findings were compatible for those observed with serum-specific IgE. Skin tests can be used to assess the geographical distribution of allergens in a multicentric epidemiological survey.

  16. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies

  17. Low Serum IgE Is a Sensitive and Specific Marker for Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Monica G; Palacios-Kibler, Thamiris V; Workman, Lisa J; Schuyler, Alexander J; Steinke, John W; Payne, Spencer C; McGowan, Emily C; Patrie, James; Fuleihan, Ramsay L; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Lugar, Patricia L; Hernandez, Camellia L; Beakes, Douglas E; Verbsky, James W; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Routes, John M; Borish, Larry

    2018-02-17

    Although small prior studies have suggested that IgE can be low in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the workup for patients with recurrent infections and suspected hypogammaglobulinemia does not include the routine measurement of serum IgE. We sought to test the hypothesis that low/undetectable serum IgE is characteristic of CVID by comparing the frequency of low/undetectable serum IgE in healthy controls and patients with CVID. We measured total serum IgE in a large multi-center cohort of patients with CVID (n = 354) and compared this to large population-based cohorts of children and adults. We further compared IgE levels in patients with CVID to those with other forms of humoral immunodeficiency, and in a subset, measured levels of allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG subclasses. Lastly, we evaluated for the presence of IgE in commercially available immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) products. An undetectable serum IgE (IgE occurs in 75.6% (95% CI, 65.6-85.7%) of patients with CVID. Conversely, a high IgE (> 180 IU/ml) is very uncommon in CVID (0.3% of patients). IgE is > 2 IU/ml in 91.2% of patients with secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, and thus, an IgE IgE is not detectable in 96.5% of patients with CVID. Sufficient quantities of IgE to change the total serum IgE are not contained in IgRT. The IgG1/IgG4 ratio is increased in subjects with low IgE, regardless of whether they are controls or have CVID. These findings support the routine measurement of serum IgE in the workup of patients with hypogammaglobulinemia.

  18. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Anaphylaxis to the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine: a second explored case by means of immediate-reading skin tests with pneumococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponvert, C; Scheinmann, P; de Blic, J

    2010-12-06

    Anaphylaxis to pneumococcal vaccines is rare. In the only one child with anaphylaxis to a first injection of the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine that has been explored, skin tests and specific IgE determination diagnosed immediate-type hypersensitivity to pneumococcal antigens. We report the case of a child who tolerated three injections of the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine, but experienced anaphylaxis to a fourth injection of the 23-valent vaccine. Immediate responses in skin tests diagnosed immediate-type hypersensitivity to the two vaccines. Immunizations with the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine may induce IgE-dependent sensitization to pneumococcal antigens, responsible for anaphylaxis to subsequent injections of pneumococcal vaccines. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of positive tuberculin skin test and associated factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis infection among medical students is thought to be higher than that among comparable groups. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of positive Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and associated factors among medical students at Makerere University. Methods: A-cross-sectional study among ...

  1. Alternative methods for eye and skin irritation tests: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinardell, M P; Mitjans, M

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of eye and skin irritation potential is essential to ensuring the safety of individuals in contact with a wide variety of substances designed for industrial, pharmaceutical or cosmetic use. The Draize rabbit eye and skin irritancy tests have been used for 60 years to attempt to predict the human ocular and dermal irritation of such products. The Draize test has been the standard for ocular and dermal safety assessments for decades. However, several aspects of the test have been criticised. These include: the subjectivity of the method; the overestimation of human responses; and the method's cruelty. The inadequacies of the Draize test have led to several laboratories over the last 20 years making efforts to develop in vitro assays to replace it. Protocols that use different types of cell cultures and other methods have been devised to study eye and skin irritation. Different commercial kits have also been developed to study eye and skin irritation, based on the action of chemicals on these tissues. This article presents a review of the main alternatives developed to replace the use of animals in the study of chemical irritation. Particular attention is paid to the reproducibility of each method. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  3. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  4. Development and Production of a Leishmania Skin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Leishmania Skin Test PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Harry S. Neilsen, Jr., Ph . D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Allermed Laboratories, Inc. San...parasitophorous vacuole, and infect other target cells. After a blood meal from an infected host, amastigotes are released into the gut of sand flies where they...Systemic reactions also can occur including urticaria, gastrointestinal disturbances and respiratory distress leading to anaphylaxis. Study subjects

  5. Pattern Of Skin Prick Allergy Test Results In Enugu | Mgbor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we report on pattern of allergy prick skin test results found among atopic patients attending the department of otorhinolargngology of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu and Hansa Clinics, Enugu and propose ways of minimizing the exposure of the population to allergens. Material and method

  6. Mantoux skin test reactivity among household contacts of hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the prevalence of Tuberculosis (TB) infection as demonstrated by a positive Mantoux skin test (MST) among household contacts of sputum smear positive (SSP) HIV infected and un-infected TB patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study of household contacts of patients with TB (index cases) attending ...

  7. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of secular trends in the prevalence of allergy among children stems in large part from questionnaire surveys, whereas repeated cross-sectional studies using objective markers of atopic sensitization are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the prevalence of skin prick...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...

  8. Moving from peanut extract to peanut components: towards validation of component-resolved IgE tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, J. A.; Meijer, Y.; Derksen, N.; van der Palen-Merkus, T.; Knol, E.; Aalberse, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of peanut extracts by recombinant peanut components is an important step in allergy serologic testing. Criteria are needed for the unbiased inclusion of patients into a study to validate such a replacement. Plasma samples from 64 peanut-positive children (42 reactors, 22 nonreactors in a

  9. Instellar Gas Experiment (IGE): Testing interstellar gas particles to provide information on the processes of nucleosynthesis in the big bang stars and supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Don

    1985-01-01

    The Interstellar Gas Experiment (IGE) is designed to collect particles of the interstellar gas - a wind of interstellar media particles moving in the vicinity of the solar system. These particles will be returned to earth where the isotopic ratios of the noble gases among these particles will be measured. IGE was designed and programmed to expose 7 sets of six copper-beryllium metallic collecting foils to the flux of neutral interstellar gas particles which penetrate the heliosphere to the vicinity of the earth's orbit. These particles are trapped in the collecting foils and will be returned to earth for mass-spectrographic analysis when Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) on which IGE was launched, is recovered.

  10. Specific IgE to colophony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, Joanne; Fishwick, David; Robinson, Edward; Burge, Sherwood; Huggins, Vicky; Barber, Chris; Williams, Nerys; Curran, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    Colophony (rosin) is a natural product obtained from coniferous trees. It is used in a diverse range of products such as adhesives, ink, paints and soldering fluxes. Some workers exposed to colophony during soldering can develop occupational asthma; at present, no specific IgE test is available to assess sensitization to colophony. Serum samples were obtained from exposed symptomatic individuals (n = 7), some with a likely diagnosis of occupational asthma, exposed asymptomatic individuals (n = 10) and unexposed individuals (n = 11). Serum was tested for specific IgE antibodies against a protein extract produced following in vitro challenge of mono-mac-6 cells with colophony extract. Serum from exposed symptomatic individuals showed increased binding of specific IgE antibodies to a range of colophony-cell protein conjugates [29% (2/7) of samples tested when cut-off > 0.1 or 86% (6/7) of samples tested when cut-off > 0%] compared with both the exposed asymptomatic [0% when cut-off > 0.1, or 20% when cut-off > 0% (2/10)] and the non-exposed control populations [0% when cut-off > 0.1, or 27% when cut-off > 0% (3/11)]. This novel approach for the production of conjugates to assess sensitization to colophony was able to detect specific IgE in colophony-exposed workers with a likely diagnosis of occupational asthma.

  11. Methods of quantifying circulating IgE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, T.G.; Merrett, J.

    1978-01-01

    Four radioimmunoassay techniques, two conventional and two sandwich, have been used to measure circulating IgE levels in 100 sera. The test sera had IgE levels ranging from 1.0 to 20,000 u/ml, and each was measured at five dilutions, ranging from three-fold to 400-fold. The same IgE standards were used throughout, and the optimal range for each assay was determined by assessing data for quality control sera and the WHO standard 69/204. To be of general use in the United Kingdom an IgE test must measure accurately levels as low as 20-30 u IgE/ml. The Phadebas RIST method failed to meet this criterion, and of the remaining tests the double antibody method had the most useful operating range and produced the most reliable results. However, the double antibody method is not available commercially and so, for the majority of laboratories, the Phadebas PRIST technique should be the method chosen. (author)

  12. Construction of Three-Dimensional Dermo-Epidermal Skin Equivalents Using Cell Coating Technology and Their Utilization as Alternative Skin for Permeation Studies and Skin Irritation Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Takami; Nagura, Mayuka; Hiura, Ayami; Kojima, Hajime; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2017-06-01

    In vitro generated human skin equivalents are generating interest as promising tools in basic study, as alternatives to animal testing, and for clinical applications in regenerative medicine. For prediction of skin irritation and corrosion, three-dimensional human skin equivalents consisting of differentiated human keratinocytes (KCs) have been developed and some models have been internationally accepted. However, more delicate assessments using full-thickness skin models, such as skin sensitization tests, cannot be performed due to the lack of a dermis containing fibroblasts or appendages. In a previous study, we developed dermo-epidermal human skin equivalents (DESEs) using a cell coating technique, which employs cell surface coating by layer-by-layer assembled extracellular matrix (ECM) films. The DESEs with dermis consisting of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) and epidermis consisting of human KCs were easily fabricated by using this technology. In this study, the constructed DESEs were evaluated as an alternative skin for skin permeation and irritation tests. A good relationship of permeability coefficient of chemicals was observed between the DESEs and human skin data. We investigated whether the DESEs, a new in vitro skin model, are capable of identifying skin irritant and nonirritant substances among 20 reference chemicals. It was confirmed that the DESEs are applicable to skin irritation testing as defined in the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) Performance Standard (OECD Test Guideline 439). We further studied the construction of DESEs with density-controlled blood capillary networks using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results suggest that DESEs allowing incorporation of skin appendages are more promising alternatives to animal testing and can be applied to the design of physiologically relevant in vitro skin models.

  13. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-03-01

    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  14. A Multicenter Study of IgE Sensitization toAnisakis simplexand Diet Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buquicchio, Rosalba; Ventura, Maria T; Traetta, Pier L; Nenna, Saverio; Iadarola, Giuseppe; Magrone, Thea

    2018-02-13

    Allergy to Anisakis simplex (s.) is spreading due to the increased consumption of raw, smoked or marinated fish. In man, Anisakis s. can directly attack the gastrointestinal mucosa, provoking a parasitosis known as anisakiasis, or giving rise to the formation of IgE and, finally, inducing IgE-mediated reactions like urticaria, angioedema and anaphylactic shock. During recent years, a dietary approach to Anisakis s. infestation has also been addressed. A total of 620 patients with urticaria, angioedema, or both and a history of anaphylaxis following consumption of raw, smoked or marinated fish were recruited, evaluated for specific IgE levels to Anisakis s. and subjected to Skin Prick test. Following 18 month fish-free diet, patients were reevaluated at 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively. Patients undergoing diet were selected among those who had a clinical history with multiple accesses to first aid. After 6-month fish-free diet, we recorded an improvement of symptoms and a remarkable reduction of specific IgE levels. The extension of the diet over 6 months in some cases resulted in a further reduction of specific IgE levels. Data obtained confirm the importance of a fish-free diet in patients with severe symptoms since a new antigenic exposure coincides with a relapse of symptoms and increased IgE levels. This last point should be kept in mind and carefully evaluated in patients at risk for anaphylaxis or angioedema. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R. B.; Jones, M.; Forsberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    measures of fatness including body mass index and waist/hip ratio, current asthma, and specific skin prick and IgE sensitisation. We used inverse sampling-probability-weighted rank and regression statistics to measure population associations of disease outcomes with adipokines in males and females......, adjusting for confounders (area, age, smoking history, and number of elder siblings) and also mutually adjusting associations with adipokines and fatness measures. ResultsOne thousand nine hundred and fifty-five subjects aged 16-77years had information on leptin or adiponectin levels. Leptin and leptin...

  16. ImmunoCAP cellulose displays cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant (CCD) epitopes and can cause false-positive test results in patients with high anti-CCD IgE antibody levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Wolfgang; Altmann, Friedrich; Holzweber, Friedrich; Gruber, Clemens; Wantke, Felix; Wöhrl, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) in plants and insect venoms are a common cause of irrelevant positive test results during in vitro allergy diagnosis. We observed that some CCD-positive sera show nonspecific IgE binding even with CCD-free recombinant allergens when using the Phadia ImmunoCAP platform. We investigated whether cellulose used as an allergen carrier in ImmunoCAP harbors residual N-glycans, causing nonspecific background binding in CCD-positive sera. IgE binding to 6 samples of blank ImmunoCAPs coupled to either streptavidin (SA-CAP-1 or 2) or nonallergenic maltose-binding protein (MBP; MBP-CAP-1 to 4) and binding to a panel of 4 recombinant allergens were compared in CCD-positive sera before and after inhibition with a CCD inhibitor (MUXF 3 -human serum albumin). Of 52 CCD-positive sera (bromelain, 1.01-59.6 kilounits of antigen per liter [kU A /L]) tested on SA-CAP-1, 35 (67%) showed IgE binding of greater than 0.35 kU A /L (0.41-4.22 kU A /L). Among those with anti-CCD IgE levels of greater than 7.0 kU A /L, 90% (26/29) were positive. IgE binding to SA-CAP-1 correlated with IgE binding to bromelain (r = 0.68) and was completely abolished by serum preincubation with the CCD inhibitor (n = 15). Binding scores with SA-CAP-2 and MBP-CAP-1 to MBP-CAP-4 were generally lower but strongly correlated with those of SA-CAP-1 and bromelain. IgE reactivity of 10 CCD-positive sera (14.0-52.5 kU A /L) with the recombinant allergens rPhl p 12, rFel d 1, rAra h 2, and rPru p 3 was positive to at least 1 allergen in 8 of 10 (0.36-1.63 kU A /L) and borderline in 2 of 10 (0.21-0.25 kU A /L). Binding correlated with antibody binding to bromelain (r = 0.61) and to all blank ImmunoCAPs (r > 0.90) and could be completely blocked by the CCD inhibitor. Overall, mean background binding to cellulose CCDs corresponded to 2% to 3% of the reactivity seen with bromelain. Cellulose used as a solid-phase allergen carrier can contain varying amounts of CCDs

  17. Skin Tests for Evaluation of Cell Mediated Immunity in Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Mallya

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-mesate,d immune (CMI response to lepromin and dinitrochloro benzene (DNCB was evaluatt-d in 60 freshly detected leprosy cases. It was observed that 70%, ( 28 of 40 of the pa across tie leprosy spectrum except LL cases revealed delayed hypersensitivity to DNCB as -against 42.5% (1-7 of 40 to lepromin. DNCB test was found superior to lepromin test to measure CMI because of its simplicity and easy interpretation of skin reactivity. It detected CMI in 40% of BL cases who were lepromin negative. Grading of skin reactivity showed a program decrease in delayed hypersensitivity across the spectrum of leprosy from TT to LL. It can be concluded that there is no gross impairment of non-specific CMI in leprosy patients other than LL cases and this non-specific CMI depression correlates well with Ridley-Jopling clinical scale of leprosy.

  18. Membrane properties for permeability testing: Skin versus synthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Anika; Dorrani, Mania; Goodyear, Benjamin; Joshi, Vivek; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2018-03-25

    Synthetic membranes that are utilized in diffusion studies for topical and transdermal formulations are usually porous thin polymeric sheets for example cellulose acetate (CA) and polysulfones. In this study, the permeability of human skin was compared using two synthetic membranes: cellulose acetate and Strat-M® membrane and lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds either as saturated or formulated solutions as well as marketed dosage forms. Our data suggests that hydrophilic compounds have higher permeation in Strat-M membranes compared with lipophilic ones. High variation in permeability values, a typical property of biological membranes, was not observed with Strat-M. In addition, the permeability of Strat-M was closer to that of human skin than that of cellulose acetate (CA > Strat-M > Human skin). Our results suggest that Strat-M with little or no lot to lot variability can be applied in pilot studies of diffusion tests instead of human skin and is a better substitute than a cellulose acetate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tuberculosis skin testing, anergy and protein malnutrition in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, T F; Santillan, C F; Gilman, R H; Cabrera, L Z; Garcia, E; Vidal, C; Zimic, M J; Moore, D A J; Evans, C A

    2005-09-01

    Malnutrition and intestinal parasites cause immunosuppression. This may cause false-negative tuberculin skin tests (TST) and failure to identify tuberculosis (TB) infection. To assess factors associated with TST positivity and anergy in disadvantaged communities in Peru. A study of 212 randomly selected adults: 102 in a rural Amazonian village and 110 shanty town residents in urban Lima. Respectively 52% and 53% of urban and rural jungle populations were TST-positive. Using simultaneous tetanus and candida skin tests, 99% had at least one positive skin test. Generalised anergy was therefore rare, despite frequent intestinal parasitic infection, including 34% helminth infection prevalence in the jungle. TST positivity was associated with age (P = 0.001), known TB contact (P = 0.02) and poor household ventilation (P = 0.007). TST positivity was not significantly associated with crowding, reported past TB, single/multiple BCG vaccination, income, intestinal parasites, dietary factors, body mass index or body fat. Individuals with lower anthropometric body protein, as measured by corrected arm muscle area, were less likely to be TST-positive (P = 0.02), implying that protein malnutrition caused tuberculin-specific anergy. These results identify the importance of household ventilation for community TB transmission and add to the evidence that protein malnutrition suppresses TB immunity, causing false-negative TST results.

  20. 575 Photoaging Attenuates Skin Test Response to Histamine More Than Natural Aging

    OpenAIRE

    King, Monroe James; Fitzhugh, David; Lockey, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experience suggests that skin test reactivity is often decreased in photo-exposed skin versus sun-protected skin in older individuals. The current study was designed to address whether photoaging or natural aging of skin causes a greater diminution in skin test reponse. Methods Prick-puncture skin tests to histamine were performed on sun-exposed and sun-protected areas in younger (n = 61, age 20–50) and older (n = 63, age 60–87) adult volunteers who were recruited for skin...

  1. Patch testing of experimentally sensitized beagle dogs: development of a model for skin lesions of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Deangelo, Kristin B; Dunston, Stanley M; Clarke, Katie B; McCall, Catherine A

    2006-04-01

    In humans with atopic dermatitis (AD), the epicutaneous application of allergens (atopy patch tests or APT) to which the patients are sensitized often results in the development of inflammation resembling that of spontaneous skin lesions. Dogs are affected with a natural homologue of human AD, but information on the induction of positive patch testing reactions is limited. The objectives of this pilot study were to determine the nature and cellular dynamics of inflammation occurring after APT in dogs hypersensitive to house dust mite and flea allergens. Laboratory Beagles were sensitized experimentally to Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mites (two dogs), Ctenocephalides felis flea saliva (one dog) or both (two dogs). Two other dogs served as nonsensitized controls. Both allergens and saline were applied epicutaneously. Macroscopic evaluations and skin biopsies were performed at 4, 24, 48 and 96 h after starting allergenic challenge. Biopsies were evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically with a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for canine leucocyte antigens. Positive macroscopic reactions consisted of erythema, oedema and induration, and they occurred between 24 and 96 h after allergen application. Macroscopic and microscopic APT reactions developed only whenever serum IgE was present against tested allergens. Microscopically, positive APT was associated with epidermal hyperplasia, Langerhans' cell hyperplasia, and eosinophil and lymphocyte epidermotropism. Dermal inflammation was mixed and arranged in a superficial perivascular to interstitial pattern. Numerous IgE+-CD1+ dendritic cells and gamma-delta T-lymphocytes were observed. Macroscopically and microscopically, APT reactions in these experimentally sensitized animals resembled those seen in lesional biopsy specimens of dogs and humans with spontaneous AD. Therefore, APT in hypersensitive dogs provides a relevant experimental model to investigate the pathogenesis and treatment of both

  2. Practical guide to skin prick tests in allergy to aeroallergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Heinzerling, L; Bachert, C

    2012-01-01

    This pocket guide is the result of a consensus reached between members of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2) LEN) and Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). The aim of the current pocket guide is to offer a comprehensive set of recommendations on the use of skin prick...... in the management of allergic diseases. It is not a long or detailed scientific review of the topic. However, the recommendations in this pocket guide were compiled following an in-depth review of existing guidelines and publications, including the 1993 European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology position...... paper, the 2001 ARIA document and the ARIA update 2008 (prepared in collaboration with GA(2) LEN). The recommendations cover skin test methodology and interpretation, allergen extracts to be used, as well as indications in a variety of settings including paediatrics and developing countries....

  3. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Jacobsen, C R; Poulsen, L K

    2003-01-01

    subjects. An SPT was positive when > or =3 mm, and repeatable if either persistently positive or negative. Clinical sensitivity to birch pollen was used as model for inhalation allergy, and was investigated at inclusion and at study termination by challenge tests, intradermal test, titrated SPT and Ig......E measurements. Birch pollen symptoms were confirmed in diaries. RESULTS: The repeatability of a positive SPT was 67%, increasing significantly to 100% when supported by the history. When not supported by history, the presence of specific IgE was significantly associated with a repeatable SPT. Allergen....... CONCLUSION: SPT changes are clinically relevant. Further studies using other allergens are needed. Long-term repeatability of SPT is high in the presence of a supportive history....

  4. Real-Life Study for the Diagnosis of House Dust Mite Allergy - The Value of Recombinant Allergen-Based IgE Serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sven; Schlederer, Thomas; Kramer, Matthias F; Haack, Mareike; Vrtala, Susanne; Resch, Yvonne; Lupinek, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf; Gröger, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is one of the most important perennial allergen sources worldwide. Molecular diagnostics using the commercially available major allergens (Der p 1 and Der p 2) in combination with Der p 10 do not detect house dust mite (HDM) sensitization in a number of cases when used alone. The objective was to evaluate the IgE reactivity profiles of these patients using an experimental immunoassay biochip. Sera of HDM-allergic patients (positive skin prick test, CAP class ≥1 for allergen extract, and positive intranasal provocation) were tested for IgE antibodies against Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10 by ImmunoCAP fluorescence enzyme immunoassay. Negatively tested sera were examined by an experimental chip containing 13 microarrayed HDM allergens. Of 97 patients tested, 16 showed negative results to Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10. MeDALL chip evaluation revealed 5 patients monosensitized to Der p 23, and 11 patients were negative for all HDM MeDALL chip components. Seven sera were available for further testing, and 3 of them showed IgE reactivity to dot-blotted nDer p 1, and 2 reacted with high-molecular weight components (>100 kDa) in nitrocellulose-blotted HDM extract when tested with 125I-labeled anti-IgE in a RAST-based assay. The HDM extract-specific IgE levels of the 11 patients were <3.9 kU/l. Recombinant allergen-based IgE serology is of great value when conventional IgE diagnostics fails. Der p 23 is an important HDM allergen, especially when major allergens are negative. Therefore, it would be desirable to have Der p 23 commercially available. Further research concerning the prevalence and clinical significance of different HDM allergens is needed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Skov, P S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to standardize and evaluate technically optimized food allergen extracts for use in skin prick test (SPT). The standardization procedure comprised 36 allergic histories in 32 food allergic patients with 21 healthy, non-atopic individuals serving as controls. The patients......-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, except for the hazelnut-allergic patients. The controls were subjected to an open food challenge with all the foods to ensure tolerance. The standardization was performed by means of titrated SPT in accordance with the guidelines on biological standardization from...

  6. Frequent IgE sensitization to latex, cow's milk, and egg in children with short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, Angel; Solera, Eva; Alentado, Noemi; Oliver, Fernando; Pamies, Rafael; Caballero, Luis; Nieto, Antonio; Dalmau, Jaime

    2008-03-01

    Children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) undergo frequent operations, so they are at risk for sensitizing to latex. There have been isolated reports of sensitization to food in these children. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed sensitization to latex, cow's milk, and egg with skin prick tests (SPT) and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in 14 children with SBS. Data were collected about the number of operations with latex devices, serum total IgE, and history of feeding with milk formula. Ten children were sensitized to latex (specific IgE median: 6.7 kU/l, range: 0.5-33). Compared with those non-sensitized, sensitized children had significantly (p range: 0.5-21.1 kU/l), and five to egg (specific IgE median: 0.68, range: 0.58-2.17 kU/l). Except for some isolated days with cow's milk formula, the children had been initially fed with a diet without intact cow's milk proteins. Sensitization to latex, cow's milk, and egg is very frequent in children with SBS. They should be treated in a latex-free environment since the very early stages of the disease, and should be routinely studied regarding food sensitization, as this might contribute as an added factor in the chronic diarrhea of these patients.

  7. Relevance of Cat and Dog Sensitization by Skin Prick Testing in Childhood Eczema and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Tsang, Kathy Yin Ching; Pong, Nga Hin Henry; Leung, Ting Fan

    2017-01-01

    Household animal dander has been implicated as aeroallergen in childhood atopic diseases. Many parents seek healthcare advice if household pet keeping may be detrimental in atopic eczema (AE), allergic rhinitis and asthma. We investigated if skin sensitization by cat/dog dander was associated with disease severity and quality of life in children with AE. Demographics, skin prick test (SPT) results, disease severity (Nottingham eczema severity score NESS), Children Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), blood IgE and eosinophil counts of a cohort of AE patients were reviewed. 325 AE patients followed at a pediatric dermatology clinic were evaluated. Personal history of asthma was lowest (20%) in the dog-dander-positive-group but highest (61%) in bothcat- and-dog-dander-positive group (p=0.007). Binomial logistic regression ascertained that catdander sensitization was associated with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.056; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.006 to 1.109; p=0.029), dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 4.625; 95% CI, 1.444 to 14.815; p=0.010), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 2.330; 95% CI, 1.259 to 4.310; p=0.007) and keeping-cat-ever (aOR, 7.325; 95% CI, 1.193 to 44.971; p=0.032); whereas dogdander sensitization was associated with dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 9.091; 95% CI, 1.148 to 71.980; p=0.037), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 3.568; 95% CI, 1.341 to 9.492; p=0.011) and keeping-dog-ever (aOR, 6.809; 95% CI, 2.179 to 21.281; p=0.001). However, neither cat nor dog sensitization were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, parental or sibling atopic status, disease severity or quality of life. Physicians should advise parents that there is no direct correlation between AE severity, quality of life, asthma or allergic rhinitis with cutaneous sensitization to cats or dogs. Sensitized patients especially those with concomitant asthma and severe symptoms may consider non-furry alternatives if they plan to have a pet. Highly sensitized

  8. The mouse intradermal test, a well-established and reliable model in skin tolerance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloxhuber, C; Kästner, W

    1985-02-01

    The intradermal test in mice is a valuable model for assessing dermal tolerance to chemical substances. The test material is administered intracutaneously to hairless or depilated mice through a fine syringe, the animals are killed after 24 hours and the treated skin is removed, dried and assessed for reaction area, erythema and oedema. The skin fragments can be preserved as a record of the findings. While direct transfer of the findings from mouse to man is likely to be misleading, the test is well suited to comparative studies. Moreover it requires only small numbers of mice.

  9. Persistence of IgE-associated allergy and allergen-specific IgE despite CD4+ T cell loss in AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Marth

    Full Text Available The infection of CD4+ cells by HIV leads to the progressive destruction of CD4+ T lymphocytes and, after a severe reduction of CD4+ cells, to AIDS. The aim of the study was to investigate whether HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µl can suffer from symptoms of IgE-mediated allergy, produce allergen-specific IgE antibody responses and show boosts of allergen-specific IgE production. HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/µl suffering from AIDS and from IgE-mediated allergy were studied. Allergy was diagnosed according to case history, physical examination, skin prick testing (SPT, and serological analyses including allergen microarrays. HIV infection was confirmed serologically and the disease was staged clinically. The predominant allergic symptoms in the studied patients were acute allergic rhinitis (73% followed by asthma (27% due to IgE-mediated mast cell activation whereas no late phase allergic symptoms such as atopic dermatitis, a mainly T cell-mediated skin manifestation, were found in patients suffering from AIDS. According to IgE serology allergies to house dust mites and grass pollen were most common besides IgE sensitizations to various food allergens. Interestingly, pollen allergen-specific IgE antibody levels in the patients with AIDS and in additional ten IgE-sensitized patients with HIV infections and low CD4 counts appeared to be boosted by seasonal allergen exposure and were not associated with CD4 counts. Our results indicate that secondary allergen-specific IgE production and IgE-mediated allergic inflammation do not require a fully functional CD4+ T lymphocyte repertoire.

  10. Boiling and Pressure Cooking Impact on IgE Reactivity of Soybean Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Cuadrado, Carmen; Rodriguez, Julia; Dieguez, Maria Carmen; Crespo, Jesus F; Novak, Natalija

    2018-01-01

    Soybean is one of the 8 foods that causes the most significant rate of food allergies in the USA and Europe. Thermal processing may impact on the allergenic potential of certain foods. We aimed to investigate modifications of the IgE-binding properties of soybean proteins due to processing methods that have been previously found to impact on the allergenicity of legumes such as peanut. Soybean seeds were subjected to different thermal processing treatments. To evaluate their impact on the IgE-binding capacity of soybean proteins, individual sera from 25 patients sensitized to soybean were used in in vitro immunoassays. Detection of specific soybean allergens in untreated and treated samples was carried out with specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. In vivo studies of skin prick testing (SPT) were also performed. The IgE reactivity of soybean was resistant to boiling up to 30 min, and this treatment had a higher impact when applied for 60 min. Treatment that combined heat and pressure produced a fragmentation of proteins in both soluble and insoluble fractions that went along with a decreased capacity to bind IgE and reduced the SPT wheal size. However, allergens such as 7S globulins survived this treatment. Thermal-processing methods able to attenuate the capacity of soybean proteins to bind IgE may contribute to the improvement of food safety and could constitute a potential strategy for the induction of tolerance to soybean. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with

  12. Is There a Need for Repetition of Skin Test in Childhood Allergic Diseases? Repetition of Skin Test and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Dogru

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: It is found that there was an alteration of sensitization in 4/10 children at the end of the average 4-year period. The presence of family atopy, the presence of allergic rhinitis and serum total IgE elevation were risk factors for the development of new sensitization. On the other hand sensitization to multiple allergens was risk factors for the loss of sensitization.

  13. EPA Releases Draft Policy to Reduce Animal Testing for Skin Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document, Draft Interim Science Policy: Use of Alternative Approaches for Skin Sensitization as a Replacement for Laboratory Animal Testing, describes the science behind the non-animal alternatives that can now be used to identify skin sensitization.

  14. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  15. Skin test-positive immediate hypersensitivity reaction to iodinated contrast media: the role of controlled challenge testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-García, A; Tomás, M; Pineda, R; Tornero, P; Herrero, T; Fuentes, V; Zapatero, L; de Barrio, M

    2013-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) to iodinated contrast media (ICM) have traditionally been considered nonallergic; however, the increasingly frequent reporting of positive skin test and basophil activation test results suggests a specific allergic mechanism in some patients. Skin tests have been proposed as a useful tool for diagnosis, although their sensitivity and predictive values remain to be determined. The role of controlled challenge testing has not been assessed. We aimed to evaluate the role of controlled challenge testing in skin test-positive IHR to ICM. We evaluated 106 patients with IHR to ICM by performing skin tests with the agent that caused the reaction. Patients with a positive result were selected. Skin tests were extended to a series of 8 ICMs; 5 patients underwent controlled challenge test with an alternative skin test-negative ICM; a further 2 patients underwent computed tomography with an alternative skin test-negative ICM. No premedication was administered. Intradermal test results were positive to the ICM that caused the reaction in 11 out of 106 patients (10.4%). Five of the 11 patients tolerated a controlled challenge test with an alternative skin test-negative ICM. The 2 patients who underwent computed tomography with an alternative skin test-negative ICM tolerated the medium. Skin tests are useful for the diagnostic workup in patients with an allergic IHR to ICM. Since ICM cannot be avoided in many patients because they are irreplaceable in some diagnostic or therapeutic techniques, an alternative safe ICM should be investigated for future procedures. We propose the use of controlled challenge tests based on skin test results to address this need in skin test-positive reactions in order to identify an alternative non-cross-reactive ICM.

  16. Skin testing for immediate hypersensitivity to corticosteroids: a case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A; Empson, M; The, R; Fitzharris, P

    2015-03-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity to corticosteroids is reported to occur with an incidence of 0.1%. The largest previous case series reporting corticosteroid skin testing has seven patients. We identified 23 patients (mean age 50 years, 65% female) from Auckland City Hospital who underwent skin testing (ST) for suspected corticosteroid hypersensitivity between July 2005 and April 2012. We performed a retrospective clinical case note review detailing clinical history of reaction, skin test results and subsequent management. Most patients (21/23) had a standard panel of testing with prednisolone, triamcinolone, methylprednisolone, hydrocortisone and dexamethasone. Skin tests used a 10% steroid stock concentration for skin prick tests (SPT) and dilutions of 1 : 1000, 1 : 100 and 1 : 10 for subsequent intradermal testing. A weal 3 mm greater than the negative control was considered positive. A total of 23 patients were identified who had skin testing for suspected acute hypersensitivity to corticosteroids, eight of which had a history of anaphylaxis. From 28 reactions (in 23 patients), the most common route of administration was intra-articular (13), followed by oral (7), intravenous (3) and other (5). Skin tests were positive in 8/23 patients, and 7/8 of these patients had a history of corticosteroid-associated anaphylaxis. Skin tests were positive at either the skin prick test or intradermal stages. There was evidence suggesting clinical and skin test cross-reactivity between corticosteroids in one patient. One patient had a positive skin test, but negative oral challenge suggesting the skin test was false positive. Skin tests were negative in 15/23 patients. One patient had a negative prednisolone skin test and positive unblinded oral challenge, suggesting a false-negative skin test. Skin testing can provide sufficient evidence to diagnose allergy in patients with a clear history of immediate hypersensitivity to corticosteroids such as anaphylaxis. Both skin prick

  17. Wearable device for skin contact thermography: design, construction and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giansanti, D.; Maccioni, G.

    2008-01-01

    The need for wearable devices for thermal monitoring is rising. These devices could be used to continuously monitor patients for breast cancer investigation or vascular, dermatological and rheumatic disorders, in viability studies, or during physical exercise. We designed and constructed a wearable device for skin-contact thermography that uses integrated silicon sensors. The device was validated using a phantom with a dynamic bench test. The thermal resolution was greater than 0.030'C, and the spatial resolution was equal to 1.6x10-5 m'2. We also investigated the device's performance on five clinical subjects. Results of these studies showed a maximal error of less than 0.10'C in each evaluation [it

  18. Evaluation of a Novel Rapid Test System for the Detection of Allergic Sensitization to Timothy Grass Pollen against Established Laboratory Methods and Skin Prick Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lucassen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I hypersensitivity is driven by allergen specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE and thus sIgE represents a marker for modern allergy diagnosis. Recently, a rapid assay for the detection of sIgE, termed as (Allergy Lateral Flow Assay ALFA, has been developed. The objective of our study is the evaluation of a scanner-based system for the semiquantitative interpretation of ALFA results. Agreement to Skin Prick Test (SPT, Allergopharma, ALLERG-O-LIQ System (Dr. Fooke, and ImmunoCAP (Phadia was investigated using 50 sera tested for specific IgE to timothy grass pollen (g6. 35/50 sera were positive by SPT, ALLERG-O-LIQ, and ImmunoCAP. Excellent agreement was observed between ALFA results and SPT, ImmunoCAP, and ALLERG-O-LIQ. Area under the curve (AUC values were found at 1.0, and 100% sensitivity and specificity was found versus all other methods. Visual- and scanner-based interpretation of the ALFA results revealed excellent agreement.

  19. IgE sensitization in relation to preschool eczema and filaggrin mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emma Kristin; Bergström, Anna; Kull, Inger; Lind, Tomas; Söderhäll, Cilla; van Hage, Marianne; Wickman, Magnus; Ballardini, Natalia; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2017-12-01

    Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is associated with an increased risk of having IgE antibodies. IgE sensitization can occur through an impaired skin barrier. Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutation is associated with eczema and possibly also with IgE sensitization. We sought to explore the longitudinal relation between preschool eczema (PSE), FLG mutation, or both and IgE sensitization in childhood. A total of 3201 children from the BAMSE (Children Allergy Milieu Stockholm Epidemiology) birth cohort recruited from the general population were included. Regular parental questionnaires identified children with eczema. Blood samples were collected at 4, 8, and 16 years of age for analysis of specific IgE. FLG mutation analysis was performed on 1890 of the children. PSE was associated with IgE sensitization to both food allergens and aeroallergens up to age 16 years (overall adjusted odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 2.00-2.66). This association was even stronger among children with persistent PSE. FLG mutation was associated with IgE sensitization to peanut at age 4 years (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.03-3.44) but not to other allergens up to age 16 years. FLG mutation and PSE were not effect modifiers for the association between IgE sensitization and PSE or FLG mutation, respectively. Sensitized children with PSE were characterized by means of polysensitization, but no other specific IgE sensitization patterns were found. PSE is associated with IgE sensitization to both food allergens and aeroallergens up to 16 years of age. FLG mutation is associated with IgE sensitization to peanut but not to other allergens. Sensitized children with preceding PSE are more often polysensitized. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The prevalence and diagnostic value of specific IgE antibodies to inhalant, animal and plant food, and ficus allergens in patients with natural rubber latex allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebo, D G; Bridts, C H; Hagendorens, M M; De Clerck, L S; Stevens, W J

    2003-01-01

    It is well recognised that natural rubber latex allergy can be associated with serological cross-reactivity to plant allergens, especially tropical fruits and Ficus. In contrast, data on the frequency and clinical value of specific IgE antibodies against these allergens remain rare. In addition, little is known about the prevalence and diagnostic value of specific IgE antibodies to classical inhalant and animal allergens in NRL allergic patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, the sensitivity, and the specificity of these different specific IgE antibodies in patients suffering from NRL allergy. Serum samples of 42 NRL allergic adults were investigated. All had a history of NRL allergy confirmed by a positive skin test for latex and a positive latex-specific IgE. Samples were analysed for IgE antibodies against 9 plant food allergens (avocado, banana, chestnut, fig, kiwi, papaya, peanut, pineapple and tomato) and Ficus benjamina. A specific IgE quantification for 3 animal food allergens (codfish, cow's milk, egg's white) and 8 common inhalant allergens (Dermatophagoïdes pteronyssinus, birch pollen, timothy grass pollen, mugwort pollen, cat and dog epithelium, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium herbarum) was also performed. Because double blind placebo-controlled challenges could not be considered, for ethical reasons, patient's food allergy or immediate hypersensitivity for Ficus and inhalant allergens was documented by a standardised questionnaire. Diagnosis of atopy was based on a relevant history and the presence of a specific IgE antibody to at least one classical inhalant allergen. For some IgE determinations presence or absence of cross-reactivity was investigated by CAP-inhibition tests. A specific IgE antibody to at least one of the investigated inhalant and animal food allergens was found in respectively 76% and 12% of the serum samples. A plant food-specific IgE antibody was observed in 88% of the serum samples, most

  1. Characteristics of children with positive tuberculin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocaoğlu, Arzu Babayiğit; Erge, Duygu Olmez; Anal, Ozden; Makay, Balahan; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the characteristics of children with latent tuberculosis diagnosed with positive tuberculin skin test (TST) and evaluate potential risk factors in children with positive TST. Children followed with the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection were included in the study retrospectively. Demographic characteristics of patients including history of atopy, respiratory infections, family history of tuberculosis and atopy, number of BCG vaccinations, findings of physical examination and laboratory data were extracted from patient's file. Eighty-one children (51 male, 30 female) who had positive TST were retrospectively evaluated in the study. Mean age of the patients was 8.00 ± 4.00 years. Only 13 (16%) of the children had contact with a case who had active tuberculosis. It was shown that the age of the patients, number of BCG scars and BCG vaccination significantly affected TST reaction size. TST size was not affected with time passed after last dose of BCG vaccination, family history of tuberculosis, presence of TST positive case in the family, exposure to cigarette smoke, number of household family members and presence of respiratory allergic disease. The patient's age, numbers of BCG vaccination and BCG scars significantly affect TST results in childhood. This may cause difficulty in diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection and in decision of initiating prophylactic treatment. The results of this study may show that recently developed, more accurate and convenient in vitro tests that they have higher costs and require sophisticated laboratory, can be used to diagnose latent tuberculosis.

  2. The IgE response to Ascaris molecular components is associated with clinical indicators of asthma severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Emiro; Zakzuk, Josefina; Mercado, Dilia; Alvarez, Alvaro; Caraballo, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease worldwide and Ascaris lumbricoides infection (ascariasis) is frequent in tropical regions. However, the effect of ascariasis on asthma severity has not been sufficiently explored. We sought to evaluate the influence of the IgE immune response to Ascaris extract and purified house dust mites (HDM) and Ascaris allergens on indicators of asthma severity in patients living in the tropics. Asthmatic patients from Cartagena, Colombia were recruited. Clinical assessment included questionnaires, physical examination, allergy skin tests, spirometry, parasite stool examination and IgE antibody measurements. Asthma was diagnosed by a physician according to validated criteria. Indicators of severity were occurrence of severe dyspnea episodes, night awakenings events, > 4 emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalizations during the last year. Specific IgE to Der p 2, Ascaris spp., Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extracts was determined by ImmunoCap. IgE to tropomyosins (Asc l 3, Blo t 10 and Der p 10), Blo t 5 and Asc s 1 was detected by ELISA. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the relationships between sensitization and indicators of asthma severity. After adjustment for HDM sensitization, Ascaris sensitization remained associated with severe dyspnea (aOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.08 - 3.34, p = 0.03) and > 4 ER visits (aOR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.15 - 4.30, p = 0.02). We also found that sensitization to the species specific markers Blo t 5 and Asc s 1, as well as the cross-reactive tropomyosins of D. pteronyssinus and Ascaris were associated with > 4 ER visits. Der p 2 sensitization was associated with bronchodilator responsiveness (aOR: 2.24: 1.25-4.02, p = 0.01). Remarkably, significantly higher IgE levels to HDM species specific allergens were found in Ascaris sensitized patients. In this tropical population, IgE sensitization to Ascaris and the cross-reactive tropomyosins was frequent and associated

  3. Papain-induced asthma: diagnosis by skin test, RAST and bronchial provocation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, X.; Fruhmann, G.

    1979-01-01

    Seven out of eleven workers occupationally exposed to airborne papain developed immediate hypersensitive reactions, predominantly asthma and rhinitis. Skin tests and RAST with papain were positive in all symptomatic workers, but not in the four asymptomatic workers. Furthermore, out of forty non-exposed asthmatics, thirty-eight had negative RAST results and all had negative skin test results. Bronchial provocation tests with 0.15-0.5 mg papain performed in five patients with a positive case history showed in each case an immediate asthmatic reaction; in addition to that, one patient developed signs of a dual asthmatic reaction. These results suggest that airborne papain is a highly immunogenic agent in humans, which induces type I allergic reactions in a large percentage of the exposed subjects. (author)

  4. Measurement of IgE antibodies against purified grass pollen allergens (Lol p 1, 2, 3 and 5) during immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ree, R; Van Leeuwen, W A; Dieges, P H; Van Wijk, R G; De Jong, N; Brewczyski, P Z; Kroon, A M; Schilte, P P; Tan, K Y; Simon-Licht, I F; Roberts, A M; Stapel, S O; Aalberse, R C

    1997-01-01

    IgE titres tend to rise early after the start of immunotherapy, followed by a decline to pre-immunotherapy levels or lower. We were interested to know whether the early increase in IgE antibodies includes new specificities of IgE, and whether these responses persist. Sera of 64 patients undergoing grass pollen immunotherapy were tested for IgE against four purified grass pollen allergens: Lol p 1, 2, 3, and 5. At least two serum samples were taken, one before the start of therapy and one between 5 and 18 months after the first immunization (mean: 10 months). The mean IgE responses to Lol p 1, 2 and 3 showed a moderate but not significant increase. In contrast, the mean IgE response to Lol p 5 showed a significant decrease of > 30%. IgE against total Lohum perenne pollen extract moderately increased (> 20%), showing that a RAST for total pollen is not always indicative for the development of IgE against its major allergens. For > 40% of the patients it was found that IgE against one or more of the four allergens increased, while IgE against the remaining allergen(s) decreased. For 10 sera the ratio of IgE titres against at least two allergens changed by at least a factor of 5. The changes in specific IgE also included conversions from negative (< 0.1 RU) to positive (0.6 to 5.0 RU) for five patients. For two patients, the induction of these 'new' IgE antibodies against major allergens was shown to result in a response that was persistent over several years. Although active induction of new IgE specificities by immunotherapy was not really proven, the observations in this study indicate that monitoring of IgE against purified (major) allergens is necessary to evaluate changes in specific IgE in a reliable way.

  5. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Frederikke K; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    disease. Genetically, we explored potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for IgE levels greater than versus less than 150 kU/L and compared with subjects without allergic disease was 2.3 (95% CI, 2......BACKGROUND: High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels...... and allergic disease both observationally and genetically using a Mendelian randomization design free of reverse causation and largely free of confounding. METHODS: Among 111,408 subjects aged 20 to 100 years from the general population, 50,019 had plasma IgE measurements, and 102,270 were genotyped...

  6. The colour of blood in skin: a comparison of Allen's test and photonics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välisuo, Petri; Kaartinen, Ilkka; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Alander, Jarmo

    2010-11-01

    The colour of the skin reflects many physiological and pathological states of an individual. Usually, the skin colour is examined by the bare eye alone. Several scaling systems have been developed to quantify the sensory evaluation of skin colour. In this work, the reflectance of the skin is measured directly using an objective instrument. Haemoglobin inside the dermal circulation is one of the key factors of skin colour and it also has a major role in the appearance of many skin lesions and scars. To quantitatively measure and analyse such conditions, the relation between the skin colour and the haemoglobin concentration in the skin needs to be resolved. To examine the effect of blood concentration on the skin colour, five Allen's tests were performed on 20 persons. The skin colour change was measured using a spectrophotometer by changing the blood concentration by the Allen's test. Light interaction with the skin was simulated with a Monte Carlo model, tuning the blood concentration parameter until the simulated and the measured spectra matched, yielding the relationship between the skin colour and the blood concentration. The simulation produced spectra similar to those measured. The change in the blood concentration in the simulation model and in the skin produced changes similar to the spectra. The reflectance of the skin was found to be a nonlinear function of the blood concentration. The relationship found between skin colour and blood concentration makes it possible to quantify those skin conditions expressed by blood volume better than plain colour. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsu Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Methods Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Results Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2% were tested of which 21,861 (92.6% were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p Conclusion Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  8. Skin testing only with penicillin G in children with a history of penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Matthieu; Paradis, Louis; Bégin, Philippe; Paradis, Jean; Des Roches, Anne

    2014-07-01

    The absence of commercially available penicilloyl-polylysine (PPL) for most of the last decade severely hampered the practice of penicillin allergy evaluation because skin testing without PPL is reported to have a poor negative predictive value (NPV). To determine the safety and NPV of skin testing without PPL using only penicillin G followed by a 3-dose graded challenge to the incriminated penicillin in children with a history of penicillin allergy. Patients evaluated for a history of penicillin allergy at the CHU Sainte-Justine Allergy Clinic between December 2006 and December 2009 were skin tested only with penicillin G and underwent a 3-dose graded challenge to the culprit penicillin if the skin test result was negative. Among 563 patients skin tested to penicillin G, 185 (33%) had a positive skin test result. These patients had a shorter interval between the initial reaction and skin testing compared with patients with a negative skin test result (P = .03). A total of 375 of 378 patients (99%) with a negative skin test result were challenged and 18 (4.8%) reacted, translating into a NPV of 95.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.5%-97.1%). Three of 17 patients with a history of anaphylaxis and a negative skin test result reacted to challenge (NPV, 82.4%; 95% CI, 59.0-93.8%). All challenge reactions were mild and resolved promptly with treatment. Among children with a history of penicillin allergy, skin testing only with penicillin G followed by a 3-dose graded challenge to the incriminated penicillin is safe and yields a good NPV. This approach could be useful when PPL is unavailable. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Reisinger, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Ashikaga, Takao; Barroso, Joao; Elcombe, Cliff; Gellatly, Nicola; Galbiati, Valentina; Gibbs, Susan; Groux, Hervé; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Donald; Kern, Petra; Klaric, Martina; Kolle, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitisation potency prediction. The results of the first phase - systematic evaluation of 16 test methods -...

  10. Skin models for the testing of transdermal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eman Abd,1 Shereen A Yousef,1 Michael N Pastore,2 Krishna Telaprolu,1 Yousuf H Mohammed,1 Sarika Namjoshi,1 Jeffrey E Grice,1 Michael S Roberts1,2 1Translational Research Institute, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 2School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia Abstract: The assessment of percutaneous permeation of molecules is a key step in the evaluation of dermal or transdermal delivery systems. If the drugs are intended for delivery to humans, the most appropriate setting in which to do the assessment is the in vivo human. However, this may not be possible for ethical, practical, or economic reasons, particularly in the early phases of development. It is thus necessary to find alternative methods using accessible and reproducible surrogates for in vivo human skin. A range of models has been developed, including ex vivo human skin, usually obtained from cadavers or plastic surgery patients, ex vivo animal skin, and artificial or reconstructed skin models. Increasingly, largely driven by regulatory authorities and industry, there is a focus on developing standardized techniques and protocols. With this comes the need to demonstrate that the surrogate models produce results that correlate with those from in vivo human studies and that they can be used to show bioequivalence of different topical products. This review discusses the alternative skin models that have been developed as surrogates for normal and diseased skin and examines the concepts of using model systems for in vitro–in vivo correlation and the demonstration of bioequivalence. Keywords: percutaneous permeation, dermal delivery, transdermal, bioequivalence, ex vivo skin models, reconstructed skin

  11. Duration of postoperative immunosuppression assessed by repeated delayed type hypersensitivity skin tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J H; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Moesgaard, F

    1992-01-01

    The duration of postoperative impairment in cell-mediated immunity was assessed by repeated skin testing with seven delayed type common antigens in 15 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery compared to a similar testing regimen in 10 healthy volunteers. All were skin tested four times....... In contrast, the skin test area in the volunteers increased from test to test (p less than 0.001) during the study, confirming a previous finding of a vaccination effect. These results suggest that the postoperative immunosuppression is maintained for about 6-9 days....

  12. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  13. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Simon C.; Maas, Wilfred J. M.; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract   Objectives: To determine the effect of skin thickness on the percutaneous penetration and distribution of test compounds with varying physicochemical properties using in vitro systems. Studies were carried out in accordance with OECD guidelines on skin absorption tests. Methods: Percut...

  14. Tuberculin skin test reactions by time of reading among Dutch travellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobelens, F.; van Deutekom, H.; Draayer-Jansen, I.; Schepp-Beelen, A.; van Gerven, P.; Mensen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Five travel and TB control clinics in The Netherlands. To assess the variation of skin test reactions between different days of reading. Cohort study of non-BCG-vaccinated travellers. Mantoux skin test data were analysed for associations between time interval between administration and reading and

  15. Insertion Testing of Polyethylene Glycol Microneedle Array into Cultured Human Skin with Biaxial Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hiroto; Miyano, Takaya; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki

    Aiming at the practical use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microneedles for transdermal drug delivery system (DDS), a testing apparatus for their insertion into cultured human skin has been developed. To simulate the variety of conditions of human skin, biaxial tension can be applied to the cultured human skin. An adopted testing scheme to apply and control the biaxial tension is similar to the deep-draw forming technique. An attention was also paid to the short-time setup of small, thin and wet cultured skin. One dimensional array with four needles was inserted and influence of tension was discussed. It was found that tension, deflection of skin during insertion and original curvature of skin are the important parameters for microneedles array design.

  16. Role of skin prick test in allergic disorders: A prospective study in Kashmiri population in light of review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohi Rasool

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin prick test (SPT is the most effective diagnostic test to detect IgE mediated type I allergic reactions like allergic rhinitis, atopic asthma, acute urticaria, food allergy etc. SPTs are done to know allergic sensitivity and applied for devising immunotherapy as the therapeutic modality. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the department of Immunology and Molecular medicine at SKIMS. A total of 400 patients suffering from allergic rhinitis, asthma and urticaria were recruited in this study. SPT was performed with panel of allergens including house dust mite, pollens, fungi, dusts, cockroach, sheep wool and dog epithelia. Allergen immunotherapy was given to allergic rhinitis and asthmatic patients as therapeutic modality. Results: In our study, age of patients ranged from 6 to 65 years. Majority of patients were in the age group of 20-30 years (72% with Male to female ratio of 1:1.5. Of the 400 patients, 248 (62% had urticaria, 108 (27% patients had allergic rhinitis and 44 (11% patients had asthma. SPT reaction was positive in 38 (86.4% with allergic asthma, 74 (68.5% patients with allergic rhinitis and 4 (1.6% patient with urticaria, respectively. Allergen immunotherapy was effective in 58% patients with allergic rhinitis and 42% allergic asthma. Conclusion: Identifiable aeroallergen could be detected in 86.4% allergic asthma and 68.5% allergic rhinitis patients by SPT alone. Pollens were the most prevalent causative allergen. There was significant relief in the severity of symptoms, medication intake with the help of allergen immunotherapy.

  17. Evaluation of IgE Antibodies to Omalizumab (Xolair®) and Their Potential Correlation to Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dana L; Nakamura, Gerald R; Lowman, Henry B; Fischer, Saloumeh Kadkhodayan

    2016-01-01

    Omalizumab (Xolair®) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to human immunoglobulin E (IgE). Omalizumab is used to treat IgE-mediated diseases such as chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and moderate to severe allergic asthma. In pre-marketing clinical trials in patients with asthma, anaphylaxis was reported in 3 of 3,507 (0.1%) patients. In post-marketing spontaneous reports, the frequency of anaphylaxis attributed to omalizumab use was estimated to be at least 0.2% of patients based on an estimated exposure of about 57,300 patients from June 2003 through December 2006. To better understand the risk of anaphylaxis in patients with allergic asthma receiving omalizumab, a post-marketing pharmacosurveillance study was initiated in 2009. As part of this study, an assay was developed to detect antibodies of IgE isotype to omalizumab. Serum samples from patients in the study were evaluated using this assay. Our results indicated that there was no observable correlation between either anaphylaxis or skin test reactivity and the presence of antibodies of IgE isotype to omalizumab. Here, we discuss the development of this assay as well as the results of the immunogenicity assessment.

  18. Allergy to insect stings. IV. Diagnosis by radioallergosorbent test (R.A.S.T.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobotka, A.K.; Adkinson, N.F. Jr.; Valentine, M.D.; Lichtenstein, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Radioallergosorbent tests (RAST(s)) have been developed and assessed for the diagnosis of insect hypersensitivity by using a purified allergen from honeybee venom, phospholipase A, and crude yellow jacket venom. Sera from 193 patients positive both by history and skin test to one of these insects were compared with various groups of control sera. Eighty percent of sera from skin test-positive patients were RAST positive; positive RAST were found in 16% of sera tested from skin test-negative patients. A highly positive RAST correlates well with a positive skin test and clinical sensitivity, but serum IgE is not measurable in many patients with mast cell or basophil bound antibody. Since biologically important reactions of antigen with IgE require that the antibody be cell bound, skin testing would be preferred to RAST if one were limited to a single test for the diagnosis of insect allergy

  19. Prevalence of IgE sensitization in Danish children with suspected asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Petersen, Benjamin; Høst, Arne; Larsen, Kirsten Toksvig

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to estimate the prevalence of IgE sensitization in Danish children with suspected asthma and to characterize the pattern of sensitization. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional study including 1744 children from 0 to 15 yr suspected of asthma who were...... referred to pediatric outpatient clinics in the region of southern Denmark from 2003 to 2005. The children were subjected to an extensive questionnaire-based interview, clinical examination, and both skin prick testing (SPT) and IgE measurements for 17 allergens. RESULTS: Asthma was confirmed in 1024...... of the 1744 children. Among the children in whom the asthma diagnosis was confirmed, sensitization to one or more of the 17 allergens tested was found in 67.5% by either SPT or s-IgE ≥ class 2. Sensitization to any food allergen was found in 31.1%, to any outdoor allergen in 36.2%, and to any indoor allergen...

  20. IgE - the main player of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekman, Henrike C H; Eiwegger, Thomas; Upton, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy is a growing problem worldwide, presently affecting 2-4% of adults and 5-8% of young children. IgE is a key player in food allergy. Consequently huge efforts have been made to develop tests to detect either the presence of IgE molecules, their allergen binding sites...... or their functionality, in order to provide information regarding the patient's food allergy. The ultimate goal is to develop tools that are capable of discriminating between asymptomatic sensitization and a clinically relevant food allergy, and between different allergic phenotypes in an accurate and trustworthy manner...

  1. Documented tuberculin skin testing among infliximab users following a multi-modal risk communication interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatin, Deborah; Rawson, Nigel S B; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Braun, M Miles; Martin, Carolyn K; Moreland, Larry W; Becker, Angela F; Patkar, Nivedita M; Allison, Jeroan J; Saag, Kenneth G

    2006-01-01

    Following its licensure, tuberculosis (TB) was reported as a potential adverse effect of infliximab. Subsequently, the product circular was changed to recommend tuberculin skin testing before patients received infliximab, which was reinforced by several risk communication efforts. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns and predictors of documented tuberculin skin testing in patients before and after manufacturer, federal, and academic risk communications. Patients administered infliximab were identified from 11 health plans located throughout the United States, and claims data were examined to determine whether the patients had received a tuberculin skin test. Patients were divided into three cohorts depending on the timing of their first infliximab treatment in relation to the risk communication efforts. The overall tuberculin skin testing rate doubled from 15.4% in the first cohort to 30.9% in the last cohort, while the rate of pre-infliximab treatment testing increased from 0 to 27.7% (Chi-squared test for trend, p skin testing rates were significantly higher in women, those with a diagnosis of rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis, and those with a rheumatologist as prescriber. After multivariable analysis, only rheumatologist remained significantly associated with tuberculin skin testing. Although the tuberculin skin testing rate was relatively low overall, tuberculin skin testing doubled over 30 months of ongoing risk communication efforts and under ascertainment likely occurred. We also found variation in the tuberculin skin testing rate associated with physician specialty. This study demonstrates a significant change in patient care following risk communication efforts. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard) for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years) patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6%) and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4%) in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%). ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796-0.837) versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707-0.833)). In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%), while negative IgE testing (allergies with 91.5% certitude. Conclusion. Total IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history.

  3. [The relationship between the skin allergy test and house dust mites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atambay, Metin; Aycan, Ozlem M; Yoloğlu, Saim; Karaman, Ulkü; Daldal, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    Since 1960 it has been known that house dust mites are related to allergy and that they cause pulmonary tract diseases. There are various house dust mites and among these Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961) are best known with regard to their medical importance and morphological characteristics. Skin tests are used to determine the role of mites in allergic diseases. The tests are performed by using D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae antigens. In order to study, the concordance between the skin test results and the presence of house dust mites, dust samples from the houses of 49 patients diagnosed with allergic diseases who underwent skin tests were taken to investigate the presence of mites in dust. House dust mites were determined in 23 (46.3%) of the houses. Mites were found in the houses of 15 (50.0%) of 30 patients with positive skin test results and 8 (42.0%) of 19 patients with negative skin test results. There was no significant difference between the skin test positivity and negativity in the presence of house dust mites (P>0,005). In conclusion, we thought that it was necessary to evaluate the presence of mites in the houses of people who have allergic symptoms even if they had negative skin test results.

  4. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; van den Hof, Susan; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Hesse, Adukwei; Bonsu, Christian; Koram, Kwadwo Ansah; Afutu, Felix Kwami; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2010-01-26

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2%) were tested of which 21,861 (92.6%) were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p < 0.001). BCG scar was visible in 89.3% of the children. The percentage of children with a BCG scar differed by district and by age. The percentage of children with a BCG scar decreased with increasing age in all districts, reflecting increasing BCG vaccination coverage in Ghana in the last ten years. The risk of tuberculosis infection was low in the northern savannah zones compared to the southern coastal zones. Using a cut-off of 15 mm, the prevalence of infection ranged from 0.0% to 5.4% and the Annual Risks of Tuberculosis Infection 0.0% to 0.6%. There was an increase in the proportion of infected children after the age of 7 years. Children attending low and middle-class schools had a higher risk of infection than children attending upper-class schools. Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  5. GA(2)LEN skin test study I: GA(2)LEN harmonization of skin prick testing: novel sensitization patterns for inhalant allergens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinzerling, L M; Burbach, G J; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. However, different allergen extracts and different testing procedures have been applied by European allergy centres. Thus, it has been difficult to compare results from different centres or studies across Europe...

  6. Immediate hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media: diagnostic accuracy of skin tests and intravenous provocation test with low dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesé, L; Gaouar, H; Autegarden, J-E; Alari, A; Amsler, E; Vial-Dupuy, A; Pecquet, C; Francès, C; Soria, A

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of HSR to iodinated contrast media (ICM) is challenging based on clinical history and skin tests. This study evaluates the negative predictive value (NPV) of skin tests and intravenous provocation test (IPT) with low-dose ICM in patients with suspected immediate hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to ICM. Thirty-seven patients with suspected immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ICM were included retrospectively. Skin tests and a single-blind placebo-controlled intravenous provocation test (IPT) with low-dose iodinated contrast media (ICM) were performed. Skin tests with ICM were positive in five cases (one skin prick test and five intradermal test). Thirty-six patients were challenged successfully by IPT, and only one patient had a positive challenge result, with a grade I reaction by the Ring and Messmer classification. Ten of 23 patients followed up by telephone were re-exposed to a negative tested ICM during radiologic examination; two experienced a grade I immediate reaction. For immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ICM, the NPV for skin tests and IPT with low dose was 80% (95% CI 44-97%). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fournier gangrene associated with hyper IgE syndrome (Job syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Junichi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Osanai, Hiroaki; Hori, Masako

    2008-04-01

    We report a case of a 32-year-old man with hyper IgE syndrome (Job syndrome) who developed Fournier gangrene due to infectious multiple atheromas of the scrotal skin that progressed to the right groin and thigh. The patient required surgical debridement and subsequent skin grafting. This is a rare case of Fournier gangrene associated with hyper IgE syndrome (Job syndrome). When a patient without diabetes mellitus has repeated infections and atopic-like dermatitis, Job syndrome should be considered.

  8. Skin signs in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: clinical tests and para-clinical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remvig, L; Duhn, Ph; Ullman, S

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) should be reliable. Examination for general joint hypermobility has high reliability but there is only sparse information on the reliability of skin tests, and no information on the level of normal skin extensibility...

  9. Food allergen-specific serum IgG and IgE before and after elimination diets in allergic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Anja; Bexley, Jennifer; Halliwell, Richard E W; Mueller, Ralf S

    2011-12-15

    Serum food allergen-specific antibody testing is widely offered to identify suitable ingredients for diets to diagnose adverse food reaction (AFR) in dogs with allergic skin disease. Antibody concentrations in blood samples obtained during an unsuccessful diet to help in the choice of diet changes may be influenced by the previous diet. The objective of this paper was to measure food antigen-specific IgE and IgG for the most commonly used 16 food antigens before and after an elimination diet. Levels of food-specific serum IgE and IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dogs had detectable IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb and cows' milk; and detectable IgG antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cows' milk, chicken and turkey. Of 19 dogs with complete data sets, 14 dogs showed clear improvement during diet and in 7 dogs AFR could be diagnosed by deterioration on rechallenge and subsequent improvement on refeeding the diet. Serum was obtained before and 6-8 weeks after beginning such a diet. There was no significant difference in pre- and post-diet levels for any of the individual allergens nor for the total IgE and IgG concentrations of all antigens (P=0.55 and P=0.53 respectively). In these 19 dogs in which an elimination diet was used for the diagnosis of food allergy and in which 14 were probably food allergic and 7 were proven food allergic there were no significant differences in food-specific antibodies before and after an elimination diet of 6-8 weeks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Active Skin Antenna with 3D Printing Array Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhu Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An active skin antenna with structural load-bearing and electromagnetic functions is usually installed in the structural surface of mobile vehicles such as aircrafts, warships, and high-speed train. This paper presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a novel active skin antenna which consists of an encapsulation shell, antenna skin, and RF and beam control circuits. The antenna skin which consists of the facesheet, honeycomb, array framework, and microstrip antenna elements was designed by using Bayesian optimization, in order to improve the design efficiency. An active skin antenna prototype with 32 microstrip antenna elements was fabricated by using a hybrid manufacturing method. In this method, 3D printing technology was applied to fabricate the array framework, and the different layers were bonded to form the final antenna skin by using traditional composite process. Some experimental testing was conducted, and the testing results validate the feasibility the proposed antenna skin structure. The proposed design and fabrication technique is suitable for the development of conformal load-bearing antenna or smart skin antenna installed in the structural surface of aircraft, warships, and armored vehicles.

  11. Skin signs in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: clinical tests and para-clinical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remvig, L; Duhn, Ph; Ullman, S

    2010-01-01

    extensibility. The present study aimed to assess skin signs by means of clinical and para-clinical methods. Methods: A total of 31 EDS patients and 28 healthy controls were examined blinded and in random order. Inter-examiner analysis of clinical tests for skin extensibility, consistency, scarring, and bruising...... measurements. We suggest that skin consistency is withdrawn as a diagnostic criterion. The upper level for normal skin extensibility should be 3 cm. SC and STSM are promising para-clinical methods, but their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity need to be determined....... was performed, followed by analyses of extensibility with the suction cup (SC), consistency with a soft tissue stiffness meter (STSM), and thickness with ultrasonography (US). Semi-quantitative assessment of skin extensibility in healthy controls was incorporated in the tests. Results: The clinical analyses...

  12. Cord blood IgE. I. IgE screening in 2814 newborn children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L G; Høst, A; Halken, S

    1992-01-01

    Screening of total IgE in 2814 cord blood samples was analysed by Phadebas IgE PRIST in 2 1-year birth cohorts (1983-1984 and 1985-1986) in Denmark (n = 1189 + 1625). 48.6% of the sera contained less IgE than the detection limit 0.1 kU/l. Cord blood IgE values greater than or equal to 0.5 kU/l we...

  13. Do Skin Prick Test and In Vitro Techniques Diagnose Sensitization to Peach Lipid Transfer Protein and Profilin Equally Well in Allergy to Plant Food and Pollen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goikoetxea, M J; Berroa, F; Cabrera-Freitag, P; Ferrer, M; Núñez-Córdoba, J M; Sanz, M L; Gastaminza, G

    2015-01-01

    To compare the skin prick test (SPT) with in vitro techniques (single and multiplex fluorescence enzyme-immunoassay [FEIA]) for detecting sensitization to profilin and lipid transfer protein (LTP). We retrospectively studied 181 patients with pollen and/or plant food allergy and 61 controls. SPT was performed with date palm profilin (Pho d 2) and peach LTP (Pru p 3), and specific IgE (sIgE) to Phl p 12 and Pru p 3 was analyzed using single FEIA and microarray. Fifteen of 201 patients with negative results for LTP in the SPT were sensitized to this allergen in the in vitro tests, and 18 of 41 patients with positive results for LTP in the SPT were not sensitized according to the in vitro tests. Seventeen of 186 patients with negative results for profilin in the SPT were sensitized to Phl p 12 by serum sIgE, and 30 out of 56 patients with positive results for profilin in SPT were not sensitized to Phl p 12 according to the other tests. Moderate agreement was observed between the 3 techniques studied. SPT is a sensitive technique for detecting sensitization to LTP and profilin. Its results are similar to those of in vitro techniques, especially in patients with negative SPT results for peach LTP and palm tree profilin.

  14. The conformational IgE epitope profile of soya bean allergen Gly m 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husslik, F; Nürnberg, J; Seutter von Loetzen, C; Mews, T; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Treudler, R; Simon, J-C; Randow, S; Völker, E; Reuter, A; Rösch, P; Vieths, S; Holzhauser, T; Schiller, D

    2016-11-01

    Birch pollen-related soya allergy is mediated by Gly m 4. Conformational IgE epitopes of Gly m 4 are unknown. To identify the IgE epitope profile of Gly m 4 in subjects with birch pollen-related soya allergy utilizing an epitope library presented by Gly m 4-type model proteins. Sera from patients with (n = 26) and without (n = 19) allergy to soya as determined by oral provocation tests were studied. Specific IgE (Bet v 1/Gly m 4) was determined by ImmunoCAP. A library of 59 non-allergenic Gly m 4-type model proteins harbouring individual and multiple putative epitopes for IgE was tested in IgE binding assays. Primary, secondary and tertiary protein structures were assessed by mass spectrometry, circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All subjects were sensitized to Gly m 4 and Bet v 1. Allergen-specific serum IgE levels ranged from 0.94 to > 100 kU A /L. The avidities of serum IgE were 5.06 ng (allergic) and 1.8 ng (tolerant) as determined by EC 50 for IgE binding to Gly m 4. 96% (46/48) of the protein variants bound IgE. Model proteins had Gly m 4-type conformation and individual IgE binding clustered in six major surface areas. Gly m 4-specific IgE binding could be inhibited to up to 80% by model proteins harbouring individual IgE binding sites in an epitope-wise equimolar fashion. Receiver operating curve analysis revealed an area under fitted curve of up to 0.88 for model proteins and 0.66 for Gly m 4. Serum levels and avidity of Gly m 4-specific IgE do not correlate with clinical reactivity to soya. Six IgE-binding areas, represented by 23 amino acids, account for more than 80% of total IgE binding capacity of Gly m 4. Model proteins may be used for epitope-resolved diagnosis to differentiate birch-soya allergy from clinical tolerance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Phthalate treatment does not influence levels of IgE or Th2 cytokines in B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butala, John H.; David, Raymond M.; Gans, Gerhard; McKee, Richard H.; Guo, Tai L.; Peachee, Vanessa L.; White, Kimber L.

    2004-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is mediated, in part, by the immunoregulatory cytokines interleukins 4 and 13 (IL-4 and IL-13). These cytokines stimulate IgE synthesis that in turn is associated with airway hyper-responsiveness. Compounds that stimulate IgE synthesis and elicit bronchial reactivity are generally considered to be respiratory sensitizers. Recently, it has been hypothesized that exposure to phthalates may contribute to childhood asthma. To address this question, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was tested using a protocol adapted from work by Dearman that involves topical application (and challenge) of test substances to mice followed by measurements of total serum IgE. In addition, auricular lymph nodes were harvested for measurement of IL-4 and IL-13 proteins and their corresponding messenger RNAs. Because skin absorption of high molecular weight phthalates is limited, liver weight increase, a measure of peroxisomal proliferation, was monitored to assure that internal dosing had been achieved. ELISA and RNAse protection assays demonstrated that DEHP treatment did not significantly affect IgE, IL-4, or IL-13 levels. Similarly, IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA levels were not elevated. In contrast, all of these were significantly elevated by trimellitic anhydride (TMA), a respiratory sensitizer used as the positive control in this assay. Liver weights were significantly elevated by DEHP, providing evidence of sufficient percutaneous absorption to induce physiological responses. To extend these observations, three other commercial phthalate ester plasticizers, di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), di-isohexyl phthalate (DIHP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), were assessed using the same protocol. As above, ELISA and RNAse protection assays showed that IgE, IL-4, and IL-13 proteins, and IL-4 and IL-13 mRNAs in the phthalate-treated animals were all at levels similar to that of control values. The positive control, TMA, produced large, statistically significant increases in all

  16. [Practice patterns in Mexican allergologists about skin tests with allergens during 2005-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée; Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo Guidos; Cruz, Alfredo Arias

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been practiced since over a hundred years. The exact composition of the immunotherapy concentrate, with which the patient is treated, depends partly on the results of the skin prick tests applied to the allergic patient. As such, the effectiveness of the immunotherapy depends heavily on the quality of the skin prick test. The detailed recommendations for the realization of the skin prick tests have evolved and changed over the years, leading to multiple variations in its application in Mexico. We tried to get a picture of the daily practice patterns of the members of CMICA and CoMPedIA concerning the application of skin prick tests. Aquestionnaire was sent in various occasions to all members of the Colegio Mexicano de Inmunologia Clinica y Alergia (CMICA) and of the Colegio Mexicano de Pediatras, Especialistas en Inmunologia y Alergia (CoMPedIA). The results are presented descriptively and by calculation of the frequency/percentages of intervals of replies, in the case of numerical responses. A response rate of 61 (17%) was obtained of the College members, showing consistency in some replies but a wide variation in others, for example in the time certain medication has to be suspended before the execution of the skin prick test. Comparing the replies obtained with recent recommendations in international publications, some discrepancy can be detected. In some aspects of the survey there is coincidence of the skin test practices among the participants; however, in other items there is an important variation.

  17. Multi-chamber microfluidic platform for high-precision skin permeation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, M; Dancik, Y; Sriram, G; Wu, B; Teo, Y L; Feng, Z; Bigliardi-Qi, M; Wu, R G; Wang, Z P; Bigliardi, P L

    2017-05-02

    The established in vitro tool used for testing the absorption and penetration of chemicals through skin in pharmacology, toxicology and cosmetic science is the static Franz diffusion cell. While widespread, Franz cells are relatively costly, low-throughput and results may suffer from poor reproducibility. Microfluidics has the potential to overcome these drawbacks. In this paper, we present a novel microfluidic skin permeation platform and validate it rigorously against the Franz cell by comparing the transport of 3 model chemicals of varying lipophilicity: caffeine, salicylic acid and testosterone. Permeation experiments through silicone membranes show that the chip yields higher sensitivity in permeant cumulative amounts and comparable or lower coefficients of variation. Using a skin organotypic culture, we show that the chip decreases the effect of unstirred water layers that can occur in static Franz cells. The validation reported herein sets the stage for efficient skin permeation and toxicity screening and further development of microfluidic skin-on-chip devices.

  18. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Ashikaga, Takao; Barroso, Joao; Elcombe, Cliff; Gellatly, Nicola; Galbiati, Valentina; Gibbs, Susan; Groux, Hervé; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Donald; Kern, Petra; Klaric, Martina; Kolle, Susanne; Kuehnl, Jochen; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Lindstedt, Malin; Millet, Marion; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Natsch, Andreas; Petersohn, Dirk; Pike, Ian; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schepky, Andreas; Tailhardat, Magalie; Templier, Marie; van Vliet, Erwin; Maxwell, Gavin

    2015-02-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitization potency prediction. The results of the first phase – systematic evaluation of 16 test methods – are presented here. This evaluation involved generation of data on a common set of ten substances in all methods and systematic collation of information including the level of standardisation, existing test data,potential for throughput, transferability and accessibility in cooperation with the test method developers.A workshop was held with the test method developers to review the outcome of this evaluation and to discuss the results. The evaluation informed the prioritisation of test methods for the next phase of the non-animal testing strategy development framework. Ultimately, the testing strategy – combined with bioavailability and skin metabolism data and exposure consideration – is envisaged to allow establishment of a data integration approach for skin sensitisation safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  19. Agreement between the Skin Prick Test and Specific Serum IgE for Egg White and Cow's Milk Allergens in Young Infant with Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Jong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of SPT agreed well with those of sIgE. This finding provides a rationale for using SPT, and suggests that SPT can be used along with sIgE to detect food sensitization in young infants with AD.

  20. Allergen-specific IgE testing in the diagnosis of food allergy and the event of a positive match in the bioinformatics search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2006-01-01

    Current documents on risk assessment of genetically modified foods recommend including IgE-binding tests on sera from allergic patients. However, there is no generally accepted recommendation on technical aspects of the testing procedures or on the interpretation of the results, despite that fact...

  1. Local IgE in non-allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, P; Rondón, C; Gould, H J; Barrionuevo, E; Gevaert, P; Blanca, M

    2015-05-01

    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is characterized by the presence of a nasal Th2 inflammatory response with local production of specific IgE antibodies and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) without evidence of systemic atopy. The prevalence has been shown to be up to 25% in subjects affected with rhinitis with persistence, comorbidity and evolution similar to allergic rhinitis. LAR is a consistent entity that does not evolve to allergic rhinitis with systemic atopy over time although patients have significant impairment in quality of life and increase in the severity of nasal symptoms over time. Lower airways can be also involved. The diagnosis of LAR is based mostly on demonstration of positive response to NAPT and/or local synthesis of specific IgE. Allergens involved include seasonal or perennial such as house dusts mites, pollens, animal epithelia, moulds (alternaria) and others. Basophils from peripheral blood may be activated by the involved allergens suggesting the spill over of locally synthesized specific IgE to the circulation. LAR patients will benefit from the same treatment as allergic patients using antihistamines, inhaled corticosteroids and IgE antagonists. Studies on immunotherapy are ongoing and will determine its efficacy in LAR in terms of symptoms improvement and evolution of the natural course of the disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Construction of Tests in the Cognitive and Psychomotor Domains for Skin and Scuba Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jean

    The fundamental purposes of this study were to develop mastery tests in the cognitive and psychomotor domains for skin and scuba diving and to establish validity and reliability for the tests. A table of specifications was developed for each domain, and a pilot study refined the initial test batteries into their final form. In the main study,…

  3. Skin tests in patients with hypersensitivity reaction to iodinated contrast media: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S H; Lee, S-Y; Kang, H-R; Kim, J-Y; Hahn, S; Park, C M; Chang, Y-S; Goo, J M; Cho, S-H

    2015-06-01

    Patients with a previous history of hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to iodinated contrast media (ICM) are at high risk of the development of HSR to ICM. Many studies have tried to evaluate the diagnostic potential of skin tests in this population but have not yet reached a common conclusion. We investigated the role of skin tests in patients with HSR to ICM in terms of positive rate, cross-reactivity rate, and tolerability to skin test-negative ICM according to the type of HSR. We performed literature searches of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and included studies where skin tests were performed in patients with HSR to ICM, with extractable outcomes. Outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model. Twenty-one studies were included. Pooled per-patient positive rates of skin tests were 17% (95% CI, 10-26%) in patients with immediate HSR, and up to 52% (95% CI, 31-72%) when confined to severe immediate HSR. Among patients with nonimmediate HSR, the positive rate was 26% (95% CI, 15-41%). The pooled per-patient cross-reactivity rate was higher in nonimmediate HSR (68%; 95% CI, 48-83%) than that in immediate HSR (39%; 95% CI, 29-50%). Median per-test cross-reactivity rates between pairs of ICM were 7% (IQR, 6-9%) in immediate HSR and 38% (IQR, 22-51%) in nonimmediate HSR. Pooled per-patient recurrence rates of HSR to skin test-negative ICM were 7% (95% CI, 4-14%) in immediate HSR and 35% (95% CI, 19-55%) in nonimmediate HSR. Skin tests may be helpful in diagnosing and managing patients with HSR to ICM, especially in patients with severe immediate HSR. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Monetary versus nonmonetary incentives for TB skin test reading among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malotte, C K; Hollingshead, J R; Rhodes, F

    1999-04-01

    In a prior study, we reported that monetary incentives were effective in increasing return for tuberculosis (TB) skin test reading. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of monetary versus nonmonetary incentives and a theory-based educational intervention on return for TB skin test reading in a sample of newly recruited active injection and crack cocaine users, and to determine the prevalence of TB infection in this sample. Active injection drug and/or crack cocaine users (n = 1,078), recruited using street outreach techniques, were skin tested for TB. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 experimental treatment conditions: $10 cash, grocery store coupons, bus tokens/fast-food coupons, motivational education, or usual encouragement to return. Nonmonetary incentives had a $10 value, and all incentives were provided at return for skin test reading. Ninety-five percent of those who received $10 returned for skin test reading compared to 86% of those who received grocery store coupons and 83% of those who received either bus tokens or fast-food coupons. In contrast, only 47% of those who received the educational session and only 49% of those who received usual encouragement returned for skin test reading. The prevalence of a positive tuberculin test was 21%, and was similar for crack cocaine and injection drug users. Nonmonetary and monetary incentives dramatically increased the return rate for TB skin test reading among drug users who are at high risk of TB infection. Nonmonetary incentives were somewhat less effective than monetary incentives.

  5. Thermographic assessment of skin prick tests in comparison with the routine evaluation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Rok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction :Theskin prick test is still the first and basic procedure in the diagnosis of allergic diseases. The possibility of using a sensitive thermographic method supported by the mathematical model for the assessment of skin test results will be highlighted in the studies. Aim :To compare the proposed approach with routine planimetric and thermographic methods. Material and methods: A mathematical model of allergic reaction was developedSimplifying assumptions of the IgE-mediated skin reaction is the essence of the model. Investigations were performed in a group of 40 patients. Results: Using the spatio-temporal evolution of temperature distributions, the ratios of the histamine released from mast cells to the control histamine were determined. The obtained values very well correlate with the standard evaluation of skin prick tests (correlation coefficient = 0.98. Conclusions : The proposed method of skin test evaluation presents several advantages. The continuous acquisition of data provides the monitoring of time course of the allergic response. The transport of mediator and its concentration were distinctly discriminated, which may be diagnostically useful, especially for abnormal cases. The high sensitivity of the method enables studying patients regardless of age and skin sensitivity.

  6. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  7. The effects of cyclic tensile and stress-relaxation tests on porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remache, D; Caliez, M; Gratton, M; Dos Santos, S

    2018-01-01

    When a living tissue is subjected to cyclic stretching, the stress-strain curves show a shift down with the increase in the number of cycles until stabilization. This phenomenon is referred to in the literature as a preconditioning and is performed to obtain repeatable and predictable measurements. Preconditioning has been routinely performed in skin tissue tests; however, its effects on the mechanical properties of the material such as viscoelastic response, tangent modulus, sensitivity to strain rate, the stress relaxation rate, etc….remain unclear. In addition, various physical interpretations of this phenomenon have been proposed and there is no general agreement on its origin at the microscopic or mesoscopic scales. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the cyclical stretching and the stress-relaxation tests on the mechanical properties of the porcine skin. Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests at large and constant strain were performed on different skin samples. The change in the reaction force, and skin's tangent modulus as a function of the number of cycles, as well as the strain rate effect on the mechanical behavior of skin samples after cycling were investigated. Stress-relaxation tests were also performed on skin samples. The change in the reaction force as a function of relaxation time and the strain rate effect on the mechanical behavior of skin samples after the stress-relaxation were investigated. The mechanical behavior of a skin sample under stress-relaxation test was modeled using a combination of hyperelasticity and viscoelasticity. Overall, the results showed that the mechanical behavior of the skin was strongly influenced by cycling and stress relaxation tests. Indeed, it was observed that the skin's resistance decreased by about half for two hours of cycling; the tangent modulus degraded by nearly 30% and skin samples became insensitive to the strain rates and accumulated progressively an inelastic deformation over time during

  8. Maxisorp RAST. A sensitive method for detection of antigen-specific human IgE in culture fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Pedersen, M F; Malling, H J

    1989-01-01

    For determination of allergen-specific IgE in cell culture supernatants and other highly diluted IgE preparations a radioallergosorbent test (RAST) based on high adsorption polystyrene test tubes has been developed ("Maxisorp RAST"). Cladosporium herbarum extract was used as a model allergen...

  9. [Assessment of hypersensitivity to honey-bee venom in beekeepers by skin tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Ángeles, Martín; Núñez-Velázquez, Marco; Marín-Martínez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Beekeepers are exposed to frequent honey-bee stings, and have the risk to develop hypersensitivity to bee venom, but long-term exposure can induce immune tolerance in them. Up to 30% of beekeepers show positive skin tests with honey-bee venom. The prevalence of systemic reactions to bee stings in beekeepers is from 14% to 42%. To know the prevalence of hypersensitivity to honeybee venom in Mexican beekeepers and non-beekeepers by the use of skin tests. A group of 139 beekeepers and a group of 60 non-beekeeper volunteers had a history and physical related to age, sex, family and personal atopic history and time of exposure to bee stings. Both groups received intradermal skin tests with honey-bee venom, 0.1 mcg/mL and 1 mcg/mL, and histamine sulphate 0.1 mg/mL and Evans solution as controls. The skin tests results of both groups were compared by chi-squared test. Of the group of beekeepers, 116 were men (83%) and 23 women, average age was 39.3 years, had atopic family history 28% and personal atopy 13%, average time of exposure to bee stings was 10.9 years, skin tests with honey-bee venom were positive in 16.5% and 11% at 1 mcg/mL and 0.1 mcg/mL, respectively. In the non-beekeepers group venom skin tests were positive in 13.3% and 6.7% at 1 mcg/mL and 0.1 mcg/mL. We did not find significant differences between the two venom concentrations tested in both groups, neither in the number of positive skin tests between the two groups. We found hypersensivity to honey-bee venom slightly higher in the beekeepers than in the group apparently not exposed. Both honey-bee venom concentrations used did not show difference in the results of the skin tests. The similarity of skin tests positivity between both groups could be explained by immune tolerance due to continued exposure of beekeepers.

  10. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, Astrid A.; Usta, Mustafa; Krul, Cyrille A.M.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air–liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. -- Highlights: ► We use human skin obtained from surgery for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals. ► We use the comet assay as parameter for genotoxicity in ex vivo human skin. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to predict in vivo genotoxins are determined. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 89%, 90% and 90%, respectively. ► The method

  11. Development, validation and testing of a skin sampling method for assessment of metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Behnaz; Midander, Klara; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli

    2017-07-01

    Nickel, cobalt and chromium are frequent skin sensitizers. Skin exposure results in eczema in sensitized individuals, the risk being related to the skin dose. To develop a self-sampling method for quantification of skin exposure to metals, to validate the method, and to assess its feasibility. Defined metal doses (0.01-5 µg) were applied to the fingers of 5 participants. Skin areas (2 cm 2 ) were sampled with 1% HNO 3 , either as 0.1 ml on a swab, or as 0.5 ml on a wipe. Furthermore, 17 participants performed self-sampling by swab after 2 h of leisure activity. Samples were extracted in 1% HNO 3 and analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The sampling efficiency by swab was 46%, as compared with 93% for acid wipe sampling, for all tested doses. Most metal from the skin dose was detected in the first swab (33-43%). Despite lower sampling efficiency by swab, skin doses of metals following 2 h of leisure activity without hand washing were quantified in all participants, and ranged from 0.0016 to 0.15 µg/cm 2 , from 0.00014 to -0.0020 µg/cm 2 and from 0.00048 to -0.027 µg/cm 2 for nickel, cobalt, and chromium, respectively. The results indicate a future potential of skin sampling by swab to detect and monitor metals on skin by self-sampling. This will contribute to better knowledge of metal skin exposure among dermatitis patients, workers, and the general population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reus, Astrid A.; Usta, Mustafa [TNO Triskelion BV, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE, Zeist (Netherlands); Krul, Cyrille A.M., E-mail: cyrille.krul@tno.nl [TNO, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist (Netherlands)

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air–liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. -- Highlights: ► We use human skin obtained from surgery for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals. ► We use the comet assay as parameter for genotoxicity in ex vivo human skin. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to predict in vivo genotoxins are determined. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 89%, 90% and 90%, respectively. ► The method

  13. The Interstellar Gas Experiment (IGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Don

    1991-01-01

    The Interstellar Gas Experiment (IGE) exposed thin metallic foils in order to collect neutral particles from the interstellar gas. These particles were entrapped in the foils along with precipitating magnetospheric and ambient atmospheric particles. Seven of these foils collected particles arriving from seven different directions as seen from the spacecraft for the entire duration of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission. The authors' mass spectroscopy analysis of the noble gas component of these interstellar particles detected isotopes of helium and neon. These preliminary measurements suggest that the various isotopes are occurring in approximately the expected amounts and that their distribution in direction of arrival is close to what models predict. The analysis to subtract the background fluxes of magnetospheric and atmospheric particles is still in progress. The hope of this experiment is to investigate the noble gas isotopic ratios of this interstellar sample of matter which originated outside the solar system.

  14. Conjunctivitis and Total IgE in Lacrimal Fluid: Lacrytest Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Monzón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Total tear IgE has been considered to play an important role in allergic conjunctivitis, and measurement has been considered useful for diagnosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether Lacrytest®, a new commercialised method to detect IgE levels in lacrimal fluid, could constitute a screening test for the diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis. This was a cross-sectional study. Patients with seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and a control group were included. Clinical history, ophthalmic examination, skin prick test and conjunctival provocation test were obtained. Lacrytest® was later performed in all groups. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: thirty with IgE-mediated conjunctivitis and, nine with vernal keratoconjunctivitis and fifteen controls. Lacrytest® was negative in all controls, positive in 20% of the IgE-mediated conjunctivitis group and in 88.9% of the vernal keratoconjunctivitis group. Global statistically-significant differences were found among the three groups (=.003. Sensitivity of the test in the IgE-mediated conjunctivitis group was 20%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 38.46%, while in VKC sensitivity was 88.88%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 93.75%. Our data confirm that this test is not useful for screening allergic conjunctivitis. Lacrytest®, while not providing any useful information to an allergist, could be helpful for ophthalmologists to confirm an IgE-mediated or VKC conjunctivitis.

  15. Optical coherence tomography applied to tests of skin care products in humans--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Pinto, L M C; Maldonado, E P; Raele, M P; Amaral, M M; de Freitas, A Z

    2015-02-01

    When evaluating skin care products for human skin, quantitative test methods need to be simple, precise and reliable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), provides high-resolution sectional images of translucent materials to a depth of a few millimeters, a technique usually applied to medical measurements in ophthalmology and dermatology. This study aimed to demonstrate the application of OCT as the main technique for monitoring changes in skin topography during tests of a wrinkle-reduction product in humans. We used a commercial OCT apparatus to perform clinical examinations of skin roughness in treated and non-treated sites in the periorbital region of thirty human voluntaries who were using an anti-aging product commercially available: Natura Chronos® Flavonóides de Passiflora 45+ FPS15, from Natura Cosméticos, Brazil. Measurements were performed days 0, 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. Equipment and software allowed real-time recording of skin roughness parameters and wrinkle depths. The OCT measurements have allowed the monitoring of changes in skin roughness, which have shown reduction in treated sites around 10%. The obtained depth distributions also indicate reduction in the occurrence of wrinkles deeper than 170 μm. The verified results are consistent with those typically obtained after successful treatment with modern anti-aging products. By using the OCT technique, it was possible to quantify changes in skin roughness and in the distribution of depths of skin wrinkles, with adequate sensitivity. OCT imaging allows the direct visualization of the skin topography with resolution of micrometers, a reliable and interactive tool for clinical use. Therefore, for the first time, we demonstrated the use of OCT technique to verify the efficacy of cosmetic products in real time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Ceftaroline Tested against Staphylococcus aureus from Surgical Skin and Skin Structure Infections in US Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-08-01

    Ceftaroline fosamil is a novel cephalosporin approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We evaluated the activity of ceftaroline and comparator agents tested against S. aureus isolated from surgical skin and skin structure infections (SSSI). Clinically substantial isolates (one/patient episode) from SSSI were consecutively collected from 64 medical centers in the United States over a 6-y period (2008-2013) and tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods against ceftaroline and several comparator agents. Among 794 strains tested, 50.5% were MRSA. Ceftaroline was active against all methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC]90, 0.25 mcg/mL) and nearly all MRSA (MIC90, 1 mcg/mL). Against MSSA, ceftaroline was 16-fold more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC90, 4 mcg/mL) and the highest ceftaroline MIC was 0.5 mcg/mL. Among MRSA, 97.5% and 100.0% of strains were inhibited at ≤1 and ≤2 mcg/mL of ceftaroline. Furthermore, 27.4% and 67.5% of MRSA were resistant to clindamycin and levofloxacin, respectively. Daptomycin (MIC50/90, 0.25/0.5 mcg/mL), linezolid (MIC50/90, 1/2 mcg/mL), tigecycline (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 mcg/mL) and vancomycin (MIC50/90, 1/2 mcg/mL) were also highly active against S. aureus strains. Ceftaroline exhibited potent in vitro activity against S. aureus causing SSSI in a large number of US hospitals, including MRSA. On the basis of this in vitro data, ceftaroline fosamil may represent a valuable option for treatment of surgical SSSI, and should be further evaluated as an agent for surgical prophylaxis that would cover MRSA.

  17. Effect of photoaging on skin test response to histamine independent of chronologic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Monroe J; Phillips, Sharon E; Lockey, Richard F

    2014-12-01

    Skin prick-puncture test responses to histamine on the upper back and forearms in older individuals are frequently small or absent but are often present or larger when repeated on the lower back. To determine whether photoaging or natural aging causes a smaller response to a prick-puncture skin test. Prick-puncture skin tests to histamine were performed on sun-exposed and sun-protected areas in younger (n = 61, aged 20-50 years) and older (n = 63, aged 60-87 years) adult volunteers. The skin was scored for photoaging by physical examination, and coloration was measured by a colorimeter. Large variation of photoaging occurred within age groups. Histamine wheals and flare were not different between the 2 age groups, but those adults with the greatest photoaging had smaller histamine wheals and flare on the upper back, with a trend for smaller flares on the volar aspect of the forearms and lower back. There was marked variability in response to histamine within individual adults, depending on the locale of the tests. Photoaging, but not age alone, is associated with a smaller response to histamine in sun-exposed areas. Before prick-puncture skin tests are performed, the skin should be examined for sun damage, and a sun-protected area should be selected; in vitro allergy testing may be substituted if there is no sun-protected skin area. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of genotoxicity information in the development of integrated testing strategies (ITS) for skin sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekenyan, Ovanes; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrova, Gergana; Kuseva, Chanita; Todorov, Milen; Stoeva, Stoyanka; Kotov, Stefan; Donner, E Maria

    2010-10-18

    Skin sensitization is an end point of concern for various legislation in the EU, including the seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive and Registration Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Since animal testing is a last resort for REACH or banned (from 2013 onward) for the Cosmetics Directive, the use of intelligent/integrated testing strategies (ITS) as an efficient means of gathering necessary information from alternative sources (e.g., in vitro, (Q)SARs, etc.) is gaining widespread interest. Previous studies have explored correlations between mutagenicity data and skin sensitization data as a means of exploiting information from surrogate end points. The work here compares the underlying chemical mechanisms for mutagenicity and skin sensitization in an effort to evaluate the role mutagenicity information can play as a predictor of skin sensitization potential. The Tissue Metabolism Simulator (TIMES) hybrid expert system was used to compare chemical mechanisms of both end points since it houses a comprehensive set of established structure-activity relationships for both skin sensitization and mutagenicity. The evaluation demonstrated that there is a great deal of overlap between skin sensitization and mutagenicity structural alerts and their underlying chemical mechanisms. The similarities and differences in chemical mechanisms are discussed in light of available experimental data. A number of new alerts for mutagenicity were also postulated for inclusion into TIMES. The results presented show that mutagenicity information can provide useful insights on skin sensitization potential as part of an ITS and should be considered prior to any in vivo skin sensitization testing being initiated.

  19. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, P.-J.; Burbach, G.; Heinzerling, L. M.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Demoly, P.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gramiccioni, C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Bousquet, J.; Zuberbier, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient

  20. Similar localization of conformational IgE epitopes on the house dust mite allergens Der p 5 and Der p 21 despite limited IgE cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curin, M; Garmatiuk, T; Resch-Marat, Y; Chen, K W; Hofer, G; Fauland, K; Keller, W; Hemmer, W; Vrtala, S; Focke-Tejkl, M; Valenta, R

    2018-01-10

    Due to high IgE recognition frequency and high allergenic activity, Der p 5 and Der p 21 are clinically important house dust mite (HDM) allergens. The objective of this study was to characterize the immunodominant IgE epitopes of Der p 5 and Der p 21 responsible for their high allergenic activity. A panel of 12 overlapping peptides spanning the Der p 5 and Der p 21 sequence were synthesized to search for sequential IgE epitopes by direct testing for allergic patients' IgE reactivity. Peptide-specific antibodies raised in rabbits were used in inhibition studies for localizing conformational IgE epitopes which were visualized on the surfaces of the allergen structures by molecular modelling. IgE cross-reactivity between the allergens was investigated by IgE inhibition studies. Immunodominant IgE epitopes defined by allergic patients' IgE on Der p 5 and Der p 21 were primarily of the conformational, discontinuous type including N- and C-terminal portions of the protein. They could be located on each allergen on one area with similar localization, but despite similar structure of the allergens, no relevant IgE cross-reactivity could be detected. Our study shows that Der p 5 and Der p 21 contain a major conformational IgE epitope-containing area located on similar portions of their structure, but they lack relevant IgE cross-reactivity. These data are important for the development of modern allergy vaccines based on defined molecules for allergen-specific immunotherapy of HDM allergy. © 2018 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Differential skin test reactivity to pollens in pollen food allergy syndrome versus allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Von; Scott, David R; Chin, William K; Wineinger, Nathan E; Kelso, John M; White, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), also called oral allergy syndrome, is a form of food allergy in which uncooked foods cause allergic symptoms generally limited to the oral mucosa. It occurs in a subset of patients with pollen allergy, although not all patients have prominent rhinitis symptoms. PFAS is related to antigenic similarity between the pollen and food allergen. The size of skin test reactions in a group of subjects with pollen sensitivity with PFAS was compared with a group of subjects who were pollen sensitive and without PFAS. Self-reported rhinitis symptoms between the two groups were compared to identify if symptom severity differed. Twenty subjects with PFAS and 20 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis without PFAS were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent standard skin-prick testing to a panel of common allergens, including select fresh fruits and vegetables. The subjects completed a Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire as part of their clinical evaluation. The subjects with PFAS and those without PFAS were compared statistically. The subjects with PFAS had significantly larger-sized skin-prick test results specific to pollens (p allergic rhinitis and PFAS reported milder nasal symptoms in relation to pollen skin test result size when compared with allergic rhinitis controls without PFAS. Our study outlined basic differences between two seemingly similar patient groups with a particularly striking discordance between skin test result sizes and rhinitis symptoms. This discordance should be explored further to increase mechanistic understanding of allergen cross-reactivity in PFAS.

  2. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    to most allergens tested, statistically significant; however, only for mugwort and Alternaria iridis. Among subjects, who were sensitized to only one allergen, we found significantly fewer individuals with reactions to D. pteronyssinus and mugwort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic sensitization...

  3. In vitro and in vivo characterization of hazelnut skin prick test extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Hefle, Susan L.; van Ree, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    RATIONALE: Hazelnut allergy ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. Clinical symptoms range from the oral allergy syndrome to life threatening anaphylaxis. Diagnosis of hazelnut allergy partially relies on in vivo testing by means of skin prick testing (SPT). The aim of this study

  4. In vitro skin absorption tests of three types of parabens using a Franz diffusion cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Eun; Kim, Sungkyoon; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the permeation of paraben derivatives - methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP) - in hairless mouse full skin and human cadaver epidermis using a Franz diffusion cell method, which is proposed as a reliable alternative method to an skin absorption test. Parabens, esterified hydroxybenzoic acid compounds, are widely used as preservatives in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. The skin permeation rate showed dose dependency, and the hairless mouse full skin showed a higher flux value than human cadaver epidermis. Among the permeability coefficient (K p ) values of three parabens, MP showed a higher K p value than PP or BP. Hence, according to the definitions of Marzulli et al., parabens would be classified as "moderate" penetrants.

  5. Tests for sensitisation in occupational medicine practice - the soy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective_ To determine the prevalence of sensitisation to soy bean measured by specific IgE and skin prick tests. (SPTs) and to examine the association between evidence of sensitisation to soy bean allergens and symptoms of allergic disease. Design. Cross-sectional study. Questionnaire survey. A venous blood sample ...

  6. GA(2)LEN skin test study II: clinical relevance of inhalant allergen sensitizations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbach, G J; Heinzerling, L M; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance was ...... the clinical relevance of positive skin prick tests and calls for further studies, which may, ultimately, help increase the positive predictive value of allergy testing.......BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance...... was used to determine the clinical relevance of sensitizations against the 18 most frequent inhalant allergens in Europe. The study population consisted of patients referred to one of the 17 allergy centres in 14 European countries (n = 3034, median age = 33 years). The aim of the study was to assess...

  7. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Undetected by Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. T.; Williams, A. J.; Brown, J. R.; Newton, S. M.; Šimšová, Marcela; Nicol, M. P.; Šebo, Peter; Levin, M.; Wilkinson, R. J.; Wilkinson, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 173, - (2006), s. 1038-1042 ISSN 1073-449X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020406 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : adenylate cyclase * diagnostic tests and procedures * mycobacterium tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.091, year: 2006

  8. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. A simple in chemico method for testing skin sensitizing potential of chemicals using small endogenous molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Mahesh Raj; Shakya, Rajina; Kang, Mi Jeong; Jeong, Tae Cheon

    2018-06-01

    Among many of the validated methods for testing skin sensitization, direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) employs no cells or animals. Although no immune cells are involved in this assay, it reliably predicts the skin sensitization potential of a chemical in chemico. Herein, a new method was developed using endogenous small-molecular-weight compounds, cysteamine and glutathione, rather than synthetic peptides, to differentiate skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers with an accuracy as high as DPRA. The percent depletion of cysteamine and glutathione by test chemicals was measured by an HPLC equipped with a PDA detector. To detect small-size molecules, such as cysteamine and glutathione, a derivatization by 4-(4-dimethylaminophenylazo) benzenesulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl) was employed prior to the HPLC analysis. Following test method optimization, a cut-off criterion of 7.14% depletion was applied to differentiate skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers in combination of the ratio of 1:25 for cysteamine:test chemical with 1:50 for glutathione:test chemical for the best predictivity among various single or combination conditions. Although overlapping HPLC peaks could not be fully resolved for some test chemicals, high levels of sensitivity (100.0%), specificity (81.8%), and accuracy (93.3%) were obtained for 30 chemicals tested, which were comparable or better than those achieved with DPRA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of specific IgE in pericardial and cerebrospinal fluids in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lara; Astengo, Benedicta; Palmiere, Cristian

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize total and specific IgE distribution in postmortem serum as well as pericardial and cerebrospinal fluid samples and evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of total and specific IgE determination in pericardial and cerebrospinal fluids in the forensic setting. Three groups were investigated (non-allergic deaths in non-atopic individuals, fatal allergic anaphylaxis deaths and non-allergic deaths in individuals without medical records). In the first group (non-allergic deaths in non-atopic individuals), total IgE concentrations in postmortem serum from femoral blood, pericardial and cerebrospinal fluids were lower than 40, 32 and 11kU/l, respectively. No specific IgE were identified in any of the sampled fluids. In the second group (fatal allergic anaphylaxis deaths), total IgE concentrations in postmortem serum from femoral blood ranged from 139kU/l to 818kU/l, in pericardial fluid from 89kU/l to 622kU/l and in cerebrospinal fluid from 4kU/l to 11kU/l. A positive Phadiatop ® test and specific IgE antibodies >0.35kU/l were found exclusively in postmortem serum from femoral blood and pericardial fluid. In the third group (non-allergic deaths in individuals without medical records, possibly including atopic individuals), total IgE concentrations ranged from 42kU/l to 516kU/l in postmortem serum from femoral blood, from 34kU/l to 417kU/l in pericardial fluid and from 3kU/l to 12kU/l in cerebrospinal fluid. A positive Phadiatop ® test and specific IgE antibodies >0.35kU/l were found exclusively in postmortem serum from femoral blood and pericardial fluid. These results seem to suggest that total and specific IgE may be measured in postmortem serum from femoral blood and pericardial fluid to estimate total and specific IgE titers at the time of death. Conversely, cerebrospinal fluid total and specific IgE measurement in suspected IgE mediated fatal anaphylaxis cases is of no value for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  11. Quantitative in vitro and in vivo models to assess human IgE B cell receptor crosslinking by IgE and EMPD IgE targeting antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigl, Benjamin; Salhat, Nina; Parth, Michela; Pankevych, Halyna; Mairhofer, Andreas; Bartl, Stefan; Smrzka, Oskar W

    2017-10-01

    Targeting plasma IgE by therapeutic mABs like Omalizumab (Xolair ® ) is current clinical practice for severe allergic conditions or other IgE related diseases like chronic urticaria. As an alternative to soluble IgE targeting, IgE supply can be lowered by targeting the Extracellular Membrane Proximal Domain (EMPD) of the IgE B cell receptor (BCR) present on IgE switched B cells. This ultimately leads to apoptosis of these cells upon IgE BCR crosslinking. Since tools to selectively assess the efficacy of IgE BCR crosslinking by IgE targeting antibodies are limited, a readily quantifiable cell model was developed that allows to specifically address IgE BCR crosslinking activity in vitro. The new cell model allowed for a direct quantitative comparison of anti-EMPD IgE therapeutic prototype antibody 47H4 with anti-IgE(Ce3) directed therapeutic antibody Omalizumab and with a newly selected anti-human EMPD IgE monoclonal antibody, designated mAB 15cl12. Furthermore, a complementing mouse model was developed that allows for in vivo validation of antibodies addressing human EMPD IgE. It carries a targetable humanized EMPD IgE sequence that has been introduced by seamless genomic replacement of the endogenous EMPD encoding sequence. The model allowed to directly compare IgE lowering activity of two anti-human EMPD IgE therapeutic antibodies in vivo. Our tools provide the means for quantitative assessment of IgE BCR crosslinking activity which is increasingly gaining attention with respect to forthcoming second generation anti-IgE clinical candidates such as Ligelizumab or other clinical candidates featuring additional effector functions such as IgE BCR crosslinking activity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance and Pain Tolerability of Current Diagnostic Allergy Skin Prick Test Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Jody R; Chelladurai, Yohalakshmi; McGready, John; Hamilton, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Allergen skin prick testing remains an essential tool for diagnosing atopic disease and guiding treatment. Sensitivity needs to be defined for newly introduced devices. Our aim was to compare the performance of 10 current allergy skin prick test devices. Single- and multiheaded skin test devices (n = 10) were applied by a single operator in a prospective randomized manner. Histamine (1 and 6 mg/mL) and control diluent were introduced at 6 randomized locations onto the upper and lower arms of healthy subjects. Wheal and flare reactions were measured independently by 2 masked technicians. Twenty-four subjects provided consent, and 768 skin tests were placed. Mean wheal diameter among devices differed from 3.0 mm (ComforTen; Hollister-Stier, Spokane, Wash) to 6.8 mm (UniTest PC; Lincoln Diagnostics, Decatur, Ill) using 1 mg/mL histamine (P Diagnostics, Decatur, Ill; and Sharp-Test; Panatrex, Placentia, Calif) using 6 mg/mL histamine (P pain score of less than 4 on a 10-point visual analog scale. Pain scores were higher among women, but this did not reach statistical significance. The Multi-Test PC and the UniTest PC had the lowest pain scores compared with the other devices. All 10 skin prick test devices displayed good analytical sensitivity and specificity; however, 3 mm cannot arbitrarily be used as a positive threshold. The use of histamine at 1 mg/mL is unacceptable for certain devices but may be preferable for the most sensitive devices. On average, there was no pain score difference between multiheaded and single-head devices. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulse testing in the presence of wellbore storage and skin effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogbe, D.O.; Brigham, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    A pulse test is conducted by creating a series of short-time pressure transients in an active (pulsing) well and recording the observed pressure response at an observation (responding) well. Using the pressure response and flow rate data, the transmissivity and storativity of the tested formation can be determined. Like any other pressure transient data, the pulse-test response is significantly influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of wellbore storage and skin effects on interference testing in general and on pulse-testing in particular, and to present the type curves and procedures for designing and analyzing pulse-test data when wellbore storage and skin effects are active at either the responding well or the pulsing well. A mathematical model for interference testing was developed by solving the diffusivity equation for radial flow of a single-phase, slightly compressible fluid in an infinitely large, homogeneous reservoir. When wellbore storage and skin effects are present in a pulse test, the observed response amplitude is attenuated and the time lag is inflated. Consequently, neglecting wellbore storage and skin effects in a pulse test causes the calculated storativity to be over-estimated and the transmissivity to be under-estimated. The error can be as high as 30%. New correlations and procedures are developed for correcting the pulse response amplitude and time lag for wellbore storage effects. Using these correlations, it is possible to correct the wellbore storage-dominated response amplitude and time lag to within 3% of their expected values without wellbore storage, and in turn to calculate the corresponding transmissivity and storativity. Worked examples are presented to illustrate how to use the new correction techniques. 45 references.

  14. A skin test survey of valley fever in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrich, B E

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of the prevalence of valley fever among 1128 residents of Tijuana, Baja California are presented. Children from primary and middle schools (n = 497) and adults from technical institutes and maquiladoras (assembly plants) were tested for reaction to both spherulin and coccidioidin during 1985-1986, and they completed a questionnaire containing 23 variables on their socio-environment. Place of residence was mapped. The population sampled is largely middle class. Discriminant analysis indicates the distribution of positive cases is not clustered, nor can it be correlated with geomorphic factors such as mesa tops, canyons, or valley bottoms.

  15. Human skin-color sexual dimorphism: a test of the sexual selection hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Lorena; Kelly, William

    2007-03-01

    Applied to skin color, the sexual selection hypothesis proposes that male preference for light-skinned females explains the presence of light skin in areas of low solar radiation. According to this proposal, in areas of high solar radiation, natural selection for dark skin overrides the universal preference of males for light females. But in areas in which natural selection ceases to act, sexual selection becomes more important, and causes human populations to become light-skinned, and females to be lighter than males. The sexual selection hypothesis proposes that human sexual dimorphism of skin color should be positively correlated with distance from the equator. We tested the prediction that sexual dimorphism should increase with increasing latitude, using adult-only data sets derived from measurements with standard reflectance spectrophotometric devices. Our analysis failed to support the prediction of a positive correlation between increasing distance from the equator and increased sexual dimorphism. We found no evidence in support of the sexual selection hypothesis. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Proof of concept testing of a positive reference material for in vivo and in vitro skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Lee, Michelle; Fukui, Chie; Watanabe, Kayo; Olsen, Daniel; Turley, Audrey; Morishita, Yuki; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Fujimaki, Hideo; Inoue, Kaoru; Yoshida, Midori; Ogawa, Kumiko; Haishima, Yuji

    2017-12-11

    In vivo and in vitro irritation testing is important for evaluating the biological safety of medical devices. Here, the performance of positive reference materials for skin irritation testing was evaluated. Four reference standards, referred to as Y-series materials, were analyzed: a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet spiked with 0 (Y-1), 1.0 (Y-2), 1.5 (Y-3), or 10 (Y-4) parts of Genapol X-080 per 100 parts of PVC by weight. Y-1, Y-2, and Y-3 did not induce skin irritation responses in an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue model, as measured by tissue viability or interleukin-1α release, or in an in vivo intracutaneous response test using rabbits. In contrast, Y-4 extracts prepared with saline or sesame oil at 37°C and 50°C clearly elicited positive irritation responses, including reduced viability (test, where substantial necrosis was observed by histopathology. The positive skin irritation responses induced in vitro under various extraction conditions, as well as those elicited in vivo, indicate that Y-4 is an effective extractable positive control material for in vivo and in vitro skin irritation tests of medical devices. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Changes in skin reactivity and associated factors in patients sensitized to house dust mites after 1 year of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jeong-Yeop; Jung, Mann-Hong; Koh, Kwang-Wook; Park, Eun-Kee; Heo, Jeong-Hoon; Choi, Gil-Soon; Kim, Hee-Kyoo

    2017-04-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) can significantly improve symptoms and reduce the need for symptomatic medication. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in skin reactivity to house dust mites (HDMs) as an immunologic response and associated factors after 1 year of immunotherapy. A total of 80 patients with allergic airway diseases who received subcutaneous SIT with HDMs from 2009 to 2014 were evaluated. The investigated parameters were basic demographic characteristics, skin reactivity and specific IgE for HDM, serum total IgE level, blood eosinophil counts, and medication score. The mean levels of skin reactivity to HDMs, blood eosinophil counts, and medication scores after 1 year were significantly reduced from baseline. In univariate comparison of the changes in skin reactivity to HDMs, age ≤30 years, HDMs only as target of immunotherapy, and high initial skin reactivity (≥2) to HDMs were significantly associated with the reduction in skin test reactivity. In multivariate analysis, high initial skin reactivity and HDMs only as target allergens were significantly associated with changes in skin reactivity to HDMs. In the receiver operating characteristic curve of the initial mean skin reactivity to HDMs for more than 50% reduction, the optimal cutoff value was 2.14. This study showed significant reductions in allergen skin reactivity to HDMs after 1 year of immunotherapy in patients sensitized to HDMs. The extent of initial allergen skin reactivity and only HDMs as target allergen were important predictive factors for changes in skin reactivity.

  18. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... scientists to develop and evaluate chemical structure--activity relationship (SAR) models to predict skin... including the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the European Union Reference...

  19. Using ELISPOT to expose false positive skin test conversion in tuberculosis contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Hill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeat tuberculin skin tests may be false positive due to boosting of waned immunity to past mycobacterial exposure. We evaluated whether an ELISPOT test could identify tuberculosis (TB contacts with boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure.We conducted tuberculin and ELISPOT tests in 1665 TB contacts: 799 were tuberculin test negative and were offered a repeat test after three months. Those with tuberculin test conversion had an ELISPOT, chest X-ray and sputum analysis if appropriate. We compared converters with non-converters, assessed the probability of each of four combinations of ELISPOT results over the two time points and estimated boosting with adjustment for ELISPOT sensitivity and specificity. 704 (72% contacts had a repeat tuberculin test; 176 (25% had test conversion, which increased with exposure to a case (p = 0.002, increasing age (p = 0.0006 and BCG scar (p = 0.06. 114 tuberculin test converters had ELISPOT results: 16(14% were recruitment positive/follow-up positive, 9 (8% positive/negative, 34 (30% negative/positive, and 55 (48% were negative/negative. There was a significant non-linear effect of age for ELISPOT results in skin test converters (p = 0.038. Estimates of boosting ranged from 32%-41% of skin test converters with increasing age. Three converters were diagnosed with TB, two had ELISPOT results: both were positive, including one at recruitment.We estimate that approximately one third of tuberculin skin test conversion in Gambian TB case contacts is due to boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether ELISPOT can reliably identify case contacts with tuberculin test conversion that would benefit most from prophylactic treatment.

  20. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  1. Increased Sensitization to Mold Allergens Measured by Intradermal Skin Testing following Hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporta, Diego; Hurst, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective . To report on changes in sensitivity to mold allergens determined by changes in intradermal skin testing reactivity, after exposure to two severe hurricanes. Methods . A random, retrospective allergy charts review divided into 2 groups of 100 patients each: Group A, patients tested between 2003 and 2010 prior to hurricanes, and Group B, patients tested in 2014 and 2015 following hurricanes. Reactivity to eighteen molds was determined by intradermal skin testing. Test results, age, and respiratory symptoms were recorded. Chi-square test determined reactivity/sensitivity differences between groups. Results . Posthurricane patients had 34.6 times more positive results ( p hurricanes ( p hurricanes ( p hurricanes. This supports climatologists' hypothesis that environmental changes resulting from hurricanes can be a health risk as reflected in increased allergic sensitivities and symptoms and has significant implications for physicians treating patients from affected areas.

  2. Leprosy diagnosis: a device for testing the thermal sensibility of skin lesions in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, H.; Stumpe, B.

    1989-01-01

    A handy device for testing the thermal sensibility of skin lesions has been developed and field tested in various centres in Africa and India. The instrument performed satisfactorily and its use made testing for thermal sensibility in the field practicable and straightforward. Analysis of the results of testing 260 persons, most of whom exhibited a few lesions that were characteristic of early leprosy, showed that the rate of diagnosis of sensory impairment of such skin lesions, and hence the diagnosis of leprosy, would be about 15-25% more if thermal sensibility testing using this device were added to the other tests of sensibility routinely carried out in the field. Regular use of the device in the field would help to bring more leprosy patients under treatment than at present. Images Fig. 5 PMID:2699276

  3. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  4. Proficiency testing of skin prick testers as part of a quality assurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Allesen-Holm, Pernille; Karved, Lisbeth Sys

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test is an important diagnostic procedure in clinical allergy but documentation of the quality is often missing. METHODS: We describe a proficiency system to evaluate staff members in relation to the international recommended reproducibility in terms of coefficient...... of variation (CV 0.85) based on blinded octuplicate histamine testing using histamine 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Fourteen trained allergy nurses participated in the proficiency testing. More than 95 % of the nurses, generated coefficient of variation...

  5. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  6. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockow, K.; Garvey, L. H.; Aberer, W.; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M.; Barbaud, A.; Bilo, M. B.; Bircher, A.; Blanca, M.; Bonadonna, B.; Campi, P.; Castro, E.; Cernadas, J. R.; Chiriac, A. M.; Demoly, P.; Grosber, M.; Gooi, J.; Lombardo, C.; Mertes, P. M.; Mosbech, H.; Nasser, S.; Pagani, M.; Ring, J.; Romano, A.; Scherer, K.; Schnyder, B.; Testi, S.; Torres, M.; Trautmann, A.; Terreehorst, I.

    2013-01-01

    Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable

  7. Self-reported tuberculosis disease and tuberculin skin testing in the New York City House Ballroom community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Suzanne M; Murrill, Chris; Sanchez, Travis; Liu, Kai-Lih; Finlayson, Teresa; Guilin, Vincent

    2008-06-01

    We sought to describe the history of tuberculosis disease and tuberculin skin testing among the New York City House Ballroom community--a social network of diverse sexual and gender identities or expressions. Members of the House Ballroom community were convenience sampled, surveyed, and tested for HIV in 2004. We identified characteristics associated with history of tuberculosis, tuberculin skin testing, and test positivity and described the timing of skin testing. Of 504 participants, 1.4% (n=7) reported a history of tuberculosis and 81.1% (n=404 of 498) had received a tuberculin skin test. Of those tested, 16 (4%) had positive results, which indicated latent infection, and 68% had received a test in the 2 years prior to the survey. Participants with health insurance were more likely and those with little education were less likely to have received a skin test. HIV-infected participants (16%) were not more likely to have received a tuberculin skin test compared with non-HIV-infected individuals. Foreign-born participants and self-identified heterosexuals and bisexuals were more likely to have had positive skin tests. Self-reported history of tuberculosis was high among the House Ballroom community. Although many community members had a recent skin test, further efforts should target services to those who are HIV infected, have low education, lack health insurance, or are foreign born.

  8. Development and characterisation of an in vitro photomicronucleus test using ex vivo human skin tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, A.A.; Meeuwen, R.N.C. van; Vogel, N. de; Maas, W.J.M.; Krul, C.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Photosafety testing is of concern for the evaluation of personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Current regulatory guidance state that photosafety should be evaluated for compounds that absorb radiation between 290 and 700 nm with relevant exposure in the skin or eyes. However, oversensitivity

  9. Skin-test reactions in chronic allergic rhinitis in Benin | Ogisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin testing is an established mode of investigation of atopic allergic conditions, to determine the allergen or allergens responsible for clinical symptoms as well as the degree of reactivity in individual cases. However over the years little has been reported on the pattern of reactions in the common condition of ...

  10. Outpatient penicillin use after negative skin testing and drug challenge in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Matthieu; Paradis, Louis; Nguyen, Mélanie; Bégin, Philippe; Paradis, Jean; Des Roches, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The practice of elective penicillin skin testing could be compromised by the fact that patients, their parents, or their physicians remain reluctant to reuse penicillin-class antibiotics (PCAs) despite a negative evaluation by an allergist. This study addresses reuse of PCAs in a pediatric population after negative penicillin skin testing and drug challenge and factors associated with its reluctance. All children evaluated for a history of penicillin allergy at the CHU Sainte-Justine Allergy Clinic between January 1998 and June 2000 with negative skin testing and drug challenge were included in the study. A telephone survey was conducted between May and October 2002 to assess the perception of the initial reaction by the parents, subsequent use of antibiotics, and antibiotic-related adverse reactions. Among the 200 children selected, parents of 170 (85%) children completed the survey. Since the allergist evaluation, 130 (76%) children had received antibiotics. PCA was used in 59 (45%) children. Parents of 24 (18%) children refused PCAs because they still feared an adverse reaction. They were more likely to have been very frightened by their child's allergic reaction than other parents whose children had used PCAs (p = 0.008). Although elective penicillin skin testing is useful and safe in the pediatric population, a significant proportion of parents still refuse PCAs even though they are needed. Identification of parents that were very frightened by their children's allergic reactions and additional reassurance could improve this situation.

  11. Dragon Skin - How It Changed Body Armor Testing in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    members of this committee who have their kids at one time or another wearing body armor in theater, either Iraq or Afghanistan. And that includes... YouTube has pictures of Dragon Skin body armor testing on the Internet and Wikipedia has posted a carefully documented description of the history of

  12. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thuy-My; Knulst, André C; Röckmann, Heike

    2014-12-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), blue-green microalgae, has high content in proteins, γ-linoleic acid and vitamins and therefore gained popularity as food supplement. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Spirulina is also an interesting alternative and sustainable protein source with the growing world population. We present a case of a 17-year-old male, who developed anaphylaxis the first time he ingested a Spirulina tablet. Skin prick test with diluted Spirulina tablet was positive. Further skin prick testing with separated ingredients (Spirulina platensis algae, silicon dioxide, inulin and magnesium stearate) was only positive for Spirulina platensis algae and negative in controls, confirming the allergy was caused by Spirulina and not by one of the additives. This case report shows that diagnosis of Spirulina allergy can safely be made by skin prick test with dilutions of the A. platensis or even more simple by skin prick test with the diluted tablet. Since Spirulina has gained popularity as food and nutritional supplement, it is important to realize the potential risk of this dietary supplement. Before Spirulina is produced and consumed on a wider scale, allergenicity risk assessment should be performed, including investigation of potential crossreactivity with well-known inhalant allergens and foods.

  13. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    a clinical characterization of skin test-positive subjects without symptoms and to ascertain the predictive values of common allergologic tests. METHODS: Asymptomatic adults with positive skin prick test results for birch (n = 15), nonatopic control subjects (n = 25), and birch pollen-allergic patients (n...... = 6) were followed through use of daily diary cards during 3 consecutive birch pollen seasons. At inclusion and at the 3-year follow-up visit, conjunctival and nasal challenges, intradermal late-phase reaction evaluation, and measurement of specific IgE were performed. RESULTS: Asymptomatic sensitized...

  14. Construction of hevein (Hev b 6.02) with reduced allergenicity for immunotherapy of latex allergy by comutation of six amino acid residues on the conformational IgE epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisola, Piia; Mikkola, Jari; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Airenne, Kari J; Laitinen, Olli H; Repo, Susanna; Pentikäinen, Olli T; Reunala, Timo; Turjanmaa, Kristiina; Johnson, Mark S; Palosuo, Timo; Kulomaa, Markku S; Alenius, Harri

    2004-02-15

    Recently we have established that IgE Abs bind to conformational epitopes in the N- and C-terminal regions of the major natural rubber latex allergen, hevein (Hev b 6.02). To identify the critical amino acid residues that interact with IgE, the hevein sequence was scanned by using site-specific mutations. Twenty-nine hevein mutants were designed and produced by a baculovirus expression system in insect cells and tested by IgE inhibition-ELISA using sera from 26 latex allergic patients. Six potential IgE-interacting residues of hevein (Arg(5), Lys(10), Glu(29), Tyr(30), His(35), and Gln(38)) were identified and characterized further in detail. Based on these six residues, two triple mutants (Hdelta3A, Hdelta3B) and hevein mutant where all six residues were mutated (Hdelta6), were designed, modeled, and produced. Structural and functional properties of these combinatory mutants were compared experimentally and in silico with those of recombinant hevein. The IgE-binding affinity of the mutants decreased by three to five orders of magnitude as compared with that of recombinant hevein. Skin prick test reactivity of the triple mutant HDelta3A was drastically reduced and that of the six-residue mutant Hdelta6 was completely abolished in all patients examined in this study. The approach presented in this paper offers tools for identification and modification of amino acid residues on conformational epitopes of allergens that interact with IgE. Hevein with a highly reduced ability to bind IgE should provide a valuable candidate molecule for immunotherapy of latex allergy and is anticipated to have a low risk of systemic side effects.

  15. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reus, Astrid A; Usta, Mustafa; Krul, Cyrille A M

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air-liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The specific IgE reactivity pattern of weed pollen-induced allergic rhinitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Demin; Lai, Xuxin; Gjesing, Birgitte; Zhong, Nanshan; Zhang, Luo; Spangfort, Michael D

    2011-05-01

    Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity towards the major mugwort allergen Art v 1 is a good indicator for Art v sensitization. Allergens from the ragweed species Amb t and Amb a possibly share common IgE-binding epitopes. The aim of this study was to investigate the reactivity pattern of IgE in Chinese patients with weed pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. Sera from 50 weed pollen-induced allergic rhinitis patients were tested for specific serum IgE reactivity against allergenic extracts of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, Art v), short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Amb a), giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida, Amb t), and single allergens of Art v 1, Art v 3, Amb a 1, and profilin. Sera from 88% of the patients demonstrated positive specific IgE reactivity to Art v, and of these 82% were positive to Art v 1. Sera from 38% of the patients showed positive specific IgE reactivity to both ragweed species Amb t and Amb a. A strong correlation was found between the specific IgE levels of Amb t and Amb a. Of the Amb a IgE-positive patients, 38% were positive for Amb a 1. Of all patient sera tested, 12% were specific IgE-positive to profilin.

  17. Antibiotic allergies in children and adults: from clinical symptoms to skin testing diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Antonino; Caubet, Jean-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to β-lactam and non-β-lactam antibiotics are commonly reported. They can be classified as immediate or nonimmediate according to the time interval between the last drug administration and their onset. Immediate reactions occur within 1 hour after the last drug administration and are manifested clinically by urticaria and/or angioedema, rhinitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylactic shock; they may be mediated by specific IgE-antibodies. Nonimmediate reactions occur more than 1 hour after the last drug administration. The most common manifestations are maculopapular exanthems; specific T lymphocytes may be involved in this type of manifestation. The diagnostic evaluation of hypersensitivity reactions to antibiotics is usually complex. The patient's history is fundamental; the allergic examination is based mainly on in vivo tests selected on the basis of the clinical features and the type of reaction, immediate or nonimmediate. Immediate reactions can be assessed by immediate-reading skin tests and, in selected cases, drug provocation tests. Nonimmediate reactions can be assessed by delayed-reading skin tests, patch tests, and drug provocation tests. However, skin tests have been well validated mainly for β-lactams but less for other classes of antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitisation: Moving closer to replacing animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Terry W; Dimitrova, Gergana; Dimitrov, Sabcho; Mekenyan, Ovanes G

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines the work of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that led to being jointly awarded the 2015 Lush Black Box Prize. The award-winning work centred on the development of 'The Adverse Outcome Pathway for Skin Sensitisation Initiated by Covalent Binding to Proteins'. This Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) has provided the mechanistic basis for the integration of skin sensitisation-related information. Recent developments in integrated approaches to testing and assessment, based on the AOP, are summarised. The impact of the AOP on regulatory policy and on the Three Rs are discussed. An overview of the next generation of the skin sensitisation AOP module in the OECD QSAR Toolbox, based on more-recent work at the Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry, is also presented. 2016 FRAME.

  19. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Rikimaru, T.; Yano, T.; Moore, K.G.; Pula, P.J.; Schofield, B.H.; Dannenberg, A.M. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a model organ-culture system for testing the toxicity of chemical substances that are topically applied to human skin. In this system, the viable keratinocytes in the full-thickness skin explants are protected by the same keratinized layer as skin remaining on the donor, and toxicity can be assessed microscopically and/or biochemically. The human skin specimens were discards from a variety of surgical procedures. They were cut into full-thickness 1.0-cm2 explants, and briefly exposed to the military vesicant sulfur mustard (SM), which was used as a model toxicant. The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis. Within the same SM dosage range, there was also a proportional decrease in 14C-leucine incorporation by the explants. Thus, the number of paranuclear vacuoles reflected decreases in protein synthesis by the injured epidermal cells. The epidermis of full-thickness untreated (control) human skin explants usually remained viable for 7 d when stored at 4 degrees C in culture medium. During storage, a relatively small number of paranuclear vacuoles developed within the epidermis, but the explants were still quite satisfactory for testing SM toxicity. Incubation (for 4 or 24 h at 36 degrees C) of such control skin explants reduced (often by 50%) the small number of paranuclear vacuoles produced during 4-7 d of storage. This reduction was probably caused by autolysis of many of the vacuolated cells. Two types of paranuclear vacuoles could be identified by both light and electron microscopy: a storage type and a toxicant type. The storage type seemed to be caused by autolysis of cell components

  20. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M.; Rikimaru, T.; Yano, T.; Moore, K.G.; Pula, P.J.; Schofield, B.H.; Dannenberg, A.M. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report describes a model organ-culture system for testing the toxicity of chemical substances that are topically applied to human skin. In this system, the viable keratinocytes in the full-thickness skin explants are protected by the same keratinized layer as skin remaining on the donor, and toxicity can be assessed microscopically and/or biochemically. The human skin specimens were discards from a variety of surgical procedures. They were cut into full-thickness 1.0-cm2 explants, and briefly exposed to the military vesicant sulfur mustard (SM), which was used as a model toxicant. The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis. Within the same SM dosage range, there was also a proportional decrease in 14C-leucine incorporation by the explants. Thus, the number of paranuclear vacuoles reflected decreases in protein synthesis by the injured epidermal cells. The epidermis of full-thickness untreated (control) human skin explants usually remained viable for 7 d when stored at 4 degrees C in culture medium. During storage, a relatively small number of paranuclear vacuoles developed within the epidermis, but the explants were still quite satisfactory for testing SM toxicity. Incubation (for 4 or 24 h at 36{degrees}C) of such control skin explants reduced (often by 50%) the small number of paranuclear vacuoles produced during 4-7 d of storage. This reduction was probably caused by autolysis of many of the vacuolated cells. Two types of paranuclear vacuoles could be identified by both light and electron microscopy: a storage type and a toxicant type. The storage type seemed to be caused by autolysis of cell components.

  1. IgE responses in mouse and man and the persistence of IgE memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Hannah J; Ramadani, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and robust recall or 'memory' responses are an essential feature of adaptive immunity. They constitute a defense against reinfection by pathogens, yet arguably do more harm than good in allergic disease. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibodies mediate the allergic reaction characterized by immediate hypersensitivity, a manifestation of IgE memory. The origin of IgE memory remains obscure, mainly due to the low proportion of IgE-expressing B cells in the total B cell population. The recent development of ultrasensitive methods for tracking these cells in vivo has overcome this obstacle, and their use has revealed unexpected pathways to IgE memory in the mouse. Here, we review these findings and consider their bearing on our understanding of IgE memory and allergic disease in man. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of autologous serum skin test and skin prick test reactivity to house dust mite in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of autologous serum skin test (ASST and skin prick testing (SPT to house dust mite (HDM in 862 CSU cases in China. Clinical features, courses and treatment responses were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive ASST was 46.3%, and patients aged 30-39 years had the highest positive rate (52.1%. Positive SPT to HDM was seen in 153 patients (17.7% with the highest positive rate (34.2% in patients aged 20 or less. Patients with positive ASST had higher urticaria activity scores (UAS (4.18±0.65 vs. 3.67±0.53 but lower positive rates of HDM (24.6% vs. 37.6%, as compared with those with negative ASST (odds ratio (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.47. Patients could be categorized into four groups based on the results of ASST and SPT to HDM and patients with positive ASST and positive SPT to HDM had the highest disease activity scores, experienced higher frequencies of angioedema, diseases duration, and required higher dosage of loratadine every month, compared with other subgroups (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CSU showed varied responses of positive ASST and varied sensitivity to HDM, Patients with positive ASST and/or positive SPT had more disease activity compared with patients with negative ASST and/or negative SPT. Further classification can be made based on the result of SPT and ASST.

  3. Extended boiling of peanut progressively reduces IgE allergenicity while retaining T cell reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, B; Bernardo, K; Eldi, P; Chegeni, N; Wiese, M; Colella, A; Kral, A; Hayball, J; Smith, W; Forsyth, K; Chataway, T

    2016-07-01

    Current peanut oral immunotherapy is hampered by frequent adverse events. It has been shown that boiling can reduce peanut allergenicity. Hypoallergenic peanut products have the potential to reduce treatment-related reactions during desensitization. To show that extended boiling (for up to 12 h) can progressively reduce peanut allergenicity while retaining T cell reactivity. Raw peanuts were boiled for half, 1, 2, 4 and 12 h in deionized water. After dehydration, boiled and raw peanuts were ground, defatted and soluble proteins extracted in PBS and cooking water (leachate) retained. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, inhibition ELISA, mass spectrometry and skin prick test were used to characterize changes to peanut allergens and human IgE reactivity. T cell responses to raw and boiled peanut extracts were determined by proliferation of CD4+/CD25+/CD134+ T cells in peanut-allergic and non-allergic individuals. Extended boiling progressively reduced peanut allergenicity through a combination of leaching of allergens into cooking water, fragmentation of allergens and denaturation of conformational epitopes. Two-hour boiling led to an eightfold reduction in IgE binding capacity of boiled peanuts as determined by inhibition ELISA, while 12-h boiling led to a 19-fold reduction. Mass spectrometry revealed an increasing number of unique allergen peptides with longer boiling times. Raw, 2- and 12-h boiled peanut extracts were equivalent in their ability to stimulate T cell activation and proliferation. Progressive reduction in peanut allergenicity with extended boiling does not affect T cell reactivity. Boiled peanuts may be a candidate for oral immunotherapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Studies on the osmophilic fungus Wallemia sebi as an allergen evaluated by skin prick test and radioallergosorbent test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T; Urisu, A; Yamada, M; Matsuda, Y; Tanaka, K; Torii, S

    1989-01-01

    Recently, Wallemia sebi, a species of osmophilic fungi, has been abundantly detected in house dust using low water activity media. In this study, allergenic activity of W. sebi was assessed by skin prick test and radioallergosorbent test (RAST) in 74 asthmatic patients ranging from 6 to 32 years of age. Aspergillus fumigatus and house dust were used for comparison. In skin prick test, W. sebi extract, A. fumigatus extract and house dust extract elicited positive reactions in 4 (5.4%), 4 (5.4%) and 51 (68.9%) patients, respectively. RAST showed positive results in 14 subjects (18.9%) for W. sebi extract, in 8 (10.8%) for A. fumigatus extract and in 59 (79.7%) for house dust extract. These results indicated that some asthmatic individuals showed immediate-type hypersensitivity to W. sebi, and which means this fungal species may be of importance to atopic diseases as a causative agent.

  5. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connell, L.J. [ed.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  6. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockow, K; Garvey, L H; Aberer, W

    2013-01-01

    .We recommend drug concentration for skin testing aiming to achieve a specificity of at least 95%. It has been possible to recommend specific drug concentration for betalactam antibiotics, perioperative drugs, heparins, platinum salts and radiocontrast media. For many other drugs, there is insufficient evidence...... to recommend appropriate drug concentration. There is urgent need for multicentre studies designed to establish and validate drug skin test concentration using standard protocols. For most drugs, sensitivity of skin testing is higher in immediate hypersensitivity compared to nonimmediate hypersensitivity.......Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable...

  7. Atopic dermatitis: immune deviation, barrier dysfunction, IgE autoreactivity and new therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masutaka Furue

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic or chronically relapsing, eczematous, severely pruritic skin disorder mostly associated with IgE elevation and skin barrier dysfunction due to decreased filaggrin expression. The lesional skin of AD exhibits Th2- and Th22-deviated immune reactions that are progressive during disease chronicity. Th2 and Th22 cytokines further deteriorate the skin barrier by inhibiting filaggrin expression. Some IgEs are reactive to self-antigens. The IgE autoreactivity may precipitate the chronicity of AD. Upon activation of the ORAI1 calcium channel, atopic epidermis releases large amounts of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, which initiates the Th2 and Th22 immune response. Th2-derived interleukin-31 and TSLP induce an itch sensation. Taken together, TSLP/Th2/Th22 pathway is a promising target for developing new therapeutics for AD. Enhancing filaggrin expression using ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor may also be an adjunctive measure to restore the disrupted barrier function specifically for AD.

  8. Immunosafety of recombinant human C1-inhibitor in hereditary angioedema: evaluation of ige antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, C Erik; Relan, Anurag; Baboeram, Aartie; Oortwijn, Beatrijs; Versteeg, Serge; van Ree, Ronald; Pijpstra, Rienk

    2013-04-01

    Recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) purified from milk of transgenic rabbits is used for the treatment of acute attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency. The objective was to investigate the risk of rhC1INH inducing IgE antibodies or eliciting anaphylactic reactions. In subjects treated with rhC1INH, we retrospectively analysed the frequency and clinical relevance of pre-exposure and potentially newly induced IgE antibodies against rabbit and other animal allergens including cow's milk by the ImmunoCAP(®) Specific IgE blood test system. 130 HAE patients and 14 healthy subjects received 300 administrations of rhC1INH, 65 subjects (47.4 %) on one occasion; 72 (52.6 %) on at least two occasions (range 2-12; median 2). Five subjects had pre-existing anti-rabbit epithelium IgE; the subject with the highest levels and a previously undisclosed rabbit allergy developed an anaphylactic reaction upon first exposure to rhC1INH, whereas the other four subjects with lower pre-existing IgE levels (Class 1-3), did not. No other anaphylactic reactions were identified in any of the subjects exposed to rhC1INH. Analysis of post-exposure samples revealed that the risk of inducing new or boosting existing IgE responses to rabbit or cow's milk allergens was negligible. The propensity of rhC1INH to induce IgE antibodies following repeated administration of rhC1INH is low. Subjects with substantially elevated anti-rabbit epithelium IgE antibodies and/or clinical allergy to rabbits may have an increased risk for an allergic reaction. No other risk factors for allergic reactions to rhC1INH have been identified.

  9. Significant improvement of eczema with skin care and food elimination in small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Gunilla; Tomicić, Sara; Böttcher, Malin Fagerås; Oldaeus, Göran; Strömberg, Leif; Fälth-magnusson, Karin

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate common methods of investigation and treatment in children younger than 2 y of age with eczema, with or without sensitization to food allergens. One hundred and twenty-three children younger than 2 y of age with eczema and suspected food allergy were included in this prospective study. The children underwent skin-prick test with cow's milk, fresh hen's egg white and wheat. Specific IgE to milk and egg white was analysed. The eczema extent and severity was estimated with SCORAD before and after treatment. Children with a positive skin-prick test were instructed to exclude that food item from their diet. All children were treated with emollients and topical steroids when needed. Sixty-two of the children were skin-prick positive to at least one of the allergens; 62% had mild, 30% moderate and 8% severe eczema at their first visit. After treatment, 90% had mild, 10% moderate and 0% severe eczema. Forty-six per cent of the children had circulating IgE antibodies to milk or egg white. Ten per cent had specific IgE but negative skin-prick test to the same allergen. This subgroup improved their eczema significantly without elimination diet. The conventional treatments for children with eczema, i.e. skin care and food elimination, are effective. The beneficial effect of skin care as the first step should not be neglected, and it may not be necessary to eliminate food allergens to relieve skin symptoms in all food-sensitized children with eczema.

  10. Galvanic skin response test: a new quantitative diagnostic method for Frey syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzemen, Gokhan; Basut, Oguz; Ozmen, Omer Afsin; Coskun, Hamdi Hakan

    2013-07-01

    Frey syndrome is one of the most common complications following parotid surgery. The current most common test for objectively diagnosing Frey syndrome is Minor starch-iodine test. This test might be insufficient because its results are not quantitative and therefore tests with quantitative results are investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of galvanic skin response (GSR) test, which measures changes in skin resistance, as a method with quantitative results for diagnosis of Frey syndrome. Thirty patients who underwent superficial parotidectomy were assessed postoperatively (mean, 24.7 ± 25.7 months; range, 6-109 months). Patients completed a symptomatic evaluation questionnaire and underwent Minor starch-iodine test and GSR. Diagnostic validity of GSR test was found to be >2.91 following analysis. Sensitivity and specificity of this value were 100% and 55%, respectively, based on symptomatic assessment. Sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 57.1%, respectively, based on Minor starch-iodine test. When compared to symptomatic evaluation of patients who underwent superficial parotidectomy, GSR test was shown to be 100% sensitive in diagnosing Frey syndrome and quantitative results of GSR test could determine severity of Frey syndrome.

  11. [Diagnostic capacity of skin prick test in egg and cow's milk allergic infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun-mei; Chen, Jing; Li, Hai-qi; Hu, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Mean diameter is the most common used parameter for wheal response assessment after skin prick test. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic capacity of mean diameter according to the outcome of oral food challenge, and to determine the cut-off points that could render food challenges unnecessary. Data of 173 children referred to the Division of Primary Child Health Care for the evaluation of suspected food allergy were prospectively studied. All children underwent skin prick test and open food challenge to the relevant food(s) in clinic. The mean wheal diameter of skin prick test was measured, and open food challenge was performed to confirm food allergy. The SPSS software package version 13.0 for windows (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for all statistical analysis. Open food challenge was taken as the gold standard for diagnosis. Diagnostic capacity of skin prick test, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, was calculated by cross-table. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was plotted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to quantify the accuracy of the parameter. For the 173 children, 271 open food challenges were performed with egg white, egg yolk and cow's milk, In which 123 were positive, 99 children were diagnosed as food allergy. Cutaneous symptoms (87.0%) were most common, followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (9.8%). The AUC of mean diameter was 0.794 for egg white, 0.804 for egg yolk and 0.904 for cow's milk. The sensitivity of skin prick test with a cut-off value of ≥ 3 mm was ranged from 71% to 87%, while the specificity was between 31% and 57%. The authors also defined food specific skin prick test mean diameters that were 100% diagnostic for allergy to egg white (≥ 8.5 mm), egg yolk (≥ 5.5 mm), cow's milk (≥ 5.5 mm). Predictive decision points for a positive outcome of food challenges can be calculated for egg and cow's milk using mean diameter. It

  12. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. 2008 FRAME.

  13. [IgE myeloma. Laboratory typing difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovone, Nora S; Fuente, María Cristina; Gastiazoro, Ana María; Alfonso, Graciela; Freitas, María Josefina

    2014-01-01

    The IgE multiple myeloma is a rare neoplasm of plasma cell accounting for 0.01% of all plasma cell dyscrasias. They are generally of more aggressive development and to date there are no more than 50 cases published in current literature. Laboratory studies are, in these cases, essential for the classification of the monoclonal component in serum and urine. The aim of this presentation is to report a patient diagnosed with IgE myeloma and to point out that the laboratory difficulties noted in these rare cases can lead to an erroneous report.

  14. Increased Sensitization to Mold Allergens Measured by Intradermal Skin Testing following Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To report on changes in sensitivity to mold allergens determined by changes in intradermal skin testing reactivity, after exposure to two severe hurricanes. Methods. A random, retrospective allergy charts review divided into 2 groups of 100 patients each: Group A, patients tested between 2003 and 2010 prior to hurricanes, and Group B, patients tested in 2014 and 2015 following hurricanes. Reactivity to eighteen molds was determined by intradermal skin testing. Test results, age, and respiratory symptoms were recorded. Chi-square test determined reactivity/sensitivity differences between groups. Results. Posthurricane patients had 34.6 times more positive results (p < 0.0001) at weaker dilutions, all tested molds were found to be more reactive, and 95% had at least one positive test versus only 62% before the hurricanes (p < 0.0001); average mold reactivity was 55% versus 16% while 17% of patients reacted to the entire panel versus none before the hurricanes (p < 0.0001). The posthurricane population was younger (p < 0.001) and included more patients with asthma or lower respiratory symptoms (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Reactivity and sensitization to mold allergens increased compared to patients before the hurricanes. This supports climatologists' hypothesis that environmental changes resulting from hurricanes can be a health risk as reflected in increased allergic sensitivities and symptoms and has significant implications for physicians treating patients from affected areas. PMID:28491100

  15. Skin testing and drug challenge outcomes in antibiotic-allergic patients with immediate-type hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhirt, Stephanie L; Fonacier, Luz S; Calixte, Rose; Davis-Lorton, Mark; Aquino, Marcella R

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation of antibiotic immediate-type hypersensitivity is intricate because of nonstandardized skin testing and challenge method variability. To determine the safety outcomes and risk factors for antibiotic challenge reactions in patients reporting a history of antibiotic immediate-type hypersensitivity. A 5-year retrospective review of patients evaluated for immediate-type antibiotic allergy was conducted. Data analyzed included patient demographics, index reaction details, and outcomes of skin testing and challenges, classified as single-step or multistep. Antibiotic hypersensitivity history was identified in 211 patients: 78% to penicillins, 10% to fluoroquinolones, 7.6% to cephalosporins, and 3.8% to carbapenems. In total, 179 patients completed the challenges (median age 67 years, range 50-76 years, 56% women), and compared with nonchallenged patients, they reported nonanaphylactic (P < .001) and remote index (P = .003) reactions. Sixteen patients (8.9%) experienced challenge reactions (5 of 28 for single-step challenge, 11 of 151 for multistep challenge), and 11 of these patients had negative skin testing results before the challenge. Challenge-reactive patients were significantly younger (P = .007), more often women (P = .036), and had additional reported antibiotic allergies (P = .005). No correlation was detected between the reported index and observed challenge reaction severities (κ = -0.05, 95% confidence interval -0.34 to 0.24). Anaphylactic rates were similar during single-step and multistep challenges (3.6% vs 3.3%). In the present population, younger women with multiple reported antibiotic allergies were at greatest risk for challenge reactions. Negative skin testing results did not exclude reactions, and index severity was not predictive of challenge outcome. The multistep and full-dose methods demonstrated a comparable reaction risk for anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  16. Skin test reactivity of allergic subjects to basidiomycetes’ crude extracts in a tropical environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E.; Nazario-Jiménez, Sylvette; López-Malpica, Fernando; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín

    2011-01-01

    Fungal allergies can be detected by the skin prick test with extracts of the organisms, but not all fungi, including the basidiomycetes, are being examined. We determined the level of sensitization to basidiomycetes in allergic subjects and compared their reactivity to commercial extracts commonly used to detect allergies. Crude spore extracts of the basidiomycetes Ganoderma applanatum, Chlorophyllum molybdites, and Pleurotus ostreatus, which are known to release numerous spores, were examine...

  17. Skin Test Reactivity to Indoor Allergens Correlates with Asthma Severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshak Emad A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increased emphasis on the role of indoor allergens in asthma. Objective To examine the spectrum of skin test reactivity (sensitization to indoor allergens and its correlation with asthma severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Asthmatic patients referred to the allergy clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH in Jeddah were studied. Measures of clinical severity were adopted from national and international asthma guidelines. The degree of sensitization was assessed by the wheal size (positive ≥ 3 mm from standard skin-prick tests for the following common indoor inhalant allergens: house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Dp] and Dermatophagoides farinae [Df], cat, and cockroach. Results Skin test results from 113 of 151 (74.8% asthmatic patients were positive for one or more allergens. The patients' ages ranged between 9 and 63 years (mean, 30 ± 13 years, and females constituted 65.5%. The predominant asthma severity level was moderate persistent (55.8%, followed by mild persistent (33.6%. The prevalences of sensitization to indoor allergens were as follows: Dp, 87% (3-25 mm [mean, 7 mm]; Df, 84% (3-20 mm [mean, 7 mm]; cat, 44% (3-15 mm [mean, 6 mm]; and cockroach, 33% (3-12 mm [mean, 4 mm]. Higher asthma severity levels were significantly correlated with the number of allergens with positive sensitization (R = 0.3, p Dp [degrees of freedom {df} = 16, p Df [df = 17, p df = 10, p df = 8, p Conclusions Immunoglobulin E-mediated skin test reactivity to indoor allergens, particularly to house dust mites, was common in asthmatic patients from Jeddah at KAUH. Increased sensitization was associated with higher levels of asthma severity, which is compatible with the literature. This emphasizes the importance of identifying sensitization to relevant indoor allergens in the clinical evaluation of asthmatic persons.

  18. A sensitive and reproducible method for the determination of subnanogram quantities of immunoglobulin E (IgE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Malling, H J; Søndergaard, I

    1986-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay for immunoglobulin E (IgE) using high adsorption polystyrene test tubes as the solid phase (the 'Maxisorp' assay) is described. The sensitivity of the method was found to be 50 pg IgE/ml and the within-assay reproducibility was 3-7%. The accuracy was estimated by means...... of a comparison between the Maxisorp assay and paper radioimmunosorbent test (PRIST) and a correlation coefficient of 0.98 (P less than 0.001) was obtained. We conclude that the Maxisorp assay is a fast and reliable assay for IgE determination in cord blood, cell culture supernatants and other highly diluted IgE...

  19. A clinical decision support system for diagnosis of Allergic Rhinitis based on intradermal skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabez Christopher, J; Khanna Nehemiah, H; Kannan, A

    2015-10-01

    Allergic Rhinitis is a universal common disease, especially in populated cities and urban areas. Diagnosis and treatment of Allergic Rhinitis will improve the quality of life of allergic patients. Though skin tests remain the gold standard test for diagnosis of allergic disorders, clinical experts are required for accurate interpretation of test outcomes. This work presents a clinical decision support system (CDSS) to assist junior clinicians in the diagnosis of Allergic Rhinitis. Intradermal Skin tests were performed on patients who had plausible allergic symptoms. Based on patient׳s history, 40 clinically relevant allergens were tested. 872 patients who had allergic symptoms were considered for this study. The rule based classification approach and the clinical test results were used to develop and validate the CDSS. Clinical relevance of the CDSS was compared with the Score for Allergic Rhinitis (SFAR). Tests were conducted for junior clinicians to assess their diagnostic capability in the absence of an expert. The class based Association rule generation approach provides a concise set of rules that is further validated by clinical experts. The interpretations of the experts are considered as the gold standard. The CDSS diagnoses the presence or absence of rhinitis with an accuracy of 88.31%. The allergy specialist and the junior clinicians prefer the rule based approach for its comprehendible knowledge model. The Clinical Decision Support Systems with rule based classification approach assists junior doctors and clinicians in the diagnosis of Allergic Rhinitis to make reliable decisions based on the reports of intradermal skin tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio improves specificity for the diagnosis of Anisakis simplex sensitization in travellers and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeda-Sangiao, N; Rodríguez-Mahillo, A I; Puente, S; Gutiérrez, M T; Moneo, I; González-Muñoz, M

    2014-10-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite responsible for human infection and is able to induce IgE-mediated reactions with several clinical manifestations. Laboratory diagnosis of Anisakis allergy is based on the detection of specific IgE using parasite whole antigen. Unfortunately, these diagnostic tools detect cross-reactivities with other nematodes and micro-organisms leading to low specificity of the diagnostic tests. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the diagnostic value of specific IgE to Anisakis for diagnosis of A. simplex-sensitization in native Spanish residents (IMM, n=766) and subjects coming from tropical and sub-tropical geographic areas (TRO, n=233). Since Ascaris is the human parasite most closely related to Anisakis, specific IgE to Ascaris was also determined to assess Anisakis cross-reaction with other nematodes and the diagnostic value of Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio for Anisakis allergy was examined. IMM and TRO groups showed similar specific IgE to Anisakis levels, while TRO had higher levels of specific IgE to Ascaris than IMM group (p=0.001). ROC curve analysis determined that an Anisakis specific IgE threshold of 0.71 kU/L yielded 93% and 82% specificities in IMM and TRO groups, respectively. A cut-off value ≥4.4 for Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio increased specificity to 95% for samples having IgE to Ascaris ≥0.35. In conclusion, the ratio of specific IgE to Anisakis and Ascaris improved remarkably the specificity and this parameter easily obtained from the commercially available system could be useful in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to A. simplex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Food allergies in children: a comparison of parental reports and skin prick test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia Metadea Aji Savitri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Food allergy is common in children and its prevalence is generally on the rise. Imprecise parental reports about reactions to particular foods can lead to unnecessary restrictions. Since children have specific growth requirements, such nutritional restrictions may have disturbing effects on children’s growth and development. Objective To compare parental reports on food reactions to skin prick test results in their children. Method Retrospective, cross sectional study using patient’s medical record data during one-year study period. Data were analyzed manually and statistically, to assess the degree of agreement (Kappa’s coefficient and significance (P. Results We collected data from 154 subjects aged 0-18 years. For every allergen assessed, parents reported more food reactions than positive skin prick test results. Allergy incidence were caused, in order, by cow’s milk and chicken (25.3%, eggs (22.1%, chocolate (20.1%, fruits (14.3%, seafood (13%, and saltwater fish (1.9%. Kappa coefficient are all poor (0.05 except for chicken (P=0.02. Conclusion Most parents tend to overestimate which food cause reactions in their children, as reactions reported were not necessarily allergenic. Therefore, every patient experiencing allergy reactions should undergo skin prick testing to confirm the possibility of allergy.

  2. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, K; Garvey, L H; Aberer, W; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; Barbaud, A; Bilo, M B; Bircher, A; Blanca, M; Bonadonna, B; Campi, P; Castro, E; Cernadas, J R; Chiriac, A M; Demoly, P; Grosber, M; Gooi, J; Lombardo, C; Mertes, P M; Mosbech, H; Nasser, S; Pagani, M; Ring, J; Romano, A; Scherer, K; Schnyder, B; Testi, S; Torres, M; Trautmann, A; Terreehorst, I

    2013-06-01

    Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable indicator of true hypersensitivity.To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirritant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Interest Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature search on skin test drug concentration in MEDLINE and EMBASE, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. Where the literature is poor, we have taken into consideration the collective experience of the group.We recommend drug concentration for skin testing aiming to achieve a specificity of at least 95%. It has been possible to recommend specific drug concentration for betalactam antibiotics, perioperative drugs, heparins, platinum salts and radiocontrast media. For many other drugs, there is insufficient evidence to recommend appropriate drug concentration. There is urgent need for multicentre studies designed to establish and validate drug skin test concentration using standard protocols. For most drugs, sensitivity of skin testing is higher in immediate hypersensitivity compared to nonimmediate hypersensitivity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  4. [A VALIDATION STUDY OF THE IMPROVED PRODUCT FOR MEASURING JAPANESE CYPRESS POLLEN-SPECIFIC IgE (THERMO SCIENTIFIC™ImmunoCAP™ImmunoCAP JAPANESE CYPRESS POLLEN-SPECIFIC IgE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Syuji; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    Japanese cypress pollen is a major causative allergen of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Japan. Although ImmunoCAP-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) reagent Japanese cypress pollen has been widely used as a diagnostic aid, its sensitivity requires enhancement. This study evaluated an improved version of this reagent. Serum samples from 61 subjects who underwent Japanese cypress pollen exposure testing in an environmental challenge chamber in Chiba University were assessed using the conventional ImmunoCAPspecific IgE Japanese cypress pollen product and the improved product. In addition, specific IgE for Cha o 1 and Cha o 2, the primary allergen components of Japanese cypress pollen, was evaluated and their reactivity to specific IgE was compared between the conventional and improved products. The antibody titer of the improved product was approximately 1.8-fold that of the conventional product. In addition, higher correlations with Cha o 1 and Cha o 2 were observed for the improved product than for the conventional product. The clinical sensitivity (≥class 2) in 56 exposure test-positive subjects was better for the improved product (80.4%) than for the conventional product (71.4%). An improvement of the ImmunoCAP-specific IgE reagent Japanese cypress pollen resulted in enhanced Japanese cypress pollen-specific IgE sensitivity. The primary reason for this appeared to be an improved Cha o 1- and Cha o 2-specific IgE detectability.

  5. Degree of skin denervation and its correlation to objective thermal sensory test in leprosy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Alves Rodrigues Júnior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an infectious disease affecting skin and peripheral nerves resulting in increased morbidity and physical deformities. Early diagnosis provides opportune treatment and reduces its complications, relying fundamentally on the demonstration of impaired sensation in suggestive cutaneous lesions. The loss of tactile sensitivity in the lesions is preceded by the loss of thermal sensitivity, stressing the importance of the thermal test in the suspicious lesions approach. The gold-standard method for the assessment of thermal sensitivity is the quantitative sensory test (QST. Morphological study may be an alternative approach to access the thin nerve fibers responsible for thermal sensitivity transduction. The few studies reported in leprosy patients pointed out a rarefaction of thin dermo-epidermal fibers in lesions, but used semi-quantitative evaluation methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work aimed to study the correlation between the degree of thermal sensitivity impairment measured by QST and the degree of denervation in leprosy skin lesions, evaluated by immunohistochemistry anti-PGP 9.5 and morphometry. Twenty-two patients were included. There were significant differences in skin thermal thresholds among lesions and contralateral skin (cold, warm, cold induced pain and heat induced pain. The mean reduction in the density of intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers in lesions was 79.5% (SD = 19.6 and 80.8% (SD = 24.9, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a good correlation between intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers deficit, but no correlation between these variables and those accounting for the degree of impairment in thermal thresholds, since the thin fibers rarefaction was homogeneously intense in all patients, regardless of the degree of sensory deficit. We believe that the homogeneously intense denervation in leprosy lesions should be objective of further investigations focused on its

  6. Brain Abscess and Keratoacanthoma Suggestive of Hyper IgE Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyla Alyasin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyper immunoglobulin-E (IgE syndrome is an autosomal immune deficiency disease. It is characterized by an increase in IgE and eosinophil count with both T-cell and B-cell malfunction. Here, we report an 8-year-old boy whose disease started with an unusual skin manifestation. When 6 months old he developed generalized red, nontender nodules and pathologic report of the skin lesion was unremarkable (inflammatory. Then he developed a painless, cold abscess. At the age of 4 years, he developed a seronegative polyarticular arthritis. Another skin biopsy was taken which was in favor of Keratoacanthoma. Laboratory workup for immune deficiency showed high eosinophil count and high level of immunoglobulin-E, due to some diagnostic criteria (NIH sores: 41 in 9-year-olds, he was suggestive of hyper IgE syndrome. At the age of 8, the patient developed an abscess in the left inguinal region. While in hospital, the patient developed generalized tonic colonic convulsion and fever. Brain computed tomography scan revealed an abscess in the right frontal lobe. Subsequently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain indicated expansion of the existing abscess to contralateral frontal lobe (left side. After evacuating the abscesses and administrating intravenous antibiotic, the patient’s condition improved dramatically and fever stopped.

  7. IgE autoantibodies and their association with the disease activity and phenotype in bullous pemphigoid: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniklidou, Ariadne Hadjikyriacou; Tighe, Patrick J; Fairclough, Lucy C; Todd, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune skin disease of blistering character. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism involves an immune attack, usually by IgG class autoantibodies, on the autoantigen BP 180/BPAg2, which is a type XVII collagen (COL17) protein acting as the adhesion molecule between the epidermis and the basement membrane of the dermis. About 40 years ago, following consistent findings of elevated total serum IgE levels in BP patients, it was hypothesized that IgE may be involved in the pathophysiology of BP. Our objective was to determine whether there is strong evidence for an association between IgE class autoantibodies and the clinical severity or phenotype of BP. Three databases were searched for relevant studies and appropriate exclusion and inclusion criteria were applied. Data was extracted and assessed in relation to the study questions concerning the clinical significance of IgE autoantibodies in BP. Nine studies found that anti-BP180 autoantibodies of IgE class are associated with increased severity of BP, whereas two studies did not find such an association. The number of studies which found an association between higher IgE autoantibody levels and the erythematous urticarial phenotype of BP (5) was equal in number to the studies which found no such association (5). In conclusion, higher serum IgE autoantibody levels are associated with more severe clinical manifestations of BP. There is insufficient evidence to support higher IgE autoantibody levels being associated with specific clinical phenotypes of BP.

  8. IgE FcɛR1β polymorphism and risk of developing chronic spontaneous urticaria: A study in an ethnic Kashmiri population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, R; Shera, I A; Nissar, S; Yousuf, Q; Shah, Z A

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic spontaneous urticaria involves interplay between the genetic and environmental factors, most of which is still poorly understood. It is well-recognized that 30-40% of chronic spontaneous urticaria is autoimmune in nature. Chronic autoimmune urticaria is caused by anti-FcɛR1β and less frequently, by anti-IgE auto antibodies that lead to mast cell and basophil activation, thereby giving rise to the release of histamine and other proinflammatory mediators. We investigated the association between SNP loci in FcɛR1β and chronic spontaneous urticaria and to see its relation with serum IgE levels in Kashmiri population. The autologous serum skin test was used as a screening test for chronic autoimmune urticaria. PCR-RFLP was used to detect the genotype of the SNP loci. Serum IgE levels were assessed by ELISA kit. No significant difference was found between the study population and control group in genotype distribution (wild and variant) among FcɛR1β loci (P value=0.06, odds ratio=0.29). The frequency of FcɛR1β (C109T) in autologous serum skin test positive chronic autoimmune urticaria patients with the CT genotype was found to be statistically non-significant when compared with the wild genotype (P=0.35). Carriers of FcɛR1β (T allele) had a more significant risk of developing CAU than those with C allele (P=0.01). In our population serum total IgE levels did not find any statistical significance with regard to ASST positive & ASST negative patients (P=0.26). There is statistically no significant association between FcɛR1β gene polymorphism and CSU in Kashmiri population; however, there is a probability of developing CSU in patients carrying FcɛR1β T allele. Furthermore, serum total IgE levels had no significant association with the development of CAU. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic analysis of IgE expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosařová, Marcela; Blažková, Hana; Havelková, Helena; Král, V.; Lipoldová, Marie

    Vol.57, Suppl.57 (2002), s. 140-140 ISSN 0108-1675. [The XXI Congress of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology EAACI /2002./. 01.06.2002-05.06.2002, Itálie] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP310/02/P141 Keywords : IgE * Alergy * Genetipization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Matowicka-Karna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis.

  11. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2014-05-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis.

  12. Aero-allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia based on 1000 intradermal skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Bettenay, S V; Tideman, L

    2000-06-01

    To determine the most relevant aero-allergens involved in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and provide information about these aero-allergens to the general practitioner. Dogs presented to the Animal Skin & Allergy Clinic with history and clinical signs of atopic dermatitis were injected intradermally with 38 different allergens and negative and positive control. Intradermal skin tests in 1000 dogs were retrospectively evaluated. One third of all patients reacted to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Allergens reacting in more than 15% of the patients were wheat (Triticum aestivum), sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum), English couch (Agropyron repens), yellow dock (Rumex crispus), Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) and peppercorn (Schimus spp). House dust mites are the most common allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and D farinae is involved most frequently. However, a number of grass, weed and tree pollens also are involved regularly.

  13. Anomalous cutaneous absorption of allergens as cause of skin prick testing adverse reactions in adult patients. Clinical and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, A; Arisi, M; Lima, G

    2015-07-01

    Paediatric age, active eczema and high number of allergens tested in poly-sensitized patients have been pinpointed as possible risk factors of systemic reactions by skin prick testing. As far as atopic eczema concerns, the higher penetration of the allergens into the skin because of the scraping or micro-injuries is an intuitive rationalization. Purpose of the present study is to provide documentary evidence that adverse reactions elicited by anomalous absorption of allergens can occur also in adult patients with apparently normal skin. Report of some exemplifying clinical and experimental observations. Measuring the inoculum volume into impaired skin and its variability in relation to the variation of the chemical-physical characteristic of the solutions used for the tests by means of a method of direct assay based on the use of a gamma-camera. Localized impairments of the skin permeability can cause a significant increase in inoculum volume by prick-test. Critical amounts of allergens can be introduced into the skin because of the possibility of direct absorption, also without pricking, of allergy diagnostic solutions. The greater water content of the solutions used for prick-testing can significantly increase the inoculum volume. This study adds clinical and experimental evidences that localized impairments of permeability can occur in adult patients with apparently normal skin. Special precautions should be taken when a change of the drops' normal shape and cohesion is seen, because allergy prick-testing in such areas is potentially associated with increased risk of large local or systemic reactions.

  14. JSI-124 inhibits IgE production in an IgE B cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lulu; Bi, Jiacheng; Yan, Dehong; Ye, Xiufeng; Zheng, Mingxing; Yu, Guang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-01-29

    IgE is a key effector molecule in atopic diseases; however, the regulation mechanisms of IgE production in IgE B cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that JSI-124 (cucurbitacin I), a selective STAT3 inhibitor, selectively inhibits production of IgE by a human IgE B cell line, CRL-8033 cells, while does not affect the IgG production by IgG B cell lines. In the aspect of molecular mechanism, we found that Igλ, but not Ighe, gene expression was suppressed by JSI-124. The above effects of JSI-124 were not mediated by affecting cellular proliferation or apoptosis. Furthermore, multiple B cell differentiation-related genes expression was not significantly affected by JSI-124. Taken together, we demonstrate a potential strategy of therapeutically suppressing IgE production without affecting IgG production in atopic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Histoplasmosis diffusion in Somalia: study of skin-test and serological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, M; Tarabini, G C; Adorisio, E; Zardi, O

    1979-01-01

    Histoplasmin skin-test was applied to 1014 patients in two different parts of Somalia: in Mogadishu, an arid area, and in Jilib, a southern village on the banks of the Juba river. Among these patients only three gave areas of induration greater than 5 mm in diameter; all reactors were from Jilib. Results of a serological survey (latex-agglutination test) of histoplasmosis antibodies among 203 Somalian patients from three villages in river valleys are compared with the results of 171 inhabitants of the town of Mogadishu. Indirect agglutination antibody titers greater than or equal to 20 were found in 21.6% of the Mogadishu population as compared to 52.2% found in the river villages. In 96.2% of our cases in which the two tests were contemporarily used, the skin-test was completely negative despite high titres of positivity in the serological test. The results indicate the existence of founts of histoplasmosis infection in Somalia, particularly in humid areas bordering the rivers rather than in the surrounding arid semi-desert area characteristic of most of the country.

  16. Derivation and application of mathematical model for well test analysis with variable skin factor in hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengcheng; Li, Wenhui; Xia, Jing; Jiao, Yuwei; Bie, Aifang

    2016-06-01

    Skin factor is often regarded as a constant in most of the mathematical model for well test analysis in oilfields, but this is only a kind of simplified treatment with the actual skin factor changeable. This paper defined the average permeability of a damaged area as a function of time by using the definition of skin factor. Therefore a relationship between a variable skin factor and time was established. The variable skin factor derived was introduced into existing traditional models rather than using a constant skin factor, then, this newly derived mathematical model for well test analysis considering variable skin factor was solved by Laplace transform. The dimensionless wellbore pressure and its derivative changed with dimensionless time were plotted with double logarithm and these plots can be used for type curve fitting. The effects of all the parameters in the expression of variable skin factor were analyzed based on the dimensionless wellbore pressure and its derivative. Finally, actual well testing data were used to fit the type curves developed which validates the applicability of the mathematical model from Sheng-2 Block, Shengli Oilfield, China.

  17. IgE and risk of cancer in 37 747 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby, J; Bojesen, S E; Nielsen, S F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is produced by plasma cells, often as part of an allergic immune response. It is currently unknown whether plasma IgE levels are associated with risk of cancer in individuals from the general population. We tested the hypothesis that high levels of plasma total IgE...... are associated with overall risk of cancer and with risk of specific cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma total IgE was measured in 37 747 individuals from the general population, and the participants were followed prospectively for up to 30 years. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a mean...... follow-up of 7 years, a first cancer was diagnosed in 3454 participants. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for a 10-fold higher level of IgE was 1.05 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.11; P = 0.04] for any cancer, 0.44 (0.30-0.64; P = 0.00002) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 0.53 (0...

  18. IgE Sensitization to Bacterial and Fungal Biopesticides in a Cohort of Danish Greenhouse Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doekes, G.; Larsen, Preben; Sigsgaard, T.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of biopesticides in agriculture may implicate new risks of work-related allergic reactions. METHODS: Sera were tested from the BIOGART project, a longitudinal respiratory health study among >300 Danish greenhouse workers. IgE was measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with extra......BACKGROUND: The use of biopesticides in agriculture may implicate new risks of work-related allergic reactions. METHODS: Sera were tested from the BIOGART project, a longitudinal respiratory health study among >300 Danish greenhouse workers. IgE was measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA......) with extracts of biopesticide products containing Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) or Verticillium lecanii (Vert). RESULTS: Many sera had detectable IgE to BT (23-29%) or Vert (9-21%). IgE titers from the 2- and 3-year follow-up (n=230) were highly correlated, with discordant results in ... BT, or to different Verticillium products were also significantly correlated (both r >0.70), whereas IgE anti-BT and anti-Verticillium showed no correlation at all. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to these microbial biopesticides may confer a risk of IgE-mediated sensitization. In future research...

  19. Antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity is a risk factor for positive allergy skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagau, Natalia; Gherman, Nadia; Cocis, Mihaela; Petrisor, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are not currently recommended for the general population undergoing general anaesthesia. In a previous study we have reported a high incidence of positive allergy tests for NMBAs in patients with a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy, a larger prospective study being needed to confirm those preliminary results. The objective of this study was to compare the skin tests results for patients with a positive history of antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity reactions to those of controls without drug allergies. Ninety eight patients with previous antibiotic hypersensitivity and 72 controls were prospectively included. Skin tests were performed for atracurium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and suxamethonium. We found 65 positive skin tests from the 392 tests performed in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity (1 6.58%) and 23 positive skin tests from the 288 performed in controls (7.98%), the two incidences showing significant statistical difference (p = 0.0011). The relative risk for having a positive skin test for NMBAs for patients versus controls was 1.77 (1.15-2.76). For atracurium, skin tests were more often positive in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity versus controls (p = 0.02). For pancuronium, rocuronium and suxamethonium the statistical difference was not attained (p-values 0.08 for pancuronium, 0.23 for rocuronium, and 0.26 for suxamethonium). Patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity seem to have a higher incidence of positive skin tests for NMBAs. They might represent a group at higher risk for developing intraoperative anaphylaxis compared to the general population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stability Testing of a Wide Bone-Anchored Device after Surgery without Skin Thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malou Hultcrantz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To longitudinally follow the osseointegration using Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA for different lengths of abutment on a new wide bone-anchored implant, introduced with the non-skin thinning surgical technique. Study Design. A single-center, prospective 1 year study following adults with bone-anchored hearing implants. Materials and Methods. Implantation was performed and followed for a minimum of 1 year. All patients were operated on according to the tissue preserving technique. A 4.5 mm wide fixture (Oticon Medical with varying abutments (9 to 12 mm was used and RFA was tested 1 week, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months later. Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ, was measured from 1 to 100. Stability was compared to a group of patients (N=7 implanted with another brand (Cochlear BI400 of 4.5 mm fixtures. Results. All 10 adults concluded the study. None of the participants lost their implant during the test period indicating a good anchoring of abutments to the wide fixture tested. Stability testing was shown to vary depending on abutment length and time after surgery and with higher values for shorter abutments and increasing values over the first period of time. One patient changed the abutment from 12 to 9 mm and another from a 9 to a 12 during the year. No severe skin problems, numbness around the implant, or cosmetic problems arose. Conclusion. After 1 year of follow-up, combination of a wide fixture implant and the non-skin thinning surgical technique indicates a safe procedure with good stability and no abutment losses.

  1. Teste de contato atópico (TCA) no diagnóstico de alergia alimentar em crianças com dermatite atópica

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Soloni Afra Pires; Dortas Junior, Sergio Duarte; Pires, Andrea Huguenim Silva; Abe, Augusto Tiaqui; Valle, Solange Oliveira Rodrigues; Coelho, Vilma Perez; Hahnstadt, Ludwig Ruppert; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic Dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Food allergens are important in the pathogenesis in 1/3 of the cases. Several mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis. Immediate reactions are identified by both measurement of specific IgE and skin prick test. Atopy Patch Test seems to be relevant in the investigation of patients with suspected delayed-type reactions. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the standardization of this method concerning allergen co...

  2. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if D-amino acids (D-aas) bind and inhibit immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to peanut allergens. D-aas such as D-Asp (aspartic acid), D-Glu (glutamic acid), combined D-[Asp/Glu] and others were each prepared in a cocktail of 9 other D-aas, along with L-amino acids (L-aas) and controls. Each sample was mixed with a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic donors, and tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and Western blots for IgE binding to peanut allergens. Results showed that D-[Asp/Glu] (4 mg/ml) inhibited IgE binding (75%) while D-Glu, D-Asp and other D-aas had no inhibitory effect. A higher inhibition was seen with D-[Asp/Glu] than with L-[Asp/Glu]. We concluded that IgE was specific for D-[Asp/Glu], not D-Asp or D-Glu, and that D-[Asp/Glu] was more reactive than was L-[Asp/Glu] in IgE inhibition. The finding indicates that D-[Asp/Glu] may have the potential for removing IgE or reducing IgE binding to peanut allergens in vitro. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The lancet weight determines wheal diameter in response to skin prick testing with histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Lundgaard, Anna Charlotte; Sohrt Petersen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test (SPT) is a common test for diagnosing immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies. In clinical routine, technicalities, human errors or patient-related biases, occasionally results in suboptimal diagnosis of sensitization. OBJECTIVE: Although not previously assessed qualitativ......BACKGROUND: Skin prick test (SPT) is a common test for diagnosing immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies. In clinical routine, technicalities, human errors or patient-related biases, occasionally results in suboptimal diagnosis of sensitization. OBJECTIVE: Although not previously assessed...... qualitatively, lancet weight is hypothesized to be important when performing SPT to minimize the frequency of false positives, false negatives, and unwanted discomfort. METHODS: Accurate weight-controlled SPT was performed on the volar forearms and backs of 20 healthy subjects. Four predetermined lancet weights...... of bleeding, and the lancet provoked pain response. RESULTS: The mean wheal diameter increased significantly as higher weights were applied to the SPT lancet, e.g. from 3.2 ± 0.28 mm at 25 g to 5.4 ± 1.7 mm at 265 g (p

  4. Water immersion decreases sympathetic skin response during color-word Stroop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Yudai; Takahashi, Akari; Uetake, Yoshihito; Nakano, Saki; Iguchi, Kaho; Baba, Yasuhiro; Nara, Rio; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu

    2017-01-01

    Water immersion alters the autonomic nervous system (ANS) response in humans. The effect of water immersion on executive function and ANS responses related to executive function tasks was unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether water immersion alters ANS response during executive tasks. Fourteen healthy participants performed color-word-matching Stroop tasks before and after non-immersion and water immersion intervention for 15 min in separate sessions. The Stroop task-related skin conductance response (SCR) was measured during every task. In addition, the skin conductance level (SCL) and electrocardiograph signals were measured over the course of the experimental procedure. The main findings of the present study were as follows: 1) water immersion decreased the executive task-related sympathetic nervous response, but did not affect executive function as evaluated by Stroop tasks, and 2) decreased SCL induced by water immersion was maintained for at least 15 min after water immersion. In conclusion, the present results suggest that water immersion decreases the sympathetic skin response during the color-word Stroop test without altering executive performance.

  5. Water immersion decreases sympathetic skin response during color–word Stroop test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yudai; Takahashi, Akari; Uetake, Yoshihito; Nakano, Saki; Iguchi, Kaho; Baba, Yasuhiro; Nara, Rio; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu

    2017-01-01

    Water immersion alters the autonomic nervous system (ANS) response in humans. The effect of water immersion on executive function and ANS responses related to executive function tasks was unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether water immersion alters ANS response during executive tasks. Fourteen healthy participants performed color–word-matching Stroop tasks before and after non-immersion and water immersion intervention for 15 min in separate sessions. The Stroop task-related skin conductance response (SCR) was measured during every task. In addition, the skin conductance level (SCL) and electrocardiograph signals were measured over the course of the experimental procedure. The main findings of the present study were as follows: 1) water immersion decreased the executive task-related sympathetic nervous response, but did not affect executive function as evaluated by Stroop tasks, and 2) decreased SCL induced by water immersion was maintained for at least 15 min after water immersion. In conclusion, the present results suggest that water immersion decreases the sympathetic skin response during the color–word Stroop test without altering executive performance. PMID:28742137

  6. Validation of the cephalosporin intradermal skin test for predicting immediate hypersensitivity: a prospective study with drug challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S-Y; Park, S Y; Kim, S; Lee, T; Lee, Y S; Kwon, H-S; Cho, Y S; Moon, H-B; Kim, T-B

    2013-07-01

    Cephalosporin is a major offending agent in terms of drug hypersensitivity along with penicillin. Cephalosporin intradermal skin tests (IDTs) have been widely used; however, their validity for predicting immediate hypersensitivity has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the predictive value of cephalosporin intradermal skin testing before administration of the drug. We prospectively conducted IDTs with four cephalosporins, one each of selected first-, second-, third-, or fourth-generation cephalosporins: ceftezol; cefotetan or cefamandole; ceftriaxone or cefotaxime; and flomoxef, respectively, as well as with penicillin G. After the skin test, whatever the result, one of the tested cephalosporins was administered intravenously and the patient was carefully observed. We recruited 1421 patients who required preoperative cephalosporins. Seventy-four patients (74/1421, 5.2%) were positive to at least one cephalosporin. However, none of responders had immediate hypersensitivity reactions after a challenge dose of the same or different cephalosporin, which were positive in the skin test. Four patients who suffered generalized urticaria and itching after challenge gave negative skin tests for the corresponding drug. The IDT for cephalosporin had a sensitivity of 0%, a specificity of 97.5%, a negative predictive value of 99.7%, and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0%, when challenged with the same drugs that were positive in the skin test. Routine skin testing with a cephalosporin before its administration is not useful for predicting immediate hypersensitivity because of the extremely low sensitivity and PPV of the skin test (CRIS registration no. KCT0000455). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Jacobsen, C R; Poulsen, L K

    2003-01-01

    E measurements. Birch pollen symptoms were confirmed in diaries. RESULTS: The repeatability of a positive SPT was 67%, increasing significantly to 100% when supported by the history. When not supported by history, the presence of specific IgE was significantly associated with a repeatable SPT. Allergen....... CONCLUSION: SPT changes are clinically relevant. Further studies using other allergens are needed. Long-term repeatability of SPT is high in the presence of a supportive history....

  8. The ECVAM international validation study on in vitro tests for acute skin irritation: selection of test chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Cole, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Worth, Andrew; Cockshott, Amanda; Gerner, Ingrid; Zuang, Valérie

    2007-12-01

    The ECVAM-funded skin irritation validation study (SIVS) was initiated in 2003, with the aim to evaluate whether the EpiDerm, EPISKIN and the SIFT alternative methods were able to reliably identify skin irritant and non-irritant chemicals, and could therefore be candidates for replacing the rabbit Draize test for skin irritation. The primary goal of the study was to evaluate the predictive capacity of the assays with regard to the EU classification system, which employs the risk phrases, "R38", for skin irritants, and "no label" for non-irritants. A secondary objective was the retrospective analysis of the data, to assess whether the in vitro tests would be able to discriminate between strong irritants (category 2), mild irritants (category 3) and non-irritants (no category), as defined by the OECD and United Nations proposal for a Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for the classification and labelling of dermal irritancy. A Chemicals Selection Sub-Committee (CSSC) was appointed to identify test chemicals to be used in the SIVS, for which existing, high quality in vivo data were available, with which to correlate the in vitro measurements. Since chemicals from the European Centre for the Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) database of reference chemicals for skin irritation/skin corrosion had been extensively used in preceding studies, the CSSC made use of novel sources for potential test chemicals. The first source of chemicals screened was the New Chemicals Database (NCD), which is the central archive within the EU notification scheme for 'new' commercial chemicals. Data registered in the NCD originate from standard assays, submitted in compliance with the legislation which regulates the marketing of industrial chemicals, and are subject to quality assurance by the competent authorities of the EU Member States. In addition, to obtain 'existing' chemicals which were readily available from major manufacturing and/or distribution sources, additional

  9. Compositional analysis and physicochemical and mechanical testing of tanned rabbit skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. R. Sousa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and physicochemical and mechanical parameters of New Zealand White rabbit tanned skin were evaluated. Skin samples from 70-d-old males, in natura and semi-finished, were collected for evaluation. The in natura treatment comprise skins without any processing, while semi-finished treatment comprise skins after soaking, fleshing, liming, de-liming, purging, degreasing, pickling, tanning, neutralising, re-tanning and dyeing, followed by oiling, drying, stretching and softening. After tanning, samples from the dorsal and flank regions were removed for tensile and physicochemical testing in the longitudinal and transverse directions. A split plot design was used with plot treatments (leather regions: R1=dorsal and R2=flank and subplots directions (S1=longitudinal and S2=transversal, using 10 examples per treatment. At the end of processing, the leather analysis revealed low moisture (31.76%, protein (46.48% and fat content (24.95%, and a high ash content (8.58%. Leather presented a pH of 4.9 and contained 2.0% chromium oxide, 25.5% extractable substances in dichloromethane, and these characteristics were coupled with a higher tensile strength (10.84 N/mm2 in the dorsal region. However, samples in the same region proved to have higher elasticity (64.57% in the longitudinal direction, although there was no difference in the progressive tearing analysis (21.07-23.50 N/mm. Overall, our analyses suggest that, in this case, the tanned leather product does not have sufficient resistance for application in clothing production.

  10. Role and Redirection of IgE against Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa A. Nigro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available IgE is a highly elusive antibody class, yet a tremendously powerful elicitor of immune reactions. Despite huge efforts spent on the characterization and understanding of the IgE system many questions remain either unanswered or only marginally addressed. One above all relates to the role of IgE. A common doubt is based on whether IgE mode of action should only be relegated to anti-parasite immunity and allergic manifestations. In search for a hidden role of IgE, reports from several laboratories are described herein in which a natural IgE link to cancer or the experimental redirection of IgE against cancer have been investigated. Epidemiological and investigational studies are trying to elucidate a possible direct intervention of endogenous IgE against cancer, raising thus far no definitive evidence. Conversely, experimental approaches implementing several strategies and engineered IgE formats built up a series of convincing results indicating that cancer might be tackled by the effector functions of this immunoglobulin class. Because of its peculiar immune features, IgE may present a superior anti-tumor performance as compared to IgG. However, extreme care should be taken on how IgE-based anti-tumor approaches should be devised. Overall, IgE appears as a promising resource, likely destined to enrich the anti-cancer arsenal.

  11. Skin Prick Test Reactivity to Common Aero and Food Allergens among Children with Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoora Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases has risen in the last decades. The objective of this study was to determine the common allergens in children via the skin prick test. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 313 allergic children (4 months to 18 years old referred to the Asthma and Allergy Clinic of Children’s Medical Center in Tehran. A questionnaire containing demographic data and patient history was completed. The Skin Prick Test (SPT was selected according to the patients’ history of food and/or aeroallergen sensitivity. Results: Patients (62.4% male, 37.6% female with symptoms of asthma (n=141, 57.1%, allergic rhinitis (n=50, 20.4%, atopic dermatitis (n=29, 11.7%, and urticaria (n=20, 8.1% were studied. Positive skin prick test to at least one allergen was 58.1%. The most prevalent allergens were tree mix (26%, Alternaria alternata (26%, weed mix (23.6%, Dermatophagoides farinae (22.9%, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (22.9%, milk (21.7%, eggs (20%, and wheat flour (18.3%. Also, common allergens in the patients with different symptoms of allergic disorders were as follows: asthma (tree mix, weed mix, and Dermatophagoides farinae; allergic rhinitis (Dermatophagoides farinae, tree mix, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; and atopic dermatitis (Alternaria alternata, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and cockroaches. Conclusion: Identifying allergens in each area is necessary and has an important role in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and possibility of performing immunotherapy. In this study, the most common aeroallergens were tree mix, Alternaria alternata, and weed mix and also the most common food allergens were milk, eggs, and wheat. Considering these data, appropriate preventive strategies can decrease the cost and morbidity of therapeutic actions.

  12. Changes in skin test reactivity among adults with atopic disease: a 3-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslund, N.; Thomsen, S.F.; Molgaard, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Our knowledge about longtudinal predictors of atopy is limited. Objectives: To describe changes in skin test reactivity during a 3-year period in a sample of adolescents and adults with atopic disease and to identify factors of importance for these changes. Methods: From a sample of 1...... sensitizations, and 12 (4%) both gained and lost sensitizations. Female sex (odds ratio = 1.90 [1.02-3.57] P =.04) significantly predicted incidence of 1 or more sensitizations. Conclusions: Four of 10 adults with atopic disease will have changes in SPT status during a 3-year period, and most will gain new...

  13. Transfer of maternal IgE can be a common cause of increased IgE levels in cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Bisgaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    IgE in cord blood is thought to be a product of the fetus. A high level of total IgE is therefore used as a measure of atopic propensity in the newborn. We recently found strong evidence that allergen-specific IgE in cord blood was the result of transfer of maternal IgE to fetal blood or cord blood...... (maternofetal transfer) rather than fetal production. This also suggests that total IgE in cord blood might primarily be a maternal product....

  14. Testing Human Skin and Respiratory Sensitizers—What Is Good Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anki Malmborg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods for accurate in vitro assessment of skin and respiratory sensitizers are urgently needed. Sensitization is a complex biological process that cannot be evaluated accurately using single events or biomarkers, since the information content is too restricted in these measurements. On the contrary, if the tremendous information content harbored in DNA/mRNA could be mined, most complex biological processes could be elucidated. Genomic technologies available today, including transcriptional profiling and next generation sequencing, have the power to decipher sensitization, when used in the right context. Thus, a genomic test platform has been developed, denoted the Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD assay. Due to the high informational content of the GARD test, accurate predictions of both the skin and respiratory sensitizing capacity of chemicals, have been demonstrated. Based on a matured dendritic cell line, acting as a human-like reporter system, information about potency has also been acquired. Consequently, multiparametric diagnostic technologies are disruptive test principles that can change the way in which the next generation of alternative methods are designed.

  15. Thermal sensation and the skin sensation test: regional differences and their effects on the issue of reliability of temperature ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, G I; Aigbogun, O S

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses the differences in temperature sensitivity of skin areas. The subjects were required to associate the water content of test-tubes with the different heat sensations. The side of the test-tube was placed on the skin area and the temperature was matched with the subject's response. Analyses were limited to the warmth and cold sensations as generalizations can be made from these in terms of differences in the skin areas in heat perception. In the face, the temperature associated with warmth was significantly lower than in the forearm and the leg. This trend was different between the three areas in terms of the cold temperatures. The intra-individual difference suggests that results of skin sensation tests should be interpreted with some caution. Copyright © 1988 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  16. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM LEVELS OF CYTOKINES AND TOTAL IgE IN CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT AGE WITH SALMONELLOSIS

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    G. F. Zheleznikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The serum levels of cytokines and total IgE in 113 children with salmonellosis were tested in ELISA. It was established, that severe course of infection in chidren up to 4 years of age is associated with low level of IL-10, and after 4 years of age with IFNγ deficit. Low level of total IgE is the marker of severe salmonellosis too, particularly in children up to 4 years of age.

  17. Hymenoptera venom allergy: analysis of double positivity to honey bee and Vespula venom by estimation of IgE antibodies to species-specific major allergens Api m1 and Ves v5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, U R; Johansen, N; Petersen, A B; Fromberg-Nielsen, J; Haeberli, G

    2009-04-01

    In patients with hymenoptera venom allergy diagnostic tests are often positive with honey bee and Vespula venom causing problems in selection of venoms for immunotherapy. 100 patients each with allergic reactions to Vespula or honey bee stings and positive i.e. skin tests to the respective venom, were analysed for serum IgE to bee venom, Vespula venom and crossreacting carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) by UNICAP (CAP) and ADVIA Centaur (ADVIA). IgE-antibodies to species specific recombinant major allergens (SSMA) Api m1 for bee venom and Ves v5 for Vespula venom, were determined by ADVIA. 30 history and skin test negative patients served as controls. By CAP sensitivity was 1.0 for bee and 0.91 for Vespula venom, by ADVIA 0.99 for bee and 0.91 for Vespula venom. None of the controls were positive with either test. Double positivity was observed in 59% of allergic patients by CAP, in 32% by ADVIA. slgE to Api m1 was detected in 97% of bee and 17% of Vespula venom allergic patients, slgE to Ves v5 in 87% of Vespula and 17% of bee venom allergic patients. slgE to CCDs were present in 37% of all allergic patients and in 56% of those with double positivity and were more frequent in bee than in Vespula venom allergic patients. Double positivity of IgE to bee and Vespula venom is often caused by crossreactions, especially to CCDs. IgE to both Api m1 and Ves v5 indicates true double sensitization and immunotherapy with both venoms.

  18. Specific IgE antibodies in workers with occupational asthma due to western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, K S; Chan, H; Chan-Yeung, M

    1982-05-01

    The presence of specific IgE antibodies in the serum of patients with occupational asthma resulting from exposure to western red cedar (RCA) was studied by a radioallergosorbent test (RAST). The antigen matrix used in the RAST was either a conjugate of Sepharose particles with antigens in a crude cedar extract or with plicatic acid, the major haptenic component of cedar antigens. Of eighteen patients with clinical RCA and positive reaction to antigenic bronchoprovocation, eight were found to have abnormal RAST values. By appropriate absorption experiments, the serum RAST activity was shown to represent cedar antigen-specific IgE antibodies. No significant RAST activity was detected in the serum specimens from sixteen control subjects or from ten patients with negative bronchoprovocation-reaction to antigenic challenge. These results suggest that IgE antibody-mediated allergic reaction may be an important pathogenetic factor in RCA.

  19. A preliminary study of serum IgE against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) in client-owned atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Britt J; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2018-03-01

    Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) are defined carbohydrate portions of glycoprotein cell surface molecules common to many plant and insect species. Mammalian species recognize CCD as foreign antigens and can mount humoral immune responses against them. Approximately 20-37% of grass and venom allergic people possess circulating IgE against CCD; these antibodies are generally considered clinically irrelevant. Anti-CCD IgE is, however, recognized as a cause of false positive, clinically incongruent serum allergen test results in people; this phenomenon has not been investigated in animals. To determine if anti-CCD IgE could be detected in sera of client-owned atopic dogs and how frequently it is found. Sera from 38 dogs with a clinical diagnosis of atopic dermatitis and prior serological evidence of IgE antibodies, defined as a positive result to at least one mite and pollen (of any type). Sera were analysed for IgE against CCD and environmental allergens with a commercially available multiplex enzyme-labelled allergen-specific IgE assay. Anti-CCD IgE was detected in nine of 38 (24%) of atopic dog sera. As with their human counterparts, all dogs with anti-CCD IgE had strong serological reactivity to grass pollens. Anti-CCD IgE can confound serological allergen testing in people; the same might be true in dogs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the clinical implications of anti-CCD IgE in dogs, including the potential for these antibodies to affect serum allergen-specific IgE assays used for clinical diagnosis, and whether they are relevant to clinical disease. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Increased IgE serum levels are unrelated to allergic and parasitic diseases in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Bernadete L. Liphaus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the IgE serum levels in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients and to evaluate possible associations with clinical and laboratory features, disease activity and tissue damage. METHODS: The IgE serum concentrations in 69 consecutive juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients were determined by nephelometry. IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations were measured by immunoturbidimetry. All patients were negative for intestinal parasites. Statistical analysis methods included the Mann-Whitney, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, as well as the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Increased IgE concentrations above 100 IU/mL were observed in 31/69 (45% juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients. The mean IgE concentration was 442.0 ± 163.4 IU/ml (range 3.5-9936.0 IU/ml. Fifteen of the 69 patients had atopic disease, nine patients had severe sepsis and 56 patients presented with nephritis. The mean IgE level in 54 juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients without atopic manifestations was 271.6 ± 699.5 IU/ml, and only nine of the 31 (29% patients with high IgE levels had atopic disease. The IgE levels did not statistically differ with respect to the presence of atopic disease, severe sepsis, nephritis, disease activity, or tissue damage. Interestingly, IgE concentrations were inversely correlated with C4 levels (r = -0.25, p = 0.03 and with the SLICC/ACR-DI score (r = -0.34, p = 0.005. The IgE concentration was also found to be directly correlated with IgA levels (r = 0.52, p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated for the first time that juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients have increased IgE serum levels. This increase in IgE levels was not related to allergic or parasitic diseases. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that high IgE levels can be considered a marker of immune dysregulation.

  1. A Simple Data Analysis Method for a Pumping Test with Skin and Wellbore Storage Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shyun Chen Chuan-Gui Lan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pumping test conducted in a con fined aquifer in northern Taiwan, drawdown in the observation well was subject to wellbore storage of its own and the combined effect of wellbore storage and skin of the nearby pumping well. For such a complicated pumping test condition, the appropriate well hydraulics solutions are complicated in mathematics and involve five unknown a priori parameters; namely, the aquifer transmissivity, the aquifer storage coefficient, the skin factor of the pumping well, and the wellbore storage co efficients of the pumping and observation wells. The conventional trial-and-er ror procedure for a simul taneous determination of these five parameters is not easy to apply. Here, a simple data analysis method is de veloped, which takes advantage of the late-time characteristics of drawdown data and the late-time asymptotic behavior of the appropriate wellhy draulics solutions. As a re sult, some currently available graphic techniques are proven us ful for the determination of these parameters. Validity of this approach is verified by the excellent agree ment between the calculated drawdown using the appropriate well hydraulics solutions with the parameter estimates obtained from the field drawdown data.

  2. A dataset on 145 chemicals tested in alternative assays for skin sensitization undergoing prevalidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsch, Andreas; Ryan, Cindy A; Foertsch, Leslie; Emter, Roger; Jaworska, Joanna; Gerberick, Frank; Kern, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Skin sensitization is a key endpoint for cosmetic ingredients, with a forthcoming ban for animal testing in Europe. Four alternative tests have so far been submitted to ECVAM prevalidation: (i) MUSST and (ii) h-Clat assess surface markers on dendritic cell lines, (iii) the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) measures reactivity with model peptides and (iv) the KeratinoSens(TM) assay which is based on detection of Nrf2-induced luciferase. It is anticipated that only an integrated testing strategy (ITS) based on a battery of tests might give a full replacement providing also a sensitization potency assessment, but this concept should be tested with a data-driven analysis. Here we report a database on 145 chemicals reporting the quantitative endpoints measured in a U937- test, the DPRA and KeratinoSens(TM) . It can serve to develop data-driven ITS approaches as we show in a parallel paper and provides a view as to the current ability to predict with in vitro tests as we are entering 2013. It may also serve as reference database when benchmarking new molecules with in vitro based read-across and find use as a reference database when evaluating new tests. The tests and combinations thereof were evaluated for predictivity, and overall a similar predictivity was found as before on three-fold smaller datasets. Analysis of the dose-response parameters of the individual tests indicates a correlation to sensitization potency. Detailed analysis of chemicals false-negative and false-positive in two tests helped to define limitations in the tests but also in the database derived from animal studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Extracorporeal IgE Immunoadsorption in Allergic Asthma: Safety and Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupinek, Christian; Derfler, Kurt; Lee, Silvia; Prikoszovich, Thomas; Movadat, Oliver; Wollmann, Eva; Cornelius, Carolin; Weber, Milena; Fröschl, Renate; Selb, Regina; Blatt, Katharina; Smiljkovic, Dubravka; Schoder, Volker; Cervenka, René; Plaichner, Thomas; Stegfellner, Gottfried; Huber, Hans; Henning, Rainer; Kozik-Jaromin, Justyna; Perkmann, Thomas; Niederberger, Verena; Petkov, Ventzislav; Valent, Peter; Gauly, Adelheid; Leinenbach, Hans Peter; Uhlenbusch-Koerwer, Ingrid; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-03-01

    Prevention of IgE-binding to cellular IgE-receptors by anti-IgE (Omalizumab) is clinically effective in allergic asthma, but limited by IgE threshold-levels. To overcome this limitation, we developed a single-use IgE immunoadsorber column (IgEnio). IgEnio is based on a recombinant, IgE-specific antibody fragment and can be used for the specific extracorporeal desorption of IgE. To study safety and efficacy of IgEnio regarding the selective depletion of IgE in a randomized, open-label, controlled pilot trial in patients with allergic asthma and to investigate if IgEnio can bind IgE-Omalizumab immune complexes. Fifteen subjects were enrolled and randomly assigned to the treatment group (n=10) or to the control group (n=5). Immunoadsorption was done by veno-venous approach, processing the twofold calculated plasma volume during each treatment. A minimum average IgE-depletion of 50% after the last cycle in the intention-to-treat population was defined as primary endpoint. Safety of the treatment was studied as secondary endpoint. In addition, possible changes in allergen-specific sensitivity were investigated, as well as clinical effects by peak flow measurement and symptom-recording. The depletion of IgE-Omalizumab immune complexes was studied in vitro. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02096237) and conducted from December 2013 to July 2014. IgE immunoadsorption with IgEnio selectively depleted 86.2% (±5.1% SD) of IgE until the end of the last cycle (pIgE was associated with a reduction of allergen-specific basophil-sensitivity and prevented increases of allergen-specific skin-sensitivity and clinical symptoms during pollen seasons. IgEnio also depleted IgE-Omalizumab immune complexes in vitro. The therapy under investigation was safe and well-tolerated. During a total of 81 aphereses, 2 severe adverse events (SAE) were recorded, one of which, an episode of acute dyspnea, possibly was related to the treatment and resolved after administration of

  4. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on IgE antibody responses in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terr, A.I.; Moss, R.B.; Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Thirteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and nephritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation because of severe disease refractory to other forms of treatment. Serum samples before and after irradiation were tested for changes in total serum IgE and for changes in specific IgE antibodies to ryegrass pollen, dust mite, cat dander, and Alternaria. There were no statistically significant changes in total or specific IgE from lymphoid irradiation in these patients. The therapy caused a significant decrease in circulating total lymphocyte and Leu-3 (helper/inducer) T-lymphocyte counts. Therefore, reduction in circulating levels of helper/inducer T cells does not appear to influence preexisting levels of IgE antibodies.

  5. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on IgE antibody responses in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terr, A.I.; Moss, R.B.; Strober, S.

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and nephritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation because of severe disease refractory to other forms of treatment. Serum samples before and after irradiation were tested for changes in total serum IgE and for changes in specific IgE antibodies to ryegrass pollen, dust mite, cat dander, and Alternaria. There were no statistically significant changes in total or specific IgE from lymphoid irradiation in these patients. The therapy caused a significant decrease in circulating total lymphocyte and Leu-3 (helper/inducer) T-lymphocyte counts. Therefore, reduction in circulating levels of helper/inducer T cells does not appear to influence preexisting levels of IgE antibodies

  6. Skin manifestations and immunological parameters in childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehling, A; Fernández, M; Córdoba, H; Sanz, M L

    1997-01-01

    According to Hansen's contact rule, the digestive system should be considered as the main shock organ, yet in food allergy, this is not the case. Very often specific food triggers clinical manifestations not involving the digestive system; that is, reactions are manifested either in the respiratory system, as asthma or rhinitis, or in the skin. In these cases the BALT (broncho-alveolar lymphoid tissue) and GALT (gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue) units play a basic role in the sensitizations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequent skin manifestations of food allergy among children, and the most frequently involved foods. We also thought it interesting to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of the different standard immunological parameters utilized by the study team in food allergy. All patients underwent intracutaneous tests with 12 groups of the most frequent food allergens, as well as serum IgE, antigen-specific IgE against foods, and antigen-specific histamine release tests. Antigen-specific IgG4 determination was performed in some cases. The results obtained confirmed previous studies, the most common manifestations being: angioedema (48%), followed by urticaria (31%) and atopic dermatitis (21%). Regarding the frequency of sensitization to different food allergens, in mono- or polisensitization, fish and egg stand out in our environment. Certain food allergens are more frequently responsible for specific skin manifestations. Thus, for fish sensitization, the most frequent skin manifestation is atopic dermatitis (50%); for egg sensitization, angioedema is the most frequent skin manifestation (50%); and for milk, urticaria (50%). Finally, and in agreement with previous works regarding the diagnostic reliability of in vitro techniques, we found that the histamine release test offered the highest percentage of diagnostic reliability. Only for sensitization to milk proteins did antigen-specific IgE demonstrate higher reliability. Once again, we

  7. Patterns of skin prick test positivity in allergic patients: usefulness of a nationwide SPT chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas-Linnemann, D E; Fogelbach, G A Guidos; Alatorre, A Monteverde; Cruz, A Arias; Colín, D D Hernández; Pech, J A Luna; Hernández, A Medina; Imperial, D Alberto García; del Prado, M L Cid; Zapién, F J Linares; Huerta, R E; Martell, J A Ortega

    2011-01-01

    A previous survey on allergens used by Mexican allergists in their skin prick test (SPT) panel showed wide variation. Humidity varies in different zones of Mexico. This might lead to differences in natural exposure and allergic sensitisation throughout the country. We aim to describe the SPT sensitivity patterns in the different climatic zones in Mexico and to show the usefulness of a structured SPT chart-review including multiple clinics in obtaining these allergen sensitisation patterns. A retrospective, structured chart-review of SPT results was undertaken in allergy clinics throughout Mexico. Ratios of SPT positivity were calculated for individual allergens, per climatic zone and nation-wide. Per allergen group the most important allergens were identified. Statistically significant differences between zones and the nation-wide data were tested with Pearson's Chi-squares test. 4169 skin test charts were recollected. The most important allergens causing sensitisation were very similar in different zones, despite climate variation. The allergen with highest ratio of SPT positivity was Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (51%), with trees (Ash-27%, Alder-22%, Oak19%), and Bermuda grass (26%) as second and third. In the hot zones (humid and dry) Aspergillus was statistically significant more frequently than in more temperate zones. Cockroaches thrive in big cities and humid zones and Mesquite and Poplar in dry zones. Weeds are less important. Mexico has its own SPT sensitisation pattern, which is different from America and Europe. A structured chart-review of SPT results is able to show this and might be a tool for allergists in other countries. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Skin sensitisation: the Colipa strategy for developing and evaluating non-animal test methods for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aeby, Pierre; Ashikaga, Takao; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Diembeck, Walter; Gerberick, Frank; Kern, Petra; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schroeder, Klaus; Tailhardat, Magali; Teissier, Silvia; Winkler, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by small reactive chemicals (haptens). Currently, the sensitising potential and potency of new chemicals is usually characterised using data generated via animal studies, such as the local lymph node assay (LLNA). There are, however, increasing public and political concerns regarding the use of animals for the testing of new chemicals. Consequently, the development of in vitro, in chemico or in silico models for predicting the sensitising potential and/or potency of new chemicals is receiving widespread interest. The Colipa Skin Tolerance task force currently collaborates with and/or funds several academic research groups to expand our understanding of the molecular and cellular events occurring during the acquisition of skin sensitisation. Knowledge gained from this research is being used to support the development and evaluation of novel alternative approaches for the identification and characterisation of skin sensitizing chemicals. At present three non-animal test methods (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA), Myeloid U937 Skin Sensitisation Test (MUSST) and human Cell Line Activation Test (hCLAT)) have been evaluated in Colipa interlaboratory ring trials for their potential to predict skin sensitisation potential and were recently submitted to ECVAM for formal pre-validation. Data from all three test methods will now be used to support the study and development of testing strategy approaches for skin sensitiser potency prediction. This publication represents the current viewpoint of the cosmetics industry on the feasibility of replacing the need for animal test data for informing skin sensitisation risk assessment decisions.

  9. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Mittermann

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors.To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens.Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53 and moderate AD (n = 126. As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins.IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1 and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10, to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD.We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD.

  10. Laser heat stimulation of tiny skin areas adds valuable information to quantitative sensory testing in postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marcel; Spohn, Dorothee; Ritter, Alexander; Rolke, Roman; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Patients suffering from postherpetic neuralgia often complain about hypo- or hypersensation in the affected dermatome. The loss of thermal sensitivity has been demonstrated by quantitative sensory testing as being associated with small-fiber (Aδ- and C-fiber) deafferentation. We aimed to compare laser stimulation (radiant heat) to thermode stimulation (contact heat) with regard to their sensitivity and specificity to detect thermal sensory deficits related to small-fiber dysfunction in postherpetic neuralgia. We contrasted detection rate of laser stimuli with 5 thermal parameters (thresholds of cold/warm detection, cold/heat pain, and sensory limen) of quantitative sensory testing. Sixteen patients diagnosed with unilateral postherpetic neuralgia and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects were tested. Quantitative sensory testing and laser stimulation of tiny skin areas were performed in the neuralgia-affected skin and in the contralateral homologue of the neuralgia-free body side. Across the 5 thermal parameters of thermode stimulation, only one parameter (warm detection threshold) revealed sensory abnormalities (thermal hypoesthesia to warm stimuli) in the neuralgia-affected skin area of patients but not in the contralateral area, as compared to the control group. In contrast, patients perceived significantly less laser stimuli both in the affected skin and in the contralateral skin compared to controls. Overall, laser stimulation proved more sensitive and specific in detecting thermal sensory abnormalities in the neuralgia-affected skin, as well as in the control skin, than any single thermal parameter of thermode stimulation. Thus, laser stimulation of tiny skin areas might be a useful diagnostic tool for small-fiber dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata com o evoluir da idade Positive skin test and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliação da positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata em crianças com asma brônquica e/ou rinite alérgica em diferentes faixas etárias. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: foi observada a positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata, por testes de puntura, frente a diferentes alérgenos de mesma procedência: poeira total e Dermatophagóides sp, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae e Blomia tropicalis, Penicillium sp, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergillus fumigatus, grama bermuda, capim de pasto, epitélio de cão, epitélio de gato, penas, Blatella germanica, lã. Foram selecionadas 713 crianças divididas em grupos conforme a faixa etária: grupo I (6 a 11 meses, II (1 a 3 anos e 11 meses, III (4 a 8 anos e 11 meses e IV (9 a 15 anos. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o cálculo do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: o total de diferenças significativas entre os vários grupos foi: I e II = 5; II e III = 5; II e IV = 5; III e IV = 6; I e III = 10 e I e IV = 10 CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que a positividade ao teste de hipersensibilidade imediata foi maior com o evoluir da idade, havendo positividade já aos doze meses de vida, sendo esta positividade significativamente maior a partir de quatro anos de idade.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate positive responses to skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to allergens in children with asthma and rhinitis at different ages. METHOD: we observed positive skin test reactivity in prick tests using fifteen allergens of same origin (total dust and Dermatophagoides sp.; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae; Blomia tropicalis; Penicillium sp; Alternaria alternata; Cladosporium herbarium; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bermuda grass; forage grass; dog and cat epithelia; feathers; Blatella germanica and wool. We placed 713 selected patients into different age groups - Group I: 6 to 11 months; Group II: 1 to 3 years and 11

  12. A new reconstructed human epidermis for in vitro skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Catarino, Carolina Motter; Pennacchi, Paula Comune; Assis, Sílvia Romano de; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Barros, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2017-08-01

    Different models of reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) are currently validated to assess skin irritation in vitro and ultimately to the animal replacement of the Draize test. The development of a new RHE model is a challenge for many laboratories, representing a potential gain of autonomy and improvement of technological knowledge. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) encourages the development of new models and, for this purpose, offers a thorough guideline on quality control parameters (OECD TG 439 performance standards). This work aimed to develop an RHE model (i.e. USP-RHE) for in vitro skin irritation assays, following the OECD TG 439. The developed model presents a well-differentiated epidermis similar to the Validated Reference Methods (VRM) and to native human epidermis. Quality parameters, i.e. optical density of negative control, tissue integrity and barrier function, were similar to VRM and in accordance with OECD TG 439. Moreover, the USP-RHE model was shown to have 85,7% of specificity (6/7), 100% of sensitivity (6/6) and 92,3% of accuracy (12/13) when compared to in vivo UN GHS classification. The within-laboratory reproducibility was 92.3% (12/13). Thus, we demonstrated that USP-RHE model attends to all OECD TG 439 performance standards and is ready to be used by private and public laboratories and companies for future validation studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. NOSOTROPIC SUBSTANTIATION OF ANTI IgE ANIBODY THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.G. Levina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the specifics of allergic diseases pathogenesis. Such common allergic diseases as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are conditioned by processes based on increase of immunoglobulin e synthesis. Omalizunab, which is a recombinant humanized monoclone anti-Ige antibody, prevents Ige fixing to membrane receptors of mast cells and significantly reduces the level of immunoglobulin e circulating in blood.Key words: anti-Ige antibody, omalizumab, allergic diseases, Bronchial asthma, children.

  14. Local IgE production in nonatopic nasal polyposis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheahan, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) represents an eosinophilic T-helper 2 inflammatory response. Local production of IgE within nasal polyps (NPs) has been demonstrated, suggesting a role for local IgE in the pathogenesis of NP in atopic CRS patients. We hypothesized that local IgE specific to inhalant allergens may also play a role in the genesis of NP in nonatopic CRS patients. METHODS: Sinus and inferior turbinate tissue was obtained from nonatopic CRSwNP patients (n = 7), chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) patients (n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 9) at the time of surgery. ImmunoCAP analysis (Phadia AB, Portage, MI) for 14 common inhalant antigens was performed on tissue homogenates to determine the antigen-specific response. RESULTS: Total IgE levels did not differ in sinus or turbinate tissue between CRSwNP, CRSsNP, or control patients. CRSwNP sinus tissue had higher levels of specific IgE for cockroach and plantain (p = .03) than other groups and elevated Alternaria IgE levels when compared with CRSsNP sinus tissue (p < .05). No significant differences were found for any of the other antigen-specific IgE levels. Fifty-seven percent of CRSwNP polyps demonstrated a polyclonal IgE response, whereas the other 43% had no demonstrable antigen-specific IgE. In contrast, only 17% of CRSsNP patients demonstrated a polyclonal response within sinus tissue, whereas 67% had no detectable antigen-specific IgE. There was no significant difference in levels of IgE in inferior turbinate tissue between the groups (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Localized mucosal IgE specific to common inhalant allergens appears to play a role in a subset of CRSwNP patients without evidence of systemic atopy.

  15. Development and preliminary testing of a standardized method for quantifying excess water in over-hydrated skin using evaporimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fader, M; Clark-O'Neill, S R; Cottenden, A M; Wong, W K R; Runeman, B; Farbrot, A

    2011-01-01

    Although evaporimetry (the measurement of water vapour flux density from the skin) has often been used to study the impact on skin hydration of using products such as baby diapers and incontinence pads, it is difficult to interpret results and to compare data from different studies because of the diversity of unvalidated methodologies used. The aim of this work was to develop a robust methodology for measuring the excess water in over-hydrated skin and test it on volar forearm and hip skin which had been occluded with saline soaked patches. Three repeat measurements were made on the volar forearm and the hip of five young (31–44 years) and six older (67–85 years) women and moderately good within-subject repeatability was found for both skin sites for both subject groups. Measurements taken from the hip were significantly higher (P = 0.001) than those from the arm and had larger coefficients of variation (3.5–22.1%) compared to arms (3.0–14.0%). There were no significant differences between young and older skin, implying that women for future studies could be recruited without regard to age. This is the first time that a robust evaporimetric methodology for quantifying excess water in over-hydrated skin has been described and validated, and it will form a solid basis for future work

  16. Food intolerance and skin prick test in treated and untreated irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Dae-Won; Lee, Oh-Young; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Lee, Seok-Hwa; Lee, Hang-Lak; Choi, Ho-Soon; Yoon, Byung-Chul; Lee, Min-Ho; Lee, Dong-Hoo; Cho, Sang-Hoen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To correlate the clinical features of treated and untreated patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to the results of skin prick test (SPT) for food and inhalant allergens. METHODS: We recruited 105 subjects to form three different target groups: treated group (n = 44) undergoing treatment for IBS, untreated group (n = 31) meeting the Rome II criteria without treatment for IBS, control group (n = 30) with no IBS symptoms. RESULTS: SPT results were different among the three groups in which SPT was positive in 17 (38.6%) treated patients, in 5 (16.1%) untreated patients and in 1 (3.3%) control (P food SPTs was higher in the treated IBS group than in the untreated IBS group (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Positive food SPT is higher in IBS patients than in controls. PMID:16688829

  17. Skin prick test results of atopic asthmatic subjects in a chest disease clinic in Sanliurfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Koç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Skin prick test (SPT is used widely to determine the allergens in atopic patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the spectrum of aeroallergen sensitivity of atopic asthmatic subjects in Şanlıurfa district. Methods: We evaluated clinical, demographic findings and SPT results of 95 male and 162 female in a total 257 patients who had asthma and allergic symptoms. Results: Most common allergens causing a sensitivity reaction detected in our clinic were as follows; cockroach (56.8%, wheat pollen (53.3%, corn pollen (47.4%, grass pollen (36.5%, poplar tree pollen (26%, house dust mite (19.4%, pepper (16.7% and cat dander (15.1%. Conclusion: High levels of sensitivity to wheat and corn pollens and relatively low sensitivity levels of cat dander results meet our expectations in the area of agricultural land and where pet ownership is not common.

  18. Risk factors for tuberculin skin test conversion among HIV-infected patients in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Saumil; Chen, Tina Fang; Zapata, Josue; Holzman, Robert S.; Zapata, Luis C.; Aberg, Judith A.; Sivapalasingam, Sumathi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background We assessed the incidence of and risk factors for tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion among HIV-infected adults at a New York City clinic. Methods All adult HIV-infected patients were eligible for inclusion if they had a negative baseline TST result and at least one subsequent documented TST test result. Results A total of 414 HIV-infected patients had a negative baseline TST result; 288 (69.6%) were male. Among 348 patients who had a place of birth documented, 50% were born outside of mainland USA. Twenty-two (5.3%) of 414 patients had documented TST conversions, giving a crude incidence rate of 1.77 per 100 person-years. Being a foreign-born Asian individual (p = 0.02), having lived in a shelter (p = 0.004), and having an increase in CD4 cell count (p = 0.02) while under care were independent risk factors for TST conversion. Conclusions We found a high TST conversion rate among HIV-infected patients attending an urban clinic. Annual TST testing is particularly important for patients who are foreign-born from high-endemic countries, those with a history of homelessness, and those with an increase in CD4 cell count since the baseline negative TST test. PMID:22542005

  19. The incidence and features of systemic reactions to skin prick tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaturay, Priya; Nasser, Shuaib; Ewan, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) has been regarded as a safe procedure with few systemic reactions. To evaluate the rate of systemic reactions and their associations after SPT in the largest population to date. In this study reactions were recorded prospectively in a specialist UK allergy clinic for 6 years (2007-2013). An estimated 31,000 patients underwent SPT. Twenty-four patients (age range 7 months to 56 years, mean 23.5 years, 17 female patients, 12 with asthma) had systemic reactions. The rate of systemic reactions to SPT was 0.077%. The likely allergens causing the reaction were foods (18; peanut, 7; walnut, 1; Brazil nut, 2; pistachio, 1; lupin, 1; cow's milk, 2; shrimp, 1; spinach, 1; legume, 1; soy, 1), aeroallergens (4; rabbit, 1; rat, 1; ragwort, 1; grass pollen, 1), wasp venom (1), and Tazocin (1). The causative SPT wheal was larger than 8 mm in 75%. The reaction to Tazocin was severe, with anaphylaxis occurring minutes after SPT. Reactions were treated immediately in the clinic and did not require further medical care. In this largest single-center study, the rate of systemic reactions after SPT was 77 per 100,000 patients. It is the first study to identify foods as a common and important cause (75%), with nuts posing the highest risk. This study reports the first systemic reaction to venom SPT and the first anaphylactic reaction after drug SPT. There was an association with a history of severe reactions and large skin test reaction. There are risks, albeit small, when undertaking SPT. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. IgG4 and IgE co-positive group found in idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng-Xiang; Adzavon, Yao Mawulikplimi; Ma, Jian-Min; Shang, Lei; Chen, Dan-Ying; Xie, Fei; Liu, Meng-Yu; Zhang, Xin; Lyu, Bao-Bei; Zhang, Ming-Zi; Yang, Lin-Qi; Ma, Xue-Mei

    2018-01-01

    To reveal the cytokines involved in idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease (IOID) and the relationship between Th17 cells, IgE and IOID pathogenesis. Whole blood samples were processed immediately after collection and serological IgG4, IgG, and IgE antibodies were tested using ELISA. IOID and orbital cavernous hemangioma (CH) tissue samples underwent Bio-Plex multiplex cytokine detection. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining of all paraffin samples suggested the histological features of IOIDs, and expressions of IgG4 and IL-17A in affected tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Among 40 IOID plasma samples, 52.5% (21/40) were positive for IgG4 and 25% (10/40) were positive for IgE. Overlapped IgG4 or IgE positive samples accounted for 22.5% (9/40). Therefore, IOID samples were separated into three groups. The IgE+/IgG4+ group had a relevantly lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. IL-4 (Th2 cell related), IL-10 and TGF-β1 (Treg cell immunity related) were elevated in all three groups. Some of the Th17 cell related cytokines ( i.e. IL-17A/F, IL-25, IL-23, and IL-33) displayed higher expression levels in the IgE-/IgG4- group compared to the other two groups. We discovered an IgG4-IgE co-positive group as well as Th17 cell immune involvement in IgG4-IgE co-negative subgtroup in IOID for the first time. The pathogenesis of IOID could differ from different subgroups according to the IgG4 and IgE detection. Therefore, we recommend that, Treatment stratagy should be made according to the clinical assessment of IgG4-IgE and Th17 profile detection.

  1. IL-24 is a common and specific autoantigen of IgE in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetzer, Oliver; Lakin, Elisa; Topal, Fatih A; Preusse, Patricia; Freier, Denise; Church, Martin K; Maurer, Marcus

    2017-12-05

    The efficacy of omalizumab (anti-IgE) and increased IgE levels in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) suggest autoallergic mechanisms. We sought to identify autoallergic targets of IgE in patients with CSU. Serum samples of patients with CSU together with those of patients with idiopathic anaphylaxis and healthy control subjects (7 of each) were screened for IgE autoantibodies by using an array of more than 9000 proteins. Sera of 1062 patients with CSU and 482 healthy control subjects were used in an IgE-anti-IL-24-specific ELISA to investigate the association of IgE-anti-IL-24 and CSU. By using array analyses, more than 200 IgE autoantigens were found in patients with CSU that were not found in control subjects. Of the 31 IgE autoantigens detected in more than 70% of patients, 8 were soluble or membrane bound and expressed in the skin. Of these, only IgE autoantibodies to IL-24 were found in all patients with CSU. In vitro studies showed IL-24 to release histamine from human mast cells sensitized with purified IgE of patients with CSU but not control subjects. By using ELISA, mean ± SD levels of IgE-anti-IL-24 were 0.52 ± 0.24 IU/mL in patients with CSU and 0.27 ± 0.08 IU/mL in control subjects, with 80% of patients with CSU but only 20% of control subjects having levels greater than 0.33 IU/mL (P IgE-anti-IL-24 showed acceptable predictive properties for CSU, with a likelihood ratio of 3.9. Clinically, IgE-anti-IL-24 levels showed an association with disease activity, as assessed by the urticaria activity score and with reduced basophil counts. Our findings show that patients with CSU frequently exhibit IgE autoantibodies against many autoantigens and that IL-24 is a common, specific, and functional autoantigen of IgE antibodies in patients with CSU. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cord and blood levels of newborn IgE: Correlation, role and influence of maternal IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Amici, M; Perotti, F; Marseglia, G L; Ierullo, A M; Bollani, L; Decembrino, L; Licari, A; Quaglini, S; Stronati, M; Spinillo, A

    2017-02-01

    The role of cord blood immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in predicting the development of atopy has been widely investigated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between serum and cord blood total IgE in newborns and the possible influence of the atopic status of the mother on them. It was also investigated the possible role of gestational age on neonatal total IgE levels. We considered 763 deliveries, 724≥37 weeks of gestation and 39IgE levels. The results showed a significant correlation between serum and cord IgE levels both in preterm and term newborns. The data revealed also that mother's total IgE levels affect both neonatal serum and cord total IgE levels. For the latters we also found child gender as an additional independent predictor. On the contrary total IgE levels are not affected by gestational age. Clinical limitations of total IgE is known but their determination can be useful to define atopy and to suggest follow-up of the children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. A Comparison of Two-Step Tuberculin Skin Test between Health-Care Workers and Nonhospital Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nikokar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tuberculin test is widely used to identify tuberculosisinfection. Some individuals infected with Mycobacteriumtuberculosis may have an initial negative skin test reactionto tuberculin. The two step purified protein derivative skin testcan decrease misinterpretation of tuberculin test .This study wasaimed at comparing the two- step tuberculin skin test and boosterphenomenon in health care workers and non hospital employees.Methods: One hundred and eighty five health service employeesfrom Razi University Hospital and 181 non hospitalemployees were subjected to an initial tuberculin skin test.Those who were negative on the first test underwent a secondone 2 weeks later. The reactions to the tests were measured 72hours later. Tests with an induration of ≥ 10 mm was consideredpositive. Moreover, second tests with an induration of atleast 6 mm increase relative to the relevant first tests wereconsidered positive.Results: Compared to non hospital employees (n=79, 43.6%, asignificantly higher number of health care workers (n=113,61.1% were positive on the first tuberculin test. 18.5 % of healthcare workers and 31.5% of non hospital employees demonstrateda boosted reaction after the second tuberculin test. The occurrenceof boosted reaction was significantly associated with ageboth groups. There was no association between the presence ofBCG scars and the occurrence of boosted reaction.Conclusion: the present study shows that the prevalence of TBwas higher among health care worker than non hospital employees.Moreover, it demonstrated that non hospital employeeshad a higher age-associated booster reaction to the second tuberculinskin test than health care workers. Therefore, to avoidmissing false negative cases, it would be necessary to do a secondtuberculin test for subjects with a negative reaction to theinitial test, especially in subjects older than 40 years.

  4. Cow’s milk allergy: Evaluating tolerance through skin-prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Valença de Oliveira Neves

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To evaluate the wheal diameter in allergy skin-prick tests (SPT with cow’s milk extract (CM comparing tolerant and persistent patients. Method: A retrospective cohort study involving database analysis of children with diagnosis of cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA mediated by immunoglobulin E in a specialized outpatient clinic that regularly performed SPT between January 2000 and July 2015. Patients were allocated into two groups: tolerant or persistent. Comparisons were made at diagnosis and over time between tolerant and persistent patients using Fisher’s, Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon tests and significance level at 5%. Results: After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, the sample includes 44 patients (29 tolerant and 15 who persisted with CMPA. In the tolerant group, the medians of SPT were: 6 mm at diagnosis and 2 mm at the development of tolerance; a significant difference (p<0.0001 was found. In the persistent group, the median SPT at diagnosis was 7 mm, while in the last SPT it was 5 mm, with no statistical difference (p=0.173. The comparison of medians in the last SPT between groups was significant (p=0.001, with a reduction greater than 50% in SPT in the tolerant group. Conclusion: Serial SPTs were useful for diagnosis, and a decrease higher than 50% in diameter can indicate the moment to perform oral food challenge (OFC tests, helping to detect tolerance in CMPA.

  5. Association Between Allergic Diseases and Food Allergens Based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Keshvari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Frequency of allergic diseases is growing in recent years. Identification of frequency of food allergens in different areas play an important role in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine frequency and association of common food allergens in patients with allergic diseases based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr province. Material and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 1100 patients were enrolled with allergic diseases which had a sensitivity to at least one allergen.  This test was carried out with 21 common food allergens extract. Results: In all patients, association between the severity of the reaction prick allergy test and severity of allergic diseases with shrimp, cow's Milk and peanuts were (P= 0.01, (P= 0.02 and (P=0.04 respectively. In this study, the frequency of allergic rhinitis, asthma, chronic and acute urticaris and atopic eczema were 54.2%, 23%, 12.4%, 4.1% and 12%, respectively. While the the most common food allergens were peanuts (46.6%, egg yolk (43.1% and shrimp (42% respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that food allergens such as shrimp, cow's Milk and peanuts have a greater role in severity of allergic diseases and this food allergens showed the highest frequency in patients.

  6. Positive Montenegro skin test among patients with sporotrichosis in Rio De Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Barros, Mônica Bastos; Schubach, Armando; Francesconi-do-Valle, Antônio Carlos; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; de Matos Salgueiro, Mariza; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Reis, Rosani Santos; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Cuzzi, Tullia; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; da Silva Passos, Janaína Pinho; Conceição, Maria José; de Almeida Marzochi, Mauro Célio

    2005-01-01

    We studied 52 patients with sporotrichosis confirmed by isolation of Sporothrix schenckii and reactivity to the Montenegro skin test (MST) during an ongoing outbreak of this mycosis in Rio de Janeiro. The objective was to emphasize the importance of parasitological confirmation and the possibility of incorrect diagnosis based on the lesion's appearance, epidemiological information, and immunological tests. The antigen used for the MST was conserved in either thimerosal 1:10,000 (group 1) or 0.4% phenol (group 2). Nineteen patients (39%) in group 1 and seven (12%) in group 2 presented an induration>or=10 mm (p<0.001). Sera from three patients (6.7%) reacted to indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) for leishmaniasis, while sera from 10 patients (22.2%) reacted to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fifteen patients (28.8%) presented up to two lesions, with a predominance of ulcers. Forty-four patients (84.6%) were treated with itraconazole. In the differential diagnosis between sporotrichosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, the possibility of co-infection, allergy to the reagent diluent, and cross-reactions should be further investigated, especially in regions with limited laboratory facilities.

  7. Reevaluating leishmanin skin test as a marker for immunity against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni Boroujeni, Amir; Aminjavaheri, Malih; Moshtaghian, Bahador; Momeni, Arash; Momeni, Ali Z

    2013-07-01

    The leishmanin skin test (LST) has been used for clinical diagnosis of leishmaniasis and epidemiological studies of the disease. Thus far, evidence has suggested that LST conversion indicates a degree of protection against leishmaniasis. In this study, we have put this assumption to test. A total of 273 participants with positive LST living in a hyperendemic area for leishmaniasis were followed for three years for any occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Twenty-two of the 273 participants contracted leishmaniasis during the 3-year follow-up. These new cases included participants who had a previous history of active disease, those who had a history of leishmanization, or those who were suspected of having a history of subclinical infection. In this study, the incidence of leishmaniasis in individuals with positive LST was close to the general incidence of the disease in the same hyperendemic area. These results suggest that although LST conversion may be a marker for partial immunity towards leishmaniasis, it may not, however, indicate complete protection against the disease, and consequently there is a need for revision of current vaccine development approaches which are based on rendering vaccinated individuals LST positive. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Intrathecal synthesis of IgE in children with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroso Jesús

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by the helminth Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is an emerging infectious disease in America. The objective of this paper was to determine if the intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin E is produced during the acute phase of the disease. Methods Thirteen patients, mean age 4.5 years were studied; a diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed and serum samples taken. Immunoglobulin E (IgE in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was quantified by nephelometry. Control patients had other infections or other neurological diseases. Results The mean cell count in the CSF was 500 × 10-6 cells/L and of these 23% were eosinophils. In blood the eosinophils were 13%. The chief symptoms of the patients were migraine, vomiting and fever and 50% presented some meningeal signs. IgE intrathecal synthesis analyzed by the corresponding quotient diagram (Reibergram was observed in all patients. No intrathecal IgE synthesis was seen in control patients. Conclusion Intrathecal synthesis of IgE demonstrates the participation of this immunoglobulin in the destruction of the third stage larvae of the parasite in the CSF. The test should be considered in our environment as a tool to aid diagnosis.

  9. In vitro skin irritation assessment becomes a reality in China using a reconstructed human epidermis test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Liu, Yanfeng; Qiu, Jie; Zhong, Lingyan; Alépée, Nathalie; Cotovio, José; Cai, Zhenzi

    2017-06-01

    The in vitro EpiSkin™ test method was validated in 2007 by the European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing (EURL ECVAM) as a full replacement method for the Draize acute skin irritation test and adopted in the OECD Test Guideline 439 in 2009. Based on the EpiSkin™ technology, the production of a reconstructed epidermis model has been established and standardized in China. The evaluation of the in vitro skin irritation test method using this EpiSkin™ model produced in China was performed on a set of 45 chemicals. Good predictive capacity was obtained with 94% (n=17) for sensitivity, 75% (n=28) for specificity and 82% for accuracy. The accuracy of the included 20 OECD reference chemicals also met the OECD acceptance criteria, indicating that this testing method based on the EpiSkin™ model produced in China can be used as a stand-alone test method to predict skin irritation. The availability and validity of in vitro epidermis model and testing method are of great significance for extending the applications of non-animal alternative testing methods in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reisinger, K.; Hoffmann, S.; Alepee, N.; Ashikaga, T.; Barroso, J.; Elcombe, C.; Gellatly, N.; Galbiati, V.; Gibbs, S.; Groux, H.; Hibatallah, J.; Keller, D.; Kern, P.; Klaric, M.; Kolle, S.; Kuehnl, J.; Lambrechts, N.; Lindstedt, M.; Millet, M.; Martinozzi-Teissier, S.; Natsch, A.; Petersohn, D.; Pike, I.; Sakaguchi, H.; Schepky, A.; Tailhardat, M.; Templier, M.; van Vliet, E.; Maxwell, G.

    2015-01-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has

  11. Medical clowns ease anxiety and pain perceived by children undergoing allergy prick skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A; Stauber, T; Peleg, O; Hanuka, P; Eshayek, L; Confino-Cohen, R

    2014-10-01

    Intervention of medical clowns (MC) during various medical procedures performed in children has been used to relieve anxiety and pain. Their role in allergy skin testing has never been evaluated. To evaluate whether MC can diminish pain and anxiety perceived by children undergoing allergy skin prick tests (SPT). In a prospective, randomized, controlled, and blinded study, children undergoing SPT were or were not accompanied by MC. All parents and children ≥8 years completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after SPT. Videotapes recorded during the procedure were scored for anxiety (m-YPAS) for all children and for pain (FLACC) for children 2-7 years old by a psychologist who was unaware of the MC's presence. After SPT, children ≥8 years completed a visual analog score (VAS) for pain. Ninety-one children (mean age 8.2 years, M/F = 54/37) were recruited of whom 45 were accompanied by clowns. A significant reduction in state-STAI was found in the clowns group, in both parents and children, when compared with the regular group (26.9 ± 6.6 and 32.3 ± 10.0; P = 0.004, and 27.1 ± 4.2 and 34.3 ± 7.6; P = 0.002, respectively). Both m-YPAS and FLACC were reduced in the clowns group compared with the regular one. In the clowns group, m-YPAS positively correlated with both VAS and FLACC (P = 0.000 and 0.002, respectively). m-YPAS was positively correlated with FLACC in the regular group (P = 0.000). Medical clowns significantly decrease the level of anxiety perceived by both children undergoing allergy SPT and their parents, as well as the pain perceived by young children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. High plasma IgE levels within the Scandinavian wolf population, and its implications for mammalian IgE homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledin, Anna; Arnemo, Jon M; Liberg, Olof; Hellman, Lars

    2008-04-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) serves as an important link between innate and adaptive immunity through its ability to bind high affinity receptors on mast cells and basophils. Large differences in IgE levels may here affect this important link, and IgE levels in natural non-domestic animal populations may therefore be very informative concerning the levels of IgE that this system have been balanced against during recent mammalian evolution. However, very few such studies have been performed. Here, we present an analysis of total IgE levels in 65 Scandinavian wolves: 57 free living (wild), and 8 wolves in captivity (Zoo). The 57 wild wolves correspond to approximately 30% of the entire wolf population in Sweden and Norway and thus represent a large fraction of the entire population, making this a unique sample from a wild canine population. The median IgE level in these wolves was 67 microg/ml, which is approximately twice the level seen in domestic dogs and more than 100 times the levels in non-atopic humans. The collected information from domestic and wild populations now indicate that the very low IgE levels observed in man and laboratory rodents are most likely an effect of a life in a relatively parasite free environment, and that total IgE levels under maximally stimulatory (normal) conditions may reach 100-200 microg/ml.

  13. Alternative testing methods for skin sensitization: NMR spectroscopy for probing the reactivity and classification of potential skin sensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avonto, Cristina; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-09-21

    Evaluating consumer products for potentially harmful side effects of chemical ingredients is important for the protection of both the consumer and those involved in the manufacturing process. In order to assess the risk potential of chemicals, regulatory agencies have encouraged the development of several in silico, in vitro, and in chemico methods as alternatives to eliminate or minimize the use of animals. To add structural information to the existing in chemico methods, an NMR-based method is proposed for probing the reactivity and classification of the potential electrophiles (E) using a model thiol, DCYA, as a nucleophile. The major advantage of the NMR method is the quantitation of the actual adduct, DCYA-E. The degree of reaction is here provided as a direct measurement of adduct formation and/or electrophile depletion, in contrast to other in chemico assays, e.g., ADRA and DPRA, where the reactivity is inferred from the quantification of the test nucleophile depletion. Moreover, the developed NMR method should serve as a qualitative and quantitative tool in understanding the site of reaction and other structural information associated with test sensitizer. This is particularly valuable and advantageous over methods encouraged by regulatory agencies, which merely provide quantification of the reaction but lack any structural information. Several compounds with multiple reaction sites were successfully tested with the proposed NMR method. Otherwise, these compounds have proven to be a challenge to identify and classify using existing alternative methods.

  14. Decontamination efficiency of detergents on the market for the skin contaminated with radioactive materials. The comparative test (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Ninomiya, Kazushi; Takasaki, Koji; Horiuchi, Nobuharu; Yasunaka, Hideo; Izumi, Yuichi

    1999-04-01

    Contamination incidence on human body and skin happens sometimes during radiation works in controlled area. The radioactive surface contamination should be removed from the skin as soon as possible for radiation control and exposure management. Titanium oxide paste, which is reserved as a detergent for decontamination, has a satisfactory and reliable result for decontamination effects. The titanium oxide paste, however, has a short preservation period, and must be updated and supplied every serenal months. Decontamination tests for about 60 kinds of detergents on the market were carried out with swine and radioactive material, Ce-144. Radioactive solution of Ce-144 was dropped on the test samples of swine skin, which were left for 5 min or 40 min as it is. Radioactivities of the samples were measured before and after washing by the detergents. As a result of the decontamination tests, 22 kinds of detergents on the market which have a similar decontamination efficiency to the titanium oxide paste were selected. It was also ascertained that the decontamination efficiency of all the detergents decreased on the test samples which were immersed in the radioactive solution for 40 min and wounded on skin surface. (Suetake, M.)

  15. Tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON® assay in young children investigated for tuberculosis in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moyo, S.; Isaacs, F.; Gelderbloem, S.; Verver, S.; Hawkridge, A. J.; Hatherill, M.; Tameris, M.; Geldenhuys, H.; Workman, L.; Pai, M.; Hussey, G.; Hanekom, W. A.; Mahomed, H.

    2011-01-01

    Although the literature on interferon-gamma release assays on tuberculosis (TB) in children has increased, data pertaining to young children remain relatively limited. To compare results from the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) in children aged <3 years

  16. A Tuberculin Skin Test Survey and the Annual Risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Gambian School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adetifa, Ifedayo M. O.; Muhammad, Abdul Khalie; Jeffries, David; Donkor, Simon; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Corrah, Tumani; d'Alessandro, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    A Tuberculin skin test (TST) survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of latent TB Infection (LTBI) and to estimate the annual risk of M. tuberculosis infection (ARTI) in Gambian school children. The results are expected to contribute to understanding of Tuberculosis epidemiology in The Gambia.

  17. Standard skin prick testing and sensitization to inhalant allergens across Europe--a survey from the GALEN network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzerling, L.; Frew, A. J.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet, J.; Bresciani, M.; Carlsen, K.-H.; van Cauwenberge, P.; Darsow, U.; Fokkens, W. J.; Haahtela, T.; van Hoecke, H.; Jessberger, B.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kopp, T.; Lahoz, C. N.; Lodrup Carlsen, K. C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Ring, J.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Vignola, A. M.; Wöhrl, S.; Zuberbier, T.

    2005-01-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) is the standard method for diagnosing allergic sensitization but is to some extent performed differently in clinical centres across Europe. There would be advantages in harmonizing the standard panels of allergens used in different European countries, both for clinical

  18. Genome-wide association study for levels of total serum IgE identifies HLA-C in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Yatagai

    Full Text Available Most of the previously reported loci for total immunoglobulin E (IgE levels are related to Th2 cell-dependent pathways. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify genetic loci responsible for IgE regulation. A total of 479,940 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were tested for association with total serum IgE levels in 1180 Japanese adults. Fine-mapping with SNP imputation demonstrated 6 candidate regions: the PYHIN1/IFI16, MHC classes I and II, LEMD2, GRAMD1B, and chr13∶60576338 regions. Replication of these candidate loci in each region was assessed in 2 independent Japanese cohorts (n = 1110 and 1364, respectively. SNP rs3130941 in the HLA-C region was consistently associated with total IgE levels in 3 independent populations, and the meta-analysis yielded genome-wide significance (P = 1.07×10(-10. Using our GWAS results, we also assessed the reproducibility of previously reported gene associations with total IgE levels. Nine of 32 candidate genes identified by a literature search were associated with total IgE levels after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that SNPs in the HLA-C region are strongly associated with total serum IgE levels in the Japanese population and that some of the previously reported genetic associations are replicated across ethnic groups.

  19. The Clinical Test of Nano gold Cosmetic for Recovering Skin Damage Due to Chemicals: Special Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufikurohmah, T.; Wardana, A. P.; Tjahjani, S.; Sanjaya, I. G. M.; Baktir, A.; Syahrani, A.

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics was done at PT. Gizi Indonesia. Clinical trials to cosmetics data supported that cosmetics are able to treat skin health which has been reported partially. For special cases, the recovery process of facial skin damage should also receive attention including cases of facial skin damage caused by chemicals such as phenol, HCl, aqua regia or other harsh chemicals. The problem determined whether the Nano gold is able to recover skin damage due to the harsh chemicals. This clinical trial data on the forms of early skin damage caused by phenol was delivered in the forms of facial photos patients. The recovery progress of facial skin condition was obtained every week for two months. The data included the forms of widespread wounds during the recovery process. This statement supported by anova statistical analysis of the widespread wound changing every week for 8 times. The conclusion is skin damage due to Phenol impregnation can be recovered with the use of Nano gold cosmetics for 8 weeks. This results support the manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics for the needs of society. It also suggest that Nano gold material can be used for medicine manufacturing in the future.

  20. Housekeeping health care workers have the highest risk for tuberculin skin test conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, H A; Karakis, I; Heimer, D; Arzt, M; Goldstein, W; Bouhnik, L; Maimon, M N

    2011-08-01

    Not all health care workers (HCWs) are at the same risk for tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion, indicating latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. To identify risk factors for TST conversion among HCWs. A retrospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary university medical centre included every HCW who had had a negative two-step TST at work entry and at least one consecutive TST in the period 2005-2009 (mean follow-up period 55 months). Binomic logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for TST conversion. Potential risk factors such as age, health care profession, patient exposure profile, workplace division and history of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination were entered in the model. A total of 450 subjects met the inclusion criteria, of whom 93 had TST conversion. The highest annual rates of TST conversion occurred in workers who worked as housekeeping staff (6.9%). Older age, a work environment with high patient turnover and employment in maintenance departments were significant risk factors (adjusted odds ratios 2.05, 5.2 and 8.4 respectively). Housekeeping staff, older age workers and health care professionals working in an environment of high patient turnover are at increased risk for latent TB infection.

  1. Frozen fruit skin prick test for the diagnosis of fruit allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Teresa; Guilarte, Mar; Luengo, Olga; Guillén, Mercé; Labrador-Horrillo, Moisés; Fadeeva, Tatiana; Sala, Anna; Cardona, Victória

    2010-12-01

    Diagnosis of fruit sensitisation by skin prick test (SPT) is fast and easy to perform. Nevertheless, some fruit is not available throughout the year. Freezing aliquots of these fresh fruits to be defrosted would be a good solution to perform SPT at any time. To compare the reproducibility of SPT with Rosaceae and Cucurbitaceae frozen fruit with fresh and commercial fruit extracts. SPT with the following fruit were performed: apricot, cherry, strawberry, nectarine, Japanese medlar, peach, (peel and pulp), yellow and red plum, melon and watermelon. We compared fresh fruit, commercial extract and fruit which had been frozen at -18 degrees C. Results were read by planimetry (Inmunotek prick-film) after 15 minutes. The study group comprised 48 patients (9 males, 39 females) with a mean age of 31, 6 +/- 2.0 years. Concordance of positive and negative results was extremely high and significant in all cases. Correlation between frozen fruit and commercial extract, frozen fruit and fresh and commercial extract and fresh fruit was statistically significant in all cases except for strawberry. The use of frozen fruit is a valid method, as the performance of the SPT is similar to that of fresh fruit. This enables diagnostic procedures with seasonal fruit at any time of the year.

  2. The effect of allergic rhinitis with positive skin prick test on choroidal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigun, Alper; Elbay, Ahmet; Dogan, Remzi; Ozturan, Orhan; Ozdemir, Mehmet Hakan

    2017-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disease that develops through immunoglobulin E in the rhino-ocular mucosa due to allergy. The main symptoms are runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing and itchy nose. This study was designed to investigate the effect of allergic rhinitis on choroidal thickness. This study was planned as a case-control study. This study performed in a tertiary referral center. The study included 61 patients with allergic rhinitis and 35 healthy subjects. Patients in both groups underwent skin prick test. In allergic rhinitis patients and healthy persons; subfoveal, temporal and nasal choroidal thickness measurement was performed. The choroidal thicknesses were measured without pupil dilation using the Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography. In the subfoveal and temporal region, choroidal tissue was followed up significantly thicker in allergic rhinitis patients statistically compared to healthy persons (p = 0.031, p = 0.049). However, no significant difference was followed up between the nasal choroidal thickness measurements statistically (p = 0.54). Runny nose (67.2%), sneeze (65.5%), stuffiness (62.2%), itching of the nose (40.9%), and nasal discharge (21.3%) complaints were observed significantly higher in the group having allergic rhinitis. The effect of allergic rhinitis on choroidal thickness were assessed and compared with the control group. Our study revealed that there was significant association between increased choroidal thickness and allergic rhinitis. Allergic sensitivity may play an important role in increased choroidal thickness.

  3. Testing a linear time invariant model for skin conductance responses by intraneural recording and stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerster, Samuel; Namer, Barbara; Elam, Mikael; Bach, Dominik R

    2018-02-01

    Skin conductance responses (SCR) are increasingly analyzed with model-based approaches that assume a linear and time-invariant (LTI) mapping from sudomotor nerve (SN) activity to observed SCR. These LTI assumptions have previously been validated indirectly, by quantifying how much variance in SCR elicited by sensory stimulation is explained under an LTI model. This approach, however, collapses sources of variability in the nervous and effector organ systems. Here, we directly focus on the SN/SCR mapping by harnessing two invasive methods. In an intraneural recording experiment, we simultaneously track SN activity and SCR. This allows assessing the SN/SCR relationship but possibly suffers from interfering activity of non-SN sympathetic fibers. In an intraneural stimulation experiment under regional anesthesia, such influences are removed. In this stimulation experiment, about 95% of SCR variance is explained under LTI assumptions when stimulation frequency is below 0.6 Hz. At higher frequencies, nonlinearities occur. In the intraneural recording experiment, explained SCR variance is lower, possibly indicating interference from non-SN fibers, but higher than in our previous indirect tests. We conclude that LTI systems may not only be a useful approximation but in fact a rather accurate description of biophysical reality in the SN/SCR system, under conditions of low baseline activity and sporadic external stimuli. Intraneural stimulation under regional anesthesia is the most sensitive method to address this question. © 2017 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. The prevalence of skin-test-positive allergic rhinitis in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Jørgensen, T; Nielsen, N H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is disputed whether increases in self-reported respiratory allergy represent a true increase or merely increased recognition. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of skin-prick-test (SPT)-positive allergic rhinitis had increased in an adult general population in Copenhagen...... (participation rate 74.6%) and 482 (participation rate 53.4%) subjects were examined in 1990 and 1998, respectively. Diagnoses of SPT-positive allergic rhinitis were based on a history of nasal symptoms on exposure to allergens and SPT positivity to allergens. RESULTS: The prevalence of a diagnosis of SPT......-positive allergic rhinitis increased from 12.9% to 22.5% (adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.30-2.90), whereas the prevalence of a positive SPT (allergen histamine wheal ratio > or = 0.5) to one or more of 10 allergens increased from 27.7% to 33.9% (adjusted odds ratio 1.47, 95% CI 1.05-2.05). CONCLUSIONS...

  5. Component-resolved diagnosis of baker's allergy based on specific IgE to recombinant wheat flour proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Ingrid; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Doekes, Gert; Quirce, Santiago; Krop, Esmeralda; Rozynek, Peter; van Kampen, Vera; Merget, Rolf; Meurer, Ursula; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf, Monika

    2015-06-01

    Sensitization to wheat flour plays an important role in the development and diagnosis of baker's asthma. We evaluated wheat allergen components as sensitizers for bakers with work-related complaints, with consideration of cross-reactivity to grass pollen. Nineteen recombinant wheat flour proteins and 2 cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants were tested by using CAP-FEIA in sera of 101 bakers with wheat flour allergy (40 German, 37 Dutch, and 24 Spanish) and 29 pollen-sensitized control subjects with wheat-specific IgE but without occupational exposure. IgE binding to the single components was inhibited with wheat flour, rye flour, and grass pollen. The diagnostic efficiencies of IgE tests with single allergens and combinations were evaluated by assessing their ability to discriminate between patients with baker's allergy and control subjects based on receiver operating characteristic analyses. Eighty percent of bakers had specific IgE levels of 0.35 kUA/L or greater and 91% had specific IgE levels of 0.1 kUA/L or greater to at least one of the 21 allergens. The highest frequencies of IgE binding were found for thiol reductase (Tri a 27) and the wheat dimeric α-amylase inhibitor 0.19 (Tri a 28). Cross-reactivity to grass pollen was proved for 9 components, and cross-reactivity to rye flour was proved for 18 components. A combination of IgE tests to 5 components, Tri a 27, Tri a 28, tetrameric α-amylase inhibitor CM2 (Tri a 29.02), serine protease inhibitor-like allergen (Tri a 39), and 1-cys-peroxiredoxin (Tri a 32), produced the maximal area under the curve (AUC = 0.84) in receiver operating characteristic analyses, but this was still lower than the AUC for wheat- or rye flour-specific IgE (AUC = 0.89 or 0.88, respectively). Component-resolved diagnostics help to distinguish between sensitization caused by occupational flour exposure and wheat seropositivity based on cross-reactivity to grass pollen. For routine diagnosis of baker's allergy, however

  6. IgE responses to Ascaris and mite tropomyosins are risk factors for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, V; García, E; Dennis, R; Rojas, M X; Rondón, M A; Pérez, A; Peñaranda, A; Barragán, A M; Jimenez, S; Kennedy, M W; Caraballo, L

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between helminthiases and allergy is a matter of considerable interest and research. In the tropics, house dust mite exposure, a known risk factor for asthma, is frequently concurrent with helminth infections. It remains to be defined whether infection with the common roundworm Ascaris or its bystander immunological effects influence the prevalence and pathogenesis of asthma independently of mite sensitization. To investigate the relationship between the IgE responses to Ascaris and its purified allergens and the risk of asthma in a tropical country. A nested case-control study was performed in 356 subjects who reported current and past asthma symptoms (asthmatics) and 435 controls that had never experienced such symptoms. They were tested for serum levels of total IgE and specific IgE to Ascaris extract, Asc s 1 (ABA-1), Asc l 3 (tropomyosin) and GST (glutathione transferase). In addition, specific IgE to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Blomia tropicalis and their tropomyosins Der p 10 and Blo t 10 was measured. Sensitization was defined as a positive specific IgE result to any extract or recombinant allergen. Sensitization to Ascaris and D. pteronyssinus was independently associated with asthma after adjustment for age, gender, socio-economic stratum, city and other IgE levels (adjusted ORs: 2.17; 95% CI 1.37-3.42 and 2.46; 95% CI 1.54-3.92), respectively. There was also a significant association with sensitization to the highly allergenic and cross-reactive tropomyosins Asc l 3, Blo t 10 and Der p10 (aORs: 1.76; 95% CI 1.21-2.57, 1.64; 95% CI 1.14-2.35 and 1.51; 95% CI 1.02-2.24), respectively. IgE responses to Ascaris are associated with asthma symptoms in a population living in the tropics. Sensitization to the cross-reactive Ascaris and mite tropomyosins partially underlies this finding. These results have potential relevance in asthma diagnosis and management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. An epigenome-wide association study of total serum IgE in Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Ting; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Forno, Erick; Liang, Liming; Yan, Qi; Hu, Donglei; Weeks, Daniel E; Baccarelli, Andrea; Acosta-Perez, Edna; Eng, Celeste; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Laprise, Catherine; Davies, Gwyneth A; Hopkin, Julian M; Moffatt, Miriam F; Cookson, William O C M; Canino, Glorisa; Burchard, Esteban G; Celedón, Juan C

    2017-08-01

    Total IgE is a therapeutic target in patients with allergic diseases. DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBCs) was associated with total IgE levels in an epigenome-wide association study of white subjects. Whether DNA methylation of eosinophils explains these findings is insufficiently understood. We tested for association between genome-wide DNA methylation in WBCs and total IgE levels in 2 studies of Hispanic children: the Puerto Rico Genetics of Asthma and Lifestyle Study (PR-GOAL; n = 306) and the Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study (n = 573). Whole-genome methylation of DNA from WBCs was measured by using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Total IgE levels were measured by using the UniCAP 100 system. In PR-GOAL WBC types (ie, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes) in peripheral blood were measured by using Coulter Counter techniques. In the GALA II study WBC types were imputed. Multivariable linear regression was used for the analysis of DNA methylation and total IgE levels, which was first conducted separately for each cohort, and then results from the 2 cohorts were combined in a meta-analysis. CpG sites in multiple genes, including novel findings and results previously reported in white subjects, were significantly associated with total IgE levels. However, adjustment for WBC types resulted in markedly fewer significant sites. Top findings from this adjusted meta-analysis were in the genes ZFPM1 (P = 1.5 × 10 -12 ), ACOT7 (P = 2.5 × 10 -11 ), and MND1 (P = 1.4 × 10 -9 ). In an epigenome-wide association study adjusted for WBC types (including eosinophils), methylation changes in genes enriched in pathways relevant to asthma and immune responses were associated with total IgE levels among Hispanic children. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetophoretic immunoassay of allergen-specific IgE in an enhanced magnetic field gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Young Ki; Jin, Zongwen; Kang, Joo H; Oh, Eunkeu; Han, Min-Kyu; Kim, Hak-Sung; Jang, Jung-Tak; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Cheon, Jinwoo; Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Hae-Sim; Park, Je-Kyun

    2007-03-15

    We demonstrate a novel magnetophoretic immunoassay of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) based on the magnetophoretic deflection velocity of a microbead that is proportional to the associated magnetic nanoparticles under enhanced magnetic field gradient in a microchannel. In this detection scheme, two types of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus), were used as the model allergens. Polystyrene microbeads were conjugated with each of the mite extracts followed by incubation with serum samples. The resulting mixture was then reacted with magnetic nanoparticle-conjugated anti-human IgE for detection of allergen-specific IgE by using sandwich immuno-reactions. A ferromagnetic microstructure combined with a permanent magnet was employed to increase the magnetic field gradient ( approximately 10(4) T/m) in a microfluidic device. The magnetophoretic velocities of microbeads were measured in a microchannel under applied magnetic field, and the averaged velocity was well correlated with the concentration of allergen-specific IgE in serum. From the analysis of pooled sera obtained from 44 patients, the detection limits of the allergen-specific human IgEs for D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus were determined to be 565 (0.045 IU/mL) and 268 fM (0.021 IU/mL), respectively. These values are 1 order of magnitude lower than those by a conventional CAP system. For evaluation of reproducibility and accuracy, unknown sera were subjected to a blind test by using the developed assay system, and they were compared with the CAP system. As a result, coefficient of variance was less than 10%, and the developed method enabled a fast assay with a tiny amount of serum ( approximately 10 microL).

  9. Open source software implementation of an integrated testing strategy for skin sensitization potency based on a Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Jason R; Smith, Marjolein; Kleinstreuer, Nicole C; Burns, Thomas A; Strickland, Judy; Dancik, Yuri; Morris, Richard; Rinckel, Lori A; Casey, Warren; Jaworska, Joanna S

    2014-01-01

    An open-source implementation of a previously published integrated testing strategy (ITS) for skin sensitization using a Bayesian network has been developed using R, a free and open-source statistical computing language. The ITS model provides probabilistic predictions of skin sensitization potency based on in silico and in vitro information as well as skin penetration characteristics from a published bioavailability model (Kasting et al., 2008). The structure of the Bayesian network was designed to be consistent with the adverse outcome pathway published by the OECD (Jaworska et al., 2011, 2013). In this paper, the previously published data set (Jaworska et al., 2013) is improved by two data corrections and a modified application of the Kasting model. The new data set implemented in the original commercial software package and the new R version produced consistent results. The data and a fully documented version of the code are publicly available (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/its).

  10. Reactivity to IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factor is due to monomeric IgE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budde, I. K.; Aalbers, M.; Aalberse, R. C.; van der Zee, J. S.; Knol, E. F.

    2000-01-01

    IgE-dependent histamine-releasing factor (HRF) can distinguish between IgE+ and IgE-. In contrast to IgE-, IgE+ sensitizes basophils to release histamine in response to HRF. But we do not know what particular feature distinguishes IgE+ from IgE-. The objective was to investigate the hypothesis that

  11. Skin Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Impetigo and Ecthyma (News) Don't Get Caught Without ... Professional version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection. The infection leads ...

  12. Comparison of different local and imported histamine concentrations used as a skin prick test positive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Visitsunthorn, Kittipos; Aulla, Sunisa; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2016-12-01

    The skin prick test (SPT) is a valid and approved tool that is used to diagnose atopic diseases. The SPT is accurate, safe, simple and inexpensive. However, the histamine concentration used as a positive control in the SPT varies among centers. To compare SPT results using different concentrations of locally-prepared and imported histamine solutions. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, self-controlled study was performed in healthy adult volunteers. The SPT was performed using 4 concentrations of histamine solutions (imported, 1 mg/mL; locally-prepared, 1, 5 and 10 mg/mL). Locally-prepared histamine positive controls were prepared from histamine biphosphate monohydrate using sterile technique. Seventy-five adult volunteers (mean age, 36 years) were included in the study. Eight volunteers were male and 9 had a history of atopy. Mean wheal diameter (MWD) for imported histamine was 3.49 mm for a concentration of 1 mg/mL, and that of locally-prepared histamine was 2.94 mm, 5.05 mm and 5.52 mm for concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 mg/mL histamine, respectively. Negative SPT results (MWD histamine and 26 subjects (34.7%) who received the locally-prepared histamine at concentration of 1 mg/mL. All subjects tested with locally-prepared histamine at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/mL had a MWD > 3 mm. Locally-prepared histamine base at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/mL yielded better positive results than both imported and locally-prepared histamine at a concentration of 1 mg/mL.

  13. Tuberculin skin test result and risk of death among persons with active TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Auld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the tuberculin skin test (TST is frequently used to aid in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB disease and to identify persons with latent TB infection, it is an imperfect test and approximately 10-25% of persons with microbiologically confirmed TB disease have a negative TST. Previous studies have suggested that persons with a negative TST are more likely to present with severe TB disease and have an increased rate of TB-related death. METHODS: We analyzed culture-confirmed TB cases captured in US TB surveillance data from 1993 to 2008 and performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the association between TST result and death. RESULTS: Of 284,866 cases of TB reported in the US, 58,180 persons were eligible for inclusion in the analysis and 3,270 of those persons died after initiating TB treatment. Persons with a negative TST accounted for only 14% of the eligible cases but accounted for 42% of the deaths. Persons with a TST≥15 mm had 67% lower odds of death than persons with a negative TST (adjusted odds ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.36. CONCLUSIONS: A negative TST is associated with an increased risk of death among persons with culture-confirmed TB disease, even after adjustment for HIV status, site of TB disease, sputum smear AFB status, drug susceptibility, age, sex, and origin of birth. In addition to indicating risk of developing disease, the TST may also be a marker for increased risk of death.

  14. Production and immunological analysis of IgE reactive recombinant egg white allergens expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; Doran, Tim; Tang, Mimi L K; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-05-01

    IgE-mediated allergy to chicken egg affects a large number of children and adults worldwide. The current management strategy for egg allergy is strict avoidance, however this is impractical due to the presence of eggs in a range of foods and pharmaceutical products including vaccines. Strict avoidance also poses nutritional disadvantages due to high nutritional value of eggs. Allergen specific immunotherapy is being pursued as a curative treatment, in which an allergic individual is gradually exposed to the allergen to induce tolerance. Use of recombinant proteins for immunotherapy has been beneficial due to the purity of the recombinant proteins compared to natural proteins. In this study, we produced IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins that can be used for future immunotherapy. Using E. coli as an expression system, we successfully produced recombinant versions of Gal d 1, 2 and 3, that were IgE reactive when tested against a pool of egg allergic patients' sera. The IgE reactivity indicates that these recombinant proteins are capable of eliciting an immune response, thus being potential candidates for immunotherapy. We have, for the first time, attempted to produce recombinant versions of all 4 major egg white allergens in E. coli, and successfully produced 3, with only Gal d 4 showing loss of IgE reactivity in the recombinant version. The results suggest that egg allergy in Australian populations may mainly be due to IgE reactivity to Gal d 3 and 4, while Gal d 1 shows higher IgE reactivity. This is the first report of a collective and comparative immunological analysis of all 4 egg white allergens. The significance of this study is the potential use of the IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins in immunotherapy to treat egg allergic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum IgE levels in patients with intracranial tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Alexiou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between allergy and brain cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the serum IgE levels between patients with gliomas and nonglial tumors and their possible prognostic role. Methods: A total of 84 patients with intracranial tumors were included in this study. At clinical presentation, estimation of serum IgE levels was assessed by nephelometry. Detailed information regarding the history of allergies was collected by interview. Results: Of the 84 cases, 42 were gliomas, 23 were meningiomas, 16 were metastases and 3 were primary central nervous system lymphomas. Patients with high-grade glioma had lower IgE levels than patients with low-grade glioma. Patients with glioma and meningioma had statistical significant lower serum IgE levels than patients with metastases. Patients with glioblastoma with serum IgE levels greater than 24 U/mL had a better survival. Conclusion: Patients with glioma and meningioma had lower IgE levels than patients with metastatic lesions. A prognostic role of serum IgE levels was found in glioblastoma. Further studies in larger patient series are required in order to verify our preliminary observations.

  16. The effect of Ramadan fasting on tuberculin skin test and leukocyte count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Nasiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Annually, many Muslims fast during the month of Ramadan worldwide. This practice has different favorable medical and physiological effects, such as improved serum lipid profile and blood glucose level due to changes in diet and sleep patterns. It has also been hypothesized that Ramadan fasting may affect the immune system. As reported, Ramadan fasting can influence the immunoglobulin and cytokine levels. Accordingly, tuberculin skin test or purified protein derivative (PPD test, which is a delayed-type hypersensitivity of cellular immune response, may also be affected by Ramadan fasting. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the alteration of PPD test during and after Ramadan. Materials & Methods: A total of 42 males (seminary students who fasted during Ramadan in 2006 were included in the study; however, only 28 cases completed the study. For data collection, the participants underwent blood and tuberculin tests at the fourth week of Ramadan and three months after this month. The white blood cell (WBC count and the tuberculin induration were recorded and compared between the two intervals to evaluate the changes. Results: According to the results of the study, the mean age of the participants was 19.21±3.83 years. Furthermore, the mean tuberculin induration was 9.3±5.4 mm (size range: 2-22 mm on the fourth week of Ramadan, which increased to 9.79±6.8 mm (size range: 3-35 mm three months after this month (P=0.501. The mean count of WBC decreased insignificantly from 5907±1879 mcL to 5601±1362 mcL after Ramadan (P=0.334. Additionally, the mean lymphocytes count decreased significantly from 2292±520/mcL to 2023±486/mcL after this month (P=0.003. Likewise, the lymphocyte (P=0.014 and mean neutrophil percentage also reduced significantly (P0.05. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, Ramadan fasting induce some changes in the immune status, including lymphocyte and neutrophil

  17. De-labelling self-reported penicillin allergy within the emergency department through the use of skin tests and oral drug provocation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwood, Joseph; Aguirrebarrena, Gonzalo; Kerr, Stephen; Welch, Susan A; Rimmer, Janet

    2017-10-01

    Self-reported penicillin allergy is common among patients attending the ED, but is a poor predictor of true immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillin. We hypothesise that with a combination of skin testing and drug provocation testing, selected patients can be safely de-labelled of their allergy. This prospective study enrolled a sample of patients presenting to an urban academic ED between 2011 and 2016 with a self-reported allergy to penicillin. Standardised skin prick and intradermal testing with amoxicillin and both major and minor determinants of penicillin was performed in the department. If negative, testing was followed by a graded oral challenge of amoxicillin over 9 days. The primary end point was the allergy status of participants at the end of the study. A total of 100 patients (mean age 42; standard deviation 14 years; 54% women) completed the testing. Of these, 81% (95% confidence interval 71.9-88.2) showed no hypersensitivity to penicillin and were labelled non-allergic. The majority (16/19) of allergies were confirmed by skin testing, with three suspected allergies detected by the oral challenge. Women were more likely than men to have a true penicillin allergy, with odds ratio of 4.0 (95% confidence interval 1.23-13.2). There were no serious adverse events. Selected patients in the ED who self-report an allergy to penicillin can be safely tested there for penicillin allergy, using skin tests and oral drug provocation testing. This testing allows a significant de-labelling of penicillin allergy, with the majority of these patients able to tolerate penicillin without incident. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  18. Use of the complement fixation and brucellin skin tests to identify cattle vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massis, F; Giovannini, A; Di Emidio, B; Ronchi, G F; Tittarelli, M; Di Giannatale, E; Di Ventura, M; Nannini, D; Caporale, V

    2005-01-01

    In the European Union, RB51 vaccine can be used only under strictly controlled conditions for the immunisation of cattle at risk of infection with Brucella abortus. A test is therefore necessary to distinguish vaccinated from unvaccinated animals. The complement fixation test with RB51 antigen (RB51-CFT), dot-blot and gamma-interferon used to identify vaccinated animals have been described, but sensitivity of the tests has been poor and positivity transient after calfhood vaccination. To avail of a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool, the authors produced, controlled and evaluated an experimental brucellin prepared from strain RB51 (RB51 brucellin). The potency of this brucellin was evaluated in guinea-pigs sensitised with RB51 and compared with a commercially available brucellin. Both allergens produced similar biological activity in guinea-pigs. The RB51 brucellin skin test was performed in 10 cattle 414 days after calfhood vaccination with RB51 when they were negative to the RB51-CFT. The skin test revealed 60% sensitivity (with a confidence interval of 95%, CI 30.8%-83.3%) and 100% specificity (CI 60.7%-100%). These findings limit the use of the skin test only for screening to detect RB51 vaccinated herds, not individual animals. Nevertheless, following intradermal inoculation of RB51 brucellin, a transient antibody increase to the RB51-CFT was observed, from day 9 to day 20 post inoculation with RB51 brucellin. This transient antibody increase, when evaluated in parallel with the RB51 brucellin skin test results, enables detection of individual vaccinated animals (sensitivity 100%; CI 76.2%-100%).

  19. Tus-Ter-lock immuno-PCR assays for the sensitive detection of tropomyosin-specific IgE antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Elecia B; Kamath, Sandip D; Lopata, Andreas L; Schaeffer, Patrick M

    2014-02-01

    The increasing prevalence of food allergies requires development of specific and sensitive tests capable of identifying the allergen responsible for the disease. The development of serologic tests that can detect specific IgE antibodies to allergenic proteins would, therefore, be highly received. Here we present two new quantitative immuno-PCR assays for the sensitive detection of antibodies specific to the shrimp allergen tropomyosin. Both assays are based on the self-assembling Tus-Ter-lock protein-DNA conjugation system. Significantly elevated levels of tropomyosin-specific IgE were detected in sera from patients allergic to shrimp. This is the first time an allergenic protein has been fused with Tus to enable specific IgE antibody detection in human sera by quantitative immuno-PCR.

  20. The rise and fall of IgE

    OpenAIRE

    Vernersson, Molly

    2002-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) occurs exclusively in mammals and is one of five immunoglobulin (Ig) classes found in man. Unlike other isotypes, IgE is best known for its pathological effects, whereas its physiological role remains somewhat elusive. To trace the emergence of IgE and other post-switch isotypes we have studied Ig expression in two monotreme species, the duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), leading to the cloning of Ig...

  1. Standardisation of defined approaches for skin sensitisation testing to support regulatory use and international adoption: position of the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, S; Aschberger, K; Barroso, J; Casey, W; Delgado, I; Kim, T S; Kleinstreuer, N; Kojima, H; Lee, J K; Lowit, A; Park, H K; Régimbald-Krnel, M J; Strickland, J; Whelan, M; Yang, Y; Zuang, Valérie

    2018-02-01

    Skin sensitisation is the regulatory endpoint that has been at the centre of concerted efforts to replace animal testing in recent years, as demonstrated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) adoption of five non-animal methods addressing mechanisms under the first three key events of the skin sensitisation adverse outcome pathway. Nevertheless, the currently adopted methods, when used in isolation, are not sufficient to fulfil regulatory requirements on the skin sensitisation potential and potency of chemicals comparable to that provided by the regulatory animal tests. For this reason, a number of defined approaches integrating data from these methods with other relevant information have been proposed and documented by the OECD. With the aim to further enhance regulatory consideration and adoption of defined approaches, the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal testing in collaboration with the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods hosted, on 4-5 October 2016, a workshop on the international regulatory applicability and acceptance of alternative non-animal approaches, i.e., defined approaches, to skin sensitisation assessment of chemicals used in a variety of sectors. The workshop convened representatives from more than 20 regulatory authorities from the European Union, United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Brazil and China. There was a general consensus among the workshop participants that to maximise global regulatory acceptance of data generated with defined approaches, international harmonisation and standardisation are needed. Potential assessment criteria were defined for a systematic evaluation of existing defined approaches that would facilitate their translation into international standards, e.g., into a performance-based Test Guideline. Informed by the discussions at the workshop, the ICATM members propose practical ways to further promote the regulatory use and facilitate

  2. Concordant or discordant results by the tuberculin skin test and the quantiFERON-TB test in children reflect immune biomarker profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhanasekaran, S; Jenum, S; Stavrum, R

    2014-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB-Gold-In-tube (QFTGIT) are adjunctive tests used in the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB). Neither test can rule out TB; however, a positive test usually triggers preventive treatment in TB contacts aged <5 years. TST and QFTGIT can give div...... with discordant test results displayed a mixed profile with activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory markers. TST and/or QFTGIT positivity appears to reflect distinct but overlapping aspects of host immunity....

  3. Isotopic and enzymatic IgE assays in non-allergic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.; Evans, S.; Milner, R.; Rand, C.; Dolovich, J.

    1983-01-01

    In order to establish normal values in an adult population for serum IgE concentration, sera were obtaned from 446 ambulatory Canadian caucasian subjects with negative allergy histories. A standard isotopic procedure, the Phadebas paper radioimmunosorbent test (PRIST), was compared with the new enzymatic counterpart, the Phadezyme PRIST. By the isotopic method, serum IgE concentrations in women and men were comparable from one age group to another with no age-related trend in the seven age groups examined (15-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, above 70). The median and 95th percentile units (U)/ml respectively were 17.5 and 145 for 224 women and 25.5 and 275 for 222 men. Mean values +- 1 SD for women were 43 +- 102 and for men, 58 +- 137. Levels were significantly higher in men as a group. Sera with IgE concentrations above 100 U and a sampling of additional sera were tested for specific IgE antibodies to 13 common allergens by the radioallergosorbent test (RAST). After exclusion of RAST-positive sera, the mean U/ml values +- ISD were 22 +- 29 for 204 women and 37 +- 54 for 196 men. Geometric mean U/ml values for these sera were 14.6 for women and 22.3 for men and the median and 95th percentile U/ml respectively for the women were 15 and 66, for the men, 24 and 135. These 95th percentile values are considered the upper limits of normal in this population. The RAST identifiction of antibodies to allergens to which sensitization was demonstrated provided a potential explanation for serum IgE concentrations above 100 U/ml in less than 30% of the sera in this population with negative allergy histories. The isotopic method and the counterpart enzymatic method (Phadezyme PRIST) were highly comparable; the correlation coefficient (r) for all the sera was +- 0.93(P<0.001). IgE levels were significantly higher in male smokers than non-smokers by both methods but these differences were not significant in women. (author)

  4. House dust bioactivities predict skin prick test reactivity for children with high risk of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haejin; Tse, Kevin; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Reponen, Tiina; LeMasters, Grace; Lummus, Zana; Horner, Anthony A

    2012-06-01

    Although evidence suggests that ambient exposures to endotoxin and other immunostimulants during early life influence allergic risk, efforts to understand this host-environment relationship have been hampered by a paucity of relevant assays. These investigations determined whether parameters of house dust extract (HDE) bioactivity were predictive of allergen skin prick test (SPT) reactivity for infants at high risk of allergy participating in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS). We conducted a nested case-control study, selecting 99 CCAAPS children who had positive SPT results to at least 1 aeroallergen at age 3 years and 101 subjects with negative SPT results. HDEs were prepared from dust samples collected from the subjects' homes at age 1 year. Murine splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were incubated with HDEs, and supernatant cytokine concentrations were determined by means of ELISA. Alternatively, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were preincubated with HDEs, and then LPS-induced IL-6 responses were assessed. HDE endotoxin levels were determined by using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay. HDEs derived from the homes of children with positive (cases) and negative (control subjects) SPT results had similar bioactivities. However, when cases were considered in isolation, HDEs with higher levels of bioactivity were significantly associated with children who had lower numbers of positive SPT results. Analogous statistical analyses did not identify any association between HDE endotoxin levels and the aeroallergen sensitization profiles of children included in this study. HDE immunostimulatory activities predicted the aeroallergen sensitization status of CCAAPS subjects better than HDE endotoxin levels. These results provide the first published evidence that HDE bioassays have clinical relevance in predicting atopic risk. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  5. Relevance of specific IgE antibody titer to the prevalence, severity, and persistence of asthma among 19-year-olds in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perzanowski, Matthew S; Ronmark, Eva; James, Hayley R; Hedman, Linnea; Schuyler, Alexander J; Bjerg, Anders; Lundback, Bo; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2016-12-01

    Although sensitization to indoor allergens is strongly associated with asthma, there are questions as to how this relates to asthma symptoms. We sought to study the relevance of IgE antibodies to cat and dog allergens in an area in which (1) the climate discourages cockroach, fungal, and mite growth and (2) dander allergens are known to be present in schools and houses without animals. IgE to 8 allergens was tested in 963 sera from a population-based study on 19-year-olds, and associations with asthma symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment were examined. In positive sera IgE to specific cat and dog allergens was also assayed. IgE specific for animal dander had the highest prevalence and strongest relationship to asthma diagnosis. Furthermore, asthma severity, as judged by the frequency of symptoms and use of treatment, was directly associated with the titer of IgE antibodies to animal dander. Among the 103 subjects who had current asthma at age 19 years, 50 had asthma before age 12 years. Among those 50, the odds ratios for asthma related to any IgE antibodies to animal dander or high-titer IgE antibodies (≥17.5 IU/mL) were 9.2 (95% CI, 4.9-17) and 13 (95% CI, 6.9-25), respectively. In multivariable analysis IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 and Can f 5 were each associated with current asthma. High-titer IgE antibodies to cat and dog allergens were strongly associated with the diagnosis, severity, and persistence of asthma; however, a large proportion of patients with current asthma did not live in a house with a cat or dog. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Confirmation of a predicted lack of IgE binding to Cry3Bb1 from genetically modified (GM) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Osamu; Koyano, Satoru; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-04-01

    Some GM crops including MON863 corn and stack varieties contain Cry3Bb1 protein. Cry3Bb1 is very important from the standpoint of assessing the safety of GM crops. In this study Cry3Bb1 was assessed from the standpoint of possible binding to IgE from allergy patients. First, an ELISA that was improved in our laboratory was used to test serum samples from 13 corn allergy patients in the United States with recombinant Cry3Bb1 expressed in Escherichia coli, and serum samples from 55 patients in Japan with various food allergies were also assayed. Two samples from the Japanese allergy patients were suspected of being positive, but Western blotting analysis with purified Cry3Bb1 indicated that the binding between IgE and Cry3Bb1 was nonspecific. Ultimately, no specific binding between IgE and recombinant Cry3Bb1 was detected. Next, all proteins extracted from MON863 corn and non-GM corn were probed with IgE antibodies in serum samples from the corn allergy patients by Western blotting, but the staining patterns of MON863 and non-GM corn were similar, meaning that unintended allergic reactions to MON863 are unlikely to occur. Our study provides additional information that confirms the predicted lack of IgE binding to Cry3Bb1 in people with existing food allergies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Safety of the two-step tuberculin skin test in Indian health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Devasahayam J; Shankar, Deepa; Datey, Ashima; Zwerling, Alice; Pai, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Health care workers (HCW) in low and middle income countries are at high risk of nosocomial tuberculosis infection. Periodic screening of health workers for both TB disease and infection can play a critical role in TB infection control. Occupational health programs that implement serial tuberculin skin testing (TST) are advised to use a two-step baseline TST. This helps to ensure that boosting of waned immune response is not mistaken as new TB infection (i.e. conversion). However, there are no data on safety of the two-step TST in the Indian context where HCWs are repeatedly exposed. Nursing students were recruited from 2007 to 2009 at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India. Consenting nursing students were screened with a baseline two-step TST at the time of recruitment. From 2007 to 2008 adverse events were recorded when reported during the TST reading (Cohort A). Nurses recruited in the final study year (2009) answered an investigator administered questionnaire assessing all likely side-effects Cohort B). This information was extracted from the case report forms and analysed. Between 2007 and 09, 800 trainees consented to participate in the annual TB screening study and 779 did not have a past history of TB or recall a positive TST and were selected to administer TST. Of these, 755 returned for reading the result and had complete data and were included for the final analysis - 623 subjects in (cohort A) and 132 in (cohort B). These were included for the final analysis. In cohort A only 1.3% reported adverse events. In cohort B, as per the investigator administered questionnaire; 25% reported minor side effects. Itching and local pain were the most common side effects encountered. There were no major adverse events reported. In particular, the adverse events were similar in the second step of the test and not more severe. Screening of HCWs with two-step TST for LTBI is simple and safe, and hence suitable for wide scale implementation in high

  8. Mechanisms of Anaphylaxis Beyond IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cano, R; Picado, C; Valero, A; Bartra, J

    2016-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening, multisystem syndrome resulting from the sudden release of mediators derived from mast cells and basophils. Food allergens are the main triggers of anaphylaxis, accounting for 33%-56% of all cases and up to 81% of cases of anaphylaxis in children. Human anaphylaxis is generally thought to be mediated by IgE, with mast cells and basophils as key players, although alternative mechanisms have been proposed. Neutrophils and macrophages have also been implicated in anaphylactic reactions, as have IgG-dependent, complement, and contact system activation. Not all allergic reactions are anaphylactic, and the presence of the so-called accompanying factors (cofactors or augmenting factors) may explain why some conditions lead to anaphylaxis, while in other cases the allergen elicits a milder reaction or is even tolerated. In the presence of these factors, allergic reactions may be induced at lower doses of allergen or become more severe. Cofactors are reported to be relevant in up to 30% of anaphylactic episodes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and exercise are the best-documented cofactors, although estrogens, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, lipid-lowering drugs, and alcohol have also been involved. The mechanisms underlying anaphylaxis are complex and involve several interrelated pathways. Some of these pathways may be key to the development of anaphylaxis, while others may only modulate the severity of the reaction. An understanding of predisposing and augmenting factors could lead to the development of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches.

  9. Diagnóstico de ABPA em pacientes portadores de fibrose cística: utilidade clínica da pesquisa de IgE específica contra alérgenos recombinantes do Aspergillus fumigatus ABPA diagnosis in cystic fibrosis patients: the clinical utility of IgE specific to recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina B. Almeida

    2006-06-01

    lung disease progresses. The overlap between the signs and symptoms of the two conditions makes diagnosis problematic, even if standardized criteria are used. The objective of this study was to identify, in a group of cystic fibrosis patients, cases of ABPA by assaying IgE specific to recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus antigens and to compare the method with the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation diagnostic criteria. METHODS: Fifty-four patients, aged 2 to 20 years, presenting characteristics that could occur with ABPA in isolation, were systematically assessed based on the following: clinical data, a chest CT scan, immediate hypersensitivity skin test for A. fumigatus; total serum IgE assay, RAST for A. fumigatus and serum IgE specific for the recombinant allergens Asp f1, f2, f3, f4 and f6. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were eligible for the study. Thirty-two of these were investigated. Sensitization to A. fumigatus was observed in 34%. Both the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation criteria and the recombinant antigen specific IgE assay defined three patients as suffering from ABPA; however, only two of these patients were diagnosed by both methods. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of A. fumigatus recombinant antigen specific IgE was a useful tool for the early detection of sensitization and diagnosis of ABPA. Nevertheless, diagnostic confirmation cannot be divorced from clinical findings, and before this method can be used for ABPA diagnosis, for detecting relapses and for defining cure criteria, longitudinal studies with larger numbers of patients are required.

  10. Triggers of IgE class switching and allergy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hummelshoj, Lone

    2007-01-01

    type 2 (Th2) T cell subset are the actions of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) on dendritic cells and the OX40 ligand on CD4+ T cells. In order for a B lymphocyte to switch to IgE production it needs two signals provided by a Th2 cell in the form of the cytokines interleukin (IL-) 4/IL-13...... the need for more knowledge on preventable causes of IgE- and allergy development....

  11. Postmortem serum levels of total IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lara; Palmiere, Cristian

    2016-11-01

    The first aim of this study was to assess whether non-allergic deaths in non-atopic individuals with increasing postmortem intervals are characterized by progressively greater concentrations of total IgE in postmortem serum from femoral blood. Our second goal was to determine whether traumatic deaths with different survival times, septic deaths, and deaths in individuals suffering from diseases with significant systemic inflammation are systematically characterized by increased concentrations of total IgE in postmortem serum from femoral blood. Four study groups were prospectively and retrospectively formed (non-allergic deaths in non-atopic individuals with increasing postmortem intervals, traumatic deaths in non-atopic individuals with different survival times, deaths possibly related to sepsis in non-atopic individuals, and deaths occurring in non-atopic individuals with disseminated malignancies at autopsy). Unenhanced computed tomography, autopsy, histology, and biochemistry were performed in all cases. First results indicate that increasing postmortem intervals are not associated with progressively increasing postmortem serum IgE levels. Moreover, the obtained results do not reveal that severe trauma, bacterial sepsis, and disseminated malignancies are systematically associated with increased postmortem serum IgE levels, irrespective of survival time duration. Though the usefulness of increased total IgE concentrations in postmortem samples to assess any underlying atopic disposition or death preceded by acute IgE-mediated allergic reaction remains questionable, measurements of total IgE are possible in postmortem serum samples.

  12. IgE promotes type 2 innate lymphoid cells in murine food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, O T; Medina Tamayo, J; Stranks, A J; Miller, S; Koleoglou, K J; Weinberg, E O; Oettgen, H C

    2018-03-01

    Mast cells serve an important sentinel function at mucosal barriers and have been implicated as key early inducers of type 2 immune responses in food allergy. The generation of Th2 and IgE following food allergen ingestion is inhibited in the absence of mast cells. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are also thought to play an important early role in nascent allergic responses. To test whether IgE-mediated mast cell activation promotes intestinal ILC2 responses following ingestion of food allergens and whether ILC2 amplify food allergy. Two different mouse models of food allergy, one using intraperitoneally ovalbumin (OVA)-primed BALB/c animals and the other using enterally peanut-sensitized inherently atopic IL4raF709 mice, were applied to test the contributions of IgE antibodies and mast cells to ILC2 responses. The effect of ILC2 on mast cell activation and on anaphylaxis was tested. ILC2 responses were significantly impaired in both models of food allergy in Igh7 -/- mice harbouring a targeted deletion of the gene encoding IgE. A similar reduction in food allergen-induced ILC2 was observed in mast cell-deficient Il4raF709 Kit W-sh mice, and this was partially corrected by reconstituting these animals using cultured bone marrow mast cells. Mast cells activated ILC2 for IL-13 production in an IL-4Rα-dependent manner. Activated ILC2 amplified systemic anaphylaxis by increasing target tissue sensitivity to mast cell mediators. These findings support an important role for IgE-activated mast cells in driving intestinal ILC2 expansion in food allergy and reveal that ILC2, in turn, can enhance responsiveness to the mediators of anaphylaxis produced by mast cells. Strategies designed to inhibit IgE signalling or mast cell activation are likely to inhibit both type 2 immunity and immediate hypersensitivity in food allergy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evolution and predictive value of IgE responses toward a comprehensive panel of house dust mite allergens during the first 2 decades of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posa, Daniela; Perna, Serena; Resch, Yvonne; Lupinek, Christian; Panetta, Valentina; Hofmaier, Stephanie; Rohrbach, Alexander; Hatzler, Laura; Grabenhenrich, Linus; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Hoffman, Ute; Forster, Johannes; Zepp, Fred; Schuster, Antje; Wahn, Ulrich; Keil, Thomas; Lau, Susanne; Vrtala, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of the IgE response to the numerous allergen molecules of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is still unknown. We sought to characterize the evolutionary patterns of the IgE response to 12 molecules of D pteronyssinus from birth to adulthood and to investigate their determinants and clinical relevance. We investigated the clinical data and sera of 722 participants in the German Multicenter Allergy Study, a birth cohort started in 1990. Diagnoses of current allergic rhinitis (AR) related to mite allergy and asthma were based on yearly interviews at the ages of 1 to 13 years and 20 years. IgE to the extract and 12 molecules of D pteronyssinus were tested by means of ImmunoCAP and microarray technology, respectively, in sera collected at ages 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, and 20 years. Exposure to mites at age 6 and 18 months was assessed by measuring Der p 1 weight/weight concentration in house dust. One hundred ninety-one (26.5%) of 722 participants ever had IgE to D pteronyssinus extract (≥0.35 kU A /L). At age 20 years, their IgE recognized most frequently Der p 2, Der p 1, and Der p 23 (group A molecules; prevalence, >40%), followed by Der p 5, Der p 7, Der p 4, and Der p 21 (group B molecules; prevalence, 15% to 30%) and Der p 11, Der p 18, clone 16, Der p 14, and Der p 15 (group C molecules; prevalence, <10%). IgE sensitization started almost invariably with group A molecules and expanded sequentially first to group B and finally to group C molecules. Early IgE sensitization onset, parental hay fever, and higher exposure to mites were associated with a broader polymolecular IgE sensitization pattern. Participants reaching the broadest IgE sensitization stage (ie, ABC) had significantly higher risk of mite-related AR and asthma than unsensitized participants. IgE to Der p 1 or Der p 23 at age 5 years or less predicted asthma at school age. Parental hay fever and early exposure to D pteronyssinus allergens promote IgE polysensitization to several

  14. Cor a 14, Hazelnut-Specific IgE, and SPT as a Reliable Tool in Hazelnut Allergy Diagnosis in Eastern Mediterranean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Sahiner, Umit M; Yilmaz, Ebru Arik; Yavuz, S Tolga; Soyer, Ozge; Sekerel, Bulent E; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sackesen, Cansin

    2016-01-01

    Improving the diagnostic efficacy of laboratory tests might reduce the need for oral food challenges and facilitate our daily practice. We aimed to determine cutoff values and probability curves, as well as to investigate the role of component-resolved diagnosis in predicting clinical reactivity in children with hazelnut allergy and to evaluate the association with pollen sensitivity. A total of 56 children with hazelnut allergy who underwent double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge and 8 children who experienced anaphylaxis after accidental hazelnut intake were included. Serum IgE levels to hazelnut extract, Cor a 1, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, Cor a 14, and Bet v 1 were measured with the ImmunoCAP system. Skin prick tests (SPT) with hazelnut, other implicated foods, and aeroallergens were performed. The optimal cutoff levels for hazelnut sIgE and SPT wheal diameter that predicted clinical reactivity with the highest sensitivity and specificity were 3.15 kU/L and 7.5 mm, respectively. Among the components, only Cor a 14 discriminated between reactive and nonreactive children. The area under curve (AUC) at the optimal cutoff point of 0.63 kU/L for Cor a 14 (0.936) was higher than the AUC of hazelnut sIgE (0.818) and SPT wheal diameter (0.803). For the first time, a 95% probability for clinical reactivity was estimated for SPT wheal diameter, IgE to hazelnut extract, and to Cor a 14 at 12 mm, 10.2 kU/L, and 1.0 kU/L, respectively. Cor a 14 was found to be a useful and reliable tool for predicting clinical reactivity in children with hazelnut allergy in the Eastern Mediterranean area. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The correlation between anti phospholipase A 2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matysiak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim: The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A 2 -specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods: Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE, venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE, and phospholipase A 2 -specific IgE (phospholipase A 2 sIgE were analyzed. Results: Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A 2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions : In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A 2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels.

  16. Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUPO Palmira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (EU-UHFMRP-USP, a reference hospital for the application of heterologous sera. In view of our positive experience of several years with the abolition of SST and of the use of premedication before the application of antivenom sera, we used a similar schedule for ERIG application. Of the 1489 victims of animal bites, 1054 (71% received ERIG; no patient was submitted to SST and all received intravenously anti-histamines (anti-H1 + anti-H2 and corticosteroids before the procedure. The patients were kept under observation for 60 to 180 minutes and no adverse reaction was observed. On the basis of these results, since December 1995 ERIG application has been decentralized in Ribeirão Preto and has become the responsibility of the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital and the Central Basic Health Unit, where the same routine is used. Since then, 4216 patients have received ERIG (1818 at the Basic Health Unit and 2398 at the EU-UHFMRP, with no problems. The ideal would be the routine use of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG in public health programs, but this is problematic, because of their high cost. However, while this does not occur, the use of SST is no longer justified at the time of application of ERIG, in view of the clinical evidence of low predictive value and low sensitivity of SST involving the application of heterologous sera. It is very important to point out

  17. Skin infection, housing and social circumstances in children living in remote Indigenous communities: testing conceptual and methodological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor housing conditions in remote Indigenous communities in Australia are a major underlying factor in poor child health, including high rates of skin infections. The aim of this study is to test approaches to data collection, analysis and feedback for a follow-up study of the impact of housing conditions on child health. Methods Participation was negotiated in three communities with community councils and individual participants. Data were collected by survey of dwelling condition, interviews, and audit health centre records of children aged under seven years. Community feedback comprised immediate report of items requiring urgent repair followed by a summary descriptive report. Multivariate models were developed to calculate adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR for skin infections and their association with aspects of household infrastructure. Results There was a high level of participation in all communities. Health centre records were inadequate for audit in one community. The records of 138 children were available for development of multivariate analytic models. Rates of skin infection in dwellings that lacked functioning facilities for removing faeces or which had concrete floors may be up to twice as high as for other dwellings, and the latter association appears to be exacerbated by crowding. Younger children living in older dwellings may also be at approximately two-fold higher risk. A number of socioeconomic and socio-demographic variables also appear to be directly associated with high rates of skin infections. Conclusion The methods used in the pilot study were generally feasible, and the analytic approach provides meaningful results. The study provides some evidence that new and modern housing is contributing to a reduction in skin infections in Aboriginal children in remote communities, particularly when this housing leads to a reduction in crowding and the effective removal of human waste.

  18. In vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test anergy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is associated with T cell nonresponsiveness in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J. J.; Roos, M. T.; Keet, I. P.; Mensen, E. A.; Krol, A.; Veenstra, J.; Schellekens, P. T.; Jurriaans, S.; Coutinho, R. A.; Miedema, F.

    1998-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, the prevalence of delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test anergy (DTHA) was examined in 136 asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected participants in relation to immunologic and virologic parameters. DTHA was assessed with a multitest cell-mediated immunity skin

  19. A sensitive and reproducible method for the determination of subnanogram quantities of immunoglobulin E (IgE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Malling, H J; Søndergaard, I

    1986-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay for immunoglobulin E (IgE) using high adsorption polystyrene test tubes as the solid phase (the 'Maxisorp' assay) is described. The sensitivity of the method was found to be 50 pg IgE/ml and the within-assay reproducibility was 3-7%. The accuracy was estimated by means...

  20. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS ORAL APPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA ANTIGENIC PREPARATIONS ON RABBIT ALLERGIC REACTION FORMING AFTER SKIN TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babych YeM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s studied an influence of previous oral application of diphtheria antigenic preparations on allergic inflammation forming after skin test. It’s used destroyed by ultrasonic microbe cells C.diphtheriae var. gravis tox+ massachusets, free from destroyed cells by the use of centrifugation supernatant and refined concentrated diphteria toxoid. Experimental rabbits are fed to 3,5 ml of one of antigenic preparations (the total protein dose is 33,6 mg, control ones are fed to saline. In a week all animals were injected intracutaneously 0,2 ml each of corresponding antigenic preparation. The findings testify to decreasing manifestation tendency of rabbit skin reactions on antigenic preparations.

  1. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P

    1996-01-01

    SETTING: Department of Pulmonary Medicine P, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MPT-64 and MPT-59 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions following intradermal administration. DESIGN...... of the experimental skin test antigens had properties superior to tuberculin PPD RT23 in humans. The failure of MPT-64 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the majority of tuberculosis patients is discussed, in view of the potent reactivity to MPT-64 in tuberculous guinea pigs.......: In a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...

  2. The correlation of laboratory tests and Sympathetic Skin Response parameters by using artificial neural networks in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ozhan; Yildiz, Murat; Köklükaya, Etem

    2012-06-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic musculoskeletal disease which causes dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic Skin Response (SSR) is a part of electrical impedance of body which is affected by the autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. In this study, values obtained from the results of the patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome, and healthy subjects blood samples in the laboratory conditions are recorded in Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. SSR measurements are recorded from patients and healthy controls. Values of latency time, maximum amplitude and elapsed time between two stimulus parameters are obtained from recorded sympathetic skin response data by using Matlab software. The relationship between SSR parameters and laboratory tests is investigated by using artificial neural networks. As a result SSR seems to be a valid parameter in the classification of FMS.

  3. Correlation between symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome and the response to the food extract skin prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L.S. Soares

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and food intolerance is not clear. We studied the cutaneous response to food antigens in 43 volunteers who were students and employees of the Faculty of Medicine of Universidade Federal Fluminense. Subjects were divided into 3 groups after evaluation for Roma II criteria for functional disease of the gastrointestinal tract: group I, 14 volunteers with IBS; group II, 15 volunteers with functional dyspepsia; group III, 14 volunteers without habitual gastrointestinal symptoms. The subjects were submitted to the skin prick test with 9 food antigen extracts, for a total of 387 skin tests (9 per volunteer. Of the 126 tests applied to group I, 24 (19.4% were positive (a 3-mm wider papule than the negative control and of the 135 tests applied to group II, 3 (2.3% were positive. Of the 126 tests applied to group III, 6 (4% were positive. The number of positive responses obtained in group I (IBS differed significantly from the other 2 groups (P < 0.01. None of the volunteers with IBS reported intolerance to any isolated food. The higher reactivity to food antigens in group I compared to groups II and III suggests that intestinal permeability may be increased in patients with IBS.

  4. Rational Approach to Allergy Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael P; Wulu, Jacqueline A

    2017-12-01

    Allergy testing is commonly used when symptoms of allergic rhinitis are refractory to symptoms and there is potential for treatment with institution of avoidance measures or immunotherapy. Once the decision for testing has been made, the method of testing by either in vivo skin testing by prick/puncture or intradermal testing or in vitro testing of serum-specific IgE is dictated by factors in the clinical history and an informed decision by the patient. Because there is no perfect testing method, understanding the benefits and limitations of each method is important in selecting the best testing option for each patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  6. Serum IgE Antibodies against Hazelnut in Hazelnut Processing Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege Gulec Balbay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Previous studies have shown a higher sensitization rate to hazelnut in processing workers but no relation was found between the respiratory symptoms in workplace and hazelnut sensitization. Material and Method. To evaluate the association between the hazelnut sensitization and workplace-related respiratory complaints, hazelnut processing workers had undergone a questionnaire included work-related respiratory symptoms, smoking history, pulmonary function testing, and measurement of serum IgE antibodies against hazelnut. Results. This study consisted of 88 hazelnut processing workers (79 females and 9 males, aged 14–59 years (Mean ± SD: years. The mean working duration was months (min: 1–max: 180. Specific IgE against hazelnut allergens was positive in 14 of cases (17.1%. There was no significant difference between the cases with and without specific IgE against hazelnut allergens regarding respiratory symptoms, history of allergy, smoking status and spirometric values. Conclusion. 17.1% of the hazelnut processing workers were seropositive against hazelnut. Being sensitized to hazelnut was not found to be associated with work-related respiratory symptoms in this study. Further studies are needed in hazelnut workers respiratory health to search topics other than asthma.

  7. The challenge of producing skin test antigens with minimal resources suitable for human application against a neglected tropical disease; leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky L Rivoire

    Full Text Available True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3-10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens. In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial.

  8. Skin sensitisation--moving forward with non-animal testing strategies for regulatory purposes in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Alépée, Nathalie; Casati, Silvia; Crozier, Jonathan; Eigler, Dorothea; Griem, Peter; Hubesch, Bruno; de Knecht, Joop; Landsiedel, Robert; Louekari, Kimmo; Manou, Irene; Maxwell, Gavin; Mehling, Annette; Netzeva, Tatiana; Petry, Thomas; Rossi, Laura H

    2013-12-01

    In a previous EPAA-Cefic LRI workshop in 2011, issues surrounding the use and interpretation of results from the local lymph node assay were addressed. At the beginning of 2013 a second joint workshop focused greater attention on the opportunities to make use of non-animal test data, not least since a number of in vitro assays have progressed to an advanced position in terms of their formal validation. It is already recognised that information produced from non-animal assays can be used in regulatory decision-making, notably in terms of classifying a substance as a skin sensitiser. The evolution into a full replacement for hazard identification, where the decision is not to classify, requires the generation of confidence in the in vitro alternative, e.g. via formal validation, the existence of peer reviewed publications and the knowledge that the assay(s) are founded on key elements of the Adverse Outcome Pathway for skin sensitisation. It is foreseen that the validated in vitro assays and relevant QSAR models can be organised into formal testing strategies to be applied for regulatory purposes by the industry. To facilitate progress, the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to animal testing (EPAA) provided the platform for cross-industry and regulatory dialogue, enabling an essential and open debate on the acceptability of an in vitro based integrated strategy. Based on these considerations, a follow up activity was agreed upon to explore an example of an Integrated Testing Strategy for skin sensitisation hazard identification purposes in the context of REACH submissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in children in XXI century. Is tuberculin skin test still up to date?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Bielecka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis morbidity rates in Poland have been gradually decreasing. Nevertheless, there are approximately 8 thousand cases being registered annually, which includes almost 3 thousand massively infectious patients. In the last 3 years, around 100 cases/year have been reported among children below 14 years of age. Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be considered in all patients who present symptoms suggesting tuberculosis, have had recent contact with a person suffering from lung tuberculosis or are planned to undergo an immunosuppressive treatment. HIV infected patients are also supposed to have screening tests for M. tuberculosis infection performed. For over a 100 years tuberculin skin test (TST was the only test capable of confirming tuberculous infection. TST is based on the assessment of skin reaction to intracutaneous injection of tuberculin. Due to cross-reaction to the injected tuberculin in BCG vaccinated individuals, the correct interpretation of the test is difficult. Since 13 years new immunological assays have been available. They are based on detecting interferon gamma (Interferon Gamma Release Assay – IGRA concentration in blood serum, which has previously been incubated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens absent in the BCG strain. In infected individuals interferon gamma is intensively produced by memory cells in reaction to the contact with previously met Mycobacterium antigens. Many trials have proved IGRA’s high sensitivity and, higher than TST, specificity. Recent guidelines promote the usage of IGRAs, even in children.

  10. Serologic evaluation of patients from Missouri with erythema migrans-like skin lesions with the C6 Lyme test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Mario T; Masters, Edwin; Wormser, Gary P; Hogrefe, Wayne; Martin, Dale

    2006-10-01

    Southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), also known as Masters disease, affects people predominantly in the Southeast and South Central United States. These patients exhibit skin lesions that resemble erythema migrans (EM), the characteristic skin lesion in early Lyme disease. The etiology of STARI remains unknown, and no serologic test is available to aid in its diagnosis. The C6 Lyme enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate coded serum specimens from patients with STARI at two laboratory sites. The specimens tested at one site consisted of acute- and convalescent-phase samples that were obtained from nine STARI patients from Missouri and from one patient with documented Borrelia lonestari infection who acquired this infection in either North Carolina or Maryland. All of these samples were C6 negative. Seventy acute- or convalescent-phase specimens from 63 STARI patients from Missouri were C6 tested at the second site. All but one of these STARI specimens were also negative. In contrast, of nine acute- and nine convalescent-phase serum specimens obtained from culture-confirmed Lyme disease patients with EM from New York state, seven were C6 positive at the acute stage, and eight were positive at convalescence. The C6 test is negative in patients with STARI, providing further evidence that B. burgdorferi is not the etiologic agent of this disease.

  11. Immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to proton pump inhibitors: usefulness of skin tests in the diagnosis and assessment of cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepil Özdemir, S; Yılmaz, I; Aydin, Ö; Büyüköztürk, S; Gelincik, A; Demirtürk, M; Erdoğdu, D; Cömert, S; Erdoğan, T; Karakaya, G; Kalyoncu, A F; Oner Erkekol, F; Dursun, A B; Misirligil, Z; Bavbek, S

    2013-08-01

    Data are limited about the value of skin tests in the diagnosis of proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypersensitivity reactions and the cross-reactivity between PPIs. We aimed to assess the role of skin testing in the diagnosis of PPI-related immediate hypersensitivity reactions and the cross-reactivity patterns among PPIs. The study was designed in a prospective, national, multicentre nature. Sixty-five patients with a suggestive history of a PPI-induced immediate hypersensitivity reaction and 30 control subjects were included. Standardized skin prick and intradermal tests were carried out with a panel of PPIs. Single-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests (OPTs) with the PPIs other than the culprit PPI that displayed negative results in skin tests (n = 61) and diagnostic OPTs with the suspected PPI (n = 12) were performed. The suspected PPIs were lansoprazole (n = 52), esomeprazole (n = 11), pantoprazole (n = 9), rabeprazole (n = 2), and omeprazole (n = 1). The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of the skin tests with PPIs were 58.8%, 100%, 70.8%, and 100%, respectively. Fifteen of the 31 patients with a hypersensitivity reaction to lansoprazole had a positive OPT or skin test result with at least one of the alternative PPIs (8/52 pantoprazole, 6/52 omeprazole, 5/52 esomeprazole, 3/52 rabeprazole). Considering the high specificity, skin testing seems to be a useful method for the diagnosis of immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs and for the evaluation of cross-reactivity among PPIs. However, OPT should be performed in case of negativity on skin tests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of Dardia Lipo Line on skin inflammation induced by surfactants using the repeated open-application test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J-P; Queille-Roussel, C

    2007-09-01

    Medical skin care products are topical preparations with mainly moisturizing properties. A new line of medical skin products with an excellent tolerability profile and improved hydration for dry skin has been developed, but beneficial effects have not yet been investigated on damaged skin. To investigate if these products maintain barrier function and hydration status, improve subjective symptoms due to irritant contact dermatitis and to prove their tolerability on damaged skin. Single-centre, blinded, randomized, controlled study in 20 healthy Caucasian women. 5% sodium lauryl sulphate solution was used to induce skin irritation. Two sites on the inside surface of both forearms of each subject were treated daily for 5 days (irritation period). Lipo Cream, Lipo Milk (water-in-oil emulsions) and Lipo Ointment (water-free formulation) were applied twice daily to three of the four test sites on days 1-5. The fourth site was used as a control. Visual readings, subjective symptom assessments, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and colorimetric measurements, corneometry and skin microrelief macrophotographies were done on days 1-6. On day 6, TEWL was increased vs baseline on all sites; however, TEWL with Lipo Cream or Lipo Ointment was significantly lower than control. At day 6, skin capacitance was 94%, 100% and 85% of baseline value for the cream, milk and ointment, respectively, versus 72% for control. All test products were well tolerated. Lipo Line products showed both protective properties against epidermal dysfunction and significant hydrating effect.

  13. First-in-man open clinical trial of a combined rdESAT-6 and rCFP-10 tuberculosis specific skin test reagent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstedt, Winnie; Tingskov, Pernille N; Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculin is still the only available skin test reagent for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. The product has a remarkable sensitivity, but poor specificity. Previous studies, including two human phase I clinical trials, have indicated that rdESAT-6 has a potential as an improved skin test...... reagent. Animal studies have shown that the sensitivity may be increased by inclusion of the genetically related CFP-10 antigen in the preparation without loosing specificity....

  14. Chapter 31: Common in vitro tests for allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Melanie; O'Gorman, Maurice R G

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific IgE antibody is the most commonly ordered in vitro test in the practice of allergy and is used to diagnose type I hypersensitivity reactions to foods or reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with relative contraindications to skin-prick testing such as dermatographism. The Phadebas radioallergosorbent test (RAST; Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) was the first assay reported for the detection of the allergen-specific IgE antibody. In a RAST, antigen (allergen) is bound to a solid phase, such as a paper disk, and then incubated with human serum. A buffer wash removes unbound serum proteins, and radiolabeled anti-human IgE is added to detect bound IgE, if present. The results are reported in arbitrary units of IgE per milliliter of serum. The term RAST was originally a brand name but it is now often used colloquially (and incorrectly) to describe any in vitro assay for allergen-specific IgE. Total serum IgE can be measured and is helpful in determining atopic presentations such as in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or in patients with persistent asthma who are candidates for monoclonal anti-IgE antibody therapy with, omalizumab. In patients with recurrent bacterial infections of the sinopulmonary tract, the basic humoral immune system testing includes measuring quantitative immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) and comparing them to age-matched normal ranges. Most clinical laboratories use nephelometry to measure immunoglobulin levels quantitatively. Nephelometry detects either the rate or the end point of soluble immune complex formation (the IgG in sera complexes with an anti-IgG antibody forming a classic immunoprecipitation reaction) by monitoring the scatter of transmitted light. The most common method for the screening of cellular immunodeficiency involved the measurement of the absolute and relative representation of the major lymphocyte subsets, T-cells, T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells, B-cells and NK-cells.

  15. Campylobacter jejuni infection and IgE sensitization in up to 2-year-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The “hygiene hypothesis” addresses the correlation between the occurrence of atopy and the frequency of infections in the earliest age, explaining an increase in the incidence of atopic diseases by living in good, infection-free, hygienic conditions. The aim of our study was to determine the conection between atopy and Campylobacter infection, and to analyze the association between serum concentrations of total IgE and Campylobacter infection in relation to atopy in children up to two years. Methods. A case control study was conducted with the sample of 98 infants of the average age of 8 months. Total serum IgE and Phadiatop infant multi-test were determined on Immunocap-100 (Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden. The presence of atopy was determined by detection of serumspecific IgE ≥ 0.35 kUA/L (Phadiatop infant positive and serum IgM, IgA, IgG levels against C. jejuni were determined by a quantitative immuno-enzyme test - SERION ELISA classic. Results. Total IgE cut-off values ≥ 15 kU/L point to atopy in infants, and tIgE cut-off values ≥ 8.1 kU/L pointed to a C. jejuni infection in infants. Within the group of atopic children, tIgE levels ≥ 29.8 kU/L point to C. jejuni infection, and within the group of non-atopic children, tIgE levels ≥ 5.9 kU/L point to infection. Enteritis is not a predictor of C. jejuni infection, because of a high frequency of asymptomatic cases of infection. The risk factors for C. jejuni infection are age and tIgE, and the protective factors are breastfeeding and atopy. Conclusion. C. jejuni infection increases the total serum IgE level, which is predictive of infection, regardless of the presence of atopy. The presence of symptomatic C. jejuni infection reduces the risk of atopy in a child of the age of 5-24 months by the factor of 10.

  16. Omalizumab decreases IgE production in patients with allergic (IgE-mediated) asthma; PKPD analysis of a biomarker, total IgE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Philip J; Renard, Didier

    2011-01-01

    AIM To determine whether excessive IgE production by patients with atopic allergic asthma decreases with omalizumab therapy. METHODS Omalizumab, free and total IgE data were obtained from an epidemiological study and six randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in patients with allergic asthma. The binding between omalizumab and IgE together with the production and elimination of IgE were modelled as previously, except that, in order to explain why total IgE was decreasing over a period of 5 years, the expression of IgE was allowed to change. RESULTS The prior constant IgE production model failed to converge on the data once long-term observations were included, whereas models allowing IgE production to decrease fitted. A feedback model indicated that, on average, IgE production decreased by 54% per year. This model was further developed with covariate searches indicating clinically small but statistically significant effects of age, gender, body mass index and race on some parameters. Model predictions were checked internally and externally against 3–5 year data from paediatric and adult atopic asthmatic patients and externally against extensive total IgE data from a long-duration (>1 year) phase 1 study which was not used in the model building. CONCLUSIONS A pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model incorporating omalizumab–IgE binding and feedback for control of IgE production indicates that omalizumab reduces production of IgE. This raises the possibility that indefinite treatment may not be required, only for perhaps a few years. After the initial accumulation, total IgE should provide a means to monitor IgE production and guide individual treatment decisions. PMID:21392073

  17. Freqüência de positividade em teste cutâneo para aeroalérgenos Frequency of positive skin tests for airborne allergic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Godinho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da prevalência das rinopatias tem sido descrito na literatura médica e a rinite alérgica continua sendo a mais freqüente. O teste cutâneo é importante no diagnóstico diferencial das doenças nasais e na determinação do padrão de sensibilização da população. Esta permite a promoção de medidas de redução de exposição, sendo fundamental para o tratamento adequado da rinite alérgica. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Com o objetivo de determinar a freqüência de positividade no teste cutâneo para aeroalérgenos específicos, avaliamos os prontuários de 398 pacientes com sintomas nasais sugestivos de alergia ou outras queixas otorrinolaringológicas que necessitavam deste teste para esclarecimento diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: A poeira doméstica (74,9%, o dermatofagóide (58,4% e o mofo (36,5% foram os alérgenos mais freqüentes, seguidos do pêlo de cão (32,7%, gramínea (22,4%, pêlo de gato (16,9%, penas (16,4% e lã (15,6%. Apenas 3,5% com positividade para pena de periquito e 1,5% para flores. 39 pacientes (9,8% apresentaram teste cutâneo negativo, 10 (2,5% apresentaram reação ao extrato da solução e 8 (2% não reagiram à histamina. Não foram encontradas complicações à aplicação do teste. CONCLUSÃO: A poeira doméstica foi o aeroalérgeno mais freqüente. Os testes cutâneos devem ser realizados no contexto da história clínica e os resultados apresentados nos orientam para o adequado diagnóstico e tratamento das rinopatias.Medical literature has reported on the increase in the prevalence of nose diseases, and allergic rhinitis still leads the statistics. The skin test is important in the differential diagnosis of nose diseases and to determine the sensitivity pattern of the population in order to establish measures to reduce exposure. This is fundamental for adequate handling allergic rhinitis. STUDY DESIGN: Transversal cohorte. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In order to determine the

  18. Plicatic acid-specific IgE and nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness in western red-cedar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedal, S; Chan-Yeung, M; Enarson, D A; Chan, H; Dorken, E; Tse, K S

    1986-12-01

    In a cross-sectional survey of 652 workers in a western red-cedar sawmill, we obtained data on symptoms, pulmonary function, immediate skin reactivity to common allergens, nonspecific bronchial responsiveness, total IgE level, and sensitization to plicatic acid conjugated with human serum albumin as measured by RAST. Dust exposure was estimated by personal and area sampling for total dust during a work shift and cumulative exposure by duration of employment. Seven percent of the workers had an elevated RAST, and 20% had nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Elevation in RAST was associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Almost half (46%) of the workers with RAST elevation had bronchial hyperresponsiveness compared to 18% in workers with no RAST elevation. The association was unaffected by total IgE level or by limiting the analysis to workers without respiratory symptoms and was most apparent in younger workers. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was associated with increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as with lower levels of pulmonary function. The likelihood of bronchial hyperresponsiveness increased with increasing age but was unrelated to the dust-exposure concentration. RAST elevation was unrelated to employment duration or dust exposure and was not associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms or lower levels of pulmonary function independent of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We conclude that plicatic acid-specific IgE and nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness are associated in western red-cedar workers and that this association may reflect a causal connection.

  19. The effect of tricaine on use of the fluorescein test for detecting skin and corneal ulcers in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael W; Stephenson, Jeana; Noga, Edward J

    2008-06-01

    Fluorescein has been used for rapid and sensitive detection of fish skin and corneal ulceration. Effective use of the fluorescein test requires knowledge of conditions that might cause misleading interpretations or otherwise interfere with test reliability. Examination of fish health and the clinical workup often require tricaine as one of the most commonly used anesthetics. However, tricaine may interfere with correct interpretation of the fluorescein test and might also cause significant fish injury. The effects of tricaine exposure sequence on the fidelity of the fluorescein test was studied in Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma, and northern rock soles Lepidopsetta polyxystra by examining the fluorescence of experimentally induced epidermal wounding. Tricaine can quench fluorescence that is emitted by fluorescein retained in skin ulcers, causing a false-negative reaction. Thus, for the fluorescein test to work properly, it is important to avoid the exposure of fluorescein-treated and rinsed ulcers to tricaine. The effects of exposure to buffered versus unbuffered tricaine on epidermal and corneal integrity were studied in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus subjected to the fluorescein test and histological examination. Fluorescein could detect not only ulcers but also areas with only a partial loss of epithelium (i.e., erosion). The use of unbuffered tricaine to anesthetize these fish caused serious epidermal and corneal damage. If fish are euthanized with unbuffered tricaine for clinical workup, this severe epidermal or corneal damage could be misinterpreted as an antemortem lesion, leading to misdiagnosis. Even in water with alkalinity exceeding 50 mg/L as CaCO3, it would seem prudent to always buffer tricaine with sodium bicarbonate to prevent a pH change that might lead to iatrogenic effects from unbuffered tricaine. Thus, current general recommendations suggesting that

  20. Cutaneous cytomegalovirus infection in a child with hyper IgE and specific defects in antibody response to protein vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Fallah

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is a common opportunistic systemic infection in immunocompromised patients, but skin involvement is rare. Herein, we report a 10 year-old girl from consanguineous parents who was referred to our center because of disseminated maculopapular rash. She had history of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In immunological studies, increased serum IgE level and decreased responses to tetanus and diphtheria were detected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR examination of bronchoalveolar lavage and serum sample revealed the presence of CMV. Early diagnosis of cutaneous CMV and appropriate treatment are the key actions in management of patients with underlying immunodeficiencies to avoid further complications.

  1. Seasonal idiopathic rhinitis with local inflammatory response and specific IgE in absence of systemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón, C; Doña, I; López, S; Campo, P; Romero, J J; Torres, M J; Mayorga, C; Blanca, M

    2008-10-01

    Patients with idiopathic rhinitis (IR) are considered to be nonallergic because they have a negative skin prick test (SPT) and allergen specific-IgE in serum. The concept of localized mucosal allergy in the absence of atopy has recently been proposed. The immunological mechanisms involved in seasonal IR have not been sufficiently studied. We examined nasal mucosa inflammation, the presence of nasal specific-IgE and the response to nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) in patients with seasonal IR who presented symptoms only in spring. We evaluated 32 patients with seasonal IR and 35 with persistent allergic rhinitis to pollen (PAR-P) and compared these with healthy controls and persons with PAR to house dust mite during the pollen season, as well as by NAPT out-of-season with grass and Olea europea. We measured the nasal leukocyte-lymphocyte phenotype (CD45, CD33, CD16, CD3, CD4 and CD8), eosinophil-cationic-protein, and total and specific-IgE to grass and olive pollen in serum and nasal lavage and performed NAPT. In the IR group, 62.5% had a positive NAPT (IR-PosNAPT), 20/32 to grass, with four of these having a positive NAPT to olive pollen as well. IR-PosNAPT patients showed a similar nasal leukocyte-lymphocyte profile to the PAR-P patients and different to controls. We detected nasal specific-IgE in 35% of IR-PosNAPT patients. These results support the hypothesis that a subgroup of patients with IR have seasonal symptoms with evidence of a nasal allergic immune reaction in the absence of a positive SPT or serum specific IgE.

  2. The influence of a residual group in low-molecular-weight allergoids of Artemisia vulgaris pollen on their allergenicity, IgE- and IgG-binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirković, T; Gavrović-Jankulović, M; Prisić, S; Jankov, R M; Burazer, L; Vucković, O; Sporcić, Z; Paranos, S

    2002-11-01

    Reaction of epsilon-amino groups of lysine with potassium cyanate, maleic, or succinic anhydride leads to allergoids of low molecular weight. No study has been performed to compare their properties and investigate the influence of a residual group on allergenicity and human IgE- and IgG-binding of these derivatives. Allergoids of a pollen extract of Artemisia vulgaris were obtained by means of potassium cyanate, and succinic and maleic anhydride. Biochemical properties were investigated by determination of amino groups, enzyme activity, isoelectric focusing IEF and SDS-PAGE. IgE- and IgG-binding was determined using immunoblots and ELISA inhibition. Allergenicity was investigated by skin prick tests (SPT) on a group of 52 patients, of which 6 were control subjects, 30 were patients with no previous immunotherapy (IT), and 16 were patients undergoing immunotherapy. The same degree of amino-group modification (more than 85%), residual enzyme activity (less then 15%), IEF, and SDS-PAGE pattern were noted. In the immunoblots of IgE-binding, there was more pronounced reduction in the succinyl and maleyl derivatives than in the carbamyl one. IgG-binding was less affected by carbamylation than by acid anhydride modification. The SPT showed that the succinylated derivative had the most reduced allergenicity (98% showed a reduced wheal diameter when tested with the succinyl derivative, 87% with the maleyl allergoid, and 83% with the carbamyl allergoid). The most significant difference among allergoids could be seen in the group of patients with high skin reactivity (83% of patients showed no reaction to the succinyl derivative when compared to the value of 28% for the carbamyl derivative or 22% for the maleyl derivative). According to our results, all three modification procedures yielded allergoids with a similar extent of modification. No single biochemical parameter investigated in the study could predict the degree of reduced allergenicity in vivo. The most reduced

  3. Diagnostic evaluation and risk factors for drug allergies in children: from clinical history to skin and challenge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikoglu, Tugba; Aslan, Gulen; Batmaz, Sehra Birgul; Eskandari, Gulcin; Helvaci, Ilter; Kuyucu, Semanur

    2015-08-01

    Parent or self-reported drug allergy claims frequently overestimate the real incidence of hypersensitivity reactions. A detailed and algorithmic diagnostic evaluation of drug reactions may allow a proper diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the confirmation rates and risk factors for confirmed allergic drug reactions in children. Mersin University Hospital in Turkey. The study consisted of children between ages of 8 months and 18 years with the history of suspected drug allergy as reported by the clinician or the patients. Parents were interviewed by a clinician to complete questionnaires that included questions about demographic data and characteristics of index drug reaction. Immediate reactions (IRs) were assessed with immediate-reading skin prick (SPT) and intradermal tests (IDT). Nonimmediate reactions (NIRs) were assessed with SPT, both early and delayed reading of IDT and patch tests. In case of negative skin tests, drug provocation tests were performed. The possible risk factors for confirmed drug allergy in univariate analysis (p children. We evaluated a total of 180 suspected drug allergy reactions in 97 children, mainly to antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and anticonvulsants. Among all suspected allergic drug reactions, 97 (53.9 %) were immediate type and 83 (46.1 %) were non-immediate type. The average time interval between the reaction and allergologic work-up was 5 months. Drug allergy confirmation rates were 30.1 % for beta-lactams, 27.2 % for non-betalactams, 21.1 % for NSAIDs and 30 % for anticonvulsants. Eight of 54 confirmed NIRs showed positivity on immediate skin tests. Regulatory T cells, TGF-β and IL-10 levels were not different between groups with and without confirmed drug allergy. A strong family and personal history of drug allergy were found to be significantly related to the confirmed allergic drug reactions. Parent or self-reported drug allergy should be evaluated with a standardized diagnostic

  4. Reliability of candida skin test in the evaluation of T-cell function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infants with positive and negative candida tests showed comparable results in terms of clinical and immunological assessment except for weight percentiles for age that were higher among candida positive group. Conclusion: Candida intradermal test is a cost-effective simple test for evaluation of T cell function with 70 ...

  5. High Titers of IgE Antibody to Dust Mite Allergen and the Risk for Wheezing Among Asthmatic Children Infected with Rhinovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Avila, Lydiana; Platts-Mills, Thomas AE; Hunt, John F.; Erdman, Dean D.; Carper, Holliday; Murphy, Deborah D.; Odio, Silvia; James, Hayley R.; Patrie, James T.; Hunt, William; O’Rourke, Ashli K.; Davis, Michael D.; Steinke, John W.; Lu, Xiaoyan; Kennedy, Joshua; Heymann, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relevance of allergic sensitization, judged by titers of serum IgE antibodies, to the risk of an asthma exacerbation caused by rhinovirus is unclear. Objective To examine the prevalence of rhinovirus infections in relation to the atopic status of children treated for wheezing in Costa Rica, a country with an increased asthma burden. Methods The children enrolled (n=287) were 7 through 12 years old. They included 96 with acute wheezing, 65 with stable asthma, and 126 non-asthmatic controls. PCR methods, including gene sequencing to identify rhinovirus strains, were used to identify viral pathogens in nasal washes. Results were examined in relation to wheezing, total IgE, allergen-specific IgE antibody, and levels of expired nitric oxide (FENO). Results Sixty-four percent of wheezing children compared to 13% of children with stable asthma and 17% of the non-asthmatic controls tested positive for rhinovirus (p<0.001 for both comparisons). Among wheezing subjects, 75% of the rhinoviruses detected were Group C strains. High titers of IgE antibodies to dust mite allergen (especially Dermatophagoides sp) were common and correlated significantly with levels of total IgE and FENO. The greatest risk for wheezing was observed among children with titers of IgE antibodies to dust mite ≥17.5 IU/ml who tested positive for rhinovirus (odds ratio for wheezing: 31.5; 95% CI 8.3–108, p<0.001). Conclusions High titers of IgE antibody to dust mite allergen were common and significantly increased the risk for acute wheezing provoked by rhinovirus among asthmatic children. PMID:22560151

  6. High titers of IgE antibody to dust mite allergen and risk for wheezing among asthmatic children infected with rhinovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Avila, Lydiana; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Hunt, John F; Erdman, Dean D; Carper, Holliday; Murphy, Deborah D; Odio, Silvia; James, Hayley R; Patrie, James T; Hunt, William; O'Rourke, Ashli K; Davis, Michael D; Steinke, John W; Lu, Xiaoyan; Kennedy, Joshua; Heymann, Peter W

    2012-06-01

    The relevance of allergic sensitization, as judged by titers of serum IgE antibodies, to the risk of an asthma exacerbation caused by rhinovirus is unclear. We sought to examine the prevalence of rhinovirus infections in relation to the atopic status of children treated for wheezing in Costa Rica, a country with an increased asthma burden. The children enrolled (n= 287) were 7 through 12 years old. They included 96 with acute wheezing, 65 with stable asthma, and 126 nonasthmatic control subjects. PCR methods, including gene sequencing to identify rhinovirus strains, were used to identify viral pathogens in nasal washes. Results were examined in relation to wheezing, IgE, allergen-specific IgE antibody, and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide levels. Sixty-four percent of wheezing children compared with 13% of children with stable asthma and 13% of nonasthmatic control subjects had positive test results for rhinovirus (P< .001 for both comparisons). Among wheezing subjects, 75% of the rhinoviruses detected were group C strains. High titers of IgE antibodies to dust mite allergen (especially Dermatophagoides species) were common and correlated significantly with total IgE and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide levels. The greatest risk for wheezing was observed among children with titers of IgE antibodies to dust mite of 17.5 IU/mL or greater who tested positive for rhinovirus (odds ratio for wheezing, 31.5; 95% CI, 8.3-108; P< .001). High titers of IgE antibody to dust mite allergen were common and significantly increased the risk for acute wheezing provoked by rhinovirus among asthmatic children. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  7. Inhibition of IgE synthesis by anti-IgE: role in long-term inhibition of IgE synthesis by neonatally administered soluble IgE.

    OpenAIRE

    Haba, S; Nisonoff, A

    1990-01-01

    Inoculation of syngeneic IgE into 2- to 12-day-old mice results in prolonged synthesis of anti-IgE antibodies without further challenge. These anti-IgE antibodies may be largely responsible for the long-term inhibition of synthesis of IgE that is known to result from a perinatal challenge with IgE. This conclusion is supported by the effect of passive inoculation of syngeneic polyclonal anti-IgE antibodies into young mice, which similarly results in selective inhibition of IgE synthesis. Furt...

  8. 579 The Frequency of Positivity in Autologous Serum Skin Test in Patients with Chronic Idiopatic Urticaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Silvio Lima

    2012-01-01

    Background Describe the frequency of positive results in autologus serum skin test among patients with cronic urticaria. Methods Trans-sectional study of patients with CIU refered to traitment in policlínica geral do Rio de Janeiro, brazil. Autologus serum intradermal injections were used to estabilished the sensitivity. Negative and positive controls were made with 0.9% intradermal saline solution and skin prick test with histamina 1:100 solution. Autoreactivity was considered positive when wheal reached 3 mm at least, 1.5 mm larger than saline solution at 30 minute interval. Antihistamines drugs were interrupeted 72 hours before test. Dates on race, age, sex, and informations about length and how often the symptoms persist, personal history of atopy (PHA) and angioedema (AE), autoimmune disease (AID) and physical (PF) and not physical factors (NPF) related with the worsening of urticaria were registered during appointment. K square and τ student tests were used in this work. Results Eighteen patients, from 2008, march to 2011, march, were investigated (15 f; 12 w; age 50,67 ± 16,93 yr). Eleven patients presented positive AAST (61.1%) with a mean wheal diameter = 9,64 ± 2,66 mm (negative control = 6,33 ± 3,63 mm; P 0.05). Conclusions The positive asst frequency was 61%, comparable to values found in the liretature. Association among social-demographic and clinical aspects was not observed. We emphasize the prevalence of joint pain and angioedema as associated symptoms and the more frequence of AID laborotory finds. The procedure proved safe and precise and worth value in the screening diagnosis of autoimune etiology for patients with CIU.

  9. B Cell Intrinsic Mechanisms Constraining IgE Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Laffleur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells are key elements of adaptive humoral immunity. Regardless of the immunoglobulin class produced, these cells can ensure long-lasting protection but also long-lasting immunopathology, thus requiring tight regulation of their generation and survival. Among all antibody classes, this is especially true for IgE, which stands as the most potent, and can trigger dramatic inflammatory reactions even when present in minute amounts. IgE responses and memory crucially protect against parasites and toxic components of venoms, conferring selective advantages and explaining their conservation in all mammalian species despite a parallel broad spectrum of IgE-mediated immunopathology. Long-term memory of sensitization and anaphylactic responses to allergens constitute the dark side of IgE responses, which can trigger multiple acute or chronic pathologic manifestations, some punctuated with life-threatening events. This Janus face of the IgE response and memory, both necessary and potentially dangerous, thus obviously deserves the most elaborated self-control schemes.

  10. IGE IN ASTHMATIC HUMAN SERA IS REACTIVE AGAINST MOLD EXTRACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molds have been associated with various health effects including asthma, but their role in induction of asthma is unclear. However, the presence of mold-specific IgE indicates their capacity to induce allergic responses and possibly exacerbate asthma symptoms. This study was und...

  11. B Cell Intrinsic Mechanisms Constraining IgE Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffleur, Brice; Debeaupuis, Orianne; Dalloul, Zeinab; Cogné, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells are key elements of adaptive humoral immunity. Regardless of the immunoglobulin class produced, these cells can ensure long-lasting protection but also long-lasting immunopathology, thus requiring tight regulation of their generation and survival. Among all antibody classes, this is especially true for IgE, which stands as the most potent, and can trigger dramatic inflammatory reactions even when present in minute amounts. IgE responses and memory crucially protect against parasites and toxic components of venoms, conferring selective advantages and explaining their conservation in all mammalian species despite a parallel broad spectrum of IgE-mediated immunopathology. Long-term memory of sensitization and anaphylactic responses to allergens constitute the dark side of IgE responses, which can trigger multiple acute or chronic pathologic manifestations, some punctuated with life-threatening events. This Janus face of the IgE response and memory, both necessary and potentially dangerous, thus obviously deserves the most elaborated self-control schemes.

  12. Serum IgE Concentration in Trisomy 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Vicente

    1974-01-01

    Levels of serum IgE (an immunoglobulin carrying reaginic antibody activity) were investigated in 16 Down's syndrome adolescents (12-to 18-years old) and in an equal number of retardates matched for age and sex residing in the same institution. (CL)

  13. IgE in lupus pathogenesis: Friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Jean-François; Truchetet, Marie-Elise; Charles, Nicolas; Blanco, Patrick; Richez, Christophe

    2018-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease involving multiple immunological pathways. Recently, several studies have suggested an implication of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the pathophysiology of SLE. In the Lyn -/- and FcγIIB -/- .Yaa lupus mouse models, autoreactive IgE activate basophils, and promote a Th2 environment with, subsequently, production of autoantibodies by plasma cells. Autoreactive IgE has been also shown to play a role in the activation of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), in synergy with IgG, which results in an increase of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) production. In contrast, a protective effect of total non-autoreactive IgE has also been suggested, through a decreased ability of FcεRI-triggered pDCs to secrete IFN-α. This review summarizes in a comprehensive manner the emerging recent literature in the field, and propose new concepts to reconcile the observations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Interest of allergy tests in urticaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathelier-Fusade, P

    2014-11-01

    Urticaria is a common skin disease that may affect 20 % of the general population. Most of the time, urticaria is an acute disorder that rarely can be chronic. The difficulty in urticaria is not the clinical diagnosis because the rash is characteristic, but the underlying causes and treatment that result. Urticaria is a benign disease when chronic and potentially dangerous when acute and associated with allergy. This allergy risk, needs an allergy exploration, based on skin tests and / or specific IgE assays. Because allergy is unusual in chronic urticaria, no allergy tests should be performed. By contrast, these tests must be undertaken in case of acute urticaria with a strong suspicion of IgE-mediated reaction because of the risk of severe anaphylaxis in case of allergenic re-exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. IgE responses in the serum and gastric lymph of sheep infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntley, J. F.; Schallig, H. D.; Kooyman, F. N.; MacKellar, A.; Millership, J.; Smith, W. D.

    1998-01-01

    The IgE response of naive or previously infected sheep to 50,000 infective larvae of Teladorsagia circumcincta was monitored in serum and gastric lymph using a monoclonal antibody generated to recombinant ovine IgE in a dot blot assay. In 4/5 naive sheep, lymph and serum IgE concentrations increased

  16. The role of IL-13 in IgE synthesis by allergic asthma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pouw Kraan, T. C.; van der Zee, J. S.; Boeije, L. C.; de Groot, E. R.; Stapel, S. O.; Aarden, L. A.

    1998-01-01

    IgE antibodies play a crucial role in allergic type I reactions. Only IL-4 and IL-13 are able to induce an immunoglobulin isotype switch to IgE in B cells. A major question is to what extent these cytokines contribute to the production of IgE in allergic patients. To address this question we used an

  17. Comparison of the tuberculin skin test and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test in detecting latent tuberculosis in health care workers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mostafavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The tuberculin skin test (TST and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT are used to identify latent tuberculosis infections (LTBIs. The aim of this study was to determine the agreement between these two tests among health care workers in Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 177 tuberculosis (TB laboratory staff and 67 non-TB staff. TST indurations of 10 mm or more were considered positive. The Student’s t-test and the chi-square test were used to compare the mean score and proportion of variables between the TB laboratory staff and the non-TB laboratory staff. Kappa statistics were used to evaluate the agreement between these tests, and logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors associated with positive results for each test. RESULTS: The prevalence of LTBIs according to both the QFT and the TST was 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12% to 21% and 16% (95% CI, 11% to 21%, respectively. The agreement between the QFT and the TST was 77.46%, with a kappa of 0.19 (95% CI, 0.04 to 0.34. CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of LTBI based on the QFT and the TST was not significantly different, the kappa statistic was low between these two tests for the detection of LTBIs.

  18. A tan in a test tube - in vitro models for investigating ultraviolet radiation-induced damage in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Tara L; Dawson, Rebecca A; Van Lonkhuyzen, Derek R; Kimlin, Michael G; Upton, Zee

    2012-06-01

    Presently, global rates of skin cancers induced by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure are on the rise. In view of this, current knowledge gaps in the biology of photocarcinogenesis and skin cancer progression urgently need to be addressed. One factor that has limited skin cancer research has been the need for a reproducible and physiologically-relevant model able to represent the complexity of human skin. This review outlines the main currently-used in vitro models of UVR-induced skin damage. This includes the use of conventional two-dimensional cell culture techniques and the major animal models that have been employed in photobiology and photocarcinogenesis research. Additionally, the progression towards the use of cultured skin explants and tissue-engineered skin constructs, and their utility as models of native skin's responses to UVR are described. The inherent advantages and disadvantages of these in vitro systems are also discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Risk of Unexpected Adverse Effects Resulting from the Use of a Skin Test with Recombinant Tuberculosis Allergen in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kryvohizh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report reviews clinical cases, and their possible causes of unexpected local and systemic adverse effects associated with a novel skin test using recombinant tuberculosis allergen (RTA, Diaskintest in 2—11 years old children. This preparation consists of a M. tuberculosis ESAT6/CFP10 fusion protein produced in E. coli, and, in Russia, it has been used as a tool for preventive screening for tuberculosis since 2009. The most common side effects developed within 1 to 12 h after injection and were represented as local or non-life threatening systemic symptoms: fever up to 39°C lasting up to 24 h, painful excessive edema with reddening on the forearm, and, sometimes herpes-like blisters on the skin. In 72 h, the papula at the injection site was moderate, but the hyperemia around it was considerable. We argue that the most likely reason for this type of response could be the development of Type III hypersensitivity (associated with immune complexes, and/or antibody-independent anaphylactoid response to the ESAT6/CFP10 protein or contaminating bacterial culture components. To prevent possible side effects, we recommend to observe the patients for not less than 15 min after the injection of RTA, and to be ready to respond in case of anaphylaxis development.

  20. Development of TAP, a non-invasive test for qualitative and quantitative measurements of biomarkers from the skin surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orro, Kadri; Smirnova, Olga; Arshavskaja, Jelena; Salk, Kristiina; Meikas, Anne; Pihelgas, Susan; Rumvolt, Reet; Kingo, Külli; Kazarjan, Aram; Neuman, Toomas; Spee, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    The skin proteome contains valuable information on skin condition, but also on how skin may evolve in time and may respond to treatments. Despite the potential of measuring regulatory-, effector- and structural proteins in the skin for biomarker applications in clinical dermatology and skin care, convenient diagnostic tools are lacking. The aim of the present study was to develop a highly versatile and non-invasive diagnostic tool for multiplex measurements of protein biomarkers from the surface of skin. The Transdermal Analyses Patch (TAP) is a novel molecular diagnostic tool that has been developed to capture biomarkers directly from skin, which are quantitatively analyzed in spot-ELISA assays. Optimisation of protocols for TAP production and biomarker analyses makes TAP measurements highly specific and reproducible. In measurements of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) and human β-defensin (hBD-1) from healthy skin, TAP appears far more sensitive than skin lavage-based methods using ELISA. No side-effects were observed using TAP on human skin. TAP is a practical and valuable new skin diagnostic tool for measuring protein-based biomarkers from skin, which is convenient to use for operators, with minimal burden for patients.

  1. Asthma Symptoms and Specific IgE Levels among Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) Exposed Workers in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Laleh; Karimi, Akram; Shokouhi Shoormasti, Raheleh; Miri, Sara; Heydar Nazhad, Hassan; Bokaie, Saied; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Khosro; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an imperative chemical substance used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints and coatings that cause a variety of health problems in workers who are exposed in work places. This study aimed to determine the asthma symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in TDI exposed workers and comparing the results with healthy control group. All the plants that use TDI in the manufacturing of paint and glue in the west of Tehran Province entered to the study and all the workers (550) completed modified initial questionnaire of the NIOSH, the questions were consisted of asthma symptoms. For each symptomatic exposed worker one healthy, sex and age matched control selected. Total IgE and Specific TDI IgE tests were done for each case and control groups. Among 550 TDI exposed workers, 26(4.7%) had asthma symptoms. Nine (34.6%) of symptomatic workers who were exposed to TDI were active cigarette consumer versus 3(11.5%) unexposed workers, P=0.049(CI= 0.953-17.29) OR=4.059. Nine (34.6%) workers had positive family history of atopy versus 1(3.8%) unexposed workers, P=0.0138 (CI= 1.45-305.41) OR=13.24. TDI specific IgE was found in 2 TDI exposed workers and 1 unexposed worker (P=0.5). Mean of total IgE was 339.05 in exposed workers (P=0.201). This study provides clinical and paraclinical data of workers exposed to TDI and points to a relation between atopy and smoking habit with asthma symptoms that offer preventing recommendations for TDI exposed workers and their heath administrators.

  2. The Impact of Baked Egg and Baked Milk Diets on IgE- and Non-IgE-Mediated Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Julia; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2018-03-08

    Baked milk (BM) and baked egg (BE) diets are increasingly used in the management of milk and egg allergy, rather than avoidance. Children with tolerance versus reactivity to BM and BE may have smaller skin prick test and lower specific IgE, and BM-tolerant children have less basophil reactivity and more peripheral T regulatory cells. However, most milk- and egg-allergic children tolerate BM and BE and an individual's reactivity is unpredictable. Non-reactivity is due to conformational changes in the allergens. Significant differences in the published advice about methods of introduction exist from graded introduction at home to a medically supervised full dose. These approaches carry different risks and may have different immunological effects. Reactivity to BM is a predictor of a severe milk allergy. Therefore, medical supervision for BM and BE introduction is prudent. The baked diet allows dietary liberation. Most, but not all, BM- and BE-tolerant children continue eating the baked foods. The prognosis of children who can eat BM and BE is favorable with likely resolution of their allergy over the next few years. Murine models of BE diets demonstrate that heated egg can impart clinical protection against anaphylaxis and cause immune changes. Most observational human studies of BM and BE diets demonstrate clinical resolution of allergy and favorable immune changes versus regular care controls. However, the one randomized controlled trial for the BE diet in BE-tolerant children did not support an immune-modifying effect of the BE diet. Another study of BE immunotherapy is expected to be completed in 2018. There is currently no evidence for prevention of allergy with the baked diets. There may be a future role for BM and BE in liberating the diets of individuals with non-IgE-mediated allergy given recent studies that a subset of these patients can consume BM without a clinical reaction.

  3. First-in-man open clinical trial of a combined rdESAT-6 and rCFP-10 tuberculosis specific skin test reagent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Bergstedt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculin is still the only available skin test reagent for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. The product has a remarkable sensitivity, but poor specificity. Previous studies, including two human phase I clinical trials, have indicated that rdESAT-6 has a potential as an improved skin test reagent. Animal studies have shown that the sensitivity may be increased by inclusion of the genetically related CFP-10 antigen in the preparation without loosing specificity.In this study a Lactococcus fermented, recombinant skin test reagent consisting of a 1ratio1 wt/wt of rdESAT-6 and CFP-10 was manufactured according to GMP standards and tested for the first time in 42 healthy adult volunteers. The two doses of 0.01 microg or 0.1 microg were injected intradermally by the Mantoux technique with 6 or 12 weeks interval. No serious adverse events and only mild adverse reactions were reported. The reagent elicited a positive skin test reaction after the first injection in one participant, who most likely was latently infected with M. tuberculosis as indicated by an appreciable IFN gamma response just below the Quantiferon(R cut-off level at the screening visit. None of the remaining participants in the four groups had any skin test reactions and sensitisation by the reagent could therefore be excluded.The investigational skin test reagent rdESAT-6 and CFP-10 appeared safe and non-sensitising in this first-in-man clinical trial in human volunteers and can now be tested in larger clinical trials involving individuals with latent M. tuberculosis infection or active TB disease.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793702.

  4. Molecular allergy diagnostics using IgE singleplex determinations: methodological and practical considerations for use in clinical routine: Part 18 of the Series Molecular Allergology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Jakob, Thilo

    Allergen molecules (synonyms: single allergens, allergen components) open up new horizons for the targeted allergen-specific diagnostics of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in singleplex determination. The following rationales support the targeted use of allergen molecules and, more importantly, improve test properties: (1) increased test sensitivity ("analytical sensitivity"), particularly when important allergens are under-represented or lacking in the extract; (2) improved test selectivity (analytical specificity), particularly when the selected IgE repertoire against an allergen yields additional information on: (a) potential risk, (b) possible cross-reactivity, or (c) primary (species-specific) sensitization. However, the appropriate indication for the use of single allergens can only be established on a case-by-case basis (depending on the clinical context and previous history) and in an allergen-specific manner (depending on the allergen source and the single allergens available), rather than in a standardized way. Numerous investigations on suspected food allergy, insect venom allergy, or sensitization to respiratory allergens have meanwhile demonstrated the successful use of defined molecules for allergen-specific singleplex IgE diagnosis. Specific IgE to single allergens is limited in its suitability to predict the clinical relevance of sensitivity on an individual basis. In food allergies, one can at best identify the relative risk of a clinical reaction on the basis of an IgE profile, but no absolutely reliable prediction on (future) tolerance can be made. Ultimately, the clinical relevance of all IgE findings depends on the presence of corresponding symptoms and can only be assessed on an individual basis (previous history, symptom log, and provocation testing with the relevant allergen source where appropriate). Thus, also in molecular allergology, the treating physician and not the test result should determine the clinical relevance of diagnostic findings

  5. Average Skin-Friction Drag Coefficients from Tank Tests of a Parabolic Body of Revolution (NACA RM-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottard, Elmo J; Loposer, J Dan

    1954-01-01

    Average skin-friction drag coefficients were obtained from boundary-layer total-pressure measurements on a parabolic body of revolution (NACA rm-10, basic fineness ratio 15) in water at Reynolds numbers from 4.4 x 10(6) to 70 x 10(6). The tests were made in the Langley tank no. 1 with the body sting-mounted at a depth of two maximum body diameters. The arithmetic mean of three drag measurements taken around the body was in good agreement with flat-plate results, but, apparently because of the slight surface wave caused by the body, the distribution of the boundary layer around the body was not uniform over part of the Reynolds number range.

  6. Human skin test antigen stimulated killer (STAK) cells generated in vitro are Leu-11b positive and nonadherent to plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, K.; Thalji, Z.; Tartof, D.

    1986-03-05

    Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to solubilized skin test antigen (STA) in vitro for 5 days. After culture natural effector cell activity was determined in the STAK cell populations after no treatment (N.T.), after treatment with Leu-11b mouse monoclonal antibody plus rabbit complement and after incubation on tissue culture grade plastic for one hour at 37/sup 0/C to remove cells adherent to plastic. Natural cytotoxicity in the STAK cell populations after treatment was determined in 4 hr /sup 51/Cr release assays using /sup 51/Cr labeled K562 target cells. The results show that STAK cells belong to the subset of mononuclear natural effector cells that do not appear to be in the monocyte lineage since they possess the Leu-11b surface antigen and they are nonadherent to plastic.

  7. Non-immediate-reading skin tests and prolonged challenges in non-immediate hypersensitivity to beta-lactams in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezmi, G; Alrowaishdi, F; Bados-Albiero, A; Scheinmann, P; de Blic, J; Ponvert, C

    2018-02-01

    A minority of children reporting non-immediate reactions to beta-lactams (BLs) are allergic. Allergy workup usually includes late-reading (48-72 hours) skin tests (ST) and short (1-3 days) drug provocation tests (DPT), regardless of the chronology of the index reaction. The sensitivity of hyper-late-reading (≥6-7 days) ST and of prolonged DPT for the diagnosis of non-immediate hypersensitivity to BLs is yet to be determined. To establish the diagnostic values of late-reading ST and hyper-late-reading ST and of prolonged DPT in children reporting non-immediate reactions to BLs. Prospective assessment of children reporting non-immediate reactions to BLs with late- and additional hyper-late-reading intradermal (ID) and patch tests, and if negative, with prolonged DPT. Five hundred and fifty children reporting reactions to a single or several BLs (674 suspected BLs) were included. Non-immediate hypersensitivity to BLs was diagnosed in 63 children (11.5%), reporting 66 reactions (9.8%), based on responses in ST (n = 17, 25.8%: 5 to ID, 8 to patch tests, and 4 to both tests), DPT (n = 43, 65.2%), and clinical history (n = 6, 9.1%), including 3/9 children with severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Skin test positivity was observed after the 6-7th day in 14/17 children, and DPT positivity after a median time of 3 days. No severe reaction was observed after ST or during prolonged DPT. Additional hyper-late-reading of ST enhanced their positivity. However, their overall sensitivity remained weak, especially in non-severe cases. Prolonged DPT are safe and may improve the performance of DPT in the diagnosis of non-immediate hypersensitivity to BLs. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  8. Skin reaction and recovery: a repeated sodium lauryl sulphate patch test vs. a 24-h patch test and tape stripping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, D. G.; Kezić, S.; Verberk, M. M.

    2004-01-01

    Background Little is known of the predictive value of methods to test an individual's susceptibility to acquiring occupational contact dermatitis. Recently, the recovery rate after induced irritation was suggested for this purpose. Although it is likely that repeated exposure to sodium lauryl

  9. Determination of N-acetylglucosamine in cosmetic formulations and skin test samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrali, Alice; Bleve, Mariella; Capra, Priscilla; Jonsson, Tobias; Massolini, Gabriella; Perugini, Paola; Marrubini, Giorgio

    2015-03-25

    N-Acetylglucosamine is an ingredient in pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements and in cosmetics. N-Acetylglucosamine in cosmetics is expected to improve skin hydration, reparation, and to contribute as anti-wrinkle agent. This study reports on the validation and application of an HPLC method based on HILIC and UV detection for determining N-acetylglucosamine in cosmetics and in samples obtained after testing the skin exposed to cosmetics formulations. The chromatographic column used is a ZIC(®)-pHILIC (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) on which a mobile phase containing acetonitrile-aqueous KH2PO4 (70:30, v/v) 15 mM was applied in isocratic elution mode injecting 20 μl of sample at 0.5 ml/min constant flow-rate and 10±1°C column temperature. Under these conditions the total run time was 10 min and N-acetylglucosamine eluted baseline separated from all other compounds in the samples. Calibration in the range from 40 to 80 μg/ml allowed to assess the method linearity (R(2)>0.999) in a concentration range corresponding to about 50% to 120% of the expected levels of N-acetylglucosamine in the formulations. Precision expressed by RSD% was always better than 2% in intra-day and inter-day assays of authentic samples. Accuracy was in all cases within 95-105% of the expected concentration value in formulations containing N-acetylglucosamine. The sensitivity of the method was at the level of 10 μg/ml as limit of detection, and at 40 μg/ml as limit of quantitation. The application of the method to formulations containing solid lipid nanoparticles documents its usefulness in cosmetic quality control. The results witness that the method is also suitable for the determination of N-acetylglucosamine in samples obtained from skin test strips. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospective analysis of stability testing for bone-anchored hearing implants in children after osseointegrating surgery without skin thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultcrantz, Malou; Lanis, Aviya

    2015-04-01

    To report normative values for osseointegration in 10 children with bone-anchored hearing implants who were consecutively operated on using a tissue preserving technique with individualized abutments and prospectively followed with stability testing 1 year after surgery. Children were implanted with bone-anchored hearing devices using a non-skin thinning implantation technique and followed during the course of a year. Mean age was 5.1 years. Stability testing with Osstell's resonance frequency analysis (RFA) measurement was used at each visit, providing values between 0 and 100 (representing a range of low to high stability, respectively). Clinical signs and symptoms were also noted at each visit. Three of the children were operated on using a two-step procedure, while the remaining seven children were operated on using a one-step procedure. Eight of the children showed skin-related problems during the 1-year control period that were easily treated. Two children experienced an abutment loss early following surgery (1 two-step and 1 one-step) and showed low resonance measurements of 30 or less within the first 3-4 weeks. Two children experienced a traumatic abutment loss and two required a change in abutment length. During the 1-year follow-up, nine children demonstrated signs of peri-implant infections, only two of which were recurrent. Stability was measured to be higher in eight children with longer abutments. Two children experienced low stability (hearing aid and mean ISQ values were 56.2 and 47.5 for 6mm and 9mm abutments, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pre-validation of an in vitro skin irritation test for medical devices using the reconstructed human tissue model EpiDerm™.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandarova, Helena; Willoughby, Jamin A; De Jong, Wim H; Letasiova, Silvia; Milasova, Tatiana; Bachelor, Michael A; Breyfogle, Bridget; Handa, Yuki; De la Fonteyne, Liset; Coleman, Kelly P

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of dermal irritation is an essential component of the safety evaluation of medical devices. Reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models have replaced rabbit skin irritation testing for neat chemicals and their mixtures (OECD Test Guideline 439). However, this guideline cannot be directly

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF SKIN TESTING .2. EVALUATION OF CONCENTRATION AND CUTOFF VALUES, AS COMPARED WITH RAST AND CLINICAL HISTORY, IN A MULTICENTER STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIEMEIJER, NR; FLUKS, AF; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1993-01-01

    In this multicenter study we evaluated the results of a previous study (part I) in a relatively large Dutch patient population, using the two previously tested allergens (house-dust mite and grass pollen) and two other standardized allergens (tree pollen and cat dander). The obtained skin test

  13. Characterization of the mechanical properties of a dermal equivalent compared with human skin in vivo by indentation and static friction tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahouani, H; Pailler-Mattei, C; Sohm, B; Vargiolu, R; Cenizo, V; Debret, R

    2009-02-01

    The study of changes in skin structure with age is becoming all the more important with the increase in life. The atrophy that occurs during aging is accompanied by more profound changes, with a loss of organization within the elastic collagen network and alterations in the basal elements. The aim of this study is to present a method to determine the mechanical properties of total human skin in vivo compared with dermal equivalents (DEs) using indentation and static friction tests. A new bio-tribometer working at a low contact pressure for the characterization the mechanical properties of the skin has been developed. This device, based on indentation and static friction tests, also allows to characterize the skin in vivo and reconstructed DEs in a wide range of light contact forces, stress and strain. This original bio-tribometer shows the ability to assess the skin elasticity and friction force in a wide range of light normal load (0.5-2 g) and low contact pressure (0.5-2 kPa). The results obtained by this approach show identical values of the Young's modulus E(*) and the shear modulus G(*) of six DEs obtained from a 62-year-old subject (E(*)=8.5+/-1.74 kPa and G(*)=3.3+/-0.46 kPa) and in vivo total skin of 20 subjects aged 55 to 70 years (E(*)=8.3+/-2.1 kPa, G(*)=2.8+/-0.8 kpa).

  14. Cyclosporin A is an adjuvant in murine IgE antibody responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.S.; Stanescu, G.; Magalski, A.E.; Qian, Y.Y.

    1989-06-15

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an undecapeptide fungal metabolite and is generally regarded as a new generation of immunosuppressive drugs. We uncovered a novel immunomodulatory property of CsA as a potent immunologic stimulator in the murine IgE antibody system. The enhancement of IgE responses was observed in mice receiving as few as three daily i.m. injections before Ag priming. Our studies demonstrate the three points listed below. First, CsA potentiates murine IgE responses regardless of Ag specificities in inbred mice. A hierarchy of immunopotentiation by CsA follows the order of low, intermediate, and high IgE responder mice. Second, CsA, when administered along with Ag, exerts a thorough and long lasting impact on the Ag-specific IgE antibody response, and leads to an Ag-specific breakthrough of IgE antibody synthesis in mice rendered tolerant in the IgE antibody system by soluble Ag pretreatment or neonatal IgE treatment. Third, IgE enhancer cells become sensitive to a low dose of irradiation. Two enhancer cellular components are identified, those of the Th cells and B cells, which appear to favor the induction of IgE responses. Understanding the cellular basis of the immunopotentiating effect of CsA will provide further insight into the murine IgE antibody system.

  15. Distribution of total serum IgE and specific IgE to common aeroallergens by sex and age, and their relationship to each other in a random sample of the Dutch general population aged 20-70 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M; Droste, JHJ; deMonchy, JGR; Schouten, JP; Rijcken, B

    1996-01-01

    To describe the distribution of serum total IgE and specific IgE to common aeroallergens by sex and age and to study their relationship to each other, we measured serum total IgE and specific IgE (CAP) to house-dust mile, timothy grass, cat, birch, and Cladosporium in a random sample of 2496

  16. Assessment of the respiratory metabolism in the skin from transcutaneous measurements of pO2 and pCO2: potential for non-invasive monitoring of response to tuberculin skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, N C; Spence, V A; Swanson-Beck, J; Carnochan, F M; Gibbs, J H; Lowe, J G

    1990-03-01

    A method is described for non-invasive transcutaneous (tc) measurement of tissue respiratory gas tensions in the skin on the forearm for study of delayed hypersensitivity reactions in man. Steady state values for tcpO2 and tcpCO2 were measured, and the skin respiratory rate (oxygen consumption) and the tissue pH were estimated from the changes in tcpO2 and tcpCO2 observed after interruption of the arterial circulation by cuff occlusion for 4 minutes. The extent of within-experiment and between subject variation in the steady-state measurements was not great (coefficient of variation 10%): tcpCO2.ss (steady state) was higher in men and tcpO2.ss was higher in women, but the extent of these sex differences was also small. Reference ranges have been established for tc measurements and calculated indices of tissue respiration in the undisturbed forearm skin of normal volunteers, against which the changes induced by tuberculin testing can be assessed. Severe changes, indicative of profound hypoxia and acidosis, are seen in intense delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Similar, but less severe changes were seen at the site of skin tests on BCG-vaccinated subjects who were 'negative' by conventional criteria of measurement of dermal induration and they became greatly exaggerated after successful re-vaccination. Intradermal injection of saline did not induce hypoxia or local acidosis. These new methods are very sensitive indicators of the tissue response in the DHS reaction.

  17. Basophil activation test: food challenge in a test tube or specialist research tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the gold-standard to diagnose food allergy; however, it is a labour and resource-intensive procedure with the risk of causing an acute allergic reaction, which is potentially severe. Therefore, OFC are reserved for cases where the clinical history and the results of skin prick test and/or specific IgE do not confirm or exclude the diagnosis of food allergy. This is a significant proportion of patients seen in Allergy clinics and results in a high demand for OFC. The basophil activation test (BAT) has emerged as a new diagnostic test for food allergy. With high diagnostic accuracy, it can be particularly helpful in the cases where skin prick test and specific IgE are equivocal and may allow reducing the need for OFC. BAT has high specificity, which confers a high degree of certainty in confirming the diagnosis of food allergy and allows deferring the performance of OFC in patients with a positive BAT. The diagnostic utility of BAT is allergen-specific and needs to be validated for different allergens and in specific patient populations. Standardisation of the laboratory methodology and of the data analyses would help to enable a wider clinical application of BAT.

  18. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R

    2016-10-01

    To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. IgE reactivity to hen egg white allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Saito, Taku; Miyaji, Kazuki; Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Okamoto, Noriaki; DeBoer, Douglas J; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFR) often have specific IgE to food allergens. Egg white, which is majorly composed of ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, is a food allergen in dogs. Information of the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens supports accurate diagnosis and efficiency treatment in humans. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens in dogs. Here, we investigated the IgE reactivity to crude and purified allergens of hen egg white in dogs with CAFR. First, when we examined serum samples from 82 dogs with CAFR for specific IgE to crude egg white by ELISA, 9.8% (8/82) of the dogs with CAFR showed the IgE reactivity to crude egg white. We then used sera from the eight dogs with positive IgE reactivity to crude egg white to examine the IgE reactivity to four purified allergens, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, by ELISA. We found that 75% (6/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to both ovomucoid and ovalbumin, and that 37.5% (3/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to ovotransferrin. None (0/8) showed IgE reactivity to lysozyme. Moreover, validating these results, the immunoblot analyses were performed using the sera of the three dogs showing the highest IgE reactivity to crude egg white. Both anti-ovomucoid and anti-ovalbumin IgE were detected in the sera of these dogs, while anti-ovotransferrin IgE was not detected. Considering these, ovomucoid and ovalbumin appears to be the major egg white allergens in dogs with CAFR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Human serum substitution by artificial sera of scalable allergen reactivity based on polyclonal antibodies and chimeras of human FcγRI and IgE domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, N; Plum, M; Hübner, U; Rathloff, K; Braren, I; Fooke, M; Spillner, E

    2016-12-01

    Human sera are the first choice as controls for diagnostic applications such as immunoassays, but are limited regarding availability, varying quality, and high costs. In this study, we aimed to circumvent these limitations by the use of a chimeric adaptor molecule comprising the extracellular domains of the human FcγRI (CD64) fused with human IgE Fc domains (CD64-IgE Fc). Allergen-specific antibodies were produced in rabbits using eight different allergens, extracts, and allergen mixtures including mites, pollen, drugs, and food. Preincubation of polyclonal IgG with CD64-IgE Fc established allergen-specific artificial sera that showed comparable results for more than 20 allergens and allergen extracts in three diagnostic systems for the determination of specific IgE. The agreement for these artificial sera is within ±1 radioallergosorbent test (RAST) class. Hence, rabbit IgG complexed with the IgG-specific CD64-IgE Fc adaptor molecule could provide a substitute for human reference sera with specificity for virtually any protein of interest. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Smear grading and the Mantoux skin test can be used to predict sputum smear conversion in patients suffering from tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffari, Mahmood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Smear scores and induration sizes resulting from the PPD (tuberculin purified protein derivative test can serve as indicators of whether a patient suffering from tuberculosis shows smear conversion or not. Methods: Using microbiological methods smear and sputum tests, patients diagnosed as infected with between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study. All of the assumed factors that may have a role in smear conversion were studied, in addition to the prolongation of tuberculosis. Results: 398 of 512 patients fulfilled all the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of this study. 215 patients (54% were females and 183 (46% were males. The median age for both men and women was 36 years. We found a statistically significant difference between the size of induration resulting from the PPD skin test and the rate of non-conversion (=0.002. Further univariate analysis also showed that smear grading and an induration size of ≥10 mm were independently associated with delayed smear conversion. Patients with cavitary lesions showed a higher rate of non-conversion after two months, which was not significant. We could not find any association between some of the variables, such as age, sex, weight, smoking, alcoholism, addictions, respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, alternative anti-TB treatment, and smear conversion. Conclusion: Intensified treatment and precautions against transmission should be especially considered for TB patients with high smear grading and an induration size of more than 10 mm.

  2. Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician

  3. Occupational skin allergies: testing and treatment (the case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, D Linn

    2014-02-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis, including occupational allergic contact dermatitis, is one of the most common occupational diseases. Making a timely and accurate diagnosis is important to improving the outcome. Taking a work history and patch testing are essential elements in the diagnostic process. Management, based on an accurate diagnosis, must include both medical treatment to address the disease and workplace modifications as appropriate to reduce exposure the causative agents.

  4. Skin Prick Test Results of Canakkale Onsekizmart University Faculty of Medicine Dermatology Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Isik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aimed to evaluate the prick test results of the patients with chronic urticaria, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis who attended to dermatology department of Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Medicine. Material and Method: The prick test results of 583 patients with chronic urticaria, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis were assessed retrospectively for this study. 50 standard allergens including pollens, grass, weed, fungal allergens, latex, cat fur, dog hair, house dust mites and foods were performed to the patients. Results: The ages of the patients were between 3 and 70 (mean age was 30.6±17.5. At least one positive prick test result to any allergen were obtained in 359 patients (61.6%. The most common allergens were; house dust mites (50.5%, weed(28.8%, polen grains(29%, tomato (13.7%, coffee (13.1%, chicken meat (13.0% and chocolate (12.7%, respectively. Discussion: We think that our study will help to contribute to the allergen map of our country.

  5. [Analysis of clinical features and allergic status of asthmatic patients with positive serum mycosis-specific IgE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yan; Ye, Ling; Gong, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-feng; Jin, Mei-ling

    2013-08-01

    To improve understanding of the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM). We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, including clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, pulmonary function tests and chest CT imaging of 95 asthmatic patients with positive serum mycosis-specific IgE from January 2010 to September 2012 in Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University. Of the 95 patients, 59 cases met the diagnostic criteria of ABPM. There were 34 males and 25 females, with a mean age of (53 ± 4) years and a duration of asthma for (21 ± 4) years. Thirty-six cases showed mycosis hypersensitivity (MH). There were 10 males and 26 females, with a mean age of (46 ± 6) years and a duration of asthma for (16 ± 5) years. Clinical symptoms such as wheeze (52 vs 21, χ(2) = 11.159, P = 0.001), cough (54 vs 27, χ(2) = 4.859, P = 0.030) and expectoration (43 vs 9, χ(2) = 25.731, P = 0.000) were more common in the ABPM group compared to the MH group.In the ABPM group, 58 were A. fumigatus-specific IgE antibody positive, 34 Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive and 1 only Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive.While in the MH group, 15 were A.fumigatus-specific IgE antibody positive, 24 Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive and 17 only Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive.In the ABPM group, the percentage of positive fumigatus-specific IgE antibody was higher (58 vs 15, χ(2) = 24.500, P = 0.000), while the percentages of dermatophagoides pteronyssinus(21 vs 20, χ(2) = 3.632, P = 0.045) and Dermatophagoides farinae(17 vs 21, χ(2) = 8.118, P = 0.004) were lower. Total serum IgE [(4395 ± 1437) IU/ml vs (276 ± 133) IU/ml, T = 4.384, P = 0.000], peripheral eosinophil percentage[(12.56 ± 1.20)% vs (1.30 ± 0.15)%, t = 8.175, P = 0.000] and count [(2.09 ± 0.43)×10(9)/L vs (0.19 ± 0.04)×10(9)/L, t = 7.032, P = 0.000] were higher in the ABPM group as compared to the MH group.FEV1% slightly declined in the ABPM

  6. Alternatives to In Vivo Draize Rabbit Eye and Skin Irritation Tests with a Focus on 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea-Like Epithelium and Epidermis Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Miri; Hwang, Jee-Hyun; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2017-01-01

    Human eyes and skin are frequently exposed to chemicals accidentally or on purpose due to their external location. Therefore, chemicals are required to undergo the evaluation of the ocular and dermal irritancy for their safe handling and use before release into the market. Draize rabbit eye and skin irritation test developed in 1944, has been a gold standard test which was enlisted as OECD TG 404 and OECD TG 405 but it has been criticized with respect to animal welfare due to invasive and cru...

  7. Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients with Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka Sastalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3. This immune disorder is clinically characterized by increased susceptibility to cutaneous and sinopulmonary infections, in particular with Candida and Staphylococcus aureus. It has recently been recognized that the skin microbiome of patients with AD-HIES is altered with an overrepresentation of certain Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive staphylococci. However, these alterations have not been characterized at the species- and strain-level. Since S. aureus infections are influenced by strain-specific expression of virulence factors, information on colonizing strain characteristics may provide insights into host-pathogen interactions and help guide management strategies for treatment and prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the immunodeficiency of AD-HIES selects for unique strains of colonizing S. aureus. Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, protein A (spa typing, and PCR-based detection of toxin genes, we performed a detailed analysis of the S. aureus isolates (n = 13 found on the skin of twenty-one patients with AD-HIES. We found a low diversity of sequence types, and an abundance of strains that expressed methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, and staphylococcal enterotoxins K and Q (SEK, SEQ. Our results indicate that patients with AD-HIES may often carry antibiotic-resistant strains that harbor key virulence factors.

  8. The Differences in Serum Quantitative Specific IgE Levels Induced by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis Sensitization in Intermittent and Persistent Allergic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Joko Susanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: house dust mites (HDM are an important inhalant allergen in allergic asthma. However, molecular diagnostic study of specific IgE to HDM allergens has not been done in Indonesia. In addition, the association of quantitative specific IgE measurement with asthma severity has not been investigatedd. This study aimed to investigate the difference of serum quantitative specific IgE levels induced by Dermatophagoides (D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and Blomia tropicalis sensitization in intermittent and persistent allergic asthma. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study on adult allergic asthma patients who were invited for serum specific IgE testing. This study was a part of a larger study within the Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Asthma severity was defined based on Global Initiative on Asthma (GINA 2015 criteria and were grouped as intermittent or persistent. Quantitative specific IgE testing was done on blood serum using a multiple allergosorbent test (Polycheck Allergy, Biocheck GmbH, Munster, Germany. The HDM allergens tested were D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, and Blomia tropicalis. Difference between two groups were analyze using Mann-Whitney test. Results: a total of 87 subjects were enrolled in this study; 69 (79.3% were women. Mean patients’ age was 40, 2 years. Sixty-three (72.4% subjects had asthma and allergic rhinitis. Fifty-eight (66.7% subjects were classified as persistent asthma. The prevalence of sensitization was 62.1% for D. farinae, 51.7% for D. pteronyssinus, and 48.3% for Blomia tropicalis. The median of specific IgE levels were significantly higher in persistent asthma compares to intermittent asthma induced by D. farinae (median 1.30 vs. 0.0 kU/L; p=0.024 and B. tropicalis (median 0.57 vs. 0.0 kU/L; p=0.015 sensitization. Level of Specific IgE  D. pteronyssinus was also to be higher in persistent asthma than the level measured in intermittent asthma (0.67 vs. 0.00 kU/L; p=0

  9. The Differences in Serum Quantitative Specific IgE Levels Induced by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis Sensitization in Intermittent and Persistent Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Agus Joko; Rengganis, Iris; Rumende, Cleopas M; Harimurti, Kuntjoro

    2017-10-01

    house dust mites (HDM) are an important inhalant allergen in allergic asthma. However, molecular diagnostic study of specific IgE to HDM allergens has not been done in Indonesia. In addition, the association of quantitative specific IgE measurement with asthma severity has not been investigatedd. This study aimed to investigate the difference of serum quantitative specific IgE levels induced by Dermatophagoides (D.) pteronyssinus, D. farinae and Blomia tropicalis sensitization in intermittent and persistent allergic asthma. this was a cross-sectional study on adult allergic asthma patients who were invited for serum specific IgE testing. This study was a part of a larger study within the Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Asthma severity was defined based on Global Initiative on Asthma (GINA) 2015 criteria and were grouped as intermittent or persistent. Quantitative specific IgE testing was done on blood serum using a multiple allergosorbent test (Polycheck Allergy, Biocheck GmbH, Munster, Germany). The HDM allergens tested were D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, and Blomia tropicalis. Difference between two groups were analyze using Mann-Whitney test. a total of 87 subjects were enrolled in this study; 69 (79.3%) were women. Mean patients' age was 40, 2 years. Sixty-three (72.4%) subjects had asthma and allergic rhinitis. Fifty-eight (66.7%) subjects were classified as persistent asthma. The prevalence of sensitization was 62.1% for D. farinae, 51.7% for D. pteronyssinus, and 48.3% for Blomia tropicalis. The median of specific IgE levels were significantly higher in persistent asthma compares to intermittent asthma induced by D. farinae (median 1.30 vs. 0.0 kU/L; p=0.024) and B. tropicalis (median 0.57 vs. 0.0 kU/L; p=0.015) sensitization. Level of Specific IgE  D. pteronyssinus was also to be higher in persistent asthma than the level measured in intermittent asthma (0.67 vs. 0.00 kU/L; p=0.066). Sensitization of HDM allergens was shown

  10. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Transfer Rate Using a Thin-Skin Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the design and use of a thin metallic calorimeter for measuring heat transfer rate (also called heat flux). Thermocouples are attached to the unexposed surface of the calorimeter. A one-dimensional heat flow analysis is used for calculating the heat transfer rate from the temperature measurements. Applications include aerodynamic heating, laser and radiation power measurements, and fire safety testing. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 Simplicity of ConstructionThe calorimeter may be constructed from a number of materials. The size and shape can often be made to match the actual application. Thermocouples may be attached to the metal by spot, electron beam, or laser welding. 1.2.2 Heat transfer rate distributions may be obtained if metals with low thermal conductivity, such as some stainless steels, are used. 1.2.3 The calorimeters can be fabricated with smooth surfaces, without insulators or plugs and the attendant temperature discontinuities, to provide more realistic flow conditions for ...

  11. Isolated deficiency of IgE in humans: update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Maltsev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Isolated deficiency IgE is one of the most common primary immunodeficiency diseases in human with prevalence of 1 case per 30 people of total population. Genetic basis of this immunodeficiency are polymorphisms of 5923A/G and 7888C/T in AICDA gene of B-lymphocytes. Recently several new studies have been conducted that expand the current understanding of the nature of an isolated IgE deficiency in human. Several recent epidemiological studies specified immunodeficiency frequency in different cohorts of patients and confirmed the relationship of immunological and clinical phenotypes, including recurrent infections, autoimmunity and oncology. The results of a number of clinical cases have expanded the knowledge of the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms of the di­sease. Several studies investigated the complications of an isolated deficiency IgE, including chronic gastritis and peptic stomach ulcer associated with H. pylori, and atherosclerosis and related vascular accidents. The results of comparative clinical studies demonstrate high efficiency of base immunotherapy with normal human immunoglobulin preparations for the intramuscular and intravenous usage.

  12. Quantum dots-based lateral flow immunoassay combined with image analysis for semiquantitative detection of IgE antibody to mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Meng, Qingfeng; Wu, Fenglian; Zhang, Lihua; Tang, Yao; Guan, Yuanyuan; An, Lixin

    2017-01-01

    Semiquantitative and rapid detection of specific IgE (sIgE) with well clinical relevance to house dust mite (HDM) are promising for prevalence rhinitis and asthma patients due to the increasing air pollution. However, the conventional IgE measurement systems are time-consuming, complicated and require special instruments. Herein, we overcome the above limitations of sIgE to HDM detection system by developing a quantum dot nanobeads-based lateral flow immunoassay and an image analysis procedure. The proposed detection system could semiquantitatively measure the IgE in a linear range of 0.2-10 U/mL. Moreover, there is a well correlation between the developed detection system and the clinical symptoms by a comparison study using 56 positive patients' sera and 40 healthy control sera. The proposed detection system is simple, robust and easy-to-use and promising for in home test.

  13. Cord blood IgE. III. Prediction of IgE high-response and allergy. A follow-up at the age of 18 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L G; Høst, A; Halken, S

    1992-01-01

    size with cord blood IgE less than 0.5 kU/l. A total group of 762 infants were clinically evaluated at 18 months of age, and in 688 of these we evaluated total and specific IgE. A diagnosis of definite atopy, probable atopy or no atopy was established. In the present study we defined allergic disease...... as atopic disease combined with elevated total IgE. We found a statistically significant correlation between cord blood IgE and IgE at 18 months of age. Significantly more infants with elevated cord blood IgE had developed allergic disease at 18 months. A cut-off value of 0.3 kU/l for cord blood Ig...... IgE at the age of 18 months greater than 26 kU/l could be regarded as elevated. With regard to allergic disease the positive predictive values of cord blood IgE greater than or equal to 0.3 kU/l in the 2 series were 21% and the corresponding sensitivities 67% and 46%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED...

  14. Evidence for a peak shift in a humoral response to helminths: age profiles of IgE in the Shuar of Ecuador, the Tsimane of Bolivia, and the U.S. NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Blackwell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The peak shift model predicts that the age-profile of a pathogen's prevalence depends upon its transmission rate, peaking earlier in populations with higher transmission and declining as partial immunity is acquired. Helminth infections are associated with increased immunoglobulin E (IgE, which may convey partial immunity and influence the peak shift. Although studies have noted peak shifts in helminths, corresponding peak shifts in total IgE have not been investigated, nor has the age-patterning been carefully examined across populations. We test for differences in the age-patterning of IgE between two South American forager-horticulturalist populations and the United States: the Tsimane of Bolivia (n=832, the Shuar of Ecuador (n=289, and the U.S. NHANES (n=8,336. We then examine the relationship between total IgE and helminth prevalences in the Tsimane.Total IgE levels were assessed in serum and dried blood spots and age-patterns examined with non-linear regression models. Tsimane had the highest IgE (geometric mean =8,182 IU/ml, followed by Shuar (1,252 IU/ml, and NHANES (52 IU/ml. Consistent with predictions, higher population IgE was associated with steeper increases at early ages and earlier peaks: Tsimane IgE peaked at 7 years, Shuar at 10 years, and NHANES at 17 years. For Tsimane, the age-pattern was compared with fecal helminth prevalences. Overall, 57% had detectable eggs or larva, with hookworm (45.4% and Ascaris lumbricoides (19.9% the most prevalent. The peak in total IgE occurred around the peak in A. lumbricoides, which was associated with higher IgE in children <10, but with lower IgE in adolescents.The age-patterning suggests a peak shift in total IgE similar to that seen in helminth infections, particularly A. lumbricoides. This age-patterning may have implications for understanding the effects of helminths on other health outcomes, such as allergy, growth, and response to childhood vaccination.

  15. Evidence for a peak shift in a humoral response to helminths: age profiles of IgE in the Shuar of Ecuador, the Tsimane of Bolivia, and the U.S. NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Gurven, Michael D; Sugiyama, Lawrence S; Madimenos, Felicia C; Liebert, Melissa A; Martin, Melanie A; Kaplan, Hillard S; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2011-06-01

    The peak shift model predicts that the age-profile of a pathogen's prevalence depends upon its transmission rate, peaking earlier in populations with higher transmission and declining as partial immunity is acquired. Helminth infections are associated with increased immunoglobulin E (IgE), which may convey partial immunity and influence the peak shift. Although studies have noted peak shifts in helminths, corresponding peak shifts in total IgE have not been investigated, nor has the age-patterning been carefully examined across populations. We test for differences in the age-patterning of IgE between two South American forager-horticulturalist populations and the United States: the Tsimane of Bolivia (n=832), the Shuar of Ecuador (n=289), and the U.S. NHANES (n=8,336). We then examine the relationship between total IgE and helminth prevalences in the Tsimane. Total IgE levels were assessed in serum and dried blood spots and age-patterns examined with non-linear regression models. Tsimane had the highest IgE (geometric mean =8,182 IU/ml), followed by Shuar (1,252 IU/ml), and NHANES (52 IU/ml). Consistent with predictions, higher population IgE was associated with steeper increases at early ages and earlier peaks: Tsimane IgE peaked at 7 years, Shuar at 10 years, and NHANES at 17 years. For Tsimane, the age-pattern was compared with fecal helminth prevalences. Overall, 57% had detectable eggs or larva, with hookworm (45.4%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (19.9%) the most prevalent. The peak in total IgE occurred around the peak in A. lumbricoides, which was associated with higher IgE in children <10, but with lower IgE in adolescents. The age-patterning suggests a peak shift in total IgE similar to that seen in helminth infections, particularly A. lumbricoides. This age-patterning may have implications for understanding the effects of helminths on other health outcomes, such as allergy, growth, and response to childhood vaccination.

  16. The value of counting BCG scars for interpretation of tuberculin skin tests in a tuberculosis hyperendemic shanty-town, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M.; Bautista, C. T.; Gilman, R. H.; Bowering, A.; Levy, M. Z.; Evans, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING The tuberculin skin test (TST) is widely used as a diagnostic or screening test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. A peri-urban shanty-town in the desert hills of south Lima, Peru, highly endemic for tuberculosis, and where bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine had been given in multiple doses until 1995. OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of multiple BCG vaccines on TST in a community-based setting. DESIGN Point-prevalence survey of TST reactions of 572 people aged 6–26 years from 255 households. TST reactions were compared to the observed number of BCG scars and other potential risk factors (age, living with a TST-positive person, and contact with active tuberculosis). RESULT People with two or more scars had significantly larger reactions, even after adjusting for potential risk factors. The adjusted population attributable fraction of being TST-positive and having two or more BCG scars was 26%. CONCLUSION There is no demonstrated benefit of repeat BCG vaccination. We therefore recommend that physicians take into consideration the number of BCG scars when interpreting the TST and that programs give no more than one BCG vaccination. PMID:15260275

  17. Evaluation of the frequency of food allergens based on skin prick test in children in Kurdistan Province - Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmarzi, R; Ataee, P; Homagostar, Gh; Tagik, M; Ghaderi, E; Kooti, W

    Food allergy refers to abnormal reactions of the body caused by an immune system response to food. This study was conducted aiming to investigate allergy to food allergens in children with food allergies. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional one on 304 children aged six months to seven years with food allergies admitted to the tertiary referral hospital in Kurdistan Province - Iran, during 2014-2015. All the patients were examined for skin prick test using 49 allergens. Finally, the obtained data were analysed using SPSS15 and chi-square and t tests. The highest percentage of occurrence of bump reaction (wheal) and redness (flare) was due to the consumption of fish, eggs, tomatoes, and cocoa. Moreover, the lowest rate of wheal and flare was caused by exposure to allergens like latex, tea, malt, and wheat flour. The reaction most created due to the consumption of foods was flare which was higher among under three-year-olds group (p<0.05), and between the sexes, girls showed the most common allergic reactions (p<0.05). Since food allergy has a high prevalence in children, it should be considered with great interest. Considering that avoiding food allergens is the first step in the treatment of food allergies, the present study may be a useful guide in this regard. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Intranasal administration of allergen increases specific IgE whereas intranasal omalizumab does not increase serum IgE levels-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckl-Dorna, J; Fröschl, R; Lupinek, C; Kiss, R; Gattinger, P; Marth, K; Campana, R; Mittermann, I; Blatt, K; Valent, P; Selb, R; Mayer, A; Gangl, K; Steiner, I; Gamper, J; Perkmann, T; Zieglmayer, P; Gevaert, P; Valenta, R; Niederberger, V

    2017-10-30

    Administration of the therapeutic anti-IgE antibody omalizumab to patients induces strong increases in IgE antibody levels. To investigate the effect of intranasal administration of major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, omalizumab or placebo on the levels of total and allergen-specific IgE in patients with birch pollen allergy. Based on the fact that intranasal allergen application induces rises of systemic allergen-specific IgE, we performed a double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial in which birch pollen allergic subjects were challenged intranasally with omalizumab, placebo or birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Total and allergen-specific IgE, IgG and basophil sensitivity were measured before and 8 weeks after challenge. For control purposes, total, allergen-specific IgE levels and omalizumab-IgE complexes as well as specific IgG levels were studied in subjects treated subcutaneously with either omalizumab or placebo. Effects of omalizumab on IgE production by IL-4/anti-CD40-treated PBMCs from allergic patients were studied in vitro. Intranasal challenge with Bet v 1 induced increases in Bet v 1-specific IgE levels by a median of 59.2%, and this change differed significantly from the other treatment groups (P = .016). No relevant change in allergen-specific and total IgE levels was observed in subjects challenged with omalizumab. Addition of omalizumab did not enhance IL-4/anti-CD40-induced IgE production in vitro. Significant rises in total IgE (mean IgE before: 131.83 kU/L to mean IgE after: 505.23 kU/L) and the presence of IgE-omalizumab complexes were observed after subcutaneous administration of omalizumab. Intranasal administration of allergen induced rises of allergen-specific IgE levels, whereas intranasal administration of omalizumab did not enhance systemic total or allergen-specific IgE levels. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrekt Ann-Sofie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests.

  20. Presence of IgE cells in human placenta is independent of malaria infection or chorioamnionitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindsjö, E; Hulthén Varli, I; Ofori, M F

    2006-01-01

    We have shown previously that numerous IgE(+) macrophage-like cells are present in the villous stroma of full term placenta and that there was no difference in the amount of IgE(+) cells between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The presence of such an abundant number of IgE(+) cells in the plac......We have shown previously that numerous IgE(+) macrophage-like cells are present in the villous stroma of full term placenta and that there was no difference in the amount of IgE(+) cells between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The presence of such an abundant number of IgE(+) cells...... in the placenta in allergic as well as non-allergic women suggests that the IgE is of some importance for a successful pregnancy outcome. Here we have investigated the IgE-pattern in 59 placentas from second and third trimesters from Sweden with different degrees of chorioamnionitis and 27 full term placentas......-infected placentas, nor between different degrees of chorioamnionitis. The IgE score in the placenta did not correlate with the levels of IgE in maternal serum or plasma. However, the IgE score was significantly higher in second- compared to third-trimester placentas (P = 0.03). This might reflect a maturation time...

  1. In vivo assay of IgE activities on the expulsion of intestinal adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    A physiological role of immunoglobulin E (IgE) is to promote parasitic helminth expulsion. This assertion is largely based on a series of studies carried out by Capron's laboratory. They observed that IgE is an essential component of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni larvae both in vitro and in vivo. Then, another group reported that IgE-deficient mice show higher worm burdens than wild-type (WT) mice when mice are infected with Trichinella spiralis. Although these studies indicate anti-helminth activities of IgE targeted on larvae forms, they do not prove the fighting effects of IgE on adult worms. In contrast, a recent study demonstrates an expelling activity of IgE for adult worms through an adoptive transfer of immune serum-derived IgE into Strongyloides venezuelensis-infected mice. Here, I describe how IgE is purified from S. venezuelensis-immune sera and is transferred into infected mice to examine its effect on worm expulsion. This method will be used to advance our understanding the mechanism of S. venezuelensis expulsion and explore S. venezuelensis antigens recognized by IgE. Moreover, adoptive transfers of IgE purified from immune sera will be applicable to other helminth infection models to investigate physiological roles of IgE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Intrinsic and Lifestyle Factors on the Development of IgE Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemeseder, Teresa; Klinglmayr, Eva; Moser, Stephanie; Lang, Roland; Himly, Martin; Oostingh, Gertie J; Zumbach, Joerg; Bathke, Arne C; Hawranek, Thomas; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    IgE sensitization is a prerequisite for the development of allergic symptoms. The investigation of factors influencing the development of IgE is therefore crucial for understanding the onset of allergic diseases. This epidemiological study investigated personal, intrinsic, and lifestyle factors in a nonselected cohort of 501 Austrian adolescents (aged 12-21 years). IgE levels to 112 allergen molecules were analyzed in the serum of participants using the ImmunoCAP ISAC®. Allergic sensitization, IgE levels to single allergens, and ISAC score sums were correlated with results obtained from a questionnaire. In this adolescent cohort, male participants showed a higher sensitization frequency (56.8%) compared to females (50.9%) and significantly increased IgE levels to profilins. Underweight subjects demonstrated a stronger IgE sensitization. Family size inversely correlated with IgE levels to PR-10 allergens, and predominately paternal allergies were a predictive factor for IgE sensitization in the children. Vaccination, breastfeeding, and delivery mode showed no influence, while a highly protective effect was observed for growing up on a farm. Of all of the investigated lifestyle factors, only smoking significantly influenced the risk for IgE development. Participants with moderate frequencies of colds showed increased sensitization levels. A hereditary predisposition and lifestyle factors such as a farming environment, smoking, family size, body weight, or frequency of colds significantly influenced the development of allergen-specific IgE in this cohort of adolescents. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Tetanus toxoid IgE may be useful in predicting allergy during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprandi, G; De Amici, M; Quaglini, S; Labò, E; Castellazzi, A M; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Marseglia, A; Bianchi, L; Moratti, R; Marseglia, G L

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions after immunization with tetanus toxoid are occasionally observed in atopic and non-atopic individuals. High IgE levels in infancy may predict subsequent allergy. The aims of this study were: i) to evaluate the role of specific IgE to tetanus toxoid in children in response to tetanus immunization and the possible factors associated with specific IgE levels, and ii) to investigate the correlation between specific IgE levels to tetanus toxoid and the late development of allergy (up to 12 years). Initially, 278 healthy infants (152 males and 126 females, aged 12 months) living in an urban city were screened for serum total IgE and specific IgE to tetanus toxoid, after having obtained informed consent from parents. After 12 years, 151 children could be evaluated. Total IgE summed with tetanus specific IgE were significantly associated with allergy at 12 years. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that serum total IgE and tetanus specific IgE may be predictive of subsequent allergy onset.

  4. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Sagging Skin Treatment Options Learn more about the ...

  5. Approaches to assess IgE mediated allergy risks (sensitization and cross-reactivity) from new or modified dietary proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remington, B.; Broekman, H. C. H.; Blom, W. M.

    2018-01-01

    The development and introduction of new dietary protein sources has the potential to improve food supply sustainability. Understanding the potential allergenicity of these new or modified proteins is crucial to ensure protection of public health. Exposure to new proteins may result in de novo...... sensitization, with or without clinical allergy, or clinical reactions through cross-reactivity. In this paper we review the potential of current methodologies (in silico, in vitro degradation, in vitro IgE binding, animal models and clinical studies) to address these outcomes for risk assessment purposes...... for new proteins, and especially to identify and characterise the risk of sensitization for IgE mediated allergy from oral exposure. Existing tools and tests are capable of assessing potential crossreactivity. However, there are few possibilities to assess the hazard due to de novo sensitization. The only...

  6. Standardized testing with chlorhexidine in perioperative allergy--a large single-centre evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opstrup, M S; Malling, H-J; Krøigaard, M; Mosbech, H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K; Garvey, L H

    2014-10-01

    Perioperative allergic reactions to chlorhexidine are often severe and easily overlooked. Although rare, the prevalence remains unknown. Correct diagnosis is crucial, but no validated provocation model exists, and other diagnostic tests have never been evaluated. The aims were to estimate (i) the prevalence of chlorhexidine allergy in perioperative allergy and (ii) the specificity and sensitivity for diagnostic tests for chlorhexidine allergy. We included all patients investigated for suspected perioperative allergic reactions in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre during 2004-2012. The following tests were performed: specific IgE (Immunocap® ; Phadia AB, Sweden), histamine release test (HR) (RefLab ApS, Denmark), skin prick test (SPT) and intradermal test (IDT). Positivity criteria were as follows: specific IgE >0.35 kUA/l; HR class 1-12; SPT mean wheal diameter ≥3 mm; IDT mean wheal diameter ≥ twice the diameter of negative control. Chlorhexidine allergy was post hoc defined as a relevant clinical reaction to chlorhexidine combined with two or more positive tests. Based on this definition, sensitivity and specificity were estimated for each test. In total, 22 of 228 patients (9.6%) met the definition of allergy to chlorhexidine. Estimated sensitivity and specificity were as follows: specific IgE (sensitivity 100% and specificity 97%), HR (sensitivity 55% and specificity 99%), SPT (sensitivity 95% and specificity 97%) and IDT (sensitivity 68% and specificity 100%). In patients investigated for suspected perioperative allergic reactions, 9.6% were diagnosed with allergy to chlorhexidine. Using our definition of chlorhexidine allergy, the highest combined estimated sensitivity and specificity was found for specific IgE and SPT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The absence of serum IgE antibodies indicates non-type 2 disease in young asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolakis, N; Malinovschi, A; Nordvall, L; Janson, C; Borres, M P; Alving, K

    2018-01-29

    Atopic asthma is associated with elevated type-2 biomarkers such as fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and blood eosinophil (B-Eos) count. However, increased type 2 markers have also been reported in traditionally defined non-atopic asthma. To determine a clinically useful level of IgE sensitization for ruling out type 2 asthma. Asthmatics (N = 408; age 10-35 years) were analysed using the multi-allergen tests Phadiatop and fx5 (ImmunoCAP). Subjects were grouped based on IgE-antibody concentrations: ≥0.35 kU A /L for at least one test (n = 326) or IgE 0.10-0.34 kU A /L (n = 34) and IgE IgE ≥0.35 kU A /L. In subjects with IgE 0.10-0.34 kU A /L, elevated FeNO related to reduced lung function (P = .008) and B-Eos to AHR (P = .03). No associations were found in subjects with IgE IgE IgE antibodies IgE IgE-antibody measurement. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Filling the concept with data: integrating data from different in vitro and in silico assays on skin sensitizers to explore the battery approach for animal-free skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger; Ellis, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Tests for skin sensitization are required prior to the market launch of new cosmetic ingredients. Significant efforts are made to replace the current animal tests. It is widely recognized that this cannot be accomplished with a single in vitro test, but that rather the integration of results from different in vitro and in silico assays will be needed for the prediction of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. This has been proposed as a theoretical scheme so far, but no attempts have been made to use experimental data to prove the validity of this concept. Here we thus try for the first time to fill this widely cited concept with data. To this aim, we integrate and report both novel and literature data on 116 chemicals of known skin sensitization potential on the following parameters: (1) peptide reactivity as a surrogate for protein binding, (2) induction of antioxidant/electrophile responsive element dependent luciferase activity as a cell-based assay; (3) Tissue Metabolism Simulator skin sensitization model in silico prediction; and (4) calculated octanol-water partition coefficient. The results of the in vitro assays were scaled into five classes from 0 to 4 to give an in vitro score and compared to the local lymph node assay (LLNA) data, which were also scaled from 0 to 4 (nonsensitizer/weak/moderate/strong/extreme). Different ways of evaluating these data have been assessed to rate the hazard of chemicals (Cooper statistics) and to also scale their potency. With the optimized model an overall accuracy for predicting sensitizers of 87.9% was obtained. There is a linear correlation between the LLNA score and the in vitro score. However, the correlation needs further improvement as there is still a relatively high variation in the in vitro score between chemicals belonging to the same sensitization potency class.

  9. Quantification of specific IgE antibodies in immediate drug hypersensitivity: More shortcomings than potentials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, I I; Ebo, D G; Uyttebroek, A P; Hagendorens, M M; Faber, M A; Bridts, C H; De Cler